WorldWideScience

Sample records for area adapted protocol

  1. Adaptive Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Javaid, N.; Ahmad, A.; A. Rahim; Z.A. Khan; M. Ishfaq; Qasim, U.

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) are widely used for applications such as modern health-care systems, where wireless sensors (nodes) monitor the parameter(s) of interest. Nodes are provided with limited battery power and battery power is dependent on radio activity. MAC protocols play a key role in controlling the radio activity. Therefore, we present Adaptive Medium Access Control (A-MAC) protocol for WBANs supported by linear programming models for the minimization of energy consumption ...

  2. A Priority-Based Adaptive MAC Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Sabin; Moh, Sangman

    2016-03-18

    In wireless body area networks (WBANs), various sensors and actuators are placed on/inside the human body and connected wirelessly. WBANs have specific requirements for healthcare and medical applications, hence, standard protocols like the IEEE 802.15.4 cannot fulfill all the requirements. Consequently, many medium access control (MAC) protocols, mostly derived from the IEEE 802.15.4 superframe structure, have been studied. Nevertheless, they do not support a differentiated quality of service (QoS) for the various forms of traffic coexisting in a WBAN. In particular, a QoS-aware MAC protocol is essential for WBANs operating in the unlicensed Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) bands, because different wireless services like Bluetooth, WiFi, and Zigbee may coexist there and cause severe interference. In this paper, we propose a priority-based adaptive MAC (PA-MAC) protocol for WBANs in unlicensed bands, which allocates time slots dynamically, based on the traffic priority. Further, multiple channels are effectively utilized to reduce access delays in a WBAN, in the presence of coexisting systems. Our performance evaluation results show that the proposed PA-MAC outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and the conventional priority-based MAC in terms of the average transmission time, throughput, energy consumption, and data collision ratio.

  3. A Priority-Based Adaptive MAC Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Sabin; Moh, Sangman

    2016-01-01

    In wireless body area networks (WBANs), various sensors and actuators are placed on/inside the human body and connected wirelessly. WBANs have specific requirements for healthcare and medical applications, hence, standard protocols like the IEEE 802.15.4 cannot fulfill all the requirements. Consequently, many medium access control (MAC) protocols, mostly derived from the IEEE 802.15.4 superframe structure, have been studied. Nevertheless, they do not support a differentiated quality of service (QoS) for the various forms of traffic coexisting in a WBAN. In particular, a QoS-aware MAC protocol is essential for WBANs operating in the unlicensed Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) bands, because different wireless services like Bluetooth, WiFi, and Zigbee may coexist there and cause severe interference. In this paper, we propose a priority-based adaptive MAC (PA-MAC) protocol for WBANs in unlicensed bands, which allocates time slots dynamically, based on the traffic priority. Further, multiple channels are effectively utilized to reduce access delays in a WBAN, in the presence of coexisting systems. Our performance evaluation results show that the proposed PA-MAC outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and the conventional priority-based MAC in terms of the average transmission time, throughput, energy consumption, and data collision ratio. PMID:26999162

  4. Adaptation of TURN protocol to SIP protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Guezouri, Mustapha; Keche, Mokhtar

    2010-01-01

    Today, SIP is a protocol par Excellence in the field of communication over Internet. But, the fact that it belongs to the application layer constitutes a weakness vis-a-vis the NAT traversal. This weakness is due to the way in which the server replies to the requests of clients on the one hand. On the other, it is caused by the dynamic allocation of UDP ports for emission and reception of packets RTP/RTCP. The TURN Protocol may face this weakness. However, its use requires a certain number of exchanges between the clients and a TURN server before establishing the multimedia sessions and this increase the latent time. In this article, we propose to adapt TURN protocol for applications based on SIP protocol such as telephony over Internet, conference video, etc. This adaptation optimises the establishment of multimedia sessions by integrating a manager of TCP connections and multimedia flow controller into SIP Proxy server.

  5. An adaptive protocol for distributed beamforming

    OpenAIRE

    Sigg, Stephan; Beigl, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We study distributed adaptive beamforming in networks of wireless nodes. In particular, we observe that for the synchronisation of carrier phases, distinct algorithmic configurations are optimal in various environmental settings and propose a protocol that utilises organic computing principles to find optimum parameters. Furthermore, we study the impact of different modulation schemes on the bit error rate of a signal sequence transmitted collaboratively by distributed devices via adaptive be...

  6. Protocol independent adaptive route update for VANET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Asim; Ajmal, Sana; Qayyum, Amir

    2014-01-01

    High relative node velocity and high active node density have presented challenges to existing routing approaches within highly scaled ad hoc wireless networks, such as Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET). Efficient routing requires finding optimum route with minimum delay, updating it on availability of a better one, and repairing it on link breakages. Current routing protocols are generally focused on finding and maintaining an efficient route, with very less emphasis on route update. Adaptive route update usually becomes impractical for dense networks due to large routing overheads. This paper presents an adaptive route update approach which can provide solution for any baseline routing protocol. The proposed adaptation eliminates the classification of reactive and proactive by categorizing them as logical conditions to find and update the route. PMID:24723807

  7. On Adaptive vs. Non-adaptive Security of Multiparty Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canetti, Ran; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Dziembowski, Stefan;

    2001-01-01

    Security analysis of multiparty cryptographic protocols distinguishes between two types of adversarialsettings: In the non-adaptive setting, the set of corrupted parties is chosen in advance, before the interaction begins. In the adaptive setting, the adversary chooses who to corrupt during...... the course of the computation. We study the relations between adaptive security (i.e., security in the adaptive setting) and non-adaptive security, according to two definitions and in several models of computation. While affirming some prevailing beliefs, we also obtain some unexpected results. Some...... highlights of our results are: – - According to the definition of Dodis-Micali-Rogaway (which is set in the information-theoretic model), adaptive and non-adaptive security are equivalent. This holds for both honest-but-curious and Byzantine adversaries, and for any number of parties. – - According...

  8. Cooperative Energy Harvesting-Adaptive MAC Protocol for WBANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Esteves

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a cooperative medium access control (MAC protocol, named cooperative energy harvesting (CEH-MAC, that adapts its operation to the energy harvesting (EH conditions in wireless body area networks (WBANs. In particular, the proposed protocol exploits the EH information in order to set an idle time that allows the relay nodes to charge their batteries and complete the cooperation phase successfully. Extensive simulations have shown that CEH-MAC significantly improves the network performance in terms of throughput, delay and energy efficiency compared to the cooperative operation of the baseline IEEE 802.15.6 standard.

  9. Bayesian adaptive survey protocols for resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Transparency in resource management decisions requires a proper accounting of uncertainty at multiple stages of the decision-making process. As information becomes available, periodic review and updating of resource management protocols reduces uncertainty and improves management decisions. One of the most basic steps to mitigating anthropogenic effects on populations is determining if a population of a species occurs in an area that will be affected by human activity. Species are rarely detected with certainty, however, and falsely declaring a species absent can cause improper conservation decisions or even extirpation of populations. We propose a method to design survey protocols for imperfectly detected species that accounts for multiple sources of uncertainty in the detection process, is capable of quantitatively incorporating expert opinion into the decision-making process, allows periodic updates to the protocol, and permits resource managers to weigh the severity of consequences if the species is falsely declared absent. We developed our method using the giant gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas), a threatened species precinctive to the Central Valley of California, as a case study. Survey date was negatively related to the probability of detecting the giant gartersnake, and water temperature was positively related to the probability of detecting the giant gartersnake at a sampled location. Reporting sampling effort, timing and duration of surveys, and water temperatures would allow resource managers to evaluate the probability that the giant gartersnake occurs at sampled sites where it is not detected. This information would also allow periodic updates and quantitative evaluation of changes to the giant gartersnake survey protocol. Because it naturally allows multiple sources of information and is predicated upon the idea of updating information, Bayesian analysis is well-suited to solving the problem of developing efficient sampling protocols for species of

  10. Network-topology-adaptive quantum conference protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Sheng; Wang Jian; Tang Chao-Jing; Zhang Quan

    2011-01-01

    As an important application of the quantum network communication,quantum multiparty conference has made multiparty secret communication possible.Previous quantum multiparty conference schemes based on quantum data encryption are insensitive to network topology.However,the topology of the quantum network significantly affects the communication efficiency,e.g.,parallel transmission in a channel with limited bandwidth.We have proposed two distinctive protocols,which work in two basic network topologies with efficiency higher than the existing ones.We first present a protocol which works in the reticulate network using Greeberger-Horne-Zeilinger states and entanglement swapping.Another protocol,based on quantum multicasting with quantum data compression,which can improve the efficiency of the network,works in the star-like network.The security of our protocols is guaranteed by quantum key distribution and one-time-pad encryption.In general,the two protocols can be applied to any quantum network where the topology can be equivalently transformed to one of the two structures we propose in our protocols.

  11. Dynamically Adaptable Improved OLSR (DA-IOLSR Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S.Vinayagam,

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR protocol is a proactive type of routing protocol that uses Multipoint Relay (MPR set as the virtual backbone structure. The existing literature has identified various issues with respect to its backbone structure and has accordingly proposed improvements. In this paper, the focus is on improving the OLSR protocol by employing a Connected Dominating Set (CDS based virtual backbone structure that is dynamically adaptable to rapid topology changes. A new Dynamically Adaptable Improved Optimized Link State Routing (DA-IOLSR protocol is proposed that uses the local topology information to adapt the virtual backbone to topology changes. This assumes significance especially in networks that experience very high mobility. Changes in the network topology caused by node additions, node deletions and node mobility are taken care of. Simulations are carried out to assess the performance of DA-IOLSR protocol and OLSR protocol. Packet delivery achieved by both the protocols is examined under varying mobility by using various combinations of node speed and pause time values. It is found that DA-IOLSR protocol provides better packet delivery as compared to OLSR protocol, under varying mobility conditions.

  12. The TurboLAN project. Phase 1: Protocol choices for high speed local area networks. Phase 2: TurboLAN Intelligent Network Adapter Card, (TINAC) architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatib, Hasan S.

    1991-01-01

    The hardware and the software architecture of the TurboLAN Intelligent Network Adapter Card (TINAC) are described. A high level as well as detailed treatment of the workings of various components of the TINAC are presented. The TINAC is divided into the following four major functional units: (1) the network access unit (NAU); (2) the buffer management unit; (3) the host interface unit; and (4) the node processor unit.

  13. Protocol adaptations to conduct Systematic Literature Reviews in Software Engineering: a chronological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Sepúlveda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Systematic literature reviews (SLR have reached a considerable level of adoption in Software Engineering (SE, how-ever protocol adaptations for its implementation remain tangentially addressed. This work provides a chronological framework for the use and adaptation of the SLR protocol, including its current status. A systematic literature search was performed, reviewing a set of twelve articles being selected in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria between 2004 and 2013, using digital data sources recognized by the SE community. A chronological framework is provided that includes the current state of the protocol adaptations to conduct SLR in SE. The results indicate areas where the quantity and quality of investigations needs to be increased and the identi- fication of the main proposals providing adaptations for the protocol conducting SLR in SE.

  14. Protocol Independent Adaptive Route Update for VANET

    OpenAIRE

    Asim Rasheed; Sana Ajmal; Amir Qayyum

    2014-01-01

    High relative node velocity and high active node density have presented challenges to existing routing approaches within highly scaled ad hoc wireless networks, such as Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET). Efficient routing requires finding optimum route with minimum delay, updating it on availability of a better one, and repairing it on link breakages. Current routing protocols are generally focused on finding and maintaining an efficient route, with very less emphasis on route update. Adaptiv...

  15. Ee-Leach(Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy Modified Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishita Payar,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A wireless sensor network is made by many homogeneous and/or nodes which can sense data and communicate to each other. As energy is a scarce resource in WSN, the main issue is energy efficient routing. Many flat and hierarchical protocols have been projected to enhance the network lifetime. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH protocol is a basic energy efficient hierarchical routing protocol in WSN. In LEACH, cluster heads are selected and cluster is formed by joining non cluster head nodes. Member nodes transmit the data to respective cluster head and the cluster head is conscientious to transmit the gathered and aggregated data directly to the base station. This paper examines the performance of the conventional LEACH protocol and gives an enhancement to it for energy efficiency. The proposed protocol considers many parameters like residual energy and distance from base station etc. for cluster head selection and energy efficient routing.

  16. Adaptive versus Non-Adaptive Security of Multi-Party Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canetti, Ran; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Dziembowski, Stefan;

    2004-01-01

    Security analysis of multi-party cryptographic protocols distinguishes between two types of adversarial settings: In the non-adaptive setting the set of corrupted parties is chosen in advance, before the interaction begins. In the adaptive setting the adversary chooses who to corrupt during...... the course of the computation. We study the relations between adaptive security (i.e., security in the adaptive setting) and nonadaptive security, according to two definitions and in several models of computation....

  17. RATE ADAPTIVE PROTOCOL FOR MULTIRATE IEEE 802.11 NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Yong; Huang Qingyan; Wei Jibo; Zhao Haitao

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,a rate adaptive protocol AMARF(Adaptive Multirate Auto Rate Fallback)for multirate IEEE 802.11 networks is proposed.In AMARF,each data rate is assigned a unique success threshold,which is a criterion to judge when to switch a rate to the next higher one,and the success thresholds call be adjusted dynamically in an adaptive manner according to the running conditions,such as packet length and channel parameters.Moreover,the proposed protocol can be implemented by software without any change to the current IEEE 802.11 standards.Simulation result shows that AMARF yields significantly higher throughput than other existing schemes including ARF and its variants,in various running conditions.

  18. RE-ATTEMPT: A New Energy-Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Modern health care system is one of the most popular Wireless Body Area Sensor Network (WBASN) applications and a hot area of research subject to present work. In this paper, we present Reliability Enhanced-Adaptive Threshold based Thermal-unaware Energy-efficient Multi-hop ProTocol (RE-ATTEMPT) for WBASNs. The proposed routing protocol uses fixed deployment of wireless sensors (nodes) such that these are placed according to energy levels. Moreover, we use direct communication for the deliver...

  19. Adaptive Congestion Control Protocol (ACCP for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James DzisiGadze

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN when an event is detected there is an increase in data traffic that mightlead to packets being transmitted through the network close to the packet handling capacity of the WSN.The WSN experiences a decrease in network performance due to packet loss, long delays, and reduction inthroughput. In this paper we developed an adaptive congestion control algorithm that monitors networkutilization and adjust traffic levels and/or increases network resources to improve throughput and conserveenergy. The traffic congestion control protocol DelStatic is developed by introducing backpressuremechanism into NOAH. We analyzed various routing protocols and established that DSR has a higherresource congestion control capability. The proposed protocol, ACCP uses a sink switching algorithm totrigger DelStatic or DSR feedback to a congested node based on its Node Rank. From the simulationresults, ACCP protocol does not only improve throughput but also conserves energy which is critical tosensor application survivability on the field. Our Adaptive Congestion control achieved reliability, highthroughput and energy efficiency.

  20. Assessment of Service Protocols Adaptability Using a Novel Path Computation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhangbing; Bhiri, Sami; Haller, Armin; Zhuge, Hai; Hauswirth, Manfred

    In this paper we propose a new kind of adaptability assessment that determines whether service protocols of a requestor and a provider are adaptable, computes their adaptation degree, and identifies conditions that determine when they can be adapted. We also propose a technique that implements this adaptability assessment: (1) we construct a complete adaptation graph that captures all service interactions adaptable between these two service protocols. The emptiness or non-emptiness of this graph corresponds to the fact that whether or not they are adaptable; (2) we propose a novel path computation technique to generate all instance sub-protocols which reflect valid executions of a particular service protocol, and to derive all instance sub-protocol pairs captured by the complete adaptation graph. An adaptation degree is computed as a ratio between the number of instance sub-protocols captured by these instance sub-protocol pairs with respect to a service protocol and that of this service protocol; (3) and finally we identify a set of conditions based on these instance sub-protocol pairs. A condition is the conjunction of all conditions specified on the transitions of a given pair of instance sub-protocols. This assessment is a comprehensive means of selecting the suitable service protocol among functionally-equivalent candidates according to the requestor's business requirements.

  1. Adaptive Deployment Scheme and Multi-path Routing Protocol for WMSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enyan Sun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Multi-path routing protocols have many advantages in wireless multimedia sensor networks. To succeed in setting up multiple paths in the wireless multimedia sensor network, the Adaptive Deployment Scheme of sensor Nodes which is based upon multi-path routing protocol (ADSN is proposed in the paper. ADSN deploys the sensor nodes on the basis of the number of paths, camera nodes’ positions and the sink’s position etc. Compared to the uniform deployment scheme, ADSN can save 67% sensor nodes when setting up multiple paths. And it can avoid the hotspot area in the vicinity of the sink. Energy Equalization Multi-path Routing protocol (EEMR can consume the energy of sensor nodes more evenly and extends the network lifetime compared to TPGF.

  2. Reliable adaptive multicast protocol in wireless Ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Baolin; Li Layuan

    2006-01-01

    In wireless ad hoc network environments, every link is wireless and every node is mobile. Those features make data lost easily as well as multicasting inefficient and unreliable. Moreover, Efficient and reliable multicast in wireless ad hoc network is a difficult issue. It is a major challenge to transmission delays and packet losses due to link changes of a multicast tree at the provision of high delivery ratio for each packet transmission in wireless ad hoc network environment.In this paper, we propose and evaluate Reliable Adaptive Multicast Protocol (RAMP) based on a relay node concept. Relay nodes are placed along the multicast tree. Data recovery is done between relay nodes. RAMP supports a reliable multicasting suitable for mobile ad hoc network by reducing the number of packet retransmissions. We compare RAMP with SRM (Scalable Reliable Multicast). Simulation results show that the RAMP has high delivery ratio and low end-to-end delay for packet transmission.

  3. Yoga-teaching protocol adapted for children with visual impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soubhagyalaxmi Mohanty

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Specially designed protocol may pave the way to impart yoga in an exciting and comfortable way to children with VI. More studies are needed to further investigate the effectiveness of this new yoga protocol in similar settings.

  4. Fault-Tolerant Consensus of Multi-Agent System With Distributed Adaptive Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shun; Ho, Daniel W C; Li, Lulu; Liu, Ming

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, fault-tolerant consensus in multi-agent system using distributed adaptive protocol is investigated. Firstly, distributed adaptive online updating strategies for some parameters are proposed based on local information of the network structure. Then, under the online updating parameters, a distributed adaptive protocol is developed to compensate the fault effects and the uncertainty effects in the leaderless multi-agent system. Based on the local state information of neighboring agents, a distributed updating protocol gain is developed which leads to a fully distributed continuous adaptive fault-tolerant consensus protocol design for the leaderless multi-agent system. Furthermore, a distributed fault-tolerant leader-follower consensus protocol for multi-agent system is constructed by the proposed adaptive method. Finally, a simulation example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical analysis.

  5. IMPLEMENTATION OF ADAPTIVE ZONE ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR WIRELESS NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    T. RAVI NAYAK; SAKE. POTHALAIAH; Dr. K ASHOK BABU

    2010-01-01

    Mobile Ad hoc wireless Networks (MANETs) that do not need any fixed infrastructure. They are characterized by dynamic topology due to node mobility, limited channel bandwidth, and limited battery power of nodes. The key challenge in the design of ad hoc networks is the development of dynamic routing protocols that can efficiently findroutes between two communicating nodes. Thus, many ad hoc routing protocols have been proposed in recent years. All these routing protocols attempt to provide a ...

  6. Intelligent Broadcasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Three Classes of Adaptive Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colagrosso Michael D

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Because adaptability greatly improves the performance of a broadcast protocol, we identify three ways in which machine learning can be applied to broadcasting in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET. We chose broadcasting because it functions as a foundation of MANET communication. Unicast, multicast, and geocast protocols utilize broadcasting as a building block, providing important control and route establishment functionality. Therefore, any improvements to the process of broadcasting can be immediately realized by higher-level MANET functionality and applications. While efficient broadcast protocols have been proposed, no single broadcasting protocol works well in all possible MANET conditions. Furthermore, protocols tend to fail catastrophically in severe network environments. Our three classes of adaptive protocols are pure machine learning, intra-protocol learning, and inter-protocol learning. In the pure machine learning approach, we exhibit a new approach to the design of a broadcast protocol: the decision of whether to rebroadcast a packet is cast as a classification problem. Each mobile node (MN builds a classifier and trains it on data collected from the network environment. Using intra-protocol learning, each MN consults a simple machine model for the optimal value of one of its free parameters. Lastly, in inter-protocol learning, MNs learn to switch between different broadcasting protocols based on network conditions. For each class of learning method, we create a prototypical protocol and examine its performance in simulation.

