WorldWideScience

Sample records for area aims design

  1. Expert Systems Aimed at General Design of Projectiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Zhi-hua; HOU Ni-na; HU Yu-hui

    2007-01-01

    Expert systems aimed at the general design of projectiles can implement a series of intelligent designs, such as the design of HE shell, the scheme expounded and proved, the emulation analysis and calculation, etc. Aiming at the product design feature, the expert system adopts the object-oriented knowledge representation and all kinds of inference control engines to describe and reason the relevant knowledge regarding the product through the microcomputer. It embodies the foundation of emulation analysis and simulated manufacturing of the shell. It makes use of the method that knowledge expression is combined with condition of inference to carry out the overall design and emulation and reference.The paper gives the ways through which the functions can be achieved, gives the modularization of reference and the design methods of systematization, puts forward the method of knowledge expression and working interface, and supplies a platform for similar products of the shell category that can be quickly designed.

  2. Parametric Design Strategy Aiming at Environmentally Sustainable Residential Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Hanne Tine Ring; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann; Heiselberg, Per

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary conclusions from a PhD study about methodical approaches to environmentally sustainable architecture. The presented results are from a local sensitivity analysis focused on the energy consumption of a typical residential reference building, when it is subjected to a parametric study of the impact of changes in input parameters relating to the design and the use of the building.

  3. Electric Service Areas, Area showing what electric company serves a particular area, Published in 2004, Johnson County AIMS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Electric Service Areas dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2004. It is described as 'Area showing what electric company serves a...

  4. Modeling Training of Future Teachers Aimed on Innovation Activities Based on the System of Design Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury S. Tyunnikov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of training system of future teachers aimed on innovation activities performed in a certain project logic and procedures, which is possible only through a specific set of design features, based on capability and peculiar properties of the university. The article is formulated and solved the problem of design features, revealing in its set the characteristic properties, organization and functioning of training system aimed on innovation in specific terms of professional education.

  5. FWS Special Designation Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This data layer depicts the Special Designations that have been placed upon the lands and waters administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in North...

  6. Prosecution and Diversion within Criminal Justice Systems in Europe. Aims and Design of a Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jehle, Jörg-Martin; Wade, Marianne; Elsner, Beatrix

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the aims, approach and design of a 11 countries study on diversion and prosecution in European Criminal Justice Systems. The basic assumption is that the flood of proceedings ismastered by procedural short cuts and simplifications with the public prosecutor as the key player. The article describes the methods developed in order to compare the different national concepts and and competencies of criminal justice agencies and procedures. Furthermore, it demon...

  7. Designated Health Professional Shortage Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Health Professional Shortage Areas (HPSAs) Data Download makes data and information concerning Designated HPSAs readily available to our users in a one-stop...

  8. Design and Evaluation of Dual-Band Antennas Aimed for Contactless Health Monitoring Radar

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Gokarna; Soh, Ping Jack; Mercuri, Marco; Vandenbosch, Guy; Schreurs, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the evaluation of two antenna designs aimed for a Step Frequency Continuous Wave (SFCW) radar capable of non-invasive fall detection in a pseudo-static radar configuration. The performance of a dual-band rectangular planar monopole is compared against a conductor-backed coplanar waveguide (CBCPW) fed bowtie slot antenna in free space. Two elements of the better performing CBCPW fed bow-tie antenna are then combined, separated by a metal plate, and evaluated on the level of...

  9. Airports and Airfields, Airport hangers areas for storage of airplanes and tiedown areas., Published in unknown, Johnson County AIMS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Airports and Airfields dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of unknown. It is described as 'Airport hangers areas for storage...

  10. Design and implementation of a genomics field trip program aimed at secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Jennifer; Wright, Jody J; Fox, Joanne A

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid pace of advancements in biological research brought about by the application of computer science and information technology, we believe the time is right for introducing genomics and bioinformatics tools and concepts to secondary school students. Our approach has been to offer a full-day field trip in our research facility where secondary school students carry out experiments at the laboratory bench and on a laptop computer. This experience offers benefits for students, teachers, and field trip instructors. In delivering a wide variety of science outreach and education programs, we have learned that a number of factors contribute to designing a successful experience for secondary school students. First, it is important to engage students with authentic and fun activities that are linked to real-world applications and/or research questions. Second, connecting with a local high school teacher to pilot programs and linking to curricula taught in secondary schools will enrich the field trip experience. Whether or not programs are linked directly to local teachers, it is important to be flexible and build in mechanisms for collecting feedback in field trip programs. Finally, graduate students can be very powerful mentors for students and should be encouraged to share their enthusiasm for science and to talk about career paths. Our experiences suggest a real need for effective science outreach programs at the secondary school level and that genomics and bioinformatics are ideal areas to explore.

  11. Design and implementation of a genomics field trip program aimed at secondary school students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer McQueen

    Full Text Available With the rapid pace of advancements in biological research brought about by the application of computer science and information technology, we believe the time is right for introducing genomics and bioinformatics tools and concepts to secondary school students. Our approach has been to offer a full-day field trip in our research facility where secondary school students carry out experiments at the laboratory bench and on a laptop computer. This experience offers benefits for students, teachers, and field trip instructors. In delivering a wide variety of science outreach and education programs, we have learned that a number of factors contribute to designing a successful experience for secondary school students. First, it is important to engage students with authentic and fun activities that are linked to real-world applications and/or research questions. Second, connecting with a local high school teacher to pilot programs and linking to curricula taught in secondary schools will enrich the field trip experience. Whether or not programs are linked directly to local teachers, it is important to be flexible and build in mechanisms for collecting feedback in field trip programs. Finally, graduate students can be very powerful mentors for students and should be encouraged to share their enthusiasm for science and to talk about career paths. Our experiences suggest a real need for effective science outreach programs at the secondary school level and that genomics and bioinformatics are ideal areas to explore.

  12. Emerging technology design; A new master course aimed at bringing emerging technologies its break through applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eger, A.O.; Boer, de A.; Rodgers, Paul; Brodhurst, Libby; Hepburn, Duncan

    2005-01-01

    In 2001 the University of Twente started a course on Industrial Design Engineering. In 2004 the first group of students obtained their bachelor degree and started with one of the two then available subsequent master courses: • Design & Styling • Management of Product Development This paper describes

  13. A Method for User Centering Systematic Product Development Aimed at Industrial Design Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Denis A.

    2010-01-01

    Instead of limiting the introduction and stimulus for new concept creation to lists of specifications, industrial design students seem to prefer to be encouraged by ideas in context. A new method that specifically tackles human activity to foster the creation of user centered concepts of new products was developed and is presented in this article.…

  14. Using Cramer-Rao theory as spectrometer design tool aimed at quantitative complex-spectrum analysisa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkhamer, J. F. F.; van der Valk, N. C. J.; von Hellermann, M. G.; Jaspers, R.

    2008-10-01

    In this paper the use of the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) to aid in the design of diagnostic systems dealing with complex spectra is discussed. Specifically it is discussed how a priori knowledge, used to improve the estimation, can be included in the CRLB analysis. This provides improved predictions for the spectrometer characteristics that will lead to an optimal system.

  15. Design of advanced solar homes aimed at net-zero annual energy consumption in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athienitis, Andreas

    2010-09-15

    This paper overviews the design of three sustainable low or net-zero energy solar homes in Canada. The major features of the houses are: 1. direct gain passive solar design that emphasizes utilization of distributed thermal mass in the equatorial-facing part of the ground floor; 2. a building-integrated photovoltaic-thermal system (BIPV/T); 3. a two-stage ground-source heat pump used to heat/cool air in the house or an air source heat pump using BIPV/T air as the source to heat a storage tank; 4. a floor heating system integrated in the floor mass of the direct gain zone; 5. a multizone programmable thermostat.

  16. Informational Reinforcement of Students’ Course Design Aimed at Promoting Engineers Training Quality in Technical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Guzanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the modern information technologies in educational process is regarded as one of the main directions in training the qualified specialists with systematic engineering thinking. The optimum combination of various educational technologies and computerized resources can improve teaching quality and promote students’ professional level. Taking as an example one of the basic technical disciplines of the engineering training curriculum at a technical higher school, the authors describe the computerized technology facilitating the course design. The technology in question - the «Reduktor» courseware - adapts the complex product of Autodesk –AutoCAD for educational purposes. The above program is the enhanced interface of AutoCAD, linked to the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and the reference data library used for designing the reduction gear. The experimental research, based on the qualimetric approach and continuous diagnostic and prognostic monitoring of the key indices of knowledge acquisition, proves the effectiveness of informational reinforcement of students self-dependent work. 

  17. The Research Site Vrchslatina – an experimental design and the main aims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konôpka Bohdan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The research site “Vrchslatina” was established in the spring of 2009 with the aim of studying production processes and the structure of net primary productivity in young forest stands. The beech and spruce stands grown at the site were selected because they originated from natural regeneration and are nearly of the same age. In 2009, we established 5 research plots in each stand with the aim of measuring basic tree characteristics. Moreover, we excavated entire trees to construct allometric relations for the specific tree compartments. In the consecutive years (2010, 2011 and 2012, we also included grass communities dominated by Calamagrostis epigejos in our studies. Besides studying production processes of all tree compartments (i.e. for trees: foliages, branches, stem, coarse and fine roots, for grasses and herbs: below- and above-ground parts, we monitored several atmospheric characteristics, followed by soil characteristics and eventually added a measurement of soil respiration. The results indicated that forest stands (even though they were in their initial growth stages sequestrated much more carbon than the grass communities. Moreover, we proved the considerable influence of climatic conditions (especially the sum of precipitation in the particular years for net primary productivity.

  18. Revitalising the Metropolit 1953 Danish male birth cohort: background, aims and design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Lund, Rikke;

    2004-01-01

    Recent research indicates that factors operating during childhood are related to adult health. Thus, longitudinal studies with information on subsequent phases may be key to understanding later health outcomes. The main objective of this paper is to describe the history and design of a Danish birth...... mobility. At age 12 years, 9537 of these cohort members completed a questionnaire in school, which included cognitive measures and information on social aspirations and leisure time activities. In 1966 educational performance tests were administered for these boys and, in 1968, mothers of 2890 cohort...... in early life, birth dimensions, and childhood cognition on adult health experience are at various stages of completion. A questionnaire-based postal follow-up survey is planned. Thus, the Metropolit study provides an important opportunity to examine the processes by which factors that operate over...

  19. Gas Service Areas, LP and LNG, Area showing what gas company serves a particular area, Published in 2004, Johnson County AIMS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Gas Service Areas, LP and LNG dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2004. It is described as 'Area showing what gas company serves...

  20. Basic concepts for designing renewable electricity support aiming at a full-scale transition by 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renewable electricity supply is a crucial factor in the realization of a low-carbon energy economy. The understanding is growing that a full turn-over of the electricity sectors by 2050 is an elementary condition for avoiding global average temperature increase beyond 2 C. This article adopts such full transition as Europe's target when designing renewable energy policy. An immediate corollary is that phasing-in unprecedented energy efficiency and renewable generation must be paralleled by phasing-out non-sustainable fossil fuel and nuclear power technologies. The double phasing programme assigns novel meaning to nearby target settings for renewable power as share of total power consumption. It requires organizing in the medium term EU-wide markets for green power, a highly demanding task in the present context of poorly functional markets in brown power. The EU Commission's 2007/2008 proposals of expanding tradable certificates markets were not based on solid analysis of past experiences and future necessities. The keystone of sound policies on renewable electricity development is a detailed scientific differentiation and qualification of renewable electricity sources and technologies, for measuring the huge diversity in the field. We provide but structuring concepts about such qualification, because implementation requires extensive research resources. Support for renewable electricity development is organized via feed-in prices or premiums, and via quota obligations connected to tradable green certificates. Green certificates are dependent on physical generated renewable power, but separable and no joint products. Contrary to conventional wisdom we argue their separation in cost analysis but firm linking during trade. A few graphs illustrate the importance of assigning qualities to different renewable power sources/technologies. Feed-in systems based on an acceptable qualification perform generally better than certificate markets imposing uniform approaches on a

  1. Telephone Service Areas, Cable providers who are willing to provide us with a service area to show what area they service., Published in 2007, Johnson County AIMS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Telephone Service Areas dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Cable providers who are willing to provide...

  2. Aims & Scope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges

  3. Empowering employees with chronic diseases; development of an intervention aimed at job retention and design of a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Heutink Annelies; de Vries Gabe; Varekamp Inge; van Dijk Frank JH

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Persons with a chronic disease are less often employed than healthy persons. If employed, many of them experience problems at work. Therefore, we developed a training programme aimed at job retention. The objective of this paper is to describe this intervention and to present the design of a study to evaluate its effectiveness. Development and description of intervention A systematic review, a needs assessment and discussions with Dutch experts led to a pilot group trainin...

  4. Aims & Scope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding,preventing and controlling the dramatic global emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases in the Asian Pacific region.

  5. Aims & Scope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding,preventing and controlling the dramatic global emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases in the Asian Pacific region.

  6. Making the case for change: What researchers need to consider when designing behavior change interventions aimed at improving medication dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadogan, Cathal A; Ryan, Cristín; Hughes, Carmel

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing emphasis on behavior change in intervention development programmes aimed at improving public health and healthcare professionals' practice. A number of frameworks and methodological tools have been established to assist researchers in developing interventions seeking to change healthcare professionals' behaviors. The key features of behavior change intervention design involve specifying the target group (i.e. healthcare professional or patient cohort), the target behavior and identifying mediators (i.e. barriers and facilitators) of behavior change. Once the target behavior is clearly specified and understood, specific behavior change techniques can then be used as the basis of the intervention to target identified mediators of behavior change. This commentary outlines the challenges for pharmacy practice-based researchers in targeting dispensing as a behavior when developing behavior change interventions aimed at pharmacists and proposes a definition of dispensing to consider in future research. PMID:25936272

  7. Artemisia: Active and Interactive Monitoring of the Forests in Protected Areas Aimed at the Sustainable Management of Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelia Cirillo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To pursue the usage of forests resources in the processes of economic and social development it is determining that the principles of natural heritage protection join in a concept of progress, based on evolution and technological innovation; the realization of innovative investigation and representation tools turns out to be useful to ease the integration of forests’ resources in shared development processes aimed at enhancing the cooperation of local actors, and to ease the territory’s sustainable growth and the development of the natural heritage. The integrated management of the actions aimed at protecting and easing the ecologic and recreative functioning of forests, which are increasingly exposed to pressures caused by several catastrophic factors, requires the tuning of modelling and active monitoring systems of the forests based on social networks and volunteering for the processes of data updating.

  8. Collaborative stepped care for anxiety disorders in primary care: aims and design of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinhoven Philip

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Panic disorder (PD and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD are two of the most disabling and costly anxiety disorders seen in primary care. However, treatment quality of these disorders in primary care generally falls beneath the standard of international guidelines. Collaborative stepped care is recommended for improving treatment of anxiety disorders, but cost-effectiveness of such an intervention has not yet been assessed in primary care. This article describes the aims and design of a study that is currently underway. The aim of this study is to evaluate effects and costs of a collaborative stepped care approach in the primary care setting for patients with PD and GAD compared with care as usual. Methods/design The study is a two armed, cluster randomized controlled trial. Care managers and their primary care practices will be randomized to deliver either collaborative stepped care (CSC or care as usual (CAU. In the CSC group a general practitioner, care manager and psychiatrist work together in a collaborative care framework. Stepped care is provided in three steps: 1 guided self-help, 2 cognitive behavioral therapy and 3 antidepressant medication. Primary care patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of PD and/or GAD will be included. 134 completers are needed to attain sufficient power to show a clinically significant effect of 1/2 SD on the primary outcome measure, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI. Data on anxiety symptoms, mental and physical health, quality of life, health resource use and productivity will be collected at baseline and after three, six, nine and twelve months. Discussion It is hypothesized that the collaborative stepped care intervention will be more cost-effective than care as usual. The pragmatic design of this study will enable the researchers to evaluate what is possible in real clinical practice, rather than under ideal circumstances. Many requirements for a high quality trial are being met. Results of

  9. System design of backfill - An ongoing project with the aim to test SKB's backfill installation concept in tunnel conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. SKB in Sweden is developing and implementing concepts for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. A KBS-3V repository consists of deposition tunnels with copper canisters containing spent fuel placed in vertical deposition holes. The canisters are embedded in highly compacted bentonite. After placement of canisters and bentonite, the deposition tunnels are backfilled with pre-compacted blocks of bentonite stacked on a bed of bentonite pellets. The remaining slot between the blocks and rock wall will be filled with bentonite pellets. The project described in this abstract is an ongoing project aiming to further develop the concept for backfill described in SKB's licence application for a Spent Fuel Repository in Forsmark. Results from this project will give important input for the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) needed to get permission to start the construction of the Spent Fuel Repository. The main objective with this project is to ensure that the method selected for backfill including methods for inspection works as intended with reasonable efficiency. The backfill design needs to be set since it forms the basis for requirements on deposition tunnels, deposition sequence etc. This project System Design of Backfill was started in early 2010 and will continue until the end of 2013. The project budget is 26 MSEK. The work consists of investigations, calculations, laboratory tests, tests in the Bentonite Laboratory and underground tests at Aespoe HRL, Sweden. The project objective is to further develop SKB's reference concept for backfill by performing a system design and to ensure that the reference method works as intended with reasonable efficiency. The stacking pattern for backfill blocks has been developed, see Figure 1. A stacked brick pattern is more stable than a pattern with continuous joints which implies less need for a compacted foundation bed. A conclusion from performed tests is that it is

  10. Empowering employees with chronic diseases; development of an intervention aimed at job retention and design of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heutink Annelies

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persons with a chronic disease are less often employed than healthy persons. If employed, many of them experience problems at work. Therefore, we developed a training programme aimed at job retention. The objective of this paper is to describe this intervention and to present the design of a study to evaluate its effectiveness. Development and description of intervention A systematic review, a needs assessment and discussions with Dutch experts led to a pilot group training, tested in a pilot study. The evaluation resulted in the development of a seven-session group training combined with three individual counselling sessions. The training is based on an empowerment perspective that aims to help individuals enhance knowledge, skills and self-awareness. These advances are deemed necessary for problem solving in three stages: exploration and clarification of work related problems, communication at the workplace, and development and implementation of solutions. Seven themes are discussed and practised in the group sessions: 1 Consequences of a chronic disease in the workplace, 2 Insight into feelings and thoughts about having a chronic disease, 3 Communication in daily work situations, 4 Facilities for disabled employees and work disability legislation, 5 How to stand up for oneself, 6 A plan to solve problems, 7 Follow-up. Methods Participants are recruited via occupational health services, patient organisations, employers, and a yearly national conference on chronic diseases. They are eligible when they have a chronic physical medical condition, have a paid job, and experience problems at work. Workers on long-term, 100% sick leave that is expected to continue during the training are excluded. After filling in the baseline questionnaire, the participants are randomised to either the control or the intervention group. The control group will receive no care or care as usual. Post-test mail questionnaires will be sent after 4, 8

  11. The Danish national return-to-work program--aims, content, and design of the process and effect evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aust, Birgit; Helverskov, Trine; Nielsen, Maj Britt D;

    2012-01-01

    The Danish national return-to-work (RTW) program aims to improve the management of municipal sickness benefit in Denmark. A study is currently ongoing to evaluate the RTW program. The purpose of this article is to describe the study protocol. The program includes 21 municipalities encompassing ap...

  12. Collaborative stepped care for anxiety disorders in primary care: aims and design of a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Spinhoven Philip; van Marwijk Harm WJ; Feltz-Cornelis Christina; Muntingh Anna DT; Assendelft Willem JJ; de Waal Margot WM; Hakkaart-van Roijen Leona; Adèr Herman J; van Balkom Anton JLM

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Panic disorder (PD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are two of the most disabling and costly anxiety disorders seen in primary care. However, treatment quality of these disorders in primary care generally falls beneath the standard of international guidelines. Collaborative stepped care is recommended for improving treatment of anxiety disorders, but cost-effectiveness of such an intervention has not yet been assessed in primary care. This article describes the aims...

  13. Design of Far-Red Sensitizing Squaraine Dyes Aiming Towards the Fine Tuning of Dye Molecular Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Takuya; Fujikawa, Naotaka; Ogomi, Yuhei; Pandey, Shyam S; Ma, Tingli; Hayase, Shuzi

    2016-04-01

    Model squaraine dyes having sharp and narrow absorptions mainly in the far-red wavelength region has been logically designed, synthesized and used for their application as sensitizer in the dyesensitized solar cells (DSSC). In order to have fine control on energetics, dyes having same mother core and alkyl chain length varying only in molecular symmetry and position of substituent were designed. It has been found that even keeping all other structural factor constant, only positional variation of substituent leads to not only in the variation of energetics by 0.1 eV but affects the photovoltaic characteristics also. Optimum concentration of dye de-aggregating agent was found to be 100 times with respect to the sensitizing dye concentration. Amongst dyes utilized in this work best performance was obtained for unsymmetrical dye SQ-40 giving a photoconversion efficiency of 4.01% under simulated solar irradiation at global AM 1.5. PMID:27451618

  14. Toward the simplification of the design process chain aimed at optimizing the productive processes to improve innovation and competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Pizzi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The demand within the process of building construction requires necessarily a deeper definition in terms of time and cost management. It means that new instruments of control are to be are to be inserted in the first phases of any design. The prefiguration of scenarios and the presetting of rules and constraints along with the adoption of new digital fabrication softwares assume particular importance in process more and more oriented into a file to factory/fabrication method.

  15. A new paradigm for core design aimed at the sustainability of nuclear energy: The solution of the extended equilibrium state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future expansion of nuclear energy, a technology identified as one of the main candidates for reducing the world's dependence on fossil fuels, requires a thorough analysis of the sustainability of this energy source for long-term supply. Generation-IV nuclear systems could represent a turning point for energy production by minimizing the environmental footprint of the fuel cycle. A new paradigm is thus required for reactor design, focusing, at the core design level, on both the closure of the fuel cycle and the effective utilization of natural resources. Within this framework, the so-called 'adiabatic core' concept represents a particularly interesting solution. It is based on the idea of ensuring by design a condition of equilibrium in the fuel cycle (i.e., an equilibrium 'fuel vector'), foreseeing nuclear power systems able to maintain a constant total amount of both plutonium and minor actinides (TRU), consuming only uranium (either natural or depleted), while discharging to the environment only fission products and reprocessing losses. Under such a hypothesis, all actinides can be continuously recycled in the same system, reducing both the waste volume and its long-term radiotoxicity, as well as utilizing effectively uranium resources. Two mathematical approaches have been devised to find the 'extended' equilibrium solution for the fuel vector. These methods are compared, validated with the codes MCNPX and FISPACT and applied to the European lead-cooled fast reactor ELSY, confirming the potential of this approach (e.g., a reduction by two orders of magnitude of the TRU mass in the final waste in comparison with the fuel cycle of Light Water Reactors operated in a once-through scenario).

  16. Design of gate stacks for improved program/erase speed, retention and process margin aiming next generation metal nanocrystal memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, gate stacks in metal nanocrystal (NC) memories, as promising next generation storage devices and their systems, are extensively investigated. A comparative analysis and characterization of the program/erase (P/E) speed, retention and the process margin of cobalt NC memories including high-k and bandgap engineering technologies are performed by using the technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation. It is shown that NC memory with high-k dielectric (HfO2) has better performance in P/E speed and retention when the diameter of NC is below 5 nm. When the diameter is beyond 5 nm, on the other hand, the bandgap-engineered bottom oxide gate structure shows improved performance in P/E speed and retention. From the process margin perspective, as the permittivity of the dielectric gets larger, the limits of the diameter and the density of NCs allow the degree of freedom to become larger

  17. Small Area ROM Design for Embedded Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Wei; WU Si-liang

    2007-01-01

    The compact full custom layout design of a 16 kbit mask-programmable compl ementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) read only memory (ROM) with low power dissip ation is introduced. By optimizing storage cell size and peripheral circuit stru cture, the ROM has a small area of 0.050 mm2 with a power-delay product of 0.011 pJ/bit at +1.8 V. The high packing density and the excellent power-delay product have been achieved by using SMIC 0.18 μm 1P6M CMOS technology. A novel and simple sense amplifier/driver structure is presented which restores th e signal full swing efficiently and reduces the signal rising time by 2.4 ns , as well as the memory access time. The ROM has a fast access time of 8.6 n s. As a consequence, the layout design not only can be embedded into microprocessor system as its program memory, but also can be fabricated individually as ROM ASIC .

  18. 28 CFR 551.162 - Designated smoking areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designated smoking areas. 551.162 Section... MISCELLANEOUS Smoking/No Smoking Areas § 551.162 Designated smoking areas. (a) The Warden must designate a smoking area for use in instances where smoking is part of an authorized inmate religious activity....

  19. Research aimed at improving both mood and weight (RAINBOW) in primary care: A type 1 hybrid design randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Yank, Veronica; Lv, Nan; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D; Lewis, Megan A; Kramer, M Kaye; Snowden, Mark B; Rosas, Lisa G; Xiao, Lan; Blonstein, Andrea C

    2015-07-01

    Effective interventions targeting comorbid obesity and depression are critical given the increasing prevalence and worsened outcomes for patients with both conditions. RAINBOW is a type 1 hybrid design randomized controlled trial. The objective is to evaluate the clinical and cost effectiveness and implementation potential of an integrated, technology-enhanced, collaborative care model for treating comorbid obesity and depression in primary care. Obese and depressed adults (n = 404) will be randomized to usual care enhanced with the provision of a pedometer and information about the health system's services for mood or weight management (control) or with the Integrated Coaching for Better Mood and Weight (I-CARE) program (intervention). The 12-month I-CARE program synergistically integrates two proven behavioral interventions: problem-solving therapy with as-needed intensification of pharmacotherapy for depression (PEARLS) and standardized behavioral treatment for obesity (Group Lifestyle Balance(™)). It utilizes traditional (e.g., office visits and phone consults) and emerging care delivery modalities (e.g., patient web portal and mobile applications). Follow-up assessments will occur at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. We hypothesize that compared with controls, I-CARE participants will have greater improvements in weight and depression severity measured by the 20-item Depression Symptom Checklist at 12 months, which will be sustained at 24 months. We will also assess I-CARE's cost-effectiveness and use mixed methods to examine its potential for reach, adoption, implementation, and maintenance. This study offers the potential to change how obese and depressed adults are treated-through a new model of accessible and integrative lifestyle medicine and mental health expertise-in primary care.

  20. LCoMotion – Learning, Cognition and Motion; a multicomponent cluster randomized school-based intervention aimed at increasing learning and cognition - rationale, design and methods

    OpenAIRE

    Bugge, Anna; Tarp, Jakob; Østergaard, Lars; Domazet, Sidsel Louise; Andersen, Lars Bo; Froberg, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the study; LCoMotion – Learning, Cognition and Motion was to develop, document, and evaluate a multi-component physical activity (PA) intervention in public schools in Denmark. The primary outcome was cognitive function. Secondary outcomes were academic skills, body composition, aerobic fitness and PA. The primary aim of the present paper was to describe the rationale, design and methods of the LCoMotion study. Methods/Design LCoMotion was designed as a cluster-randomize...

  1. A new vertical axis wind turbine design for urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frunzulica, Florin; Cismilianu, Alexandru; Boros, Alexandru; Dumitrache, Alexandru; Suatean, Bogdan

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we aim at developing the model of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) with the short-term goal of physically realising this turbine to operate at a maximmum power of 5 kW. The turbine is designed for household users in the urban or rural areas and remote or isolated residential areas (hardly accsessible). The proposed model has a biplane configuration on each arm of the VAWT (3 × 2 = 6 blades), allowing for increased performance of the turbine at TSR between 2 and 2.5 (urban area operation) compared to the classic vertical axis turbines. Results that validate the proposed configuration as well as passive control methods to increase the performance of the classic VAWTs are presented.

  2. R9 PM-10 Designated Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Polygon feature class of nonattainment areas for particulate matter < 10 microns. Nonattainment areas are geographic areas which have not met national ambient...

  3. Design of an Integrated Thermoelectric Generator Power Converter for Ultra-Low Power and Low Voltage Body Energy Harvesters aimed at EEG/ECG Active Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataei, Milad; Robert, Christian; Boegli, Alexis; Farine, Pierre-André

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes a design procedure for an efficient body thermal energy harvesting integrated power converter. This procedure is based on loss examination for a selfpowered medical device. All optimum system parameters are calculated respecting the transducer constraints and the application form factor. It is found that it is possible to optimize converter's working frequency with proper design of its pulse generator circuit. At selected frequency, it has been demonstrated that wide area voltage doubler can be eliminated at the expense of wider switches. With this method, more than 60% efficiency is achieved in simulation for just 20mV transducer output voltage and 30% of entire chip area is saved.

  4. US EPA Region 9 Annual PM-25 Designated Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Designated areas for annual particulate matter less than 2.5 microns, according to the 1997 and 2012 annual PM-2.5 standards. Nonattainment areas are geographic...

  5. US EPA Region 9 24-Hour PM-25 Designated Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Designated Areas for particulate matter less than 2.5 microns, according to the 24-Hour National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Nonattainment areas are...

  6. Design of an Integrated Thermoelectric Generator Power Converter for Ultra-Low Power and Low Voltage Body Energy Harvesters aimed at EEG/ECG Active Electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a design procedure for an efficient body thermal energy harvesting integrated power converter. This procedure is based on loss examination for a selfpowered medical device. All optimum system parameters are calculated respecting the transducer constraints and the application form factor. It is found that it is possible to optimize converter's working frequency with proper design of its pulse generator circuit. At selected frequency, it has been demonstrated that wide area voltage doubler can be eliminated at the expense of wider switches. With this method, more than 60% efficiency is achieved in simulation for just 20mV transducer output voltage and 30% of entire chip area is saved

  7. GEO-ENVIRONMENTAL DUE DILIGENCE AIMED AT SELECTION OF SITES DESIGNATED FOR ACCOMMODATION OF MOBILE GAS TURBINE POWER PLANTS IN RECREATIONAL LANDS

    OpenAIRE

    Bryukhan' Fedor Fedorovich; Kos'kin Igor' Olegovich

    2012-01-01

    Mobile gas turbine plants (MGTP) are the key sources of power designated to improve the safety of power supply in case of power deficit. In Russia, their pilot launch was initiated 5 - 6 years ago, and since then, they have demonstrated their high efficiency. In view of the upcoming Winter Olympic Games, organizations responsible for continuous power supply have resolved to build three MGTPs in Sochi. As Sochi is located in the natural area of preferential protection that has been granted Fed...

  8. EPA Region 9 designated areas and 2012-2014 design values

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Designated Areas - as of October 1, 2015. A designation is the term EPA uses to describe the air quality in a given area for any of six common air pollutants known...

  9. Taking Triple Aim at the Triple Aim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Stirling; Donaldson, Cam

    2016-01-01

    Since its introduction to the USA, the Triple Aim is now being adopted in the healthcare systems of other advanced economies. Verma and Bhatia (2016) (V&B) argue that provincial governments in Canada now need to step up to the plate and lead on the implementation of a Triple Aim reform program here. Their proposals are wide ranging and ambitious, looking for governments to act as the "integrators" within the healthcare system, and lead the reforms. Our view is that, as a vision and set of goals for the healthcare system, the Triple Aim is all well and good, but as a pathway for system reform, as articulated by V&B, it misses the mark in at least three important respects. First, the emphasis on improvement driven by performance measurement and pay-for-performance is troubling and flies in the face of emerging evidence. Second, we know that scarcity can be recognized and managed, even in politically complex systems, and so we urge the Triple Aim proponents to embrace more fully notions of resource stewardship. Third, if we want to take seriously "population health" goals, we need to think very differently and consider broader health determinants; Triple Aim innovation targeted at healthcare systems will not deliver the goals. PMID:27009583

  10. Design process of an area-efficient photobioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijffers, J.F.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the design process of the Green Solar Collector (GSC), an area-efficient photobioreactor for the outdoor cultivation of microalgae. The overall goal has been to design a system in which all incident sunlight on the area covered by the reactor is delivered to the algae at such

  11. Impacts of water surface area of watershed on design flood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-hua ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the impact of the water surface area of a watershed on the design flood, the watershed was classified into a land watershed and a water surface watershed for flood flow calculation at the same time interval. Then, the design flood of the whole watershed was obtained by adding the two flood flows together. Using this method, we calculated design floods with different water surface areas of three reservoirs and analyzed the impact of water surface area on the flood volume and peak flow. The results indicate that larger water surface areas lead to greater impacts on the flood volume and peak flow. For the same watershed area, the impact of water surface area on the flood volume and peak flow is positively proportional to the flood frequency, i.e., the higher the frequency, the greater the impact becomes.

  12. Impacts of water surface area of watershed on design flood

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qing-Hua; Yan-fang DIAO; Dong, Jie

    2014-01-01

    In order to analyze the impact of the water surface area of a watershed on the design flood, the watershed was classified into a land watershed and a water surface watershed for flood flow calculation at the same time interval. Then, the design flood of the whole watershed was obtained by adding the two flood flows together. Using this method, we calculated design floods with different water surface areas of three reservoirs and analyzed the impact of water surface area on the flood volume an...

  13. Designated Overlook Areas at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (ovrareas)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains three polygons that represent areas of designated overlooks at Cedar Breaks National Monument. Note: Point Supreme needs an FMSS number - it...

  14. Precision disablement aiming system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monda, Mark J.; Hobart, Clinton G.; Gladwell, Thomas Scott

    2016-02-16

    A disrupter to a target may be precisely aimed by positioning a radiation source to direct radiation towards the target, and a detector is positioned to detect radiation that passes through the target. An aiming device is positioned between the radiation source and the target, wherein a mechanical feature of the aiming device is superimposed on the target in a captured radiographic image. The location of the aiming device in the radiographic image is used to aim a disrupter towards the target.

  15. Gateway design specification for fiber optic local area networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    This is a Design Specification for a gateway to interconnect fiber optic local area networks (LAN's). The internetworking protocols for a gateway device that will interconnect multiple local area networks are defined. This specification serves as input for preparation of detailed design specifications for the hardware and software of a gateway device. General characteristics to be incorporated in the gateway such as node address mapping, packet fragmentation, and gateway routing features are described.

  16. Epidemiology of acute coronary syndromes in a Mediterranean country; aims, design and baseline characteristics of the Greek study of acute coronary syndromes (GREECS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stravopodis Peter

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study GREECS was conducted in order to evaluate the annual incidence of acute coronary syndromes (ACS and to delineate the role of clinical, biochemical, lifestyle and behavioral characteristics on the severity of disease. In this work we present the design, methodology of the study and various baseline characteristics of people with ACS. Methods/Design A sample of 6 hospitals located in Greek urban and rural regions was selected. In these hospitals we recorded almost all admissions due to ACS, from October 2003 to September 2004. Socio-demographic, clinical, dietary, psychological and other lifestyle characteristics were recorded. 2172 patients were included in the study (76% were men and 24% women. The crude annual incidence rate was 22.6 per 10,000 people and the highest frequency of events was observed in winter. The in-hospital mortality rate was 4.3%. The most common discharged diagnosis for men was Q-wave MI, while for women it was unstable angina. Discussion This study aims to demonstrate current information about the epidemiology of patients who suffer from ACS, in Greece.

  17. The research on MPLS VPN network design aiming at practical operation%面向运营的MPLS VPN网络设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾华忠

    2013-01-01

      随着MPLS技术应用的普及,本文面向运营需要探讨MPLS VPN网络设计问题,首先对MPLS VPN技术实现模式进行对比分析,阐述BGP/MPLS VPN和L2 MPLS VPN两种方式的技术特点,在此基础上,提出MPLS VPN路由及相关配置方案,并分别从链路连接、设备选择等方面阐述MPLS VPN网络部署方案,为MPLS VPN网络设计提供借鉴和参考。%with the development and application of MPLS technology, the thesis focuses on MPLS VPN network design aiming at practical operation requirement. Comparative analysis about MPLS VPN technology model is made including BGP/MPLS VPN and L2 MPLS VPN. And based on the above analysis the solution of MPLS VPN routing and related configuration scheme allocation is put forward. MPLS VPN deployment scheme is demonstrated from link access and equipment selection, which is helpful to MPLS VPN network design.

  18. Putting into practice the theory aiming at the determination of operation area distances with respect to selenium or iridium and to the collimator or γ-PROX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reports the determination of operation area distances depending on the use of selenium or iridium, and of a collimator or the γ-Prox. The author describes how a workstation study is performed for in-plane or contact shots. He describes the configuration which is generally used for control operations on a fabrication site, the characteristics of the Ir-192 and Se-75 sources. He reports studies of beaconing distances (input data, calculation of instantaneous rate, maximum beaconing distance with a naked source, with a lead screen or with an attenuator). He reports the study of beam orientation and aperture

  19. Consumer preferences in the design of airport passenger areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oel, C.J.; Van den Berkhof, F.W.

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, commercial developments have become increasingly important for the overall profit of airports. However, little is known about consumer preferences regarding the design of passenger areas, which is striking as the design of terminal buildings affects consumers' emotional state and

  20. Design of an integrated thermoelectric generator power converter for ultra-low power and low voltage body energy harvesters aimed at ExG active electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataei, Milad; Robert, Christian; Boegli, Alexis; Farine, Pierre-André

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes a detailed design procedure for an efficient thermal body energy harvesting integrated power converter. The procedure is based on the examination of power loss and power transfer in a converter for a self-powered medical device. The efficiency limit for the system is derived and the converter is optimized for the worst case scenario. All optimum system parameters are calculated respecting the transducer constraints and the application form factor. Circuit blocks including pulse generators are implemented based on the system specifications and optimized converter working frequency. At this working condition, it has been demonstrated that the wide area capacitor of the voltage doubler, which provides high voltage switch gating, can be eliminated at the expense of wider switches. With this method, measurements show that 54% efficiency is achieved for just a 20 mV transducer output voltage and 30% of the chip area is saved. The entire electronic board can fit in one EEG or ECG electrode, and the electronic system can convert the electrode to an active electrode.

  1. Design of an integrated thermoelectric generator power converter for ultra-low power and low voltage body energy harvesters aimed at ExG active electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a detailed design procedure for an efficient thermal body energy harvesting integrated power converter. The procedure is based on the examination of power loss and power transfer in a converter for a self-powered medical device. The efficiency limit for the system is derived and the converter is optimized for the worst case scenario. All optimum system parameters are calculated respecting the transducer constraints and the application form factor. Circuit blocks including pulse generators are implemented based on the system specifications and optimized converter working frequency. At this working condition, it has been demonstrated that the wide area capacitor of the voltage doubler, which provides high voltage switch gating, can be eliminated at the expense of wider switches. With this method, measurements show that 54% efficiency is achieved for just a 20 mV transducer output voltage and 30% of the chip area is saved. The entire electronic board can fit in one EEG or ECG electrode, and the electronic system can convert the electrode to an active electrode. (paper)

  2. Geophysical surveys and velocimetric measures in the Cerreto di Spoleto (Perugia) area, aiming at a seismic microzoning; Indagini geofisiche e misure velocimetriche finalizzate alla microzonazione sismica dell'area di Cerreto di Spoleto (Perugia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bongiovanni, G.; Martino, S.; Paciello, A.; Verrubbi, V. [ENEA, Div. Caratterizzazione dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Centro Ricerche Csaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Geophysical prospectings and velocimetric measures, aiming at the seismic microzoning of Cerreto di Spoleto area, are presented. Starting from the data obtained by previous geological-geomechanical surveys, seismic-refraction prospectings were carried on in order to obtain a dynamic characterisation and a geometrical description both of soil and rock materials. The velocimetric measures were performed by temporary free-field arrays, recording both environmental noise and small-magnitude seismic events. The analysis of the obtained records is still in progress, in order to evaluate the local seismic wave amplification. [Italian] Vengono illustrate le indagini geofisiche e le misure velocimetriche condotte nell'area di Cerreto di Spoleto (PG) per la microzonazione sismica. In particolare, sulla base dei dati geologici e geomeccanici precedentemente acquisiti, sono state effettuate indagini di sismica a rifrazione che hanno portato alla caratterizzazione dinamica dei litotipi ed alla definizione delle loro geometrie. Le misure velometriche sono state condotte installando array temporanei in free-field per la registrazione di rumore ambientale ed eventi sismici di piccola magnitudo. E' in corso l'elaborazione delle registrazioni ottenute, finalizzata all'analisi degli effetti di amplificazione sismica locale.

  3. Optimization of instrumental neutron activation analysis method by means of 2{sup k} experimental design technique aiming the validation of analytical procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroni, Robson; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: rpetroni@ipen.br, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this study optimization of procedures and standardization of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) methods were carried out for the determination of the elements arsenic, chromium, cobalt, iron, rubidium, scandium, selenium and zinc in biological materials. The aim is to validate the analytical methods for future accreditation at the National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO). The 2{sup k} experimental design was applied for evaluation of the individual contribution of selected variables of the analytical procedure in the final mass fraction result. Samples of Mussel Tissue Certified Reference Material and multi-element standards were analyzed considering the following variables: sample decay time, counting time and sample distance to detector. The standard multi-element concentration (comparator standard), mass of the sample and irradiation time were maintained constant in this procedure. By means of the statistical analysis and theoretical and experimental considerations it was determined the optimized experimental conditions for the analytical methods that will be adopted for the validation procedure of INAA methods in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory (LAN) of the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN - CNEN/SP). Optimized conditions were estimated based on the results of z-score tests, main effect and interaction effects. The results obtained with the different experimental configurations were evaluated for accuracy (precision and trueness) for each measurement. (author)

  4. Precision laser aiming system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, Brandon R. (Albuquerque, NM); Todd, Steven N. (Rio Rancho, NM)

    2009-04-28

    A precision laser aiming system comprises a disrupter tool, a reflector, and a laser fixture. The disrupter tool, the reflector and the laser fixture are configurable for iterative alignment and aiming toward an explosive device threat. The invention enables a disrupter to be quickly and accurately set up, aligned, and aimed in order to render safe or to disrupt a target from a standoff position.

  5. GEO-ENVIRONMENTAL DUE DILIGENCE AIMED AT SELECTION OF SITES DESIGNATED FOR ACCOMMODATION OF MOBILE GAS TURBINE POWER PLANTS IN RECREATIONAL LANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryukhan' Fedor Fedorovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mobile gas turbine plants (MGTP are the key sources of power designated to improve the safety of power supply in case of power deficit. In Russia, their pilot launch was initiated 5 - 6 years ago, and since then, they have demonstrated their high efficiency. In view of the upcoming Winter Olympic Games, organizations responsible for continuous power supply have resolved to build three MGTPs in Sochi. As Sochi is located in the natural area of preferential protection that has been granted Federal significance, construction and operation of the aforementioned facilities requires a detailed geo-environmental due diligence. Significant efforts have been exerted to substantiate the accommodation of MGTPs in three different sites and to identify the maximal number of power generators per site with account for the ecological restrictions imposed onto the natural areas of preferential protection. The impact produced by MGTPs on the environment depends on their technological features and the appropriate natural and anthropogenic properties of their sites and adjacent lands. Therefore, selection of new sites must be backed by the assessment of negative consequences. This requirement applies mainly to recreational lands. Recent sources report that the principal factors of negative impact of MGTPs include the chemical pollution of the ambient air and the noise pollution of residential buildings located in the immediate proximity to MGTPs. Factors of secondary importance include the pollution of surface and underground waters, soils, intrusion into the geological environment, production of waste, thermal and electromagnetic pollutions. The authors assess different factors of impact produced by MGTPs on the environment. As a result of the geo-ecological due diligence it has been discovered that the maximal number of power generators per site must not exceed 2-4, if the oxide emission technology is employed. At the same time, failure to employ the above

  6. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    -independent factors, as well as our investigation of ways to improve the clinical evaluation of the disease. Our research was prompted by the multifactorial nature of glaucoma. There is a high degree of variability in the pattern and speed of the progression of visual field defects in individual patients, presenting a major obstacle for successful clinical trials. To overcome this, we classified the eyes of glaucoma patients into 4 types, corresponding to the 4 patterns of glaucomatous optic nerve head morphology described: by Nicolela et al. and then tested the validity of this method by assessing the uniformity of clinical features in each group. We found that in normal tension glaucoma (NTG) eyes, each disc morphology group had a characteristic location in which the loss of circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT; measured with optical coherence tomography: OCT) was most likely to occur. Furthermore, the incidence of reductions in visual acuity differed between the groups, as did the speed of visual field loss, the distribution of defective visual field test points, and the location of test points that were most susceptible to progressive damage, measured by Humphrey static perimetry. These results indicate that Nicolela's method of classifying eyes with glaucoma was able to overcome the difficulties caused by the diverse nature of the disease, at least to a certain extent. Building on these findings, we then set out to identify sectors of the visual field that correspond to the distribution of retinal nerve fibers, with the aim of detecting glaucoma progression with improved sensitivity. We first mapped the statistical correlation between visual field test points and cpRNFLT in each temporal clock-hour sector (from 6 to 12 o'clock), using OCT data from NTG patients. The resulting series of maps allowed us to identify areas containing visual field test points that were prone to be affected together as a group. We also used a similar method to identify visual

  7. Quantitative Study of Green Area for Climate Sensitive Terraced Housing Area Design in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neighbourhood plays a significant role in peoples' daily lives. Nowadays, terraced housing is common in Malaysia, and green areas in the neighborhood are not used to their maximum. The aim of the research is to quantify the types of green area that are most efficient for cooling the environment for thermal comfort and mitigation of Urban Heat Island. Spatial and environmental inputs are manipulated for the simulation using Geographic Information System (GIS) integrated with computational microclimate simulation. The outcome of this research is a climate sensitive housing environment model framework on the green area to solve the problem of Urban Heat Island

  8. Quantitative Study of Green Area for Climate Sensitive Terraced Housing Area Design in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, O. T. S.; Saito, K.; Said, I.

    2014-02-01

    Neighbourhood plays a significant role in peoples' daily lives. Nowadays, terraced housing is common in Malaysia, and green areas in the neighborhood are not used to their maximum. The aim of the research is to quantify the types of green area that are most efficient for cooling the environment for thermal comfort and mitigation of Urban Heat Island. Spatial and environmental inputs are manipulated for the simulation using Geographic Information System (GIS) integrated with computational microclimate simulation. The outcome of this research is a climate sensitive housing environment model framework on the green area to solve the problem of Urban Heat Island.

  9. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    -independent factors, as well as our investigation of ways to improve the clinical evaluation of the disease. Our research was prompted by the multifactorial nature of glaucoma. There is a high degree of variability in the pattern and speed of the progression of visual field defects in individual patients, presenting a major obstacle for successful clinical trials. To overcome this, we classified the eyes of glaucoma patients into 4 types, corresponding to the 4 patterns of glaucomatous optic nerve head morphology described: by Nicolela et al. and then tested the validity of this method by assessing the uniformity of clinical features in each group. We found that in normal tension glaucoma (NTG) eyes, each disc morphology group had a characteristic location in which the loss of circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT; measured with optical coherence tomography: OCT) was most likely to occur. Furthermore, the incidence of reductions in visual acuity differed between the groups, as did the speed of visual field loss, the distribution of defective visual field test points, and the location of test points that were most susceptible to progressive damage, measured by Humphrey static perimetry. These results indicate that Nicolela's method of classifying eyes with glaucoma was able to overcome the difficulties caused by the diverse nature of the disease, at least to a certain extent. Building on these findings, we then set out to identify sectors of the visual field that correspond to the distribution of retinal nerve fibers, with the aim of detecting glaucoma progression with improved sensitivity. We first mapped the statistical correlation between visual field test points and cpRNFLT in each temporal clock-hour sector (from 6 to 12 o'clock), using OCT data from NTG patients. The resulting series of maps allowed us to identify areas containing visual field test points that were prone to be affected together as a group. We also used a similar method to identify visual

  10. The role of protected area wetlands in waterfowl habitat conservation: implications for protected area network design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, William S.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Naylor, Luke W.; Humburg, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    The principal goal of protected area networks is biodiversity preservation, but efficacy of such networks is directly linked to animal movement within and outside area boundaries. We examined wetland selection patterns of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) during non-breeding periods from 2010 to 2012 to evaluate the utility of protected areas to migratory waterfowl in North America. We tracked 33 adult females using global positioning system (GPS) satellite transmitters and implemented a use-availability resource selection design to examine mallard use of wetlands under varying degrees of protection. Specifically, we examined effects of proximities to National Wildlife Refuges, private land, state wildlife management areas, Wetland Reserve Program easements (WRP), and waterfowl sanctuaries on mallard wetland selection. In addition, we included landscape-level variables that measured areas of sanctuary and WRP within the surrounding landscape of each used and available wetland. We developed 8 wetland selection models according to season (autumn migration, winter, spring migration), hunting season (present, absent), and time period (diurnal, nocturnal). Model averaged parameter estimates indicated wetland selection patterns varied across seasons and time periods, but ducks consistently selected wetlands with greater areas of sanctuary and WRP in the surrounding landscape. Consequently, WRP has the potential to supplement protected area networks in the midcontinent region. Additionally, seasonal variation in wetland selection patterns indicated considering the effects of habitat management and anthropogenic disturbances on migratory waterfowl during the non-breeding period is essential in designing protected area networks.

  11. Aims of the Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Dornan, P J

    2010-01-01

    There are challenges and opportunities for the European particle physics community to engage with innovative and exciting developments which could lead to precision measurements in the neutrino sector. These have the potential to yield significant advances in the understanding of CP violation, the flavour riddle and theories beyond the Standard Model. This workshop aims to start the process of a dialogue in Europe so that informed decisions on the appropriate directions to pursue can be made in a few years time.

  12. AIMS & SCOPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Nano Research is a peer-reviewed, international and interdisciplinary journal that focuses on all aspects of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Submissions are solicited in all topical areas, ranging from basic aspects of the science of nanoscale materials to practical applications of such materials.

  13. Area Versus Speed Trade-off Analysis of a WiMAX Deinterleaver Circuit Design

    OpenAIRE

    Rafique, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Trade-off is one of the main design parameters in the field of electronic circuit design. Whereas smaller electronics devices which use less hardware due to techniques like hardware multiplexing or due to smaller devices created due to techniques developed by nanotechnology and MEMS, are more appealing, a trade-off between area, power and speed is inevitable. This paper analyses the trade-off in the design of WiMAX deinterleaver. The main aim is to reduce the hardware utilization in a deinter...

  14. Routine versus aggressive upstream rhythm control for prevention of early atrial fibrillation in heart failure : background, aims and design of the RACE 3 study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alings, M.; Smit, M. D.; Moes, M. L.; Crijns, H. J. G. M.; Tijssen, J. G. P.; Brugemann, J.; Hillege, H. L.; Lane, D. A.; Lip, G. Y. H.; Smeets, J. R. L. M.; Tieleman, R. G.; Tukkie, R.; Willems, F. F.; Vermond, R. A.; Van Veldhuisen, D. J.; Van Gelder, I. C.