  7. Intelligent Broadcasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Three Classes of Adaptive Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Colagrosso

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Because adaptability greatly improves the performance of a broadcast protocol, we identify three ways in which machine learning can be applied to broadcasting in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET. We chose broadcasting because it functions as a foundation of MANET communication. Unicast, multicast, and geocast protocols utilize broadcasting as a building block, providing important control and route establishment functionality. Therefore, any improvements to the process of broadcasting can be immediately realized by higher-level MANET functionality and applications. While efficient broadcast protocols have been proposed, no single broadcasting protocol works well in all possible MANET conditions. Furthermore, protocols tend to fail catastrophically in severe network environments. Our three classes of adaptive protocols are pure machine learning, intra-protocol learning, and inter-protocol learning. In the pure machine learning approach, we exhibit a new approach to the design of a broadcast protocol: the decision of whether to rebroadcast a packet is cast as a classification problem. Each mobile node (MN builds a classifier and trains it on data collected from the network environment. Using intra-protocol learning, each MN consults a simple machine model for the optimal value of one of its free parameters. Lastly, in inter-protocol learning, MNs learn to switch between different broadcasting protocols based on network conditions. For each class of learning method, we create a prototypical protocol and examine its performance in simulation.

  8. Efficient Power Management using Adaptive Receiver Centric Transport Layer Protocols on Wireless Heterogeneous Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalakshi.N

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Today's wireless networks are highly heterogeneous, with mobile devices consisting of multiple wireless network interfaces (WNICs. Since battery lifetime is limited, power management of the interfaces has become essential with flexible and open architecture, capable of supporting various types of networks, terminals and applications. However how to integrate the protocols to meet the heterogeneous network environments becomes a significant challenge in the fourth generation wireless network. Adaptive protocols are proposed to solve heterogeneity problem in future wireless networks. This paper discusses two protocols R²CP, and RCP and feasibility of RCP protocols applied to the manage power efficiently and adaptive Congestion control on heterogeneous wireless network.

  9. Helsinki Metropolitan Area Climate Change Adaptation Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Helsinki Metropolitan Area Climate Change Adaptation Strategy has been prepared in close cooperation with the four cities of the metropolitan area (Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa and Kauniainen), the Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority HSY and other municipal, regional and state level organisations. In the strategy, strategic starting points and policies with which the metropolitan area prepares for the consequences of climate change, are compiled. The Helsinki Metropolitan Area adaptation strategy concentrates on the adaptation of the built and urban environment to the changing climate. The vision of the strategy is climate proof city - the future is built now. The strategy aims to (1) assess the impacts of climate change in the area, (2) prepare for the impacts of climate change and to extreme weather events and (3) to reduce the vulnerabilities of the area to climate variability and change. The target is to secure the well-being of the citizens and the functioning of the cities also in the changing climate conditions. The preparation of the adaptation strategy started in 2009 by producing the background studies. They include the regional climate and sea level scenarios, modelling of river floods in climate change conditions and a survey of climate change impacts in the region. Also, existing programmes, legislation, research and studies concerning adaptation were collected. The background studies are published in a report titled 'The Helsinki metropolitan area climate is changing - Adaptation strategy background studies' (in Finnish) (HSY 2010). HSY coordinated the strategy preparation. The work was carried out is close cooperation with the experts of the metropolitan area cities, regional emergency services, Ministry of the Environment, Helsinki Region Transport Authority and other regional organisations. The strategy work has had a steering group that consists of representatives of the cities and other central cooperation partners. The

  10. A Biometric Key Establishment Protocol for Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Yao; Bing Liu; Guowei Wu; Kai Yao; Jia Wang

    2011-01-01

    Current advances in semiconductor technology have made it possible to implant a network of biosensors inside the human body for health monitoring. In the context of a body area network (BAN), the confidentiality and integrity of the sensitive health information is particularly important. In this paper, we present an ECG (electrocardiogram)-signal-based key establishment protocol to secure the communication between every sensor and the control unit before the physiological data are transferred...

  11. SLEACH: Secure Low- Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-yun; YANG Li-zhen; CHEN Ke-fei

    2005-01-01

    LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy) protocol is a basic clustering-based routing protocol of sensor networks. In this paper, we present the design of SLEACH, a secure extension for the LEACH protocol. We divide SLEACH into four phases and fit inexpensive cryptographic operations to each part of the protocol functionality to create an efficient, practical protocol. Then we give security analyses of SLEACH. Our security analyses show that our scheme is robust against any external attacker or compromised nodes in the sensor network

  12. A two-hop based adaptive routing protocol for real-time wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachamalla, Sandhya; Kancherla, Anitha Sheela

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important and challenging issues in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is to optimally manage the limited energy of nodes without degrading the routing efficiency. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient adaptive routing mechanism for WSNs, which saves energy of nodes by removing the much delayed packets without degrading the real-time performance of the used routing protocol. It uses the adaptive transmission power algorithm which is based on the attenuation of the wireless link to improve the energy efficiency. The proposed routing mechanism can be associated with any geographic routing protocol and its performance is evaluated by integrating with the well known two-hop based real-time routing protocol, PATH and the resulting protocol is energy-efficient adaptive routing protocol (EE-ARP). The EE-ARP performs well in terms of energy consumption, deadline miss ratio, packet drop and end-to-end delay. PMID:27478727

  13. An Adaptive Hierarchical Routing Protocol for Wireless Ad-hoc Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Nourizadeh, Shahram; Song, Ye-Qiong; Thomesse, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a cluster based, adaptive routing protocol that dynamically adapts to node's failure and mobility. Cluster head election, Mobility management, Failure management and Load balancing are the main parts of the protocol which are controlled by a Fuzzy decision making function. A new load balancing method by using Load tree is presented in this approach. The simulations results show the efficiency of this algorithm to manage the mobility and failure of the nodes and also to bal...

  14. Design and Analysis of an Attack Resilient and Adaptive Medium access Control Protocol for Computer Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Piyush Kumar; Bhadoria, Dr Sarita Singh

    2009-01-01

    The challenge of designing an efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol and analyzing it has been an important research topic for over 30 years. This paper focuses on the performance analysis (through simulation) and modification of a well known MAC protocol CSMA/CD. The existing protocol does not consider the wastage of bandwidth due to unutilized periods of the channel. By considering this fact, performance of MAC protocol can be enhanced. The purpose of this work is to modify the existing protocol by enabling it to adapt according to state of the network. The modified protocol takes appropriate action whenever unutilized periods detected. In this way, to increase the effective bandwidth utilization and determine how it behaves under increasing load, and varying packet sizes. It will also include effects of attacks i.e. Denial of service attacks, Replay Attack, Continuous Channel Access or Exhaustion attack, Flooding attack, Jamming (Radio interference) attack, Selective forwarding attack which degrade...

  15. Adaptive Relay Activation in the Network Coding Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahlevani, Peyman; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Fitzek, Frank

    2015-01-01

    of the channel states. Furthermore, measurements using our Raspberry Pi testbed demonstrate that our adaptive approach outperforms the previous mechanism in real channel conditions, with only 1% overhead due to linearly dependent coded packets compared to the 11% overhead of the standard PlayNCool approach....

  16. Protocol and Practice in the Adaptive Management of Waterfowl Harvests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Johnson

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Waterfowl harvest management in North America, for all its success, historically has had several shortcomings, including a lack of well-defined objectives, a failure to account for uncertain management outcomes, and inefficient use of harvest regulations to understand the effects of management. To address these and other concerns, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service began implementation of adaptive harvest management in 1995. Harvest policies are now developed using a Markov decision process in which there is an explicit accounting for uncontrolled environmental variation, partial controllability of harvest, and structural uncertainty in waterfowl population dynamics. Current policies are passively adaptive, in the sense that any reduction in structural uncertainty is an unplanned by-product of the regulatory process. A generalization of the Markov decision process permits the calculation of optimal actively adaptive policies, but it is not yet clear how state-specific harvest actions differ between passive and active approaches. The Markov decision process also provides managers the ability to explore optimal levels of aggregation or "management scale" for regulating harvests in a system that exhibits high temporal, spatial, and organizational variability. Progress in institutionalizing adaptive harvest management has been remarkable, but some managers still perceive the process as a panacea, while failing to appreciate the challenges presented by this more explicit and methodical approach to harvest regulation. Technical hurdles include the need to develop better linkages between population processes and the dynamics of landscapes, and to model the dynamics of structural uncertainty in a more comprehensive fashion. From an institutional perspective, agreement on how to value and allocate harvests continues to be elusive, and there is some evidence that waterfowl managers have overestimated the importance of achievement-oriented factors in

  17. Microcontroller Protocol for Secure Broadcast in Controller Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Vijayalakshmi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Controller Area Network is a bus commonly used by controllers inside vehicles and in various industrial control applications. In the past controllers were assumed to operate in secure perimeters, but today these environments are well connected to the outside world and recent incidents showed them extremely vulnerable to cyber-attacks. To withstand such threats, one can implement security in the application layer of CAN. Here we design, refine and implement a broadcast authentication protocol based on the well known paradigm of using key-chains and time synchronization, a commonly used Mechanism in wireless sensor networks, which allows us to take advantage from the use of symmetric primitives without the need of secret shared keys during broadcast. But, as process control is a time critical operation we make several refinements in order to improve on the authentication delay. For this we study several trade-offs to alleviate shortcomings on computational speed, memory and bandwidth up to the point of using reduced versions of hash functions that can assure ad hoc security. To prove the efficiency of the protocol

  18. An Energy-Aware Geographical Forwarding Protocol Utilizing Adaptive Sleeping in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel energy-aware geographical forwarding protocol utilizing adaptive sleeping, in which each node selects its relay based on a new criterion that is based on its residual energy reserves and its geographical location to guarantee energy efficiency. In addition, this paper presents an adaptive sleep mechanism fully integrated into the new relay criterion, in which each node sleeps for a variable duration based on its residual energy reserves. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol significantly reduces the energy consumption of the network and improves its balance, especially when on heavy traffic load in dense networks. Our protocol is 20 times better in balancing the energy consumption compared with geographical random forwarding protocol.

  19. A Hybrid Adaptive Protocol for Reliable Data Delivery in WSNs with Multiple Mobile Sinks

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasi, Giuseppe; Borgia, Eleonora; Conti, Marco; Gregori, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we deal with reliable and energy-efficient data delivery in sparse Wireless Sensor Networks with multiple Mobile Sinks (MSs). This is a critical task, especially when MSs move randomly, as interactions with sensor nodes are unpredictable, typically of short duration, and affected by message losses. In this paper we propose an adaptive data delivery protocol that combines efficiently erasure coding with an ARQ scheme. The key features of the proposed protocol are: (i) the use of ...

  20. Self-Adaptive and Energy-Efficient MAC Protocol Based on Event-Driven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Hou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined with WSN MAC layer protocol characteristics and design requirements, according to the characteristic of WSN monitoring application requirements, this paper puts forward a method based on event driven MAC protocol. The agreement algorithm is to solve the problem of network congestion and node energy unnecessary consumption cause by a large number of redundant monitoring data transceiver. It is a kind of adaptive low power consumption of the MAC layer protocol, which is pointed out based on theoretical foundation of S_MAC protocol, made use of the event driven mechanism system theory, combined with event driven mechanism and the characteristics of the WSN. It has the periodic dormancy mechanism of S_MAC protocol, in the premise of the reliability data, to reduce data redundancy and communication delay time, improve the overall network throughput, to ensure the safety and reliability of the network, which can greatly extends  the node of working time.

  1. Distance-Based and Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Abdullah; Anisi, Mohammad Hossein; Ab Hamid, Siti Hafizah; Akhunzada, Adnan; Khan, Muhammad Khurram

    2016-01-01

    A wireless sensor network (WSN) comprises small sensor nodes with limited energy capabilities. The power constraints of WSNs necessitate efficient energy utilization to extend the overall network lifetime of these networks. We propose a distance-based and low-energy adaptive clustering (DISCPLN) protocol to streamline the green issue of efficient energy utilization in WSNs. We also enhance our proposed protocol into the multi-hop-DISCPLN protocol to increase the lifetime of the network in terms of high throughput with minimum delay time and packet loss. We also propose the mobile-DISCPLN protocol to maintain the stability of the network. The modelling and comparison of these protocols with their corresponding benchmarks exhibit promising results. PMID:27658194

  2. Adaptive Hybrid Mobile Agent Protocol for Wireless Multihop Internet Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Velmurugan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet-based Mobile Ad Hoc Networking (MANET is an emerging technology that supports self-organizing mobile networking infrastructures. This is expected to be of great use in commercial applications for the next generation Internet users. A number of technical challenges are faced today due to the heterogeneous, dynamic nature of this hybrid MANET. A new hybrid routing scheme AODV_ALMA is proposed, which act simultaneously combining mobile agents to find path to the gateway to establish connection with Internet host and on-demand distance vector approach to find path in local MANET is one of the unique solution. An adaptive gateway discovery mechanism based on mobile agents making use of pheromone value, pheromone decay time and balance index is used to estimate the path and next hop to the gateway. The mobile nodes automatically configure the address using mobile agents first selecting the gateway and then using the gateway prefix address. The mobile agents are also used to track changes in topology enabling high network connectivity with reduced delay in packet transmission to Internet. The performance tradeoffs and limitations with existing solutions for various mobility conditions are evaluated using simulation."

  3. AGEM: Adaptive Greedy-Compass Energy-aware Multipath Routing Protocol for WMSNs

    CERN Document Server

    Medjiah, Samir; Krief, Francine

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an Adaptive Greedy-compass Energy-aware Multipath protocol (AGEM), a novel routing protocol for wireless multimedia sensors networks (WMSNs). AGEM uses sensors node positions to make packet forwarding decisions. These decisions are made online, at each forwarding node, in such a way that there is no need for global network topology knowledge and maintenance. AGEM routing protocol performs load-balancing to minimize energy consumption among nodes using twofold policy: (1) smart greedy forwarding, based on adaptive compass and (2) walking back forwarding to avoid holes. Performance evaluations of AGEM compared to GPSR (Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing) show that AGEM can: (a) maximize the network lifetime, (b) guarantee quality of service for video stream transmission, and (c) scale better on densely deployed wireless sensors network.

  4. SA-MAC:Self-Stabilizing Adaptive MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    波澄; 韩君泽; 李向阳; 王昱; 肖波

    2014-01-01

    A common method of prolonging the lifetime of wireless sensor networks is to use low power duty cycling protocol. Existing protocols consist of two categories: sender-initiated and receiver-initiated. In this paper, we present SA-MAC, a self-stabilizing adaptive MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks. SA-MAC dynamically adjusts the transmission time-slot, waking up time-slot, and packet detection pattern according to current network working condition, such as packet length and wake-up patterns of neighboring nodes. In the long run, every sensor node will find its own transmission phase so that the network will enter a stable stage when the network load and qualities are static. We conduct extensive experiments to evaluate the energy consumption, packet reception rate of SA-MAC in real sensor networking systems. Our results indicate that SA-MAC outperforms other existing protocols.

  5. HARVESTED ENERGY-ADAPTIVE MAC PROTOCOL FOR ENERGY HARVESTING IOT NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong-Kyu Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In energy harvesting IoT networks, an energy queue state of an IoT device will change dynamically and the number of IoT devices that transmit data to the IoT AP will vary in a frame. So we need a MAC protocol to adjust the frame length taking the amount of energy of IoT devices into consideration. Since the existing Framed slotted ALOHA (F-ALOHA Medium Access Control (MAC protocol utilizes the fixed frame size, the resource efficiency can be reduced. In this paper, we propose a Harvested Energy-adaptive Medium Access Control (HEMAC protocol where an IoT Access Point (AP allocates slots in accordance with the number of IoT devices that try to transmit data in a frame. The proposed HE-MAC protocol improves the resource efficiency of the F-ALOHA MAC protocol. We show that the resource efficiency of the HE-MAC protocol is superior to those of the F-ALOHA MAC protocol through simulations.

  6. Adaptive and Secure Routing Protocol for Emergency Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Panaousis, Emmanouil A; Millar, Grant P; Politis, Christos; 10.5121/ijwmn.2010.2205

    2010-01-01

    The nature of Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs) makes them suitable to be utilized in the context of an extreme emergency for all involved rescue teams. We use the term emergency MANETs (eMANETs) in order to describe next generation IP-based networks, which are deployed in emergency cases such as forest fires and terrorist attacks. The main goal within the realm of eMANETs is to provide emergency workers with intelligent devices such as smart phones and PDAs. This technology allows communication "islets" to be established between the members of the same or different emergency teams (policemen, firemen, paramedics). In this article, we discuss an adaptive and secure routing protocol developed for the purposes of eMANETs. We evaluate the performance of the protocol by comparing it with other widely used routing protocols for MANETs. We finally show that the overhead introduced due to security considerations is affordable to support secure ad-hoc communications among lightweight devices.

  7. Adaptive and Secure Routing Protocol for Emergency Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil A. Panaousis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The nature of Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs makes them suitable to be utilized in the context of anextreme emergency for all involved rescue teams. We use the term emergency MANETs (eMANETs inorder to describe next generation IP-based networks, which are deployed in emergency cases such asforest fires and terrorist attacks. The main goal within the realm of eMANETs is to provide emergencyworkers with intelligent devices such as smart phones and PDAs. This technology allows communication”islets” to be established between the members of the same or different emergency teams (policemen,firemen, paramedics. In this article, we discuss an adaptive and secure routing protocol developed forthe purposes of eMANETs. We evaluate the performance of the protocol by comparing it with otherwidely used routing protocols for MANETs. We finally show that the overhead introduced due to securityconsiderations is affordable to support secure ad-hoc communications among lightweight devices.

  8. The Traffic Adaptive Data Dissemination (TrAD) Protocol for both Urban and Highway Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bin; Hou, Kun Mean; Zhou, Haiying

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide economic cost of road crashes and injuries is estimated to be US$518 billion per year and the annual congestion cost in France is estimated to be €5.9 billion. Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) are one solution to improve transport features such as traffic safety, traffic jam and infotainment on wheels, where a great number of event-driven messages need to be disseminated in a timely way in a region of interest. In comparison with traditional wireless networks, VANETs have to consider the highly dynamic network topology and lossy links due to node mobility. Inter-Vehicle Communication (IVC) protocols are the keystone of VANETs. According to our survey, most of the proposed IVC protocols focus on either highway or urban scenarios, but not on both. Furthermore, too few protocols, considering both scenarios, can achieve high performance. In this paper, an infrastructure-less Traffic Adaptive data Dissemination (TrAD) protocol which takes into account road traffic and network traffic status for both highway and urban scenarios will be presented. TrAD has double broadcast suppression techniques and is designed to adapt efficiently to the irregular road topology. The performance of the TrAD protocol was evaluated quantitatively by means of realistic simulations taking into account different real road maps, traffic routes and vehicular densities. The obtained simulation results show that TrAD is more efficient in terms of packet delivery ratio, number of transmissions and delay in comparison with the performance of three well-known reference protocols. Moreover, TrAD can also tolerate a reasonable degree of GPS drift and still achieve efficient data dissemination. PMID:27338393

  9. The Traffic Adaptive Data Dissemination (TrAD Protocol for both Urban and Highway Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Tian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide economic cost of road crashes and injuries is estimated to be US$518 billion per year and the annual congestion cost in France is estimated to be €5.9 billion. Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs are one solution to improve transport features such as traffic safety, traffic jam and infotainment on wheels, where a great number of event-driven messages need to be disseminated in a timely way in a region of interest. In comparison with traditional wireless networks, VANETs have to consider the highly dynamic network topology and lossy links due to node mobility. Inter-Vehicle Communication (IVC protocols are the keystone of VANETs. According to our survey, most of the proposed IVC protocols focus on either highway or urban scenarios, but not on both. Furthermore, too few protocols, considering both scenarios, can achieve high performance. In this paper, an infrastructure-less Traffic Adaptive data Dissemination (TrAD protocol which takes into account road traffic and network traffic status for both highway and urban scenarios will be presented. TrAD has double broadcast suppression techniques and is designed to adapt efficiently to the irregular road topology. The performance of the TrAD protocol was evaluated quantitatively by means of realistic simulations taking into account different real road maps, traffic routes and vehicular densities. The obtained simulation results show that TrAD is more efficient in terms of packet delivery ratio, number of transmissions and delay in comparison with the performance of three well-known reference protocols. Moreover, TrAD can also tolerate a reasonable degree of GPS drift and still achieve efficient data dissemination.

  10. The Traffic Adaptive Data Dissemination (TrAD) Protocol for both Urban and Highway Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bin; Hou, Kun Mean; Zhou, Haiying

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide economic cost of road crashes and injuries is estimated to be US$518 billion per year and the annual congestion cost in France is estimated to be €5.9 billion. Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) are one solution to improve transport features such as traffic safety, traffic jam and infotainment on wheels, where a great number of event-driven messages need to be disseminated in a timely way in a region of interest. In comparison with traditional wireless networks, VANETs have to consider the highly dynamic network topology and lossy links due to node mobility. Inter-Vehicle Communication (IVC) protocols are the keystone of VANETs. According to our survey, most of the proposed IVC protocols focus on either highway or urban scenarios, but not on both. Furthermore, too few protocols, considering both scenarios, can achieve high performance. In this paper, an infrastructure-less Traffic Adaptive data Dissemination (TrAD) protocol which takes into account road traffic and network traffic status for both highway and urban scenarios will be presented. TrAD has double broadcast suppression techniques and is designed to adapt efficiently to the irregular road topology. The performance of the TrAD protocol was evaluated quantitatively by means of realistic simulations taking into account different real road maps, traffic routes and vehicular densities. The obtained simulation results show that TrAD is more efficient in terms of packet delivery ratio, number of transmissions and delay in comparison with the performance of three well-known reference protocols. Moreover, TrAD can also tolerate a reasonable degree of GPS drift and still achieve efficient data dissemination.

  11. A Turnover based Adaptive HELLO Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ingelrest, François; Mitton, Nathalie; Simplot-Ryl, David

    2007-01-01

    International audience We present a turnover based adaptive HELLO protocol (TAP), which enables nodes in mobile networks to dynamically adjust their HELLO messages frequency depending on the current speed of nodes. To the best of our knowledge, all existing solutions are based on specific assumptions (\\eg{} slotted networks) and/or require specific hardware (\\eg{} GPS) for speed evaluation. One of the key aspects of our solution is that no additional hardware is required since it does not ...

  12. Distributed Adaptive Consensus Protocols for Linear Multi-agent Systems with Directed Graphs and External Disturbances

    OpenAIRE

    LI, ZHONGKUI; Duan, Zhisheng

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the distributed consensus design problem for linear multi-agent systems with directed communication graphs and external disturbances. Both the cases with strongly connected communication graphs and leader-follower graphs containing a directed spanning tree with the leader as the root are discussed. Distributed adaptive consensus protocols based on the relative states of neighboring agents are designed, which can ensure the ultimate boundedness of the consensus error and a...

  13. An Analysis on Decentralized Adaptive MAC Protocols for Cognitive Radio Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Munam Ali Shah; Sijing Zhang; Carsten Maple

    2013-01-01

    The scarcity of bandwidth in the radio spectrum has become more vital since the demand for more and more wireless applications has increased.Most of the spectrum bands have been allocated although many studies have shown that these bands are significantly underutilized most of the time.The problem of unavailability of spectrum and inefficiency in its utilization has been smartly addressed by the cognitive radio (CR) technology which is an opportunistic network that senses the environment,observes the network changes,and then uses knowledge gained from the prior interaction with the network to make intelligent decisions by dynamically adapting their transmission characteristics.In this paper,some of the decentralized adaptive medium access control (MAC) protocols for CR networks have been critically analyzed,and a novel adaptive MAC protocol for CR networks,decentralized non-global MAC (DNG-MAC),has been proposed.The results show the DNG-MAC outperforms other CR-MAC protocols in termsof time and energy efficiency.

  14. AREA OPTIMIZED FPGA IMPLEMENTATION OF ADAPTIVE BEAMFORMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Kaur

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Quadratic Rotation decomposition (QRD based recursive least squares (RLS algorithm can be used in variety of communication applications and its low complexity implementation can be of interest. In this paper we have presented an application of QRD based RLS algorithm using Coordinate Rotation by Digital Computer (CORDIC operator for implementing an adaptive beamformer. FPGA resource estimates along with actual implementation results have been presented and are being compared with its existing implementation.

  15. Adaptive enhancement of learning protocol in hippocampal cultured networks grown on multielectrode arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey ePimashkin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Learning in neuronal networks can be investigated using dissociated cultures on multielectrode arrays supplied with appropriate closed-loop stimulation. It was shown in previous studies that weakly respondent neurons on the electrodes can be trained to increase their evoked spiking rate within predefined time window after the stimulus. Such neurons can be associated with weak synaptic connections in nearby culture network. The stimulation leads to the increase in the connectivity and in the response. However, it was not possible to perform the learning protocol for the neurons on electrodes with relatively strong synaptic inputs and responding at higher rates. We proposed an adaptive closed-loop stimulation protocol capable to achieve learning even for the highly respondent electrodes. It means that the culture network can reorganize appropriately its synaptic connectivity to generate a desired response. We introduced an adaptive reinforcement condition accounted for response variability in control stimulation. It significantly enhanced the learning protocol to many responding electrode independently on its base response level. We also found that learning effect preserved after 4-6 hours after training.

  16. Exploring Round Trip Time fairness for Adaptive Layered Transmission Control Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Kavidha

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available High performance data transfer services is needed in long distance high-speed networks. In this paper Adaptive Layered Transmission Control Protocol (ALTCP is proposed, which is used for making more scalability in highspeed networks. ALTCP is a simple adaptive layering technique for making the Additive Increase Multiplicative Decrease (AIMD algorithms used by TCP more efficient in probing for the available link bandwidth. ALTCP uses a three-dimensional congestion control framework. First the macroscopic control is employed to layer quickly and made efficient by using available link bandwidth, second microscopic control is used for extends the existing AIMD algorithm of TCP to determine the per acknowledgement behavior. Third the intermediate control is employed for decoupling the aggregate throughout from the number of opened TCP flows in parallel. In this research paper ALTCP protocol is designed and analyzed based on ns-2 simulations. The results show that ALTCP has faster magnitude than TCP in utilizing high bandwidth links. ALTCP has better TCP friendliness and Round Trip Time (RTT fairness compared with high-speed protocols namely High-speed TCP and Scalable TCP.

  17. Energy adaptive MAC protocol for IEEE 802.15.7 with energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-qiao; Chi, Xue-fen; Zhao, Lin-lin

    2016-09-01

    The medium access control (MAC) protocol for indoor visible light communication (VLC) with energy harvesting is explored in this paper. The unfairness of throughput exists among devices due to the significant difference of their energy harvesting rates which changes with distance, acceptance angle and the obstruction probability. We propose an energy harvesting model, a new obstruction probability model and an energy adaptive contention algorithm to overcome the unfairness problem. This device can adjust its contention window according to the energy harvesting rate. As a result, the device with lower energy harvesting rate can get shorter contention window to improve its transmission opportunity. Simulation results show that our MAC protocol can achieve a higher degree of fairness.

  18. Development of a protocol to quantify local bone adaptation over space and time: Quantification of reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yongtao; Boudiffa, Maya; Dall'Ara, Enrico; Bellantuono, Ilaria; Viceconti, Marco

    2016-07-01

    In vivo micro-computed tomography (µCT) scanning of small rodents is a powerful method for longitudinal monitoring of bone adaptation. However, the life-time bone growth in small rodents makes it a challenge to quantify local bone adaptation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a protocol, which can take into account large bone growth, to quantify local bone adaptations over space and time. The entire right tibiae of eight 14-week-old C57BL/6J female mice were consecutively scanned four times in an in vivo µCT scanner using a nominal isotropic image voxel size of 10.4µm. The repeated scan image datasets were aligned to the corresponding baseline (first) scan image dataset using rigid registration. 80% of tibia length (starting from the endpoint of the proximal growth plate) was selected as the volume of interest and partitioned into 40 regions along the tibial long axis (10 divisions) and in the cross-section (4 sectors). The bone mineral content (BMC) was used to quantify bone adaptation and was calculated in each region. All local BMCs have precision errors (PE%CV) of less than 3.5% (24 out of 40 regions have PE%CV of less than 2%), least significant changes (LSCs) of less than 3.8%, and 38 out of 40 regions have intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) of over 0.8. The proposed protocol allows to quantify local bone adaptations over an entire tibia in longitudinal studies, with a high reproducibility, an essential requirement to reduce the number of animals to achieve the necessary statistical power.

  19. Adapting a rapid river assessment protocols to be used by elementary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Malafaia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to adapt a rapid river assessment protocols (RAP to be used by elementary school children. The study was conducted in Ipameri, GO and the RAP was adapted for the evaluation of streams in the Cerrado biome. Based on two protocol models, the developed RAP included: physical parameters that affect the functioning of streams, language adapted to the educational level of elementary school and the presence of drawings that could facilitate the field application of RAP by the students. For consolidation of the adapted instrument, it was offered a monitoring workshop to 95 students from two public education institutions, and developed an analysis and interpretation of the pattern of responses obtained during the practical step of the workshop. The Bartlett and Levene tests revealed no statistical differences between the response patterns of the students, allowing to infer that the developed RAP was understandable by the evaluators. The application of the RAP was fast (20 to 40 minutes and the students reported that the developed instrument helped them to familiarize with environmental issues. In addition, the monitoring workshop helped them to understand the instrument and the available illustrations facilitated the field evaluation. In addition, the students concluded that they have become aware of the issues related to the water resource preservation and also that participation in the environmental monitoring workshop allowed the appropriation of knowledge about the river system functioning. It was concluded that adapted RAP has been proved to be a useful and interesting tool for using in environmental education projects and programs.

  20. Adaptive MAC-layer protocol for multiservice digital access via tree and branch communication networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Kotikalapudi; Li, Chia-Chang; Magill, Peter; Whitaker, Norman A.; Dail, James E.; Dajer, Miguel A.; Siller, Curtis A.

    1995-11-01

    Described here is an adaptive MAC-layer protocol that supports multiservice (STM and ATM) applications in the context of subscriber access to tree and branch (e.g., fiber-coaxial cable) networks. The protocol adapts to changing demands for a mix of circuit and cell mode applications, and efficiently allocates upstream and downstream bandwidth to a variety of bursty and isochronous traffic sources. In the case of a hybrid fiber-coaxial (HFC) network the protocol resides in customer premises equipment and a common head-end controller. A medium-access control (MAC) processor provides for dividing the time domain for a given digital bitstream into successive frames, each with multiple STM and ATM time slots. Within the STM region of a frame, variable length time slots are allocated to calls (e.g., telephony, video telephony) requiring different amounts of bandwidth. A contention access signaling channel is also provided in this region for call control and set-up requests. Within the ATM region fixed-length time slots accommodate one individual ATM cell. These ATM time slots may be reserved for a user for the duration of a call or burst of successive ATM cells, or shared via a contention process. At least one contention time slot is available for signaling messages related to ATM call control and set-up requests. Further, the fixed-length ATM time slots may be reserved by a user for the duration of a call, or shared through a contention process. This paper describes the MAC-layer protocol, its relation to circuit- and ATM- amenable applications, and its performance with respect to signaling throughput and latency, and bandwidth efficiency for several service scenarios.

  1. Protocol of Magnetic Field Area Network and its Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The social needs are increasing in the wireless communication technology based on sensors for the monitoring of natural disasters such as avalanche and storm, the management of underground conditions from ground sinking and landslide, the monitoring of pipes, wires buried under the ground, the management of building and bridge, and the monitoring of the pollutions such as soils and water. However, the conventional wireless communication systems based on EM (Electro Magnetic) waves have not supported reliable communication because of large signal strength attenuation around soil, water, and metals. In order to handle this problem, various efforts in the wireless communication area have been conducted. Magnetic Field Area Network (MFAN) supports the reliable communication service without large signal attenuation around water, soil, and metal. Therefore, Magnetic Field Area Network (MFAN) is expected to be one of promising solutions to the limit of the conventional technologies such as Radio Frequency Indentification (RFID) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)

  2. Protocol of Magnetic Field Area Network and its Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Yunjae; Kang, Shinjae; Lim, Seungok [Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kahng, Hyunkook [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    The social needs are increasing in the wireless communication technology based on sensors for the monitoring of natural disasters such as avalanche and storm, the management of underground conditions from ground sinking and landslide, the monitoring of pipes, wires buried under the ground, the management of building and bridge, and the monitoring of the pollutions such as soils and water. However, the conventional wireless communication systems based on EM (Electro Magnetic) waves have not supported reliable communication because of large signal strength attenuation around soil, water, and metals. In order to handle this problem, various efforts in the wireless communication area have been conducted. Magnetic Field Area Network (MFAN) supports the reliable communication service without large signal attenuation around water, soil, and metal. Therefore, Magnetic Field Area Network (MFAN) is expected to be one of promising solutions to the limit of the conventional technologies such as Radio Frequency Indentification (RFID) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)

  3. Self-Adaptive Trust Based ABR Protocol for MANETs Using Q-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Vijaya Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs are a collection of mobile nodes with a dynamic topology. MANETs work under scalable conditions for many applications and pose different security challenges. Due to the nomadic nature of nodes, detecting misbehaviour is a complex problem. Nodes also share routing information among the neighbours in order to find the route to the destination. This requires nodes to trust each other. Thus we can state that trust is a key concept in secure routing mechanisms. A number of cryptographic protection techniques based on trust have been proposed. Q-learning is a recently used technique, to achieve adaptive trust in MANETs. In comparison to other machine learning computational intelligence techniques, Q-learning achieves optimal results. Our work focuses on computing a score using Q-learning to weigh the trust of a particular node over associativity based routing (ABR protocol. Thus secure and stable route is calculated as a weighted average of the trust value of the nodes in the route and associativity ticks ensure the stability of the route. Simulation results show that Q-learning based trust ABR protocol improves packet delivery ratio by 27% and reduces the route selection time by 40% over ABR protocol without trust calculation.

  4. Self-Adaptive Contention Aware Routing Protocol for Intermittently Connected Mobile Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Elwhishi, Ahmed

    2013-07-01

    This paper introduces a novel multicopy routing protocol, called Self-Adaptive Utility-based Routing Protocol (SAURP), for Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs) that are possibly composed of a vast number of devices in miniature such as smart phones of heterogeneous capacities in terms of energy resources and buffer spaces. SAURP is characterized by the ability of identifying potential opportunities for forwarding messages to their destinations via a novel utility function-based mechanism, in which a suite of environment parameters, such as wireless channel condition, nodal buffer occupancy, and encounter statistics, are jointly considered. Thus, SAURP can reroute messages around nodes experiencing high-buffer occupancy, wireless interference, and/or congestion, while taking a considerably small number of transmissions. The developed utility function in SAURP is proved to be able to achieve optimal performance, which is further analyzed via a stochastic modeling approach. Extensive simulations are conducted to verify the developed analytical model and compare the proposed SAURP with a number of recently reported encounter-based routing approaches in terms of delivery ratio, delivery delay, and the number of transmissions required for each message delivery. The simulation results show that SAURP outperforms all the counterpart multicopy encounter-based routing protocols considered in the study.

  5. Hash-area-based data dissemination protocol in wireless sensor networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tian; WANG Guo-jun; GUO Min-yi; JIA Wei-jia

    2008-01-01

    HashQuery, a Hash-area-based data dissemination protocol, was designed in wireless sensor networks. Using a Hash function which uses time as the key, both mobile sinks and sensors can determine the same Hash area. The sensors can send the information about the events that they monitor to the Hash area and the mobile sinks need only to query that area instead of flooding among the whole network, and thus much energy can be saved. In addition, the location of the Hash area changes over time so as to balance the energy consumption in the whole network. Theoretical analysis shows that the proposed protocol can be energy-efficient and simulation studies further show that when there are 5 sources and 5 sinks in the network, it can save at least 50% energy compared with the existing two-tier data dissemination(TTDD) protocol, especially in large-scale wireless sensor networks.

  6. A Semantically Automated Protocol Adapter for Mapping SOAP Web Services to RESTful HTTP Format to Enable the Web Infrastructure, Enhance Web Service Interoperability and Ease Web Service Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Doheny

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Web Services (SWS are Web Service (WS descriptions augmented with semantic information. SWS enable intelligent reasoning and automation in areas such as service discovery, composition, mediation, ranking and invocation. This paper applies SWS to a previous protocol adapter which, operating within clearly defined constraints, maps SOAP Web Services to RESTful HTTP format. However, in the previous adapter, the configuration element is manual and the latency implications are locally based. This paper applies SWS technologies to automate the configuration element and the latency tests are conducted in a more realistic Internet based setting.

  7. Cross-Layer Link Adaptation Design for Relay Channels with Cooperative ARQ Protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Mardani, Morteza; Lahouti, Farshad

    2008-01-01

    In the context of relay channel, cooperative automatic repeat request (ARQ) is known as a protocol which exploits the spatial diversity by allowing the relay node to retransmit the source data packet to the destination node, when the latter is unable to decode the source node data correctly. This paper presents a cross-layer link adaptation design for cooperative-ARQ based relay channels, which guarantees a target packet-loss rate (PLR) at the data-link layer. We consider a scenario in which both source and relay nodes employ adaptive modulation and coding and power control at the physical layer, and the relay node is allowed to retransmit the erroneous packets at the data-link layer. We first derive closed-form expressions for the system spectral efficiency and the system average power consumption. We then present a power and rate adaptation scheme for the source and relay nodes, which maximizes the spectral efficiency subject to a target PLR and a system average power constraint. A low complexity iterative ...

  8. A Novel Adaptive MAC Protocol for Wireless Internet Access Network with Smart Antennas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGJun; LIJiandong

    2004-01-01

    Employing smart antennas in the Central access point (CAP) of wireless Internet access networks is studied. Based on the characteristics of the networks and smart antennas, a Polling-based Adaptive beamforming multiple access protocol (PB-ABFMA) is proposed. In PB-ABFMA, the CAP requests the corresponding Mobile terminal (MT) to transmit training sequence just before the data packets transmission, so the Temporal reference beamforming (TRB) can be performed by the smart antennas. The CAP schedules packet transmissions based on the polling mechanism and dynamic TDMA, and a mini-slot is used to keep connectivity when an MT is idle, therefore,the access delay is reduced. Meanwhile, a simple and effec-tive access method is proposed to guarantee rapid access of new arrival MTs to the channel. Based on the “requestreply” traffic, which is the main traffic in Internet, the theoretical analysis of channel utilization and mean turnaround delay is presented. Analysis and simulation results show that the proposed PB-ABFMA protocols effectively support the application of smart antennas and provide high channel utilization and low turn-around delay.

  9. A formal protocol test procedure for the Survivable Adaptable Fiber Optic Embedded Network (SAFENET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    High, Wayne

    1993-03-01

    This thesis focuses upon a new method for verifying the correct operation of a complex, high speed fiber optic communication network. These networks are of growing importance to the military because of their increased connectivity, survivability, and reconfigurability. With the introduction and increased dependence on sophisticated software and protocols, it is essential that their operation be correct. Because of the speed and complexity of fiber optic networks being designed today, they are becoming increasingly difficult to test. Previously, testing was accomplished by application of conformance test methods which had little connection with an implementation's specification. The major goal of conformance testing is to ensure that the implementation of a profile is consistent with its specification. Formal specification is needed to ensure that the implementation performs its intended operations while exhibiting desirable behaviors. The new conformance test method presented is based upon the System of Communicating Machine model which uses a formal protocol specification to generate a test sequence. The major contribution of this thesis is the application of the System of Communicating Machine model to formal profile specifications of the Survivable Adaptable Fiber Optic Embedded Network (SAFENET) standard which results in the derivation of test sequences for a SAFENET profile. The results applying this new method to SAFENET's OSI and Lightweight profiles are presented.

  10. Public acceptance of enforced speed adaptation in the urban area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katteler, H.A.; Heijden, R.E.C.M. van der

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses a way to drastically cope with speeding in the urban area. Pilots with Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) in Europe applied in passenger cars support the perspective of creating an urban environment with a guaranteed maximum speed level for car drivers. Therefore, the perspectiv

  11. Evaluation of replacement protocols and modifications to TCP to enhance ASC Wide Area Network performance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Randy L. Jr.

    2004-09-01

    Historically, TCP/IP has been the protocol suite used to transfer data throughout the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) community. However, TCP was developed many years ago for an environment very different from the ASC Wide Area Network (WAN) of today. There have been numerous publications that hint of better performance if modifications were made to the TCP algorithms or a different protocol was used to transfer data across a high bandwidth, high delay WAN. Since Sandia National Laboratories wants to maximize the ASC WAN performance to support the Thor's Hammer supercomputer, there is strong interest in evaluating modifications to the TCP protocol and in evaluating alternatives to TCP, such as SCTP, to determine if they provide improved performance. Therefore, the goal of this project is to test, evaluate, compare, and report protocol technologies that enhance the performance of the ASC WAN.

  12. Analysis of steps adapted protocol in cardiac rehabilitation in the hospital phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Roseli Winkelmann

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze a cardiac rehabilitation adapted protocol in physical therapy during the postoperative hospital phase of cardiac surgery in a service of high complexity, in aspects regarded to complications and mortality prevalence and hospitalization days. Methods: This is an observational cross-sectional, retrospective and analytical study performed by investigating 99 patients who underwent cardiac surgery for coronary artery bypass graft, heart valve replacement or a combination of both. Step program adapted for rehabilitation after cardiac surgery was analyzed under the command of the physiotherapy professional team. Results: In average, a patient stays for two days in the Intensive Care Unit and three to four days in the hospital room, totalizing six days of hospitalization. Fatalities occurred in a higher percentage during hospitalization (5.1% and up to two years period (8.6% when compared to 30 days after hospital discharge (1.1%. Among the postoperative complications, the hemodynamic (63.4% and respiratory (42.6% were the most prevalent. 36-42% of complications occurred between the immediate postoperative period and the second postoperative day. The hospital discharge started from the fifth postoperative day. We can observe that in each following day, the patients are evolving in achieving the Steps, where Step 3 was the most used during the rehabilitation phase I. Conclusion: This evolution program by steps can to guide the physical rehabilitation at the hospital in patients after cardiac surgery.