    2013-01-01

    Rhythm control for atrial fibrillation (AF) is cumbersome because of its progressive nature caused by structural remodelling. Upstream therapy refers to therapeutic interventions aiming to modify the atrial substrate, leading to prevention of AF. The Routine versus Aggressive upstream rhythm Control

  15. Shape Assignment by Genetic Algorithm towards Designing Optimal Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismadi Md Badarudin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a preliminary study on space allocation focusing on the rectangular shapes to be assigned into an area with an intention to find optimal combination of shapes. The proposed solution is vital for promoting an optimal planting area and eventually finds the optimal number of trees as the ultimate goal. Thus, the evolutionary algorithm by GA technique was performed to find the objective. GAs by implementing some metaheuristic approaches is one of the most common techniques for handling ambiguous and / or vast possible solutions. The shape assignment strategy by the determined shapes coordinate to be assigned into an area was introduced. The aim of this study is to gauge the capability of GA to solve this problem. Therefore some strategies to determine the chromosome representation and genetic operators are essential for less computational time and result quality. Some areas coordinate were used to generate the optimal solutions. The result indicates the GA is able to fulfill both feasible result and acceptable time.

  16. Small Area Array-Based LED Luminaire Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Yuan

    2008-01-09

    This report contains a summary of technical achievements during a three-year project to demonstrate high efficiency LED luminaire designs based on small area array-based gallium nitride diodes. Novel GaN-based LED array designs are described, specifically addressing the thermal, optical, electrical and mechanical requirements for the incorporation of such arrays into viable solid-state LED luminaires. This work resulted in the demonstration of an integrated luminaire prototype of 1000 lumens cool white light output with reflector shaped beams and efficacy of 89.4 lm/W at CCT of 6000oK and CRI of 73; and performance of 903 lumens warm white light output with reflector shaped beams and efficacy of 63.0 lm/W at CCT of 2800oK and CRI of 82. In addition, up to 1275 lumens cool white light output at 114.2 lm/W and 1156 lumens warm white light output at 76.5 lm/W were achieved if the reflector was not used. The success to integrate small area array-based LED designs and address thermal, optical, electrical and mechanical requirements was clearly achieved in these luminaire prototypes with outstanding performance and high efficiency.

  17. Design of the Balance@Work project: systematic development, evaluation and implementation of an occupational health guideline aimed at the prevention of weight gain among employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weel Andre NH

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational health professionals may play an important role in preventive health promotion activities for employees. However, due to a lack of knowledge and evidence- and practice based methods and strategies, interventions are hardly being implemented by occupational physicians to date. The aim of the Balance@Work project is to develop, evaluate, and implement an occupational health guideline aimed at the prevention of weight gain among employees. Methods Following the guideline development protocol of the Netherlands Society of Occupational Medicine and the Intervention Mapping protocol, the guideline was developed based on literature, interviews with relevant stakeholders, and consensus among an expert group. The guideline consists of an individual and an environmental component. The individual component includes recommendations for occupational physicians on how to promote physical activity and healthy dietary behavior based on principles of motivational interviewing. The environmental component contains an obesogenic environment assessment tool. The guideline is evaluated in a randomised controlled trial among 20 occupational physicians. Occupational physicians in the intervention group apply the guideline to eligible workers during 6 months. Occupational physicians in the control group provide care as usual. Measurements take place at baseline and 6, 12, and 18 months thereafter. Primary outcome measures include waist circumference, daily physical activity and dietary behavior. Secondary outcome measures include sedentary behavior, determinants of behavior change, body weight and body mass index, cardiovascular disease risk profile, and quality of life. Additionally, productivity, absenteeism, and cost-effectiveness are assessed. Discussion Improving workers' daily physical activity and dietary behavior may prevent weight gain and subsequently improve workers' health, increase productivity, and reduce absenteeism

  18. 针对色觉异常人群的地图设计研究%Research on the map design aiming at color vision impaired

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟璇; 李霖; 朱海红

    2012-01-01

    From the red, green color vision impaired 6ense of features, the paper started with Humanistic Olympics and Sightseeing in Beijing as the ma Psample, combining with the theory of color expression and maps, modified the sample, to produce the ma Pfor the red, green color vision impaired reading, and designed experiments to test the effect of the map. It got the proposal to design the map for the red, green color vision impaired finally.%本文从红、绿色盲的感色特色出发,以《北京奥运场馆旅游交通图——人文篇》为地图样本,结合色彩及地图表达的相关理论,对地图样本进行修改,制作出针对红、绿色觉异常者阅读的地图,并设计地图实验来验证其效果,通过实验分析得到一些面向红、绿色觉异常者使用地图的地图设计参考原则.

  19. Road Investment Design in Areas Protected by the Monuments Conservator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszczyk, Artur

    2016-06-01

    Design works on road construction plans for areas protected by conservation require a proper preparation, especially in terms of formality, which has been described in this paper. One has shown the various methods of conduct in the course of obtaining administrative decisions and related difficulties, which are dependent on the form of monument protection and the scope of the proposed building works. One has also raised a question regarding the law on the subject. One has suggested the consolidation of existing regulations and introduced the likely new direction that is currently in preparation.

  20. The effectiveness of adding cognitive behavioural therapy aimed at changing lifestyle to managed diabetes care for patients with type 2 diabetes: design of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Oppen Patricia

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with type 2 diabetes, the risk for cardiovascular disease is substantial. To achieve a more favourable risk profile, lifestyle changes on diet, physical activity and smoking status are needed. This will involve changes in behaviour, which is difficult to achieve. Cognitive behavioural therapies focussing on self-management have been shown to be effective. We have developed an intervention combining techniques of Motivational Interviewing (MI and Problem Solving Treatment (PST. The aim of our study is to investigate if adding a combined behavioural intervention to managed care, is effective in achieving changes in lifestyle and cardiovascular risk profile. Methods Patients with type 2 diabetes will be selected from general practices (n = 13, who are participating in a managed diabetes care system. Patients will be randomised into an intervention group receiving cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT in addition to managed care, and a control group that will receive managed care only. The CBT consists of three to six individual sessions of 30 minutes to increase the patient's motivation, by using principles of MI, and ability to change their lifestyle, by using PST. The first session will start with a risk assessment of diabetes complications that will be used to focus the intervention. The primary outcome measure is the difference between intervention and control group in change in cardiovascular risk score. For this purpose blood pressure, HbA1c, total and HDL-cholesterol and smoking status will be assessed. Secondary outcome measures are quality of life, patient satisfaction, physical activity, eating behaviour, smoking status, depression and determinants of behaviour change. Differences between changes in the two groups will be analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle, with 95% confidence intervals. The power calculation is based on the risk for cardiovascular disease and we calculated that 97 patients

  1. Dispersal patterns of coastal fish: implications for designing networks of marine protected areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Di Franco

    Full Text Available Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (∼200 km we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (∼30 km we assessed "site fidelity" (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment. Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ∼30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas.

  2. Dispersal patterns of coastal fish: implications for designing networks of marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Franco, Antonio; Gillanders, Bronwyn M; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pennetta, Antonio; De Leo, Giulio A; Guidetti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus) using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (∼200 km) we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (∼30 km) we assessed "site fidelity" (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment). Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply) to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ∼30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas. PMID:22355388

  3. 50 CFR 17.108 - List of designated manatee protection areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true List of designated manatee protection areas...) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.108 List of designated manatee protection areas. (a) Manatee sanctuaries. The following areas are designated as manatee sanctuaries. All waterborne activities are prohibited...

  4. US EPA Region 9 carbon monoxide designated areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Polygon Feature class of Nonattainment Areas for Carbon Monoxide. Nonattainment areas are geographic areas which have not met National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  5. US EPA Region 9 designated areas for nitrogen dioxide

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Polygon feature class of Attainment and Nonattainment Areas for Nitrogen Dioxide Nonattainment areas are geographic areas which have not met National Ambient Air...

  6. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report XI, Volume III. Critical design areas. [Identification of critical design areas; design or materials problems, trade-off areas, items affecting operability and reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Several meetings have been held with representatives from Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc.; Airco Energy Company, Inc.; Bechtel Group, Inc.; and HRI Engineering, Inc. to identify critical design areas in the Phase Zero work. (Critical design areas are defined as those requiring additional data or further work to finalize design or material selection, to optimize the trade-off between capital investment and operating cost, or to enhance system operability and reliability.) The critical design areas so identified are summarized by plant in this volume of Report XI. Items of a proprietary nature have been omitted from this report, but are included in the limited access version.

  7. High Surface Area Ceria Nanoparticles via Hydrothermal Synthesis Experiment Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Kurajica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal synthesis of CeO2 was optimized on two reactant concentrations and synthesis temperature and duration, in order to achieve material having the greatest specific surface area (SSA. Taguchi method of experimental design was employed in evaluation of the relative importance of synthesis parameters. CeO2 nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, and scanning electron microscopy. Optimum conditions for obtaining particles with greater SSA were calculated according to Taguchi’s model “the-higher-the-better.” Synthesis temperature was found to be the only parameter significant for enabling nanoparticles with greater SSA. Mesoporous nanocrystalline ceria with SSA as great as 226 m2 g−1 was achieved, which is unprecedented for the hydrothermally synthesized ceria. The reason for this achievement was found in temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient which, when low, favors nucleation yielding with fine particles, while when high it favors crystal growth and formation of one-dimensional structures. The occurrence of 1D-structure in sample exhibiting the smallest SSA was confirmed. Very fine crystallites with crystallite size as low as 5.9 nm have been obtained being roughly inverse proportional to SSA. Selected samples were tested as catalyst for soot oxidation. Catalyst morphology turned out to be decisive factor for catalytic activity.

  8. China's educational aim and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guang-Wei, Zou

    1985-12-01

    The aim and theory of Chinese socialist education is to provide scientific and technological knowledge so as to develop the productive forces and to meet the demands of the socialist cause. Since education is the main vehicle towards modernizing science and technology, any investment in education is viewed as being productive as it feeds directly into economics. Faced with the demands of industrial and agricultural production, training a technical as well as a labour force becomes crucial. This is made possible by the provision of two labour systems for workers both from rural as well as urban areas and by two kinds of educational systems for both urban and rural students. Chinese educational theory is seen as a fusion of principles from its own educational legacy with those of Marxist-Leninist principles.

  9. 36 CFR 212.56 - Identification of designated roads, trails, and areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... roads, trails, and areas. 212.56 Section 212.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.56 Identification of designated roads, trails, and areas. Designated roads, trails, and...

  10. SELF-DESIGNED WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR DOMESTIC WASTEWATER : Wastewater treatment in areas outside sewer networks in Kokkola

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Yao

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is related to the Finnish government decree on treating domestic wastewater in areas outside sewer networks (542/2003). The aim of this thesis was to design a simple, cheap and effective domestic wastewater treatment system and build its model. The thesis includes not only the theoretical explanations of methods for removing nitrogen, phosphorus and BOD7, engineering designed and building processes of model, but also the experimental processes of running the model and results...

  11. 41 CFR 102-74.325 - Are designated smoking areas authorized in interior space?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are designated smoking... PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.325 Are designated smoking areas....320(d). A previous exception for designated smoking areas is being eliminated. All designated...

  12. Reuse and Upcycling of Municipal Waste for ZEB Envelope Design in European Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Pennacchia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Building energy efficiency and urban waste management are two focal issues for improving environmental status and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The main aim of this paper is to compare economic costs of new building envelope structures designed by authors reusing and upcycling municipal waste in order to decrease energy demand from the building sector and, at the same time, improve eco-friendly waste management at the local scale. The reuse of waste for building envelope structures is one of the main principles of the Earthship buildings model, based on the use of passive solar principles in autonomous earth-sheltered homes. This Earthship principle has been analyzed in order to optimize buildings’ energy performance and reuse municipal waste for new building envelope structures in urban areas. Indeed, the elaborated structures have been designed for urban contexts, with the aim of reuse waste coming from surrounding landfills. The methods include an analysis of thermal performance of urban waste for designing new building envelope structures realized by assembling waste and isolating materials not foreseen in Earthship buildings. The reused materials are: cardboard tubes, automobile tires, wood pallets, and plastic and glass bottles. Finally, comparing economic costs of these new building envelope structures, the obtained results highlight their economic feasibility compared to a traditional structure with similar thermal transmittance.

  13. The main goal of engineering geology for designing and construction complex structures in urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Drago Ocepek; Jasna Jerman

    2007-01-01

    Work for designing complex structures in urban areas consists of geological-geotechnical investigations and analysis of the quality of rocks, soft rocks and hard soils in the construction area. Urban areas limited the space for designing cutting slopes in stable inclination without reinforcement. In this paper will be presented designing and excavation works with different reinforcement of two different areas in Slovenia built of heterogeneous mixed hard to soft rock masses (Triassic dolomite...

  14. Identifying eastern Baltic cod nursery grounds using hydrodynamic modelling: knowledge for the design of Marine Protected Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Kraus, Gerd; Böttcher, Uwe;

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of juvenile cod is essential to closing the life cycle in population dynamic models, and it is a prerequisite for the design of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) aiming at the protection of juveniles. In this study, we use a hydrodynamic model...... evidence that the final destinations of juvenile cod drift routes are affected by decadal climate variability. Application of the methodology to MPA design is discussed, e.g. identifying the overlap of areas with a high probability of successful juvenile cod settlement and regions of high fishing effort...

  15. Forest area assessment in the Slovenian forest inventory design

    OpenAIRE

    Hladnik, David; Žižek Kulovec, Laura

    2012-01-01

    In Slovenia, data on forest area are obtained within the framework of forest management planning and data of the actual agriculture and forest land use. The article shows the differences in the assessment methodology of forest cover and spatial structure of forests. In accordance with the concept of national forest inventories, the article suggests upgrading of the existing concept of forest inventories which, in the last decade, have been subordinate to forest management areas and difference...

  16. 24 CFR 598.200 - Who nominates an area for designation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DESIGNATIONS Nomination Procedure § 598.200 Who nominates an area for designation? Applicants for empowerment... the area is located, except as provided in §§ 598.500, 598.510, and 598.515. The nomination must be... of the designation process, and must contain complete and accurate information. (Approved by...

  17. 42 CFR 5.3 - Procedures for designation of health professional(s) shortage areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for designation of health professional(s) shortage areas. 5.3 Section 5.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS DESIGNATION OF HEALTH PROFESSIONAL(S) SHORTAGE AREAS § 5.3 Procedures for designation of health professional(s)...

  18. Appropriate technology for solar energy system aiming water heating for human bath in houses of rural areas; Tecnologia apropriada para sistema de energia solar visando aquecimento de agua para o banho humano em moradias do meio rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rispoli, Italo Alberto Gatica [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo], e-mail: gatica@dglnet.com.br; Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], e-mail: cam@fec.unicamp.br

    2004-07-01

    The Brazilian land receives a great amount of solar radiation all over the year, therefore, because both the culture and practical aspects, Brazilians use in a non-moderate way the electricity to boil the water for human bath in the rural homes, in the lower income residences even at part of the medium class homes. That happens due to the very low price of an electrical shower, about US$ 6,5. In fact, that way of heating water is largely used because, besides the very low electrical shower price, it is not necessary to install a complete hot water both hydraulic and electrical building systems, but just both single hydraulic pipes and electrical devices. On the other hands, at rural regions where the electricity does not achieve the rural people uses firewood in order to get hot water for human bath. At the rural places the use of electrical showers has meaning an increase in the electrical transformers powers, heavier electrical transmission rural lines, with greater prices and, at the urban zones, the use of electrical showers in the lower social classes has contributed to a more expressive electrical load at the nacional electrical system load peck, between 5:30 to 8:30 a.m. The public administration, mostly, does not take into account both social, economic and environmental costs in order to think about the electricity offer. The solar heating systems, generally used in Brazil, conserves the same reservoirs used in France at 1880. Therefore, this paper presents some technical subsidies applied to rural homes, even to lower income people's homes aiming to stimulate the Brazilian public authorities to make a public police to facilitate both the industrialization and dissemination of solar heating systems, appropriate to the rural area, with lower costs, compounded by good technology equipment, with guarantee of lasting and quality. (author)

  19. Estimation of Design Wave Heights for Coastal Sea Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Luping; HUANG Peiji; CHEN Xueying

    2000-01-01

    Based on historical wind fields in the Bohai Sea, a sequence of annual extremal wave heightsis produced with numerical wave models for deep-water and shallow water. The design wave heights with different return periods for the nearest deep-water point and for the shallow water point are estimated on the basis of p-Ⅲ type, Weibull distribution, and Gumbel distribution; and the corresponding values for the shallow water point are also estimated based on the HISWA model with the input of design wave heightsfor the nearest deep-water point. Comparisons between design wave heights for the shallow water point estimated on the basis of both distribution functions are HISWA model show that the results from differentdistribution functions scatter considerably, and influenced strongly by return periods; however, the results from the HISWA model are convergent, that is, the influence of the design wave heights estimated with different distribution functions for deep water is weakened, and the estimated values decrease for long returnperiods and increase for short return periods. Therefore, the numerical wave model gives a more stable result in shallow water design wave estimation because of the consideration of the effect of physical processes which occur in shallow water.

  20. Design of passive solar buildings in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tombazis, A.N.; Preuss, S.A. [Meletitiki-Alexandros N. Tombazis and Associates Architects Ltd., Athens (Greece)

    2001-07-01

    This paper is about designing solar buildings within given urban contexts and the resulting restrictions rather than about town planning with the freedom to arrange buildings freely so as to maximise access to natural resources. A comprehensive bioclimatic design in such a given urban environment must carefully investigate and assess the building's access to natural resources while taking into account the negative influences that might prevail around the site. The associated constraints can be a challenging but very interesting and rewarding starting point for architectural design. If understood and considered from the beginning these constraints can lead to creative, innovative and beautiful architectural solutions, in other words, to real architecture. (Author)

  1. Tornado Protection: Selecting and Designing Safe Areas in Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, James J.

    Tornadoes and extreme winds cause heavy loss of life and property damage throughout the United States. Most buildings offer significant protection from this danger, and building administrators should know the areas where this protection is available. This booklet presents a review of three schools, all of which were struck by tornadoes on April 3,…

  2. Designing acorn protection for direct seeding of quercus species in high predation areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Reque

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: a To present the trial-and-error approach followed in the design and patent of a manufactured seed and seedling protector effective against mice and voles, rabbits, wild boar and deer (http://bopiweb.com/elemento/829172/. b To assess the viability of direct oak seeding with and without protection in the complex acorn predation reality of post fire restoration and underplanting in existing pine afforestations. Study area: Northern Plateau of Spain, in an area of extreme acorn predation. Material and methods: We followed a classical trial-and-error approach for problem solving. Different modifications to a wire mesh screen cylinder were tested in subsequent trials aiming to evaluate the effects on acorn predation and early emerging plant survival and growth. The final protector is based on a thin wire mesh cylinder with three innovations: a truncated cone, a circular crown and a sphere compartment. Further we assessed the viability of direct oak seeding with and without protection in the complex acorn predation reality of post fire restoration and underplanting in existing pine afforestations. Main results: The manufactured seed protector was found to be effective against synergic attacks of mice, rodents, wild boars and herbivores. Survival of protected oak was 77% under canopies and 32% in open light conditions two years after sowing. Research highlights: Our results confirm the viability of direct oak seeding for woodland restoration if seed predation is controlled.

  3. Design of anti-slide piles for slope stabilization in Wanzhou city, Three Gorges Area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunmei; van Westen, Cees

    2013-04-01

    This study is related to the design of anti-slide piles for several landslides in Wanzhou city located in the Three Gorges area. Due to the construction of the Three Gorges Reservoir the hydro-geological conditions in this area have deteriorated significantly, leading to larger instability problems. China has invested a lot of money in slope stabilization measures for the treatment of landslides in the Three Gorges area. One of the methods for the stabilization of large landslides is the design of anti-sliding piles. This paper focuses on extensive slope stability analysis and modeling of the mechanical behavior of the landslide masses, and the parameters required for designing the number, size and dimensions of reinforced concrete stabilization piles. The study focuses on determining the rock parameters, anchor depth, and the pile and soil interaction coefficient. The study aims to provide guidelines for anti-slide pile stabilization works for landslides in the Wanzhou area. The research work contains a number of aspects. First a study is carried out on the distribution of pressures expected on the piles, using two different methods that take into account the expected pore water pressure and seismic acceleration. For the Ercengyan landslide , the Limit Equilibrium Method and Strength Reduction Method of FEM are compared through the results of the landslide pressure distributions on the piles and stress fields in the piles. The second component is the study of the required anchor depth of antislide piles, which is carried out using a statistical analysis with data from 20 landslides that have been controlled with anti-sliding piles. The rock characteristics of the anchor locations were obtained using laboratory tests, and a classification of rock mass quality is made for the anchors of antislide piles. The relationship between the critical anchor height and the angle of the landslide slip surface is determined. Two different methods are presented for the length

  4. An analysis on the water landscape design of residential area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆雷

    2012-01-01

    Water is an essential factor in our daily life and one of the most vivid scenery in the nature. Water may modify the local atmosphere, purify the air, irrigate plants, breed fish and prevent from fire, all of which are the important factors for the landscape design.

  5. Picnic Tables within the Designated Picnic Area at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (pcnctbl)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains the individual picnic areas (as points where the picnic tables are generally located) within the only designated picnic area at Cedar Breaks...

  6. Design of multimode interference optical switches with area modulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on the self-imaging effect, multimode interference (MMI) optical switches with area modulation were proposed. The field transfer matrix was introduced to analyze the MMI switches. As an example, the phase modulation parameters of a 3 × 3 MMI switch for different switching cases were obtained by solving the field transfer equation. And the finite-difference beam propagation method (FD-BPM) was used to confirm the analytical results.

  7. The design and implementation of the leaf area index sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuhong; Liu, Qiang; Yang, Rongjin; Zhang, Haijing; Zhang, Jialin; Cai, Erli

    2015-01-01

    The quick and accurate acquisition of crop growth parameters on a large scale is important for agricultural management and food security. The combination of photographic and wireless sensor network (WSN) techniques can be used to collect agricultural information, such as leaf area index (LAI), over long distances and in real time. Such acquisition not only provides farmers with photographs of crops and suggestions for farmland management, but also the collected quantitative parameters, such as LAI, can be used to support large scale research in ecology, hydrology, remote sensing, etc. The present research developed a Leaf Area Index Sensor (LAIS) to continuously monitor the growth of crops in several sampling points, and applied 3G/WIFI communication technology to remotely collect (and remotely setup and upgrade) crop photos in real-time. Then the crop photos are automatically processed and LAI is estimated based on the improved leaf area index of Lang and Xiang (LAILX) algorithm in LAIS. The research also constructed a database of images and other information relating to crop management. The leaf length and width method (LAILLW) can accurately measure LAI through direct field harvest. The LAIS has been tested in several exemplary applications, and validation with LAI from LAILLW. The LAI acquired by LAIS had been proved reliable. PMID:25781513

  8. The Design and Implementation of the Leaf Area Index Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuhong Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The quick and accurate acquisition of crop growth parameters on a large scale is important for agricultural management and food security. The combination of photographic and wireless sensor network (WSN techniques can be used to collect agricultural information, such as leaf area index (LAI, over long distances and in real time. Such acquisition not only provides farmers with photographs of crops and suggestions for farmland management, but also the collected quantitative parameters, such as LAI, can be used to support large scale research in ecology, hydrology, remote sensing, etc. The present research developed a Leaf Area Index Sensor (LAIS to continuously monitor the growth of crops in several sampling points, and applied 3G/WIFI communication technology to remotely collect (and remotely setup and upgrade crop photos in real-time. Then the crop photos are automatically processed and LAI is estimated based on the improved leaf area index of Lang and Xiang (LAILX algorithm in LAIS. The research also constructed a database of images and other information relating to crop management. The leaf length and width method (LAILLW can accurately measure LAI through direct field harvest. The LAIS has been tested in several exemplary applications, and validation with LAI from LAILLW. The LAI acquired by LAIS had been proved reliable.

  9. Integrated head area design of KNGR to reduce refueling outage duration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Woo Tae; Park, Chi Yong; Kim, In Hwan; Kim, Dae Woong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    In the design of KNGR (Korea Next Generation Reactor), we believe that economy is one of the most important factors to be considered. Thus, we reviewed and evaluated the consequences of designing the head area into an integrated package from an economical point of view. The refueling outage durations of the nuclear power plants currently in operation in Korea, some having and others not having integrated head package, are compared. This paper discusses the characteristics of head area design and the critical design issues of KNGR head area to evaluate the effect of the head area characteristics on the outage duration. 8 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  10. 卫星便携站天线自动对星系统的设计与实现%Design and implement of satellite auto-aiming system on antenna of satellite portable station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡明; 王星全; 郑振华; 杨华

    2012-01-01

    In the porcess of narrow-beam portable station antenna aiming the satellite, there are three problems: finding the satellite difficulty, aiming the satellite long-time and low-precision. In this article, an auto-aim instrument on equipment is designed and implemented. This instrument based on PIC singlechip can implement rapid, automatic and precise aiming the satellite by collecting and porcessing the data from GPS and sensors and signal strength module, controling stepping motors to adjust the azimuth and elevation of portable station antenna. Using this system, we can reduce the time, improve the precision in aiming the satellite and prove the efficiency of communication markedly.%针对卫星便携站窄波束天线找星难度大、对星耗时多、对星精度差的问题,设计并实现了一个附加在实装设备上的自动对星工具,以PIC单片机为核心,通过采集和处理GPS数据、方位俯仰传感器数据和卫星信号强度数据,控制高精度步进电机自动调整便携站天线方位角和俯仰角,从而实现快速、自动、精确对星.通过使用高精度步进电机代替传统手工操作,能够明显缩短对星时间、提高对星精度,且体积较小、安装拆卸容易、携带方便,显著提高了通信效能.

  11. Design Of Piezoelectric Microcantilever Chemical Sensors In COMSOL Multiphysics Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziar Norouzi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers an analytical modeling ofthin-filmed, multi-layer piezoelectric microcantileversthat are used as MEMS sensors. These sensors arechemical kind and use piezoelectric microcantilever.These types of microcantilevers are covered withvariety of unique probe coating. The sensor has highsensitivity with external voltage measured in mV anduses PSD1 system to indentify chemical ingredients ofmaterials. The identification of the chemical ingredientof materials is based on change in angle of microcantilever in the liquid or gas environment. Thedeflection of microcantilever results in varying voltagethat can be used to analyze materials. Analyticalsimulation using Cosmol software and theoreticalcomputations using equations will be offered in orderto determine the parameters for optimal design setting.The analytical simulation includes design of mems andCosmol software model development. The analyticalmodel of the cantilever will be analyzed and theprocess of its construction will be discussed.

  12. Wide Area Network’s Reliability Redundancy Design Using Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janardhan Babu V

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Reliability is the main characteristic to evaluate the performance of WAN's. The devices used in the network and their availability in the market make the network to give services without interruptions. Redundant network components are installed for continuous functioning of network and to reduce the service interruptions. A designer has to consider the economic views of the organization in designing a system with high reliability. To optimize the number of redundant components in WAN environment cost and material resources are utilized for optimum use and for maximum reliability. Though the component reliabilities at various stages of the system are estimated, reliabilities of the server and routers are assumed to be reliable in nature but the circuit continuously changes due to active redundancy and components follow stochastic distributions. A software package is developed with stochastic redundancy technique for “Reliability Optimization using Monte-Carlo simulation”.

  13. A lightweight security scheme for wireless body area networks: design, energy evaluation and proposed microprocessor design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selimis, Georgios; Huang, Li; Massé, Fabien; Tsekoura, Ioanna; Ashouei, Maryam; Catthoor, Francky; Huisken, Jos; Stuyt, Jan; Dolmans, Guido; Penders, Julien; De Groot, Harmke

    2011-10-01

    In order for wireless body area networks to meet widespread adoption, a number of security implications must be explored to promote and maintain fundamental medical ethical principles and social expectations. As a result, integration of security functionality to sensor nodes is required. Integrating security functionality to a wireless sensor node increases the size of the stored software program in program memory, the required time that the sensor's microprocessor needs to process the data and the wireless network traffic which is exchanged among sensors. This security overhead has dominant impact on the energy dissipation which is strongly related to the lifetime of the sensor, a critical aspect in wireless sensor network (WSN) technology. Strict definition of the security functionality, complete hardware model (microprocessor and radio), WBAN topology and the structure of the medium access control (MAC) frame are required for an accurate estimation of the energy that security introduces into the WBAN. In this work, we define a lightweight security scheme for WBAN, we estimate the additional energy consumption that the security scheme introduces to WBAN based on commercial available off-the-shelf hardware components (microprocessor and radio), the network topology and the MAC frame. Furthermore, we propose a new microcontroller design in order to reduce the energy consumption of the system. Experimental results and comparisons with other works are given.

  14. 以自主学习为目标的《离散数学》教学平台设计与实施%Design and Implement of Teaching Platform of Discrete Mathematics Aiming to Independent Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽双; 林鸿飞; 李丽华; 宋和平

    2014-01-01

    Aimed by developing independent learning of students, the teaching platform of Discrete Mathematics is built. Analyzed the Discrete Mathematics education status, the teaching platform are set up including three parts: curriculum knowledge framework design, design and implementation of practice teaching, design and construction of teaching website. New ideas and new practices are proposed in multi-level experimental training and teacher-student interaction online, which is an effective exploration on strengthening practice teaching.%以培养学生自主学习为目的,搭建《离散数学》教学平台。通过分析离散数学的教育现状,从课程知识框架设计,实践教学环节设计与实施,教学网站的设计与建设三个环节,构建了教学平台。其中在开展多层次的实验训练和通过网站建立师生互动等方面提出了新思路和新做法,对强化实践教学进行了有益的探索。

  15. 36 CFR 212.51 - Designation of roads, trails, and areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.51 Designation of roads, trails, and areas. (a) General. Motor vehicle use on National Forest System roads, on... administrative use by the Forest Service; (5) Use of any fire, military, emergency, or law enforcement...

  16. 75 FR 21368 - Designation of Five Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... PRESIDENT Office of National Drug Control Policy Designation of Five Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy designated five additional counties as High Drug Trafficking Areas pursuant to 21 U.S.C. 1706. The...

  17. Savannah River Plant, Project 8980: Engineering and design history of No. 400 Area. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-01-01

    The description and development, selection and descriptions of processes, design, and specialized design problems are presented for the 400-D Area at the Savannah River Plant. These facilities were used for the production of high purity heavy water for use as a moderator and coolant in the 100 Areas. Also, deuterium gas and hydrogen sulfide were produced here.

  18. 47 CFR 54.203 - Designation of eligible telecommunications carriers for unserved areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of eligible telecommunications carriers for unserved areas. 54.203 Section 54.203 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Support § 54.203 Designation of eligible telecommunications carriers for unserved areas. (a) If no...

  19. Designing Local-Scale Marine Protected Area Networks in the Central Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Maha T.

    2015-12-01

    Coral reefs around the world are at risk from overexploitation and climate change, and coral reefs of the Red Sea are no exception. Science-based designation of marine protected areas (MPAs), within which human activities are restricted, has become a popular method for conserving biodiversity, restoring degraded habitats, and replenishing depleted populations. The aim of this project was to explore adaptable methods for designing locally-manageable MPAs for various conservation goals near Thuwal in the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea while allowing human activities to continue. First, the potential for using simple spatial habitat distribution metrics to aid in designing MPAs that are well-connected with larval supply was explored. Results showed that the degree of habitat patchiness may be positively correlated with realized dispersal distances, making it possible to space MPAs further apart in patchier habitats while still maintaining larval connectivity. However, this relationship requires further study and may be informative to MPA design only in the absence of spatially-explicit empirical dispersal data. Next, biological data was collected, and the spatial variation in biomass, trophic structure, biodiversity, and community assemblages on Thuwal reefs was analyzed in order to inform the process of prioritizing reefs for inclusion in MPA networks. Inshore and offshore reef community assemblages were found to be different and indicated relatively degraded inshore habitats. These trends were used to select species and benthic categories that would be important to conserve in a local MPA. The abundances of these “conservation features” were then modeled throughout the study area, and the decision support software “Marxan” was used to design MPA networks in Thuwal that included these features to achieve quantitative objectives. While achieving objectives relevant to fisheries concerns was relatively more challenging, results showed that it is possible to

  20. 45 CFR 670.29 - Designation of Antarctic Specially Protected Areas, Specially Managed Areas and Historic Sites...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for special management and are hereby designated as Antarctic Specially Managed Areas (ASMA). Detailed..., Arlington, Virginia 22230. ASMA 1Admiralty Bay, King George Island, South Shetland Islands ASMA 2McMurdo Dry Valleys, Southern Victoria Land ASMA 3Cape Denison, Commonwealth Bay, George V Land ASMA 4Deception...

  1. Design of forecast system of mining damage in mining areas and its realization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dong-mei

    2005-01-01

    Exploited the forecast system of mining damages, which uses the theory of clean-production in coal-areas as guide. Its aims is developing and using coal resource reasonably and reducing the damage to the environment.

  2. 76 FR 53853 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... triggers a variety of health problems including aggravated asthma, reduced lung capacity, and increased... ozone standard. (July 7, 2011, 76 FR 39775). EPA is proposing to find that the BR area will satisfy all...? EPA first designated the Baton Rouge area as an ozone nonattainment area in 1978. 43 FR 8964,...

  3. Designing in seismic areas in the third millennium: modern technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    in areas hit by even severe earthquakes so far exhibited an excellent behavior, in spite of the fact that the violence of such earthquakes was frequently underestimated

  4. The Impact of Verification Area Design on Tropical Cyclone Targeted Observations Based on the CNOP Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Feifan; MU Mu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of different verification-area designs on the sensitive areas identified using the conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation (CNOP) method for tropical cyclone targeted observations.The sensitive areas identified using the first singular vector (FSV) method,which is the linear approximation of CNOP,were also investigated for comparison.By analyzing the validity of the sensitive areas,the proper design of a verification area was developed.Tropical cyclone Rananim,which occurred in August 2004 in the northwest Pacific Ocean,was studied.Two sets of verification areas were designed; one changed position,and the other changed both size and position.The CNOP and its identified sensitive areas were found to be less sensitive to small variations of the verification areas than those of the FSV and its sensitive areas.With larger variations of the verification area,the CNOP and the FSV as well as their identified sensitive areas changed substantially.In terms of reducing forecast errors in the verification area,the CNOP-identified sensitive areas were more beneficial than those identified using FSV.The design of the verification area is important for cyclone prediction.The verification area should be designed with a proper size according to the possible locations of the cyclone obtained from the ensemble forecast results.In addition,the development trend of the cyclone analyzed from its dynamic mechanisms was another reference.When the general position of the verification area was determined,a small variation in size or position had little influence on the results of CNOP.

  5. Research Notes ~ Selecting Research Areas and Research Design Approaches in Distance Education: Process Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarshan Mishra

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the process used for selecting research areas and methodological approaches in distance education in India. Experts from the field of distance education in India were interviewed at length, with the aim of collecting qualitative data on opinions on process-issues for selecting areas for research, research design, and appropriate methodological approaches in distance education. Data collected from these interviews were subjected to content analysis; triangulation and peer consultation techniques were used for cross-checking and data verification. While the findings and recommendations of this study have limited application in that they can only be used in the specific context outlined in this paper, respondents in this study nonetheless revealed the pressing need for more process-oriented research in examining media and technology, learners and learning, and distance learning evaluation processes. Our research, which yielded interesting empirical findings, also determined that a mixed approach – one that involves both quantitative and qualitative methods – is more appropriate for conducting research in distance education in India. Qualitative evidence from our research also indicates that respondents interviewed felt that emphasis should be placed on interdisciplinary and systemic research, over that of traditional disciplinary research. Research methods such as student self-reporting, extensive and highly targeted interviews, conversation and discourse analysis, were determined to as useful for data collection for this study.

  6. SRP engineering and design history, Vol III, 200 F and H Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banick, C.J.

    2000-04-17

    This volume combines the record of events relating to the development of design for both the 200-F and H Areas. Chronologically, the definition of plant facilities was first established for the 200-F Area. The second area, 200-H, was projected initially to be a supplementary plutonium separations facility. This history explains the differences in character and capacity of the manufacturing facilities in both areas as production requirements and experience with separations processes advanced.

  7. SRP engineering and design history, Vol III, 200 F and H Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume combines the record of events relating to the development of design for both the 200-F and H Areas. Chronologically, the definition of plant facilities was first established for the 200-F Area. The second area, 200-H, was projected initially to be a supplementary plutonium separations facility. This history explains the differences in character and capacity of the manufacturing facilities in both areas as production requirements and experience with separations processes advanced

  8. 36 CFR 212.57 - Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas. 212.57 Section 212.57 Parks... Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.57 Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas. For each administrative unit of the National...

  9. China Aims to Promote Import

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ With the theme of"An Opening Market and Global Trade",aim at promoting communications and exchanges among governments,industries and business to achieve mutual benefit and a win-win situation,nearly 300 representatives from the relevant departments of the Chinese government,foreign embassies in China,industrial associations and major enterprises,as well as well-known Chinese and foreign experts and scholars were invited to take part in the forum and share their iews on Chinese market and foreign trade policies.

  10. Optimal design of a lagrangian observing system for hydrodynamic surveys in coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucco, Andrea; Quattrocchi, Giovanni; Antognarelli, Fabio; Satta, Andrea; Maicu, Francesco; Ferrarin, Christian; Umgiesser, Georg

    2014-05-01

    The optimization of ocean observing systems is a pressing need for scientific research. In particular, the improvement of ocean short-term observing networks is achievable by reducing the cost-benefit ratio of the field campaigns and by increasing the quality of measurements. Numerical modeling is a powerful tool for determining the appropriateness of a specific observing system and for optimizing the sampling design. This is particularly true when observations are carried out in coastal areas and lagoons where, the use satellites is prohibitive due to the water shallowness. For such areas, numerical models are the most efficient tool both to provide a preliminary assess of the local physical environment and to make short -term predictions above its change. In this context, a test case experiment was carried out within an enclosed shallow water areas, the Cabras Lagoon (Sardinia, Italy). The aim of the experiment was to explore the optimal design for a field survey based on the use of coastal lagrangian buoys. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model based on the finite element method (SHYFEM3D, Umgiesser et al., 2004) was implemented to simulate the lagoon water circulation. The model domain extent to the whole Cabras lagoon and to the whole Oristano Gulf, including the surrounding coastal area. Lateral open boundary conditions were provided by the operational ocean model system WMED and only wind forcing, provided by SKIRON atmospheric model (Kallos et al., 1997), was considered as surface boundary conditions. The model was applied to provide a number of ad hoc scenarios and to explore the efficiency of the short-term hydrodynamic survey. A first field campaign was carried out to investigate the lagrangian circulation inside the lagoon under the main wind forcing condition (Mistral wind from North-West). The trajectories followed by the lagrangian buoys and the estimated lagrangian velocities were used to calibrate the model parameters and to validate the

  11. Motorcycle Area Design and Location: Impacts on the Recreational Experiences of Riders and Nonriders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, Richard L.; Fillmore, Edgar C.

    This study analyzes some of the psychological and sociological effects of constructing motorcycle riding areas adjacent to fixed-site compgrounds. Findings include rider and camper profiles, self- and camper-perceptions of riders, and preferences and satisfactions of campers and riders concerning the proximity and design of riding areas.…

  12. Extending Animal Models to Explore Social Rewards Associated with Designated Smoking Areas on College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochbihler, Stephanie L.; Miller, Daniel A.; Etcheverry, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Animal studies have shown that when nicotine is administered in the presence of other animals (as compared with alone), it is more rewarding. As a human analogue to these studies, rewards associated with designated smoking areas on university campuses were examined, since these areas promote using nicotine in the presence of others.…

  13. 36 CFR 212.55 - Criteria for designation of roads, trails, and areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., conflicts among uses of National Forest System lands, the need for maintenance and administration of roads... roads, trails, and areas. 212.55 Section 212.55 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle...

  14. 13 CFR 108.1940 - Procedures for designation of additional Low-Income Geographic Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for designation of additional Low-Income Geographic Areas 108.1940 Section 108.1940 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 108.1940 Procedures for designation of additional...

  15. Space Design for the Acitc Educational technology Office Area Using a Workplace neighborhood Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Ping

    1997-01-01

    Today, the workplace is undergoing dramatic changes, featuring increased team activities and informal interactions. The work place neighborhood is a design concept derived from a city planning theory that may solve the workplace design problems arising from these changes, and provided a focus for this project. The Educational Technology office area of the Advanced Communication and Information Technology Center...

  16. A lightweight security scheme for wireless body area networks: design, energy evaluation and proposed microprocessor design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selimis, G.; Huang, L.; Massé, F.; Tsekoura, I.; Ashouei, M.; Catthoor, F.; Huisken, J.; Stuyt, J.; Dolmans, G.; Penders, J.; Groot, H. de

    2011-01-01

    In order for wireless body area networks to meet widespread adoption, a number of security implications must be explored to promote and maintain fundamental medical ethical principles and social expectations. As a result, integration of security functionality to sensor nodes is required. Integrating

  17. Optimal Pipe Size Design for Looped Irrigation Water Supply System Using Harmony Search: Saemangeum Project Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Guen Yoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water supply systems are mainly classified into branched and looped network systems. The main difference between these two systems is that, in a branched network system, the flow within each pipe is a known value, whereas in a looped network system, the flow in each pipe is considered an unknown value. Therefore, an analysis of a looped network system is a more complex task. This study aims to develop a technique for estimating the optimal pipe diameter for a looped agricultural irrigation water supply system using a harmony search algorithm, which is an optimization technique. This study mainly serves two purposes. The first is to develop an algorithm and a program for estimating a cost-effective pipe diameter for agricultural irrigation water supply systems using optimization techniques. The second is to validate the developed program by applying the proposed optimized cost-effective pipe diameter to an actual study region (Saemangeum project area, zone 6. The results suggest that the optimal design program, which applies an optimization theory and enhances user convenience, can be effectively applied for the real systems of a looped agricultural irrigation water supply.

  18. Furnace and Heat Recovery Area Design and Analysis for Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Seltzer

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the furnace and heat recovery area design and analysis task of the Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler study is to optimize the location and design of the furnace, burners, over-fire gas ports, and internal radiant surfaces. The furnace and heat recovery area were designed and analyzed using the FW-FIRE and HEATEX computer programs. The furnace is designed with opposed wall-firing burners and over-fire air ports. Water is circulated in the furnace by natural circulation to the waterwalls and divisional wall panels. Compared to the air-fired furnace, the oxygen-fired furnace requires only 65% of the surface area and 45% of the volume. Two oxygen-fired designs were simulated: (1) without over-fire air and (2) with 20% over-fire air. The maximum wall heat flux in the oxygen-fired furnace is more than double that of the air-fired furnace due to the higher flame temperature and higher H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} concentrations. The coal burnout for the oxygen-fired case is 100% due to a 500 F higher furnace temperature and higher concentration of O{sub 2}. Because of the higher furnace wall temperature of the oxygen-fired case compared to the air-fired case, furnace water wall material was upgraded from carbon steel to T91. The total heat transfer surface required in the oxygen-fired heat recovery area (HRA) is 25% less than the air-fired HRA due to more heat being absorbed in the oxygen-fired furnace and the greater molecular weight of the oxygen-fired flue gas. The HRA tube materials and wall thickness are practically the same for the air-fired and oxygen-fired design since the flue gas and water/steam temperature profiles encountered by the heat transfer banks are very similar.

  19. A robust SMES controller design for stabilization of inter-area oscillations based on wide area synchronized phasor measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngamroo, Issarachai; Ali Nanda, Cuk Supriyadi [Center of Excellence for Innovative Energy Systems, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Dechanupaprittha, Sanchai; Watanabe, Masayuki; Mitani, Yasunori [Department of Electrical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Fukuoka 804-8550 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    This paper proposes a robust power controller design of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) based on wide area synchronized phasor measurement units (PMUs) for stabilization of inter-area oscillation. The structure of active and reactive power controllers of SMES is the first-order lead/lag compensator. Assuming multiple PMUs are located in an interconnected power system, the steady state phasor data are obtained by applying the small load perturbation. Using the phasor data, the simplified oscillation model (SOM) included with SMES power controllers can be identified and applied to estimate the dominant inter-area oscillation modes. In the robust control design, unstructured system uncertainties such as various operating conditions, system parameters variation, etc., are represented by the inverse additive perturbation and included in the SOM. To enhance the system robust stability margin, the optimization of SMES control parameters is solved by genetic algorithm in the SOM. Simulation studies in the West Japan 6-machine power system confirm that the robustness of the proposed SMES is much superior to the conventional SMES against various operating conditions and fault locations. (author)

  20. Designing of College English Class Aiming at Cultivating Students’ Critical Thinking Skills%面向学生思辨能力培养的大学英语课堂设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳鹏

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of cultivating students ’ critical thinking skills and puts forward a five-step teaching model aiming at improving students critical thinking ability, i. e. preclass knowledge storage and expanding- thinking in depth and open-cooperative inquiry, critical thinking and practicing-the out-come presentation-feedback Evaluation. The results indicate that the creative-designing of each step can give students speculative space and enable students to develop rational thinking skills gradually.%培养学习者的批判性思维十分重要性,然而传统大学英语教学中只重视语言能力的培养,轻视思辨能力的培养。改变传统的教学形式,在大学英语课堂上根据“课前知识储备拓展---课堂设定开放性思索性有深度的问题---合作探究、积极思辨、实践体验---成果展示---反馈评价”的五步教学模式,创造性地设计课堂教学的每个环节给学生以思辨的时空,创造思辨的储备,通过学、思、辩,以及实际的体验、锻炼,初步养成学生合理的理性思辨能力,逐步使学生的思辨能力得到提高和拓展。

  1. Avaliação de um sistema simplificado de tratamento de esgotos visando a utilização em áreas rurais Evaluation of a simple system of wastewater treatment aiming at use in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano L. Tonetti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil enfrenta sérios problemas relacionados a uma grande população que vive na área rural, lançando os esgotos diretamente nos corpos hídricos. Este comportamento contribui a olhos vistos com a degradação do meio ambiente, além de trazer impasses à saúde pública; nesses casos, o emprego de sistemas de tratamento simplificados seria muito vantajoso, pois poderia depurar os esgotos dessas comunidades rurais a um custo baixo e ser operado e construído pela própria mão-de-obra local, embora pouco qualificada. Um dos sistemas estudados na UNICAMP e que se enquadra nessas características é, sem dúvida, a associação dos filtros anaeróbios com filtros de areia. Os resultados desta pesquisa demonstraram que o efluente gerado apresentava valores de matéria orgânica inferiores ao limite máximo estipulado pela legislação pertinente (CONAMA, 2005. Quanto aos compostos nitrogenados, demonstrou-se que os leitos de areia tinham grande capacidade de nitrificá-los e, no tocante ao fósforo, ressalta-se que nas maiores profundidades de leito de areia (0,75 e 1,00 m, a remoção superava 98%.Brazil faces problems related to the large population which lives in the rural areas and discharges the wastewater directly into water bodies. This occurrence contributes not only to environmental damage but also to public health problems. In this case, the use of simple treatments would be beneficial, since the local wastewater could be treated with low cost and be built and operated by local labor even though it is not specialized. A system investigated in UNICAMP and which has these characteristics is, undoubtedly, the association of anaerobic filters with sand filters. The results from the research showed that the effluent had an organic matter concentration lower than the maximum permitted by Brazilian law (Brasil, 2005. Regarding the nitrogen compounds, the sand filters showed a great capacity of nitrification and, in reference to phosphorus

  2. The ROM Design with Half Grouping Compression Method for Chip Area and Power Consumption Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ki-Sang; Kim, Kang-Jik; Kim, Young-Eun; Chung, Jin-Gyun; Pyun, Ki-Hyun; Lee, Jong-Yeol; Jeong, Hang-Geun; Cho, Seong-Ik

    In memory design, the issue is smaller size and low power. Most power used in the ROM is consumed in line capacitance such as address lines, word lines, bit lines, and decoder. This paper presents ROM design of a novel HG (Half Grouping) compression method so as to reduce the parasitic capacitance of bit lines and the area of the row decoder for power consumption and chip area reduction. ROM design result of 512 point FFT block shows that the proposed method reduces 40.6% area, 42.12% power, and 37.82% transistor number respectively in comparison with the conventional method. The designed ROM with proposed method is implemented in a 0.35µm CMOS process. It consumes 5.8mW at 100MHz with a single 3.3V power supply.

  3. Francis Turbine Blade Design on the Basis of Port Area and Loss Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenmu Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a Francis turbine with specific speed of 130 m-kW was designed on the basis of the port area and loss analysis. The meridional shape of the runner was designed focusing mainly on the combination of the guide vane loss analysis and experience. The runner blade inlet and outlet angles were designed by calculation of Euler’s head, while the port area of blade was modified by keeping constant angles of the blade at inlet and outlet. The results show that the effect of the port area of runner blade on the flow exit angle from runner passage is significant. A correct flow exit angle reduces the energy loss at the draft tube, thereby improving the efficiency of the turbine. The best efficiency of 92.6% is achieved by this method, which is also similar to the design conditions by the one dimension loss analysis.

  4. CHILDREN AIMED INTERFACES FOR ANDROID RUNNING DEVICES

    OpenAIRE

    Tîrziu Georgiana Cristina

    2011-01-01

    The paper focuses on the development of mobile interfaces for children. The Android operating system is presented from appearance with its features, hardware support and its advantages over others operating systems. Mobile software development requirements on different platforms for mobile devices are identified and described. A graphical interface aiming children is designed and its features are presented. The interface includes an application for managing the school related tasks and time. ...