  13. Adaptive comanagement of a marine protected area network in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Rebecca; Jupiter, Stacy D

    2013-12-01

    Adaptive management of natural resources is an iterative process of decision making whereby management strategies are progressively changed or adjusted in response to new information. Despite an increasing focus on the need for adaptive conservation strategies, there remain few applied examples. We describe the 9-year process of adaptive comanagement of a marine protected area network in Kubulau District, Fiji. In 2011, a review of protected area boundaries and management rules was motivated by the need to enhance management effectiveness and the desire to improve resilience to climate change. Through a series of consultations, with the Wildlife Conservation Society providing scientific input to community decision making, the network of marine protected areas was reconfigured so as to maximize resilience and compliance. Factors identified as contributing to this outcome include well-defined resource-access rights; community respect for a flexible system of customary governance; long-term commitment and presence of comanagement partners; supportive policy environment for comanagement; synthesis of traditional management approaches with systematic monitoring; and district-wide coordination, which provided a broader spatial context for adaptive-management decision making. Co-Manejo Adaptativo de una Red de Áreas Marinas Protegidas en Fiyi. PMID:24112643

  14. Damping of Inter-Area Low Frequency Oscillation Using an Adaptive Wide-Area Damping Controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Wei; Jiang, L.; Fang, Jiakun;

    2013-01-01

    in each sampling interval. Case studies are undertaken on a two-area fourmachine power system and the New England 10-machine 39-bus power system, respectively. Simulation results show that the proposed adaptive WADC not only can damp the inter-area oscillations effectively under a wide range of operation...

  15. Enhancement of Adaptive Cluster Hierarchical Routing Protocol using Distance and Energy for Wireless Sensor Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of wireless networking is widely used in nuclear applications. This includes reactor control and fire dedication system. This paper is devoted to the application of this concept in the intrusion system of the Radioisotope Production Facility (RPF) of the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority. This includes the tracking, monitoring and control components of this system. The design and implementation of wireless sensor networks has become a hot area of research due to the extensive use of sensor networks to enable applications that connect the physical world to the virtual world [1-2]. The original LEACH is named a communication protocol (clustering-based); the extended LEACH’s stochastic cluster head selection algorithm by a deterministic component. Depending on the network configuration an increase of network lifetime can be accomplished [3]. The proposed routing mechanisms after enhancement divide the nodes into clusters. A cluster head performs its task which is considerably more energy-intensive than the rest of the nodes inside sensor network. So, nodes rotate tasks at different rounds between a cluster head and other sensors throughout the lifetime of the network to balance the energy dissipation [4-5].The performance improvement when using routing protocol after enhancement of the algorithm which takes into consideration the distance and the remaining energy for choosing the cluster head by obtains from the advertise message. Network Simulator (Ns2 simulator) is used to prove that LEACH after enhancement performs better than the original LEACH protocol in terms of Average Energy, Network Life Time, Delay, Throughput and Overhead.

  16. An Adaptive Framework for Selecting Environmental Monitoring Protocols to Support Ocean Renewable Energy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J. Shumchenia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Offshore renewable energy developments (OREDs are projected to become common in the United States over the next two decades. There are both a need and an opportunity to guide efforts to identify and track impacts to the marine ecosystem resulting from these installations. A monitoring framework and standardized protocols that can be applied to multiple types of ORED would streamline scientific study, management, and permitting at these sites. We propose an adaptive and reactive framework based on indicators of the likely changes to the marine ecosystem due to ORED. We developed decision trees to identify suites of impacts at two scales (demonstration and commercial depending on energy (wind, tidal, and wave, structure (e.g., turbine, and foundation type (e.g., monopile. Impacts were categorized by ecosystem component (benthic habitat and resources, fish and fisheries, avian species, marine mammals, and sea turtles and monitoring objectives were developed for each. We present a case study at a commercial-scale wind farm and develop a monitoring plan for this development that addresses both local and national environmental concerns. In addition, framework has provided a starting point for identifying global research needs and objectives for understanding of the potential effects of ORED on the marine environment.

  17. An adaptive framework for selecting environmental monitoring protocols to support ocean renewable energy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumchenia, Emily J; Smith, Sarah L; McCann, Jennifer; Carnevale, Michelle; Fugate, Grover; Kenney, Robert D; King, John W; Paton, Peter; Schwartz, Malia; Spaulding, Malcolm; Winiarski, Kristopher J

    2012-01-01

    Offshore renewable energy developments (OREDs) are projected to become common in the United States over the next two decades. There are both a need and an opportunity to guide efforts to identify and track impacts to the marine ecosystem resulting from these installations. A monitoring framework and standardized protocols that can be applied to multiple types of ORED would streamline scientific study, management, and permitting at these sites. We propose an adaptive and reactive framework based on indicators of the likely changes to the marine ecosystem due to ORED. We developed decision trees to identify suites of impacts at two scales (demonstration and commercial) depending on energy (wind, tidal, and wave), structure (e.g., turbine), and foundation type (e.g., monopile). Impacts were categorized by ecosystem component (benthic habitat and resources, fish and fisheries, avian species, marine mammals, and sea turtles) and monitoring objectives were developed for each. We present a case study at a commercial-scale wind farm and develop a monitoring plan for this development that addresses both local and national environmental concerns. In addition, framework has provided a starting point for identifying global research needs and objectives for understanding of the potential effects of ORED on the marine environment. PMID:23319884

  18. Adaptive Square-Shaped Trajectory-Based Service Location Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa-Jung Lim

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose an adaptive square-shaped trajectory (ASST-based service location method to ensure load scalability in wireless sensor networks. This first establishes a square-shaped trajectory over the nodes that surround a target point computed by the hash function and any user can access it, using the hash. Both the width and the size of the trajectory are dynamically adjustable, depending on the number of queries made to the service information on the trajectory. The number of sensor nodes on the trajectory varies in proportion to the changing trajectory shape, allowing high loads to be distributed around the hot spot area.

  19. A Survey of MAC Protocols for Cognitive Radio Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Sabin; Moh, Sangman

    2015-01-01

    The advancement in electronics, wireless communications and integrated circuits has enabled the development of small low-power sensors and actuators that can be placed on, in or around the human body. A wireless body area network (WBAN) can be effectively used to deliver the sensory data to a central server, where it can be monitored, stored and analyzed. For more than a decade, cognitive radio (CR) technology has been widely adopted in wireless networks, as it utilizes the available spectra of licensed, as well as unlicensed bands. A cognitive radio body area network (CRBAN) is a CR-enabled WBAN. Unlike other wireless networks, CRBANs have specific requirements, such as being able to automatically sense their environments and to utilize unused, licensed spectra without interfering with licensed users, but existing protocols cannot fulfill them. In particular, the medium access control (MAC) layer plays a key role in cognitive radio functions, such as channel sensing, resource allocation, spectrum mobility and spectrum sharing. To address various application-specific requirements in CRBANs, several MAC protocols have been proposed in the literature. In this paper, we survey MAC protocols for CRBANs. We then compare the different MAC protocols with one another and discuss challenging open issues in the relevant research. PMID:25903551

  20. A Survey of MAC Protocols for Cognitive Radio Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Sabin; Moh, Sangman

    2015-04-20

    The advancement in electronics, wireless communications and integrated circuits has enabled the development of small low-power sensors and actuators that can be placed on, in or around the human body. A wireless body area network (WBAN) can be effectively used to deliver the sensory data to a central server, where it can be monitored, stored and analyzed. For more than a decade, cognitive radio (CR) technology has been widely adopted in wireless networks, as it utilizes the available spectra of licensed, as well as unlicensed bands. A cognitive radio body area network (CRBAN) is a CR-enabled WBAN. Unlike other wireless networks, CRBANs have specific requirements, such as being able to automatically sense their environments and to utilize unused, licensed spectra without interfering with licensed users, but existing protocols cannot fulfill them. In particular, the medium access control (MAC) layer plays a key role in cognitive radio functions, such as channel sensing, resource allocation, spectrum mobility and spectrum sharing. To address various application-specific requirements in CRBANs, several MAC protocols have been proposed in the literature. In this paper, we survey MAC protocols for CRBANs. We then compare the different MAC protocols with one another and discuss challenging open issues in the relevant research.

  1. Protocol and Topology Issues for Wide-Area Satellite Interconnection of Terrestrial Optical LANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraga, N.

    2002-01-01

    Apart from broadcasting, the satellite business is targeting niche markets. Wide area interconnection is considered as one of these niche markets, since it addresses operators and business LANs (B2B, business to business) in remote areas where terrestrial infrastructure is not available. These LANs - if high-speed - are typically based on optical networks such as SONET. One of the advantages of SONET is its architecture flexibility and capacity to transport all kind of applications including multimedia with a range of different transmission rates. The applications can be carried by different protocols among which the Internet Protocol (IP) or the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) are the most prominent ones. Thus, the question arises how these protocols can be interconnected via the satellite segment. The paper addresses several solutions for interworking with different protocols. For this investigation we distinguish first of all between the topology and the switching technology of the satellites. In case of a star network with transparent satellite, the satellite protocol consists of physical layer and data layer which can be directly interconnected with layer 2 interworking function to their terrestrial counterparts in the SONET backbone. For regenerative satellites the situation is more complex: here we need to distinguish the types of transport protocols being used in the terrestrial and satellite segment. Whereas IP, ATM, MPEG dominate in the terrestrial networks, satellite systems usually do not follow these standards. Some might employ minor additions (for instance, satellite specific packet headers), some might be completely proprietary. In general, interworking must be done for the data plane on top of layer 2 (data link layer), whereas for the signaling plane the interworking is on top of layer 3. In the paper we will discuss the protocol stacks for ATM, IP, and MPEG with a regenerative satellite system. As an example we will use the EuroSkyWay satellite

  2. Development of a Protocol to Test Proprioceptive Utilization as a Predictor for Sensorimotor Adaptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, R.; De Dios, Y. E.; Gadd, N. E.; Caldwell, E. E.; Peters, B. T.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Oddsson, L. I. E.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts returning from space flight show significant inter-subject variations in their abilities to readapt to a gravitational environment because of their innate sensory weighting. The ability to predict the manner and degree to which each individual astronaut will be affected would improve the effectiveness of countermeasure training programs designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. We hypothesize participant's ability to utilize individual sensory information (vision, proprioception and vestibular) influences adaptation in sensorimotor performance after space flight. The goal of this study is to develop a reliable protocol to test proprioceptive utilization in a functional postural control task. Subjects "stand" in a supine position while strapped to a backpack frame holding a friction-free device using air-bearings that allow the subject to move freely in the frontal plane, similar to when in upright standing. The frame is attached to a pneumatic cylinder, which can provide different levels of a gravity-like force that the subject must balance against to remain "upright". The supine posture with eyes closed ensures reduced vestibular and visual contribution to postural control suggesting somatosensory and/or non-otolith vestibular inputs will provide relevant information for maintaining balance control in this task. This setup is called the gravity bed. Fourteen healthy subjects carried out three trials each with eyes open alternated with eyes closed, "standing" on their dominant leg in the gravity bed environment while loaded with 60 percent of their body weight. Subjects were instructed to: "use your sense of sway about the ankle and pressure changes under the foot to maintain balance." Maximum length of a trial was 45 seconds. A force plate underneath the foot recorded forces and moments during the trial and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) attached on the backpack's frame near the center of mass of the subject recorded upper body postural

  3. Cross Layer Adaptation of Check Intervals in Low Power Listening MAC Protocols for Lifetime Improvement in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Cristina Marinescu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Preamble sampling-based MAC protocols designed forWireless Sensor Networks (WSN are aimed at prolonging the lifetime of the nodes by scheduling their times of activity. This scheduling exploits node synchronization to find the right trade-off between energy consumption and delay. In this paper we consider the problem of node synchronization in preamble sampling protocols. We propose Cross Layer Adaptation of Check intervals (CLAC, a novel protocol intended to reduce the energy consumption of the nodes without significantly increasing the delay. Our protocol modifies the scheduling of the nodes based on estimating the delay experienced by a packet that travels along a multi-hop path. CLAC uses routing and MAC layer information to compute a delay that matches the packet arrival time. We have implemented CLAC on top of well-known routing and MAC protocols for WSN, and we have evaluated our implementation using the Avrora simulator. The simulation results confirm that CLAC improves the network lifetime at no additional packet loss and without affecting the end-to-end delay.

  4. An energy efficiency clustering routing protocol for WSNs in confined area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yanjing; He Yanjun; Zhang Beibei; Liu Xue

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are important application for safety monitoring in underground coal mines,which are difficult to monitor due to natural conditions.Based on the characteristic of limited energy for WSNs in confined underground area such as coal face and laneway,we presents an energy-efficient clustering routing protocol based on weight (ECRPW) to prolong the lifetime of networks.ECRPW takes into consideration the nodes' residual energy during the election process of cluster heads.The constraint of distance threshold is used to optimize cluster scheme.Furthermore,the protocol also sets up a routing tree based on cluster heads' weight.The results show that ECRPW had better performance in energy consumption,death ratio of node and network lifetime.

  5. Adaptive Code Division Multiple Access Protocol for Wireless Network-on-Chip Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumaran, Vineeth

    Massive levels of integration following Moore's Law ushered in a paradigm shift in the way on-chip interconnections were designed. With higher and higher number of cores on the same die traditional bus based interconnections are no longer a scalable communication infrastructure. On-chip networks were proposed enabled a scalable plug-and-play mechanism for interconnecting hundreds of cores on the same chip. Wired interconnects between the cores in a traditional Network-on-Chip (NoC) system, becomes a bottleneck with increase in the number of cores thereby increasing the latency and energy to transmit signals over them. Hence, there has been many alternative emerging interconnect technologies proposed, namely, 3D, photonic and multi-band RF interconnects. Although they provide better connectivity, higher speed and higher bandwidth compared to wired interconnects; they also face challenges with heat dissipation and manufacturing difficulties. On-chip wireless interconnects is one other alternative proposed which doesn't need physical interconnection layout as data travels over the wireless medium. They are integrated into a hybrid NOC architecture consisting of both wired and wireless links, which provides higher bandwidth, lower latency, lesser area overhead and reduced energy dissipation in communication. However, as the bandwidth of the wireless channels is limited, an efficient media access control (MAC) scheme is required to enhance the utilization of the available bandwidth. This thesis proposes using a multiple access mechanism such as Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) to enable multiple transmitter-receiver pairs to send data over the wireless channel simultaneously. It will be shown that such a hybrid wireless NoC with an efficient CDMA based MAC protocol can significantly increase the performance of the system while lowering the energy dissipation in data transfer. In this work it is shown that the wireless NoC with the proposed CDMA based MAC protocol

  6. A comprehensive survey of energy-aware routing protocols in wireless body area sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effatparvar, Mehdi; Dehghan, Mehdi; Rahmani, Amir Masoud

    2016-09-01

    Wireless body area sensor network is a special purpose wireless sensor network that, employing wireless sensor nodes in, on, or around the human body, makes it possible to measure biological parameters of a person for specific applications. One of the most fundamental concerns in wireless body sensor networks is accurate routing in order to send data promptly and properly, and therefore overcome some of the challenges. Routing protocols for such networks are affected by a large number of factors including energy, topology, temperature, posture, the radio range of sensors, and appropriate quality of service in sensor nodes. Since energy is highly important in wireless body area sensor networks, and increasing the network lifetime results in benefiting greatly from sensor capabilities, improving routing performance with reduced energy consumption presents a major challenge. This paper aims to study wireless body area sensor networks and the related routing methods. It also presents a thorough, comprehensive review of routing methods in wireless body area sensor networks from the perspective of energy. Furthermore, different routing methods affecting the parameter of energy will be classified and compared according to their advantages and disadvantages. In this paper, fundamental concepts of wireless body area sensor networks are provided, and then the advantages and disadvantages of these networks are investigated. Since one of the most fundamental issues in wireless body sensor networks is to perform routing so as to transmit data precisely and promptly, we discuss the same issue. As a result, we propose a classification of the available relevant literature with respect to the key challenge of energy in the routing process. With this end in view, all important papers published between 2000 and 2015 are classified under eight categories including 'Mobility-Aware', 'Thermal-Aware', 'Restriction of Location and Number of Relays', 'Link-aware', 'Cluster- and Tree

  7. A comprehensive survey of energy-aware routing protocols in wireless body area sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effatparvar, Mehdi; Dehghan, Mehdi; Rahmani, Amir Masoud

    2016-09-01

    Wireless body area sensor network is a special purpose wireless sensor network that, employing wireless sensor nodes in, on, or around the human body, makes it possible to measure biological parameters of a person for specific applications. One of the most fundamental concerns in wireless body sensor networks is accurate routing in order to send data promptly and properly, and therefore overcome some of the challenges. Routing protocols for such networks are affected by a large number of factors including energy, topology, temperature, posture, the radio range of sensors, and appropriate quality of service in sensor nodes. Since energy is highly important in wireless body area sensor networks, and increasing the network lifetime results in benefiting greatly from sensor capabilities, improving routing performance with reduced energy consumption presents a major challenge. This paper aims to study wireless body area sensor networks and the related routing methods. It also presents a thorough, comprehensive review of routing methods in wireless body area sensor networks from the perspective of energy. Furthermore, different routing methods affecting the parameter of energy will be classified and compared according to their advantages and disadvantages. In this paper, fundamental concepts of wireless body area sensor networks are provided, and then the advantages and disadvantages of these networks are investigated. Since one of the most fundamental issues in wireless body sensor networks is to perform routing so as to transmit data precisely and promptly, we discuss the same issue. As a result, we propose a classification of the available relevant literature with respect to the key challenge of energy in the routing process. With this end in view, all important papers published between 2000 and 2015 are classified under eight categories including 'Mobility-Aware', 'Thermal-Aware', 'Restriction of Location and Number of Relays', 'Link-aware', 'Cluster- and Tree

  8. Road and street smart lighting control systems as a new application area of the hot-potato protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiedrowski, Piotr; Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Boniewicz, Piotr;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the new application area of the hot-potato routing protocol, which is a “last-mile” communication network for controlling systems of road and street lighting. Four variants of the hot-potato protocol are analyzed with use of the graph theory. For the assessment of the traffic ...

  9. A very low power MAC (VLPM) protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Niamat; Khan, Pervez; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2011-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) consist of a limited number of battery operated nodes that are used to monitor the vital signs of a patient over long periods of time without restricting the patient's movements. They are an easy and fast way to diagnose the patient's status and to consult the doctor. Device as well as network lifetime are among the most important factors in a WBAN. Prolonging the lifetime of the WBAN strongly depends on controlling the energy consumption of sensor nodes. To achieve energy efficiency, low duty cycle MAC protocols are used, but for medical applications, especially in the case of pacemakers where data have time-limited relevance, these protocols increase latency which is highly undesirable and leads to system instability. In this paper, we propose a low power MAC protocol (VLPM) based on existing wakeup radio approaches which reduce energy consumption as well as improving the response time of a node. We categorize the traffic into uplink and downlink traffic. The nodes are equipped with both a low power wake-up transmitter and receiver. The low power wake-up receiver monitors the activity on channel all the time with a very low power and keeps the MCU (Micro Controller Unit) along with main radio in sleep mode. When a node [BN or BNC (BAN Coordinator)] wants to communicate with another node, it uses the low-power radio to send a wakeup packet, which will prompt the receiver to power up its primary radio to listen for the message that follows shortly. The wake-up packet contains the desired node's ID along with some other information to let the targeted node to wake-up and take part in communication and let all other nodes to go to sleep mode quickly. The VLPM protocol is proposed for applications having low traffic conditions. For high traffic rates, optimization is needed. Analytical results show that the proposed protocol outperforms both synchronized and unsynchronized MAC protocols like T-MAC, SCP-MAC, B-MAC and X-MAC in terms

  10. A Very Low Power MAC (VLPM Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Sup Kwak

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs consist of a limited number of battery operated nodes that are used to monitor the vital signs of a patient over long periods of time without restricting the patient’s movements. They are an easy and fast way to diagnose the patient’s status and to consult the doctor. Device as well as network lifetime are among the most important factors in a WBAN. Prolonging the lifetime of the WBAN strongly depends on controlling the energy consumption of sensor nodes. To achieve energy efficiency, low duty cycle MAC protocols are used, but for medical applications, especially in the case of pacemakers where data have time-limited relevance, these protocols increase latency which is highly undesirable and leads to system instability. In this paper, we propose a low power MAC protocol (VLPM based on existing wakeup radio approaches which reduce energy consumption as well as improving the response time of a node. We categorize the traffic into uplink and downlink traffic. The nodes are equipped with both a low power wake-up transmitter and receiver. The low power wake-up receiver monitors the activity on channel all the time with a very low power and keeps the MCU (Micro Controller Unit along with main radio in sleep mode. When a node [BN or BNC (BAN Coordinator] wants to communicate with another node, it uses the low-power radio to send a wakeup packet, which will prompt the receiver to power up its primary radio to listen for the message that follows shortly. The wake-up packet contains the desired node’s ID along with some other information to let the targeted node to wake-up and take part in communication and let all other nodes to go to sleep mode quickly. The VLPM protocol is proposed for applications having low traffic conditions. For high traffic rates, optimization is needed. Analytical results show that the proposed protocol outperforms both synchronized and unsynchronized MAC protocols like T-MAC, SCP-MAC, B

  11. Design of an Energy Efficient and Delay Tolerant Routing Protocol for Wireless Body Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms.Venkateswari.R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Wireless Body Area Network provide continuous health monitoring and real-time feedback to the medical personnel. The devices used for WBAN have limited energy resources. For most devices it is impossible to recharge or change the batteries. Low power is needed to provide long lifetime to the devices. All devices are equally important and devices are only added when they are needed for an application. The data mostly consists of medical information. Hence, high reliability and low delay is required. Cluster topology and Dynamic Source Routing Protocol provides high packet delivery ratio, low delay and low energy consumption. In this paper, a modification in the DSR routing protocol has been proposed. The modified DSR named as EDSR (Efficient Dynamic Source Routing, reduces the delay by reducing the average end to end delay for the node and reduces the number of packets dropped thereby increasing packet delivery ratio. Energy consumption in EDSR is decreased by 16.73% when compared to DSR. This protocol reduces the energy consumption and delay by reducing the time needed for route discovery process. EDSR achieves high residual battery capacity which eliminates the need for recharging the batteries thereby ensuring long lifetime of the devices.