  5. Conceptual design report, 200 Area sanitary sewer system: Project 96L-EWL-116

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Project L-116 will install an integrated sanitary sewer system in the 200 Area. This new system will connect existing sewer systems for facilities that have a foreseeable future, provide capacity and routing for future facilities, and install new septic sewer systems for existing facilities that cannot be feasibly connected to the new sewer system and have a mission that will extend beyond the year 2000. Project L-116 will construct a sanitary sewer collection, treatment, and disposal system for facilities in the 200-East and -West Areas and adjacent areas located on the 200 Area plateau. The existing septic systems will be abandoned or decommissioned in accordance with applicable Washington State and local codes and regulations. The conceptual design for the sanitary sewer system is designed around population forecasts of 5,000 people for 200-West Area and 9,000 people for 200-East Area. The definitive design will be based on the latest forecast populations at the time definitive design is initiated

  6. Furnace and Heat Recovery Area Design and Analysis for Conceptual Design of Supercritical O2-Based PC Boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Seltzer

    2006-05-01

    The objective of the furnace and heat recovery area design and analysis task of the Conceptual Design of Supercritical Oxygen-Based PC Boiler study is to optimize the location and design of the furnace, burners, over-fire gas ports, and internal radiant surfaces. The furnace and heat recovery area were designed and analyzed using the FW-FIRE, Siemens, and HEATEX computer programs. The furnace is designed with opposed wall-firing burners and over-fire air ports. Water is circulated in the furnace by forced circulation to the waterwalls at the periphery and divisional wall panels within the furnace. Compared to the air-fired furnace, the oxygen-fired furnace requires only 65% of the surface area and 45% of the volume. Two oxygen-fired designs were simulated: (1) with cryogenic air separation unit (ASU) and (2) with oxygen ion transport membrane (OITM). The maximum wall heat flux in the oxygen-fired furnace is more than double that of the air-fired furnace due to the higher flame temperature and higher H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} concentrations. The coal burnout for the oxygen-fired case is 100% due to a 500 F higher furnace temperature and higher concentration of O{sub 2}. Because of the higher furnace wall temperature of the oxygen-fired case compared to the air-fired case, furnace water wall material was upgraded from T2 to T92. Compared to the air-fired heat recovery area (HRA), the oxygen-fired HRA total heat transfer surface is 35% less for the cryogenic design and 13% less for the OITM design due to more heat being absorbed in the oxygen-fired furnace and the greater molecular weight of the oxygen-fired flue gas. The HRA tube materials and wall thickness are nearly the same for the air-fired and oxygen-fired design since the flue gas and water/steam temperature profiles encountered by the heat transfer banks are similar.

  7. Furnace and Heat Recovery Area Design and Analysis for Conceptual Design of Supercritical O2-Based PC Boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the furnace and heat recovery area design and analysis task of the Conceptual Design of Supercritical Oxygen-Based PC Boiler study is to optimize the location and design of the furnace, burners, over-fire gas ports, and internal radiant surfaces. The furnace and heat recovery area were designed and analyzed using the FW-FIRE, Siemens, and HEATEX computer programs. The furnace is designed with opposed wall-firing burners and over-fire air ports. Water is circulated in the furnace by forced circulation to the waterwalls at the periphery and divisional wall panels within the furnace. Compared to the air-fired furnace, the oxygen-fired furnace requires only 65% of the surface area and 45% of the volume. Two oxygen-fired designs were simulated: (1) with cryogenic air separation unit (ASU) and (2) with oxygen ion transport membrane (OITM). The maximum wall heat flux in the oxygen-fired furnace is more than double that of the air-fired furnace due to the higher flame temperature and higher H2O and CO2 concentrations. The coal burnout for the oxygen-fired case is 100% due to a 500 F higher furnace temperature and higher concentration of O2. Because of the higher furnace wall temperature of the oxygen-fired case compared to the air-fired case, furnace water wall material was upgraded from T2 to T92. Compared to the air-fired heat recovery area (HRA), the oxygen-fired HRA total heat transfer surface is 35% less for the cryogenic design and 13% less for the OITM design due to more heat being absorbed in the oxygen-fired furnace and the greater molecular weight of the oxygen-fired flue gas. The HRA tube materials and wall thickness are nearly the same for the air-fired and oxygen-fired design since the flue gas and water/steam temperature profiles encountered by the heat transfer banks are similar

  8. Design and Implementation of Auto-aim Satellite Instrument of Satellite Antenna Based on ARM%基于ARM的卫星天线自动对星仪设计和实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱民; 梁书剑; 任德成; 刘晓祥

    2011-01-01

    The operation of aim Satellite is very complex, because aim Satellite precision of narrow beam Satellite antenna is high. A scheme of auto-aim satellite instrument of Satellite antenna is put forward, the scheme adopt some technologies, for example, embedded development technology based on ARM, detection technology of sensor and position technology of GPS, implementation of function module is introduced in detain, when adopting the auto-aim satellite instrument, the speed of aim satellite is quick, the operation of aim Satellite is handy, the foreground of application is expansive.%针对卫星窄波束天线对星精度要求高,对星操作复杂的现状,采用基于ARM的嵌入式开发技术、传感器检测技术和GPS定位技术,提出了一种卫星天线自动对星仪研制方案,详细介绍了各功能模块的实现方法.采用该对星仪可以大大加快对星速度,而且操作简便,有广泛的应用前景.

  9. Design and implementation of e-learning in the area of interest

    OpenAIRE

    Michálková, Hana

    2013-01-01

    The bachelor thesis "Design and Implementation of e-learning in the area of interest" is focused on the area of retraining in "Hairdressing work". The goal is to move part of the process of retraining, particularly theoretical instruction, numbering 100 or 200 teaching hours in e-learning environment. The motivation is primarily that of course, candidates often have limited time available. E-learning teaching theoretical part can significantly speed up the process of retraining, for example, ...

  10. Strategy paper. Remedial design/remedial action 100 Area. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this planning document is to identify and define the approach for remedial design and remedial action (RD/RA) in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State. Additionally, this document will support the Hanford Site Environmental Restoration Contract (ERC) team, the US Department of Energy (DOE), and regulatory agencies in identifying and agreeing upon the complete process for expedited cleanup of the 100 Area

  11. Striking a balance between biodiversity conservation and socioeconomic viability in the design of marine protected areas

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, CJ; Chan, A; Kircher, L; Cundiff, AJ; Gardner, N.; Hrovat, Y; Scholz, A.; Kendall, BE; Airamé, S.

    2008-01-01

    The establishment of marine protected areas is often viewed as a conflict between conservation and fishing. We considered consumptive and nonconsumptive interests of multiple stakeholders (i.e., fishers, scuba divers, conservationists, managers, scientists) in the systematic design of a network of marine protected areas along California's central coast in the context of the Marine Life Protection Act Initiative. With advice from managers, administrators, and scientists, a representative group...

  12. Design and implementation of a fiber optic token-ring local area network

    OpenAIRE

    Bibeau, Gary J.

    1991-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis describes the design and implementation of a fiber optic token-ring local area network (LAN) . This design features fiber optic channels between stations on the network without the use of a wiring concentrator. The initial LAN electrical signal operating at 4 Mbps was provided by a LAN adapter card based on the TMS380 chipset developed for twisted pair copper wire. Since the physical characteristics of fib...

  13. On Design and Development of QLIFEX: An Expert System for Social Area

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Atanasova

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an architectural framework of an expert system in the social area domain, and describes the design and the process of development of the expert system. The designed system is intended for the evaluation of quality of life (QL). The development of expert system for quality of life evaluation is a new information technology derived from artificial intelligence research. The new expert system will contain knowledge about sets of factors and indicators, which may be used for...

  14. Area Efficient Design of Routing Node for Network-on-Chip

    OpenAIRE

    Rehan Maroofi; Vilas Nitnaware; Shyam Limaye

    2011-01-01

    Network-on-Chip (NoC) is a paradigm proposed to satisfy the communication demands of future Systems-on-Chip (SoC). The main components of an NoC are the network adapters, routing nodes, and network interconnect links. Reducing area and power consumption has higher priority in the case of on-chip networks compared to conventional off-chip networks. This paper presents an area efficient design for the routing node component of an NoC. The area efficiency is obtained by applying the concept of a...

  15. Incentive Mechanism Model Design for Sharing of Information Resources in Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xirong; GAO; Lingling; SHAN

    2013-01-01

    In order to solve the issues concerning the cross-unit sharing of information resources in rural areas, we analyze the incentive problem of the sharing of information resources in rural areas using the incentive theory method; establish corresponding incentive mechanism model (It is divided into positive incentive model and negative incentive model, and only when the two models guarantee each other and are used at the same time can they be effective). Based on this, we put forward the institutional design for sharing of information resources in rural areas as follows: firstly, establishing an administrative agency of rural information resources sharing, above the authority of all units, responsible for related work on sharing of information resources in rural areas; secondly, establishing and improving the positive and negative incentive mechanisms, to ensure the realization of sharing of information resources in rural areas.

  16. Two designs for image digital processing applications in the nuclear area using ImaWin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work two designs of image processing systems of low cost for the nuclear area are presented. They have the advantage of the adaptability given by the ImaWin software and the connection with Internet, applied to digitalisation in research and development fields. The first design is the development of a digitalisation system for inspection and study of fuel plate radiographs for test reactors, while the second one describes the specification and design of an intelligent system of intrusion signals continuous inspection and administrative control of fissile material deposits. (author)

  17. 77 FR 56608 - Designation for the Pocatello, ID; Evansville, IN; and Salt Lake City, UT Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ..., IN; and Salt Lake City, UT Areas AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration...) 423-9010... 10/1/2012 9/30/2015 Utah Salt Lake City, UT (801) 392- 10/1/2012 9/30/2015 2292. Section... the March 5, 2012 Federal Register (76 FR 2012-5245), GIPSA requested applications for designation...

  18. 75 FR 13710 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... areas that we also determined were attaining the standard. See 71 FR 6352 (February 8, 2006) (Ajo... air pollutants for which EPA has established a health-based standard. On July 1, 1987 (52 FR 24634... December 18, 2006. See 71 FR 61144 and 40 CFR 50.6. B. Designation, Classification and Air Quality...

  19. 77 FR 56652 - Notice of Service Delivery Area Designation for the Mashpee Wampanoag Indian Tribe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... Service Unit population since 1979. \\52\\ This is a newly recognized Tribe, as documented at 67 FR 46329... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Notice of Service Delivery Area Designation for the Mashpee... public that the Indian Health Service (IHS) established the geographic boundaries of the Service...

  20. 78 FR 44459 - Designation of Health Professional(s) Shortage Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Public Health Service 42 CFR Part 5 Designation of Health Professional(s) Shortage Areas CFR Correction 0 In Title 42 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 1 to 399, revised as of October 1, 2012, on page 80, in Appendix C to Part...

  1. Design of Simple and Efficient Revocation List Distribution in Urban areas for VANET's

    CERN Document Server

    Samara, Ghassan; Al-Salihy, Wafaa A H

    2010-01-01

    Vehicular Ad hoc Networks is one of the most challenging research area in the field of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, in this research we propose a flexible, simple, and scalable design for revocation list distribution in VANET, which will reduce channel overhead and eliminate the use of CRL. Also it will increase the security of the network and helps in identifying the adversary vehicles.

  2. 44 CFR 206.40 - Designation of affected areas and eligible assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of affected areas and eligible assistance. 206.40 Section 206.40 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE...

  3. 78 FR 55743 - Notice of Service Delivery Area Designation for the Shinnecock Indian Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... the ISDEAA, Public Law 93-638. \\22\\ This is a newly recognized Tribe, as documented at 67 FR 46329... counties listed are designated administratively as the SDA, to function as a Contract Health Service Delivery Area (CHSDA), for the purposes of operating a Contract Health Service (CHS) program pursuant...

  4. On the design of a Radio Numerology for 5G Wide Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berardinelli, Gilberto; Pedersen, Klaus Ingemann; Frederiksen, Frank;

    2015-01-01

    A 5th Generation (5G) radio access technology is expected to cope with the relentless increase of the data traffic demand and is meant to accommodate a plethora of services with different requirements. In this paper, we elaborate on the design of the radio numerology for a 5G wide area system...

  5. AREA-EFFICIENT DESIGN OF SCHEDULER FOR ROUTING NODE OF NETWORK-ON-CHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehan Maroofi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional System-on-Chip (SoC design employed shared buses for data transfer among varioussubsystems. As SoCs become more complex involving a larger number of subsystems, traditional busbasedarchitecture is giving way to a new paradigm for on-chip communication. This paradigm is calledNetwork-on-Chip (NoC. A communication network of point-to-point links and routing switches is used tofacilitate communication between subsystems. The routing switch proposed in this paper consists of fourcomponents, namely the input ports, output ports, switching fabric, and scheduler. The scheduler design isdescribed in this paper. The function of the scheduler is to arbitrate between requests by data packets foruse of the switching fabric. The scheduler uses an improved round robin based arbitration algorithm. Dueto the symmetric structure of the scheduler, an area-efficient design is proposed by folding the scheduleronto itself, thereby reducing its area roughly by 50%.

  6. Pacific Canada's Rockfish Conservation Areas: using Ostrom's design principles to assess management effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darienne Lancaster

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available International declines in marine biodiversity have lead to the creation of marine protected areas and fishery reserve systems. In Canada, 164 Rockfish Conservation Areas (RCAs were implemented between 2003 and 2007 and now cover 4847.2 km² of ocean. These reserves were created in response to widespread concern from fishers and nongovernmental organizations about inshore rockfish (genus Sebastes population declines. We used the design principles for effective common-pool resource management systems, originally developed by Elinor Ostrom, to assess the social and ecological effectiveness of these conservation areas more than 10 years after their initial implementation. We assessed the relative presence or absence of each design principle within current RCA management. We found that 2 of the 11 design principles were moderately present in the recreational fishery. All other design principles were lacking for the recreational sector. We found that 2 design principles were fully present and 5 were moderately present in the commercial sector. Four design principles were lacking in the commercial sector. Based on this analysis, we highlight 4 main areas for management improvement: (1 create an education and outreach campaign to explain RCA rules, regulations, boundaries, and the need for marine conservation; (2 increase monitoring of users and resources to discourage noncompliance and gather the necessary data to create social buy-in for marine conservation; (3 encourage informal nested governance through stakeholder organizations for education and self-regulation (e.g. fisher to fisher; and (4 most importantly, create a formal, decadal RCA review process to gather stakeholder input and make amendments to regulations and RCA boundaries. This information can be used to inform spatial management systems both in Canada and internationally. This analysis also contributes to a growing literature on effectively scaling up small-scale management techniques

  7. AIM cryocooler developments for HOT detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühlich, I.; Mai, M.; Withopf, A.; Rosenhagen, C.

    2014-06-01

    Significantly increased FPA temperatures for both Mid Wave and Long Wave IR detectors, i.e. HOT detectors, which have been developed in recent years are now leaving the development phase and are entering real application. HOT detectors allowing to push size weight and power (SWaP) of Integrated Detectors Cooler Assemblies (IDCA's) to a new level. Key component mainly driving achievable weight, volume and power consumption is the cryocooler. AIM cryocooler developments are focused on compact, lightweight linear cryocoolers driven by compact and high efficient digital cooler drive electronics (DCE) to also achieve highest MTTF targets. This technology is using moving magnet driving mechanisms and dual or single piston compressors. Whereas SX030 which was presented at SPIE in 2012 consuming less 3 WDC to operate a typical IDCA at 140K, next smaller cooler SX020 is designed to provide sufficient cooling power at detector temperature above 160K. The cooler weight of less than 200g and a total compressor length of 60mm makes it an ideal solution for all applications with limited weight and power budget, like in handheld applications. For operating a typical 640x512, 15μm MW IR detector the power consumption will be less than 1.5WDC. MTTF for the cooler will be in excess of 30,000h and thus achieving low maintenance cost also in 24/7 applications. The SX020 compressor is based on a single piston design with integrated passive balancer in a new design achieves very low exported vibration in the order of 100mN in the compressor axis. AIM is using a modular approach, allowing the chose between 5 different compressor types for one common Stirling expander. The 6mm expander with a total length of 74mm is now available in a new design that fits into standard dewar bores originally designed for rotary coolers. Also available is a 9mm coldfinger in both versions. In development is an ultra-short expander with around 35mm total length to achieve highest compactness. Technical

  8. Study on the Outdoor Wind Environment Simulation and Design Strategies of Rural Settlements in Cold Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Li; Hong Jin; Xin-Yu Zhang

    2014-01-01

    To improve the outdoor environment of rural settlement and reduce the energy consumption of rural houses in winterin cold areas,the seriously bad wind environment should been controlled and considered. This paper applies the method of numerical simulation to simulate the wind environment of some typical arrangement of building and courtyard in winter, and concludes the optimal building and courtyard arrangement types and strategies. It aims to provide some technical supports for improving the wind environment of rural settlements in cold regions.

  9. 78 FR 22501 - Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; State of Nevada; Total Suspended Particulate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; State of Nevada; Total... proposing to delete certain area designations for total suspended particulate within the State of Nevada... unclassifiable areas for total suspended particulate in Clark County as well as the following nonattainment...

  10. The main goal of engineering geology for designing and construction complex structures in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Ocepek

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Work for designing complex structures in urban areas consists of geological-geotechnical investigations and analysis of the quality of rocks, soft rocks and hard soils in the construction area. Urban areas limited the space for designing cutting slopes in stable inclination without reinforcement. In this paper will be presented designing and excavation works with different reinforcement of two different areas in Slovenia built of heterogeneous mixed hard to soft rock masses (Triassic dolomite, limestone and Eocene flysch sediments.Before the start of excavations work and after establishing the retaining measures, the analysis results are checked by monitoring. This monitoring will continue in the phase of exploitation of the objects. Since the cost of these additional investigations and precise analysis with monitoring (SIST - EN 7 - 2004 and measurements is negligible – in comparison with the costs of the permanent reinforcement – if variable conditions are not to intensive, we were able to reduce effectively the investment value of the object.

  11. Plasma health care - Aims, constraints and progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Health Care covers three areas of interest for cold atmospheric pressure plasmas: Cosmetics, Hygiene and Medicine. These areas can be subdivided into personal and professional care. In this review will concentrate on Hygiene and Medicine. In professional hygiene the most important plasma contribution is sterilization, decontamination and disinfection. The main aim is the prevention of diseases or their containment. Progress in the development of efficient bactericidal plasma sources has been rapid, so that it appears realistic to use plasmas to combat nosocomial infections as well as community associated infections in the not too distant future. The advantages of plasma devices – they use air and electricity only, there are no waste products, they are inexpensive to manufacture and operate, easy to transport and install, and bactericidal effects are fast (seconds). Plasmas can efficiently kill resistant bacteria (e.g. MRSA) and tests have shown no resistance build-up so far. With an estimated 2 Million hospital induced infections each year in the US alone, and about 100.000 resulting deaths, very efficient, safe and fast hospital plasma hygiene devices would appear to be a very important weapon to help contain the spread of infectious diseases. In Medicine there are a number of ambitious ideas and aims. Plasmas can be “designed” to some extent. They can include different active species that can have an effect at the cellular level. There are ionic atoms and molecules, whose medical use need to be evaluated – the vision is that a new area of “plasma pharmacy” could develop. First steps are currently being taken in biological studies. Also the excited atoms in cold atmospheric plasmas may make cell walls more permeable for such species. (author)

  12. Design and implementation of a fiber optic link for a token ring local area network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Thomas J.

    1992-09-01

    This thesis describes the design and implementation of a fiber optic link for a token ring local area network (LAN). It features the use of fiber optic channels as the transmission medium between a computer system and a wiring concentrator to convert a physical ring design into a starwired configuration. The LAN was controlled by the TMS380 LAN Adapter chipset, which provided all diagnostic and network management features to include the 4 Mb/s electrical signal for operation. Since this adapter was developed for systems using twisted wire pair adapter cables, design modifications required that the fiber link be able to simulate impedance and current characteristics of copper wire link. This allows the use of adapter diagnostic checks for ring continuity and proper ring operation. Design evaluations using test signals and adapter signals from within the computer-concentrator link showed mixed results. All transmission objectives were met but the circuit loaded down the LAN adapter causing hardware error messages.

  13. Design of Secure ECG-Based Biometric Authentication in Body Area Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Peter

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Body area sensor networks (BANs utilize wireless communicating sensor nodes attached to a human body for convenience, safety, and health applications. Physiological characteristics of the body, such as the heart rate or Electrocardiogram (ECG signals, are promising means to simplify the setup process and to improve security of BANs. This paper describes the design and implementation steps required to realize an ECG-based authentication protocol to identify sensor nodes attached to the same human body. Therefore, the first part of the paper addresses the design of a body-area sensor system, including the hardware setup, analogue and digital signal processing, and required ECG feature detection techniques. A model-based design flow is applied, and strengths and limitations of each design step are discussed. Real-world measured data originating from the implemented sensor system are then used to set up and parametrize a novel physiological authentication protocol for BANs. The authentication protocol utilizes statistical properties of expected and detected deviations to limit the number of false positive and false negative authentication attempts. The result of the described holistic design effort is the first practical implementation of biometric authentication in BANs that reflects timing and data uncertainties in the physical and cyber parts of the system.

  14. Design of Secure ECG-Based Biometric Authentication in Body Area Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Steffen; Pratap Reddy, Bhanu; Momtaz, Farshad; Givargis, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Body area sensor networks (BANs) utilize wireless communicating sensor nodes attached to a human body for convenience, safety, and health applications. Physiological characteristics of the body, such as the heart rate or Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, are promising means to simplify the setup process and to improve security of BANs. This paper describes the design and implementation steps required to realize an ECG-based authentication protocol to identify sensor nodes attached to the same human body. Therefore, the first part of the paper addresses the design of a body-area sensor system, including the hardware setup, analogue and digital signal processing, and required ECG feature detection techniques. A model-based design flow is applied, and strengths and limitations of each design step are discussed. Real-world measured data originating from the implemented sensor system are then used to set up and parametrize a novel physiological authentication protocol for BANs. The authentication protocol utilizes statistical properties of expected and detected deviations to limit the number of false positive and false negative authentication attempts. The result of the described holistic design effort is the first practical implementation of biometric authentication in BANs that reflects timing and data uncertainties in the physical and cyber parts of the system. PMID:27110785

  15. Design of Secure ECG-Based Biometric Authentication in Body Area Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Steffen; Reddy, Bhanu Pratap; Momtaz, Farshad; Givargis, Tony

    2016-04-22

    Body area sensor networks (BANs) utilize wireless communicating sensor nodes attached to a human body for convenience, safety, and health applications. Physiological characteristics of the body, such as the heart rate or Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, are promising means to simplify the setup process and to improve security of BANs. This paper describes the design and implementation steps required to realize an ECG-based authentication protocol to identify sensor nodes attached to the same human body. Therefore, the first part of the paper addresses the design of a body-area sensor system, including the hardware setup, analogue and digital signal processing, and required ECG feature detection techniques. A model-based design flow is applied, and strengths and limitations of each design step are discussed. Real-world measured data originating from the implemented sensor system are then used to set up and parametrize a novel physiological authentication protocol for BANs. The authentication protocol utilizes statistical properties of expected and detected deviations to limit the number of false positive and false negative authentication attempts. The result of the described holistic design effort is the first practical implementation of biometric authentication in BANs that reflects timing and data uncertainties in the physical and cyber parts of the system.

  16. Design of Secure ECG-Based Biometric Authentication in Body Area Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Steffen; Reddy, Bhanu Pratap; Momtaz, Farshad; Givargis, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Body area sensor networks (BANs) utilize wireless communicating sensor nodes attached to a human body for convenience, safety, and health applications. Physiological characteristics of the body, such as the heart rate or Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, are promising means to simplify the setup process and to improve security of BANs. This paper describes the design and implementation steps required to realize an ECG-based authentication protocol to identify sensor nodes attached to the same human body. Therefore, the first part of the paper addresses the design of a body-area sensor system, including the hardware setup, analogue and digital signal processing, and required ECG feature detection techniques. A model-based design flow is applied, and strengths and limitations of each design step are discussed. Real-world measured data originating from the implemented sensor system are then used to set up and parametrize a novel physiological authentication protocol for BANs. The authentication protocol utilizes statistical properties of expected and detected deviations to limit the number of false positive and false negative authentication attempts. The result of the described holistic design effort is the first practical implementation of biometric authentication in BANs that reflects timing and data uncertainties in the physical and cyber parts of the system. PMID:27110785

  17. National Ignition Facility subsystem design requirements target area auxiliary subsystem SSDR 1.8.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Subsystem Design Requirement (SSDR) establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Target Area Auxiliary Subsystems (WBS 1.8.6), which is part of the NIF Target Experimental System (WBS 1.8). This document responds directly to the requirements detailed in NIF Target Experimental System SDR 003 document. Key elements of the Target Area Auxiliary Subsystems include: WBS 1.8.6.1 Local Utility Services; WBS 1.8.6.2 Cable Trays; WBS 1.8.6.3 Personnel, Safety, and Occupational Access; WBS 1.8.6.4 Assembly, Installation, and Maintenance Equipment; WBS 1.8.6.4.1 Target Chamber Service System; WBS 1.8.6.4.2 Target Bay Service Systems

  18. Design Considerations for Area-Constrained In-Pixel Photon Counting in Medipix3

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, W; Campbell, M; Heijne, E H M; Llopart, X; Tlustos, L

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors process impinging photons using front-end electronics electrically connected to a segmented sensor via solder bumps. This allows for complex in-pixel processing while maintaining 100% fill factor. Medipix3 is a single photon processing chip whose 55 μm x 55 μm pixels contain analog charge-processing circuits, inter-pixel routing, and digital blocks. While a standard digital design flow would use logic gates from a standard cell library, the integration of multiple functions and configurations within the compact area of the Medipix3 pixel requires a full-custom manual layout. This work describes the various area-saving design strategies which were employed to optimize the use of available space in the digital section of the Medipix3 pixel.

  19. 3D city models for CAAD-supported analysis and design of urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinning-Meister, M.; Gruen, A.; Dan, H.

    A joint research project was conducted at ETH Zurich to develop a user-friendly software environment for the representation, visual manipulation, analysis and design of urban areas. Three groups were involved in the project: (1) the 'Architecture and Planning' group defined the requirements and expectations for the system; (2) the 'Photogrammetry' group acquired and processed raster and 3D vector data to form a 3D model of the urban area; and (3) the 'CAAD' (Computer Aided Architectural Design) group embedded the data into AutoCAD and implemented database functionality. Results of the photogrammetry group are presented, including the implementation of a 'topology builder' which automatically fits roof planes to manually or semi-automatically measured roof points in order to create AutoCAD-compatible 3D building models. Digital orthoimages and derived products such as perspective views, and the geometric correction of house roofs in digital orthoimages also were generated for test sites in Switzerland.

  20. Design of Rectangular Stepped DRA for Wireless Local Area Network (Wlan Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinmaya Sahoo, P. K. Sahu, S. K. Behera

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a dielectric resonator antenna (DRAis presented for wireless local area network (WLANapplications. Here three rectangular dielectricresonators are used as stepped manner. The DRA isexcited by microstrip line which is an effective feedmechanism to obtain better radiation.In this design,rectangular shape was used as the dielectricresonator as it offers more option to control theresonant frequency.Simulated results show thatDRA array has a better resonant frequency for DRheight, hr = 1mm each and micro strip line fed byat-5.5 mm . Theretune loss is 15.0dBi,directivityachieves 6.2 dBi and the gainof6.48dBi at 5.5Ghzfrequency. The proposed design is suitableforWireless Local Area Network (WLAN IEEE802.11standardapplications&HIPERLAN (high-performance radio LAN applications which operateat 5.15 GHz to 5.50 GHz.

  1. Teaching Health Center Graduate Medical Education Locations Predominantly Located in Federally Designated Underserved Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclift, Songhai C; Brown, Elizabeth J; Finnegan, Sean C; Cohen, Elena R; Klink, Kathleen

    2016-05-01

    Background The Teaching Health Center Graduate Medical Education (THCGME) program is an Affordable Care Act funding initiative designed to expand primary care residency training in community-based ambulatory settings. Statute suggests, but does not require, training in underserved settings. Residents who train in underserved settings are more likely to go on to practice in similar settings, and graduates more often than not practice near where they have trained. Objective The objective of this study was to describe and quantify federally designated clinical continuity training sites of the THCGME program. Methods Geographic locations of the training sites were collected and characterized as Health Professional Shortage Area, Medically Underserved Area, Population, or rural areas, and were compared with the distribution of Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)-funded training positions. Results More than half of the teaching health centers (57%) are located in states that are in the 4 quintiles with the lowest CMS-funded resident-to-population ratio. Of the 109 training sites identified, more than 70% are located in federally designated high-need areas. Conclusions The THCGME program is a model that funds residency training in community-based ambulatory settings. Statute suggests, but does not explicitly require, that training take place in underserved settings. Because the majority of the 109 clinical training sites of the 60 funded programs in 2014-2015 are located in federally designated underserved locations, the THCGME program deserves further study as a model to improve primary care distribution into high-need communities. PMID:27168895

  2. Design of Secure ECG-Based Biometric Authentication in Body Area Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen Peter; Bhanu Pratap Reddy; Farshad Momtaz; Tony Givargis

    2016-01-01

    Body area sensor networks (BANs) utilize wireless communicating sensor nodes attached to a human body for convenience, safety, and health applications. Physiological characteristics of the body, such as the heart rate or Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, are promising means to simplify the setup process and to improve security of BANs. This paper describes the design and implementation steps required to realize an ECG-based authentication protocol to identify sensor nodes attached to the same ...

  3. The Impact of Sampling Designs on Small Area Estimates for Business Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgard Jan Pablo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Evidence-based policy making and economic decision making rely on accurate business information on a national level and increasingly also on smaller regions and business classes. In general, traditional design-based methods suffer from low accuracy in the case of very small sample sizes in certain subgroups, whereas model-based methods, such as small area techniques, heavily rely on strong statistical models.

  4. 75 FR 52780 - Designation of Nine Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ...The Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy designated nine additional counties as High Drug Trafficking Areas pursuant to 21 U.S.C. 1706. The new counties are (1) Shelby County in Tennessee as part of the Gulf Coast HIDTA, (2) Navajo County in Arizona as part of the Southwest Border HIDTA--Arizona Region, (3) Jefferson County in New York as part of the New York/New Jersey......

  5. 76 FR 44613 - Designation of Eight Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ...The Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy has designated eight additional counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas pursuant to 21 U.S.C. 1706. The new counties are (1) Orange County in New York as part of the New York/New Jersey HIDTA; (2) Medocino County in California as part of the Northern California HIDTA; (3) Porter County in Indiana as part of the Lake County......

  6. GUIDELINES FOR DESIGN OF CONTRACT OF WORK FOR COMPANIES OPERATING IN FISCAL RESERVE AREAS OF BOLIVIA

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Jenkins

    1980-01-01

    The provisions for obtaining a mining concession in the fiscal reserve areas in Bolivia are set out in the Supreme Decree #11000 of 1972. The same provisions apply to both domestic and foreign companies and are very general in nature. As stated in the decree they are only designed to lay down minimum conditions for any subsequent contract to be signed between the government and a mining company.

  7. ATLAS: A Traffic Load Aware Sensor MAC Design for Collaborative Body Area Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Young-Cheol Bang; Md. Obaidur Rahman; Sungwon Lee; Choong Seon Hong

    2011-01-01

    In collaborative body sensor networks, namely wireless body area networks (WBANs), each of the physical sensor applications is used to collaboratively monitor the health status of the human body. The applications of WBANs comprise diverse and dynamic traffic loads such as very low-rate periodic monitoring (i.e., observation) data and high-rate traffic including event-triggered bursts. Therefore, in designing a medium access control (MAC) protocol for WBANs, energy conservation should be the p...

  8. Relationship of engineering geology to conceptual repository design in the Gibson Dome area, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Paradox Basin in Southeastern Utah is being investigated as a potential site for development of a high-level nuclear waste repository. Geologic considerations are key areas of concern and influence repository design from a number of aspects: depth to the host rock, thickness of the host rock, and hydrologic conditions surrounding the proposed repository are of primary concern. Surface and subsurface investigations have provided data on these key geologic factors for input to the repository design. A repository design concept, based on the surface and subsurface geologic investigations conducted at Gibson Dome, was synthesized to provide needed information on technical feasibility and cost for repository siting decision purposes. Significant features of the surface and subsurface repository facilities are presented. 5 references, 4 figures

  9. A novel method of evaluating large mode area fiber design by brightness factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海涛; 陈丹; 任海翠; 闫平; 巩马理

    2015-01-01

    A novel evaluation term and a more reasonable criterion which is described by a new parameter of brightness factor for active large mode area fiber design are presented. The brightness factor evaluation method is based on the transverse mode competition mechanism in fiber lasers and amplifiers. Brightness factor can be seen as a description of fiber general property since it can represent the output laser brightness of the fiber laser system and its ability to resist nonlinear effect. A core-doped active large pitch fiber with a core diameter of 190 µm and a mode-field diameter of 180 µm is designed by this method, and the designed fiber allows the effective single-mode operation.

  10. The Road Condition Map Color Design aiming at Red and Green Color Vision Impaired People%基于红绿色觉异常人群的路况地图色彩设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海红; 夏梦

    2015-01-01

    红绿色觉异常人群对于明度变化的感受比正常视觉者更加敏感,可以弥补色相辨别的缺陷。通过针对黄色明度对比实验得出红绿色觉异常人群对明度对比各等级的视觉感受,找出对红绿色觉异常人群既可以容易识别又不会觉得刺眼的明度对比范围。实验结果引入地图设色,结合色彩象征意义,做出红绿色觉异常人群和正常人群通用的路况地图。在路况信息清晰表达前提下,尽可能保留色彩象征意义,并保证地图的观赏性。通过路况地图色彩明度对比实验制作出红绿色觉异常人群既能无障碍识别又带有警示象征意义的路况地图。%Compared with the normal vision people ,the red and green color vision impaired people are more sensitive to brightness contrast ,which can remedy the defect of hue distinguish .Through the yellow brightness contrast experiment ,this paper conclude the visual perception of each scale brightness contrast for those people . The brightness contrast range that those people can easily identify and do not feel dazzlingly bright .The experimental results are provided with the color design of map ,combined with color symbolism ,and the universal road condition map is designed for red and green color vision impaired people and normal vision people .On the premise of traffic information being expressed clearly ,the color symbol is kept ,through brightness contrast experiment a universal road conditions map is proposed .

  11. 针对悬架运动特性的汽车前悬架优化设计%The Optimal Design of Automobile Front Suspension Aimed at Suspension Movement Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇星; 涂俊波; 徐光忠; 于海东; 曹从杰; 李昊轩

    2016-01-01

    以某汽车麦弗逊式前悬架作为优化对象,针对悬架运动特性主要需要考虑的车轮定位参数变化情况,运用多体动力学软件ADAMS的多个模块对其进行了分析以及优化处理.对比优化前后曲线能发现,各个车轮定位参数已满足设计要求,使其运动特性得到一定程度改善.该优化方法对同类型悬架有着一定借鉴价值.%By taking a McPherson suspension as optimization object,in view of the changes of wheel alignment parameters that suspension movement characteristics mainly need to consider,using several modules of multibody dynamics software ADAMS on the analysis and optimization.Compared curves before and after optimization,it can be found that each wheel alignment param-eters meet the design requirements,its movement characteristics have been improved to a certain extent,the optimization method also has certain reference value for the same type suspension.

  12. Primary prevention of diabetes mellitus type 2 and cardiovascular diseases using a cognitive behavior program aimed at lifestyle changes in people at risk: Design of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinapaw Marijke J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of people with cardiovascular disease (CVD and diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM is growing rapidly. To a large extend, this increase is due to lifestyle-dependent risk factors, such as overweight, reduced physical activity, and an unhealthy diet. Changing these risk factors has the potential to postpone or prevent the development of T2DM and CVD. It is hypothesized that a cognitive behavioral program (CBP, focused in particular on motivation and self-management in persons who are at high risk for CVD and/or T2DM, will improve their lifestyle behavior and, as a result, will reduce their risk of developing T2DM and CVD. Methods 12,000 inhabitants, 30-50 years of age living in several municipalities in the semi-rural region of West-Friesland will receive an invitation from their general practitioner (n = 13 to measure their own waist circumference with a tape measure. People with abdominal obesity (male waist ≥ 102 cm, female waist ≥ 88 cm will be invited to participate in the second step of the screening which includes blood pressure, a blood sample and anthropometric measurements. T2DM and CVD risk scores will then be calculated according to the ARIC and the SCORE formulae, respectively. People with a score that indicates a high risk of developing T2DM and/or CVD will then be randomly assigned to the intervention group (n = 300 or the control group (n = 300. Participants in the intervention group will follow a CBP aimed at modifying their dietary behavior, physical activity, and smoking behavior. The counseling methods that will be used are motivational interviewing (MI and problem solving treatment (PST, which focus in particular on intrinsic motivation for change and self-management of problems of the participants. The CBP will be provided by trained nurse practitioners in the participant's general practice, and will consists of a maximum of six individual sessions of 30 minutes, followed by 3-monthly booster

  13. 改进的面向麻花钻刃形节能优化 Dijkstra 算法%Improvement of Dijkstra algorithm aiming at energy conservation optimization design of geometrical shape of twist drills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊良山

    2015-01-01

    Dijkstra algorithm was introduced to the energy conservation optimization design of the structure of complicated cutting tools. The designing procedure of the geometrical shape and dimen‐sions of the cutting edge of twist drills based on Dijkstra algorithm was proposed. The problems taken into consideration that the calculation efficiency is low, the calculated results are not sufficiently pre‐cise, and the smoothness and the machinability of the cutting edge curve cannot be guaranteed when the Dijkstra algorithm is used to determine the main cutting edge curve with minimal drilling power, a combination of two methods, dividing the discretized grids on the rake face into several parts along the radius direction, and gradually decreasing the searching scope to refine mesh along the circumference, was proposed to improve Dijkstra algorithm to reduce its time complexity and improve its calculation efficiency, since the main cutting edge is a curve with no inflexion along the radius direction. Calcula‐tion shows that the improved Dijkstra algorithm leads to an increase of calculation efficiency by over 1000 times, and it successfully results in smoothness of both the cutting edge curve and the distribu‐tion curves of cutting angles so that the machinability of the main cutting edge curve is guaranteed.%将Dijkstra算法引入复杂刀具结构节能优化设计,提出了基于Dijkstra算法的麻花钻主刃曲线节能优化设计的方法。针对应用Dijkstra算法求解麻花钻最小钻削功率主刃曲线时存在计算精度不高、效率低、难以保证刃形曲线的光滑性和可刃磨性等问题,利用主刃曲线在半径方向不会发生回头式弯折的特点,提出将前刀面螺旋面离散网络进行径向分段与逐步缩小周向搜索范围来加密网格相结合的方式改进Dijkstra算法的求解过程,以降低其时间复杂度、提高计算效率和计算精度。计算结果表明:改进后的Dijkstra算法既

  14. Integrated assessment of biodiesel policies aimed at family farms in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belo Leite, Dal J.G.; Nunes Vieira da Silva, J.V.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2014-01-01

    With many of the poor people in Brazil living in rural areas, local governments have intensified their efforts to design and implement effective policies that boost rural development. In 2004, a national program for production and use of biodiesel was launched aiming at increasing income among less

  15. Design of the intake and outlet areas of turbines; Gestaltung der Zu- und Abstroemung von Turbinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruprecht, A. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Abt. Numerische Stroemungsmechanik

    1997-12-31

    Especially in the case of plants with a small height of drop, efficiency can be substantially impaired. Moreover, an unfavourable design of the inlet area can result in operating problems because of instationary flow phenomena. Similar considerations apply to the draft tube and outflow area. Selected examples are chosen to demonstrate problems and propose improvements. As modelling demands too much effort in the case of small plants, the investigations are carried out using modern numerical flow calculation methods. As demonstrated, inlet and outflow areas can be economically designed using these methods even in the case of small hydro power stations so as to present favourable flow parameters. [Deutsch] Vor allem bei Anlagen mit kleiner Fallhoehe kann der Verlust betraechtlich sein. Darueber hinaus kann eine unguenstige Gestaltung des Einlaufbereichs durch instationaere Stroemungsphaenomene auch zu Problemen beim Betrieb der Anlage fuehren. Aehnliches gilt bei der Gestaltung des Saugrohrs und der Abstroemung. An ausgewaehlten Beispielen werden Probleme dargestellt und Verbesserungsvorschlaege aufgezeigt. Da bei kleinen Anlagen Modellversuche zu aufwendig sind, erfolgen die Untersuchungen mit modernen Methoden der numerischen Stroemungsrechnung. Es wird gezeigt, dass man mit diesen Methoden in der Lage ist, auch bei Kleinwasserkraftanlagen wirtschaftlich eine stroemungsguenstige Gestaltung von Zu- und Abstroemung zu erreichen. (orig.)

  16. Distributed Storage Cluster Design for Remote Mirroring Based on Storage Area Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Yao; Ji-Wu Shu; Wei-Min Zheng

    2007-01-01

    With the explosion of information nowadays, applying data storage safety requirements has become a new challenge, especially in high data available cluster environments. With the emergence of Storage Area Networks (SANs), storage can be network-based and consolidated, and mass data movements via Fiber Channels (FCs) can be of very high speed. Based on these features, this paper introduces a dual-node storage cluster designed for remote mirroring as a concurrent data replication method to protect data during system failures. This design takes full advantage of a SAN system's benefits, and it adopts a synchronous protocol to guarantee a fully up-to-date data copy on the remote site. By developing a Linux kernel module to control the I/O flow and by using the technologies of software Logic Unit Number (LUN) masking, background online resynchronization and a self-management daemon, we have achieved a reliable mirroring system with the characteristics of server-free data replication, fault tolerance, online disaster recovery and high performance. In this study, we implemented the design in a remote mirror subsystem built on a software Fiber Channel Storage Area Network (FC-SAN) system.

  17. AREA-EFFICIENT DESIGN OF SCHEDULER FOR ROUTING NODE OF NETWORK-ON-CHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehan Maroof

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditional System-on-Chip (SoC design employed shared buses for data transfer among various subsystems. As So Cs become more complex involving a larger number of subsystems, traditional bus based architecture is giving way to a new paradigm for on-chip communication. This paradigm is called Network-on-Chip (NoC. A communication network of point-to-point links and routing switches is used to facilitate communication between subsystems. The routing switch proposed in this paper consists of four components, namely the input ports, output ports, switching fabric, and scheduler. The scheduler design is described in this paper. The function of the scheduler is to arbitrate between requests by data packets for use of the switching fabric. The scheduler uses an improved round robin based arbitration algorithm. Due to the symmetric structure of the scheduler, an area-efficient design is proposed by folding the scheduler onto itself, thereby reducing its area roughly by 50%.

  18. Preliminary Design of the HiLumi-LHC Triplet Area Beam Screen

    CERN Document Server

    Kersevan, R; Kos, N

    2014-01-01

    The so-called beam screen (BS) is a proven solution for intercepting the thermal loads caused by the circulating beams in the cryogenically-cooled sections of the LHC and minimizing dynamic vacuum effects [1]. The new triplet area foreseen for the HiLumi-LHC (HL-LHC) machine upgrade [2] has the additional feature of needing internal tungsten shields to reduce the amount of collision debris which is deflected by the high-gradient triplet magnets towards the superconducting magnets' cold masses and coils. The very aggressive optics design, based on large beam separations, calls for a maximum of physical space to remain available to the counter rotating beams in the common BS. This places severe constraints to the fabrication and installation tolerances of the BS itself, in addition to affecting the design and routing of the cryogenic lines in the area. The latest version of the BS design will be shown and discussed, together with future plans for testing materials, fabrication procedures, and installation.

  19. Correlation of pontic design and partial edentulous areas: A one year cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikzad S.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: By definition, pontic is an artificial replacement of missing tooth (teeth which is essentially used to establish function and esthetics. In order to this fact that, pontic(s is not completely the same as tooth (teeth to be replaced, it may not be concern as a simple type of restoration to achieve the best result, it must be design from the esthetically and hygienically point of view as well as comfort, demand and tissue health of patient. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the pontic designs and their relationship to edentulous partial aras. "nMaterials and Methods: 73 pontics in 57 patients have been included in this cross-sectional study. These patients were under treatment in the department of prosthodontics. A primary cast was achieved from each patient and then the cross-sectional contour of edentulous ridge was depicted. For each patient the type of pontic design was derived from textbook standards and then compared with the design of actual verified Prosthesis at delivery. The shape of tissue surface of each denture was determined by a low viscous impression material. The result of each comparison was recorded in a chart data set. "nResults: The most common pontic design was Modified ridge lap with frequency of 93.2%. The type of ridge was %45.2 normal, %19.2 class I, %8.2 class II and %27.4 class III, respectively. %72.6 of pontics tested have inappropriate design in tissue surface. "nConclusion: It seems that in a high percentage of cases the tissue surface contour of prescribed pontics in department of prosthodontics was incorrect and more attention must be paid to the education of students and technicians.

  20. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Veterinary Professional(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Veterinary Professional(s) G Appendix G to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Pt. 5, App. G Appendix G to Part 5—Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of...

  1. Design A Prototype of Temperature Logging Tools for Geothermal Prospecting Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyanto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The costs of geothermal exploration are very high because technology is still imported from other countries. The local business players in the geothermal sector do not have the ability to compete with global companies. To reduce costs, we need to develop our own equipment with competitive prices. Here in Indonesia, we have started to design a prototype of temperature logging tools for geothermal prospecting areas. This equipment can be used to detect temperature versus depth variations. To measure the thermal gradient, the platinum resistor temperature sensor is moved slowly down along the borehole. The displacement along the borehole is measured by a rotary encoder. This system is controlled by a 16-bit H8/3069F microcontroller. The acquired temperature data is displayed on a PC monitor using a Python Graphical User Interface. The system has been already tested in the Gunung Pancar geothermal prospect area in Bogor.

  2. Design and Implementation of a Wearable Body Area Sensor Network for Distributed FES System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Yong-ji; LIU Xiao-xuan; QU Hong-en; LAN Ning

    2014-01-01

    A wearable body area sensor network (WBASN) was designed and implemented to monitor movement information of stroke patients in real time. The sensor system was combined with a previously developed distributed functional electrical stimulation (dFES) system, which is a promising technology for motor rehabilitation of stroke patients. Movement information could be useful in outcome assessment of rehabilitation, or for closed-loop adaptive stimulation during rehabilitation. In addition, a short-latency, low-power communication protocol was developed to meet the clinical requirements of energy efficiency and high rate of data feed-through. The prototype of the WBASN was tested in preliminary human experiments. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed wearable body area sensor network in monitoring arm movements on healthy subjects.

  3. Motivation, procedures and aims of reacting plasma experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A project of reacting plasma experiment (R-project) was proposed at the Institute of Plasma Physics (IPP), Nagoya University. It is necessary to bridge plasma physics and fusion engineering by means of a messenger wire like burning plasma experiment. This is a motivation of the R-project. The university linkage organization of Japan for fusion engineering category carried out a lot of contribution to R-tokamak design. The project consists of four items, namely, R-tokamak design, research and development (R and D), site and facilities, and international collaboration. The phase 1 experiment (R1 - phase) corresponds to burning plasma experiment without D + T fuel, while the phase-2 experiment (R2-phase) with D + T fuel. One reference design was finished. Intensive efforts have been carried out by the R and D team on the following items, wall material, vacuum system, tritium system, neutronics, remote control system, pulsed superconducting magnet development, negative ion source, and alpha-particle diagnostics. The problems concerning site and major facilities are also important, because tritium handling, neutron and gamma-ray sky shines and the activation of devices cause impact to surrounding area. The aims of burning plasma experiment are to enter tritium into the fusion device, and to study burning plasma physics. (Kato, T.)

  4. Strategy paper. Remedial design/remedial action 100 Area. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This strategy paper identifies and defines the approach for remedial design and remedial action (RD/RA) for source waste sites in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State. This paper provides the basis for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to assess and approve the Environmental Restoration Contractor's (ERC) approach to RD/RA. Additionally, DOE is requesting review/agreement from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) on the strategy presented in this document in order to expedite remedial activities

  5. ATLAS: A Traffic Load Aware Sensor MAC Design for Collaborative Body Area Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Cheol Bang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In collaborative body sensor networks, namely wireless body area networks(WBANs, each of the physical sensor applications is used to collaboratively monitor thehealth status of the human body. The applications of WBANs comprise diverse and dynamictraffic loads such as very low-rate periodic monitoring (i.e., observation data and high-ratetraffic including event-triggered bursts. Therefore, in designing a medium access control(MAC protocol for WBANs, energy conservation should be the primary concern duringlow-traffic periods, whereas a balance between satisfying high-throughput demand andefficient energy usage is necessary during high-traffic times. In this paper, we design atraffic load-aware innovative MAC solution for WBANs, called ATLAS. The design exploitsthe superframe structure of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, and it adaptively uses the contentionaccess period (CAP, contention free period (CFP and inactive period (IP of the superframebased on estimated traffic load, by applying a dynamic “wh” (whenever which is requiredapproach. Unlike earlier work, the proposed MAC design includes load estimation fornetwork load-status awareness and a multi-hop communication pattern in order to preventenergy loss associated with long range transmission. Finally, ATLAS is evaluated throughextensive simulations in ns-2 and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the protocol.

  6. LOW POWER-AREA DESIGN OF FULL ADDER USING SELF RESETTING LOGIC WITH GDI TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simran Khokha1

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Various electronic devices such as mobile phones, DSPs,ALU etc., are designed by using VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration technology. In VLSI dynamic CMOS logic circuits are concentrating on the Area ,reducing the power consumption and increasing the Speed by reducing the delay. ALU (Arithmetic Logic Circuits are designed by using adder, subtractors, multiplier, divider, etc.Various adder circuits designs have been proposed over last few years with different logic styles. To reduce the power consumption several parameters are to be taken into account, such as feedthrough, leakage power single-event upsets, charge sharing by parasitic components while connecting source and drain of CMOS transistors There are situations in a logic that permit the use of circuits that can automatically precharge themselves (i.e., reset themselves after some prescribed delays. These circuits are hence called postcharge or self-resetting logic which are widely used in dynamic logic circuits. Overall performance of various adder designs is evaluated by using Tanner tool . The earlier and the proposed SRLGDI primitives are simulated using Tanner EDA with BSIM 0.250 lm technology with supply voltage ranging from 0 V to 5 V in steps of 0.2 V. On comparing the various SRLGDI logic adders, the proposed adder shows low power, delay and low PDP among its counterparts.

  7. Discrimination and the aim of proportional representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    Many organizations, companies, and so on are committed to certain representational aims as regards the composition of their workforce. One motivation for such aims is the assumption that numerical underrepresentation of groups manifests discrimination against them. In this article, I articulate...... representational aims in a way that best captures this rationale. My main claim is that the achievement of such representational aims is reducible to the elimination of the effects of wrongful discrimination on individuals and that this very important concern is, in principle, compatible with the representation......, the time-relative account of representational aims expounded shows that, and how, representational aims should accommodate the changing composition of populations over time....

  8. Designing a Virtual Manikin Animation Framework Aimed at Virtual Prototyping

    CERN Document Server

    Rennuit, Antoine; Andriot, Claude; Guillaume, François; Chevassus, Nicolas; Chablat, Damien; Chedmail, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    In the industry, numerous commercial packages provide tools to introduce, and analyse human behaviour in the product's environment (for maintenance, ergonomics...), thanks to Virtual Humans. We will focus on control. Thanks to algorithms newly introduced in recent research papers, we think we can provide an implementation, which even widens, and simplifies the animation capacities of virtual manikins. In order to do so, we are going to express the industrial expectations as for Virtual Humans, without considering feasibility (not to bias the issue). The second part will show that no commercial application provides the tools that perfectly meet the needs. Thus we propose a new animation framework that better answers the problem. Our contribution is the integration - driven by need ~ of available new scientific techniques to animate Virtual Humans, in a new control scheme that better answers industrial expectations.

  9. Parametric Design Strategy Aiming at Environmentally Sustainable Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Tine Ring; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann; Heiselberg, Per

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary conclusions from a PhD study about methodical approaches to environmentally sustainable architecture. The presented results are from a local sensitivity analysis focused on the energy consumption of a typical residential reference building, when it is subjected...

  10. RACOON: a multiuser QoS design for mobile wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shihheng; Huang, Chingyao; Tu, Chun Chen

    2011-10-01

    In this study, Random Contention-based Resource Allocation (RACOON) medium access control (MAC) protocol is proposed to support the quality of service (QoS) for multi-user mobile wireless body area networks (WBANs). Different from existing QoS designs that focus on a single WBAN, a multiuser WBAN QoS should further consider both inter-WBAN interference and inter-WBAN priorities. Similar problems have been studied in both overlapped wireless local area networks (WLANs) and Bluetooth piconets that need QoS supports. However, these solutions are designed for non-medical transmissions that do not consider any priority scheme for medical applications. Most importantly, these studies focus on only static or low mobility networks. Network mobility of WBANs will introduce unnecessary inter-network collisions and energy waste, which are not considered by these solutions. The proposed multiuser-QoS protocol, RACOON, simultaneously satisfies the inter WBAN QoS requirements and overcomes the performance degradation caused by WBAN mobility. Simulation results verify that RACOON provides better latency and energy control, as compared with WBAN QoS protocols without considering the inter-WBAN requirements. PMID:21465185

  11. DOMAIN-DRIVEN DESIGN APPLICATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR CLIENTS QUEUING SUBJECT AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Oleynik

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with domain-driven design applicability of information systems for client queuing subject areas. The following optimality criteria were put forward for the final implementation: the possibility of automation with a single system both for small institution and a whole network of institutions; advanced graphical interface with support for sensor screens; implementation of multi-users account of orders from clients; flexible application architecture with the ability of future enhancement; ability of integration with a variety of peripherals. The necessity of each criterion definition is shown. For implementability estimation, test information system was designed, automating the queuing system. Unified modeling language UML is used. Description of each class functionality is given and the association with other classes as well. Attention is paid to the design of tree (hierarchical structures and selection procedure of base classes based on the analysis of existing common attributes. For the system implementation, its own development environment SharpArchitect RAD Studio is used, offering MDA approach for implementation of systems based on standardized meta object system. A graphical view of order form developed prototype is presented, composition and structure are described, and notation developed by the author is given simplifying the prototyping process. Approaches to differentiation of access rights for different user roles are shown. Conformity of the received implementation to each selected optimality criterion is determined. Recommendations for further system development are given.

  12. Developing Novel Services for the Railway Station Area through Experience-Driven Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarno Ojala

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Supporting end-users’ practical and emotional needs is an important goal in the design of novel smart services. We present a design research study with the experience-driven design approach to create concept ideas for smart city services. We present current challenges in the context of use and results of a two-phased user study of traveler experiences in the railway station area of the city of Tampere. Results show how experience-driven approach utilizing playful experience (PLEX cards enables users to ideate experience-oriented concepts. As an outcome of the study, we describe one of the concepts selected for development, the smart community info wall concept. Our findings on the use of PLEX cards show that PLEX cards work with the amateur participants and support their idea generation. Furthermore, with the help of the PLEX cards, users were able to think on the subject more extensively and presented ideas on the experience-oriented categories.

  13. Design of no blind area perimeter intrusion recognition system based on fisheye lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jun-jian; Han, Wen-bo

    2013-08-01

    requirements of the number of processors. At the same time, the user also can directly set no blind area of monitoring perimeter and other parameters in the panoramic image, so it enhances the flexibility of user operation and simplifies the design of the system user application program greatly.

  14. Environmental tobacco smoke in designated smoking areas in the hospitality industry: exposure measurements, exposure modelling and policy assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabola, A; Eyre, G J; Gill, L W

    2012-09-01

    Tobacco control policy has been enacted in many jurisdictions worldwide banning smoking in the workplace. In the hospitality sector many businesses such as bars, hotels and restaurants have installed designated smoking areas on their premises and allowance for such smoking areas has been made in the tobacco control legislation of many countries. An investigation was carried out into the level of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) present in 8 pubs in Ireland which included designated smoking areas complying with two different definitions of a smoking area set out in Irish legislation. In addition, ETS exposure in a pub with a designated smoking area not in compliance with the legislation was also investigated. The results of this investigation showed that the two differing definitions of a smoking area present in pubs produced similar concentrations of benzene within smoking areas (5.1-5.4 μg/m(3)) but differing concentrations within the 'smoke-free' areas (1.42-3.01 μg/m(3)). Smoking areas in breach of legislative definitions were found to produce the highest levels of benzene in the smoking area (49.5 μg/m(3)) and 'smoke-free' area (7.68 μg/m(3)). 3D exposure modelling of hypothetical smoking areas showed that a wide range of ETS exposure concentrations were possible in smoking areas with the same floor area and same smoking rate but differing height to width and length to width ratios. The results of this investigation demonstrate that significant scope for improvement of ETS exposure concentrations in pubs and in smoking areas may exist by refining and improving the legislative definitions of smoking areas in law. PMID:22361239

  15. Design and initial deployment of the wireless local area networking infrastructure at Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, John P.; Hamill, Michael J.; Mitchell, M. G.; Miller, Marc M.; Witzke, Edward L.; Wiener, Dallas J

    2006-11-01

    A major portion of the Wireless Networking Project at Sandia National Laboratories over the last few years has been to examine IEEE 802.11 wireless networking for possible use at Sandia and if practical, introduce this technology. This project team deployed 802.11a, b, and g Wireless Local Area Networking at Sandia. This report examines the basics of wireless networking and captures key results from project tests and experiments. It also records project members thoughts and designs on wireless LAN architecture and security issues. It documents some of the actions and milestones of this project, including pilot and production deployment of wireless networking equipment, and captures the team's rationale behind some of the decisions made. Finally, the report examines lessons learned, future directions, and conclusions.

  16. Using EVT for Geological Anomaly Design and Its Application in Identifying Anomalies in Mining Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feilong Qin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A geological anomaly is the basis of mineral deposit prediction. Through the study of the knowledge and characteristics of geological anomalies, the category of extreme value theory (EVT to which a geological anomaly belongs can be determined. Associating the principle of the EVT and ensuring the methods of the shape parameter and scale parameter for the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD, the methods to select the threshold of the GPD can be studied. This paper designs a new algorithm called the EVT model of geological anomaly. These study data on Cu and Au originate from 26 exploration lines of the Jiguanzui Cu-Au mining area in Hubei, China. The proposed EVT model of the geological anomaly is applied to identify anomalies in the Jiguanzui Cu-Au mining area. The results show that the model can effectively identify the geological anomaly region of Cu and Au. The anomaly region of Cu and Au is consistent with the range of ore bodies of actual engineering exploration. Therefore, the EVT model of the geological anomaly can effectively identify anomalies, and it has a high indicating function with respect to ore prospecting.

  17. Ventilation design modifications at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory major plutonium operational areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major ventilation design modifications in plutonium operational areas at Los Alamos have occurred during the past two years. An additional stage of HEPA filters has been added to DP West glove-box process exhaust resulting in significant effluent reductions. The additional stage of HEPA filters is unique in that each filter may be individually DOP tested. Radiological filter efficiencies of each process exhaust stage is presented. DP West room air ventilation systems have been modified to incorporate a single stage of HEPA filters in contrast to a previous American Air Filter PL-24 filtration system. Plutonium effluent reductions of 102 to 103 have resulted in these new systems. Modified DOP testing procedures for room air filtration systems are discussed. Major plutonium areas of the CMR Building utilizing Aerosolve 95 process exhaust filtration systems have been upgraded with two stages of HEPA filters. Significant reductions in effluent are evident. A unique method of DOP testing each bank of HEPA filters is discussed. Radiological efficiencies of both single and two-stage filters are discussed. (U.S.)

  18. Designing a hosting area as an advanced nursing care strategy in a pediatric nursing ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Pino A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most important comfort needs for caregivers are related to improving their hospital stay conditions, with more comfortable waiting rooms, a place to sleep, a toilette with shower, food and a safe place where to leave their belongings. Objective: To implement a hosting area that meets the comfort needs of parents who do not have their own accommodations during the hospitalization of their children. Methodology: Innovative strategies in providing advanced nursing care based on the theoretical model of Kolcaba, which allows us to bring the discipline of nursing care into practice, in direct benefit of patients. Results: We expect an increase in comfort perception of parents during hospitalization, which will lead to increased alertness of parents, effective participation in child care, improved response to educational interventions and effective linkages with the caring team. Conclusions: A hosting area for parents of hospitalized children, designed to meet the most important comfort needs reported in the literature and contextualized according to Kolcaba’s theory, can contribute to implement advanced nursing care, recovering the essence of nursing at the Pediatrics Service of the UC Hospital.

  19. Aims of education in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Walter Eugene

    1990-06-01

    The first part of this paper gives a historical account of the aims of education under Apartheid, and discusses the ideological success of Apartheid education. The second part argues that a significant discussion — that is one which could have some purchase on schooling policy and educational practice — of aims of education in South Africa is not possible at present because the historical preconditions for such a discussion are not satisfied. It is argued that Apartheid has generated a political perspective which is unsympathetic to a discussion of aims of education; that the dominance of a social engineering model of schooling distorts a discussion of aims of education; and that a shared moral discourse, which is a necessary condition for a significant discussion of aims of education, does not yet exist in South Africa.

  20. 15 CFR Appendix Vi to Subpart P of... - Special-Use Areas Boundary Coordinates and Use Designations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special-Use Areas Boundary Coordinates...—Special-Use Areas Boundary Coordinates and Use Designations The boundary of each of the Special-Use is formed by connecting in succession the points at the following coordinates: Conch Reef (Research...

  1. 42 CFR Appendix F to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Pharmacy Professional(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of Pharmacy Professional(s) F Appendix F to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., App. F Appendix F to Part 5—Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Pharmacy... of pharmacy professional(s) if the following three criteria are met: 1. The area is a rational...

  2. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Vision Care Professional(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of Vision Care Professional(s) D Appendix D to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Pt. 5, App. D Appendix D to Part 5—Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Vision Care... of vision care professional(s) if the following three criteria are met: 1. The area is a...

  3. Anthropogenic point and area source CO2 plume measurements: Implications for spaceborne CO2 sensor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, A. E.; Ryerson, T. B.; Peischl, J.; Parrish, D. D.; Trainer, M.; Tans, P. P.

    2011-12-01

    Anthropogenic point and area source CO2 plume measurements: Implications for spaceborne CO2 sensor design A. Andrews, T. Ryerson, J. Peischl, D. Parrish, M. Trainer, P. Tans An extensive dataset of CO2 concentrations including enhancements in point and area source plumes is available from in situ measurements collected using the NOAA P-3 and NCAR Electra research aircraft during seven major field projects from 1999 through 2010. Research flights sampled emission plumes from coal-, oil-, and natural gas-fired electric utility power plants, industrial facilities, and urban areas. Plume sampling often included horizontal transects at several altitudes and multiple distances downwind. CO2 data from crosswind transects upwind and downwind, coupled with ancillary measurements of co-emitted nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide, along with plume location, and wind speed and direction permit unambiguous attribution and quantification of atmospheric plumes from individual sources. Certain point sources were revisited on multiple flights over the course of 1-2 month long field projects and on successive field projects spanning several years. Sampling occurred primarily in the summertime, daytime continental boundary layer, with some plume studies performed after dark and in the spring, fall, and winter seasons. The data provide rigorously calibrated, measurement-based constraints on the expected range of atmospheric CO2 plume enhancements that can be used to assess satellite sensor concepts. Crosswind near-field (~5 km) transects in the summer daytime mixed-layer downwind of the strongest point sources were characterized by peak plume CO2 mixing ratio enhancements >100 ppm above background for the 100-m spatial averages reported from the moving aircraft. On many flights, the aircraft tracked such emissions plumes beyond 150 km downwind, or up to 10 hours of transport time, until plume enhancements were indistinguishable from background variability in CO2

  4. 33 CFR 165.1405 - Regulated Navigation Areas and Security Zones; Designated Escorted Vessels-Philippine Sea and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Security Zones; Designated Escorted Vessels-Philippine Sea and Apra Harbor, Guam (including Cabras Island... Areas and Security Zones; Designated Escorted Vessels-Philippine Sea and Apra Harbor, Guam (including... point of origin. (2) Apra Harbor, Guam—All waters from surface to bottom of Apra Harbor, Guam,...

  5. On the Aims and Responsibilities of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Lacey

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available I offer a view of the aims and responsibilities of science, and use it to analyze critically van Fraassen’s view that ‘objectifying inquiry’ is fundamental to the nature of science.

  6. Presentation of Database on Aims and Visions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    This presentation presents a database on aims and visions regarding regional development and transport and infrastructure in the corridor from Oslo-Göteborg-Copenhagen-Berlin. The process, the developed methodology as well as the result of the database is presented.......This presentation presents a database on aims and visions regarding regional development and transport and infrastructure in the corridor from Oslo-Göteborg-Copenhagen-Berlin. The process, the developed methodology as well as the result of the database is presented....

  7. Design of a geothermal monitoring network in a coastal area and the evaluation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohan Shim, Byoung; Lee, Chulwoo; Park, Chanhee

    2016-04-01

    In Seockmodo Island (area of 48.2 km2) located at the northwest of South Korea, a renewable energy development project to install photovoltaic 136 kW and geothermal 516.3 kW is initiated. Since the 1990s, more than 20 deep geothermal wells for hot springs, greenhouse and aquaculture have been developed along coastal areas. The outflow water of each site has the pumping capacity between 300 and 4,800 m3/day with the salinity higher than 20,000 mg/l, and the maximum temperature shows 70 ?C. Because of the required additional well drillings, the increased discharge rate can cause serious seawater intrusion into freshwater aquifers, which supply groundwater for drinking and living purposes from 210 wells. In order to manage the situation, advanced management skills are required to maintain the balance between geothermal energy development and water resources protection. We designed real-time monitoring networks with monitoring stations for the sustainable monitoring of the temperature and salinity. Construction of borehole temperature monitoring for deep and shallow aquifer consists with the installation of automated temperature logging system and cellular telemetry for real-time data acquisition. The DTS (distributed temperature sensing) system and fiber optic cables will be installed for the logging system, which has enough temperature resolution and accuracy. The spatial distribution and the monitoring points can be determined by geological and hydrological situations associated with the locations of current use and planned facilities. The evaluation of the temperature and salinity variation will be conducted by the web-based monitoring system. The evaluation system will be helpful to manage the balance between the hot water development and the fresh water resources conservation.

  8. Fuzzy Logic Trajectory Design and Guidance for Terminal Area Energy Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchett, Bradley

    2003-01-01

    The second generation reusable launch vehicle will leverage many new technologies to make flight to low earth orbit safer and more cost effective. One important capability will be completely autonomous flight during reentry and landing, thus making it unnecessary to man the vehicle for cargo missions with stringent weight constraints. Implementation of sophisticated new guidance and control methods will enable the vehicle to return to earth under less than favorable conditions. The return to earth consists of three phases--Entry, Terminal Area Energy Management (TAEM), and Approach and Landing. The Space Shuttle is programmed to fly all three phases of flight automatically, and under normal circumstances the astronaut-pilot takes manual control only during the Approach and Landing phase. The automatic control algorithms used in the Shuttle for TAEM and Approach and Landing have been developed over the past 30 years. They are computationally efficient, and based on careful study of the spacecraft's flight dynamics, and heuristic reasoning. The gliding return trajectory is planned prior to the mission, and only minor adjustments are made during flight for perturbations in the vehicle energy state. With the advent of the X-33 and X-34 technology demonstration vehicles, several authors investigated implementing advanced control methods to provide autonomous real-time design of gliding return trajectories thus enhancing the ability of the vehicle to adjust to unusual energy states. The bulk of work published to date deals primarily with the approach and landing phase of flight where changes in heading angle are small, and range to the runway is monotonically decreasing. These benign flight conditions allow for model simplification and fairly straightforward optimization. This project focuses on the TAEM phase of flight where mathematically precise methods have produced limited results. Fuzzy Logic methods are used to make onboard autonomous gliding return trajectory

  9. Design and fabrication of a large area freestanding compressive stress SiO2 optical window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Toan, Nguyen; Sangu, Suguru; Ono, Takahito

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the design and fabrication of a 7.2 mm  ×  9.6 mm freestanding compressive stress SiO2 optical window without buckling. An application of the SiO2 optical window with and without liquid penetration has been demonstrated for an optical modulator and its optical characteristic is evaluated by using an image sensor. Two methods for SiO2 optical window fabrication have been presented. The first method is a combination of silicon etching and a thermal oxidation process. Silicon capillaries fabricated by deep reactive ion etching (deep RIE) are completely oxidized to form the SiO2 capillaries. The large compressive stress of the oxide causes buckling of the optical window, which is reduced by optimizing the design of the device structure. A magnetron-type RIE, which is investigated for deep SiO2 etching, is the second method. This method achieves deep SiO2 etching together with smooth surfaces, vertical shapes and a high aspect ratio. Additionally, in order to avoid a wrinkling optical window, the idea of a Peano curve structure has been proposed to achieve a freestanding compressive stress SiO2 optical window. A 7.2 mm  ×  9.6 mm optical window area without buckling integrated with an image sensor for an optical modulator has been successfully fabricated. The qualitative and quantitative evaluations have been performed in cases with and without liquid penetration.

  10. Design and Evaluation of the Terminal Area Precision Scheduling and Spacing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Harry N.; Thipphavong, Jane; Sadovsky, Alex; Chen, Liang; Sullivan, Chris; Martin, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the design, development and results from a high fidelity human-in-the-loop simulation of an integrated set of trajectory-based automation tools providing precision scheduling, sequencing and controller merging and spacing functions. These integrated functions are combined into a system called the Terminal Area Precision Scheduling and Spacing (TAPSS) system. It is a strategic and tactical planning tool that provides Traffic Management Coordinators, En Route and Terminal Radar Approach Control air traffic controllers the ability to efficiently optimize the arrival capacity of a demand-impacted airport while simultaneously enabling fuel-efficient descent procedures. The TAPSS system consists of four-dimensional trajectory prediction, arrival runway balancing, aircraft separation constraint-based scheduling, traffic flow visualization and trajectory-based advisories to assist controllers in efficient metering, sequencing and spacing. The TAPSS system was evaluated and compared to today's ATC operation through extensive series of human-in-the-loop simulations for arrival flows into the Los Angeles International Airport. The test conditions included the variation of aircraft demand from a baseline of today's capacity constrained periods through 5%, 10% and 20% increases. Performance data were collected for engineering and human factor analysis and compared with similar operations both with and without the TAPSS system. The engineering data indicate operations with the TAPSS show up to a 10% increase in airport throughput during capacity constrained periods while maintaining fuel-efficient aircraft descent profiles from cruise to landing.

  11. Is Fitts' law continuous in discrete aiming?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Sleimen-Malkoun

    Full Text Available The lawful continuous linear relation between movement time and task difficulty (i.e., index of difficulty; ID in a goal-directed rapid aiming task (Fitts' law has been recently challenged in reciprocal performance. Specifically, a discontinuity was observed at critical ID and was attributed to a transition between two distinct dynamic regimes that occurs with increasing difficulty. In the present paper, we show that such a discontinuity is also present in discrete aiming when ID is manipulated via target width (experiment 1 but not via target distance (experiment 2. Fitts' law's discontinuity appears, therefore, to be a suitable indicator of the underlying functional adaptations of the neuro-muscular-skeletal system to task properties/requirements, independently of reciprocal or discrete nature of the task. These findings open new perspectives to the study of dynamic regimes involved in discrete aiming and sensori-motor mechanisms underlying the speed-accuracy trade-off.

  12. PRAGUE SEMINAR ON LANGUAGE TEACHING AIMS, 1967.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FRIED, VILEM

    AN INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR, WHOSE PURPOSE IT WAS TO DISCUSS THE STRUCTURAL DIFFERENCES IN LANGUAGE TEACHING AIMS, IS REPORTED ON IN THIS ARTICLE. THE THREE PAPERS PRESENTED BY IVAN POLDAUF, VALENTINA ZETLINA, AND JOHN B. CARROLL ARE REVIEWED FOR THEIR DISCUSSIONS ON LINGUISTICS, DIDACTICS, AND PSYCHOLOGY. THE DISCUSSION FOLLOWING THE PRESENTATION OF…

  13. Aims and harvest of moral case deliberation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidema, Froukje C; Molewijk, Bert A C; Kamsteeg, Frans; Widdershoven, Guy A M

    2013-09-01

    Deliberative ways of dealing with ethical issues in health care are expanding. Moral case deliberation is an example, providing group-wise, structured reflection on dilemmas from practice. Although moral case deliberation is well described in literature, aims and results of moral case deliberation sessions are unknown. This research shows (a) why managers introduce moral case deliberation and (b) what moral case deliberation participants experience as moral case deliberation results. A responsive evaluation was conducted, explicating moral case deliberation experiences by analysing aims (N = 78) and harvest (N = 255). A naturalistic data collection included interviews with managers and evaluation questionnaires of moral case deliberation participants (nurses). From the analysis, moral case deliberation appeals for cooperation, team bonding, critical attitude towards routines and nurses' empowerment. Differences are that managers aim to foster identity of the nursing profession, whereas nurses emphasize learning processes and understanding perspectives. We conclude that moral case deliberation influences team cooperation that cannot be controlled with traditional management tools, but requires time and dialogue. Exchanging aims and harvest between manager and team could result in co-creating (moral) practice in which improvements for daily cooperation result from bringing together perspectives of managers and team members.

  14. 76 FR 66741 - Statutorily Mandated Designation of Difficult Development Areas and Qualified Census Tracts for 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ..., rehabilitation, or new construction costs (depending on the type of LIHTC involved). These costs include amounts... by the Secretary of HUD as an area that has high construction, land, and utility costs relative to... FMR Areas as the measure of ``construction, land, and utility costs relative to area median...

  15. A Novel System for Non-Invasive Method of Animal Tracking and Classification in Designated Area Using Intelligent Camera System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Matuska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a novel system for non-invasive method of animal tracking and classification in designated area. The system is based on intelligent devices with cameras, which are situated in a designated area and a main computing unit (MCU acting as a system master. Intelligent devices track animals and then send data to MCU to evaluation. The main purpose of this system is detection and classification of moving animals in a designated area and then creation of migration corridors of wild animals. In the intelligent devices, background subtraction method and CAMShift algorithm are used to detect and track animals in the scene. Then, visual descriptors are used to create representation of unknown objects. In order to achieve the best accuracy in classification, key frame extraction method is used to filtrate an object from detection module. Afterwards, Support Vector Machine is used to classify unknown moving animals.

  16. A methodology for evacuation design for urban areas: theoretical aspects and experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, F.; Vitetta, A.

    2009-04-01

    This paper proposes an unifying approach for the simulation and design of a transportation system under conditions of incoming safety and/or security. Safety and security are concerned with threats generated by very different factors and which, in turn, generate emergency conditions, such as the 9/11, Madrid and London attacks, the Asian tsunami, and the Katrina hurricane; just considering the last five years. In transportation systems, when exogenous events happen and there is a sufficient interval time between the instant when the event happens and the instant when the event has effect on the population, it is possible to reduce the negative effects with the population evacuation. For this event in every case it is possible to prepare with short and long term the evacuation. For other event it is possible also to plan the real time evacuation inside the general risk methodology. The development of models for emergency conditions in transportation systems has not received much attention in the literature. The main findings in this area are limited to only a few public research centres and private companies. In general, there is no systematic analysis of the risk theory applied in the transportation system. Very often, in practice, the vulnerability and exposure in the transportation system are considered as similar variables, or in other worse cases the exposure variables are treated as vulnerability variables. Models and algorithms specified and calibrated in ordinary conditions cannot be directly applied in emergency conditions under the usual hypothesis considered. This paper is developed with the following main objectives: (a) to formalize the risk problem with clear diversification (for the consequences) in the definition of the vulnerability and exposure in a transportation system; thus the book offers improvements over consolidated quantitative risk analysis models, especially transportation risk analysis models (risk assessment); (b) to formalize a system

  17. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) fellowship program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCleary, D.D. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program administers a Graduate Fellowship Program focused toward helping students who are currently under represented in the nation`s pool of scientists and engineers, enter and complete advanced degree programs. The objectives of the program are to: (1) establish and maintain cooperative linkages between DOE and professors at universities with graduate programs leading toward degrees or with degree options in Materials Science, Materials Engineering, Metallurgical Engineering, and Ceramic Engineering, the disciplines most closely related to the AIM Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); (2) strengthen the capabilities and increase the level of participation of currently under represented groups in master`s degree programs, and (3) offer graduate students an opportunity for practical research experience related to their thesis topic through the three-month research assignment or practicum at ORNL. The program is administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE).

  18. Design, fabrication and test of Load Bearing multilayer insulation to support a broad area cooled shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, S. A.; Johnson, W. L.; Plachta, D. W.; Mills, G. L.; Buchanan, L.; Kopelove, A. B.

    2014-11-01

    Improvements in cryogenic propellant storage are needed to achieve reduced or Zero Boil Off of cryopropellants, critical for long duration missions. Techniques for reducing heat leak into cryotanks include using passive multi-layer insulation (MLI) and vapor cooled or actively cooled thermal shields. Large scale shields cannot be supported by tank structural supports without heat leak through the supports. Traditional MLI also cannot support shield structural loads, and separate shield support mechanisms add significant heat leak. Quest Thermal Group and Ball Aerospace, with NASA SBIR support, have developed a novel Load Bearing multi-layer insulation (LBMLI) capable of self-supporting thermal shields and providing high thermal performance. We report on the development of LBMLI, including design, modeling and analysis, structural testing via vibe and acoustic loading, calorimeter thermal testing, and Reduced Boil-Off (RBO) testing on NASA large scale cryotanks. LBMLI uses the strength of discrete polymer spacers to control interlayer spacing and support the external load of an actively cooled shield and external MLI. Structural testing at NASA Marshall was performed to beyond maximum launch profiles without failure. LBMLI coupons were thermally tested on calorimeters, with superior performance to traditional MLI on a per layer basis. Thermal and structural tests were performed with LBMLI supporting an actively cooled shield, and comparisons are made to the performance of traditional MLI and thermal shield supports. LBMLI provided a 51% reduction in heat leak per layer over a previously tested traditional MLI with tank standoffs, a 38% reduction in mass, and was advanced to TRL5. Active thermal control using LBMLI and a broad area cooled shield offers significant advantages in total system heat flux, mass and structural robustness for future Reduced Boil-Off and Zero Boil-Off cryogenic missions with durations over a few weeks.

  19. Development of n{sup +}-in-p large-area silicon microstrip sensors for very high radiation environments – ATLAS12 design and initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unno, Y., E-mail: yoshinobu.unno@kek.jp [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Study, KEK, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Edwards, S.O.; Pyatt, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Wilson, J.A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Kierstead, J.; Lynn, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Physics Department and Instrumentation Division, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Carter, J.R.; Hommels, L.B.A.; Robinson, D. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Bloch, I.; Gregor, I.M.; Tackmann, K. [Josef Stefan Institute and Department of Physics, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Betancourt, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kuehn, S.; Mori, R.; Parzefall, U.; Wiik-Fucks, L. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitt Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Clark, A. [DPNC, University of Geneva, 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211 Genve 4 (Switzerland); and others

    2014-11-21

    We have been developing a novel radiation-tolerant n{sup +}-in-p silicon microstrip sensor for very high radiation environments, aiming for application in the high luminosity large hadron collider. The sensors are fabricated in 6 in., p-type, float-zone wafers, where large-area strip sensor designs are laid out together with a number of miniature sensors. Radiation tolerance has been studied with ATLAS07 sensors and with independent structures. The ATLAS07 design was developed into new ATLAS12 designs. The ATLAS12A large-area sensor is made towards an axial strip sensor and the ATLAS12M towards a stereo strip sensor. New features to the ATLAS12 sensors are two dicing lines: standard edge space of 910 μm and slim edge space of 450 μm, a gated punch-through protection structure, and connection of orphan strips in a triangular corner of stereo strips. We report the design of the ATLAS12 layouts and initial measurements of the leakage current after dicing and the resistivity of the wafers.

  20. Aims and methods of nuclear materials management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whilst international safeguarding of fissile materials against abuse has been the subject of extensive debate, little public attention has so far been devoted to the internal security of these materials. All countries using nuclear energy for peaceful purposes have laid down appropriate regulations. In the Federal Republic of Germany safeguards are required, for instance, by the Atomic Energy Act, and are therefore a prerequisite for licensing. The aims and methods of national nuclear materials management are contrasted with viewpoints on international safeguards

  1. Landscape Design Process of the Ceremony Area and the Garden of Tekirdag Governorship

    OpenAIRE

    A. Korkut; E. E. Sisman; B. Etli

    2008-01-01

    It is important to follow the steps of landscape design in both rural and urban landscape studies. Within this paper the landscape design of Tekirdağ Governorship and Atatürk Monument is prepared in order to emphasize the historical building and the monument. The design studies are carried on by following the steps of landscape design. The steps followed in order are; determination of the problems and the purpose, inventory fort he current state (survey and refererences, environmental analysi...

  2. Studies Spotlight Charter Schools Aimed at Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2012-01-01

    Nearly six decades after "Brown" v. "Board of Education," the landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision that ushered in an era of efforts to integrate public schools, charter school advocates and researchers are shining a light on a number of those independent public schools that are integrated by design. Two new reports--one from the National Alliance…

  3. The application of design criteria for locating a hub configured supply chain for a restaurant cluster in the Stellenbosch area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia B. Struwig

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Restaurants, in general, utilise numerous suppliers. Normally they deliver on different days in the week and at different times during the day, logistically not an optimum approach. Not only does the current practice cause frequent interruptions, but by segregating the food supply chain unnecessary traffic is generated. This article investigated the need for developing a third party supplier hub, the best positioning of that hub and the most economical routes to the customers. With the aim of providing non-franchised restaurants with the necessary leverage to become market leaders, the hub is planned to only service the restaurants within the vicinity of the Stellenbosch area. In such a hub-configured supply chain, the suppliers would be delivering to the proposed hub, from where once-off deliveries to all the restaurants may be made on days and/or times determined by them. In order to investigate the benefits of providing such a hub structure, a systematic implementation approach was used. The first step was to do market research in order to establish the need for such a hub. That is, the viability of the hub from a restaurant’s perspective was established. The next step entailed the investigation of the design criteria needed in determining a favourable hub location. Four possible hub locations were identified. The Clark and Wright’s savings algorithm was then used to determine the optimal hub location and the feasibility of the results was verified with the aid of a global positioning system (GPS device. The last steps followed involved the determination of an effective hub floor plan that may be utilised, possible products that can be supplied to the restaurants and the necessary assets needed to provide the hub’s service. Finally, by incorporating all these facets, a cost analysis was done to determine the hub’s profitability.

  4. Savannah River Plant engineering and design history. Volume 4: 300/700 Areas & general services and facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-01-01

    The primary function of the 300 Area is the production and preparation of the fuel and target elements required for the 100 Area production reactors. Uranium slugs and lithium-aluminium alloy control and blanket rods are prepared in separate structures. Other facilities include a test pile, a physics assembly laboratory, an office and change house, an electrical substation, and various service facilities such as rail lines, roads, sewers, steam and water distribution lines, etc. The 700 Area contains housing and facilities for plant management, general plant services, and certain technical activities. The technical buildings include the Main Technical Laboratory, the Waste Concentration Building, the Health Physics Headquarters, and the Health Physics Calibration building. Sections of this report describe the following: development of the 300-M Area; selection and description of process; design of main facilities of the 300 Area; development of the 700-A Area; design of the main facilities of the 700 Area; and general services and facilities, including transportation, plant protection, waste disposal and drainage, site work, pilot plants, storage, and furniture and fixtures.

  5. Conception of transport cask with advanced safety, aimed at transportation and storage of spent nuclear fuel of power reactors, which meets the requirements of IAEA in terms of safety and increased stability during beyond-design-basis accidents and acts of terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is devoted to the problem of creation of a new generation of multi-purpose universal transport cask with advanced safety, aimed at transportation and storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of power reactors, which meets all requirements of IAEA in terms of safety and increased stability during beyond-design-basis accidents and acts of terrorism. Meeting all IAEA requirements in terms of safety both in normal operation conditions and accidents, as well as increased stability of transport cask (TC) with SNF under the conditions of beyond-design-basis accidents and acts of terrorism has been achieved in the design of multi-purpose universal TC due to the use of DU (depleted uranium) in it. At that, it is suggested to use DU in TC, which acts as effective gamma shield and constructional material in the form of both metallic depleted uranium and metal-ceramic mixture (cermet), based on stainless or carbon steel and DU dioxide. The metal in the cermet is chosen to optimize cask performance. The use of DU in the design of multi-purpose universal TC enables getting maximum load of the container for spent nuclear fuel when meeting IAEA requirements in terms of safety and providing increased stability of the container with SNF under conditions of beyond-design-basis accident and acts of terrorism

  6. Conception of transport cask with advanced safety, aimed at transportation and storage of spent nuclear fuel of power reactors, which meets the requirements of IAEA in terms of safety and increased stability during beyond-design-basis accidents and acts of terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Il' kaev, R.I.; Matveev, V.Z.; Morenko, A.I.; Shapovalov, V.I. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation); Semenov, A.G.; Sergeyev, V.M.; Orlov, V.K. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Inorganic Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shatalov, V.V.; Gotovchikov, V.T.; Seredenko, V.A. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Applied Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation); Haire, Jonathan M.; Forsberg, C.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The report is devoted to the problem of creation of a new generation of multi-purpose universal transport cask with advanced safety, aimed at transportation and storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of power reactors, which meets all requirements of IAEA in terms of safety and increased stability during beyond-design-basis accidents and acts of terrorism. Meeting all IAEA requirements in terms of safety both in normal operation conditions and accidents, as well as increased stability of transport cask (TC) with SNF under the conditions of beyond-design-basis accidents and acts of terrorism has been achieved in the design of multi-purpose universal TC due to the use of DU (depleted uranium) in it. At that, it is suggested to use DU in TC, which acts as effective gamma shield and constructional material in the form of both metallic depleted uranium and metal-ceramic mixture (cermet), based on stainless or carbon steel and DU dioxide. The metal in the cermet is chosen to optimize cask performance. The use of DU in the design of multi-purpose universal TC enables getting maximum load of the container for spent nuclear fuel when meeting IAEA requirements in terms of safety and providing increased stability of the container with SNF under conditions of beyond-design-basis accident and acts of terrorism.

  7. Design and simulation of a microwave powered microplasma system for local area materials processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendra, Jeffri Julliarsa

    A microwave powered microplasma source is developed and tested for materials processing on spatially localized areas. A small diameter stream of plasma (less than 2 mm in diameter) is created by focusing microwave energy inside a discharge tube. The discharge then flows out the end of the tube onto the surface being processed delivering ions and reactive radicals. The diameter of the plasma stream from the tube to the material being processed can be controlled by an aperture mounted at the end of the tube. The spot size of the localized plasma stream ranges from 2 mm down to 10's micrometers depending on the aperture size. The discharge is created by using 2.45 GHz microwave energy that is coupled into the discharge using a small foreshortened cylindrical cavity that has a hollow inner conductor and a small capacitive gap at the end of the cavity. A processing gas mixture is fed through a 2 mm inner diameter quartz tube which is located inside the hollow inner conductor of the cavity. This tube is exposed to a high electric field at the small gap end of the cavity thus generating a surface wave plasma. The length of the surface wave discharge in the tube can be extended by increasing the microwave power to the discharge so that the plasma reaches the aperture. The operating pressures range from 0.5 Torr to 100 Torr and the microwave power utilized ranges from a few Watts to 10's Watts. Several properties of the discharge including plasma power density, electron density and electron temperature are measured. The power densities of argon and Ar/O2 plasma discharges vary from 10's to over 450 W/cm 3. The plasma density and electron temperature of argon discharges are measured using a double Langmuir probe placed in the materials processing area. The plasma densities are in the range of 1011 -- 1013 cm-3. Computational modeling of the plasma discharge and the microwave excitation of the discharge is performed using a finite element analysis. The goal of the modeling

  8. Ancient discipline, vigorous KIZ: Aiming at frontiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Many science historians say modern zoology emerged in 1552 with the publication in Paris of Edward Wooton De differentiis animalium.Others trace it back to Aristotle (382-322 BC) and his History of Animals. But no matter how old zoology is, this traditional discipline is now facing challenges from the rapid development of a large number of new areas that have branched away from it over time. Targeting specific issues at the cutting-edge of the field via interdisciplinary approaches, a group of young researchers in Yunnan is making fresh contributions to this time-honored discipline.

  9. 75 FR 77595 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designations of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... 2.5 NAAQS? A. Criteria B. Rome Area Air Quality IV. What is the effect of this action? V. Statutory... Quality Planning Purposes; Georgia: Rome; Determination of Attaining Data for the 1997 Annual Fine... proposing to determine that the Rome, Georgia, fine particulate (PM 2.5 ) nonattainment area...

  10. 76 FR 31898 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designations of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    .... See 76 FR 18650. Today's proposed action merely makes a determination that the Rome Area has attained... determination of attainment for the Rome Area is available in 76 FR 18650 (April 5, 2011). II. What is the... for the 1997 annual PM 2.5 NAAQS. See 76 FR 18650. IV. What is the effect of this action? This...

  11. Insect food aiming at Mars emigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Nagasaka, Sanako; Kuwayama, Akemi; Sofue, Megumi

    2012-07-01

    We study insect food aiming at Mars emigration.In space agriculture, insect is the important creature which we cannot miss.It is necessary for the pollination of the plant, and it is rich to protein and lipid as food.I reported that silkworm is an insect necessary for astroponics in particular last time.We make clothes using silk thread, and the pupa becomes the food.In addition, the clothes can make food as protein when we need not to use it. The bee is a very important insect in the space agriculture,too.We examined nutrition of silkworm, bee, grasshopper, snail and the white ant which are necessary for Mars emigration.We will introduce of good balance space foods.We will report many meal menu for Mars emigration.

  12. 77 FR 13074 - Opportunity for Designation in the Pocatello, ID; Evansville, IN; and Salt Lake City, UT Areas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Opportunity for Designation in the Pocatello, ID; Evansville, IN; and Salt Lake City, UT Areas; Request for Comments on the Official Agencies Servicing...

  13. 78 FR 58189 - Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; California; Morongo Band of Mission Indians

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... in Indian country. 78 FR 51, at 54. Our proposed rule also explains how evaluation of the same... requirements of EPA's Indian country NSR rule codified in CFR, Title 40, part 49 (76 FR 38748, July 1, 2011... Southern California air quality planning areas to designate the Indian country of the Morongo Band...

  14. 76 FR 3015 - Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order; Closure of National Forest System Lands To Protect...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... Service regulations at 36 CFR part 261, subpart B, establish prohibitions relating to acts or omissions... Forest Service 36 CFR Part 261 RIN 0596-AC93 Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order; Closure of National Forest System Lands To Protect Privacy of Tribal Activities AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA....

  15. 75 FR 5879 - Grapes Grown in a Designated Area of Southeastern California and Imported Table Grapes; Change in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... to divert imported grapes from normal marketing channels for up to 60 days after their arrival at a U... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Parts 925 and 944 Grapes Grown in a Designated Area of Southeastern California and Imported Table Grapes; Change in Regulatory Periods AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  16. SWIR detectors for night vision at AIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figgemeier, H.; Benecke, M.; Hofmann, K.; Oelmaier, R.; Sieck, A.; Wendler, J.; Ziegler, J.

    2014-06-01

    Detectors for the short-wave infrared (SWIR) spectral range are particularly suitable for observation under hazy weather conditions as well as under twilight or moon light conditions. In addition, SWIR detectors allow using the airglow for observation under moonless sky. SWIR detectors are commonly based on InGaAs or HgCdTe (MCT) and demand extremely low dark currents to ensure a high signal-to-noise ratio under low background light conditions. AIM has developed a read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) with 640×512 pixels and a 15 μm pixel pitch for low light level applications. The ROIC supports analog or digital correlated double sampling (CDS) for the reduction of reset-noise (also known as kTC-noise). Along with CDS, a rolling shutter (RS) mode has been implemented. The input stage of the ROIC is based on a capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) with two selectable gain settings. The dark current of our SWIR MCT detectors has recently been significantly reduced to allow for high operating temperatures. In contrast to InGaAs, the MCT material offers the unique possibility to adjust the cut-off wavelength according to the application while maintaining the matching of the lattice constant to the one of the CdZnTe substrate. The key electro-optical performance parameters of lately developed MCT based SWIR Focal Plane Arrays (FPA) with a 1.75 μm cut-off wavelength will be presented. In addition, AIMs SWIR detectors covering the spectral range from 0.9 μm to 2.5 μm and available in formats of 384×288 pixels - 24 μm pitch and 1024×256 pixels - 24×32 μm2, will be introduced.

  17. Practical design of SMES controller for improving power system stability based on wide area synchronized phasor measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dechanupaprittha, S.; Watanabe, M.; Mitani, Y. [Kyushu Inst. of Technology, Kitakyushu-shi, Fukuoka (Japan); Hongesombut, K. [Tokyo Electric Power Company, Tokyo (Japan); Ngamroo, I. [King Mongkut' s Inst. of Technhology, Ladkrabang (Thailand)

    2007-07-01

    Various load demands with abrupt changes adversely affects power system operations and control, which can lead to significant problems such as system frequency oscillations due to insufficient system damping. In interconnected power systems, a local frequency control is needed in a given area. In addition, fluctuations of tie-line power flow should be stabilized. Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) can be used as an effective device to exchange electrical energy with a power system. Wide area monitoring of power systems based on multiple synchronized phasor measurements such as the phasor measurement unit (PMU) using the global positioning system (GPS) offers the possibility of data synchronization at a common time reference. With the GPS, oscillation modes can be detected from measured data by modeling measured data as a coupled vibration model (CVM). This paper presented a practical design of a SMES controller based on wide area synchronized phasor measurement. The CVM can be used to represents an estimated power system model that is used for tuning SMES controller parameters. In addition, it can be used to evaluate the performance and effectiveness of the designed controller in the power system. For the desired damping performance, the controller parameters were optimally tuned using a heuristic optimization method, called a TABU search algorithm. A simulation study was then conducted in order to show and confirm the effectiveness of the design method on a two-area four machine power system. The paper explained the controller design methodology and discussed the application to a two-area, four-machine power system. The simulation revealed that the proposed design method could be implemented in a practical manner. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  18. Phytoremediative urban design: Transforming a derelict and polluted harbour area into a green and productive neighbourhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilschut, M.; Theuws, P.; Duchhart, I.

    2013-01-01

    Many urban areas are polluted by industrial activities and waste disposal in landfills. Since conventional soil remediation techniques are costly and unsustainable, phytoremediation might offer an alternative. In this article, we explore how phytoremediation can be integrated into the transformation

  19. US EPA Nonattainment Areas and Designations-PM10 (1987 NAAQS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web service contains the following layer: PM10 Nonattainment Areas (1987 NAAQS). Full FGDC metadata records for each layer may be found by clicking the layer...

  20. 75 FR 59090 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... the Las Vegas Valley nonattainment area for the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard... protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental relations... for the Carbon Monoxide Standard AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final...

  1. 36 CFR 223.111 - Administration of contracts in designated disaster areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-sharing arrangement in paragraph (a) of this section, he may allow cancellation of the contract... disaster, (2) The sale of such timber will assist in sustaining the economy of such area, or (3) The...

  2. Designing financial-incentive programmes for return of medical service in underserved areas: seven management functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bärnighausen Till

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In many countries worldwide, health worker shortages are one of the main constraints in achieving population health goals. Financial-incentive programmes for return of service, whereby participants receive payments in return for a commitment to practise for a period of time in a medically underserved area, can alleviate local and regional health worker shortages through a number of mechanisms. First, they can redirect the flow of those health workers who would have been educated without financial incentives from well-served to underserved areas. Second, they can add health workers to the pool of workers who would have been educated without financial incentives and place them in underserved areas. Third, financial-incentive programmes may improve the retention in underserved areas of those health workers who participate in a programme, but who would have worked in an underserved area without any financial incentives. Fourth, the programmes may increase the retention of all health workers in underserved areas by reducing the strength of some of the reasons why health workers leave such areas, including social isolation, lack of contact with colleagues, lack of support from medical specialists and heavy workload. We draw on studies of financial-incentive programmes and other initiatives with similar objectives to discuss seven management functions that are essential for the long-term success of financial-incentive programmes: financing (programmes may benefit from innovative donor financing schemes, such as endowment funds, international financing facilities or compensation payments; promotion (programmes should use tested communication channels in order to reach secondary school graduates and health workers; selection (programmes may use selection criteria to ensure programme success and to achieve supplementary policy goals; placement (programmes should match participants to areas in order to maximize participant satisfaction and

  3. The Laser-Driven X-ray Big Area Backlighter (BABL): Design, Optimization, and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippo, Kirk; DeVolder, Barbara; Doss, Forrest; Kline, John; Merritt, Elizabeth; Loomis, Eric; Capelli, Deanna; Schmidt, Derek; Schmitt, Mark J.

    2016-05-01

    The Big Area BackLigher (BABL) has been developed for large area laser-driven x-ray backlighting on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), which can be used for general High Energy Density (HED) experiments. The BABL has been optimized via hydrodynamic simulations to produce laser-to-x-ray conversion efficiencies of up to nearly 5%. Four BABL foil materials, Zn, Fe, V, and Cu, have been used for He-α x ray production.

  4. Air traffic generation for new terminal area air traffic management concepts design and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Besada Portas, Juan Alberto; Marquinez Prado, Iñigo; Portillo Garcia, Javier Ignacio; Miguel Vela, Gonzalo de; Bernardos Barbolla, Ana M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes two systems that can be used to obtain realistic random traffic samples in a terminal area: a real traffic analyser and a synthetic traffic generator. These two systems allow the air traffic management (ATM) engineer to gain insight on the traffic structure of the area under analysis, and allow obtaining realistic traffic samples enabling the evaluation of new operational concepts, the validation or system performance measurement after procedure changes, the analysis of A...

  5. Diffuser Design for Marine Outfalls in Areas with Strong Currents, High waves and Sediment Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    1995-01-01

    The design of marine outfalls is often based on environmental criteria for a minimum initial dilution. Accordingly advanced diffuser arrangement are designed to fulfil these requirements. A large number of examples of malfunction and blocking in sea outfalls have occurred around the world...... as a result of this uncompromising consent to environmental demands. Two examples of unconventional design are given in this paper. Both cases involved risk of blockage of the diffuser section because of wave and current induced sediment transport The paper also discusses how acceptable far field dilution...

  6. Diffuser Design For Marine Outfalls in Areas With Strong Currents, High Waves and Sediment Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    1995-01-01

    The design of marine outfalls are often based on environmental criteria for a minimum initial dilution. Accordingly diffuser arrangement are designed to fulfil these requirements. A large number of examples of malfunction and blocking in sea outfalls have occurred around the world as a result...... of this uncompromising accept of environmental demands. Two examples of unconventional design are given in the paper. Both cases involved risk of blockage of the diffuser section because of wave and current induced sediment transport. The paper also discusses how acceptable far field dilution conditions can be achieved...

  7. Critical thinking: optimal outcomes through end user involvement in the design of critical care areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Debra; Barnhardt, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Including end users in evidence-based design is vital to outcomes. The physical environment impacts caregiver efficiencies, safety, satisfaction, and quality of patient outcomes. End users are more than members of the organization: patients should have representation as well. Patients bring value by offering insight from a different perspective. Timing is key; therefore, it is critical in obtaining desired outcomes, to include end users as early as possible, gaining the most insight into the design of the build. Consideration should also be given to best practice standards, regulatory compliance, progressive sciences, and technologies. Another vital factor is education of the end users on their role and expectations for participation in a design team. When end users are educated and understand the significance of input, the design team will be able to conceive a critical care unit that will meet needs for today and be able to adapt to needs for the future. PMID:24309458

  8. Design and Implementation of Image Stabilization System of Bottom-reflecting Gun Commander's Low-light-level Aiming Telescope%“下反”式炮长微光瞄准镜稳像系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢志宏; 宗艳桃; 王超; 汪熙; 刘佳

    2012-01-01

    针对“下反”稳像式炮长瞄准镜只能稳定昼视光路,而不能稳定微光夜视视场的问题,设计了独立的电子稳像系统。采用AVR单片机设计了信号采集模块,利用外部中断实时获得炮长瞄准镜中陀螺仪输出信号,并用动态循环法控制数码管准确显示。设计DSP电子稳像模块通过串口中断与AVR单片机通信,将陀螺仪信号换算成图像的运动矢量,然后采用平移变换模型对图像的抖动进行补偿。为了检验稳像系统的性能,进行了微光瞄准镜稳像实验,结果表明:电子稳像系统能够较好地稳定微光夜视图像,提高了炮长夜间观察瞄准目标的能力。%The bottom-reflecting image-stabilized gun commander' s aiming telescope can only stabilize the daylight optical path, but it can' t stabilize the field of low-light-level night vision, thus an independent electronic image stabilization system is designed to solve this problem. The signal acquisition module is designed by using AVR chip microcomputer, the gyro output signals of gun commander' s aiming telescope are obtained real-time by using external interrupt, and the nixie tube is controlled by dynamic circulating method for accurate display. The electronic image stabilization module based on DSP is designed to communicate with AVR chip microcomputer by series port interrupt, and the gyro signals are converted to motion vectors of image, then the image flutter is compensated by using translation transformation model. In order to test performance of stabilization system, image stabilization experiment of low-light-level aiming telescope is carried out, the result shows that the electronic image stabilization system can well stabilize low-light-level night vision image, in result, it can improve the gun commander' s ability of observing and aiming at night.

  9. Forecasting Vehicle Mobility in Remote Areas -An Aid to Military Vehicle Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tej Paul

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Military vehicles are designed for off the road mobility. These are liable for deployment on varying ground conditions. Terrain parameters effecting vehicle systems design are listed. To avoid large scale measurement of terrain parameters, use of physiographic maps in forecasting these parameters has been suggested. Field tests to ascertain the similarity of soil strength parameter between the similar physiographic terrain units, called land facets were conducted and the tests confirmed the usefulness of the technique.