  12. 1-RAAP: An Efficient 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingwei; Zhang, Lihuan; Sun, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to the rapid technological convergence of wireless communications, medical sensors and cloud computing, Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) have emerged as a novel networking paradigm enabling ubiquitous Internet services, allowing people to receive medical care, monitor health status in real-time, analyze sports data and even enjoy online entertainment remotely. However, because of the mobility and openness of wireless communications, WBANs are inevitably exposed to a large set of potential attacks, significantly undermining their utility and impeding their widespread deployment. To prevent attackers from threatening legitimate WBAN users or abusing WBAN services, an efficient and secure authentication protocol termed 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol (1-RAAP) is proposed in this paper. In particular, 1-RAAP preserves anonymity, mutual authentication, non-repudiation and some other desirable security properties, while only requiring users to perform several low cost computational operations. More importantly, 1-RAAP is provably secure thanks to its design basis, which is resistant to the anonymous in the random oracle model. To validate the computational efficiency of 1-RAAP, a set of comprehensive comparative studies between 1-RAAP and other authentication protocols is conducted, and the results clearly show that 1-RAAP achieves the best performance in terms of computational overhead. PMID:27213384

  13. 1-RAAP: An Efficient 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingwei; Zhang, Lihuan; Sun, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to the rapid technological convergence of wireless communications, medical sensors and cloud computing, Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) have emerged as a novel networking paradigm enabling ubiquitous Internet services, allowing people to receive medical care, monitor health status in real-time, analyze sports data and even enjoy online entertainment remotely. However, because of the mobility and openness of wireless communications, WBANs are inevitably exposed to a large set of potential attacks, significantly undermining their utility and impeding their widespread deployment. To prevent attackers from threatening legitimate WBAN users or abusing WBAN services, an efficient and secure authentication protocol termed 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol (1-RAAP) is proposed in this paper. In particular, 1-RAAP preserves anonymity, mutual authentication, non-repudiation and some other desirable security properties, while only requiring users to perform several low cost computational operations. More importantly, 1-RAAP is provably secure thanks to its design basis, which is resistant to the anonymous in the random oracle model. To validate the computational efficiency of 1-RAAP, a set of comprehensive comparative studies between 1-RAAP and other authentication protocols is conducted, and the results clearly show that 1-RAAP achieves the best performance in terms of computational overhead. PMID:27213384

  14. Cryptographic Protocols:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, Martin Joakim Bittel

    cryptography was thus concerned with message confidentiality and integrity. Modern cryptography cover a much wider range of subjects including the area of secure multiparty computation, which will be the main topic of this dissertation. Our first contribution is a new protocol for secure comparison, presented...... framework. We call this framework VIFF, short for Virtual Ideal Functionality Framework. VIFF implements a UC functionality for general multiparty computation on asynchronous networks. We give a formal definition of the functionality in Chapter 3. There we also describe how we implemented the functionality...... no information is released. The communication complexity of this protocol is the same as that of a passively secure solution up to a constant factor. It is secure against an adaptive and active adversary corrupting less than n=3 players. Following the presentation of VIFF, we turn to a more theoretical subject...

  15. Pulmonary CT angiography protocol adapted to the hemodynamic effects of pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ridge, Carole A

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the image quality of a standard pulmonary CT angiography (CTA) protocol with a pulmonary CTA protocol optimized for use in pregnant patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-five consecutive pregnant patients with suspected PE were retrospectively included in the study: 25 patients (group A) underwent standard-protocol pulmonary CTA and 20 patients (group B) were imaged using a protocol modified for pregnancy. The modified protocol used a shallow inspiration breath-hold and a high concentration, high rate of injection, and high volume of contrast material. Objective image quality and subjective image quality were evaluated by measuring pulmonary arterial enhancement, determining whether there was transient interruption of the contrast bolus by unopacified blood from the inferior vena cava (IVC), and assessing diagnostic adequacy. RESULTS: Objective and subjective image quality were significantly better for group B-that is, for the group who underwent the CTA protocol optimized for pregnancy. Mean pulmonary arterial enhancement and the percentage of studies characterized as adequate for diagnosis were higher in group B than in group A: 321 +\\/- 148 HU (SD) versus 178 +\\/- 67 HU (p = 0.0001) and 90% versus 64% (p = 0.05), respectively. Transient interruption of contrast material by unopacified blood from the IVC was observed more frequently in group A (39%) than in group B (10%) (p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: A pulmonary CTA protocol optimized for pregnancy significantly improved image quality by increasing pulmonary arterial opacification, improving diagnostic adequacy, and decreasing transient interruption of the contrast bolus by unopacified blood from the IVC.

  16. An adaptive OFDMA-based MAC protocol for underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Issa M; Gadallah, Yasser; Hayajneh, Mohammad; Khreishah, Abdallah

    2012-01-01

    Underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks (UAWSNs) have many applications across various civilian and military domains. However, they suffer from the limited available bandwidth of acoustic signals and harsh underwater conditions. In this work, we present an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA)-based Media Access Control (MAC) protocol that is configurable to suit the operating requirements of the underwater sensor network. The protocol has three modes of operation, namely random, equal opportunity and energy-conscious modes of operation. Our MAC design approach exploits the multi-path characteristics of a fading acoustic channel to convert it into parallel independent acoustic sub-channels that undergo flat fading. Communication between node pairs within the network is done using subsets of these sub-channels, depending on the configurations of the active mode of operation. Thus, the available limited bandwidth gets fully utilized while completely avoiding interference. We derive the mathematical model for optimal power loading and subcarrier selection, which is used as basis for all modes of operation of the protocol. We also conduct many simulation experiments to evaluate and compare our protocol with other Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)-based MAC protocols.

  17. An Adaptive OFDMA-Based MAC Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa M. Khalil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks (UAWSNs have many applications across various civilian and military domains. However, they suffer from the limited available bandwidth of acoustic signals and harsh underwater conditions. In this work, we present an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA-based Media Access Control (MAC protocol that is configurable to suit the operating requirements of the underwater sensor network. The protocol has three modes of operation, namely random, equal opportunity and energy-conscious modes of operation. Our MAC design approach exploits the multi-path characteristics of a fading acoustic channel to convert it into parallel independent acoustic sub-channels that undergo flat fading. Communication between node pairs within the network is done using subsets of these sub-channels, depending on the configurations of the active mode of operation. Thus, the available limited bandwidth gets fully utilized while completely avoiding interference. We derive the mathematical model for optimal power loading and subcarrier selection, which is used as basis for all modes of operation of the protocol. We also conduct many simulation experiments to evaluate and compare our protocol with other Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA-based MAC protocols.

  18. An Adaptive OFDMA-Based MAC Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Issa M.; Gadallah, Yasser; Hayajneh, Mohammad; Khreishah, Abdallah

    2012-01-01

    Underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks (UAWSNs) have many applications across various civilian and military domains. However, they suffer from the limited available bandwidth of acoustic signals and harsh underwater conditions. In this work, we present an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA)-based Media Access Control (MAC) protocol that is configurable to suit the operating requirements of the underwater sensor network. The protocol has three modes of operation, namely random, equal opportunity and energy-conscious modes of operation. Our MAC design approach exploits the multi-path characteristics of a fading acoustic channel to convert it into parallel independent acoustic sub-channels that undergo flat fading. Communication between node pairs within the network is done using subsets of these sub-channels, depending on the configurations of the active mode of operation. Thus, the available limited bandwidth gets fully utilized while completely avoiding interference. We derive the mathematical model for optimal power loading and subcarrier selection, which is used as basis for all modes of operation of the protocol. We also conduct many simulation experiments to evaluate and compare our protocol with other Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)-based MAC protocols. PMID:23012517

  19. New Architectures for ubiquitous networks : use and adaptation of internet protocols over wireless sensor networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ludovici, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the study of low-resource demanding protocols, communication techniques and software solutions to evaluate, optimise and implement Web service in WSNs. We start analysing the Web service architectures in order to choose the most appropriate for the constraints of WSNs, which is REST. Based on this analysis, we review the state-of-the-art of protocols that allows implementing REST Web services. To this end, we adopt the IEEE 802.15.4 standard for the physical and data-li...

  20. HARVESTED ENERGY-ADAPTIVE MAC PROTOCOL FOR ENERGY HARVESTING IOT NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Hyeong-Kyu Lee; MinGyu Lee; Tae-Jin Lee

    2015-01-01

    In energy harvesting IoT networks, an energy queue state of an IoT device will change dynamically and the number of IoT devices that transmit data to the IoT AP will vary in a frame. So we need a MAC protocol to adjust the frame length taking the amount of energy of IoT devices into consideration. Since the existing Framed slotted ALOHA (F-ALOHA) Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol utilizes the fixed frame size, the resource efficiency can be reduced. In this paper, we propose...

  1. Retrospective analysis of prostate cancer patients with implanted gold markers using off-line and adaptive therapy protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of applying adaptive and off-line setup correction models to bony anatomy and gold fiducial markers implanted in the prostate, relative to daily alignment to skin tattoos and daily on-line corrections of the implanted gold markers. Methods and Materials: Ten prostate cancer patients with implanted gold fiducial markers were treated using a daily on-line setup correction protocol. The patients' positions were aligned to skin tattoos and two orthogonal diagnostic digital radiographs were obtained before treatment each day. These radiographs were compared with digitally reconstructed radiographs to obtain the translational setup errors of the bony anatomy and gold markers. The adaptive, no-action-level and shrinking-action-level off-line protocols were retrospectively applied to the bony anatomy to determine the change in the setup errors of the gold markers. The protocols were also applied to the gold markers directly to determine the residual setup errors. Results: The percentage of remaining fractions that the gold markers fell within the adaptive margins constructed with 1.5σ' (estimated random variation) after 5, 10, and 15 measurement fractions was 74%, 88%, and 93% for the prone patients and 55%, 77%, and 93% for the supine patients, respectively. Using 2σ', the percentage after 5, 10, and 15 measurements was 85%, 95%, and 97% for the prone patients and 68%, 87%, and 99% for the supine patients, respectively. The average initial three-dimensional (3D) setup error of the gold markers was 0.92 cm for the prone patients and 0.70 cm for the supine patients. Application of the no-action-level protocol to bony anatomy with Nm = 3 days resulted in significant benefit to 4 of 10 patients, but 3 were significantly worse. The residual average 3D setup error of the gold markers was 1.14 cm and 0.51 cm for the prone and supine patients, respectively. When applied directly to the gold markers with Nm = 3 days, 5 patients benefited and 3

  2. Designing a WISHBONE Protocol Network Adapter for an Asynchronous Network-on-Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Soliman, Ahmed H M; El-Bably, M; Keshk, Hesham M A M

    2012-01-01

    The Scaling of microchip technologies, from micron to submicron and now to deep sub-micron (DSM) range, has enabled large scale systems-on-chip (SoC). In future deep submicron (DSM) designs, the interconnect effect will definitely dominate performance. Network-on-Chip (NoC) has become a promising solution to bus-based communication infrastructure limitations. NoC designs usually targets Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), however, the fabrication process costs a lot. Implementing a NoC on an FPGA does not only reduce the cost but also decreases programming and verification cycles. In this paper, an Asynchronous NoC has been implemented on a SPARTAN-3E\\textregistered device. The NoC supports basic transactions of both widely used on-chip interconnection standards, the Open Core Protocol (OCP) and the WISHBONE Protocol. Although, FPGA devices are synchronous in nature, it has been shown that they can be used to prototype a Global Asynchronous Local Synchronous (GALS) systems, comprising an Asynchr...

  3. Designing a WISHBONE Protocol Network Adapter for an Asynchronous Network-on-Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed H M Soliman

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Scaling of microchip technologies, from micron to submicron and now to deep sub-micron (DSM range, has enabled large scale systems-on-chip (SoC. In future deep submicron (DSM designs, the interconnect effect will definitely dominate performance. Network-on-Chip (NoC has become a promising solution to bus-based communication infrastructure limitations. NoC designs usually targets Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs, however, the fabrication process costs a lot. Implementing a NoC on an FPGA does not only reduce the cost but also decreases programming and verification cycles. In this paper, an Asynchronous NoC has been implemented on a SPARTAN-3Eandamp;reg; device. The NoC supports basic transactions of both widely used on-chip interconnection standards, the Open Core Protocol (OCP and the WISHBONE Protocol. Although, FPGA devices are synchronous in nature, it has been shown that they can be used to prototype a Global Asynchronous Local Synchronous (GALS systems, comprising an Asynchronous NoC connecting IP cores operating in different clock domains.

  4. Monitoring of high voltage supply using the Controller Area Network protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luz, Igo Amauri dos S.; Farias, Paulo Cesar M.A.; Guedes, Germano P. [Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS), BA (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: In recent years, experimental physics has made great progress in the investigation of the phenomenology of neutrinos, with significant contribution from experiments using nuclear reactors as source of particles. In this context, The Neutrinos Angra Project proposes the use of an anti-neutrinos detector with ability to monitor parameters related to the activity of nuclear reactors. One of the tasks defined in the project is the development of a system to control and to monitor the high voltage supply units used by the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) of the detector. The solution proposed in this work is based on the use of microcontrollers, from Microchip PIC family to adjust the operating point of the high voltage supply units and to acquire the current and output voltage data. Analysis of these data allows the effective control of the gain of the PMTs and to identify anomalous operational conditions. In this work is proposed the study of the Controller Area Network (CAN) protocol and the implementation of a laboratory network to reproduce the typical operations of data acquisition and information transfer between the nodes. The development of this network is divided in two stages. The first part consisted of the setup of a CAN network, using the PIC18F2680 microcontroller, which has the CAN protocol internally implemented. This network serves as a reduced model of the final system, allowing simulation of typical situations of data acquisition and transmission between the nodes and a computer. In the second part of the work, the PIC18F4550 microcontroller was associated with the external CAN controller MCP2515 to develop a CAN/USB converter. This converter provides a new communication channel between network nodes and the computer, in addition to the RS232 interface. (author)

  5. Energy-Aware Adaptive Cooperative FEC Protocol in MIMO Channel for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an adaptive cooperative forward error correction (ACFEC based on energy efficiency combining Reed-Solomon (RS coder algorithm and multiple input multiple output (MIMO channel technology with monitoring signal-to-noise ratio (SNR in wireless sensor networks. First, we propose a new Markov chain model for FEC based on RS codes and derive the expressions for QoS on the basis of this model, which comprise four metrics: throughput, packet error rate, delay, and energy efficiency. Then, we apply RS codes with the MIMO channel technology to the cross-layer design. Numerical and simulation results show that the joint design of MIMO and adaptive cooperative FEC based on RS codes can achieve considerable spectral efficiency gain, real-time performance, reliability, and energy utility.

  6. An Adaptive and Multi-Service Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Jaydip

    2011-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are highly distributed networks consisting of a large number of tiny, low-cost, light-weight wireless nodes deployed to monitor an environment or a system. Each node in a WSN consists of three subsystems: the sensor subsystem which senses the environment, the processing subsystem which performs local computations on the sensed data, and the communication subsystem which is responsible for message exchange with neighboring sensor nodes. While an individual sensor node has limited sensing region, processing power, and energy, networking a large number of sensor nodes give rise to a robust, reliable, and accurate sensor network covering a wide region. Thus, routing in WSNs is a very important issue. This paper presents a query-based routing protocol for a WSN that provides different levels of Quality of Service (QoS): energy-efficiency, reliability, low latency and fault-tolerance-under different application scenarios. The algorithm has low computational complexity but can dynamic...

  7. Adaptation to climate change: Legal challenges for protected areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cliquet, An; Backes, Chris; Harris, Jim; Howsam, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Climate change will cause further loss of biodiversity. As negative effects are already taking place, adaptive measures are required to protect biodiversity from the effects of climate change. The EU policy on climate change and biodiversity aims at improving a coherent ecological network in order t

  8. Comparative adaptations of lower limb biomechanics during unilateral and bilateral landings after different neuromuscular-based ACL injury prevention protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tyler N; Palmieri-Smith, Riann M; McLean, Scott G

    2014-10-01

    Potentially valuable anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention strategies are lengthy, limiting training success. Shorter protocols that achieve beneficial biomechanical adaptations may improve training effectiveness. This study examined whether core stability/balance and plyometric training can modify female landing biomechanics compared with the standard neuromuscular and no training models. Forty-three females had lower limb biomechanics analyzed during unilateral and bilateral landings immediately before and after a 6-week neuromuscular or no training programs. Sagittal and frontal plane hip and knee kinematics and kinetics were submitted to 3-way repeated-measures analyses of variance to test for the main and interaction effects of training group, landing type, and testing time. Greater peak knee flexion was evident in the standard neuromuscular group following training, during both bilateral (p = 0.027) and unilateral landings (p = 0.076 and d = 0.633). The plyometric group demonstrated reduced hip adduction (p = 0.010) and greater knee flexion (p = 0.065 and d = 0.564) during bilateral landings following training. The control group had significant reduction in peak stance knee abduction moment (p = 0.003) posttraining as compared with pretraining. The current outcomes suggest that significant biomechanical changes are possible by an isolated plyometric training component. The benefits, however, may not be evident across all landing types, seemingly limited to simplistic, bilateral landings. Integrated training protocols may still be the most effective training model, currently improving knee flexion posture during both bilateral and unilateral landings following training. Future prevention efforts should implement integrated training protocols that include plyometric exercises to reduce ACL injury risk of female athletes. PMID:24714537

  9. Developing consistent Landsat data sets for large area applications: the MRLC 2001 protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, G.; Huang, C.; Yang, L.; Homer, C.; Larson, C.

    2009-01-01

    One of the major efforts in large area land cover mapping over the last two decades was the completion of two U.S. National Land Cover Data sets (NLCD), developed with nominal 1992 and 2001 Landsat imagery under the auspices of the MultiResolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. Following the successful generation of NLCD 1992, a second generation MRLC initiative was launched with two primary goals: (1) to develop a consistent Landsat imagery data set for the U.S. and (2) to develop a second generation National Land Cover Database (NLCD 2001). One of the key enhancements was the formulation of an image preprocessing protocol and implementation of a consistent image processing method. The core data set of the NLCD 2001 database consists of Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images. This letter details the procedures for processing the original ETM+ images and more recent scenes added to the database. NLCD 2001 products include Anderson Level II land cover classes, percent tree canopy, and percent urban imperviousness at 30-m resolution derived from Landsat imagery. The products are freely available for download to the general public from the MRLC Consortium Web site at http://www.mrlc.gov.

  10. Prophylactic aortic root surgery in patients with Marfan syndrome : 10 years' experience with a protocol based on body surface area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalberts, Jan J. J.; van Tintelen, J. Peter; Hillege, Hans L.; Boonstra, Piet W.; van den Berg, Maarten P.; Waterbolk, T

    2008-01-01

    Background: Current guidelines recommending prophylactic aortic root replacement in Marfan syndrome are based on absolute diameters of the aortic root. However, aortic root diameter is a function of body surface area (BSA). Here, we report our experience with a protocol for prophylactic aortic root

  11. Cost analysis of hybrid adaptive routing protocol for heterogeneous wireless sensor network

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NONITA SHARMA; AJAY K SHARMA

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to explore the impact of heterogeneity on a hybrid algorithm called Multi Adaptive Filter Algorithm by constructing series of experiments. Here, the simulations were made between ‘Total Energy Spent’ and ‘Number of Sources’ considering temporal correlation. The results were drawn from the trace information generated using ‘Monte Carlo’ simulation methods. After keen analysis, the results show that different levels of heterogeneity are best suited for correlated event detections. Moreover, based on the conclusions drawn,it can be safely inferred that n-level heterogeneity reduces the total energy spent close to 60%. Further, cost analysis recommends that adding progressive nodes preserves the cost factor in the bracket of 230–280$/Joule. Thenovel approach can immensely help the future solution providers to overcome the battery limitations of wireless sensor networks. This study provides insights into designing heterogeneous wireless sensor networks and aims atproviding the cost-benefit analysis that can be used in selecting the critical parameters of the network.