  10. TRIM11 Suppresses AIM2 Inflammasome by Degrading AIM2 via p62-Dependent Selective Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The AIM2 inflammasome is a key cytosolic signaling complex that is activated by double-stranded DNA, leading to the maturation of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β and IL-18. Dysregulated AIM2 inflammasome activity is associated with human inflammatory diseases and cancers, suggesting that its activity must be tightly regulated. However, the precise molecular mechanisms that control AIM2 levels and activity are still poorly understood. Here, we report tripartite motif 11 (TRIM11 as a key negative regulator of the AIM2 inflammasome. Upon DNA virus infection, TRIM11 binds to AIM2 via its PS domain and undergoes auto-polyubiquitination at K458 to promote an association between TRIM11 and the autophagic cargo receptor p62 to mediate AIM2 degradation via selective autophagy. These findings identify a role for TRIMs in AIM2 inflammasome activation where TRIM11 acts as a secondary receptor to deliver AIM2 to the autophagosomes for degradation in a p62-dependent manner.

  11. Design and development of LED-based irregular leather area measuring machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil, Rehan; Khan, Sarah Jamal

    2012-01-01

    Using optical sensor array, a precision motion control system in a conveyer follows the irregular shaped leather sheet to measure its surface area. In operation, irregular shaped leather sheet passes on conveyer belt and optical sensor array detects the leather sheet edge. In this way outside curvature of the leather sheet is detected and is then feed to the controller to measure its approximate area. Such system can measure irregular shapes, by neglecting rounded corners, ellipses etc. To minimize the error in calculating surface area of irregular curve to the above mentioned system, the motion control system only requires the footprint of the optical sensor to be small and the distance between the sensors is to be minimized. In the proposed technique surface area measurement of irregular shaped leather sheet is done by defining velocity and detecting position of the move. The motion controller takes the information and creates the necessary edge profile on point-to-point bases. As a result irregular shape of leather sheet is mapped and is then feed to the controller to calculate surface area.

  12. Triple AIM evaluation and application in advanced node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gary C.; Lio, En Chuan; Hung, Yuting; Chen, Charlie; Wang, Sybil; Weng, Tang Chun; Lin, Bill; Yu, Chun Chi

    2016-03-01

    A novel method on advanced node for IBO (Image Based Overlay) data extraction accuracy is demonstrated in this work, and here some special design in triple-AIM (Advanced Imaging Metrology) is able to realize the approach. Since triple AIM design has 3 locations left for patterning layers insertion, a new design with 2 layers locations, location-A (inner) and location-B (middle), are generated by 1st pattering, i.e. once lithography exposure, and the 2 marks grouping are formed on dielectric through lithography and etching process with a predetermined overlay "zero offset" through original mask layout design, as illustrated in Fig. (1). And then, as following top photo resist layer, assumed location-C (outer), lithography patterning process, PR coating, exposure and development complete, full triple-AIM patterns is generated, and 3 sets of overlay data could be obtained, A to B, C to B, C to A. Through re-calculating the overlay raw data of current (2nd patterning layer) to previous (1st patterning layer) layer by averaging [C to B] and [C to A], then theoretically the data extraction of sites would be more accuracy, since the variation of local marks signal, induced by inline process instability, could be minimized through the raw data averaging procedure. Moreover, from raw data [A to B], an extra monitor function for detections of the inline process variation, marks selection and recipe setting optimization could be obtained, since marks in [A] and [BB] locations are both generated in 1st patterning, and with the target "zero". So if the raw data [A to BB] is bigger or smaller than "zero" in some degree, there should be some process issue or marks condition setting error in triple-AIM design.

  13. S3T working group. Report 1: group aims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work group S3T which is aimed to designing and developing devices using unconventional holographic optics is presented. These devices find applications that are classified here in four items high resolution spectrometers, high definition imaging, high flux devices, metrology and interferometry. The problems to solve and the aims of the group in each of these cases are presented. Three synthesis of lectures are in this report. The main one concerns stigmatism conditions of concave holographic gratings used in normal incidence. This new process of focusing is very interesting for hot plasma diagnostics

  14. Design of packet erasure mitigation technique using a digital fountain code for wearable wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Kenichi; Hamaguchi, Kiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a digital fountain code as a design criterion in order to mitigate packet erasure in wireless wearable body area networks (WBANs). First, we measure its radio propagation around the human body between two antennas attached to participants, and then analyze the measurement results from the standpoint of occurrence ratio of packet erasure. Then, we evaluate the application of digital fountain code into such WBANs where a rateless code is introduced as such code in order to provide a design criterion for the code. PMID:21096974

  15. 76 FR 70091 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... & process Paving 3.58 2007/2008 areas. Cupola melting New Cupola/Bag house 5.84 2007/2008 furnace. & spray... Particulate Matter and Ozone in 27 States; Correction of SIP Approvals for 22 States'' (76 FR 48208, August 8... 24-hour concentrations. On October 17, 2006, at 71 FR 61144, EPA retained the annual average NAAQS...

  16. 75 FR 62026 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... for Redesignation to Attainment of the Ozone and Carbon Monoxide (CO) National Ambient Air Quality... Submitting Requests for Redesignation to Attainment of the Ozone and Carbon Monoxide (CO) National Ambient... ozone nonattainment area to attainment for the 1997 8-hour National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  17. B4G local area: high level requirements and system design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Preben; Pajukoski, Kari; Raaf, Bernhard;

    2012-01-01

    A next generation Beyond 4G (B4G) radio access technology is expected to become available around 2020 in order to cope with the exponential increase of mobile data traffic. In this paper, research motivations and high level requirements for a B4G local area concept are discussed. Our suggestions...

  18. Design and Simulation of Spectrum Management Methods for Wireless Local Area Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Konsgen, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Andreas Konsgen describes two major areas of spectrum management: the coordination of neighbouring networks with overlapping ranges by controlling different transmission parameters and the channel allocation by the base station inside a radio cell using a cross-layer approach. Theoretical analyses and simulations demonstrate the usage of these methods and show the QoS enhancements which can be achieved.

  19. 76 FR 12587 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... vessels, locomotives and aircraft emissions from other non-road emission sources. See 75 FR 62039. EPA... Cocke County. MLA = Commercial Marine Vessels, Locomotives and Aircraft. Table 4--Knoxville Area VOC... volatile organic compounds (VOC). This action also approves the emissions inventory submitted with...

  20. Medium access control and network layer design for 60 GHz wireless personal area networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    An, X.

    2010-01-01

    The unlicensed frequency band around 60 GHz is a very promising spectrum due to its potential to provide multiple gigabits per second based data rates for short range wireless communication. Hence, 60 GHz radio is an attractive candidate to enable ultra high rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPA

  1. 77 FR 6743 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... nonattainment area by EPA on April 30, 2004 (69 FR 23898), based on air quality monitoring data from 2001-2003..., Environmental Scientist, Attainment Planning and Maintenance Section, Air Programs Branch (AR- 18J... information and/or data you used. 5. If you estimate potential costs or burdens, explain how you arrived...

  2. 77 FR 45252 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... maintenance plans for the areas, volatile organic compound (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NO X ) MVEBs, and VOC... significant emissions rate for nitrogen oxides contained in NR 405.02(27)(a) to apply to require both NO 2 and... Concerning Greenhouse Gas Emitting-Sources in State Implementation Plans; Final Rule,'' 75 FR...

  3. 75 FR 36023 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... people living in the area). The Great Basin Unified Air Pollution Control Agency (GBUAPCD or District... Naval Air Weapons Station (China Lake NAWS) covers most of the CJPA and is generally restricted from public access. Air pollution in the CJPA is dominated by windblown dust transported from Owens Lake...

  4. 75 FR 26167 - Designation of Medically Underserved Populations and Health Professions Shortage Areas; Intent To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... Act (Pub. L. 101-648, 5 U.S.C. 561-570) establishes a seven-point framework for agency determinations... serving other parts of their metropolitan areas. As a result, the conceptual distinction between HPSA and... issues important to this rulemaking and within the scope of the rule. 1. Are the objectives of the...

  5. 78 FR 55737 - Notice of Service Delivery Area Designation for the Tejon Indian Tribe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... administratively as the SDA, to function as a Contract Health Service Delivery Area (CHSDA), for the purpose of operating a Contract Health Service (CHS) program pursuant to the Indian Self-Determination and Education ] Assistant Act (ISDEAA), Public Law 93-638. DATES: This notice is effective 30 days after date of...

  6. 78 FR 55731 - Notice of Service Delivery Area Designation for the Wilton Rancheria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... Contract Health Service Delivery Area (CHSDA), for the purpose of operating a Contract Health Service (CHS) program pursuant to the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistant Act (ISDEAA), Public Law 93-638. DATES: This notice is effective 30 days after date of publication in the Federal Register...

  7. Effects of cost metric on cost-effectiveness of protected-area network design in urban landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhalter, J C; Lockwood, J L; Maslo, B; Fenn, K H; Leu, K

    2016-04-01

    A common goal in conservation planning is to acquire areas that are critical to realizing biodiversity goals in the most cost-effective manner. The way monetary acquisition costs are represented in such planning is an understudied but vital component to realizing cost efficiencies. We sought to design a protected-area network within a forested urban region that would protect 17 birds of conservation concern. We compared the total costs and spatial structure of the optimal protected-area networks produced using three acquisition-cost surrogates (area, agricultural land value, and tax-assessed land value). Using the tax-assessed land values there was a 73% and 78% cost savings relative to networks derived using area or agricultural land value, respectively. This cost reduction was due to the considerable heterogeneity in acquisition costs revealed in tax-assessed land values, especially for small land parcels, and the corresponding ability of the optimization algorithm to identify lower-cost parcels for inclusion that had equal value to our target species. Tax-assessed land values also reflected the strong spatial differences in acquisition costs (US$0.33/m(2)-$55/m(2)) and thus allowed the algorithm to avoid inclusion of high-cost parcels when possible. Our results add to a nascent but growing literature that suggests conservation planners must consider the cost surrogate they use when designing protected-area networks. We suggest that choosing cost surrogates that capture spatial- and size-dependent heterogeneity in acquisition costs may be relevant to establishing protected areas in urbanizing ecosystems. PMID:26395858

  8. The design of gated communities in São Paulo metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Rett Lemos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as study object the formation of a kind of residential urban landscape spread in a large number of Brazilian cities, in special those around the Sao Paulo metropolitan area: the gated communities destined to a population with average and high income. The premise that it deals with a type of appropriation of urban ground related since the middle of the 1970‘s when internal adjustments in real estate market were implemented, and to the standards of growth of the São Paulo metropolitan area, specifically its process of dispersion, excites the necessity of identify the characteristics and specially the effects to the rest of the urban space that are been spread in terms never seen. Twenty eight enterprises launched between 1994 and 2005 in the metropolitan area are analyzed. The set of case studies involves from communities settled in the rural zones to the urban areas; in common is the fact that are enterprises created by a private entrepreneur to subdivide an only one private property, and the management of the internal space by proper codes. The analysis was developed in two scales: at a first moment, it was restricted in the internal spaces, appointing the planning methods and the distribution standards of the open areas, the volumetric occupations, and the leisure equipments; in the following one, were analyzed the neighbor landscape, identifying the main characteristics of the fabric urban and the not constructed natural environment.

  9. Design of wide-area time-delay supplementary controller for interconnected Network based on Hamilton function method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailati, G.; Hu, Z. H.

    2016-08-01

    The transient stability of interconnected network with supplementary time-delay controller for generator excitations and static var compensator (SVC) has been investigated in this paper. Firstly, a delay-dependent stability criterion based on Hamilton function method is derived, and the criterion is in term of matrix inequalities. Secondly, a nonlinear time-delay Hamilton function model of interconnected network with SVCs is constructed. Thirdly, the wide-area time-delay supplementary controller (WATSC) for the interconnected network is designed and converted into the form of Hamiltonian system. The delay-dependent stability of the closed-loop power system is analysed. The gains of the WATSC are determined by using the theoretical analysis results. It is effective for the designed WATSC installed in the 16- machine, 68-bus power system for damping the inter-area modes. Then simulation results show that the method of the controller is effective.

  10. Sampling design for compliance monitoring of surface water quality: A case study in a Polder area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.; Knotters, M.

    2008-01-01

    International agreements such as the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) ask for efficient sampling methods for monitoring natural resources. In this paper a general methodology for designing efficient, statistically sound monitoring schemes is described. An important decision is the choice between a

  11. A Cumulative Rainfall Function for Subhourly Design Storm in Mediterranean Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Carbone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Design storms are very useful in many hydrological and hydraulic practices and are obtained from statistical analysis of precipitation records. However considering design storms, which are often quite unlike the natural rainstorms, may result in designing oversized or undersized drainage facilities. For these reasons, in this study, a two-parameter double exponential function is proposed to parameterize historical storm events. The proposed function has been assessed against the storms selected from 5-year rainfall time series with a 1-minute resolution, measured by three meteorological stations located in Calabria, Italy. In particular, a nonlinear least square optimization has been used to identify parameters. In previous studies, several evaluation methods to measure the goodness of fit have been used with excellent performances. One parameter is related to the centroid of the rain distribution; the second one is related to high values of the standard deviation of the kurtosis for the selected events. Finally, considering the similarity between the proposed function and the Gumbel function, the two parameters have been computed with the method of moments; in this case, the correlation values were lower than those computed with nonlinear least squares optimization but sufficiently accurate for designing purposes.

  12. 75 FR 26113 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... (69 FR 23857). In that rulemaking, Lake and Porter Counties in Indiana were designated as..., is based on CAA section 182(f)(1)(A) concerning NO X RACT. 75 FR 12088. EPA received no comments on..., 1997 (62 FR 38856), EPA promulgated an 8-hour ozone standard of 0.08 parts per million (ppm)....

  13. Recent Developments in the Area of Probabilistic Design of Timer Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, J.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2007-01-01

    and the timber density. JCSS (Joint Committee of Structural Safety) has recently developed a probabilistic model code for timber properties for structural design, (JCSS 2006). This paper describes the main content of this probabilistic model code and gives a short example for possible application....

  14. The increase of surface area of a Brazilian palygorskite clay activated with sulfuric acid solutions using a factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Palygorskite is fibrous clay in which the structural tetrahedral and octahedral layers are organized in a way that structural channels are formed, leading to high surface area. However, impurities inside the channels and aggregated ones considerably reduce the available area. In order to increase the surface area, an activation treatment can be considered useful. The goal of this work is the activation of palygorskite from Guadalupe, Piauí, via sulfuric acid treatment using a two-level factorial design. The influence of three parameters (solution molarity, temperature and time on BET surface area was determined. Moreover, samples were characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD and fluorescence (XRF, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The largest surface area (282 m²/g without considerable changes in clay structure and morphology was found in a sample treated with 5M H2SO4 at 70°C for 1h. The main parameters that favored the improvement of the surface area were the solution's molarity, temperature and their interaction.

  15. Categorising farming practices to design sustainable land-use management in mountain areas

    OpenAIRE

    Girard-Fourty, Nathalie; Duru, Michel; Hazard, Laurent; Magda, Daniele

    2008-01-01

    In European mountain areas, shrub encroachment resulting from farmland abandonment is most often managed by mechanical operations such as roller chopping or controlled burning, which have proved to be ineffective and unsustainable. Recent agroecological findings highlight the potential impact of grazing on long-term shrub dynamics. We thus explored the potential contribution of livestock farms to the management of shrub encroachment. We studied the diversity of livestock practices and strateg...

  16. Small-area and compact CMOS emulator circuit for CMOS/nanoscale memristor co-design

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, SangHak; Choi, Jun-Myung; Cho, Seongik; Min, Kyeong-Sik

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a CMOS emulator circuit that can reproduce nanoscale memristive behavior is proposed. The proposed emulator circuit can mimic the pinched hysteresis loops of nanoscale memristor memory's current-voltage relationship without using any resistor array, complicated circuit blocks, etc. that may occupy very large layout area. Instead of using a resistor array, other complicated circuit blocks, etc., the proposed emulator circuit can describe the nanoscale memristor's current-voltage...

  17. Design of ecoregional monitoring in conservation areas of high-latitude ecosystems under contemporary climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, Erik A.; Woodward, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Land ownership in Alaska includes a mosaic of federally managed units. Within its agency’s context, each unit has its own management strategy, authority, and resources of conservation concern, many of which are migratory animals. Though some units are geographically isolated, many are nevertheless linked by paths of abiotic and biotic flows, such as rivers, air masses, flyways, and terrestrial and aquatic migration routes. Furthermore, individual land units exist within the context of a larger landscape pattern of shifting conditions, requiring managers to understand at larger spatial scales the status and trends in the synchrony and spatial concurrence of species and associated suitable habitats. Results of these changes will determine the ability of Alaska lands to continue to: provide habitat for local and migratory species; absorb species whose ranges are shifting northward; and experience mitigation or exacerbation of climate change through positive and negative atmospheric feedbacks. We discuss the geographic and statutory contexts that influence development of ecological monitoring; argue for the inclusion of significant amounts of broad-scale monitoring; discuss the importance of defining clear programmatic and monitoring objectives; and draw from lessons learned from existing long-term, broad-scale monitoring programs to apply to the specific contexts relevant to high-latitude protected areas such as those in Alaska. Such areas are distinguished by their: marked seasonality; relatively large magnitudes of contemporary change in climatic parameters; and relative inaccessibility due to broad spatial extent, very low (or zero) road density, and steep and glaciated areas. For ecological monitoring to effectively support management decisions in high-latitude areas such as Alaska, a monitoring program ideally would be structured to address the actual spatial and temporal scales of relevant processes, rather than the artificial boundaries of individual land

  18. Improving the design of amphibian surveys using soil data: A case study in two wilderness areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, K.D.; Beever, E.A.; Gafvert, U.B.

    2009-01-01

    Amphibian populations are known, or thought to be, declining worldwide. Although protected natural areas may act as reservoirs of biological integrity and serve as benchmarks for comparison with unprotected areas, they are not immune from population declines and extinctions and should be monitored. Unfortunately, identifying survey sites and performing long-term fieldwork within such (often remote) areas involves a special set of problems. We used the USDA Natural Resource Conservation Service Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) Database to identify, a priori, potential habitat for aquatic-breeding amphibians on North and South Manitou Islands, Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, Michigan, and compared the results to those obtained using National Wetland Inventory (NWI) data. The SSURGO approach identified more target sites for surveys than the NWI approach, and it identified more small and ephemeral wetlands. Field surveys used a combination of daytime call surveys, night-time call surveys, and perimeter surveys. We found that sites that would not have been identified with NWI data often contained amphibians and, in one case, contained wetland-breeding species that would not have been found using NWI data. Our technique allows for easy a priori identification of numerous survey sites that might not be identified using other sources of spatial information. We recognize, however, that the most effective site identification and survey techniques will likely use a combination of methods in addition to those described here.

  19. Design of the low area monotonic trim DAC in 40 nm CMOS technology for pixel readout chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, A.; Szczygiel, R.; Maj, P.; Satlawa, T.; Grybos, P.

    2014-12-01

    The recent research in hybrid pixel detectors working in single photon counting mode focuses on nanometer or 3D technologies which allow making pixels smaller and implementing more complex solutions in each of the pixels. Usually single pixel in readout electronics for X-ray detection comprises of charge amplifier, shaper and discriminator that allow classification of events occurring at the detector as true or false hits by comparing amplitude of the signal obtained with threshold voltage, which minimizes the influence of noise effects. However, making the pixel size smaller often causes problems with pixel to pixel uniformity and additional effects like charge sharing become more visible. To improve channel-to-channel uniformity or implement an algorithm for charge sharing effect minimization, small area trimming DACs working in each pixel independently are necessary. However, meeting the requirement of small area often results in poor linearity and even non-monotonicity. In this paper we present a novel low-area thermometer coded 6-bit DAC implemented in 40 nm CMOS technology. Monte Carlo simulations were performed on the described design proving that under all conditions designed DAC is inherently monotonic. Presented DAC was implemented in the prototype readout chip with 432 pixels working in single photon counting mode, with two trimming DACs in each pixel. Each DAC occupies the area of 8 μm × 18.5 μm. Measurements and chips' tests were performed to obtain reliable statistical results.

  20. Design of exploration and minerals-data-collection programs in developing areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper considers the practical problem of applying economic analysis to designing minerals exploration and data collection strategies for developing countries. Formal decision rules for the design of government exploration and minerals-data-collection programs are derived by using a minerals-industry planning model that has been extended to include an exploration function. Rules derived are applicable to centrally planned minerals industries as well as market-oriented minerals sectors. They pertain to the spatial allocation of exploration effort and to the allocation of activities between government and private concerns for market-oriented economies. Programs characterized by uniform expenditures, uniform information coverage across regions, or uniform-density grid drilling progrmas are shown to be inferior to the strategy derived. Moreover, for market-oriented economies, the economically optimal mix in exploration activities between private and government data collection would require that only private firms assess local sites and that government agencies carry out regional surveys. ?? 1981.

  1. BLOCK-MODULE METHOD FOR DESIGNING RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS OF RURAL AREA IN HAINAN PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Jinyong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The most widely-spread type of a rural dwelling-house in the Hainan province presenting the most populated part of China is a «Siheyuan» country estate. Its lay-out structure contains an open internal courtyard and all the buildings are practically always located symmetrically relative to a central axis on the sides of the courtyard. The Siheyuan composition permits to divide it in elements which are convenient for a separate construction and for being connected in multi-element block-schemes.  In this connection the designing block-module method can be recommended as the most prospective one for improvement of the methodology for designing rural dwelling houses. Their large-scale construction on the valley territories of the Hainan province is planned by the leadership of the People’s Republic of China. 

  2. Design and performance analysis of a survivable metropolitan area fiber optic communication network

    OpenAIRE

    Angeh, Wolfgang Ondua

    1990-01-01

    The emergence of fiber optic communication technology as a viable alternative to the prevailing copper based network architectures has made it possible to capitalize on the inherent advantages of fiber which include high bandwidth,long regenerator distances and low cost. The focus of this project is to design a survivable and cost effective fiber optic communication network as a proposal for possible deployment in the city of Yaounde, Cameroon. The network comprises 100 n...

  3. A Realistic ICT Network Design and Implementation in the Neighbourhood Area of the Smart Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Zoya Pourmirza, John M. Brooke

    2013-01-01

    The Smart Grid has three main characteristics, which are to some degree antagonistic. These characteristics are: provision of good power quality, energy cost reduction and improvement in the reliability of the grid. The need to ensure that they can be accomplished together demands a much richer ICT monitoring and control network than the current system. In this paper we particularly investigate the design and deployment of the ICT system in the urban environment, specifically in a university ...

  4. Design of a low-bending-loss large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napierala, Marek; Beres-Pawlik, Elzbieta; Nasilowski, Tomasz; Mergo, Pawel; Berghmans, Francis; Thienpont, Hugo

    2012-04-01

    We present a design of a photonic crystal fiber for high power laser and amplifier applications. Our fiber comprises a core with a diameter larger than 60 μm and exhibits single mode operation when the fiber is bent around a 10 cm radius at a wavelength of 1064 nm. Single mode guidance is enforced by the high loss of higher order modes which exceeds 80 dB/m whereas the loss of the fundamental mode (FM) is lower than 0.03 dB/m. The fiber can therefore be considered as an active medium for compact high power fiber lasers and amplifiers with a nearly diffraction limited beam output. We also analyze our fiber in terms of tolerance to manufacturing imperfections. To do so we employ a statistical design methodology. This analysis reveals those crucial parameters of the fiber that have to be controlled precisely during the fabrication process not to deteriorate the fiber performance. Finally we show that the fiber can be fabricated according to our design and we present experimental results that confirm the expected fiber performance.

  5. Design and Implementation of Secure Area Expansion Scheme for Public Wireless LAN Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ryu; Tanaka, Toshiaki

    Recently, wireless LAN (WLAN) technology has become a major wireless communication method. The communication bandwidth is increasing and speeds have attained rates exceeding 100 Mbps. Therefore, WLAN technology is regarded as one of the promising communication methods for future networks. In addition, public WLAN connection services can be used in many locations. However, the number of the access points (AP) is insufficient for seamless communication and it cannot be said that users can use the service ubiquitously. An ad-hoc network style connection can be used to expand the coverage area of a public WLAN service. By relaying the user messages among the user nodes, a node can obtain an Internet connection via an AP, even though the node is located outside the AP's direct wireless connection area. Such a coverage area extending technology has many advantages thanks to the feature that no additional infrastructure is required. Therefore, there is a strong demand for this technology as it allows the cost-effective construction of future networks. When a secure ad-hoc routing protocol is used for message exchange in the WLAN service, the message routes are protected from malicious behavior such as route forging and can be maintained appropriately. To do this, however, a new node that wants to join the WLAN service has to obtain information such as the public key certificate and IP address in order to start secure ad-hoc routing. In other words, an initial setup is required for every network node to join the WLAN service properly. Ordinarily, such information should be assigned from the AP. However, new nodes cannot always contact an AP directly. Therefore, there are problems about information delivery in the initial setup of a network node. These problems originate in the multi hop connection based on the ad-hoc routing protocols. In order to realize an expanded area WLAN service, in this paper, the authors propose a secure public key certificate and address provision

  6. Design and performance of a large area neutron sensitive anger camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, R. A.; Donahue, C.; Visscher, T.; Montcalm, C.

    2015-09-01

    We describe the design and performance of a 157 mm×157 mm two dimensional neutron detector. The detector uses the Anger principle to determine the position of neutrons. We have verified FWHM resolution of Anger Cameras. The performance of the detector is limited by the light yield of the scintillator, and it is estimated that the resolution of the current detector could be doubled with a brighter scintillator. Data collected from small (<1 mm3) single crystal reference samples at the single crystal instrument TOPAZ provide results with low values of the refinement parameter Rw(F).

  7. Laser in vessel viewing system for activated areas: mechanical design, manufacturing and tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new laser based inspection system (LIVVS) has been developed by ENEA for periodic in-vessel inspection in large fusion machines. The design has been taking into account the radiation levels, operating temperatures and pressures foreseen in large European fusion machines such as JET (Joint European Torus) and ITER (International Thermo-nuclear Experimental Reactor). Tests on the LIVVS mock-up are in progress in order to assess the mechanical, optical and electronic performances, and so to measure the system accuracy. Following a detailed mechanical description, preliminary results are reviewed and discussed

  8. 一种面积优化的内插滤波器的设计及实现%Design and implementation of area-efficient interpolation filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶; 吴晓波; 赵津晨

    2011-01-01

    为节省芯片面积,设计并实现了一种面积优化的内插滤波器,该滤波器适用于Sigma-Delta音频数模转换器.采用级联多级半带滤波器加采样保持电路的系统结构以降低硬件复杂度.同时为了减少硬件开销,对半带滤波器的结构进行了改进.实现时采用了正则符号编码(CSD)以进一步减少芯片面积.通过Matlab仿真得到了其滤波器系数,经FPGA平台验证了其功能.滤波器采用TSMC 0.18μm CMOS工艺实现,核心芯片面积为0.34 mm.测试结果表明,芯片达到了设计指标,并且在面积上有一定的优势.%Aiming at saving the chip area , an area-efficient interpolation filter for Sigma-Delta audio digital-to-analog converter(DAC) was designed and implemented.In an effort to reduce the complexity of the system, the interpolation filter was comprised of cascade halfband filters and a sample-and-hold stage.An improved structure of halfband filter was proposed to achieve the hardware efficiency.The canonic signed digital (CSD) representation was used to further reduce the area of the interpolation filter.The coefficients were attained from the Matlab simulation, and the correctness of the design was verified in FPGA.The cell area of the interpolation filter is 0.34 mm2 in TSMC 0.18 μm CMOS process.The experimental results indicate that the proposed interpolation filter accords with the design specification, exhibiting area efficiency.

  9. A Genetic Algorithm for the Bi-Level Topological Design of Local Area Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Fernando Camacho-Vallejo

    Full Text Available Local access networks (LAN are commonly used as communication infrastructures which meet the demand of a set of users in the local environment. Usually these networks consist of several LAN segments connected by bridges. The topological LAN design bi-level problem consists on assigning users to clusters and the union of clusters by bridges in order to obtain a minimum response time network with minimum connection cost. Therefore, the decision of optimally assigning users to clusters will be made by the leader and the follower will make the decision of connecting all the clusters while forming a spanning tree. In this paper, we propose a genetic algorithm for solving the bi-level topological design of a Local Access Network. Our solution method considers the Stackelberg equilibrium to solve the bi-level problem. The Stackelberg-Genetic algorithm procedure deals with the fact that the follower's problem cannot be optimally solved in a straightforward manner. The computational results obtained from two different sets of instances show that the performance of the developed algorithm is efficient and that it is more suitable for solving the bi-level problem than a previous Nash-Genetic approach.

  10. A Low Power/Area Digital FIR Filter Design Based on PRF Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A novel DSP to ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) architecture desig n methodology is presented in this paper for reducing power/area consumption. Traditional methods always focus on optimizing hardware structure or algorithm sep arately. The authors propose a new method called PRF (ParallelingReducing-Fol-ding) framework to combine hardware optimization with algorithm simplification. In the first step,paralleling, unfolding technology is applied to divide one data path into several channels and expose the redundancy of the algorithm. In the second step, reducing,decoupling theory is used to reduce computational complexity.In the last step, folding, timemultiplexing method is used to merge similar components. As an exoteric methodology framework, many optimization methods can be integrated into the PRF framework.To optimize a 3N taps FIR (Fincte Impact Response)and obtain a content result,PRF methodology framework is applied.

  11. A Low Cost Shading Analyzer and Site Evaluator Design to Determine Solar Power System Installation Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami Kesler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shading analyzer systems are necessary for selecting the most suitable installation site to sustain enough solar power. Afterwards, changes in solar data throughout the year must be evaluated along with the identification of obstructions surrounding the installation site in order to analyze shading effects on productivity of the solar power system. In this study, the shading analysis tools are introduced briefly, and a new and different device is developed and explained to analyze shading effect of the environmental obstruction on the site on which the solar power system will be established. Thus, exposure duration of the PV panels to the sunlight can be measured effectively. The device is explained with an application on the installation area selected as a pilot site, Denizli, in Turkey.

  12. Design on rural eco-house in cold areas of Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hua; WANG Wei; JIN Hong

    2006-01-01

    Many kinds of factors that influence rural housing construction in Northern China are analyzed systematically and the connections between them are weighed from ecology and sustainable angles, so that an optimized green house can be built. At the same time, the energy efficient envelope structure and the method of choosing insulation material in the cost of unit thermal resistance are proposed. Integrated quality evaluation by computer shows that thermal comfort in the house would be improved remarkably for the value of PPD drops from 35%-40% to 15%, the rate of saving energy is 51.73%, much higher than the third goal of saving energy in China, and the comprehensive ecological benefit achieves good effect so as to promote the sustainable development of rural housing and community in cold areas of Northern China.

  13. Reducing Area & Power Overhead In Design of Light Weight Sensor For Detection of Reclcled ICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Prabakaran

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The counterfeiting and recycling of integrated circuits (ICs have become major issues in recent years, potentially impacting the security and reliability of electronic systems bound for military, financial, or other critical applications. With identical functionality and packaging, it would be extremely difficult to distinguish recycled ICs from unused ICs. In the existing Ring Oscillator (RO based sensor with 90nm technology test chip shows the effective detection of recycled ICs. The impact of RO based sensor is that, it is difficult to identify recycled ICs used shorter than one month and it requires more power and area overhead. To provide a solution to the existing system, Clock Anti fuses (CAF based sensor is implemented to enhance the effective recognition of recycled ICs even if the IC used for a very short period. MAF is implemented in FPGA to verify its effectiveness.

  14. Standard Practice for Design and Construction of Aerospace Cleanrooms and Contamination Controlled Areas

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 The purpose of this practice is to provide design and construction guidelines for contamination controlled facilities used in the assembly and integration of aerospace hardware. The guidelines herein are intended to ensure that the facilities, when used properly, will meet the cleanliness requirements of aerospace hardware and processes. The objective is to limit contamination due to the deposition of particulate and molecular contaminants on flight hardware surfaces. 1.2 One cleanliness classification of a facility is the airborne particle concentrations in accordance with ISO 14644-1 and 14644-2. Airborne particle concentrations in accordance with FED-STD-209E are included for reference. This simple classification is inadequate to describe a facility that will support the assembly and integration of spacecraft. The extended duration of hardware exposure during fabrication and testing, the sensitivity of the hardware to hydrocarbons and other molecular contaminants, and the changing requirements during ...

  15. Design and performance of a large area neutron sensitive anger camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, R.A., E-mail: riedelra@ornl.gov; Donahue, C.; Visscher, T.; Montcalm, C.

    2015-09-11

    We describe the design and performance of a 157 mm×157 mm two dimensional neutron detector. The detector uses the Anger principle to determine the position of neutrons. We have verified FWHM resolution of <1.2 mm with distortion <0.5 mm on over 50 installed Anger Cameras. The performance of the detector is limited by the light yield of the scintillator, and it is estimated that the resolution of the current detector could be doubled with a brighter scintillator. Data collected from small (<1 mm{sup 3}) single crystal reference samples at the single crystal instrument TOPAZ provide results with low values of the refinement parameter R{sub w}(F)

  16. Shielding design of an underground experimental area at point 5 of the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Mario J; Stevenson, Graham R

    2005-01-01

    Increasing projected values of the circulating beam intensity in the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and decreasing limits to radiation exposure, taken with the increasing non-acceptance of unjustified and unoptimised radiation exposures, have led to the need to re-assess the shielding between the ECX and ECA5 underground experimental areas of the SPS. Twenty years ago, these experimental areas at SPS-Point 5 housed the UA1 experiment, where Carlo Rubbia and his team verified the existence of W and Z bosons. The study reported here describes such a re-assessment based on simulations using the multi-purpose FLUKA radiation transport code. This study concludes that while the main shield which is made of concrete blocks and is 4.8 m thick satisfactorily meets the current design limits even at the highest intensities presently planned for the SPS, dose rates calculated for liaison areas on both sides of the main shield significantly exceed the design limits. Possible ways of improving the shielding situation are discussed.

  17. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Annual progress report FY 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven ``Vision Industries`` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to ``Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is essential that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains reasonably healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. This Annual Report for FY 1995 contains the technical details of some very remarkable work by the best materials scientists and engineers in the world. Areas covered here are: advanced metals and composites; advanced ceramics and composites; polymers and biobased materials; and new materials and processes.

  18. Assessing the influence of the vertical epitaxial layer design on the lateral beam quality of high-power broad area diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterfeldt, M.; Rieprich, J.; Knigge, S.; Maaßdorf, A.; Hempel, M.; Kernke, R.; Tomm, J. W.; Erbert, G.; Crump, P.

    2016-03-01

    GaAs-based high-power broad-area diode lasers deliver optical output powers Popt > 10W with efficiency > 60%. However, their application is limited due to poor in-plane beam parameter product BPPlat=0.25×Θ95%×w95% (Θ95% and w95% are emission angle and aperture, 95% power content). We present experimental investigations on λ = 9xx nm broad area lasers that aim to identify regulating factors of the BPPlat connected to the epitaxial layer design. First, we assess the thermal lens of vertical designs with varying asymmetry, using thermal camera images to determine its strength. Under study are an extreme-double-asymmetric (EDAS) vertical structure and a reference (i.e. more symmetric) design. The lateral thermal profiles clearly show that BPPlat increase is correlated to the bowing of the thermal lens. The latter is derived out of a quadratic temperature fit in the active region beneath the current injection of the laser device and depends on the details of the epitaxial layers. Second, we test the benefit of low modal gain factor Γg0, predicted to improve BPPlat via a suppression of filamentation. EDAS-based lasers with single quantum well (SQW) and double quantum well (DQW) active regions were compared, with 2.5x reduced Γg0, for 2.2x reduced filament gain. However, no difference is seen in measured BPPlat, giving evidence that filamentary processes are no longer a limit. In contrast, devices with lower Γg0 demonstrate an up to twofold reduced near field modulation depth, potentially enabling higher facet loads and increased device facet reliability, when operated near to the COD limit.

  19. Design of an Energy Efficient and Delay Tolerant Routing Protocol for Wireless Body Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms.Venkateswari.R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Wireless Body Area Network provide continuous health monitoring and real-time feedback to the medical personnel. The devices used for WBAN have limited energy resources. For most devices it is impossible to recharge or change the batteries. Low power is needed to provide long lifetime to the devices. All devices are equally important and devices are only added when they are needed for an application. The data mostly consists of medical information. Hence, high reliability and low delay is required. Cluster topology and Dynamic Source Routing Protocol provides high packet delivery ratio, low delay and low energy consumption. In this paper, a modification in the DSR routing protocol has been proposed. The modified DSR named as EDSR (Efficient Dynamic Source Routing, reduces the delay by reducing the average end to end delay for the node and reduces the number of packets dropped thereby increasing packet delivery ratio. Energy consumption in EDSR is decreased by 16.73% when compared to DSR. This protocol reduces the energy consumption and delay by reducing the time needed for route discovery process. EDSR achieves high residual battery capacity which eliminates the need for recharging the batteries thereby ensuring long lifetime of the devices.

  20. Optimal design of schemes for sampling and mapping in the radiometric exploration of Maquixco area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of knowledge of surface radiometric exploration carry out on low level repository in Maquixco, geostatistic parameters were estimated starting from the variograms calculated on the field data, giving as result that maximun correlation distance of samples expressed in 'gammas' in different observation directions, was 26.5 meters for monitoring slit; and for 'alfas' samples in same direction was 12.6 meters of separation between them. Maximum value of spatial distribution of radiometric anomaly expresed in gammas is 198,000 counts per minute in F vortex and B and C vortexes are located in trenches with values of 28,000 and 33,000 counts per minute respectively, being the radiometric interpretation that there was a redistribution of mineral radioactive wastes due to erosion agents of the land, from F vortex dominated mainly by the difference of topographic relief of the site, for alfas exploration the maximum value is 7087 times the background present in B vortex and in C vortex 206 times in trenches area where there are present several nuclear wastes (hospital, laboratories, contaminated steel, etc.) keeping a good correlation with values in trenches, by different exploration methods, deriving an optimization (minimum cost) in spacing of field samples by means of geostatistical techniques, without loosing detection of anomaly (Author)

  1. Solar/battery powered nursing clinic for Australia`s remote areas (system design)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahedi, A. [Monash Univ., Clayton, VIC (Australia). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Systems Engineering

    1996-12-31

    In a remote nursing clinic, the main user of power is the vaccine refrigerator, which has the highest priority for power and requires the most reliability. Other devices such as lights and fans have a lower priority. The remote location also means that it is difficult to obtain quick replacements of electrical components. This paper investigates the possibility of building a photovoltaic/battery system to power the nursing clinic. The design includes a photovoltaic panel with two separate battery strings, one for the vaccine refrigerator and the other for all other loads. In normal conditions, the solar panel powers the vaccine refrigerator. In the times that more power is generated by the solar panel than is required for the refrigerator, excess power is stored in the two batteries. The cost of the whole system is approximately $A4,000. A number of other applications are possible with this system such as use on isolated farms and cattle stations. 1 fig., 4 refs.

  2. Research methodology the aims, practices and ethics of science

    CERN Document Server

    Pruzan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This book is an in-depth guide to effective scientific research. Ranging from the philosophical to the practical, it explains at the outset what science can – and can’t – achieve, and discusses its relationship to mathematics and laws. The author then pays extensive attention to the scientific method, including experimental design, verification, uncertainty and statistics. A major aim of the book is to help young scientists reflect upon the deeper aims of their work and make the best use of their talents in contributing to progress. To this end, it also includes sections on planning research, on presenting one’s findings in writing, as well as on ethics and the responsibilities of scientists. .

  3. [Exploration of the design of media access control layer of wireless body area network for medical healthcare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuemei; Ge, Baofeng

    2012-04-01

    This paper proposes a media access control (MAC) layer design for wireless body area network (WBAN) systems. WBAN is a technology that targets for wireless networking of wearable and implantable body sensors which monitor vital body signs, such as heart-rate, body temperature, blood pressure, etc. It has been receiving attentions from international organizations, e. g. the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), due to its capability of providing efficient healthcare services and clinical management. This paper reviews the standardization procedure of WBAN and summarizes the challenge of the MAC layer design. It also discusses the methods of improving power consumption performance, which is one of the major issues of WBAN systems. PMID:22616194

  4. National Ignition Facility subsystem design requirements laser and target area building (LTAB) SSDR 1.2.2.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Subsystem Design Requirements (SSDR) document establishes the performance, design, and verification requirements for the conventional building systems and subsystems of the Laser and Target Area Building (LTAB), including those that house and support the operation of high-energy laser equipment and the operational flow of personnel and materials throughout the facility. This SSDR addresses the following subsystems associated with the LTAB: Building structural systems for the Target Bay, Switchyards, Diagnostic Building, Decontamination Area, Laser Bays, Capacitor Bays and Operations Support Area, and the necessary space associated with building-support equipment; Architectural building features associated with housing the space and with the operational cleanliness of the functional operation of the facilities; Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems for maintaining a clean and thermally stable ambient environment within the facilities; Plumbing systems that provide potable water and sanitary facilities for the occupants, plus stormwater drainage for transporting rainwater; Fire Protection systems that guard against fire damage to the facilities and their contents; Material handling systems for transporting personnel and heavy materials within the building areas; Mechanical process piping systems for liquids and gases that provide cooling and other service to experimental laser equipment and components; Electrical power and grounding systems that provide service and standby power to building and experimental equipment, including lighting distribution and communications systems for the facilities; Instrumentation and control systems that ensure the safe operation of conventional facilities systems, such as those listed above. Detailed requirements for building subsystems that are not addressed in this document (such as specific sizes, locations, or capacities) are included in detail-level NIP Project Interface Control Documents (ICDS)

  5. Graphical symbols -- Safety colours and safety signs -- Part 1: Design principles for safety signs in workplaces and public areas

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2002-01-01

    This International Standard establishes the safety identification colours and design principles for safety signs to be used in workplaces and in public areas for the purpose of accident prevention, fire protection, health hazard information and emergency evacuation. It also establishes the basic principles to be applied when developing standards containing safety signs. This part of ISO 3864 is applicable to workplaces and all locations and all sectors where safety-related questions may be posed. However, it is not applicable to the signalling used for guiding rail, road, river, maritime and air traffic and, generally speaking, to those sectors subject to a regulation which may differ.

  6. Design of a Dual-Band On-Body Antenna for a Wireless Body Area Network Repeater System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeol Kwon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A dual-band on-body antenna for a wireless body area network repeater system is proposed. The designed dual-band antenna has the maximum radiation directed toward the inside of the human body in the medical implantable communication service (MICS band in order to collect vital information from the human body and directed toward the outside in the industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM band to transmit that information to a monitoring system. In addition, the return loss property of the antenna is insensitive to human body effects by utilizing the epsilon negative zeroth-order resonance property.

  7. Design of area and power efficient Radix-4 DIT FFT butterfly unit using floating point fused arithmetic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prabhu E; Mangalam H; Karthick S

    2016-01-01

    In this work, power efficient butterfly unit based FFT architecture is presented. The butterfly unit is designed using floating-point fused arithmetic units. The fused arithmetic units include two-term dot product unit and add-subtract unit. In these arithmetic units, operations are performed over complex data values. A modified fused floating-point two-term dot product and an enhanced model for the Radix-4 FFT butterfly unit are proposed. The modified fused two-term dot product is designed using Radix-16 booth multiplier. Radix-16 booth multiplier will reduce the switching activities compared to Radix-8 booth multiplier in existing system and also will reduce the area required. The proposed architecture is implemented efficiently for Radix-4 decimation in time (DIT) FFT butterfly with the two floating-point fused arithmetic units. The proposed enhanced architecture is synthesized, implemented, placed and routed on a FPGA device using Xilinx ISE tool. It is observed that the Radix-4 DIT fused floating-point FFT butterfly requires 50.17% less space and 12.16% reduced power compared to the existing methods and the proposed enhanced model requires 49.82% less space on the FPGA device compared to the proposed design. Also, reduced power consumption is addressed by utilizing the reusability technique, which results in 11.42% of power reduction of the enhanced model compared to the proposed design.

  8. EXAMINATION OF THE SIMULATED THERMAL CONDITIONS IN A POPULAR PLAYGROUND RELATED TO THE HUMAN REACTIONS AND THE JUDGMENT OF THE AREA DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. ÉGERHÁZI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the field of urban bioclimatology an important and timely research direction today is to examine the thermal conditions of public places. In our study, human thermal comfort analysis was performed in a modern and well-attended children playground located in Szeged (Hungary. The aim of the paper is to reveal the changes in the thermal comfort conditions between two seasons and also the resulting subjective thermal reactions of visitors in this relatively small area. Thermal comfort conditions were quantified by the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET. For typical summer and autumn days of 2011 numerical simulations of thermal comfort conditions in the playground were carried out by means of the urban microclimate model ENVI-met. Spatial distribution of the simulated PET, i.e. thermal stress maps were created in two different times of the selected days in order to characterize the distinct microclimatological conditions appearing in the area. The relationship between the momentary spatial patterns of visitors and the thermal conditions was also under investigation. Additionally, onsite questionnaire survey was implemented which highlights the people’s subjective evaluation related to the design of the playground.

  9. A scanning probe microscope for magnetoresistive cantilevers utilizing a nested scanner design for large-area scans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Meier

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe an atomic force microscope (AFM for the characterization of self-sensing tunneling magnetoresistive (TMR cantilevers. Furthermore, we achieve a large scan-range with a nested scanner design of two independent piezo scanners: a small high resolution scanner with a scan range of 5 × 5 × 5 μm3 is mounted on a large-area scanner with a scan range of 800 × 800 × 35 μm3. In order to characterize TMR sensors on AFM cantilevers as deflection sensors, the AFM is equipped with a laser beam deflection setup to measure the deflection of the cantilevers independently. The instrument is based on a commercial AFM controller and capable to perform large-area scanning directly without stitching of images. Images obtained on different samples such as calibration standard, optical grating, EPROM chip, self-assembled monolayers and atomic step-edges of gold demonstrate the high stability of the nested scanner design and the performance of self-sensing TMR cantilevers.

  10. Environmentally Friendly Solution to Ground Hazards in Design of Bridges in Earthquake Prone Areas Using Timber Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, H.

    2015-12-01

    Bridges are major elements of infrastructure in all societies. Their safety and continued serviceability guaranties the transportation and emergency access in urban and rural areas. However, these important structures are subject to earthquake induced damages in structure and foundations. The basic approach to the proper support of foundations are a) distribution of imposed loads to foundation in a way they can resist those loads without excessive settlement and failure; b) modification of foundation ground with various available methods; and c) combination of "a" and "b". The engineers has to face the task of designing the foundations meeting all safely and serviceability criteria but sometimes when there are numerous environmental and financial constrains, the use of some traditional methods become inevitable. This paper explains the application of timber piles to improve ground resistance to liquefaction and to secure the abutments of short to medium length bridges in an earthquake/liquefaction prone area in Bohol Island, Philippines. The limitations of using the common ground improvement methods (i.e., injection, dynamic compaction) because of either environmental or financial concerns along with the abundance of timber in the area made the engineers to use a network of timber piles behind the backwalls of the bridge abutments. The suggested timber pile network is simulated by numerical methods and its safety is examined. The results show that the compaction caused by driving of the piles and bearing capacity provided by timbers reduce the settlement and lateral movements due to service and earthquake induced loads.

  11. Design and Initial Tests of the Tracker-Converter ofthe Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwood, W.B.; Bagagli, R.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Barbiellini, G.; Belli, F.; Borden, T.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Caliandro, G.A.; Cecchi, C.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; De; Drell, P.; Favuzzi, C.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Germani, S.; Giannitrapani, R.; Giglietto, N.; /UC, Santa Cruz /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN,

    2007-04-16

    The Tracker subsystem of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) science instrument of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) mission has been completed and tested. It is the central detector subsystem of the LAT and serves both to convert an incident gamma-ray into an electron-positron pair and to track the pair in order to measure the gamma-ray direction. It also provides the principal trigger for the LAT. The Tracker uses silicon strip detectors, read out by custom electronics, to detect charged particles. The detectors and electronics are packaged, along with tungsten converter foils, in 16 modular, high-precision carbon-composite structures. It is the largest silicon-strip detector system ever built for launch into space, and its aggressive design emphasizes very low power consumption, passive cooling, low noise, high efficiency, minimal dead area, and a structure that is highly transparent to charged particles. The test program has demonstrated that the system meets or surpasses all of its performance specifications as well as environmental requirements. It is now installed in the completed LAT, which is being prepared for launch in early 2008.

  12. The Netherlands and the designation of marine protected areas in the North Sea Implementing international and European law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harm Dotinga

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available There is general agreement that representative and ecologically coherent networks of marine protected areas (MPAs should be created to maintain biodiversity and to conserve specific species, habitats and ecological processes. This article addresses the contribution that is made by the Netherlands to the North Sea MPA network. It reviews the applicable legal obligations with regard to the designation of MPAs contained in global and regional treaties and EU law, and provides a critical assessment of the actions that have thus far been taken by the Netherlands to implement these obligations. The article concludes that significant steps have been taken towards a solid Dutch contribution to the global and regional goals of representative MPA networks. There are, however, a number of shortcomings. To a large degree, these are the result of the policy of the Netherlands Government to go no further in the designation of MPAs than what is strictly required by the EU Birds and Habitats Directives. On account of the widely acknowledged ‘marine deficiencies’ of the Habitats Directive, this policy stands in the way of achieving the target of a representative MPA network. Moreover, it is rather doubtful whether the same minimalist approach is sufficient to meet the relevant obligations of the Netherlands under global and regional treaties, in particular the OSPAR Convention. These shortcomings can be remedied by the designation of additional MPAs and, in some cases, by extending the list of species and habitats for which current MPAs have been selected.

  13. 提升学习者思辨能力的综合英语课程教学设计--一种“四层学习身份模型”的视角%The Comprehensive English Instructional Design Aimed at Improving the Critical Thinking of English Majors---A Perspective of the Four-Role Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兵飞

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive English , as one of the main courses in the primary stage for English majors , is to be the initial channel to improving the major students ’ critical thinking.The four roles model is beneficial in satisfying the students ’ urgent need for this aspect.The essay attempts to improve the Comprehensive English instruction with a new design , in which the four roles of readers are consciously adapted to achieving the aim of improving the students ’ critical thinking , and the text-user and analyzer of the students are fully emphasized.This instructional design follows the principles of respecting the student status and developing their autonomy , running through the thread of subject contents and promoting both the language skills and the critical skills , and emphasizing the induc-tion and enlightenment in teaching and focusing on the students ’ use of critical language.%综合英语课程是英语专业基础阶段的主干课程,理应成为学习者提升思辨能力的主要渠道。学习者的“四层学习身份模型”较好地契合了思辨能力的层级结构特征,能有效促进学习者思辨能力的发展。运用该模型改革和设计英语专业综合英语课程教学,有机调整学习者四层学习身份能力训练,突出学习者文本使用者和文本分析者身份,有意识有目的地提升学生分析、推理和评价为核心的思辨能力。这种教学应尊重学生主体地位,发展学习者自主学习能力;贯穿学科内容主线,促进语言技能与思辨能力共同提高;在教学中注重启发诱导,突出学习者的批判性语言能力的运用。

  14. Real-time earthquake alert system for the greater San Francisco Bay Area: a prototype design to address operational issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harben, P.E.; Jarpe, S.; Hunter, S.

    1996-12-10

    The purpose of the earthquake alert system (EAS) is to outrun the seismic energy released in a large earthquake using a geographically distributed network of strong motion sensors that telemeter data to a rapid CPU-processing station, which then issues an area-wide warning to a region before strong motion will occur. The warning times involved are short, from 0 to 30 seconds or so; consequently, most responses must be automated. The San Francisco Bay Area is particularly well suited for an EAS because (1) large earthquakes have relatively shallow hypocenters (10- to 20-kilometer depth), giving favorable ray-path geometries for larger warning times than deeper from earthquakes, and (2) the active faults are few in number and well characterized, which means far fewer geographically distributed strong motion sensors are (about 50 in this region). An EAS prototype is being implemented in the San Francisco Bay Area. The system consists of four distinct subsystems: (1) a distributed strong motion seismic network, (2) a central processing station, (3) a warning communications system and (4) user receiver and response systems. We have designed a simple, reliable, and inexpensive strong motion monitoring station that consists of a three-component Analog Devices ADXLO5 accelerometer sensing unit, a vertical component weak motion sensor for system testing, a 16-bit digitizer with multiplexing, and communication output ports for RS232 modem or radio telemetry. The unit is battery-powered and will be sited in fire stations. The prototype central computer analysis system consists of a PC dam-acquisition platform that pipes the incoming strong motion data via Ethernet to Unix-based workstations for dam processing. Simple real-time algorithms, particularly for magnitude estimation, are implemented to give estimates of the time since the earthquake`s onset its hypocenter location, its magnitude, and the reliability of the estimate. These parameters are calculated and transmitted

  15. Acoustic telemetry and network analysis reveal the space use of multiple reef predators and enhance marine protected area design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, James S E; Humphries, Nicolas E; von Brandis, Rainer G; Clarke, Christopher R; Sims, David W

    2016-07-13

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are commonly employed to protect ecosystems from threats like overfishing. Ideally, MPA design should incorporate movement data from multiple target species to ensure sufficient habitat is protected. We used long-term acoustic telemetry and network analysis to determine the fine-scale space use of five shark and one turtle species at a remote atoll in the Seychelles, Indian Ocean, and evaluate the efficacy of a proposed MPA. Results revealed strong, species-specific habitat use in both sharks and turtles, with corresponding variation in MPA use. Defining the MPA's boundary from the edge of the reef flat at low tide instead of the beach at high tide (the current best in Seychelles) significantly increased the MPA's coverage of predator movements by an average of 34%. Informed by these results, the larger MPA was adopted by the Seychelles government, demonstrating how telemetry data can improve shark spatial conservation by affecting policy directly. PMID:27412274

  16. JUSTIFICATION OF RATIONAL FOUNDATION DESIGN FOR A BUILDING WITH A HIGH CENTER OF GRAVITY FOR CONSTRUCTION IN SEISMIC AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinichev M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subjects of the study are the foundations of buildings with a high center of gravity, in particular, the foundations of high-rise buildings with developed upper floors due to the large consoles. From a set of loads, transferred to the high-rise building with a high center of gravity, we can highlight the most significant impacts, affecting the distribution of forces in the elements of the foundation. We reveal the factors playing a special role in the choice of design solutions for the foundations. The practical significance of this research is due to the demand for ground areas in the cities which are being developed, although they were previously considered unsuitable for construction. Today, one of the primary tasks for engineers and architects is increasing technical and economic performance of construction projects and meeting customers' requirements in the individual architecture. As a variant of increasing technical and economic performance of buildings in dense city building conditions is to use the arm structures in their design solutions that both low-rise and high-rise building can achieve the architectural attractiveness of the building and significantly increase the usable floor area. In the research, two types of the foundations were projected for the object which is an eight-apartment building in the ground conditions of Sochi. The analysis was carried out with such software as PC ING +. After receiving the results of numerical analyses we performed a comparative analysis of pile-slab and slab foundation with the seismicity of the construction site. Therefore, we have identified the most rational of two types of foundations

  17. Optimal design of an atmospheric water generator (AWG) based on thermo-electric cooler (TEC) for drought in rural area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryaningsih, Sri; Nurhilal, Otong

    2016-02-01

    Drinking water availability is a major issue in some rural area in Indonesia during the summer season due to lack of rainfall, which peoples in this area have to fetch the water a few kilometers away from home. The Atmospheric Water Generator (AWG) is one of the alternative solution for fresh water recovery from atmosphere which is directly condensed the moisture content of water vapor from the air. This paper presents the method to develop a prototype of an AWG based on Thermo-electric cooler (TEC) that used 12 Volt DC, hence its suitability for using renewable energy resource. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is utilized to optimize the design process in the flow region only, it's not suitable for recent CFD software to use in Multi physics, because inaccuracy, cost and time saving. Some parameters such as temperature, moisture content, air flow, pressure, form of air flow channel and the water productivity per unit input of energy are to be considered. The result is presented as an experimental prototype of an AWG based on TEC and compared with other conventional commercial products.

  18. Spatial patterns and movements of red king and Tanner crabs: Implications for the design of marine protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, S.J.; Mondragon, J.; Andrews, A.G.; Nielsen, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    Most examples of positive population responses to marine protected areas (MPAs) have been documented for tropical reef species with very small home ranges; the utility of MPAs for commercially harvested temperate species that have large movement patterns remains poorly tested. We measured the distribution and abundance of red king Paralithodes camtschaticus and Tanner Chionoecetes bairdi crabs inside and outside of MPAs in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, USA. By tagging a sub-sample of crabs with sonic tags, we estimated the movement of adult crabs from one of the MPAs (Muir Inlet) into the central portion of Glacier Bay where fishing still occurs. Tanner crabs and red king crabs moved similar average distances per day, although Tanner crabs had a higher transfer out of the Muir Inlet MPA into the central bay. Tanner crab movements were characterized by large variation among individual crabs, both in distance and direction traveled, while red king crabs migrated seasonally between 2 specific areas. Although Tanner crabs exhibited relatively large movements, distribution and abundance data suggest that they may be restricted at large spatial scales by habitat barriers. MPAs that are effective at protecting king and especially Tanner crab brood stock from fishing mortality will likely need to be larger than is typical of MPAs worldwide. However, by incorporating information on the seasonal movements of red king crabs and the location of habitat barriers for Tanner crabs, MPAs could likely be designed that would effectively protect adults from fishing mortality. ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  19. The Large Area Radio Galaxy Evolution Spectroscopic Survey (LARGESS): Survey design, data catalogue and GAMA/WiggleZ spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ching, John H Y; Croom, Scott M; Johnston, Helen M; Pracy, Michael B; Couch, Warrick J; Hopkins, A M; Jurek, Russell J; Pimbblet, K A

    2016-01-01

    We present the Large Area Radio Galaxy Evolution Spectroscopic Survey (LARGESS), a spectroscopic catalogue of radio sources designed to include the full range of radio AGN populations out to redshift z = 0.8. The catalogue covers roughly 800 square degrees of sky, and provides optical identifications for 19,179 radio sources from the 1.4 GHz Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm (FIRST) survey down to an optical magnitude limit of i_mod < 20.5 in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) images. Both galaxies and point-like objects are included, and no colour cuts are applied. In collaboration with the WiggleZ and Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) spectroscopic survey teams, we have obtained new spectra for over 5,000 objects in the LARGESS sample. Combining these new spectra with data from earlier surveys provides spectroscopic data for 12,329 radio sources in the survey area, of which 10,856 have reliable redshifts. 85% of the LARGESS spectroscopic sample are radio AGN (median redshift z = 0.44), and 15% are ne...

  20. Research on the design of a buffer strip for nonpoint source pollution control in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, N.; Ruan, X.

    2015-12-01

    Following the implementation of the Three Gorges Dam Project, nonpoint source (NPS) pollution has become a serious problem in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). An urgent need exists to build buffer strips along the TGR to improve water quality. However, to design the optimal buffer strip for NPS pollution control is challenging because of spatial variations in topography, hydrology, slope and drainage patterns in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA). This research focus on (1) plan the placement of buffer strip in the TGRA for water quality benefits using terrain analysis. (2) estimate suitable widths of buffer strip for different objectives of water quality protection to reflect regional variations in physical conditions. Terrain analysis can provide assessments for placement of conservation practices. There are some ineffective areas where the performance of conservation practices is minimal at watershed scale. The results showed that with increased conservation objectives, greater widths are required to ensure NPS pollutant removal and improvements in water quality. The widths of the modelling buffer vary significantly in spatial with variation in pollutant concentration, slope and soil conditions. It is necessary to install buffer strip along the tributary streams for NPS pollution control and water quality protection at the watershed scale.

  1. Paper-based sensors and assays: a success of the engineering design and the convergence of knowledge areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Marzo, Adaris M; Merkoçi, Arben

    2016-08-16

    This review shows the recent advances and state of the art in paper-based analytical devices (PADs) through the analysis of their integration with microfluidics and LOC micro- and nanotechnologies, electrochemical/optical detection and electronic devices as the convergence of various knowledge areas. The important role of the paper design/architecture in the improvement of the performance of sensor devices is discussed. The discussion is fundamentally based on μPADs as the new generation of paper-based (bio)sensors. Data about the scientific publication ranking of PADs, illustrating their increase as an experimental research topic in the past years, are supplied. In addition, an analysis of the simultaneous evolution of PADs in academic lab research and industrial commercialization highlighting the parallelism of the technological transfer from academia to industry is displayed. A general overview of the market behaviour, the leading industries in the sector and their commercialized devices is given. Finally, personal opinions of the authors about future perspectives and tendencies in the design and fabrication technology of PADs are disclosed. PMID:27412239

  2. Indoor air quality at nine large-hub airports with and without designated smoking areas--United States, October-November 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure causes death and disease among nonsmoking adults and children. Adopting policies that completely prohibit smoking in all indoor areas is the only effective way to eliminate involuntary SHS exposure. Among the 29 large-hub U.S. airports, five currently allow smoking in specifically designated indoor areas accessible to the general public. In 2011, these five airports had a combined passenger boarding of approximately 110 million. To assess indoor air quality at the five large-hub U.S. airports with designated indoor smoking areas and compare it with the indoor air quality at four large-hub U.S. airports that prohibit smoking in all indoor areas, CDC measured the levels of respirable suspended particulates (RSPs), a marker for SHS. The results of this assessment determined that the average level of RSPs in the smoking-permitted areas of these five airports was 16 times the average level in nonsmoking areas (boarding gate seating sections) and 23 times the average level of RSPs in the smoke-free airports. The average RSP level in areas adjacent to the smoking-permitted areas was four times the average level in nonsmoking areas of the five airports with designated smoking areas and five times the average level in smoke-free airports. Smoke-free policies at the state, local, or airport authority levels can eliminate involuntary exposure to SHS inside airports and protect employees and travelers of all ages from SHS.

  3. Evaluation of a Dutch version of the AIMS2 for patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemsma, R.P.; Taal, E.; Rasker, J.J.; Houtman, P.M.; Paassen, van H.C.; Wiegman, O.

    1996-01-01

    DUTCH-AIMS2, a Dutch version of AIMS2 and successor to DUTCH-AIMS, is an instrument to assess health status among patients with rheumatic diseases. It provides measurements of 12 areas of health status on scales for health status proper, satisfaction, attribution and arthritis impact. We assessed th

  4. 41 CFR 102-74.340 - Who is responsible for monitoring and controlling areas designated for smoking by an agency head...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with proper signage? 102-74.340 Section 102-74.340 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... designated for smoking by an agency head and for identifying those areas with proper signage? Agency heads... smoking and identifying these areas with proper signage. Suitable, uniform signs reading...

  5. House design modifications reduce indoor resting malaria vector densities in rice irrigation scheme area in western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Githeko Andrew

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simple modifications of typical rural house design can be an effective and relatively inexpensive method of reducing indoor mosquito vector densities and consequently decreasing malaria transmission. Public health scientists have shown the potential for house design to protect people against malaria, yet this type of intervention remains virtually ignored. A randomized-controlled study was, therefore, undertaken to determine the effects of this method of vector control on the density of indoor resting malaria vectors in a rice irrigation scheme area in lowlands of western Kenya. Methods Ten treatment houses were modified with ceilings of papyrus mats and insecticide-treated netting (ITN and tested against ten control houses without papyrus ceilings. To determine densities of mosquitoes resting in homes, the pyrethrum spray method was used to simultaneously collect indoor resting malaria vectors in intervention and control houses. Each house was sampled a total of eight times over a period of four months, resulting in a total of 80 sampling efforts for each treatment. Community response to such intervention was investigated by discussions with residents. Results Papyrus mats ceiling modification reduced house entry by Anopheles gambiae s.l and Anopheles funestus densities by between 78–80% and 86% respectively compared to unmodified houses. Geometric mean density of Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus in modified houses were significantly lower (t18 = 7.174, P 18 = 2.52, P = 0.02, respectively compared to controls. Unmodified houses were associated with relatively higher densities of malaria vectors. There was a 84% (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.07–0.39, P Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus presence in modified houses, respectively, compared with unmodified houses. Residents responded favourably to this mode of vector control. Conclusion House modifications involving insect screen ceilings made from locally

  6. Robust SMES controller design for stabilization of inter-area oscillation considering coil size and system uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamroo, Issarachai

    2010-12-01

    It is well known that the superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is able to quickly exchange active and reactive power with the power system. The SMES is expected to be the smart storage device for power system stabilization. Although the stabilizing effect of SMES is significant, the SMES is quite costly. Particularly, the superconducting magnetic coil size which is the essence of the SMES, must be carefully selected. On the other hand, various generation and load changes, unpredictable network structure, etc., cause system uncertainties. The power controller of SMES which is designed without considering such uncertainties, may not tolerate and loses stabilizing effect. To overcome these problems, this paper proposes the new design of robust SMES controller taking coil size and system uncertainties into account. The structure of the active and reactive power controllers is the 1st-order lead-lag compensator. No need for the exact mathematical representation, system uncertainties are modeled by the inverse input multiplicative perturbation. Without the difficulty of the trade-off of damping performance and robustness, the optimization problem of control parameters is formulated. The particle swarm optimization is used for solving the optimal parameters at each coil size automatically. Based on the normalized integral square error index and the consideration of coil current constraint, the robust SMES with the smallest coil size which still provides the satisfactory stabilizing effect, can be achieved. Simulation studies in the two-area four-machine interconnected power system show the superior robustness of the proposed robust SMES with the smallest coil size under various operating conditions over the non-robust SMES with large coil size.

  7. Range-wide network of priority areas for greater sage-grouse - a design for conserving connected distributions or isolating individual zoos?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, Michele R.; Knick, Steven T.; Hanser, Steven E.

    2015-09-08

    The network of areas delineated in 11 Western States for prioritizing management of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) represents a grand experiment in conservation biology and reserve design. We used centrality metrics from social network theory to gain insights into how this priority area network might function. The network was highly centralized. Twenty of 188 priority areas accounted for 80 percent of the total centrality scores. These priority areas, characterized by large size and a central location in the range-wide distribution, are strongholds for greater sage-grouse populations and also might function as sources. Mid-ranking priority areas may serve as stepping stones because of their location between large central and smaller peripheral priority areas. The current network design and conservation strategy has risks. The contribution of almost one-half (n = 93) of the priority areas combined for less than 1 percent of the cumulative centrality scores for the network. These priority areas individually are likely too small to support viable sage-grouse populations within their boundary. Without habitat corridors to connect small priority areas either to larger priority areas or as a clustered group within the network, their isolation could lead to loss of sage-grouse within these regions of the network. 

  8. Pharmaceutical compounds in shallow groundwater in non-agricultural areas of Minnesota: study design, methods, and data, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sarah M.; Erickson, Melinda L.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, completed a study on the occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds and other contaminants of emerging concern in shallow groundwater in non-agricultural areas of Minnesota during 2013. This report describes the study design and methods for the study on the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and other contaminants of emerging concern, and presents the data collected on pharmaceutical compounds. Samples were analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory for 110 pharmaceutical compounds using research method 9017. Samples from 21 of 45 wells had detectable concentrations of at least one of the 110 compounds analyzed. One sample contained detectable concentrations of nine compounds, which was the most detected in a single sample. Fewer than five compounds were detected in most samples. Among all samples, 27 of the 110 compounds were detected in groundwater from at least one well. Desmethyldiltiazem and nicotine were the most frequently detected compounds, each detected in 5 of 46 environmental samples (one well was sampled twice so a total of 46 environmental samples were collected from 45 wells). Caffeine had the highest detectable concentration of all the compounds at 2,060 nanograms per liter.

  9. Topology-guided design and syntheses of highly stable mesoporous porphyrinic zirconium metal-organic frameworks with high surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tian-Fu; Feng, Dawei; Chen, Ying-Pin; Zou, Lanfang; Bosch, Mathieu; Yuan, Shuai; Wei, Zhangwen; Fordham, Stephen; Wang, Kecheng; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2015-01-14

    Through a topology-guided strategy, a series of Zr6-containing isoreticular porphyrinic metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), PCN-228, PCN-229, and PCN-230, with ftw-a topology were synthesized using the extended porphyrinic linkers. The bulky porphyrin ring ligand effectively prevents the network interpenetration which often appears in MOFs with increased linker length. The pore apertures of the structures range from 2.5 to 3.8 nm, and PCN-229 demonstrates the highest porosity and BET surface area among the previously reported Zr-MOFs. Additionally, by changing the relative direction of the terminal phenyl rings, this series replaces a Zr8 cluster with a smaller Zr6 cluster in a topologically identical framework. The high connectivity of the Zr6 cluster yields frameworks with enhanced stability despite high porosity and ultralarge linker. As a representative example, PCN-230, constructed with the most extended porphyrinic linker, shows excellent stability in aqueous solutions with pH values ranging from 0 to 12 and demonstrates one of the highest pH tolerances among all porphyrinic MOFs. This work not only presents a successful example of rational design of MOFs with desired topology, but also provides a strategy for construction of stable mesoporous MOFs.

  10. Study and design of a hybrid wind-diesel-compressed air energy storage system for remote areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, H.; Dimitrova, M. [Wind Energy TechnoCentre, 51 Chemin de la mine, C.P. 1300, Murdochville, Quebec (Canada); Wind Energy Research Laboratory (WERL), Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, 300, allee des Ursulines, Quebec (Canada); Anti-icing Materials International Laboratory (AMIL), Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555, boulevard de l' Universite, Quebec (Canada); Younes, R. [Wind Energy Research Laboratory (WERL), Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, 300, allee des Ursulines, Quebec (Canada); 3M Laboratory - Faculty of Engineering, Lebanese University, Beirut (Lebanon); Ilinca, A. [Wind Energy Research Laboratory (WERL), Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, 300, allee des Ursulines, Quebec (Canada); Perron, J. [Anti-icing Materials International Laboratory (AMIL), Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555, boulevard de l' Universite, Quebec (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    Remote areas around the world predominantly rely on diesel-powered generators for their electricity supply, a relatively expensive and inefficient technology that is responsible for the emission of 1.2 million tons of greenhouse gas (GHG) annually, only in Canada. Wind-diesel hybrid systems (WDS) with various penetration rates have been experimented to reduce diesel consumption of the generators. After having experimented wind-diesel hybrid systems (WDS) that used various penetration rates, we turned our focus to that the re-engineering of existing diesel power plants can be achieved most efficiently, in terms of cost and diesel consumption, through the introduction of high penetration wind systems combined with compressed air energy storage (CAES). This article compares the available technical alternatives to supercharge the diesel that was used in this high penetration wind-diesel system with compressed air storage (WDCAS), in order to identify the one that optimizes its cost and performances. The technical characteristics and performances of the best candidate technology are subsequently assessed at different working regimes in order to evaluate the varying effects on the system. Finally, a specific WDCAS system with diesel engine downsizing is explored. This proposed design, that requires the repowering of existing facilities, leads to heightened diesel power output, increased engine lifetime and efficiency and to the reduction of fuel consumption and GHG emissions, in addition to savings on maintenance and replacement cost. (author)

  11. Topology-guided design and syntheses of highly stable mesoporous porphyrinic zirconium metal-organic frameworks with high surface area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tian -Fu [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Feng, Dawei [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Chen, Ying -Pin [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Zou, Lanfang [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Bosch, Mathieu [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Yuan, Shuai [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Wei, Zhangwen [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Fordham, Stephen [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Wang, Kecheng [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Zhou, Hong -Cai [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2015-01-14

    Through a topology-guided strategy, a series of Zr₆-containing isoreticular porphyrinic metal–organic frameworks (MOFs), PCN-228, PCN-229, and PCN-230, with ftw-a topology were synthesized using the extended porphyrinic linkers. The bulky porphyrin ring ligand effectively prevents the network interpenetration which often appears in MOFs with increased linker length. The pore apertures of the structures range from 2.5 to 3.8 nm, and PCN-229 demonstrates the highest porosity and BET surface area among the previously reported Zr-MOFs. Additionally, by changing the relative direction of the terminal phenyl rings, this series replaces a Zr₈ cluster with a smaller Zr₆ cluster in a topologically identical framework. The high connectivity of the Zr₆ cluster yields frameworks with enhanced stability despite high porosity and ultralarge linker. As a representative example, PCN-230, constructed with the most extended porphyrinic linker, shows excellent stability in aqueous solutions with pH values ranging from 0 to 12 and demonstrates one of the highest pH tolerances among all porphyrinic MOFs. This work not only presents a successful example of rational design of MOFs with desired topology, but also provides a strategy for construction of stable mesoporous MOFs.

  12. Topology-Guided Design and Syntheses of Highly Stable Mesoporous Porphyrinic Zirconium Metal-Organic Frameworks with High Surface Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, TF; Feng, DW; Chen, YP; Zou, LF; Bosch, M; Yuan, S; Wei, ZW; Fordham, S; Wang, KC; Zhou, HC

    2015-01-14

    Through a topology-guided strategy, a series of Zr-6-containing isoreticular porphyrinic metalorganic frameworks (MOFs), PCN-228, PCN-229, and PCN-230, with ftw-a topology were synthesized using the extended porphyrinic linkers. The bulky porphyrin ring ligand effectively prevents the network interpenetration which often appears in MOFs with increased linker length. The pore apertures of the structures range from 2.5 to 3.8 nm, and PCN-229 demonstrates the highest porosity and BET surface area among the previously reported Zr-MOFs. Additionally, by changing the relative direction of the terminal phenyl rings, this series replaces a Zr-8 cluster with a smaller Zr-6 cluster in a topologically identical framework. The high connectivity of the Zr-6 cluster yields frameworks with enhanced stability despite high porosity and ultralarge linker. As a representative example, PCN-230, constructed with the most extended porphyrinic linker, shows excellent stability in aqueous solutions with pH values ranging from 0 to 12 and demonstrates one of the highest pH tolerances among all porphyrinic MOFs. This work not only presents a successful example of rational design of MOFs with desired topology, but also provides a strategy for construction of stable mesoporous MOFs.

  13. Study and design of a hybrid wind-diesel-compressed air energy storage system for remote areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remote areas around the world predominantly rely on diesel-powered generators for their electricity supply, a relatively expensive and inefficient technology that is responsible for the emission of 1.2 million tons of greenhouse gas (GHG) annually, only in Canada . Wind-diesel hybrid systems (WDS) with various penetration rates have been experimented to reduce diesel consumption of the generators. After having experimented wind-diesel hybrid systems (WDS) that used various penetration rates, we turned our focus to that the re-engineering of existing diesel power plants can be achieved most efficiently, in terms of cost and diesel consumption, through the introduction of high penetration wind systems combined with compressed air energy storage (CAES). This article compares the available technical alternatives to supercharge the diesel that was used in this high penetration wind-diesel system with compressed air storage (WDCAS), in order to identify the one that optimizes its cost and performances. The technical characteristics and performances of the best candidate technology are subsequently assessed at different working regimes in order to evaluate the varying effects on the system. Finally, a specific WDCAS system with diesel engine downsizing is explored. This proposed design, that requires the repowering of existing facilities, leads to heightened diesel power output, increased engine lifetime and efficiency and to the reduction of fuel consumption and GHG emissions, in addition to savings on maintenance and replacement cost.

  14. Designing and implementing a geographical information system: A guide for managers of area-wide pest management programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past two decades, the use of computer software and mapping methods known as geographical information systems (GIS) has been adopted by an ever growing variety of professionals. Every activity that deals with location dependent information can use GIS, and agriculture is no exception. The potential of GIS and remote sensing (RS) to facilitate the planning and implementation of areawide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes is enormous but unfortunately, these methods are still much underused. AW-IPM programmes, especially those that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT) with other surveillance and control methods, would benefit considerably by drawing on GIS/RS. These programmes are often implemented over large areas of even tens of thousands of square kilometres, where surveillance methods are deployed and large data sets are systematically generated on a daily basis. The acquisition of geo-referenced data sets on pest presence/absence, relative abundance, disease prevalence, crop damage, etc., that will allow accurate spatial and temporal analysis is important for proper and timely decision making to efficiently plan and implement any operational pest management programme. Animal health and plant protection officials and pest control programme managers might be intuitively aware of the importance of employing GIS as an analytical tool. However, they often lack a deeper understanding of its capabilities. Since GIS is a desk exercise using computers, data analysis is often left to the computer staff without proper directives from the programme managers on programmatic needs. This is unfortunate as it will usually NOT bring the desired GIS-processed information to the decision makers. This manual targets area-wide pest control programme administrators and managers of FAO and IAEA Member States in an attempt to demonstrate the type of data processing and spatial analysis that can be expected of GIS. The manual does not aim to provide

  15. Collaboration for the design of an irradiation line in the Tandetron area; Colaboracion para el diseno de una linea de irradiacion en el area de Tandetron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quezada G, A. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    Presently work is sought to contribute in the design of a new line for the Tandetron accelerator that allows the application of other analytical techniques as its are: Rutherford backscattering analysis (RBS), elastic setback scattering analysis (ERDA) elastic scattering toward ahead (EFA) and materials modification by means of the particle beams application. (Author)

  16. REXPO: A catchment model designed to understand and simulate the loss dynamics of plant protection products and biocides from agricultural and urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmer, I. K.; Bader, H.-P.; Scheidegger, R.; Stamm, C.

    2016-02-01

    During rain events, biocides and plant protection products are transported from agricultural fields but also from urban sources to surface waters. Originally designed to be biologically active, these compounds may harm organisms in aquatic ecosystems. Although several models allow either urban or agricultural storm events to be predicted, only few combine these two sources, and none of them include biocide losses from building envelopes. This study therefore aims to develop a model designed to predict water and substance flows from urban and agricultural sources to surface waters. We developed a model based on physical principles for water percolation and substance flow including micro- (also called matrix-) and macropore-flows for the agricultural areas together with a model representing sources, sewer systems and a wastewater treatment plant for urban areas. In a second step, the combined model was applied to a catchment where an extensive field study had been conducted. The modelled and measured discharge and compound results corresponded reasonably well in terms of quantity and dynamics. The total cumulative discharge was only slightly lower than the total measured discharge (factor 0.94). The total modelled losses of the agriculturally used herbicide atrazine were slightly lower (∼25%) than the measured losses when the soil pore water distribution coefficient (describing the partition between soil particles and pore water) (Kd) was kept constant and slightly higher if it was increased with time. The modelled urban losses of diuron from facades were within a factor of three with respect to the measured values. The results highlighted the change in importance of the flow components during a rain event from urban sources during the most intensive rain period towards agricultural ones over a prolonged time period. Applications to two other catchments, one neighbouring and one on another continent showed that the model can be applied using site specific data for

  17. Design Rework Prediction in Concurrent Design Environment: Current Trends and Future Research Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Arundachawat, Panumas; Roy, Rajkumar; Al-Ashaab, Ahmed; Shehab, Essam

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to present state-of-the-art and formulate future research areas on design rework in concurrent design environment. Related literatures are analysed to extract the key factors which impact design rework. Design rework occurs due to changes from upstream design activities and/or by feedbacks from downstream design activities. Design rework is considered as negative iteration; therefore, value in design activities will be increased if design rework is reduced. Set-bas...

  18. Pedestrian Areas in Los Angeles: Influence of design features and market area on pedestrian activity. A case study of three commercial strips

    OpenAIRE

    Soto, Manuel Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examines the spatial, social, and economic aspects of pedestrianism in three active pedestrian areas of Los Angeles to identify the causes of their activity, and to shed light on how these aspects work together to achieve pedestrian vibrancy. Three old commercial strips were selected to reflect a wide range of demographic, socioeconomic, and urban space characteristics; these three cases were analyzed to determine qualitative and quantitative factors that influence pedestrian flo...

  19. Data Quality in Wide-Area Monitoring and Control Systems : PMU Data Latency, Completness, and Design of Wide-Area Damping Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Kun

    2013-01-01

    The strain on modern electrical power system operation has led to an ever increasing utilization of new Information Communication Technology (ICT) systems to enhance the reliability and efficiency of grid operation. Among these proposals, Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU)-based Wide-Area Monitoring and Control (WAMC) systems have been recognized as one of the enablers of “Smart Grid”, particularly at the transmission level, due to their capability to improve the real-time situational awareness of...

  20. Scheme Design of Intelligent Transportation System for Urban Area%城市片区智能交通系统方案设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨坤; 张大为

    2014-01-01

    Taking the scheme design of the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) for the economic exper-imentation area of one domestic city as the example, the article discusses the ITS design ideas of urban ar-ea based on the internet of tings technology from the aspects of system structure, system function, informa-tion transmission. It can provide reference for ITS design of other similar areas.%以国内某城市经济实验区智能交通系统的方案设计为例,从系统构成、系统功能、信息传输等方面探讨了以物联网技术为基础的城市片区智能交通系统的设计思路,可为其他同类型片区智能交通系统设计提供参考。

  1. FHFA Underserved Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Federal Housing Finance Agency's (FHFA) Underserved Areas establishes underserved area designations for census tracts in Metropolitan Areas (MSAs), nonmetropolitan...

  2. [Social marketing--seduction with the aim of healthy behavior?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, J; Nagel, E

    2010-01-01

    SOCIAL MARKETING - SEDUCTION WITH THE AIM OF HEALTHY BEHAVIOR? Social marketing is the use of marketing principles to design and implement programs that promote socially beneficial behaviour change. Contrary to the marketing of consumption goods, social marketing does not deal with material products, but with behaviour, e. g. not smoking. This 'product' has a basic benefit (i. e. reduction of health risks in the long run), which is, however, difficult to convey. Therefore, the intended change in behaviour has to be related to a further reward which consists of symbolic goods, e. g. social appreciation or a better body feeling. The communication policy is essential for information on and motivation for the preventive issue. Social marketing campaigns whose development and management follow the principles of classical marketing can render preventive efforts more effective. In addition, social marketing can lead to a better quality management as compared to conventional preventive activities. These advantages can be explained by a) tailoring the campaign more specifically to the target group's needs and motives, b) presenting health risks more convincingly, and c) continuously analysing and evaluating the campaign and its effects. On the other hand, the marketing of preventive aims through mass media can bear several risks, as exemplified by different national and international public health campaigns. The necessity to communicate briefly and succinctly can lead to misleading simplifications and, in case of cancer screening, to the trivialization of a behaviour's consequences and adverse effects. Also, many campaigns do not intend to educate and inform, but try to persuade target persons of a certain behaviour, using emotions such as fear. This has led to social marketing being criticized as manipulation. Sometimes, social marketing campaigns cause stigma and discrimination of certain population subgroups, e. g. obese or HIV-positive people. Health promoters who plan

  3. [Social marketing--seduction with the aim of healthy behavior?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, J; Nagel, E

    2010-01-01

    SOCIAL MARKETING - SEDUCTION WITH THE AIM OF HEALTHY BEHAVIOR? Social marketing is the use of marketing principles to design and implement programs that promote socially beneficial behaviour change. Contrary to the marketing of consumption goods, social marketing does not deal with material products, but with behaviour, e. g. not smoking. This 'product' has a basic benefit (i. e. reduction of health risks in the long run), which is, however, difficult to convey. Therefore, the intended change in behaviour has to be related to a further reward which consists of symbolic goods, e. g. social appreciation or a better body feeling. The communication policy is essential for information on and motivation for the preventive issue. Social marketing campaigns whose development and management follow the principles of classical marketing can render preventive efforts more effective. In addition, social marketing can lead to a better quality management as compared to conventional preventive activities. These advantages can be explained by a) tailoring the campaign more specifically to the target group's needs and motives, b) presenting health risks more convincingly, and c) continuously analysing and evaluating the campaign and its effects. On the other hand, the marketing of preventive aims through mass media can bear several risks, as exemplified by different national and international public health campaigns. The necessity to communicate briefly and succinctly can lead to misleading simplifications and, in case of cancer screening, to the trivialization of a behaviour's consequences and adverse effects. Also, many campaigns do not intend to educate and inform, but try to persuade target persons of a certain behaviour, using emotions such as fear. This has led to social marketing being criticized as manipulation. Sometimes, social marketing campaigns cause stigma and discrimination of certain population subgroups, e. g. obese or HIV-positive people. Health promoters who plan

  4. The preservation status of the lichen biota in the designed Special Area of Conservation NATURA 2000 „Middle Łyna River Valley – Smolajny”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kubiak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the list of 159 taxa, including 151 lichens and 8 saprotrophic or parasitic (lichenicolous fungi, recorded in the designed Special Area of Conservation NATURA 2000 „Middle Łyna River Valley – Smolajny” (the Forest Division of Wichrowo. The analysed area (2953 ha covers mostly forest communities, with natural character, associated with the valley of the Łyna river (hillside lime-oak-hornbeam forests, streamside alder-ash forest, riparian black alder forest.

  5. Effect evaluation on a medical device for drinking water filtration designed for reduction of microbial density in areas at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Bonadonna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In areas at risk (hospitals, nursing homes but in also in community such as schools, swimming pools, gyms, drinking water plumbing system can harbor also pathogenic microrganisms, potential vehicles of diseases because of structural factors and phenomena of microbial regrowth. In a setting of prevention, for limiting the exposure to pathogens in the environment and for minimizing the risk, at the point of use, specific disposable filter units could be installed. Aims. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness in retaining microrganisms of a medical devices installed at drinking water faucets. Materials and methods. One hundred and eighty samples of water were microbiologically analyzed. Natural heterotrophic microbial flora present in drinking water were analytically determined before and after the passage through the system. Contemporaneously, twenty four suspensions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli at known concentration were determined for the calculation of the limit of retention calculated taking into examination the worst cases associated with the highest microbial concentrations. Results. The investigation showed that the devices were both efficient at reducing the natural microbial load and at guaranteeing the removal of high concentration of microrganisms (till 5 log. Fifty-seven out of 90 samples analyzed for the heterotrophs did not show any growth after the drainage through the system. In the positive samples, 86% showed a microbial concentration ranging between 1 e 3 CFU/L. Progressive growing concentrations of P. aeruginosa and E. coli proved a high limit of retention: none growth was obtained till the concentrations of 1.3x1012 CFU/mL and 5.0x1013 CFU/mL, respectively. Conclusions. The data show that the filter units installed directly at the point of use can be helpful at guaranteeing reliable retention of microbes. Still, in order to obtain an appropriate operation of the device, in spite of both

  6. The benefit of textile design research to the textile designer.

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    If Textile Designers do not embark on and utilise textile research we will be left in a ‘sole less’ vacuum. The following article aims to show the benefit of textile design research to the textile designer. Textile design is increasingly complex, and influenced by a number of factors such as ethical textiles, sustainability, fast versus slow fashion, new digital technology and science. It is therefore necessary for increased research by the textile designer into these areas in order to u...

  7. Mobile lidars. Influence of external mechanical actions on accuracy of lidar aiming

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitriev, Viktor Stepanovich; Kostyuchenko, T. G.; Yangulov, V. S.; Teploukhov, V. V.

    2007-01-01

    The questions of designing mechanical system load-bearing elements «lidar radiator-lidar basis-automobile» in order to reduce external mechanical effects on lidar aiming accuracy have been considered

  8. Designing for Design Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Sunghyun

    2009-01-01

    The area of graphic design has expanded since digital media was introduced, and it requires new creative thinking skills in the design process. This paper proposes a design process for a graphic design graduate class using activity theory as a theoretical background. This design process consists of three phases to solve the design problems within diverse design projects. Each phase was examined in terms of how the elements of activity theory could apply to the design process. As a research me...

  9. 对游乐园等待空间景观设计的思考%Thinking of the Waiting Area Landscape Design in the Amusement Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任康丽

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the waiting area landscape design of the amusement park and discuss the needs of the functional elements and environment psychological experience. We also make an overall merit on the landscape design cultural artistic conception, landscape design commercial value and the method of the ecological environment design in the amusement park. The thinking of the details design in landscape will have a significant benefit of city public environment design and tourist area facility rationalization design.%对游乐园等待空间的设计进行分析,探讨游人在等待区域中所需要的实用性景观构成及景观细节的设计方法.对等待空间在游乐园景观设计中的文化意境、商业价值、生态环境的设计方法作了综合评价.从游乐园等待空间所引起的景观细节的思考将对城市公共环境及旅游区公共设施建设设计有借鉴意义.

  10. The CONECOFOR Programme: general presentation, aims and co-ordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno PETRICCIONE

    2002-09-01

    damage (yearly have been added. Test phases of new surveys (biodiversity, biotic damage, etc. are planned for 2002/3. The National Forestry Service (CONECOFOR Service co-ordinates six participating research institutes, each of which is responsible for the analyses and monitoring activities. The permanent plots are selected according to the directive of EU Regulation no. 1091/94 so as to include the major forest ecosystems in Italy, and are distributed over the whole country. Each covers an area of 10-100 ha, within which two sample units of 2,500 m2 are designated. The main dominant species are Fagus sylvatica (10 areas, Picea abies (6, Quercus cerris (5, Quercus ilex (4, Quercus petraea (1 Quercus robur (1 and Abies alba (1. The first six years of the CONECOFOR Programme have resulted in a detailed, organic description of the main forest ecosystems in Italy. Implementation of the programme has meant that we are now in possession of a reasonably complete knowledge of the ecological characteristics of 17 different Italian forest communities ranging from the Alps to Sicily. The assessment and monitoring of forest health represent a key point for environmental policy-makers and for the management of environmental resources in the framework of sustainable development.

  11. 77 FR 13073 - Designation for the Jamestown, ND; Lincoln, NE; Memphis, TN; and Sioux City, IA Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... hours (7 CFR 1.27(c)). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the September 20, 2011 Federal Register (76 FR...; Memphis, TN; and Sioux City, IA Areas AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration... October 20, 2011. In the Lincoln, NE; Memphis, TN; and Sioux City, IA areas, Lincoln, Midsouth, and...

  12. Literature review for Texas Department of Transportation Research Project 0-4695: Guidance for design in areas of extreme bed-load mobility, Edwards Plateau, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmuller, Franklin T.; Asquith, William H.; Fang, Xing; Thompson, David B.; Wang, Keh-Han

    2005-01-01

    A review of the literature addressing sediment transport in gravel-bed river systems and structures designed to control bed-load mobility is provided as part of Texas Department of Transportation research project 0–4695: Guidance for Design in Areas of Extreme Bed-Load Mobility. The study area comprises the western half of the Edwards Plateau in central Texas. Three primary foci of the literature review are journal articles, edited volumes, and government publications. Major themes within the body of literature include deterministic sediment transport theory and equations, development of methods to measure and analyze fluvial sediment, applications and development of theory in natural channels and flume experiments, and recommendations for river management and structural design. The literature review provides an outline and foundation for the research project to characterize extreme bed-load mobility in rivers and streams across the study area. The literature review also provides a basis upon which potential modifications to low-water stream-crossing design in the study area can be made.

  13. 40 CFR 51.917 - What is the effective date of designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the effective date of designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area? 51.917 Section 51.917 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION...

  14. Soap Films and Bubbles, Grades 4-9. Project AIMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Ann

    Project AIMS (Activities to Integrate Mathematics and Science) has as its purpose the integration of subject matter in grades K-9 on the premise that such integration enriches and makes learning meaningful and holistic. In fact, extensive field testing of the curriculum materials produced by AIMS has confirmed that integration produces the…

  15. Database on Aims and Visions in the COINCO Corridor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    This database contains aims and visions regarding overall regional development as well as more specific aims and visions related to transport and infrastructure in the Corridor Oslo-Göteborg-Copenhagen-Berlin. The sources used for this database are the most essential planning documents from Denmark...

  16. Patriotism, history and the legitimate aims of American education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.S. Merry

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that while an attachment to one's country is both natural and even partially justifiable, cultivating loyal patriotism in schools is untenable insofar as it conflicts with the legitimate aims of education. These aims include the epistemological competence necessary for ascertaini

  17. Selection patterns, gender and friendship aim in classroom networks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baerveldt, Chris; Van de Bunt, Gerhard G.; Vermande, Marjolijn M.

    2014-01-01

    The social networks of students, and the underlying processes of selection, can have strong effects on their psychological and academic adjustment. The effects of gender, friendship aim (intimacy or social activities) and the combination of gender and friendship aim on selection patterns (student’s

  18. The Aims of Education and the Leap of Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, SunInn

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the place of freedom in discussions of the aims of education. Bearing in mind remarks of R.S. Peters to the affect that the singling out of aims can "fall into the hands of rationalistically minded curriculum planners", it begins by considering the views of Roland Reichenbach regarding Bildung and his account of this…

  19. Study Based on Bridge Health Monitoring System on Multihazard Load Combinations of Earthquake and Truck Loads for Bridge Design in the Southeast Coastal Areas of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezhang Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Similar to American LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, the current Chinese bridge design code is fully calibrated against gravity load and live load. Earthquake load is generally considered alone and has its own methodology, however, which is not covered in the code in a consistent probability-based fashion. Earthquake load and truck load are the main loads considered in the basis of bridge design in more than 70% of seismic areas in China. They are random processes, and their combination is the main subject of this paper. Seismic characteristics of southeast coastal areas of China are discussed and an earthquake probability curve is calculated through seismic risk analysis. Using measured truck load data from a Bridge Health Monitoring System, the multimodal characteristics of truck load are analyzed and a probability model for a time interval t is obtained by fitting results and reliability theory. Then, a methodology is presented to combine earthquake load and truck load on a probabilistic basis. To illustrate this method, truck load and earthquake load combinations are used. Results conceptually illustrate that truck load and earthquake load are not dominant in southeast coastal areas of China, but the effect of their combination is. This methodology quantitatively demonstrates that the design is controlled by truck load in most ranges; that is, truck load is more important to bridge design in the region.

  20. 区域辐射剂量监测系统的设计%The Design of Area Radiation Dose Monitoring System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖; 侯胜利; 曾卫华; 刘海生

    2011-01-01

    The area radiation dose monitoring system is used for monitoring the radiation levels of the important nuclear reactor area to ensure the safty of radiation in the nuclear reactor. The component and function of the monitoring system as well as its circuit design and software design are introduced. The design of parallel communication is emphasized.%区域辐射剂量监测系统用于日常监测核反应堆重点区域的辐射水平,保证核反应堆运行中的辐射安全.主要介绍了监测系统的组成和功能,系统的电路设计和软件设计,重点介绍了系统中并行通信的设计.

  1. Revitalization Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Revitalization areas are HUD-designated neighborhoods in need of economic and community development and where there is already a strong commitment by the local...

  2. Implementation of an Anesthesia Information Management System (AIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, James R; Ritter, Melody J

    2011-01-01

    During the administration of anesthesia, the anesthesia provider has historically created a paper record, charted manually, that included extensive patient care-related data (vital signs, other parameters, etc) and commentaries. DocuSys, a proprietary anesthesia information management system (AIMS), creates an electronic version of the anesthesia record and provides additional information. It electronically captures data from clinical monitors and other sources, including scheduling applications and laboratory computers. The AIMS facilitates chart entries such as drug doses and case narratives. Benefits of an AIMS include improved legibility of the anesthesia record and greater efficiency in documentation efforts. Use of the AIMS assists the practitioner with decision support logic, such as the timing of antibiotic administration and the inclusion of legally required documentation. Upon case completion, the AIMS data are immediately available to other information systems, such as billing and medical records. Data can be made available from a single case or, more important, from thousands of cases to analyze variables such as efficiency of services, adherence to best practices, patient outcomes, and clinical research. The AIMS was deployed at the main campus of the Ochsner Health System on March 26, 2009. In this article, we discuss the issues involved in the AIMS implementation process: the successes, surprises, and continued challenges. PMID:21734847

  3. Implementation of an Anesthesia Information Management System (AIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, James R.; Ritter, Melody J.

    2011-01-01

    During the administration of anesthesia, the anesthesia provider has historically created a paper record, charted manually, that included extensive patient care–related data (vital signs, other parameters, etc) and commentaries. DocuSys, a proprietary anesthesia information management system (AIMS), creates an electronic version of the anesthesia record and provides additional information. It electronically captures data from clinical monitors and other sources, including scheduling applications and laboratory computers. The AIMS facilitates chart entries such as drug doses and case narratives. Benefits of an AIMS include improved legibility of the anesthesia record and greater efficiency in documentation efforts. Use of the AIMS assists the practitioner with decision support logic, such as the timing of antibiotic administration and the inclusion of legally required documentation. Upon case completion, the AIMS data are immediately available to other information systems, such as billing and medical records. Data can be made available from a single case or, more important, from thousands of cases to analyze variables such as efficiency of services, adherence to best practices, patient outcomes, and clinical research. The AIMS was deployed at the main campus of the Ochsner Health System on March 26, 2009. In this article, we discuss the issues involved in the AIMS implementation process: the successes, surprises, and continued challenges. PMID:21734847

  4. Implementation of an Anesthesia Information Management System (AIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, James R; Ritter, Melody J

    2011-01-01

    During the administration of anesthesia, the anesthesia provider has historically created a paper record, charted manually, that included extensive patient care-related data (vital signs, other parameters, etc) and commentaries. DocuSys, a proprietary anesthesia information management system (AIMS), creates an electronic version of the anesthesia record and provides additional information. It electronically captures data from clinical monitors and other sources, including scheduling applications and laboratory computers. The AIMS facilitates chart entries such as drug doses and case narratives. Benefits of an AIMS include improved legibility of the anesthesia record and greater efficiency in documentation efforts. Use of the AIMS assists the practitioner with decision support logic, such as the timing of antibiotic administration and the inclusion of legally required documentation. Upon case completion, the AIMS data are immediately available to other information systems, such as billing and medical records. Data can be made available from a single case or, more important, from thousands of cases to analyze variables such as efficiency of services, adherence to best practices, patient outcomes, and clinical research. The AIMS was deployed at the main campus of the Ochsner Health System on March 26, 2009. In this article, we discuss the issues involved in the AIMS implementation process: the successes, surprises, and continued challenges.

  5. What is Wrong With Aim-Oriented Empiricism?

    CERN Document Server

    Maxwell, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    For four decades it has been argued that we need to adopt a new conception of science called aim-oriented empiricism. This has far-reaching implications and repercussions for science, the philosophy of science, academic inquiry in general, the conception of rationality, and how we go about attempting to make progress towards as good a world as possible. Despite these far-reaching repercussions, aim-oriented empiricism has so far received scant attention from philosophers of science. Here, sixteen objections to the validity of the argument for aim-oriented empiricism are subjected to critical scrutiny.

  6. Designing Human Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    a shared interdisciplinary research and educational collaboration. As a creative research initiative it focuses on change and innovative thinking. The innovativeness is a result of the strongly interdisciplinary perspective which is at the heart of Designing Human Technologies. Designing Human Technologies...... and the design process, in ethical and society-related concerns, and in evaluating how designs fulfill needs and solve problems. Designing Human Technologies subscribes to a broad technology concept including information and communication, mobile, environmental/sustainable and energy technologies......Design is increasingly becoming a part of the university curriculum and research agenda. The keynote present and discuss Designing Human Technologies – an initiative aiming at establishing a design oriented main subject area alongside traditional main subject areas such as Natural Science...

  7. Gender Advertisements in Magazines Aimed at African Americans: A Comparison to Their Occurrence in Magazines Aimed at Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Tara L.; Goulet, Nicole

    1999-01-01

    Analyzed more than 200 magazines to compare advertisements in magazines aimed at African Americans with advertisements in magazines aimed at Caucasians. Discusses results in terms of the demand characteristics implicit in gender advertisements and in terms of cultural differences in gender role expectations. (Author/SLD)

  8. Evaluation and cultural adaptation of a German version of the AIMS2-SF questionnaire (German AIMS2-SF).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosemann, T.J.; Korner, T.; Wensing, M.J.P.; Schneider, A.; Szecsenyi, J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine the validity of a translated and culturally adapted version of the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales 2, Short Form (AIMS2-SF) in patients suffering from osteoarthritis (OA) in primary care. METHODS: A structured procedure was used for the translation

  9. Preliminary design of a biological treatment facility for trench water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A New York State Energy and Research Development Authority (the Authority) funded treatability study identified biotreatment as the best technology to reduce the hazardous constituent concentrations below discharge criteria. Ion exchange resins were shown to reduce strontium-90 and cesium-137 concentrations of a low-level radioactive waste disposal trench leachate below release limits. Based on the results of this treatability study, the Authority has funded the design of a leachate treatment system. An activated sludge bioreactor and ion exchange resin columns will be components of the treatment train. A discussion of the design and the design criteria for the treatment facility will be provided. Particular emphasis will be placed on the availability of the off-the-shelf equipment and the modifications that will be required. Other issues which will be discussed are: Tritium concentration concerns, secondary waste generation and processing, design codes, site layout and schedule

  10. Americans aim to overhaul science teaching by 2061

    CERN Multimedia

    1990-01-01

    Project 2061 is a long-term initiative by the AAAS to reform classroom science. Deputy director Walter Gillespie claims that the aim is for schools to teach less content but teach it better (1/2 page).

  11. A review of intervention studies aimed at household energy conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, W; Steg, L; Vlek, C; Rothengatter, T; Rothengatter, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews and evaluates the effectiveness of interventions aiming to encourage households to reduce energy consumption. Thirty-eight studies performed within the field of (applied) social and environmental psychology are reviewed, and categorized as involving either antecedent strategies

  12. Student Teachers’ Attitude towards Twitter for Educational Aims

    OpenAIRE

    Marín, Victoria I.; Gemma Tur

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an educational experience with 100 student teachers from different courses of the University of the Balearic Islands (Spain) in which Twitter is used for various different activities. The aim of this experiment was to explore student teachers’ perceptions in order to value their attitude towards Twitter for educational aims. Afterwards, students were asked to write down their reflections on an eportfolio. Data was collected from their eportfolio evidence, which was analyse...