  12. Disorders of psychic adaptation of teenagers from radionuclides contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of complex psychological and psychopathological survey of 729 teenagers living in various regions of Belarus are considered. The all teenagers were divided into two groups: the first group had 557 teenagers living in region with a level of pollution by 137Cs less than 1 Ci/sq.km, the second groups - 172 teenagers, constantly living on controllable territories with the 137Cs contents more than 15 Ci/sq.km. The change of psychological adaptation in the form of strengthening of the situation and individual disturb, emotional lability and psychoasthenia was detected for the teenagers from contaminated regions. It may be a basic for development of various neurotic disorders. The received results show that the radioactive contaminated of constant living regions teenagers leads to disorders of the psychological adaptation at teenagers. These were characterized by lability of mood, increased sensitivity to external irritants, indecision, disturbing hypochondria and uncertainty in own forces. At late effect of small dozes of radiation the initial stimulation transforms to exhaustion of protective mechanisms of a head brain and leads to disorganization of the regulator mechanisms

  13. How effective is 'greening' of urban areas in reducing human exposure to ground-level ozone concentrations, UV exposure and the ‘urban heat island effect’? A protocol to update a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Teri; Price, Sian; Bowler, Diana; King, Sian

    2016-01-01

    Background: The impact of climate change on public health may occur through a number of main pathways including increased temperature, ground-level ozone levels and ultra-violet radiation, which have a range of consequences for human health. One strategy for adaptation to the predicted effects of climate change on health that has been proposed, is to ‘green’ urban areas, essentially by increasing the abundance and cover of vegetation. This protocol is for an update of a systematic review whic...

  14. Acute symptoms related to air pollution in urban areas: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forouzanfar Mohammad

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The harmful effects of urban air pollution on general population in terms of annoying symptoms are not adequately evaluated. This is in contrast to the hospital admissions and short term mortality. The present study protocol is designed to assess the association between the level of exposure to certain ambient air pollutants and a wide range of relevant symptoms. Awareness of the impact of pollution on the population at large will make our estimates of the pertinent covert burden imposed on the society more accurate. Methods/design A cross sectional study with spatial analysis for the addresses of the participants was conducted. Data were collected via telephone interviews administered to a representative sample of civilians over age four in the city. Households were selected using random digit dialling procedures and randomization within each household was also performed to select the person to be interviewed. Levels of exposure are quantified by extrapolating the addresses of the study population over the air pollution matrix of the city at the time of the interview and also for different lag times. This information system uses the data from multiple air pollution monitoring stations in conjunction with meteorological data. General linear models are applied for statistical analysis. Discussion The important limitations of cross-sectional studies on acute effects of air pollution are personal confounders and measurement error for exposure. A wide range of confounders in this study are controlled for in the statistical analysis. Exposure error may be minimised by employing a validated geographical information system that provides accurate estimates and getting detailed information on locations of individual participants during the day. The widespread operation of open air conditioning systems in the target urban area which brings about excellent mixing of the outdoor and indoor air increases the validity of outdoor pollutants

  15. Sports-related testing protocols are required to reveal trunk stability adaptations in high-level athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbado, David; Barbado, Luis C; Elvira, Jose L L; Dieën, Jaap H van; Vera-Garcia, Francisco J

    2016-09-01

    Trunk/core stability is considered a key component of training programs, because it could contribute to prevention of low-back and lower-limb injuries and to sports performance. Based on the specificity principle, sports-related trunk stability tests would be required in elite sports performance. However, there may be some generic qualities underlying trunk stability that can be assessed with nonspecific protocols, which are broadly used in sport and rehabilitation. To assess whether specific tests are needed in a high-performance context, we analyzed the influence of specialization in sports with large but qualitatively different balance control demands (judo and kayaking) on trunk stability and compared high-performance athletes with recreational athletes without a specific training history. Twenty-five judokas, sixteen kayakers and thirty-seven recreational athletes performed two trunk stability protocols: sudden loading, to assess trunk responses to external and unexpected perturbations; stable and unstable sitting, to assess the participant's ability to control trunk while sitting. Within-session test-retest reliability analyses were performed to support the between-groups comparison. Judokas showed lower angular displacement (0.199rad) against posterior loading than kayakers (0.221rad) probably because they are frequently challenged by higher sudden loads while they are pushed or pulled. Kayakers showed lower error (7.33mm), probably because they train and compete seated on unstable surfaces. Importantly, judokas and kayakers obtained better results than recreational athletes only in those tests designed according to the specific demands of each sport (psport training induces specific trunk stability adaptations, which are not revealed through nonspecific tests.

  16. Sports-related testing protocols are required to reveal trunk stability adaptations in high-level athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbado, David; Barbado, Luis C; Elvira, Jose L L; Dieën, Jaap H van; Vera-Garcia, Francisco J

    2016-09-01

    Trunk/core stability is considered a key component of training programs, because it could contribute to prevention of low-back and lower-limb injuries and to sports performance. Based on the specificity principle, sports-related trunk stability tests would be required in elite sports performance. However, there may be some generic qualities underlying trunk stability that can be assessed with nonspecific protocols, which are broadly used in sport and rehabilitation. To assess whether specific tests are needed in a high-performance context, we analyzed the influence of specialization in sports with large but qualitatively different balance control demands (judo and kayaking) on trunk stability and compared high-performance athletes with recreational athletes without a specific training history. Twenty-five judokas, sixteen kayakers and thirty-seven recreational athletes performed two trunk stability protocols: sudden loading, to assess trunk responses to external and unexpected perturbations; stable and unstable sitting, to assess the participant's ability to control trunk while sitting. Within-session test-retest reliability analyses were performed to support the between-groups comparison. Judokas showed lower angular displacement (0.199rad) against posterior loading than kayakers (0.221rad) probably because they are frequently challenged by higher sudden loads while they are pushed or pulled. Kayakers showed lower error (7.33mm), probably because they train and compete seated on unstable surfaces. Importantly, judokas and kayakers obtained better results than recreational athletes only in those tests designed according to the specific demands of each sport (p<0.050). In conclusion, specific-sport training induces specific trunk stability adaptations, which are not revealed through nonspecific tests. PMID:27395448

  17. Leaf Area Adjustment As an Optimal Drought-Adaptation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, S.; Beyer, F.; Thompson, S. E.; Vico, G.; Weih, M.

    2014-12-01

    Leaf phenology plays a major role in land-atmosphere mass and energy exchanges. Much work has focused on phenological responses to light and temperature, but less to leaf area changes during dry periods. Because the duration of droughts is expected to increase under future climates in seasonally-dry as well as mesic environments, it is crucial to (i) predict drought-related phenological changes and (ii) to develop physiologically-sound models of leaf area dynamics during dry periods. Several optimization criteria have been proposed to model leaf area adjustment as soil moisture decreases. Some theories are based on the plant carbon (C) balance, hypothesizing that leaf area will decline when instantaneous net photosynthetic rates become negative (equivalent to maximization of cumulative C gain). Other theories draw on hydraulic principles, suggesting that leaf area should adjust to either maintain a constant leaf water potential (isohydric behavior) or to avoid leaf water potentials with negative impacts on photosynthesis (i.e., minimization of water stress). Evergreen leaf phenology is considered as a control case. Merging these theories into a unified framework, we quantify the effect of phenological strategy and climate forcing on the net C gain over the entire growing season. By accounting for the C costs of leaf flushing and the gains stemming from leaf photosynthesis, this metric assesses the effectiveness of different phenological strategies, under different climatic scenarios. Evergreen species are favored only when the dry period is relatively short, as they can exploit most of the growing season, and only incur leaf maintenance costs during the short dry period. In contrast, deciduous species that lower maintenance costs by losing leaves are advantaged under drier climates. Moreover, among drought-deciduous species, isohydric behavior leads to lowest C gains. Losing leaves gradually so as to maintain a net C uptake equal to zero during the driest period in

  18. Wireless Local Area Network Adaptive Modulation and Coding Technology Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zeng-you; SUN Xiao-fan

    2012-01-01

      Expound the existing modulation mode of the present wireless local area network. Directing at the problem that when single modulation method conveys data with high speed in the frequency selective fading channel, the system throughput will be declined and the efficiency of the spectrum will be lowered . Put forward the scheme that the OFDM sub-carrier will use differ⁃ent modulation modes after dynamic groups by amplitude frequency response. Simulation results show that the scheme will lower the complexity of the system achievement, and can get a higher spectrum efficiency.

  19. Connecting climate social adaptation and land use change in internationally adjoining protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rodríguez Solórzano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of climate adaptation strategies to address social problems derived from climate change is pressing. Yet, in addition to providing means to minimise the impact of climate variability and change on livelihoods, climate adaptation strategies might exacerbate environmental change and cause negative social impacts. Systematic research has not addressed the impacts of adaptation on environmental change. In this paper, I focus on land use change as a specific type of environmental change and on three adaptation strategies: diversification, pooling and out-migration. I analyse the influence of adaptation strategies on land use change by drawing on interviews with the managers of 56 internationally adjoining protected areas in 18 countries in the Americas. The findings indicate that the impact of adaptation depends on the adaptation strategy people choose. When people out-migrate, land use change increases. Community elite control for decision-making, shorter distances between communities and markets and more communities in and around the protected areas also increase land use change. These findings show that adaptation can be a driver of further environmental change, and thus further study is needed to understand the likely impacts of adaptation on conservation.

  20. An Adaptive Allocation Algorithm using Directional CSMA/CA over mmWave Wireless Personal Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunhee Park

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Directional antennas have the considerable benefits of higher antenna gain, long transmission distance and spatial reuse compared to omni‐antennas. To support a directional antenna, IEEE 802.15.3c specifies a high data transmission rate and short frequency range communication based on the characteristics of 60GHz band. However, the contention‐based protocol of IEEE 802.15.3c may cause channel collisions and throughput degradation as the number of stations in the network increases. In order to resolve this problem and reduce channel access latency, we propose an adaptive allocation algorithm in which the contention window size for optimal transmission probability is derived after the directional information has been obtained by means of AP\tcontrol procedures. Extensive simulations demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the existing channel access scheme in IEEE 802.15.3c wireless personal area networks under different situations, especially when the number of contending stations is large.

  1. Analytical protocols for sampling extended areas: Comparing simulated field analysis to laboratory analysis for metal characterization of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a methodology for sampling large areas taking into account QA and QC protocols, in order to ensure representative samples. The proposed methodology covers a general approach to planning field investigations that could be useful for any type of environmental study. Procedures for sampling planning, a sampling protocols checklist, sampling devices and elements, transportation and blank sample requirements are presented. The final objective is to design a sampling strategy that will eventually allow the use of portable EDXRF instruments for in situ use in soil analysis. This methodology will be applied for a soil characterization study in the zone of Campana, Argentina, in order to identify possible contamination taking into account the industrial activity in this area. Sample concentrations were evaluated in the laboratory using an EDXRF spectrometer with radioisotope excitation. (author)

  2. A double fluorescence staining protocol to determine the cross-sectional area of myofibers using image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozdziak, P. E.; Fassel, T. A.; Schultz, E.; Greaser, M. L.; Cassens, R. G.

    1996-01-01

    A double fluorescence staining protocol was developed to facilitate computer based image analysis. Myofibers from experimentally treated (irradiated) and control growing turkey skeletal muscle were labeled with the anti-myosin antibody MF-20 and detected using fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC). Extracellular material was stained with concanavalin A (ConA)-Texas red. The cross-sectional area of the myofibers was determined by calculating the number of pixels (0.83 mu m(2)) overlying each myofiber after subtracting the ConA-Texas red image from the MF-20-FITC image for each region of interest. As expected, myofibers in the irradiated muscle were smaller (P staining protocol combined with image analysis is accurate and less labor-intensive than classical procedures for determining the cross-sectional area of myofibers.

  3. Preston and Park-Sanders protocols adapted for semi-quantitative isolation of thermotolerant Campylobacter from chicken rinse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Aalbaek, B.;

    2003-01-01

    detection methods. Thus, semi-quantitative detection of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in 20 naturally contaminated chicken rinse samples was carried out using the two most common standard protocols: Preston and Park-Sanders, as proposed by Nordic Committee on Food Analysis (NMKL) and International...... Standard Organization (ISO), respectively. For both protocols, the chicken rinse samples were prepared in 500 ml buffered peptone water, as recommended in the ISO protocol no. 6887-2. The results indicated that the Preston protocol was superior to the Park-Sanders protocol in supporting growth...

  4. Disinfection Contact Time study plan (100-N Area tracer protocol). Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel Hanford, Inc. will prepare an Engineering Tracer Study Protocol for the determination of contact time for the disinfection process at Group A Non-transient Non-community water treatment plant for the 100-N Water Plant at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Included in this report are the results of a study that determine the actual detention time within the plant clearwell, and thus the disinfection contact time at several clearwell effluent flow rates

  5. Harnessing Protocolized Adaptation in Dissemination: Successful Implementation and Sustainment of the Veterans Affairs Coordinated-Transitional Care Program in a Non-Veterans Affairs Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, Amy J H; Brenny-Fitzpatrick, Maria; Leahy-Gross, Kris; Mirr, Jacquelyn; Chapman, Elizabeth; Frey, Brooke; Houlahan, Beth

    2016-02-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Coordinated-Transitional Care (C-TraC) program is a low-cost transitional care program that uses hospital-based nurse case managers, inpatient team integration, and in-depth posthospital telephone contacts to support high-risk patients and their caregivers as they transition from hospital to community. The low-cost, primarily telephone-based C-TraC program reduced 30-day rehospitalizations by one-third, leading to significant cost savings at one VA hospital. Non-VA hospitals have expressed interest in launching C-TraC, but non-VA hospitals differ in important ways from VA hospitals, particularly in terms of context, culture, and resources. The objective of this project was to adapt C-TraC to the specific context of one non-VA setting using a modified Replicating Effective Programs (REP) implementation theory model and to test the feasibility of this protocolized implementation approach. The modified REP model uses a mentored phased-based implementation with intensive preimplementation activities and harnesses key local stakeholders to adapt processes and goals to local context. Using this protocolized implementation approach, an adapted C-TraC protocol was created and launched at the non-VA hospital in July 2013. In its first 16 months, C-TraC successfully enrolled 1,247 individuals with 3.2 full-time nurse case managers, achieving good fidelity for core protocol steps. C-TraC participants experienced a 30-day rehospitalization rate of 10.8%, compared with 16.6% for a contemporary comparison group of similar individuals for whom C-TraC was not available (n = 1,307) (P < .001). The new C-TraC program continues in operation. Use of a modified REP model to guide protocolized adaptation to local context resulted in a C-TraC program that was feasible and sustained in a real-world non-VA setting. A modified REP implementation framework may be an appropriate foundational step for other clinical programs seeking to harness

  6. Adaptation to climate change in urban areas: climate-greening London, Rotterdam, and Toronto

    OpenAIRE

    Mees, H.L.P.; Driessen, P.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to gain insight into the governance capacity of cities to adapt to climate change through urban green planning, which we will refer to as climate-greening. The use of green space is considered a no-regrets adaptation strategy, since it not only absorbs rainfall and moderates temperature, but simultaneously can contribute to the sustainable development of urban areas. However, green space competes with other socio-economic interests that also require space. Urban planning can...

  7. KC2A2P : A Knowledge-driven Content and Context-Awareness Adaptive Protocol for Intelligent Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Advanced network communication technology decreases data transmission error and make heterogeneous protocols interaction possible, but there still exits misunderstanding for transferred content in computer communication. Inspired by human's communication way, a kind of content and context awareness protocol base on knowledge (abbr. KC2A2P is proposed in this paper. A common shared protocol ontology is built that includes content, context and act in order to not only guide the different protocol terms mapping but also provide an intelligent protocol encoding framework. To avoid unnecessary communication load, event calculus is used to build the axiom of communication cognition and  three basic encoding  rules are made that can adjust the message entity  base on the application context .Furthermore, some experiments are given to show KC2A2P would improve the meaning delivery and even help to build trust relationship.

  8. A Multimetric, Map-Aware Routing Protocol for VANETs in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp-Barba, Carolina; Urquiza-Aguiar, Luis; Igartua, Mónica Aguilar; Rebollo-Monedero, David; de la Cruz Llopis, Luis J.; Mezher, Ahmad Mohamad; Aguilar-Calderón, José Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the general interest in routing for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) has increased notably. Many proposals have been presented to improve the behavior of the routing decisions in these very changeable networks. In this paper, we propose a new routing protocol for VANETs that uses four different metrics. which are the distance to destination, the vehicles' density, the vehicles' trajectory and the available bandwidth, making use of the information retrieved by the sensors of the vehicle, in order to make forwarding decisions, minimizing packet losses and packet delay. Through simulation, we compare our proposal to other protocols, such as AODV (Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector), GPSR (Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing), I-GPSR (Improvement GPSR) and to our previous proposal, GBSR-B (Greedy Buffer Stateless Routing Building-aware). Besides, we present a performance evaluation of the individual importance of each metric to make forwarding decisions. Experimental results show that our proposed forwarding decision outperforms existing solutions in terms of packet delivery. PMID:24476683

  9. A multimetric, map-aware routing protocol for VANETs in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp-Barba, Carolina; Urquiza-Aguiar, Luis; Aguilar Igartua, Mónica; Rebollo-Monedero, David; de la Cruz Llopis, Luis J; Mezher, Ahmad Mohamad; Aguilar-Calderón, José Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the general interest in routing for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) has increased notably. Many proposals have been presented to improve the behavior of the routing decisions in these very changeable networks. In this paper, we propose a new routing protocol for VANETs that uses four different metrics. which are the distance to destination, the vehicles' density, the vehicles' trajectory and the available bandwidth, making use of the information retrieved by the sensors of the vehicle, in order to make forwarding decisions, minimizing packet losses and packet delay. Through simulation, we compare our proposal to other protocols, such as AODV (Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector), GPSR (Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing), I-GPSR (Improvement GPSR) and to our previous proposal, GBSR-B (Greedy Buffer Stateless Routing Building-aware). Besides, we present a performance evaluation of the individual importance of each metric to make forwarding decisions. Experimental results show that our proposed forwarding decision outperforms existing solutions in terms of packet delivery. PMID:24476683

  10. A Multimetric, Map-Aware Routing Protocol for VANETs in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Tripp-Barba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the general interest in routing for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs has increased notably. Many proposals have been presented to improve the behavior of the routing decisions in these very changeable networks. In this paper, we propose a new routing protocol for VANETs that uses four different metrics. which are the distance to destination, the vehicles’ density, the vehicles’ trajectory and the available bandwidth, making use of the information retrieved by the sensors of the vehicle, in order to make forwarding decisions, minimizing packet losses and packet delay. Through simulation, we compare our proposal to other protocols, such as AODV (Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector, GPSR (Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing, I-GPSR (Improvement GPSR and to our previous proposal, GBSR-B (Greedy Buffer Stateless Routing Building-aware. Besides, we present a performance evaluation of the individual importance of each metric to make forwarding decisions. Experimental results show that our proposed forwarding decision outperforms existing solutions in terms of packet delivery.

  11. International and European Law on Protected Areas and Climate Change: Need for Adaptation or Implementation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliquet, A.

    2014-10-01

    The protection and management of protected areas must be adapted to the effects of climate change. An important question is if the law on protected areas is capable of dealing with the required changes. In general, both international nature conventions and European Union nature conservation law do not contain any specific provisions on climate change and protected areas. Attention has been paid to this link in non-binding decisions and policy documents. In order to adapt the law to increased dynamics from climate change, more flexibility is needed. This flexibility should not be understood as "legal" flexibility, in the sense of the weakening nature conservation provisions. Scientific uncertainties on the effects of climate change might conflict with the need for legal certainties. In order to adapt to the effects of climate change, the two crucial elements are the strengthening of core protected areas and connectivity between the core areas. At the international level, both elements can be found in non-binding documents. International law enables the required adaptation; however, it often lacks concrete obligations. A stronger legal framework can be found at the level of the European Union. The Birds and Habitats Directives contain sufficient tools to deal with the effects of climate change. The Directives have been insufficiently implemented so far. Especially the central goals of reaching a favorable conservation status and connectivity measures need to be addressed much more in the future.