  13. Fire Area Design of Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor Nuclear Plant%先进压水堆核电厂防火分区设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈闽烽; 张海波

    2014-01-01

    本文主要对先进压水堆核电厂防火分区设计的背景、目标、范围、原则及不同防火空间的特点进行了介绍,列举了重要厂房相关防火分区的设计情况。通过防火分区设计有助于火灾情况下保证安全相关设备的功能和人员的安全,提高了核电厂的总体防火安全水平。%This paper introduces the fire area design of advanced pressurized water reactor nuclear plant about background, objectives, scope, principles and characteristics of different fire area, and cites the fire area design of some important buildings. Through the design of fire area to help ensure the safety related equipment and personnel under fire and raise the overal level of fire safety in nuclear power plants.

  14. Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Richard; Cross, Nigel; Durling, David; Nelson, Harold; Owen, Charles; Valtonen, Anna; Boling, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew; Visscher-Voerman, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of design were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Richard Buchanan, Nigel Cross, David Durling, Harold Nelson, Charles Owen, and Anna Valtonen. Scholars…

  15. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Mette

    2009-01-01

    Design - proces og metode går bag om designerens arbejde og giver et indblik i den skabelsesproces, som designeren er involveret i. Bogen er enestående, fordi den fokuserer på processens flygtige og komplekse karakter, afmystificerer den og gør den operationel - uden at fjerne dens magi. Ud over...

  16. 居住区户外环境的适老化设计%Outdoor Environment Design for the Aged in Residential Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周燕珉; 刘佳燕

    2013-01-01

    From angle of developer, designer and purchaser, this paper makes analysis of the design problems for the aged in present residential area. According to the demands of outdoor activities for the aged, it proposes the design principle for outdoor environment and the main points of design for different type of activities space, outdoor facilities and garden factors.%从开发商、设计师、购房者等不同主体方面分析目前居住区在适老化设计方面的问题成因和表现,结合老年人户外活动的需求,提出面向适老化的户外环境设计原则,及关于户外环境不同类型的活动空间、户外设施及园林要素的设计要点.

  17. Chemical mass balance modeling for air quality analysis near a waste-to-energy facility in a complex urban area: Program design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the design and implementation of an ambient monitoring and receptor modeling study to evaluate air quality impacts from a state-of-the-art municipal waste management facility in a major urban area. The Robbins Resource Recovery Facility (RRRF), located in the Chicago metropolitan area, processes municipal solid waste (MSW) to recover recyclables, process the residual waste to create refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and burns the RDF to reduce the residual waste volume and recover energy. The RRRF is cooperating with the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) and the Illinois Office of the Attorney General (OAG) to analyze air quality and facility impacts in the plant vicinity. An ambient monitoring program began one year before plant operation and will continue for five years after startup. Because the impacts of the RRRF are projected to be very low, and because the Chicago area includes a complex mix of existing industrial, commercial, and residential activity, the ambient data will be analyzed using Version 7.0 of the USEPA s Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model to estimate the extent of the RRRF's impact on air quality in the area. The first year of pre-operational ambient data is currently under analysis. This paper describes the study design considerations, ambient monitoring program, emission data acquisition, background source data needs, and data analysis procedures developed to conduct CMB modeling in a complex industrialized area

  18. Design of retention area and regulation of Pešnica stream in the Šentjur region

    OpenAIRE

    Kocjan, Matej

    2010-01-01

    This paper work is dealing with regulation of the flood-control reservoir (retention area) on the Pešnica as one of the measures against flood risk and separatly with natural sustainable regulation of river channel in the proposed section. With the new bypass and bridge construction investor affect in the natural floodplain and stream profile of Pešnica. From this perspective, it can be expected that will increase the flood risk ahead of road and other downstream areas. Planning a flood-contr...

  19. Real-time earthquake alert system for the greater San Francisco Bay Area: a prototype design to address operational issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harben, P.E.; Jarpe, S.; Hunter, S.

    1996-05-29

    This paper describes a prototype for this EAS (real time) in the Bay area. Approach is pragmatic, attempting to establish a prototype system at a low cost and quickly. A real-time warning system can protect the public and mitigate earthquake damage. The proposed system is a distributed network of real-time strong-motion monitoring stations that telemetered data in real time to a central analysis facility which could transmit earthquake parameter information to an area before elastic wave energy arrived. Upgrades and issues that should be resolved before an operational EAS can be established, are listed.

  20. Data Management Plan and Functional System Design for the Information Management System of the Clinch River Remedial Investigation and Waste Area Grouping 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, T.; Brandt, C.; Calfee, J.; Garland, M.; Holladay, S.; Nickle, B.; Schmoyer, D.; Serbin, C.; Ward, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The Data Management Plan and Functional System Design supports the Clinch River Remedial Investigation (CRRI) and Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 Environmental Monitoring Program. The objective of the Data Management Plan and Functional System Design is to provide organization, integrity, security, traceability, and consistency of the data generated during the CRRI and WAG 6 projects. Proper organization will ensure that the data are consistent with the procedures and requirements of the projects. The Information Management Groups (IMGs) for these two programs face similar challenges and share many common objectives. By teaming together, the IMGs have expedited the development and implementation of a common information management strategy that benefits each program.

  1. Design of heavy steel structure building in soft area%某重钢结构在软土地区的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卉

    2012-01-01

    介绍了某重钢结构在软土地区的设计,包括钢柱、吊车梁选型、抗风桁架柱、支撑、檁条及桩基础等设计。%The design of heavy steel structure building in soft soil area is introduced,including the design of the steel column,selection of crane beam,wind resistant column and truss,brace,strip and pile base.

  2. Organizing design work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of the kind of understanding of organizing that is implied by design theories for project managers' understanding and organizing of design work. Five theories and their organizing consequences for project managers organizing of design work...... are analyzed. The paper contributes to design research and organization studies by putting the organizing of design projects on the research agenda. It also contributes by demonstrating the importance of being aware of the ontological and epistemological assumptions and organizing consequences of different...... design theories. The selected theories of design thus represent different views on what design is, address different design areas and are based on different ontological and epistemological assumptions that influence their views on how design processes should be organized....

  3. Monitoring End-User Power Consumption Data Using AMI and GIS System in a Designated Swedish Area

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Guoliang

    2012-01-01

    The awareness of power consumption is considered to be an important step of driving energy- saving technologies development. With the ‘Smart Grid’ technologies, Sweden has deployed Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) nationwide. How to present and operate the data be collected by AMI devices in an effective and friendly way has become a problem worth to research on. This thesis project aims to provide an energy consumption monitoring system, which integrate power consumption information fr...

  4. Design Methodology - Design Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT Design Methodology shall be seen as our understanding of how to design; it is an early (emerging late 60ies) and original articulation of teachable and learnable methodics. The insight is based upon two sources: the nature of the designed artefacts and the nature of human designing. Today...... Design Methodology is part of our practice and our knowledge about designing, and it has been strongly supported by the establishing and work of a design research community. The aim of this article is to broaden the reader¿s view of designing and Design Methodology. This is done by sketching...

  5. Advanced missile technology. A review of technology improvement areas for cruise missiles. [including missile design, missile configurations, and aerodynamic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronvich, L. L.; Liepman, H. P.

    1979-01-01

    Technology assessments in the areas of aerodynamics, propulsion, and structures and materials for cruise missile systems are discussed. The cruise missiles considered cover the full speed, altitude, and target range. The penetrativity, range, and maneuverability of the cruise missiles are examined and evaluated for performance improvements.

  6. 78 FR 45116 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... concentrations at each monitoring site. On January 5, 2005, at 70 FR 944, EPA published air quality area... Users (SAFETEA-LU), which was signed into law on August 10, 2005 (Pub. L. 109-59). Among the changes... for PM 2.5 were promulgated on July 18, 1997, at 62 FR 38652. EPA promulgated an annual standard at...

  7. Provider Burnout and Patient Engagement: The Quadruple and Quintuple Aims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epperson, William Jackson; Childs, Susan Fink; Wilhoit, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    The Triple Aim has become the guiding light and benchmark by which healthcare organizations plan their future efforts. It has been adopted into healthcare policies with little regard for including the skill sets of compassion and emotional intelligence. The multiple increasing demands on providers of healthcare are unsustainable and will cripple the system, resulting in outcomes that are counter to the Triple Aim goals. Patient engagement with shared decision-making should become the primary focus of care delivery. New delivery models and care plans are unaffordable to far too many patients and payers, despite the efforts of futurists who seek to advance quality and lower costs. Clinical care delivery and patient engagement efforts must be drastically redirected to innovative and sustainable value-based delivery models that support the goals of the Triple Aim. PMID:27443059

  8. Physical weathering and regolith behaviour in a high erosion rate badland area at the Pyrenees: research design and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regües, D.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on badland areas in the Vallcebre basin (High Llobregat suggested that the erosion rates are controlled by weathering rate of mudrocks. The present work was started to characterize the physical weathering processes and rates in relationship with thermal and moisture conditions.
    The method used consists of the continuous monitoring of regolith temperatures at different conditions of aspect, depth and lithology (color, and the periodical sampling of regolith moisture and bulk density, the last taken as an indicator of the weathering status. Besides this quantitative information, the changes of the surface of the regolith have been monitored with the help of photographic techniques, using a especially designed tripod. To complete the field observations, a laboratory experiment is being performed, analyzing the volumetric changes suffered by undisturbed rock samples subject to thermal and moisture oscillations.
    The results obtained emphasize the role of frost action, especially during wet conditions. Aspect and lithologic differences introduce significant nuances in thermal regime and volumetric changes respectively.

    [es] Estudios anteriores en zonas acarcavadas de la cuenca de Vallcebre (Alto Llobregat sugieren que las tasas de erosión están limitadas por la meteorización de las rocas arcillosas que las constituyen. El presente trabajo ha sido planteado para caracterizar y evaluar los procesos de meteorización física en relación con los regímenes térmico e hídrico.
    El método empleado consiste en la monitorización continua de temperaturas del aire y del regolito en diversas condiciones de profundidad, exposición y litología (color, así como el muestreo periódico de humedad y densidad aparente, considerada ésta última como indicadora del grado de meteorización. Además de esta información cuantitativa, se ha realizado un seguimiento de los cambios en la micromorfología superficial, mediante

  9. Low area 4-bit 5 MS/s flash-type digitizer for hybrid-pixel detectors - Design study in 180 nm and 40 nm CMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otfinowski, Piotr; Grybos, Pawel

    2015-11-01

    We report on the design of a 4-bit flash ADC with dynamic offset correction dedicated to measurement systems based on a pixel architecture. The presented converter was manufactured in two CMOS technologies: widespread and economical 180 nm and modern 40 nm process. The designs are optimized for the lowest area occupancy resulting in chip areas of 160×55 μm2 and 35×25 μm2. The experimental results indicate integral nonlinearity of +0.35/-0.21 LSB and +0.28/-0.25 LSB and power consumption of 52 μW and 17 μW at 5 MS/s for the prototypes in 180 nm and 40 nm technologies respectively.

  10. Design and evaluation of area-efficient and wide-range impedance analysis circuit for multichannel high-quality brain signal recording system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwagami, Takuma; Tani, Takaharu; Ito, Keita; Nishino, Satoru; Harashima, Takuya; Kino, Hisashi; Kiyoyama, Koji; Tanaka, Tetsu

    2016-04-01

    To enable chronic and stable neural recording, we have been developing an implantable multichannel neural recording system with impedance analysis functions. One of the important things for high-quality neural signal recording is to maintain well interfaces between recording electrodes and tissues. We have proposed an impedance analysis circuit with a very small circuit area, which is implemented in a multichannel neural recording and stimulating system. In this paper, we focused on the design of an impedance analysis circuit configuration and the evaluation of a minimal voltage measurement unit. The proposed circuit has a very small circuit area of 0.23 mm2 designed with 0.18 µm CMOS technology and can measure interface impedances between recording electrodes and tissues in ultrawide ranges from 100 Ω to 10 MΩ. In addition, we also successfully acquired interface impedances using the proposed circuit in agarose gel experiments.

  11. Design of a test device for subjecting materials to high strain rates: with application in nuclear area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a design of a device to gather characteristic data of materials subjected to high strain rates, this device named after the eminent English engineer Sir Bertram Hopkinson 'Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar', from here will be designated SHPB. More specifically, this work is inseparably linked to the development of packing for transportation of highly radioactive substances as a part to the general scope of a CAPES project in partnership with the CCTM Materials Department of IPEN, Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research, linked to the University of Sao Paulo. The development of the device is part of a scope, and collection of data necessary for the design and construction of this packing. The SHPB device can be divided into two parts, the first part concerning the mechanical design. The second, data collection that is indeed the challenging part of the device, and proper tests. The present paper, specifically, will only deals with the mechanical design of the device, importantly, divided into two parts, the size of the bars, which are the impact bar, the input bar, and the output bar, and the size of the impact device. The sizing of the bars involve knowledge of the concept of elastic waves in solid media for the length of the bars to serve as a wave-guide, which will cause a deformation of the specimen, and enables recording of these waves for data analysis. The impact device must be robust enough to produce the stress wave to deform the specimen, but not to plastically deform the bars, which have to continue throughout the test within the elastic range. (author)

  12. Describing the chemical singularity of the Spanish protected designations of origin for virgin olive oils in relation to oils from neighbouring areas

    OpenAIRE

    García-González, D. L.; Tena, N.; Aparicio, R.

    2012-01-01

    The protected designations of origin (PDOs) have proven to be a successful regulatory framework to protect singular virgin olive oils that have distinctive properties. However, sometimes the registration of new PDOs and the demarcation of the geographical areas associated to them are based on administrative issues rather than objective chemical data. In this work, the chemical compositions of fatty acids, hydrocarbons, alcohols, sterols and methyl sterols have been used to prove the differenc...

  13. The design and implementation of strategic plans in Primary Schools / A case study of two Mahikeng area office Primary Schools / B.G Moeng

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    A strategic plan is the physical document that embodies the guiding orientations about how to manage the education system within a larger national and local development perspective. Such a plan can lead to school effectiveness, improvement and development strategies. Not alI plans obtain this status, largely depending on how a plan is designed. A qualitative investigation was conducted in two primary schools in the Mahikeng Area Office of the North-West Province of South Africa...

  14. AZ State Profile. Arizona: Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides information about the Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS). The purpose of the test is to determine prospective high school graduates' mastery of the state curriculum and to meet a state mandate. [For the main report, "State High School Tests: Exit Exams and Other Assessments", see ED514155.

  15. MayDay Colloquium 24: The Aims of Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, David J.

    2013-01-01

    On June 20, 2012, Professor John Kratus welcomed the MayDay Group to Michigan State University for "Colloquium 24: The Aims of Music Education". On behalf of all members of the Mayday Group, the author wishes to extend his deepest gratitude to Professor Kratus and his colleagues at Michigan State for their extremely gracious and…

  16. Aims and Formats of performance measurement at Danish Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffnsøe-Møller, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This article traces the aims and formats of performance measurement of Danish Universities as they originate from the Ministry of Finance’s plan for governance of the public sector. The article further show that the fierce conflicts between central administration and the universities ove...

  17. Anxiety and ironic effects in aiming at a far target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, F.C.; Binsch, O.

    2011-01-01

    In far aiming the negative intention not to miss may ironically increase the tendency to do precisely that. Although cognitive constraints enhance the occurrence of ironic effects in the perceptual-motor domain the role of anxiety in inducing such effects has rarely been investigated while anxiety i

  18. [Patient's aggression aimed at physicians. Legal interpretation of defense possibilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patryn, Rafał

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the following study is to acquaint medical practitioners with legal possibilities of defense against patients'aggression. The occurrence of the described and discussed issue, namely the appearance of different forms of aggression aimed at physicians and other medical staff is a more and more frequently appearing phenomenon, which is very problematic, and difficult to interpret. The scope of the analysis has been limited to aggression of patients towards physicians only, as they are most often the aim of this aggression, and what should be emphasized, they lack practical and universal solutions and frequently also necessary knowledge to protect themselves against it. The idea behind this study is to present a rational solution to the afore mentioned situation, within legal limits. First, an outline of a conflict situation with a short specification of sources of aggression will be presented, than an appropriate legal taxonomy (including civil and criminal law) allowing for aid in such a situation will be offered and discussed.The authors will also present practical and legally permissible solutions aiming at defense, abandonment, and not allowing for the appearance of this reprehensible phenomenon.

  19. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program annual progress report, FY 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program is a part of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, US Department of Energy (DOE). The mission of AIM is to support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve energy efficiency, productivity, product quality, and reduced waste in the major process industries. OIT has embarked on a fundamentally new way of working with industries--the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy--concentrating on the major process industries that consume about 90% of the energy and generate about 90% of the waste in the industrial sector. These are the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metalcasting, and steel industries. OIT has encouraged and assisted these industries in developing visions of what they will be like 20 or 30 years into the future, defining the drivers, technology needs, and barriers to realization of their visions. These visions provide a framework for development of technology roadmaps and implementation plans, some of which have been completed. The AIM Program supports IOF by conducting research and development on materials to solve problems identified in the roadmaps. This is done by National Laboratory/industry/university teams with the facilities and expertise needed to develop new and improved materials. Each project in the AIM Program has active industrial participation and support.

  20. The Aims of Sex Education: Demoting Autonomy and Promoting Mutuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAvoy, Paula

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, Paula McAvoy critiques a commonly held view that teaching young people to be good choice makers should be a central aim of sex education. Specifically, she argues against David Archard's recommendation that sex educators ought to focus on the development of autonomy and teaching young people that "choice should be accorded…

  1. Spatial, socio-economic, and ecological implications of incorporating minimum size constraints in marine protected area network design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Kristian; Vaughan, Gregory; Vaz, Sandrine; Smith, Robert J

    2015-12-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are the cornerstone of most marine conservation strategies, but the effectiveness of each one partly depends on its size and distance to other MPAs in a network. Despite this, current recommendations on ideal MPA size and spacing vary widely, and data are lacking on how these constraints might influence the overall spatial characteristics, socio-economic impacts, and connectivity of the resultant MPA networks. To address this problem, we tested the impact of applying different MPA size constraints in English waters. We used the Marxan spatial prioritization software to identify a network of MPAs that met conservation feature targets, whilst minimizing impacts on fisheries; modified the Marxan outputs with the MinPatch software to ensure each MPA met a minimum size; and used existing data on the dispersal distances of a range of species found in English waters to investigate the likely impacts of such spatial constraints on the region's biodiversity. Increasing MPA size had little effect on total network area or the location of priority areas, but as MPA size increased, fishing opportunity cost to stakeholders increased. In addition, as MPA size increased, the number of closely connected sets of MPAs in networks and the average distance between neighboring MPAs decreased, which consequently increased the proportion of the planning region that was isolated from all MPAs. These results suggest networks containing large MPAs would be more viable for the majority of the region's species that have small dispersal distances, but dispersal between MPA sets and spill-over of individuals into unprotected areas would be reduced. These findings highlight the importance of testing the impact of applying different MPA size constraints because there are clear trade-offs that result from the interaction of size, number, and distribution of MPAs in a network. PMID:26219669

  2. Reservoir area settlement planning and design based on sustainable development principle%从可持续发展的角度浅谈库区移民点规划设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许颖

    2012-01-01

      The author discussed the development tendency of reservoir area settlement planning and design from the respects of urbanization speed,building a new socialist countryside,change of life style,development of sci⁃ence and technology,implementing issues. A concept is put forward incorporating one plan,separate investment and construction by stages,aiming to design a healthy reservoir area settlement in conformity with actual require⁃ments and with sustainable development.%  从城镇化进程、建设社会主义新农村、生活方式发展和科技发展的需求,以及结合具体的实施性来思考库区移民点规划设计的发展趋势,尝试提出“一次规划,投资分开,分期建设”的建设思路,以期设计出符合实际需求、健康、可持续发展的库区移民点。

  3. Strategic Clinical Networks: Alberta's Response to Triple Aim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noseworthy, Tom; Wasylak, Tracy; O'Neill, Blair J

    2016-01-01

    Verma and Bhatia make a compelling case for the Triple Aim to promote health system innovation and sustainability. We concur. Moreover, the authors offer a useful categorization of policies and actions to advance the Triple Aim under the "classic functions" of financing, stewardship and resource generation (Verma and Bhatia 2016). The argument is tendered that provincial governments should embrace the Triple Aim in the absence of federal government leadership, noting that, by international standards, we are at best mediocre and, more realistically, fighting for the bottom in comparative, annual cross-country surveys. Ignoring federal government participation in Medicare and resorting solely to provincial leadership seems to make sense for the purposes of this discourse; but, it makes no sense at all if we are attempting to achieve high performance in Canada's non-system (Canada Health Action: Building on the Legacy 1997; Commission on the Future of Health Care in Canada 2002; Lewis 2015). As for enlisting provincial governments, we heartily agree. A great deal can be accomplished by the Council of the Federation of Canadian Premiers. But, the entire basis for this philosophy and the reference paper itself assumes a top-down approach to policy and practice. That is what we are trying to change in Alberta and we next discuss. Bottom-up clinically led change, driven by measurement and evidence, has to meet with the top-down approach being presented and widely practiced. While true for each category of financing, stewardship and resource generation, in no place is this truer than what is described and included in "health system stewardship." This commentary draws from Verma and Bhatia (2016) and demonstrates how Alberta, through the use of Strategic Clinical Networks (SCNs), is responding to the Triple Aim. We offer three examples of provincially scaled innovations, each representing one or more arms of the Triple Aim. PMID:27009587

  4. Design of Energy-saving Wooden House in Southwest Earthquake-stricken Area of China%我国西南地震带低碳节能木结构住宅设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡曼姝

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the energy-saving and emission-reduction design of the new wooden house in Southwest Karthquake-stncken Area in China, based on absorbing the good seismic design of traditional wooden structure, the paper uses the modern building material* to improve the traditional wooden structure from building structural design, to make them durable, comfortable and beautiful, low-power, low emission, energy-saving and economic benefit with low-cost, provide technical guidance for the design of rural wooden ItlUOton residential and make lh? New rural construction of Southwest Earthquake-strieken Area in China have scientific development with energy-saving and environmental protection.%针对我国西南地震带的新型木结构住宅建设节能战排技术设计,在吸取传统木结构优良的抗震结构设计的基础上,利用现代建材,从建筑结构设计方面,对传统木结构住宅进行现代化改良.使其具有坚固耐用,舒适美观,低能耗,低排放,低成本的节能与经济效益,并为我国农村木结构住宅设计提供技术指导,使我国西南地震带新农村建设走向节能环保的科学发展道路.

  5. 我国城乡结合地区的规划居住设计研究%Explore the Planning Residential Design of Chinese Urban Fringe Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨莉

    2013-01-01

    随着城市化进程的加快,无论城市周边还是郊区还存在很多的城乡结合地区,并存在一些严重的问题。本文以我国城乡结合地区特点的基础,强调了城乡结合地区居住环境设计的重要性,并阐述了相关的新理论和方法。%With the acceleration of urbanization, there are stil a lot of urban fringe areas around the city and the suburbs, wh-ere exist some serious problems. In this article, the author basis on the characteristics of urban fringe areas, emphasize the im-portance of residential environment design in urban fringe are-as, and elaborates the relevant new theories and methods.

  6. Local Area Network Information Release Program Design and Implementation%局域网信息发布程序的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓凤

    2012-01-01

    随着局域网的快速发展,基于局域网的即时通信工具应运而生。文中以WindowXP系统和VB语言为开发平台,介绍局域网信息发布程序的设计与实现。利用VB语言中Winsock控件的强大功能来设计一个局域网信息发布系统程序,该程序的主要功能是基于TCP/IP网络通信技术实现多用户连接,可以解决多用户信息交换问题。%With the rapid development of local area network,instant communication tools based on local area network emerge as the times require.Based on WindowXP system and VB language for the development platform,this paper introduced the local area network information release program design and implementation.Using VB language of the powerful features of the Winsock control to design a local area network information release system programming,the main function is to connect users based on TCP/IP network communication technology to solve the user information exchange.

  7. Maximizing the utilization and impact of medical educational software by designing for local area network (LAN) implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, R; Reber, E

    1993-01-01

    The design, development and implementation of medical education software often occurs without sufficient consideration of the potential benefits that can be realized by making the software network aware. These benefits can be considerable and can greatly enhance the utilization and potential impact of the software. This article details how multiple aspects of the IMMEX problem solving project have benefited from taking maximum advantage of LAN resources.

  8. Developing soil treatment design criteria for large upland and lowland areas in southwest Montana impacted by metalliferous and acidic smelter emissions and fluvial tailings deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emilsson, G. [CDM, Helena, MT (United States); Coleman, C. [United States Environmental Protection Agency, Helena, MT (United States)

    2006-07-01

    As a result of nearly 100 years of deposition of smelter emissions and fluvially transported mine wastes from the operation of the Anaconda copper smelter, over 10,000 acres of upland and lowland areas in the southern Deer Lodge valley in southwestern Montana are barren or sparsely vegetated. The smelter ceased operations in 1980 and is scheduled for remediation under the Anaconda Regional Water, Waste and Soils Operable Unit of the Anaconda Smelter National Priorities List (NPL) Site. This paper presented site-specific design criteria for the remediation of the affected soils through the re-establishment of vegetation and discussed the basis of design that was used to develop them. It also presented investigative studies that meet the nine criteria specified by the National Contingency Plan in designing criteria for the treatment of impacted soils having low pH and containing elevated metals concentrations. This included plant growth studies conducted in a greenhouse environment to investigate varying application rates of different types of soil amendments; demonstration plots performed on site to test in the field potential treatments that showed promise in the greenhouse; and extensive data collection in the uplands to characterize the extent of contamination, as well as identify existing soil properties that can be used to optimize the remedial design. Last, the paper presented design criteria pertaining to pH, lime amendments, and organic matter additions, including metals phytotoxicity design considerations. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  9. Automated Instrumentation, Monitoring and Visualization of PVM Programs Using AIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Pankaj; VanVoorst, Brian; Yan, Jerry; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We present views and analysis of the execution of several PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) codes for Computational Fluid Dynamics on a networks of Sparcstations, including: (1) NAS Parallel Benchmarks CG and MG; (2) a multi-partitioning algorithm for NAS Parallel Benchmark SP; and (3) an overset grid flowsolver. These views and analysis were obtained using our Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System (AIMS) version 3.0, a toolkit for debugging the performance of PVM programs. We will describe the architecture, operation and application of AIMS. The AIMS toolkit contains: (1) Xinstrument, which can automatically instrument various computational and communication constructs in message-passing parallel programs; (2) Monitor, a library of runtime trace-collection routines; (3) VK (Visual Kernel), an execution-animation tool with source-code clickback; and (4) Tally, a tool for statistical analysis of execution profiles. Currently, Xinstrument can handle C and Fortran 77 programs using PVM 3.2.x; Monitor has been implemented and tested on Sun 4 systems running SunOS 4.1.2; and VK uses XIIR5 and Motif 1.2. Data and views obtained using AIMS clearly illustrate several characteristic features of executing parallel programs on networked workstations: (1) the impact of long message latencies; (2) the impact of multiprogramming overheads and associated load imbalance; (3) cache and virtual-memory effects; and (4) significant skews between workstation clocks. Interestingly, AIMS can compensate for constant skew (zero drift) by calibrating the skew between a parent and its spawned children. In addition, AIMS' skew-compensation algorithm can adjust timestamps in a way that eliminates physically impossible communications (e.g., messages going backwards in time). Our current efforts are directed toward creating new views to explain the observed performance of PVM programs. Some of the features planned for the near future include: (1) ConfigView, showing the physical topology

  10. Did We Get What We Aimed for 10 Years Ago?

    CERN Document Server

    Augustinus, A; Moreno, A; Kurepin, A N; De Cataldo, G; Pinazza, O; Rosinský, P; Lechman, M; Jirdén, L S

    2011-01-01

    The ALICE Detector Control System (DCS) is in charge of control and operation of one of the large high energy physics experiments at CERN in Geneva. The DCS design which started in 2000 was partly inspired by the control systems of the previous generation of HEP experiments at the LEP accelerator at CERN. However, the scale of the LHC experiments and the use of modern, "intelligent" hardware and the harsh operational environment led to an innovative system design. The overall architecture has been largely based on commercial products like PVSS SCADA system and OPC servers extended by frameworks. Windows has been chosen as the operating system platform for the core systems and Linux for the front-end devices. The concept of finite state machines has been deeply integrated into the system design and the design principles have been optimized and adapted to the expected operational needs. The ALICE DCS was designed, prototyped, and developed at a time when no experience with systems of similar s...

  11. [Aiming at the chest, but hitting the back].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Axmann, Stefan; Siegenthaler, Lea; Kneubühl, Beat; Thali, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Gunshot injuries in the back may suggest the unjustified use of firearms. A wound in the back inflicted by a firearm should not automatically imply that the shooter aimed at the back. A previous study demonstrated that it is possible for men to turn their trunk faster than it takes for a shooter to fire or throw a hand-operated weapon. With a high speed motion camera the authors were able to demonstrate that it is also possible for women to turn their trunk fast enough, so that a shot in the back could have been aimed at the front of the body. This conclusion is also likely to apply to hand-operated or thrown weapons, since the velocity of their projectiles is considerably lower than that of firearms. PMID:22039696

  12. Basic features of a group selection system modification aimed to sustian regular-uneven-aged stand structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Efremov

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Proposed modification of group selection system is aimed to successfully combine its elements with biological peculiarities (such as sympodial growth, distinct heliotropism and crown growth plasticity, heavy seeds and difficult dissemination, etc. of shade-intolerant and mid-tolerant tree species, stands of which may bemanaged under the same system. Principles, on which the modification is based, are: (i application of well founded extended rotations in order to increase the proportion of tree groups above 90-100 years age in the stand, where upon the height increment and crown side spread by most of the main tree species in Bulgary drop to considerably lower level, and (ii optimum systematic spatial positioning of openings in the stand canopy (and tree groups respectively over the stand area, so that new gaps createdby consecutive selection cuttings adjoin to a minimum number of middle aged (40-80 y. age tree groups. Such clumps of vigorous trees with high growth rates, heliotropism and plasticity carry certain risks of spoiling the target regular-unevenaged stand structure. Factors of significance are discussed by determining the rotationage, size of gaps opened in the stand canopy, selection cutting cycle, a regular uneveaged stand structure design and the minimum area that enables realisation of full selection system cycle. Definitions and determination of selection system elementsin their mutual connections are presented in consecutive steps when designing a particular application of group selection system for exemplary pure stand of common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.. By the proposed group selection system modification the amount of combinations of various factors having impact upon processes inthe tree groups are diminished compared to that by random spatial arrangement of the gaps over the stand area. Silvicultural activities aimed to maintain a stable unevenaged stand structures are thus getting more predictable, easier to schedule and

  13. Basic features of a group selection system modification aimed to sustian regular-uneven-aged stand structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Efremov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Proposed modification of group selection system is aimed to successfully combine its elements with biological peculiarities (such as sympodial growth, distinct heliotropism and crown growth plasticity, heavy seeds and difficult dissemination, etc. of shade-intolerant and mid-tolerant tree species, stands of which may be managed under the same system. Principles, on which the modification is based, are: (i application of well founded extended rotations in order to increase the proportion of tree groups above 90-100 years age in the stand, where upon the height increment and crown side spread by most of the main tree species in Bulgary drop to considerably lower level, and (ii optimum systematic spatial positioning of openings in the stand canopy (and tree groups respectively over the stand area, so that new gaps created by consecutive selection cuttings adjoin to a minimum number of middle aged (40-80 y. age tree groups. Such clumps of vigorous trees with high growth rates, heliotropism and plasticity carry certain risks of spoiling the target regular-unevenaged stand structure. Factors of significance are discussed by determining the rotation age, size of gaps opened in the stand canopy, selection cutting cycle, a regularuneven- aged stand structure design and the minimum area that enables realisation of full selection system cycle. Definitions and determination of selection system elements in their mutual connections are presented in consecutive steps when designing a particular application of group selection system for exemplary pure stand of common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.. By the proposed group selection system modification the amount of combinations of various factors having impact upon processes in the tree groups are diminished compared to that by random spatial arrangement of the gaps over the stand area. Silvicultural activities aimed to maintain a stable unevenaged stand structures are thus getting more predictable, easier to schedule

  14. Simulation of AIMS measurements using rigorous mask 3D modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Shiang; Huang, Hsu-Ting; Chu, Fu-Sheng; Chu, Yuan-Chih; Huang, Wen-Chun; Liu, Ru-Gun; Gau, Tsai-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    Aerial image measurement system (AIMSTM) has been widely used for wafer level inspection of mask defects. Reported inspection flows include die-to-die (D2D) and die-to-database (D2DB) methods. For patterns that do not repeat in another die, only the D2DB approach is applicable. The D2DB method requires accurate simulation of AIMS measurements for a mask pattern. An optical vectorial model is needed to depict the mask diffraction effect in this simulation. To accurately simulate the imaging results, a rigorous electro-magnetic field (EMF) model is essential to correctly take account of the EMF scattering induced by the mask topography, which is usually called the mask 3D effect. In this study, the mask 3D model we use is rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA), which calculates the diffraction fields from a single plane wave incidence. A hybrid Hopkins-Abbe method with RCWA is used to calculate the EMF diffraction at a desired accuracy level while keeping the computation time practical. We will compare the speed of the hybrid Hopkins-Abbe method to the rigorous Abbe method. The matching between simulation and experiment is more challenging for AIMS than CD-SEM because its measurements provide full intensity information. Parameters in the mask 3D model such as film stack thickness or film optical properties, is optimized during the fitting process. We will report the fitting results of AIMS images for twodimensional structures with various pitches. By accurately simulating the AIMS measurements, it provides a necessary tool to perform the mask inspection using the D2DB approach and to accurately predict the mask defects.

  15. Telescope Aiming Point Tracking Method for Bioptic Driving Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Xianping; Luo, Gang; Peli, Eli

    2010-01-01

    A bioptic telescope is a visual aid used by people with impaired vision when driving in many US states, though bioptic driving remains controversial. Objective data on how and when bioptic drivers use the telescope and what they look at with it are crucial to understanding the bioptic telescope's effect on driving. A video-based technique to track the telescope's aiming point is presented in this paper. With three infrared retro-reflective markers pasted on the bioptic spectacles' frame, its ...

  16. ESF funded training for unemployed women: policy aims and implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Brine, Jacky

    1993-01-01

    The European Social Fund (ESF) provides funding for vocational training projects for unemployed women aged over 25. This research traces the development of ESF policies and interpretations from within the European Commission and the British government from 1958 to 1993. The position of women within the European and British labour markets provides the basis of the evaluation of the ESF's aim to increase employability through training linked to the needs of the labour market. The study is b...

  17. Action Information Management System (AIMS): a User's View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiskerchen, M.

    1984-01-01

    The initial approach used in establishing a user-defined information system to fulfill the needs of users at NASA Headquarters was unsuccessful in bringing this pilot endeaveor to full project status. The persistence of several users and the full involvement of the Ames Research Center were the ingredients needed to make the AIMS project a success. The lesson learned from this effort is that NASA should always work from its organizational strengths as a Headquarters-Center partnership.

  18. Designing at Scale: Lessons in Relevance, Quality, and Equity from ChangeScale, a Bay Area environmental education collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, E.

    2015-12-01

    The best environmental education equips people with the know-how and drive to create healthy communities and a healthy planet. While there are many wonderful organizations providing environmental learning, ensuring quality, cultural relevance and equity of access remains an elusive goal--especially if environmental education organizations work in isolation. Organizations across 12 counties in the Bay Area have come together to create a different model. They have founded ChangeScale, a regional collaborative dedicated to providing high quality environmental education to hundreds of thousands of youth---by working together. ChangeScale's work involves setting up school district-level partnerships, providing technical assistance to local environmental education networks, and training environmental educators across the region. In this talk, the presenter, who is a founding member and steering committee chair for ChangeScale, will outline the challenges of working at a regional scale with dozens of organizations. She will share the processes ChangeScale has used to develop a business plan and build membership. She will conclude by sharing the short term and long term potential impacts of working collectively for environmental literacy in the Bay Area.

  19. Measurements of AIM for Visible Wavelength Based on Individual Eye Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; WANG Zhao-Qi; WANG Yan; ZUO Tong; ZHAO Kan-Xing

    2006-01-01

    We measure and calculate the aerial image modulation (AIM) of human retina for visible wavelengths based on the individual eye model. By employing the optical design software ZEMAX, we obtain the modulation transfer function (MTF) of human eye in visible wavelengths. Using CSV-1000 and VAF-1000, the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) and the visual acuity (VA) for the same eye are measured. Then the AIM of human retina could be acquired by the relations between MTF and CSF and between MTF and VA. The AIM of human retina is independent of MTF, and the values of AIM for normal eyes (without retina disease) are similar, so the assembly average for large numbers of normal eyes can be a standard AIM curve, which is helpful for the diagnosis of diseases in the retina system.

  20. Taking a Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program to the Home: The AIM 4 Teen Moms Experience.

    OpenAIRE

    Subuhi Asheer; Ellen Kisker

    2014-01-01

    This report discusses findings from the first 18 months of a program implementation evaluation of AIM 4 Teen Moms, a teen pregnancy intervention designed to delay rapid repeat pregnancies among parenting teen mothers in Los Angeles. The program is delivered primarily in participants' homes. The report describes the program's development and design, recruiting approach, facilitators' training in and delivery of the program, and youth engagement and response, concluding with lessons for future ...

  1. Balloon-Borne System Would Aim Instrument Toward Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polites, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed system including digital control computer, control sensors, and control actuators aims telescope or other balloon-borne instrument toward Sun. Pointing system and instrument flown on gondola, suspended from balloon. System includes reaction wheel, which applies azimuthal control torques to gondola, and torque motor to apply low-frequency azimuthal torques between gondola and cable. Three single-axis rate gyroscopes measure yaw, pitch, and roll. Inclinometer measures roll angle. Two-axis Sun sensor measures deviation, in yaw and pitch, of attitude of instrument from line to apparent center of Sun. System provides initial coarse pointing, then maintains fine pointing.

  2. Sinochem Aims to Quadruple Overseas Oil Output by 2020

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Di

    2012-01-01

    Sinochem,China's fourth biggest oil company aims to nearly quadruple its overseas oil and gas output to 300,000 barrels oil equivalent per day by 2020, building three production hubs in Colombia, Brazil and the Middle East, according to the company's sources. The plan will require billions of dollars in investment and may prove a tough task for the state-run company that is largely a trader of oil and fertiliser and a property developer. Its oil and gas assets are dwarfed by "big oil" firms such as Sinopec Corp. PetroChina and CNOOC Ltd.

  3. 海南呀诺达旅游区地域性景观设计%Hainan Yanuoda Tour Area Region Landscape Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蕾; 许先升; 袁晓军

    2013-01-01

    It was explored the design principle of Hainan landscape design whole ,context,ecology, and Reference, Retention, and Symbol and Metaphor design technique , and this paper made the regional landscape design on Hainan Yanuoda Tour Area .Based on the natural and humanistic characteristics inside a project area , from design concept to the planning layout , and to the sea reflect in the landscape spot space , this paper made the full use of the base topography ,physiognomy and natural environmental resources , and introduced the culture and landscape elements with Hainan extremely local characteristics , and took the landscape as the carri-er, so as to create a landscape with Hainan characteristics .%遵循地域性景观设计的整体性、文脉、生态原则,运用“借鉴、保留、象征以及隐喻”的表现手法,对海南呀诺达旅游区进行地域性景观设计。从项目区域内的自然和人文特征入手,从设计理念到规划布局,再到具体景点空间中地域性的体现,充分利用基地的地形地貌与自然环境资源,引入极具海南地域特色的景观元素与文化,以园林要素为载体,创作出具有海南特色的景观。

  4. No Reef Is an Island: Integrating Coral Reef Connectivity Data into the Design of Regional-Scale Marine Protected Area Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R Schill

    Full Text Available We integrated coral reef connectivity data for the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico into a conservation decision-making framework for designing a regional scale marine protected area (MPA network that provides insight into ecological and political contexts. We used an ocean circulation model and regional coral reef data to simulate eight spawning events from 2008-2011, applying a maximum 30-day pelagic larval duration and 20% mortality rate. Coral larval dispersal patterns were analyzed between coral reefs across jurisdictional marine zones to identify spatial relationships between larval sources and destinations within countries and territories across the region. We applied our results in Marxan, a conservation planning software tool, to identify a regional coral reef MPA network design that meets conservation goals, minimizes underlying threats, and maintains coral reef connectivity. Our results suggest that approximately 77% of coral reefs identified as having a high regional connectivity value are not included in the existing MPA network. This research is unique because we quantify and report coral larval connectivity data by marine ecoregions and Exclusive Economic Zones (EZZ and use this information to identify gaps in the current Caribbean-wide MPA network by integrating asymmetric connectivity information in Marxan to design a regional MPA network that includes important reef network connections. The identification of important reef connectivity metrics guides the selection of priority conservation areas and supports resilience at the whole system level into the future.

  5. Student Teachers’ Attitude towards Twitter for Educational Aims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria I. Marín

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an educational experience with 100 student teachers from different courses of the University of the Balearic Islands (Spain in which Twitter is used for various different activities. The aim of this experiment was to explore student teachers’ perceptions in order to value their attitude towards Twitter for educational aims. Afterwards, students were asked to write down their reflections on an eportfolio. Data was collected from their eportfolio evidence, which was analysed to review their attitude towards the use of Twitter for educational purposes and for their future teaching and professional development. The conclusions indicate the need to conduct different educational activities in which Twitter is used in various ways. In addition, conclusions reflect on the real impact of Twitter on students’ learning enhancement, in order to improve student teachers’ attitudes towards social media in education. Therefore, this article contributes to the body of existing research on the use of technology in education, specifically to the possibilities of the use of social media and microblogging in Teacher Education.

  6. Halogen Bonding: An AIM Analysis of the Weak Interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU, Jian-Wei; LU, Yun-Xiang; YU, Qing-Sen; ZHANG, Hua-Xin; JIANG, Yong-Jun

    2006-01-01

    A series of complexes formed between halogen-containing molecules and ammonia have been investigated by means of the atoms in molecules (AIM) approach to gain a deeper insight into halogen bonding. The existence of the halogen bond critical points (XBCP) and the values of the electron density (ρb) and Laplacian of electron density (▽2pb) at the XBCP reveal the closed-shell interactions in these complexes. Integrated atomic properties such as charge, energy, polarization moment, volume of the halogen bond donor atoms, and the corresponding changes (△) upon complexation have been calculated. The present calculations have demonstrated that the halogen bond represents different AIM properties as compared to the well-documented hydrogen bond. Both the electron density and the Laplacian of electron density at the XBCP have been shown to correlate well with the interaction energy, which indicates that the topological parameters at the XBCP can be treated as a good measure of the halogen bond strength.In addition, an excellent linear relationship between the interatomic distance d(X…N) and the logarithm of ρb has been established.

  7. Telescope aiming point tracking method for bioptic driving surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xianping; Luo, Gang; Peli, Eli

    2010-12-01

    A bioptic telescope is a visual aid used by people with impaired vision when driving in many U.S. states, though bioptic driving remains controversial. Objective data on how and when bioptic drivers use the telescope and what they look at with it are crucial to understanding the bioptic telescope's effects on driving. A video-based technique to track the telescope's aiming point is presented in this paper. With three infrared retro-reflective markers pasted on the bioptic spectacles frame, its movement is recorded using an infrared camera unit with infrared LED illuminators. The angles formed by the three markers are used to calculate the telescope's aiming points, which are registered with road scene images recorded by another camera. The calculation is based on a novel one-time calibration method, in which the light spot from a head-mounted laser pointer projected on a wall while the scanning is recorded by the scene camera, in synchronization with the infrared camera. Interpolation is performed within small local regions where no samples were taken. Thus, nonlinear interpolation error can be minimized, even for wide-range tracking. Experiments demonstrated that the average error over a 70(°)×48(°) field was only 0.86 (°) , with lateral head movement allowed. PMID:20529756

  8. Aims or purposes of school mediation in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Isabel Viana-Orta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediation continues to expand, both geographically and in terms of scope. Depending on its purpose, there are three main consolidated mediation models or schools worldwide: the Traditional-Linear Harvard model, which seeks to find an agreement between the parties; the Circular-Narrative model, which apart from the agreement also emphasizes communicational aspects; and the Transformational model, more focused on relational aspects between the parties than in the adoption of agreements. The aim of this study is to determine which is the goal or purpose of mediation, confining it to the school environment and to the Spanish context. A brief comparative study is presented to this end, in which the comparative units are all the Comunidades Autónomas [Autonomous Regions] that make up the Spanish territory (n = 17 and the variable compared is the aim or purpose of mediation in schools as established by all the regional rules on school life (n = 17 with the force of a decree.

  9. 3D integration of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes aimed to very high fill-factor pixels for future linear colliders 

    CERN Document Server

    Vilella, E; Dieguez, A

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the maximum achievable fill-factor by a pixel detector of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes with the Chartered 130 nm/Tezzaron 3D process. The analysis shows that fillfactors between 66% and 96% can be obtained with different array architectures and a time-gated readout circuit of minimum area. The maximum fill-factor is achieved when the two-layer vertical stack is used to overlap the non-sensitive areas of one layer with the sensitive areas of the other one. Moreover, different sensor areas are used to further increase the fill-factor. A chip containing a pixel detector of the Geigermode avalanche photodiodes and aimed to future linear colliders has been designed with the Chartered 130 nm/Tezzaron 3D process to increase the fill-factor.

  10. Designing and implementing more effective Integrated Early Warning Systems in mountain areas: a case study from Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina García

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to consider and to understand the social context in which an Early Warning System (EWS is planned and to integrate all of its components, otherwise it is likely to fail. EWS are complex tools for disaster risk reduction which are only effective if they generate an appropriate response in the exposed population. Any effective EWS relies on the reaction capacity of all stakeholders. This reaction capacity is strongly dependent on how well EWS are integrated within their social context, especially with regards to potential marginalized and vulnerable communities. This dependence was confirmed in the study area in Valtellina di Tirano, northern Italy, which is recurrently affected by multiple mountain hazards. The local population is geographically marginalized due to restricted access to the region and exposure to hazardous events, and socially marginalized due to the lack of participation in decision making. Results of a survey show that the local population has low levels of perceived risk, a general lack of self-responsibility with regard to disaster risk reduction, and a tendency to transfer the responsibility to the authorities. However, respondents acknowledge and show interest in addressing their lack of preparedness and in participating actively in disaster risk reduction efforts. A follow-up survey demonstrates that significant variations in vulnerability within a given community over time, occur together with changes in traditional livelihood activities, economic systems and population demographics.

  11. Application of stochastic methods for wind speed forecasting and wind turbines design at the area of Thessaly, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Lazaros, Lappas; Daskalou, Olympia; Filippidou, Ariadni; Giannakou, Marianna; Gkova, Eleni; Ioannidis, Romanos; Polydera, Angeliki; Polymerou, Eleni; Psarrou, Eleftheria; Vyrini, Alexandra; Papalexiou, Simon; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2015-04-01

    Several methods exist for estimating the statistical properties of wind speed, most of them being deterministic or probabilistic, disregarding though its long-term behaviour. Here, we focus on the stochastic nature of wind. After analyzing several historical timeseries at the area of interest (AoI) in Thessaly (Greece), we show that a Hurst-Kolmogorov (HK) behaviour is apparent. Thus, disregarding the latter could lead to unrealistic predictions and wind load situations, causing some impact on the energy production and management. Moreover, we construct a stochastic model capable of preserving the HK behaviour and we produce synthetic timeseries using a Monte-Carlo approach to estimate the future wind loads in the AoI. Finally, we identify the appropriate types of wind turbines for the AoI (based on the IEC 61400 standards) and propose several industrial solutions. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.

  12. Actions aimed at increased innovativeness of the Polish economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author deals with various measures undertaken in that area by the Polish Government since 1989 i.e. after transition to market -led economy They included: sectorial Operation Programme '' Enterprise Competitiveness Growth '' and '' Human Resources Development '' in the years 2004-2006. Both were targeted at improvement of the competitive position of Polish enterprises under conditions of single European Market, The author points out that generally this policy ended in failure. Rate of innovativeness of Polish enterprises measured in terms of percentage of innovative companies against whole population of polled companies has never been high. However in recent years there was a drastic drop of this ratio - from 37.65% in the years 1994-96 to 16.9% in 1998-2000. In the UE countries this ratio was around 51% in the years 1998-2000. Against that background new measures are undertaken by the Government to improve the situation. They include: (1) Draft Law on supporting innovative activities - now under examination by the Parliament (Sejm); (2) and a Law on National Capital Fund passed recently by the Parliament Major new ideas of the Draft Law cover: (a) creation of new financial instrument - technological credit, granting research and development centre status(RDC) to the companies changes in tax law changes in laws on higher education and higher technical schools; (b) increasing competence area of the Polish Agency for Enterprise Development; (c) changes in Law on R+D units. Other initiatives in that area include: (a) High-tech Regional Programme to increase industrial e-Productivity and Quality in CEE/NIS Countries .It is UNIDO Program; (b) Accelerated Technology Assessment and Commercialization Programme - implemented with Lockheed Martin Company. (author)

  13. Solid-state supercapacitors with rationally designed heterogeneous electrodes fabricated by large area spray processing for wearable energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun; Zhang, Jin; Young, Neil P.; Snaith, Henry J.; Grant, Patrick S.

    2016-05-01

    Supercapacitors are in demand for short-term electrical charge and discharge applications. Unlike conventional supercapacitors, solid-state versions have no liquid electrolyte and do not require robust, rigid packaging for containment. Consequently they can be thinner, lighter and more flexible. However, solid-state supercapacitors suffer from lower power density and where new materials have been developed to improve performance, there remains a gap between promising laboratory results that usually require nano-structured materials and fine-scale processing approaches, and current manufacturing technology that operates at large scale. We demonstrate a new, scalable capability to produce discrete, multi-layered electrodes with a different material and/or morphology in each layer, and where each layer plays a different, critical role in enhancing the dynamics of charge/discharge. This layered structure allows efficient utilisation of each material and enables conservative use of hard-to-obtain materials. The layered electrode shows amongst the highest combinations of energy and power densities for solid-state supercapacitors. Our functional design and spray manufacturing approach to heterogeneous electrodes provide a new way forward for improved energy storage devices.

  14. Solid-state supercapacitors with rationally designed heterogeneous electrodes fabricated by large area spray processing for wearable energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun; Zhang, Jin; Young, Neil P.; Snaith, Henry J.; Grant, Patrick S.

    2016-01-01

    Supercapacitors are in demand for short-term electrical charge and discharge applications. Unlike conventional supercapacitors, solid-state versions have no liquid electrolyte and do not require robust, rigid packaging for containment. Consequently they can be thinner, lighter and more flexible. However, solid-state supercapacitors suffer from lower power density and where new materials have been developed to improve performance, there remains a gap between promising laboratory results that usually require nano-structured materials and fine-scale processing approaches, and current manufacturing technology that operates at large scale. We demonstrate a new, scalable capability to produce discrete, multi-layered electrodes with a different material and/or morphology in each layer, and where each layer plays a different, critical role in enhancing the dynamics of charge/discharge. This layered structure allows efficient utilisation of each material and enables conservative use of hard-to-obtain materials. The layered electrode shows amongst the highest combinations of energy and power densities for solid-state supercapacitors. Our functional design and spray manufacturing approach to heterogeneous electrodes provide a new way forward for improved energy storage devices. PMID:27161379

  15. Solid-state supercapacitors with rationally designed heterogeneous electrodes fabricated by large area spray processing for wearable energy storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun; Zhang, Jin; Young, Neil P; Snaith, Henry J; Grant, Patrick S

    2016-01-01

    Supercapacitors are in demand for short-term electrical charge and discharge applications. Unlike conventional supercapacitors, solid-state versions have no liquid electrolyte and do not require robust, rigid packaging for containment. Consequently they can be thinner, lighter and more flexible. However, solid-state supercapacitors suffer from lower power density and where new materials have been developed to improve performance, there remains a gap between promising laboratory results that usually require nano-structured materials and fine-scale processing approaches, and current manufacturing technology that operates at large scale. We demonstrate a new, scalable capability to produce discrete, multi-layered electrodes with a different material and/or morphology in each layer, and where each layer plays a different, critical role in enhancing the dynamics of charge/discharge. This layered structure allows efficient utilisation of each material and enables conservative use of hard-to-obtain materials. The layered electrode shows amongst the highest combinations of energy and power densities for solid-state supercapacitors. Our functional design and spray manufacturing approach to heterogeneous electrodes provide a new way forward for improved energy storage devices. PMID:27161379

  16. Radon and radon progeny in 70 houses in the Tennessee Valley area: study design and measurement methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudney, C.S.; Hawthorne, A.R.; Monar, K.P.; Quillen, J.L.; Clark, C. Jr.; Doane, R.W.; Wallace, R.G.; Reed, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    Levels of radon and its short-lived airborne progeny are being measured in a year-long study of 70 houses in four states in the Tennessee Valley. Various methods were used to solicit volunteers with differing degrees of success. Criteria for selection of houses in the study included presence of a lower level with cement floor and one or more block walls in contact with the soil, absence of obvious indications of technologically enhanced sources of radium, and proximity to one of four cities (Knoxville, Chattanooga, Birmingham, or Florence). By design, most houses in the study are in the same neighborhood as at least one other house in the study. Houses range in age from newly constructed to about 40 years old. Most of the houses have more than 2000 square feet of finished floor space. The lower level encompasses a garage in most cases. More complete information pertaining to house characteristics will be gathered in the course of the study. 19 refs., 1 fig.

  17. 高速公路服务区园林景观设计研究——以广乐高速公路一六服务区方案设计为例%Speed Landscape Design of Sevice Area Service 1 6 Area Design in Highway Guangle For Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王江萍; 张琪

    2012-01-01

    Speedway Service Area is to provide the highway department personnel a variety of services by the important facilities. With the rapid development of speedway, the landscape design of the service area has increasingly drawn people's attention, the landscape design concept has also undergone a new changes. ~hrough to thelandscape research of the Speedway Service Area, this paper summarizes the domestic and foreign speedway service area landscape development present situation and tendency. With Yiliu service area of Guangle Highway scheme design, the paper combined with the region characteristic, will good experience for reference to domestic speedway designing of landscape design.%高速公路服务区是高速公路上为司乘人员提供多种服务的重要设施。随着高速公路飞速发展,服务区的景观设计也日益引起人们的广泛关注和重视,其园林景观设计的理念也发生着新的变化。本文通过对高速公路服务区园林景观的研究,总结国内外高速公路服务区园林景观的发展现状及其趋势,以广乐高速公路一六服务区方案设计为例,结合地域特色,将优秀经验借鉴到国内高速公路服务区的园林景观设计中。

  18. Space Insect-Food Aiming at Mars Emigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Takase, Yoshimi; Kawai, Mika; Space Agriculture Task Force

    We study space insect-food during 10 years. We are aiming at Mars emigration. In space agriculture, insect is the important creature which we cannot miss. It is necessary for the pollination of the plant, and it is rich to protein and lipid as food. We reported that silkworm, bee, grasshopper, snail, fly and termite (white ant) are insects necessary for astroponics in particular last time. We make clothes using silk thread, and the pupa becomes the food. In addition, the clothes can make food as protein when we need not to use it. The bee is a very important insect in the space agriculture, too. We calculated the nourishment ingredient of those insects and thought about ideal space foods which ara necessary for Mars emigration. We will introduce good balance space foods.

  19. Europeans still aiming for 700{degree}C steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer, S.; Bugge, J.; Stolzenberger, C. [Elsam Engineering, Fredericia (Denmark)

    2004-11-01

    The AD700 development programme: what has been achieved, what is happening how, what are the next steps? The article presents results of Phase 1 (almost complete); phase 2 on preparatory work (to be completed at the end of 2005), phase 2 component demonstration (underway) and phases 4, 5 and 6 full scale demo (to span 2008-2012). Two materials - nickel based alloy 740 and austenic steel SANICRO have been successfully developed and work on nickel alloy 617 for boiler tubes and steam lines is well under way. Other materials too are being developed. A question remains as to whether the European Commission will give sufficient support to the full scale demonstration plant through FP7. FENCO the 'Fossil Energy Coalition' is aiming to get fossil energy back into the Commission's R & D programme. The article is based on presentation to the VDI conference, Wurzburg, Germany, 13-14 September 2004. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Popper, Kuhn, Lakatos and Aim-Oriented Empiricism

    CERN Document Server

    Maxwell, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I argue that aim-oriented empiricism (AOE), a conception of natural science that I have defended at some length elsewhere, is a kind of synthesis of the views of Popper, Kuhn and Lakatos, but is also an improvement over the views of all three. Whereas Popper's falsificationism protects metaphysical assumptions implicitly made by science from criticism, AOE exposes all such assumptions to sustained criticism, and furthermore focuses criticism on those assumptions most likely to need revision if science is to make progress. Even though AOE is, in this way, more Popperian than Popper, it is also, in some respects, more like the views of Kuhn and Lakatos than falsificationism is. AOE is able, however, to solve problems which Kuhn's and Lakatos's views cannot solve.

  1. Complementary coordination strategies in a joint Fitts’ reciprocal aiming task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konvalinka, Ivana; Skewes, Lea; Michael, J.;

    How do dyads coordinate their actions to achieve a common goal when one person has the more difficult task? In the present study, dyads were instructed to engage in a Fitts’s reciprocal aiming task as accurately as possible, and at a given tempo sent through their headphones. They were...... was assigned to either the target’s role – with varying target width, and hence task difficulty – or the reference role – with the widest (easiest) target. Results show that when the task was performed interactively with the other person, they were most synchronized, and also used the target most similarly......, while compromising rhythmic accuracy. In addition, as task difficulty increased for the member with the target’s role, the participant with the reference role became more adaptive to her tempo. This suggests that interacting members of a dyad optimally negotiate coordination strategies to achieve...

  2. Characterization of electric arc furnace dust aiming reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims to study the characterize of steelmaking dust, from the primary refining of steel in Electric Arc Furnace, in order to verify feasibility of reuse through the addition of hot metal in the form of briquette. The techniques used to characterize the dust was chemical analyses, size separation tests, X-ray diffraction analyses (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). After characterization, was the calculation of reductant considering the complete reduction of iron oxides and then to briquetting. The waste sample is composed essentially of spherical particles and has a very small particle size (85% below 10 μm). The XRD has presented compounds such as ZnFe2O4, Fe3O4, ZnO e SiO2. This work showed that its possible recovery approximately 92% of metal iron from dust generated during steelmaking.This (author)

  3. Design and assessment of urban drainage and water reuse systems for the reconstruction of formerly industrial areas: a case in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L; Zeng, S; Dong, X; Chen, J

    2013-01-01

    The Shougang Group is an industrial steel enterprise occupying 800 ha in Beijing that will cease production by 2010. The area will be converted to a new financial and commercial zone. The rebuilding of the water infrastructure in this area should address water shortages in Beijing and retain the industrial landmark of a large cooling water tank. A design framework and an assessment system with 11 indicators were developed for this purpose. Four reconstruction schemes are presented here. Scheme 1 is a traditional system that completely depends on outside the municipal facility. Schemes 2, 3, and 4 are systems to separately discharge greywater and blackwater. Scheme 4 uses a vacuum system that allows the reclamation of nutrients. Schemes 2 and 4 use wetland-treated greywater to fill the water tank. Scheme 3 reuses greywater for toilets after on-site treatment. Scheme 2 is recommended due to its lower cost, greater environmental benefit, moderate resource reclamation, and higher technical feasibility.

  4. TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS MODELING AIMING TO IMPROVE ITS OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Mihajlović

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the modeling procedure of one real technological system. In this study, thecopper extraction from the copper flotation waste generated at the Bor Copper Mine (Serbia, werethe object of modeling. Sufficient data base for statistical modeling was constructed using theorthogonal factorial design of the experiments. Mathematical model of investigated system wasdeveloped using the combination of linear and multiple linear statistical analysis approach. Thepurpose of such a model is obtaining optimal states of the system that enable efficient operationsmanagement. Besides technological and economical, ecological parameters of the process wereconsidered as crucial input variables.

  5. Design criteria -- Reactor plant modifications for increased production and 100-C Area Alterations (Sections A and B) CG-558. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ, M.H.

    1954-08-10

    This document defines the basic criteria to be used in the preparation of detailed design for Project CG-558, Reactor Plant Modification for Increased Production and for Project CG-600, 100-C Area Alterations. It has been determined that the most economical method of increasing plutonium production within the next five years is by the modernization and improvement of the 100-B, 100-C, 100-D, 100-DR, 100-F, and 100-H reactor plants. These reactors are currently incapable of operating at their maximum potential power levels because of a limited availability of process cooling water. As a result of this programs, it is estimated that 1650-2350 megawatts of total additional production will be achieved. The purpose of this document is to set forth the design for certain modifications and additions to Hanford reactors and their supporting facilities as required to obtain higher power levels and improve the safety of reactor operation.

  6. Design and Construction of Deep Well Pumping House in Mountain Area%山区深井取水泵房的设计与施工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范毅雄

    2012-01-01

    以重庆市四座大型水厂的取水泵房为例,对山区取水工程中深井取水泵房、大跨度厂房的设计和施工经验进行了归纳总结,提出了设计和施工中应注意的要点,供类似工程参考.%Taking the water intake pumping houses of four large water treatment plants in Chongqing City for example, the experience in design and construction of deep well pumping houses and large-span factory buildings in water intake projects in mountain areas was summarized, and some key points that should be noted in their design and construction were proposed to provide references for similar projects.

  7. Road Snow Damage Area Highway Design Principle%公路风吹雪雪害地区公路设计原则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张传义

    2012-01-01

    简要介绍凤吹雪对公路交通的危害,并分析公路风吹雪雪害的成因,提出在风吹雪地区公路设计中,应提前考虑风雪流对拟建公路的危害,减少风吹雪的危害程度。%This paper briefly introduces the blowing snow on highway traffic hazards, as well as the analysis, in the forward wind, snow area highway design, consideration should be given to advance construction of highway snowdrift snow hazard risk, reduce.

  8. An Engineer’s Mathematical Approach to Designing an Emergency Room Decontamination Area for Weapons of Mass Destruction Casualties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldo E. Frezza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study will focus on the potential requirements for an emergency response facility in case of weapons of mass destruction casualties proposing mathematical models. A complete emergency room layout will be designed taking the following analyses and requirements into consideration: quality function development (QFD and product layout; average number of patients in the system, average time in the system, average number of patients in the waiting queue and average time waiting in the queue. Our analysis showed that, assuming 150 patients per day for 2 days with average service time of 14 minutes with two lines running. λ = 75 arrivals/day = 0.0521 arrivals/min. µ = 2 patients/14min = 0.1429 patients/min. Average number of patients in system (waiting and being served. Ls = λ / (µ - λ = 0.574 patients. Average time in system (waiting and service time Ws = 1 / (µ - λ = 11.02 min. Average number of patients waiting in queue. Lq = λ2 / µ (µ - λ = 0.209 patients Average time waiting in queue, Wq = λ / µ (µ - λ = 4.016 min. From our model, we conclude to set up an engineer’s perfect ER response we need: Having a stable patient and unstable patient track will make it easy to respond to the emergency. Patients requiring the emergency track feature would be dropped off before the vehicle shower at contaminated stabilizing rooms. Time of service: waiting 14 minutes with an average of 2 patients waiting in line to be served. This is an initial study having a flow of 150 patients arriving over a long time period and it is an attempt to apply a mathematical model to a multidisciplinary approach to a clinical potential discussion.

  9. INTRODUCTION A National park is an area set aside by a national government for the preservation of the natural environment. The World Conservation Union defines a National park as a natural area designated to protect the ecological integrity of one or more ecosystems for present and future generations. In Pakistan, the earlier ecological studies were generally observational. The earlier studies, generally appeared in 1950’s, were confined to visual description of the vegetation, and no attempts were made to recognize community types and to correlate them with the relevant environmental factors. On the contrary, advanced multivariate techniques of ordination and cluster analysis had been routinely used in Europe and other parts of the world. There are numerous ordination methods accessible in plant bionetwork, some of which have been extensively used, e.g. Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA (Hill & Gauch, 1980, whereas some others only sporadically used (Zhang, 2004. A series of studies using different ordination techniques were carried out in Pakistan by Ahmad et al., 2009; Ahmad, 2009; Jabeen & Ahmad, 2009; Pirzada et al., 2009; Ahmad et al., 2010a, b; Ahmad, 2011. In Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA the floristic statistics and the environmental variables can be assimilated within the ordination (Kashian et al., 2003. Within the Ayubia National Park, the study area was the moist temperate forest in Rawalpindi, NE-Pakistan (Fig. 1, showing a high diversity of susceptible plant and animal species. The geographical location of the park is 330° 52' N and 730° 90' E (Farooque, 2002. The aim of this research was to quantify the vegetation in Ayubia National Park using ordination techniques and to determine the soilvegetation relationship to provide basic awareness for preservation of nationally significant native flora. A list of plant species present in the study area is provided in Table 1. Apart from their

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qurat Ul Ann

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between species diversity and overall community assemblage was identified in two differentzones in Ayubia National Park (Rawalpindi, NE-Pakistan which is recognized as protected area. CanonicalCorrespondence Analysis (CCA was used to find correlation of environmental variables with speciesabundance/richness. Results showed that in Zone 1 species were rather scattered due to the less availability oforganic matter and soil moisture as they occupy the less dense forest cover. Whereas Zone 2 showed theopposite trends. Finally the overall zones showed that maximum number of quadrats included Zone 2 speciesdue to a great forest cover with excess amount of organic matter and soil moisture. The study highlighted theimportance of dynamic nature and composition of vegetation and stressed the need of conservation of nativeflora for future generations.

  10. Aiming of Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope based on auxiliary optical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An auxiliary optical system has been designed, which can provide precise positioning for aiming Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) microscope object location. An 8 keV X-ray imaging system by KB microscope with periodic multilayer films has been designed. The field of view and depth of field in the resolution of 5 μm are got, and then the corresponding point and depth of field in diagnostic experiments are calculated. Based on the object-image relations and precision of the KB microscope, an auxiliary visible light imaging system is designed and X-ray imaging experiments are performed, which can achieve equivalent aiming between the visible imaging system and the KB microscope. The results show that ±20 μm vertical axis plane and ±300 μm axial accuracy are achieved through the auxiliary optical path, which can meet the object point positioning requirements of the KB microscope. (authors)

  11. Bridging the Digital Divide, Aiming to Become Lifelong Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachelhoffer, Annelise; Khine, Myint Swe

    Studies in the past documented that proper use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can positively impact learning. It has been shown that the use of ICT can help students develop inquiry and thinking skills, increase learning opportunities, enhance learning activities, and improve learning outcomes for students. While there are bright prospects, barriers still exist in certain areas, particularly the readiness of the teachers who will adopt the technology, administrative support and technology infrastructure in schools. This study reports the patterns of computer use and computer self-efficacy among students in a postgraduate degree in education program in the UAE. The survey from 91 students were analysed and found that most students have positive attitudes and beliefs in ICT, but lacking behind the use of such technologies. The authors suggest that it is necessary to create opportunities for them to use ICT in the classroom and further develop knowledge and skills in Web 2.0 technologies.

  12. Education and religion in advertising aimed at children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Ponick

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a theoretical and analytical reflection on the issue of education and religion in advertising aimed at children. It describes distinctive features of postmodernity – immediacy, consumerism and secularization – as constitutive elements of our time and characterizes media as a sort of all-powerful being that channels, processes, produces and disseminates these postmodern attributes, while offering products that form and shape the way of life of Western society. The article goes on to analyze the content of two advertisements, identifying in them the possible presence of an educational religious-theological discourse. It contends that there is an intrinsic relation between education and religion in advertising, one which strongly influences the learning, thinking and acting patterns of children through such practices as gaining power by what they consume and seeing consumption as a means to attain a more prominent position in this world. In advertising, forms of socialization are presented to children. Finally, it is suggested that one way to introduce and discuss advertisements in educational contexts is by reading and analyzing the narratives of advertising together with the children.

  13. Fluency: an aim in teaching and a criterion in assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aud Marit Simensen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the concept ‘fluency’ from different perspectives. When fluency is an aim in teaching, a thorough comprehension of the concept among teachers is a prerequisite for appropriate planning of instruction, including the choice of appropriate classroom activities. When fluency is an assessment criterion, it is even more important that examiners have a shared perception of the concept. The present article starts by presenting common perceptions of the concept and goes on to explore some of the current research. Next, it provides a historical overview of the place of fluency in teaching theory and explains some of the preconditions for the inclusion of this concept among teaching objectives and assessment criteria. It will also, as an illustration, give an outline of the position of the concept over time in the Norwegian school system on the basis of an analysis of the relevant syllabuses. Finally, the article explicates the notion of language use as a complex cognitive skill and explores current method¬ological ideas about teaching towards fluency.

  14. Ecolabel and ecodesign. Aims impossible for small and medium companies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is commonly held by now that a policy of sustainable development in the production sector cannot be faced in terms of simply reducing the environmental impact at the end of the production chain but should be imprinted with a preventive approach which, intervening on the production cycles and the products themselves, helps minimize pressure on the environment. To be competitive manufacturing industry must contribute a determinant amount to sustainable development by reducing the material content of products and increasing their use value, through processes and products-services that are innovative, safer, cleaner and based on a low use of natural resources. To be effective and avoid merely shifting the problem, this work should not be aimed at the level of individual plants or industries but be broadly planned, taking into account the entire value chain and hence the product's whole life-cycle. In addition, support should be given to small and medium-sized companies that characterize Italian production, because they find it hard to use the tools of a product policy originally ideated for big business

  15. The airborne mass spectrometer AIMS - Part 1: AIMS-H2O for UTLS water vapor measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Stefan; Voigt, Christiane; Jurkat, Tina; Thornberry, Troy; Fahey, David W.; Gao, Ru-Shan; Schlage, Romy; Schäuble, Dominik; Zöger, Martin

    2016-03-01

    In the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), the accurate quantification of low water vapor concentrations has presented a significant measurement challenge. The instrumental uncertainties are passed on to estimates of H2O transport, cloud formation and the role of H2O in the UTLS energy budget and resulting effects on surface temperatures. To address the uncertainty in UTLS H2O determination, the airborne mass spectrometer AIMS-H2O, with in-flight calibration, has been developed for fast and accurate airborne water vapor measurements. We present a new setup to measure water vapor by direct ionization of ambient air. Air is sampled via a backward facing inlet that includes a bypass flow to assure short residence times (pressure-controlled gas discharge ion source of the mass spectrometer. The air is directed through the gas discharge region where ion-molecule reactions lead to the production of hydronium ion clusters, H3O+(H2O)n (n = 0, 1, 2), in a complex reaction scheme similar to the reactions in the D-region of the ionosphere. These ions are counted to quantify the ambient water vapor mixing ratio. The instrument is calibrated during flight using a new calibration source based on the catalytic reaction of H2 and O2 on a Pt surface to generate a calibration standard with well-defined and stable H2O mixing ratios. In order to increase data quality over a range of mixing ratios, two data evaluation methods are presented for lower and higher H2O mixing ratios respectively, using either only the H3O+(H2O) ions or the ratio of all water vapor dependent ions to the total ion current. Altogether, a range of water vapor mixing ratios from 1 to 500 parts per million by volume (ppmv) can be covered with an accuracy between 7 and 15 %. AIMS-H2O was deployed on two DLR research aircraft, the Falcon during CONCERT (CONtrail and Cirrus ExpeRimenT) in 2011, and HALO during ML-CIRRUS (Mid-Latitude CIRRUS) in 2014. The comparison of AIMS-H2O with the SHARC tunable

  16. Designing, building, and testing a solar thermoelectric generation, STEG, for energy delivery to remote residential areas in developing regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moumouni, Yacouba

    New alternatives and inventive renewable energy techniques which encompass both generation and power management solutions are fundamental for meeting remote residential energy supply and demand today, especially if the grid is quasi-inexistent. Solar thermoelectric generators can be a cost-effective alternative to photovoltaics for a remote residential household power supply. A complete solar thermoelectric energy harvesting system is presented for energy delivery to remote residential areas in developing regions. To this end, the entire system was built, modeled, and then validated with LTspice simulator software via thermal-to-electrical analogy schemes. Valuable data in conjunction with two novel LTspice circuits were obtained, showing the achievability of analyzing transient heat transfer with the Spice simulator. Hence, the proposed study begins with a comprehensive method of extracting thermal parameters that appear in thermoelectric modules. A step-by-step procedure was developed and followed to succinctly extract parameters, such as the Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, thermal resistance, and thermal conductivity needed to model the system. Data extracted from datasheet, material properties, and geometries were successfully utilized to compute the thermal capacities and resistances necessary to perform the analogy. In addition, temperature variations of the intrinsic internal parameters were accounted for in this process for accuracy purposes. The steps that it takes to simulate any thermo-electrical system with the LTspice simulator are thoroughly explained in this work. As a consequence, an improved Spice model for a thermoelectric generator is proposed. Experimental results were compiled in the form of a lookup table and then fed into the Spice simulator using the piecewise linear (PWL) command in order to validate the model. Experimental results show that a temperature differential of 13.43°C was achievable whereas the simulation indicates

  17. Research on the Design of Road Planning and Reconstruction in the Scenic Area of Nanjing Zijin Mountain%南京紫金山风景区周边道路规划改造设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆瑶; 孙婧; 许馨月; 何疏悦

    2015-01-01

    为使风景区周边道路规划符合城市发展要求,针对近年来紫金山风景区周边城市道路出现的一系列问题,通过现场调研和数据收集,分析其产生原因,并结合南京城市景观发展,系统地提出了规划原则和提高道路承载力、构建慢行游览步道等改造设计策略。%In order to make the roads planning of scenic area surrounding to meet the demands of urban develop‐ment ,aiming at a series of questions of the Zijin Mountain Scenic Area surrounding road in recent years , through field research and data collection ,analysis of its causes ,and to explore the significance of the study of such problems .Combined with the development of the urban landscape of Nanjing ,the system proposes the planning principles and improve road capacity ,build slowly exploring trails and other renovation design strate‐gy .

  18. A method of teaching critical care skills to undergraduate student midwives using the Maternal-Acute Illness Management (M-AIM) training day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Rose; Nuttall, Janet; Smith, Joyce; Hollins Martin, Caroline J

    2014-11-01

    The most recent Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths (CMACE, 2011) identified human errors, specifically those of midwives and obstetricians/doctors as a fundamental component in contributing to maternal death in the U.K. This paper discusses these findings and outlines a project to provide training in Maternal-Acute Illness Management (M-AIM) to final year student midwives. Contents of the program are designed to educate and simulate AIM skills and increase confidence and clinical ability in early recognition, management and referral of the acutely ill woman. An outline of the Maternal-AIM program delivered at the University of Salford (Greater Manchester, UK) is presented to illustrate how this particular institution has responded to a perceived need voiced by local midwifery leaders. It is proposed that developing this area of expertise in the education system will better prepare student midwives for contemporary midwifery practice.

  19. [Peptide synthesis aiming at elucidation and creation of protein functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futaki, S

    1998-11-01

    The recent development of molecular biology has been elucidating outlines of the cross-talk of biomolecules. The understanding of the function of these biomolecules from the viewpoint of chemistry is now demanded not only for the understanding of biological systems but also for the creation of novel functional molecules. Here two topics are described about peptide synthesis aiming at the elucidation and the creation of protein functions. The first topic is the development of approaches for the synthesis of Tyr (SO3H)-containing peptides. Tyrosine sulfation is one of the most popular protein post-translational modifications. Synthetic peptides are of great help for the elucidation of the biological significance of tyrosine sulfation. We have developed two approaches for the efficient synthesis of tyrosine sulfate [Tyr (SO3H)]-containing peptides. The first approach employs a dimethylformamide-sulfur trioxide (DMF-SO3) complex as a sulfating agent and safety-catch protecting groups for the selective sulfation of tyrosine in the presence of serine. The second approach employs the direct introduction of Tyr(SO3H) into the peptide chain in the form of Fmoc-Tyr(SO3Na) followed by deprotection at 4 degrees C in trifluoroacetic acid. These approaches were successfully applied for the synthesis of cholecystokinin (CCK)-related peptides. The second topic deals with new approaches for the creation of artificial proteins through assembling alpha-helical peptides via selective disulfide or thioether formation. Approaches to assemble individual peptide segments on a peptide template were also developed. Four peptides corresponding to the transmembrane segments of the sodium channel (S4 in repeat I-IV) were assembled on a peptide template to give a protein having ion channel activity with rectification.

  20. Straight sinus: ultrastructural analysis aimed at surgical tumor resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Marcelo Campos Moraes; Tirapelli, Luis Fernando; Carlotti, Carlos Gilberto; Colli, Benedicto Oscar

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Accurate knowledge of the anatomy of the straight sinus (SS) is relevant for surgical purposes. During one surgical procedure involving the removal of part of the SS wall, the authors observed that the venous blood flow was maintained in the SS, possibly through a vein-like structure within the dural sinus or dural multiple layers. This observation and its divergence from descriptions of the histological features of the SS walls motivated the present study. The authors aimed to investigate whether it is possible to dissect the SS walls while keeping the lumen intact, and to describe the histological and ultrastructural composition of the SS wall. METHODS A total of 22 cadaveric specimens were used. The SS was divided into three portions: anterior, middle, and posterior. The characteristics of the SS walls were analyzed, and the feasibility of dissecting them while keeping the SS lumen intact was assessed. The thickness and the number of collagen fibers and other tissues in the SS walls were compared with the same variables in other venous sinuses. Masson's trichrome and Verhoeff's stains were used to assess collagen and elastic fibers, respectively. The data were analyzed using Zeiss image analysis software (KS400). RESULTS A vein-like structure independent of the SS walls was found in at least one of the portions of the SS in 8 of 22 samples (36.36%). The inferior wall could be delaminated in at least one portion in 21 of 22 samples (95.45%), whereas the lateral walls could seldom be delaminated. The inferior wall of the SS was thicker (p collagen and greater amounts of other tissues-including elastic fibers, connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerve fibers (p collagen. Delamination of the inferior wall of the SS was mostly possible in its inferior wall, but an attempt to delaminate the lateral walls is not recommended. Ultrastructural assessment corroborated a recent report of the presence of muscle fibers in the inferior wall of the SS. PMID:26745473

  1. Application of cytokine aiming at overcoming marrow control after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative and qualitative changes in hematopoietic stem cells exposed to irradiation in combination of cytokine were investigated aiming to prevent bone marrow suppression. Two cell lines; KM-3 and Reh cells derived human undifferentiated B lymphocyte lymphoma were transplanted to SCID mice, an immunodefficiency mouse and the grafted mice were used as a human pediatric lymphoma model. The subjects were exposed to radiation at 5.0 and 7.0 Gy. After the exposure, the mice were housed under SPF conditions and the surviving rate, tumor cell degeneration and changes in peripheral lymphocyte count were examined. In addition, kinetic changes of the myelo-precursor cells including hematopoietic stem cells were investigated. Although tumor degeneration by the radiation exposure was marked, bone marrow suppression was still distinct. For exposure to 7 Gy, the tumor cells almost disappeared, but bone marrow suppression was severe, resulting that most of the animals died of bone marrow suppression. However, when G-CSF was given in combination with the exposure, its effects on their surviving were marked for either of the doses tested. The number of CFU-S in the bone marrow was significantly decreased in the SCID mice exposed to 5 Gy or 7 Gy, but that of the mice exposed to it in combination with G-CSF was higher than that of the mice exposed without it. The number of CFU-GM showed similar tendency to that of CFU-S. Clinical application of G-CSF has been progressed because it was demonstrated that the cytokine has no adverse effects on human. The present study showed therapeutic efficacy of G-CSF in subjects exposed to radiation. (M.N.)

  2. Describing the chemical singularity of the Spanish protected designations of origin for virgin olive oils in relation to oils from neighbouring areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, D. L.; Tena, N.; Aparicio, R.

    2012-11-01

    The protected designations of origin (PDOs) have proven to be a successful regulatory framework to protect singular virgin olive oils that have distinctive properties. However, sometimes the registration of new PDOs and the demarcation of the geographical areas associated to them are based on administrative issues rather than objective chemical data. In this work, the chemical compositions of fatty acids, hydrocarbons, alcohols, sterols and methyl sterols have been used to prove the differences between a PDO virgin olive oil and the oils produced in the surrounding areas. Three cases were studied (PDO Estepa, PDO Montoro-Adamuz, and Campina de Jaen) which actually mean three different situations that combine variations in cultivar and pedoclimatic characteristics. The chemical compounds that showed a better ability to classify samples were selected by the Brown- Forsythe test, a particular modification of ANOVA, and this ability was later visualized in a principal component analysis. The oils from PDOs Estepa and Montoro-Adamuz showed clear differences in their chemical compositions, while the oils from Campina de Jaen formed a group of samples which greatly overlapped with the oils from surrounding areas, probably due to the lack of variation in cultivar (Picual) throughout the province of Jaen. (Author) 32 refs.

  3. Design and Implementation of Management Information System in Irrigation Area%研究灌区管理信息系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何林

    2014-01-01

    随着网络技术的发展,信息化管理技术的提高,计算机技术被应用在各个领域,水利方面也不断采用现代化技术,研究灌区管理信息系统,实现灌区管理的信息化、自动化,是规范我国灌区管理工作的重要举措。本文将对灌区管理信息系统的设计与实现作简要分析。%With the development of network technology and improvement of information management technology, computer technology has been applied in various fields. Water conservancy also continues to use modern technology, study irrigation management information system in irrigation area, achieve the information and automation of irrigation area management, which is the important measure of standardizing management of irrigation districts. This paper analyzes the design and implementation of management information system in irrigation area.

  4. Design of water conservancy irrigation area video surveillance system%水利灌区视频监视系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边玉国; 李积军

    2013-01-01

      随着水利事业的全面推进和电子信息技术、网络技术、图像处理等技术的迅速发展,特别是为了实现酒泉市灌区治理开发和管理现代化的需要,该文以甘肃省金塔县鼎新灌区农业用水总量控制与定额管理为目标,以灌区量水自动监控系统的设计要求为对象,以灌区视频监视系统所达目的为依据,结合和应用当前先进的视频监视技术,提出了鼎新灌区量水自动监控系统中视频监视系统的设计,为灌区视频监视系统的实效设计提供了依据和参考。%With the comprehensively promote of water utilities and rapid development of electronic information technology , network technology , image processing technology , in particular in order to realize the needs of Jiuquan City irrigation district governance development and management of modern .In this paper, Jinta County , Gansu Province took the lead in irrigated water total control and quota management goal and the irrigation district water monitoring system design requirements for the object , and the goal is reached based on the irrigation area video surveillance system , the combined and application of the cur-rent state-of-the-art video surveillance technology , proposed Dingxin irrigation district water automat-ic monitoring the system design of video surveillance systems , to provide the basis and reference for the effectiveness of the irrigation area video surveillance system design .

  5. Nisin Production Utilizing Skimmed Milk Aiming to Reduce Process Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozala, Angela Faustino; de Andrade, Maura Sayuri; de Arauz, Luciana Juncioni; Pessoa, Adalberto; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni

    Nisin is a natural additive for conservation of food, pharmaceutical, and dental products and can be used as a therapeutic agent. Nisin inhibits the outgrowth of spores, the growth of a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This study was performed to optimize large-scale nisin production in skimmed milk and subproducts aiming at low-costs process and stimulating its utilization. Lactococcus lactis American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 11454 was developed in a rotary shaker (30°C/36 h/100 rpm) in diluted skimmed milk and nisin activity, growth parameters, and media components were also studied. Nisin activity in growth media was expressed in arbitrary units (AU/mL) and converted to standard nisin concentration (Nisaplin®, 25 mg of pure nisin is 1.0×106 AU/mL). Nisin activity in skimmed milk 2.27 gtotal solids was up to threefold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 4.54 gtotal solids and was up to 85-fold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 1.14 gtotal solids. L. lactis was assayed in a New Brunswick fermentor with 1.5 L of diluted skimmed milk (2.27 gtotal solids) and airflow of 1.5 mL/min (30°C/36/200 rpm), without pH control. In this condition nisin activity was observed after 4 h (45.07 AU/mL) and in the end of 36 h process (3312.07 AU/mL). This work shows the utilization of a low-cost growth medium (diluted skimmed milk) to nisin production with wide applications. Furthermore, milk subproducts (milk whey) can be exploited in nisin production, because in Brazil 50% of milk whey is disposed with no treatment in rivers and because of high organic matter concentrations it is considered an important pollutant. In this particular case an optimized production of an antimicrobial would be lined up with industrial disposal recycling.

  6. DFT and AIM studies of intramolecular hydrogen bonds in dicoumarols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Density functional calculations with Becke's three parameter hybrid method using the correlation functional of Lee, Yang and Parr (B3LYP) were carried out for 3,3'-benzylidenebis(4-hydroxycoumarin) (phenyldicoumarol, PhDC), 3,3'-methylenebis(4-hydroxycoumarin) (dicoumarol, DC) and the parent compound, 4-hydroxycoumarin (4-HC). Different basis sets were tested in the course of the calculations: 6-31G*, 6-31+G** and 6-311G*. In full agreement with available X-ray data, B3LYP/6-31G* calculations of the lowest-energy conformer, PhDC showed two O-H···O asymmetrical intramolecular hydrogen bonds with O···O distances 2.638 and 2.696 A. The HB energies in PhDC were estimated of -55.46 and -52.32 kJ/mol, respectively. The values obtained correlated with the calculated and experimental O···O distances and predicted difference in the hydrogen bonding strengths in PhDC. The total HB energy in PhDC was calculated of -107.73 kJ/mol. At the same level of theory, both O···O intramolecular distances in DC were calculated identical (2.696 A) and thus two symmetrical hydrogen bondings were obtained. The single HB strength was estimated of -50.89 kJ/mol and the total one of -101.79 kJ/mol. The electron density (ρb) and Laplacian (∇2ρb) properties, estimated by AIM calculations, showed that both O···H bonds have low ρb and positive ∇2ρb values (consistent with electrostatic character of the HBs), whereas both O-H bonds have covalent character (∇2ρb-1) in comparison with that obtained for the second O-H which forms the weaker HB in PhDC (-559 cm-1)

  7. Aiming at Targets: The Autobiography of Robert C. Seamans, Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamans, Robert C., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Bob Seamans originally was inspired to write this book for his family and friends. That is a large audience. By his own count his immediate family numbers twenty-four, not counting brothers and cousins and their families. His friends are uncounted but surely run to hundreds. As one of them and as a colleague at NASA, I am pleased and honored that he asked me to write this foreword. While written in Bob's unique and informal style, this autobiography has significance for many readers beyond his large circles of family and friends. Leaders and students of large, complex technological endeavors should be able to learn much from reading how Bob faced the daunting technical and management challenges in his career. As the title of this book implies, Bob has always set high goals for himself and then kept his eyes focused on both the necessary details and the broader picture. His ability to shift smoothly among jobs that required seemingly disparate abilities and skills speaks volumes about his insight, dedication, and enthusiasm for achievement. The book spans a truly remarkable life story. Bob first takes us through his growing up, education, and early professional and family life. Next he focuses on the crucial years when he was the general manager of NASA. Then he moves on to his career in the top jobs at the Air Force, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Energy Research and Development Administration. Finally, he touches on his later leadership activities in the academic and business worlds. Aiming at Targets is a series of fascinating topical vignettes covering his professional life. Taken together, like broad brushstrokes in an impressionist painting, they give a better picture of Bob Seamans and his work than a detailed recitation of facts and dates could hope to do. This is a cheerful account of an interesting and successful career. The book is full of good stories, with many memorable characters. Like the proverbial sundial, it counts the sunny hours

  8. Methodology for the elaboration of Natura 2000 sites designation acts in the Walloon Region (Belgium: calcareous grasslands in the Lesse-and-Lomme area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahy G.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Walloon Region (Belgium, 239 sites have been selected to be included in the Natura 2000 network. The next step is to write designation acts in order to legally protect these 221,000 ha. In this pilot study, a designation act was elaborated for a Natura 2000 site of 2,569 ha and located in the Lesse-and-Lomme area within the Calestienne region. Although the site includes 40 ha of calcareous grasslands, characterised by an exceptional flora and fauna, this habitat is very threatened by abandonment and fragmentation.The methodology used to elaborate the designation act is presented with respect to calcareous grassland. Firstly, in spring and summer 2003, an accurate map of natural habitats was produced, with every single patch of calcareous grassland being mapped. Information was also collected in order to evaluate conservation status. Based on this information, conservation status was then assessed with respect to three different criteria: (1 integrity of the cortege species, (2 habitat structure and (3 degradations. Thirdly, the site was divided into objective zones according to the different habitats and species of Community interest found in the site. Hence, an objective zone was delineated for calcareous grasslands. This objective zone was then divided in several management units. Finally, at these different spatial levels (site, objective zone, management unit, management measures were suggested. As a result, in the draft designation act, the target is to maintain or restore 230 ha of calcareous grassland, instead of the existing 40 ha. This ambitious target requires large-scale restoration and an efficient grazing scheme. These will need important resources for their successful implementation

  9. The design, characterization, and comparison of MEMS comb-drive acoustic emission transducers with the principles of area-change and gap-change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Minoo; Saboonchi, Hossain; Ozevin, Didem

    2015-04-01

    Comb-drive transducers are made of interdigitized fingers formed by the stationary part known as stator and the moving part known as rotor, and based on the transduction principle of capacitance change. They can be designed as area-change or gap-change mechanism to convert the mechanical signal at in-plane direction into electrical output. The comb-drive transducers can be utilized to differentiate the wave motion in orthogonal directions when they are utilized with the outof- plane transducers. However, their sensitivity is weak to detect the wave motion released by newly formed damage surfaces. In this study, Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) comb-drive Acoustic Emission (AE) transducer designs with two different mechanisms are designed, characterized and compared for sensing high frequency wave propagation. The MEMS AE transducers are manufactured using MetalMUMPs (Metal Multi-User MEMS Processes), which use electroplating technique for highly elevated microstructure geometries. Each type of the transducers is numerically modeled using COMSOL Multiphysics program in order to determine the sensitivity based on the applied load. The transducers are experimentally characterized and compared to the numerical models. The experiments include laser excitation to control the direction of the wave generation, and actual crack growth monitoring of aluminum 7075 specimens loaded under fatigue. Behavior and responses of the transducers are compared based on the parameters such as waveform signature, peak frequency, damping, sensitivity, and signal to noise ratio. The comparisons between the measured parameters are scaled according to the respective capacitance of each sensor in order to determine the most sensitive design geometry.

  10. Time and Energy Measurement Electronics for Silicon Drift Detector Aimed for X-ray Pulsar Navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Er-Lei; Feng, Chang-Qing; Ye, Chun-Feng; Liu, Shu-Bin; Jin, Dong-Dong; Lian, Jian; HU, HUI-JUN

    2016-01-01

    A readout electronic with high time and energy resolution performance is designed for the SDD (Silicon Drift Detector) signals readout, which is aimed for X-ray pulsar based navigation (XNAV). For time measurement, the input signal is fed into a fast shaping and Constant Fraction Discrimination (CFD) circuit, and then be digitalized by a Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) implemented in an Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), which is designed with a bin size of 2.5 ns. For energy measurement, ...

  11. Digital Jacquard Fabric Design in Colorful Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周赳

    2004-01-01

    Digital image design is one of advanced technique in textile design. The investigation into digital Jacquard textile design in the colorful mode is one form of research in digital Jacquard fabric design, which aimed at expanding past and present jacquard design and production methods towards innovative ends. In this paper, the design principles and design methods for unconventional digital Jacquard fabric design in colorful mode have been analyzed based on the new technologies and computer applied color theory. The results of this study will enhance further research in the area of digital textile.

  12. Summary of Survey and Workshop Results on Areas of Research in Human Factors for the Design and Operation of New Nuclear Plant Technology - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear community is currently at a stage where existing reactor control stations are undergoing various forms of modernization, new reactors are being built in many countries with computer-based control rooms, and advanced reactors are being designed through international cooperation to support power generation for decades to come. With the introduction of advanced plants, we will see new reactor and system designs, new tools to support plant personnel, and changes to nuclear power plant (NPP) staffing configurations. The concepts of operation and maintenance for this new generation of plants are likely to be quite different from those employed in today's plants. It is important that the potential impact of these developments is evaluated and understood by prospective operators and regulators responsible for determining the acceptability of new designs to support human performance in maintaining plant safety. The introduction of new technology is viewed as having promise for improving the safe and efficient operation of NPPs. To ensure the appropriate application of technology to support human performance and plant safety, it is important to evaluate the technological advances in terms of both potential negative and positive effects. Research described in this paper can provide the technical basis to help ensure that the benefits of new technology are realized and that the potential negative effects are minimized. The impetus for the current effort grew out of a Nuclear Energy Agency, Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations, Working Group on Human and Organizational Factors, Technical Opinion Paper (TOP) titled, 'Research on Human Factors in New Nuclear Plant Technology' [NEA/CSNI/R(2009)7], which identified eight broad topic areas that warrant further research: 1. Operating Experience (OpEx) from New and Modernized Plants. 2. Evolving Concepts for the Operation of Nuclear Power Plants. 3. The Role of Automation and Personnel: New Concepts of Teamwork

  13. CoAIMs: a cost-effective panel of ancestry informative markers for determining continental origins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R Londin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic ancestry is known to impact outcomes of genotype-phenotype studies that are designed to identify risk for common diseases in human populations. Failure to control for population stratification due to genetic ancestry can significantly confound results of disease association studies. Moreover, ancestry is a critical factor in assessing lifetime risk of disease, and can play an important role in optimizing treatment. As modern medicine moves towards using personal genetic information for clinical applications, it is important to determine genetic ancestry in an accurate, cost-effective and efficient manner. Self-identified race is a common method used to track and control for population stratification; however, social constructs of race are not necessarily informative for genetic applications. The use of ancestry informative markers (AIMs is a more accurate method for determining genetic ancestry for the purposes of population stratification. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we introduce a novel panel of 36 microsatellite (MSAT AIMs that determines continental admixture proportions. This panel, which we have named Continental Ancestry Informative Markers or CoAIMs, consists of MSAT AIMs that were chosen based upon their measure of genetic variance (F(st, allele frequencies and their suitability for efficient genotyping. Genotype analysis using CoAIMs along with a Bayesian clustering method (STRUCTURE is able to discern continental origins including Europe/Middle East (Caucasians, East Asia, Africa, Native America, and Oceania. In addition to determining continental ancestry for individuals without significant admixture, we applied CoAIMs to ascertain admixture proportions of individuals of self declared race. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: CoAIMs can be used to efficiently and effectively determine continental admixture proportions in a sample set. The CoAIMs panel is a valuable resource for genetic researchers performing case

  14. The alcohol industry's way to discipline pleasure. Prevention campaigns aimed at Danish youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Houborg, Esben

    2011-01-01

    ) to analyze drug prevention campaigns in Sweden. After this a more detailed analysis of how the two campaigns articulate pleasure is done. Results – Both campaigns recognize recreational motives for consuming alcohol. In both campaigns pleasure is central to the regulation of alcohol consumption among young...... people. Both campaigns aim to associate alcohol consumption with a disciplined pleasure that does not involve intoxication. In this way alcohol policy becomes a politics of pleasure. Conclusion – Alcohol prevention that aims to moderate alcohol consumption among young people by associating alcohol......Aims – To analyze how two youth alcohol prevention campaigns funded by the Danish alcohol industry articulate the relationship between alcohol, intoxication and pleasure. Design – The two campaigns are first analyzed by applying an analytical model developed by Karlsson and Bergmark (2009...

  15. Concepts, Aims and Drawbacks in Interdisciplinary Dentistry: Results of an International Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Slavicek, Gregor; Slavicek, Florian; Makarevich, Alexandra; Makarevich, Ivan; Bulatova, Ksenia

    2013-01-01

    Aims: This article describes the results of a survey among dentists and dental technician regarding interdisciplinary teamwork. Interdisciplinary dental collaborations seem to be based on different conceptions with the consequence of various strengths but also weaknesses within teams. Study Design: International questionnaire (Germane, English, Russian). Place and Duration of Study: 250 questionnaires were handed out in paper form and 100 access codes for the Web-based version were sent. The ...

  16. 城市设计修复功能初探——以武昌蛇山片区概念设计为例%Exploration of the Restorative Function of Urban Design from Wuchang Sheshan Area Conceptual Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄立; 潘牧樵; 徐齐帆

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the concept of urban design with repair, and describes specific explanation from city space organization, dynamic behavior of brush and urban ecological environment of configuration. It is stated with Wuchang sheshan area conceptual design that the Spatial Structure was optimized by setting up linearity open space along river and ridge, a uniform city image was formed, dynamic behavior of restructuring by adjusting the openness of space, the system of public activities was improved, and different life experience was expressed, which meet all kinds of need of the society. The improvement of the natural environment by setting up linearity open space along the ridge, river and road, and all the city eco-greenbelts were combined.The hope is to promote urban design repair function in the future urban construction and theoretical research applications and make an example from Wuchang sheshan area conceptual design, and make recommendations on the development of Wuhan City through the inspiration of the restorative function of urban design.%提出了城市设计修复功能的概念,从城市空间组织、动态行为梳理、城市生态环境配置三个层面进行理论分析,以武昌蛇山片区的概念设计为例进行阐述,通过山、水两条空间提高显示度,形成连续统一的城市印象,从整体上完善和组织城市空间体系;通过调适空间开放状态、丰富公共活动层系,表达不同的生命体验、适应社会成员的各种需要,以此重组公众的动态行为;通过建立沿山脊、河道、道路的开放空间,将城市生态绿地贯联起来,形成可读的、连续的城市肌理,从而改良自然环境,提升生态环境质量.希望推动城市设计修复功能的理论研究及其在城市建设中的应用,并对武汉城市发展提出建议.

  17. 浅析居住区“亲子空间”景观设计%The Analysis of Landscape Design of Residential Areas"Family Space"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振兴; 吴潮海

    2013-01-01

    对现今居住区内亲子空间的现状进行分析,从儿童的自身发展阶段着手,对居住区内亲子空间的营造设计与方法进行分析探讨,为城市居住区内亲子活动空间提供参考。%This article is about the current status of "Family Space"analysis≹from the development stage of children's self-initi-ated≹ on"Family Space"to create a design and methods of analysis and discussion≹ providing a reference for the city's residential areas"Family Space".

  18. Exercise Area Design in the Polaris Shiphandling Simulator%Polaris船舶操纵模拟器练习海域的设计制作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈声柳

    2011-01-01

    Systematically analyses the compose of exercise area of the Polaris ship handling simulator which developed by Norway KONGSBERG Maritime AS Company,Introduce the generation process in detail with the experience of design practical.It is hopeful to provide reference for those who are researching,developing and using maritime simulator%系统地分析了挪威KONGSBERG大型船舶操纵模拟器Polaris 5.0系统练习海域的组成,并利用KONGSBERG公司提供的制作软件结合实际的制作经验,详细地介绍Polaris 5.0模拟器系统练习海域的制作,以期对航海模拟器的研制、开发和使用提供借鉴.

  19. Preliminary design of a biological treatment facility for trench water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal area at West Valley, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosten, R.; Malkumus, D. [Pacific Nuclear, Inc. (United States); Sonntag, T. [New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, NY (United States); Sundquist, J. [Ecology and Environment, Inc. (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) owns and manages a State-Licensed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area (SDA) at West Valley, New York. Water has migrated into the burial trenches at the SDA and collected there, becoming contaminated with radionuclides and organic compounds. The US Environmental Protection Agency issued an order to NYSERDA to reduce the levels of water in the trenches. A treatability study of the contaminated trench water (leachate) was performed and determined the best available technology to treat the leachate and discharge the effluent. This paper describes the preliminary design of the treatment facility that incorporates the bases developed in the leachate treatability study.

  20. Online decision support based on modeling with the aim of increased irrigation efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dövényi-Nagy, Tamás; Bakó, Károly; Molnár, Krisztina; Rácz, Csaba; Vasvári, Gyula; Nagy, János; Dobos, Attila

    2015-04-01

    The significant changes in the structure of ownership and control of irrigation infrastructure in the past decades resultted in the decrease of total irrigable and irrigated area (Szilárd, 1999). In this paper, the development of a model-based online service is described whose aim is to aid reasonable irrigation practice and increase water use efficiency. In order to establish a scientific background for irrigation, an agrometeorological station network has been built up by the Agrometeorological and Agroecological Monitoring Centre. A website has been launched in order to provide direct access for local agricultural producers to both the measured weather parameters and results of model based calculations. The public site provides information for general use, registered partners get a handy model based toolkit for decision support at the plot level concerning irrigation, plant protection or frost forecast. The agrometeorological reference station network was established in the recent years by the Agrometeorological and Agroecological Monitoring Centre and is distributed to cover most of the irrigated cropland areas of Hungary. From the spatial aspect, the stations have been deployed mainly in Eastern Hungary with concentrated irrigation infrastructure. The meteorological stations' locations have been carefully chosen to represent their environment in terms of soil, climatic and topographic factors, thereby assuring relevant and up-to-date input data for the models. The measured parameters range from classic meteorological data (air temperature, relative humidity, solar irradiation, wind speed etc.) to specific data which are not available from other services in the region, such as soil temperature, soil water content in multiple depths and leaf wetness. In addition to the basic grid of reference stations, specific stations under irrigated conditions have been deployed to calibrate and validate the models. A specific modeling framework (MetAgro) has been developed