  12. International and European law on protected areas and climate change: need for adaptation or implementation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliquet, A

    2014-10-01

    The protection and management of protected areas must be adapted to the effects of climate change. An important question is if the law on protected areas is capable of dealing with the required changes. In general, both international nature conventions and European Union nature conservation law do not contain any specific provisions on climate change and protected areas. Attention has been paid to this link in non-binding decisions and policy documents. In order to adapt the law to increased dynamics from climate change, more flexibility is needed. This flexibility should not be understood as "legal" flexibility, in the sense of the weakening nature conservation provisions. Scientific uncertainties on the effects of climate change might conflict with the need for legal certainties. In order to adapt to the effects of climate change, the two crucial elements are the strengthening of core protected areas and connectivity between the core areas. At the international level, both elements can be found in non-binding documents. International law enables the required adaptation; however, it often lacks concrete obligations. A stronger legal framework can be found at the level of the European Union. The Birds and Habitats Directives contain sufficient tools to deal with the effects of climate change. The Directives have been insufficiently implemented so far. Especially the central goals of reaching a favorable conservation status and connectivity measures need to be addressed much more in the future.

  13. Coordination of Teachers in New Undergraduate Degrees Adapted to European Higher Education Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondéjar-Jiménez, Juan-Antonio; Cordente-Rodríguez, María; Meseguer-Santamaría, María-Leticia; Vargas-Vargas, Manuel; Mondéjar-Jiménez, José

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of new undergraduate degrees adapted to the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) requires a coordinated effort by teachers, because the different subjects are based on a new methodology of teaching and learning. The Social Sciences School of Cuenca offers degrees in Business Administration, Law and Labor Sciences. The progressive…

  14. Simulation of Old Urban Residential Area Evolution Based on Complex Adaptive System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Fan; WANG Xiao-ming; HUA Hong

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of complex adaptive system theory,this paper proposed an agent-based model of old urban residential area,in which,residents and providers are the two adaptive agents.The behaviors of residents and providers in this model are trained with back propagation and simulated with Swarm software based on environment-rules-agents interaction.This model simulates the evolution of old urban residential area and analyzes the relations between the evolution and urban management with the background of Chaozhou city.As a result,the following are obtained:(1) Simulation without government intervention indicates the trend of housing ageing,environmental deterioration,economic depression,and social filtering-down in old urban residential area.If the development of old urban residential area is under control of developers in market,whose desire is profit maximization,and factors such as social justice,historic and culture value will be ignored.(2) If the government carries out some policies and measures which will perfectly serve their original aims,simulation reveals that old urban residential area could be adapted to environment and keep sustainable development.This conclusion emphasizes that government must act as initiator and program maker for guiding residents and other providers directly in the development of old urban residential area.

  15. Frontal Cryosectioning: An Improved Protocol for Sectioning Large Areas of Fibrous Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey P. Grey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrous tissue engineering scaffolds, such as those produced by electrospinning, cannot achieve their clinical potential until deep cell-scaffold interactions are understood. Even the most advanced imaging techniques are limited to capturing data at depths of 100 µm due to light scatter associated with the fibers that compose these scaffolds. Conventional cross-sectional analysis provides information on relatively small volumes of space and frontal sections are difficult to generate. Current understanding of cellular penetration into fibrous scaffolds is limited predominantly to the scaffold surface. Although some information is available from cross-sections, sections vary in quality, can distort spatial scaffold properties, and offer virtually no spatial cues as to what scaffold properties instigate specific cellular responses. Without the definitive ability to understand how cells interact with the architecture of an entire scaffold it is difficult to justify scaffold modifications or in-depth cell penetration analyses until appropriate techniques are developed. To address this limitation we have developed a cryosectioning protocol that makes it possible to obtain serial frontal sections from electrospun scaffolds. Microscopic images assembled into montage images from serial sections were then used to create three-dimensional (3D models of cellular infiltration throughout the entire scaffold.

  16. DETERMINANTS OF ADAPTATION TO DEFORESTATION AMONG FARMERS IN MADAGALI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Mustapha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the determinants of adaptation to deforestation among farmers in Madagali Local Government Area of Adamawa state, Nigeria. Structured interview schedule were used to obtain information from 200 respondents selected through simple random sampling techniques. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive (frequencies and percentages and inferential (chi-square test statistics. The result indicated that majority (84% of the respondents were male with 21-40 years of age representing 58.50%. The study also showed that most (45% of the respondents had attained post primary education with majority (80% having 6 and above years of farming experience. The respondents perceived fuel wood extraction as the major (42% cause of deforestation in the study area. The result showed that the most (30.50% frequently employed adaptation strategy against deforestation was reducing quantity of fire wood consumption. The study further showed that the factors which significantly influenced adaptation to deforestation among the respondents were age, farming experience and educational status with X2=9.216, 8.697 and 11.238 at P<0.05 respectively. While those factors which did not influence adaptation to deforestation among the respondents were gender, access to agricultural credit and access to extension services with X2=1.286, 7.923 and 5.862 at P<0.05 respectively. The major constraints faced by respondents in adaptation to deforestation were lack of capital and lack of accessible alternative energy. The study recommends that awareness campaign should be mounted to increase the level of knowledge of respondents on the significance of adaptation to deforestation. Respondents should also be encouraged towards establishment of adaptation cooperative societies in order to take advantage of some government policies and programmes.

  17. ADAPTIVE RECONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE FOR THE LOST INFORMATION OF THE RECTANGULAR IMAGE AREA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Rong; Li Xiaofeng; Li Zaiming

    2004-01-01

    The adaptive reconstruction for the lost information of the rectangular image area is very important for the robust transmission and restoration of the image. In this paper, a new reconstruction method based on the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain has been put forward. According to the low pass character of the human visual system and the energy distribution of the DCT coefficients on the rectangular boundary, the DCT coefficients of the rectangular image area are adaptively selected and recovered. After the Inverse Discrete Cosine Transform (IDCT), the lost information of the rectangular image area can be reconstructed. The experiments have demonstrated that the subjective and objective qualities of the reconstructed images are enhanced greatly than before.

  18. Assessing the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of adaptive e-Learning to improve dietary behaviour: protocol for a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michie Susan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The composition of habitual diets is associated with adverse or protective effects on aspects of health. Consequently, UK public health policy strongly advocates dietary change for the improvement of population health and emphasises the importance of individual empowerment to improve health. A new and evolving area in the promotion of dietary behavioural change is e-Learning, the use of interactive electronic media to facilitate teaching and learning on a range of issues, including diet and health. The aims of this systematic review are to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of adaptive e-Learning for improving dietary behaviours. Methods/Design The research will consist of a systematic review and a cost-effectiveness analysis. Studies will be considered for the review if they are randomised controlled trials, involving participants aged 13 or over, which evaluate the effectiveness or efficacy of interactive software programmes for improving dietary behaviour. Primary outcome measures will be those related to dietary behaviours, including estimated intakes of energy, nutrients and dietary fibre, or the estimated number of servings per day of foods or food groups. Secondary outcome measures will be objective clinical measures that are likely to respond to changes in dietary behaviours, such as anthropometry or blood biochemistry. Knowledge, self-efficacy, intention and emotion will be examined as mediators of dietary behaviour change in order to explore potential mechanisms of action. Databases will be searched using a comprehensive four-part search strategy, and the results exported to a bibliographic database. Two review authors will independently screen results to identify potentially eligible studies, and will independently extract data from included studies, with any discrepancies at each stage settled by a third author. Standardised forms and criteria will be used. A descriptive analysis of included

  19. Analysis of neighbour and isolated node of intersection area based geocasting protocol (IBGP) in VANET

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Sanjoy

    2012-01-01

    Geocasting is a special variant of multicasting, where data packet or message is transmitted to a predefined geographical location i.e., known as geocast region. The applications of geocasting in VANET are to disseminate information like, collision warning, advertising, alerts message, etc. In this paper, we have proposed a model for highway scenario where the highway is divided into number of cells. The intersection area between two successive cells is computed to find the number of common nodes. Therefore, probabilistic analysis of the nodes present and void occurrence in the intersection area is carried out. Further, we have defined different forwarding zones to restrict the number of participated nodes for data delivery. Number of nodes present and void occurrence in the different forwarding zones have also been analysed based on various node density in the network to determine the successful delivery of data. Our analytical results show that in a densely populated network, data can be transmitted with lo...

  20. Parks, people, and change: the importance of multistakeholder engagement in adaptation planning for conserved areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrine N. Knapp

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change challenges the traditional goals and conservation strategies of protected areas, necessitating adaptation to changing conditions. Denali National Park and Preserve (Denali in south central Alaska, USA, is a vast landscape that is responding to climate change in ways that will impact both ecological resources and local communities. Local observations help to inform understanding of climate change and adaptation planning, but whose knowledge is most important to consider? For this project we interviewed long-term Denali staff, scientists, subsistence community members, bus drivers, and business owners to assess what types of observations each can contribute, how climate change is impacting each, and what they think the National Park Service should do to adapt. The project shows that each type of long-term observer has different types of observations, but that those who depend more directly on natural resources for their livelihoods have more and different observations than those who do not. These findings suggest that engaging multiple groups of stakeholders who interact with the park in distinct ways adds substantially to the information provided by Denali staff and scientists and offers a broader foundation for adaptation planning. It also suggests that traditional protected area paradigms that fail to learn from and foster appropriate engagement of people may be maladaptive in the context of climate change.

  1. Protocol for the E-Area Low Level Waste Facility Disposal Limits Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swingle, R

    2006-01-31

    A database has been developed to contain the disposal limits for the E-Area Low Level Waste Facility (ELLWF). This database originates in the form of an EXCEL{copyright} workbook. The pertinent sheets are translated to PDF format using Adobe ACROBAT{copyright}. The PDF version of the database is accessible from the Solid Waste Division web page on SHRINE. In addition to containing the various disposal unit limits, the database also contains hyperlinks to the original references for all limits. It is anticipated that database will be revised each time there is an addition, deletion or revision of any of the ELLWF radionuclide disposal limits.

  2. Analysis of Neighbour and Isolated Node of Intersection Area Based Geocasting Protocol (IBGP in VANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Das

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Geocasting is a special variant of multicasting, where data packet or message is transmitted to a predefined geographical location i.e., known as geocast region. The applications of geocasting in VANET are to disseminate information like, collision warning, advertising, alerts message, etc. In this paper, we have proposed a model for highway scenario where the highway is divided into number of cells. The intersection area between two successive cells is computed to find the number of common nodes. Therefore, probabilistic analysis of the nodes present and void occurrence in the intersection area is carried out. Further, we have defined different forwarding zones to restrict the number of participated nodes for data delivery. Number of nodes present and void occurrence in the different forwarding zoneshave also been analysed based on various node density in the network to determine the successful delivery of data. Our analytical results show that in a densely populated network, data can be transmitted with low radio transmission range. In a densely populated network smaller forwarding zones will be selected for data delivery.

  3. Socio-economic factors influencing climate change adaptation among crop farmers in Umuahia South Area of Abia State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    N. O. Anyoha; F. N. Nnadi; J. Chikaire; J. A. Echetama; C. O. Utazi; R. A. Ihenacho

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the socioeconomic factors influencing climate change adaptation among crop farmers in Umuahia South Area of Abia State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were to determine socioeconomic characteristics of crop farmers in the area, determine farmers level of awareness of climate change in the area, ascertain effects of climate change in crop production, identify adaptation strategies adopted by the farmers in the area and determine socioeconomi...

  4. Neural adaptation to thin and fat bodies in the fusiform body area and middle occipital gyrus: an fMRI adaptation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Dennis; Rudolf, Anne K; Brandi, Marie-Luise; Untch, Karl-Heinz; Grabhorn, Ralph; Hampel, Harald; Mohr, Harald M

    2013-12-01

    Visual perception can be strongly biased due to exposure to specific stimuli in the environment, often causing neural adaptation and visual aftereffects. In this study, we investigated whether adaptation to certain body shapes biases the perception of the own body shape. Furthermore, we aimed to evoke neural adaptation to certain body shapes. Participants completed a behavioral experiment (n = 14) to rate manipulated pictures of their own bodies after adaptation to demonstratively thin or fat pictures of their own bodies. The same stimuli were used in a second experiment (n = 16) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) adaptation. In the behavioral experiment, after adapting to a thin picture of the own body participants also judged a thinner than actual body picture to be the most realistic and vice versa, resembling a typical aftereffect. The fusiform body area (FBA) and the right middle occipital gyrus (rMOG) show neural adaptation to specific body shapes while the extrastriate body area (EBA) bilaterally does not. The rMOG cluster is highly selective for bodies and perhaps body parts. The findings of the behavioral experiment support the existence of a perceptual body shape aftereffect, resulting from a specific adaptation to thin and fat pictures of one's own body. The fMRI results imply that body shape adaptation occurs in the FBA and the rMOG. The role of the EBA in body shape processing remains unclear. The results are also discussed in the light of clinical body image disturbances.

  5. Energy Analysis of Contention Tree-Based Access Protocols in Dense Machine-to-Machine Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vázquez-Gallego

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine-to-Machine (M2M area networks aim at connecting an M2M gateway with a large number of energy-constrained devices that must operate autonomously for years. Therefore, attaining high energy efficiency is essential in the deployment of M2M networks. In this paper, we consider a dense M2M area network composed of hundreds or thousands of devices that periodically transmit data upon request from a gateway or coordinator. We theoretically analyse the devices’ energy consumption using two Medium Access Control (MAC protocols which are based on a tree-splitting algorithm to resolve collisions among devices: the Contention Tree Algorithm (CTA and the Distributed Queuing (DQ access. We have carried out computer-based simulations to validate the accuracy of the theoretical models and to compare the energy performance using DQ, CTA, and Frame Slotted-ALOHA (FSA in M2M area networks with devices in compliance with the IEEE 802.15.4 physical layer. Results show that the performance of DQ is totally independent of the number of contending devices, and it can reduce the energy consumed per device in more than 35% with respect to CTA and in more than 80% with respect to FSA.

  6. Adaptive Wide-Area Damping Control Scheme for Smart Grids with Consideration of Signal Time Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyou Yang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As an important part of the smart grid, a wide-area measurement system (WAMS provides the key technical support for power system monitoring, protection and control. But 20 uncertainties in system parameters and signal transmission time delay could worsen the damping effect and deteriorate the system stability. In the presented study, the subspace system identification technique (SIT is used to firstly derive a low-order linear model of a power system from the measurements. Then, a novel adaptive wide-area damping control scheme for online tuning of the wide-area damping controller (WADC parameters using the residue method is proposed. In order to eliminate the effects of the time delay to the signal transmission, a simple and practical time delay compensation algorithm is proposed to compensate the time delay in each wide-area control signal. Detailed examples, inspired by the IEEE test system under various disturbance scenarios, have been used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive wide-area damping control scheme.

  7. 64-slice spiral computed tomography of the coronary arteries: dose reduction using an optimized imaging protocol including individual weight-adaptation of voltage and current-time product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation dose and image quality were compared between a standard protocol (40 patients, group A) and a weight-adapted protocol of voltage and current-time product (44 patients, group B) using 64-slice coronary multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Effective dose estimate was lower by 37% in all patients of group B (9.2±2.5 mSv) compared with group A (14.6±2.3 mSv, P<0.0001). Group B patients with a small body mass index (BMI) benefited most with a dose reduction of 53% (6.7±1.5 mSv in group B versus 14.1±1.8 mSv in group A, P < 0.0001). Moderate reductions of 32% and 20% were achieved for patients with a medium and large BMI, respectively. Reduction in radiation dose did not affect the image quality as assessed by image noise, signal-to-noise ratios, and number of coronary segments with good diagnostic image quality. Individual weight-adaptation of voltage and current-time product significantly reduces the radiation dose without loss of image quality. (orig.)

  8. Application of Induced Containment Therapy with adapted protocol for home care and its contributions to the motor condition and patient rehabilitation after encephalic vascular accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Tonús

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Encephalic Vascular Accident (EVA is among the most important diseases that cause physical and functional limitations. Hemiplegia is the most common physical changes post-EVA, as compromises the upper and lower limbs at the same side of the body, characterized by a rigid pattern of the flexor muscles of the upper limb and the extensor muscles of the lower limb. The Induced Containment Therapy has been a major rehabilitation technique recently aiming to promote functional improvement of the hemiplegic limb of those who suffered EVA and enable performance and quality of life of the individual. Objective: This study aimed to identify the possible contributions of Induced Containment Therapy using a protocol adapted to technique application to the hemiplegic limb. Moreover, this research points out the influence of the environment interventions, which on the present study, occurred in the participant’s home. Method: this is a case study with exploratory feature. Results and Conclusion: The results indicated improvements in functional ability at the time of execution of the tasks and increased use of hemiplegic limb, increasing motor performance after applying the Induced Containment Therapy adapted protocol compared to the start of treatment

  9. Identification of national priority areas for adaptation to climate change in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The problem of global warming has been identified as the first in the list of the top ten environmental problems in the world.As climate change will seriously affect the social and natural world that people live in,so it may lay serious repercussions on economic progress,social improvement,and sustainable development,Internationalbodies everywhere and many of the countries' governments are responding urgently to this call.In recent years,climate change has affected different regions in China in different ways.In its national agenda,the Chinese government should address the problem of climate change and its negative impact on socio-economic development.In this endeavor the nation should introduce policies which will help its people and economy to adapt to these effectts and changes.Priority-fields of adaptation to climate change are the sensitive areas or departments which are more vulnerable to the negative influences of climate change.The negative impacts of climate change in some parts of China are considered to be very serious indeed as they affect the whole economy and community.As a result,priority should be given to these more affected regions for the limited state financing.This paper defines adaptation and discusses the basic principles and programs in the identification of national priority areas where adaptation ,should be exercised.Based on the past studies,four priority areas in China are identified,namely,disaster prevention and mitigation,water resources,agriculture,and ecosystem.An analysis on the identification procedures,and the reasons and tasks involved are given for each.

  10. Leveraging modern climatology to increase adaptive capacity across protected area networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, J.E.; Graumlich, L.J.; Rowland, E.L.; Pederson, G.T.; Breshears, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    Human-driven changes in the global environment pose an increasingly urgent challenge for the management of ecosystems that is made all the more difficult by the uncertain future of both environmental conditions and ecological responses. Land managers need strategies to increase regional adaptive capacity, but relevant and rapid assessment approaches are lacking. To address this need, we developed a method to assess regional protected area networks across biophysically important climatic gradients often linked to biodiversity and ecosystem function. We plot the land of the southwestern United States across axes of historical climate space, and identify landscapes that may serve as strategic additions to current protected area portfolios. Considering climate space is straightforward, and it can be applied using a variety of relevant climate parameters across differing levels of land protection status. The resulting maps identify lands that are climatically distinct from existing protected areas, and may be utilized in combination with other ecological and socio-economic information essential to collaborative landscape-scale decision-making. Alongside other strategies intended to protect species of special concern, natural resources, and other ecosystem services, the methods presented herein provide another important hedging strategy intended to increase the adaptive capacity of protected area networks. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. CoR-MAC: Contention over Reservation MAC Protocol for Time-Critical Services in Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jeongseok; Park, Laihyuk; Park, Junho; Cho, Sungrae; Keum, Changsup

    2016-05-09

    Reserving time slots for urgent data, such as life-critical information, seems to be very attractive to guarantee their deadline requirements in wireless body area sensor networks (WBASNs). On the other hand, this reservation imposes a negative impact on performance for the utilization of a channel. This paper proposes a new channel access scheme referred to as the contention over reservation MAC (CoR-MAC) protocol for time-critical services in wireless body area sensor networks. CoR-MAC uses the dual reservation; if the reserved time slots are known to be vacant, other nodes can access the time slots by contention-based reservation to maximize the utilization of a channel and decrease the delay of the data. To measure the effectiveness of the proposed scheme against IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.15.6, we evaluated their performances with various performance indexes. The CoR-MAC showed 50% to 850% performance improvement in terms of the delay of urgent and time-critical data according to the number of nodes.

  12. CoR-MAC: Contention over Reservation MAC Protocol for Time-Critical Services in Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jeongseok; Park, Laihyuk; Park, Junho; Cho, Sungrae; Keum, Changsup

    2016-01-01

    Reserving time slots for urgent data, such as life-critical information, seems to be very attractive to guarantee their deadline requirements in wireless body area sensor networks (WBASNs). On the other hand, this reservation imposes a negative impact on performance for the utilization of a channel. This paper proposes a new channel access scheme referred to as the contention over reservation MAC (CoR-MAC) protocol for time-critical services in wireless body area sensor networks. CoR-MAC uses the dual reservation; if the reserved time slots are known to be vacant, other nodes can access the time slots by contention-based reservation to maximize the utilization of a channel and decrease the delay of the data. To measure the effectiveness of the proposed scheme against IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.15.6, we evaluated their performances with various performance indexes. The CoR-MAC showed 50% to 850% performance improvement in terms of the delay of urgent and time-critical data according to the number of nodes. PMID:27171085

  13. Climate adaptation in NVE's areas of responsibility - Strategy 2010 - 2014; Klimatilpasning innen NVEs ansvarsomraader - Strategi 2010 - 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamarsland, Arne T. (ed.)

    2010-09-15

    NVE has developed a comprehensive climate change strategies within their areas of responsibility. There is a systematic review of how a future climate change will affect NVE management areas; how to meet challenges, vulnerabilities, opportunities and proposals for adaptation measures. Climate adaptation is a dynamic process. It is therefore necessary to follow up the work continuously and correct direction at regular intervals. Climate change adaptation strategy of adaptation measures is a foundation and a direction sensor in NVE's business planning. (AG)

  14. Adapted strategic plannig model applied to small business: a case study in the fitness area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduarda Tirelli Hennig

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The strategic planning is an important management tool in the corporate scenario and shall not be restricted to big Companies. However, this kind of planning process in small business may need special adaptations due to their own characteristics. This paper aims to identify and adapt the existent models of strategic planning to the scenario of a small business in the fitness area. Initially, it is accomplished a comparative study among models of different authors to identify theirs phases and activities. Then, it is defined which of these phases and activities should be present in a model that will be utilized in a small business. That model was applied to a Pilates studio; it involves the establishment of an organizational identity, an environmental analysis as well as the definition of strategic goals, strategies and actions to reach them. Finally, benefits to the organization could be identified, as well as hurdles in the implementation of the tool.

  15. Fast protocol for extraction of DNA from Prosopis spp leaves (plant adapted to arid environment) without liquid nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel-López, C Y; González-Mendoza, D; Grimaldo-Juarez, O

    2013-09-27

    The extraction of high-quality genomic DNA from Prosopis spp for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification is complicated, owing to the presence of a high percentage of secondary metabolites that bind to or co-precipitate with nucleic acids. In the present study, we report a modified sodium dodecyl sulfate/phenol protocol that eliminates the use of liquid nitrogen in the maceration process, β-mercaptoethanol in the buffer extraction, and the ethanol precipitation step. The A₂₆₀/A₂₈₀ absorbance ratios of the isolated DNA were approximately 2.0 to 1.9, suggesting that the DNA fraction was pure and can be used for further PCR analysis. The DNA isolated by this protocol is of sufficient quality for molecular applications; this technique could be applied to other organisms that have similar substances that hinder DNA extraction. Finally, this proposal represents an alternative fast, cheap, and effective method for the isolation of genomic DNA from fresh leaves of Prosopis spp, even in low-technology laboratories.

  16. Adapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  17. Adaptive changes in pancreatic beta cell fractional area and beta cell turnover in human pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, A. E.; Cao-Minh, L.; Galasso, R; Rizza, R. A.; Corradin, A.; Cobelli, C; Butler, P C

    2010-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis We sought to establish the extent and basis for adaptive changes in beta cell numbers in human pregnancy. Methods Pancreas was obtained at autopsy from women who had died while pregnant (n = 18), post-partum (n = 6) or were not pregnant at or shortly before death (controls; n = 20). Pancreases were evaluated for fractional pancreatic beta cell area, islet size and islet fraction of beta cells, beta cell replication (Ki67) and apoptosis (TUNEL), and indirect markers of beta cel...

  18. Role of institutional entrepreneurship in building adaptive capacity in community-based healthcare organisations: realist review protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Sweatha; Katz, Aaron; Durham, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Over the past 3 decades, there has been a substantial shift to the marketisation of government-funded health services. For organisations traditionally buffered from the competitive pressures of for-profit enterprises, such as community-based organisations, this means developing the capacity to adapt to competitive tendering processes, shifting client expectations, and increasing demands for greater accountability. Drawing on ideas of institutional entrepreneurship, we believe that attempts to build adaptive capacity require the transformation of existing institutional arrangements. Key in this may be identifying and fostering institutional entrepreneurs—actors who take the lead in being the impetus for, and giving direction to, structural change. This study focuses on the strategies used by institutional entrepreneurs to build adaptive capacity in the community-based healthcare sector. Methods and analysis The research will use an adapted rapid realist review. The review will find underlying theories that explain the circumstances surrounding the implementation of capacity-building strategies that shape organisational response and generate outcomes by activating causal mechanisms. An early scoping of the literature, and consultations with key stakeholders, will be undertaken to identify an initial programme theory. We will search for relevant journal articles and grey literature. Data will be extracted based on contextual factors, mechanisms and outcomes, and their configurations. The analysis will seek patterns and regularities in these configurations and will focus on confirming, refuting or refining our programme theory. Ethics and dissemination The study does not involve primary research and, therefore, does not require formal ethical approval. However, ethical standards of utility, usefulness, feasibility, propriety, accuracy and accountability will be followed. The results will be written up according to the Realist and Meta-Review Evidence

  19. Adapter Design Based on Wireless HART Protocol%基于无线HART协议的适配器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛定国; 牛斗

    2011-01-01

    基于无线HART协议的适配器,以MSP430F系列单片机为核心,结合CC2520数据收发模块和信号分离/合成模块,实现了上位机对HART仪表中数字信息的管理.适配器通过微处理器控制数据收/发模块与上位机通信,解析上位机指令,控制信号分离/合成模块实现对HART仪表数字信息的读取和写入.基于无线HART协议的适配器在HART仪表的维护和监控过程中有较高的应用价值.%The adapter based on wireless HART uses the microcontroller MSP430F MCUs as the core, combined with CC2520 data transceiver modules and signal separation/synthesis modules,realizing the management of digital information from the host computer to the HART instrument. The adapter communicates with the host computer by controlling the data transceiver modules through the microcontroller and analyzes its commands. It implements read and write of the digital information from the HART instruments by controlling the signal separation/synthesis modules. The adapter based on wireless HART has a high application value in HART instrument maintenance and monitoring.

  20. Similar adaptation effects in primary visual cortex and area MT of the macaque monkey under matched stimulus conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Carlyn A.; Duijnhouwer, Jacob; Wissig, Stephanie C.; Krekelberg, Bart; Kohn, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Recent stimulus history, or adaptation, can alter neuronal response properties. Adaptation effects have been characterized in a number of visually responsive structures, from the retina to higher visual cortex. However, it remains unclear whether adaptation effects across stages of the visual system take a similar form in response to a particular sensory event. This is because studies typically probe a single structure or cortical area, using a stimulus ensemble chosen to provide potent drive...

  1. Flood risk analysis in the Tokyo metropolitan area for climate change adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2011-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. In particular, the Tokyo metropolitan area is highly vulnerable to flood, because densely populated area is located along mouth of major rivers. The Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. We aim to evaluate potential flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use change, land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. For this purpose, it is necessary to build up a consistent flood database system, which contains long-term consistent flood data for the past. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published "Statistics of flood", which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. Based on these flood data documented in "Statistics of flood", we construct a flood database system for Tokyo metropolitan area for the period from 1961 to 2008 by using ArcGIS software. In this database, each flood record is linked to municipal polygons. By using this flood database, we can refer to a specific flood record for each year at small municipal level. We can also calculate total amount of damage for each flood cause such as innuduation inside the levee, over flow,innunduation by river water. First, we analyze long-term variations of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area based on this flood database. Then, we aim to evaluate influence of socio-economic and climatic change on flood risk variations by comparing flood variations in the past with rainfall data and socio-economic indicators. Finally, we construct a flood risk curve representing exceedance probability for total damage of flood by using past flood data. Based on the flood risk curve, we discuss potential vulnerability to flooding and risk of economic losses in Tokyo metropolitan area for climate change adaptation.

  2. Adaptability of Paulownia tomentosa (thumb. Sieb. et Zucc. on green areas in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojičić Đurđa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The taxa with the improved esthetical characteristics, increased or decreased productivity, higher resistance to diseases, insect attacks, air pollution, as well as with optimal adaptability in urban coenoses are of great importance to land­scape architecture, horticulture and forestry. The criteria for the selection of individual plants out of the number of many individuals depend on their future usage, but also on their esthetical features, morphology and physiology. One of the species that fulfils the above criteria is Paulownia tomentosa (Thumb. Sieb. et Zucc. Different morphophysiological features of royal paulownia cultivated on green areas in Banovo Brdo, Dorćol, Tašmajdan, Novi Beograd and Zemun are analyzed. The study results prove the adaptability of royal paulownia on green areas in Belgrade, but also the need to select the parent trees with the best combining features prior to production, aiming at the improvement and production of planting material for urban coenoses and specific-purpose plantations of this species.

  3. Building the framework for climate change adaptation in the urban areas using participatory approach: the Czech Republic experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmer, Adam; Hubatová, Marie; Lupač, Miroslav; Pondělíček, Michael; Šafařík, Miroslav; Šilhánková, Vladimíra; Vačkář, David

    2016-04-01

    The Czech Republic has experienced numerous extreme hydrometeorological / climatological events such as floods (significant ones in 1997, 2002, 2010, 2013), droughts (2013, 2015), heat waves (2015) and windstorms (2007) during past decades. These events are generally attributed to the ongoing climate change and caused loss of lives and significant material damages (up to several % of GDP in some years), especially in urban areas. To initiate the adaptation process of urban areas, the main objective was to prepare a framework for creating climate change adaptation strategies of individual cities reflecting physical-geographical and socioeconomical conditions of the Czech Republic. Three pilot cities (Hradec Králové, Žďár nad Sázavou, Dobru\\vska) were used to optimize entire procedure. Two sets of participatory seminars were organised in order to involve all key stakeholders (the city council, department of the environment, department of the crisis management, hydrometeorological institute, local experts, ...) into the process of creation of the adaptation strategy from its early stage. Lesson learned for the framework were related especially to its applicability on a local level, which is largely a matter of the understandability of the concept. Finally, this illustrative and widely applicable framework (so called 'road map to adaptation strategy') includes five steps: (i) analysis of existing strategies and plans on national, regional and local levels; (ii) analysing climate-change related hazards and key vulnerabilities; (iii) identification of adaptation needs, evaluation of existing adaptation capacity and formulation of future adaptation priorities; (iv) identification of limits and barriers for the adaptation (economical, environmental, ...); and (v) selection of specific types of adaptation measures reflecting identified adaptation needs and formulated adaptation priorities. Keywords: climate change adaptation (CCA); urban areas; participatory approach

  4. Protocol between the Nuclear Protection and Safety Bureau of Portugal and the Nuclear Energy Commission of Spain on Technical Information concerning Nuclear Installations in Border Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Protocol was concluded under the Agreement of the same date on the safety of nuclear installations in border areas. Its purpose is to prescribe the type of information referred to in the Agreement. It lays down in detail all the documents to be supplied concerning the siting, construction, operation and decommissioning of nuclear installations, including the geological, seismological, meteorological, hydrological and ecological aspects of the sites concerned, for purposes of environmental protection; the characteristics of the projected installations and emergency plans must also be provided. Similarly to the Agreement, this Protocol will remain in force for a period of ten years. (NEA)

  5. Effects of Global Change on U.S. Urban Areas: Vulnerabilities, Impacts, and Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Wilbanks, Thomas J.; Kirshen, Paul; Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ruth, Mattias; Solecki, William; Tarr, Joel

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that global change has on urban areas in the United States and how the growth of urban areas will affect the environment. It presents the elements of our Synthesis and Assessment Report (SAP) report that relate to what vulnerabilities and impacts will occur, what adaptation responses may take place, and what possible effects on settlement patterns and characteristics will potentially arise, on human settlements in the U.S. as a result of climate change and climate variability. We will also present some recommendations about what should be done to further research on how climate change and variability will impact human settlements in the U.S., as well as how to engage government officials, policy and decision makers, and the general public in understanding the implications of climate change and variability on the local and regional levels. Additionally, we wish to explore how technology such as remote sensing data coupled with modeling, can be employed as synthesis tools for deriving insight across a spectrum of impacts (e.g. public health, urban planning for mitigation strategies) on how cities can cope and adapt to climate change and variability. This latter point parallels the concepts and ideas presented in the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Decadal Survey report on "Earth Science Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond" wherein the analysis of the impacts of climate change and variability, human health, and land use change are listed as key areas for development of future Earth observing remote sensing systems.

  6. Evaluation of a Chest Circumference-Adapted Protocol for Low-Dose 128-Slice Coronary CT Angiography with Prospective Electrocardiogram Triggering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Chenying; Wang, Zufei; Ji, Jiansong; Wang, Hailin; Hu, Xianghua; Chen, Chunmiao [Department of Radiology, Lishui Central Hospital, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College, Lishui, Zhejiang 323000 (China)

    2015-11-01

    To assess the effect of chest circumference-adapted scanning protocol on radiation exposure and image quality in patients undergoing prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-triggered coronary CT angiography (CCTA). One hundred-eighty-five consecutive patients, who had undergone prospective ECG triggering CCTA with a 128-slice CT, were included in the present study. Nipple-level chest circumference, body weight and height were measured before CT examinations. Patients were divided into four groups based on kV/ref·mAs = 100/200, 100/250, 120/200, and 120/250, when patient's chest circumference was ≤ 85.0 (n = 56), 85.0-90.0 (n = 53), 90.0-95.0 (n = 44), and > 95.0 (n = 32), respectively. Image quality per-segment was independently assessed by two experienced observers. Image noise and attenuation were also measured. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. The effective radiation dose was calculated using CT dose volume index and the dose-length product. A significant correlation was observed between patients' chest circumference and body mass index (r = 0.762, p < 0.001). Chest circumference ranged from 74 to 105 cm, and the mean effective radiation dose was 1.9-3.8 mSv. Diagnostic image quality was obtained in 98.5% (2440/2478) of all evaluated coronary segments without any significant differences among the four groups (p = 0.650). No significant difference in image noise was observed among the four groups (p = 0.439), thus supporting the validity of the chest circumference-adapted scanning protocol. However, vessel attenuation, SNR and CNR were significantly higher in the 100 kV groups than in the 120 kV groups (p < 0.05). A measure of chest circumference can be used to adapt tube voltage and current for individualized radiation dose control, with resultant similar image noise and sustained diagnostic image quality.

  7. PM10 modeling in the Oviedo urban area (Northern Spain) by using multivariate adaptive regression splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Paulino José García; Antón, Juan Carlos Álvarez; Vilán, José Antonio Vilán; García-Gonzalo, Esperanza

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this research work is to build a regression model of the particulate matter up to 10 micrometers in size (PM10) by using the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique in the Oviedo urban area (Northern Spain) at local scale. This research work explores the use of a nonparametric regression algorithm known as multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) which has the ability to approximate the relationship between the inputs and outputs, and express the relationship mathematically. In this sense, hazardous air pollutants or toxic air contaminants refer to any substance that may cause or contribute to an increase in mortality or serious illness, or that may pose a present or potential hazard to human health. To accomplish the objective of this study, the experimental dataset of nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3) and dust (PM10) were collected over 3 years (2006-2008) and they are used to create a highly nonlinear model of the PM10 in the Oviedo urban nucleus (Northern Spain) based on the MARS technique. One main objective of this model is to obtain a preliminary estimate of the dependence between PM10 pollutant in the Oviedo urban area at local scale. A second aim is to determine the factors with the greatest bearing on air quality with a view to proposing health and lifestyle improvements. The United States National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) establishes the limit values of the main pollutants in the atmosphere in order to ensure the health of healthy people. Firstly, this MARS regression model captures the main perception of statistical learning theory in order to obtain a good prediction of the dependence among the main pollutants in the Oviedo urban area. Secondly, the main advantages of MARS are its capacity to produce simple, easy-to-interpret models, its ability to estimate the contributions of the input variables, and its computational efficiency. Finally, on the basis of

  8. Adaptive Co-management Networks: a Comparative Analysis of Two Fishery Conservation Areas in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Rova

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Co-management constitutes a certain type of institutional arrangement that has gained increased attention among both policy makers and researchers involved in the field of natural resource management. Yet the concept of co-management is broad, and our knowledge about how different kinds of management structures affect the ability to deal with challenges pertinent to the commons is limited. One of these challenges is to foster an adaptive management process, i.e., a process in which rules are continuously revised and changed according to what is known about the ecological system. We aim to address the relationship between different kinds of co-management structures and adaptive management. To this end, we conducted a comparative case study of two Fishery Conservation Areas in Sweden. The concept of networks and the formal method of social network analysis are applied as theoretical and methodological devices. Building on previous research, we propose that adaptive management processes occur in co-management networks consisting of a heterogeneous set of actors that are centrally and densely integrated. Networks of this kind are believed to promote a management process in which actors with disparate perspectives and resources formulate a common view regarding the condition of the ecosystem, the basic problem to be solved, and what measures to adopt. The empirical findings support the existence of such a relationship. Nonetheless, the restricted empirical material, an inability to control for hidden variables, and a lack of success in determining causality among variables are all factors that call for more research.

  9. An integrated method for assessing climate-related risks and adaptation alternatives in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Andersson-Sköld

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The urban environment is a complex structure with interlinked social, ecological and technical structures. Global warming is expected to have a broad variety of impacts, which will add to the complexity. Climate changes will force adaptation, to reduce climate-related risks. Adaptation measures can address one aspect at the time, or aim for a holistic approach to avoid maladaptation. This paper presents a systematic, integrated approach for assessing alternatives for reducing the risks of heat waves, flooding and air pollution in urban settings, with the aim of reducing the risk of maladaptation. The study includes strategies covering different spatial scales, and both the current climate situation and the climate predicted under climate change scenarios. The adaptation strategies investigated included increasing vegetation; selecting density, height and colour of buildings; and retreat or resist (defend against sea-level rise. Their effectiveness was assessed with regard to not only flooding, heat stress and air quality but also with regard to resource use, emissions to air (incl. GHG, soil and water, and people’s perceptions and vulnerability. The effectiveness of the strategies were ranked on a common scale (from −3 to 3 in an integrated assessment. Integrated assessments are recommended, as they help identify the most sustainable solutions, but to reduce the risk of maladaptation they require experts from a variety of disciplines. The most generally applicable recommendation, derived from the integrated assessment here, taking into account both expertise from different municipal departments, literature surveys, life cycle assessments and publics perceptions, is to increase the urban greenery, as it contributes to several positive aspects such as heat stress mitigation, air quality improvement, effective storm-water and flood-risk management, and it has several positive social impacts. The most favourable alternative was compact, mid

  10. The network structure of adaptive governance - A single case study of a fish management area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annica Charlotte Sandström

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of establishing adaptive management systems is a widely discussed topic in the literature on natural resource management. Adaptive management essentially focuses on achieving a governance process that is both sensitive to and has the capacity to continuously react to changes within the ecosystem being managed. The adoption of a network approach that perceives governance structures as social networks, searching for the kind of network features promoting this important feature, has been requested by researchers in the field. In particular, the possibilities associated with the application of a formal network approach, using the tools and concepts of social network analysis (SNA, have been identified as having significant potential for advancing this branch of research. This paper aims to address the relation between network structure and adaptability using an empirical approach. With the point of departure in a previously generated theoretical framework as well as related hypotheses, this paper presents a case study of a governance process within a fish management area in Sweden. The hypotheses state that, although higher levels of network density and centralisation promote the rule-forming process, the level of network heterogeneity is important for the existence and spread of ecological knowledge among the actors involved. According to the empirical results, restricted by the single-case study design, this assumption is still a well-working hypothesis. However, in order to advance our knowledge concerning these issues and test the validity of the hypotheses, more empirical work using a similar approach in multiple case study designs is needed.

  11. Integrating Collaboration, Adaptive Management, and Scenario-Planning: Experiences at Las Cienegas National Conservation Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy K. Caves

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There is growing recognition that public lands cannot be managed as islands; rather, land management must address the ecological, social, and temporal complexity that often spans jurisdictions and traditional planning horizons. Collaborative decision making and adaptive management (CAM have been promoted as methods to reconcile competing societal demands and respond to complex ecosystem dynamics. We detail the experiences of land managers and stakeholders in using CAM at Las Cienegas National Conservation Area (LCNCA, a highly valued site under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM. The CAM process at Las Cienegas is marked by strong stakeholder engagement, with four core elements: (1 shared watershed goals with measurable resource objectives; (2 relevant and reliable scientific information; (3 mechanisms to incorporate new information into decision making; and (4 shared learning to improve both the process and management actions. The combination of stakeholder engagement and adaptive management has led to agreement on contentious issues, more innovative solutions, and more effective land management. However, the region is now experiencing rapid changes outside managers' control, including climate change, human population growth, and reduced federal budgets, with large but unpredictable impacts on natural resources. Although the CAM experience provides a strong foundation for making the difficult and contentious management decisions that such changes are likely to require, neither collaboration nor adaptive management provides a sufficient structure for addressing the externalities that drive uncontrollable and unpredictable change. As a result, LCNCA is exploring two specific modifications to CAM that may better address emerging challenges, including: (1 creating nested resource objectives to distinguish between those objectives that may be crucial to maintaining ecological resilience from those that may hinder a flexible

  12. SU-E-J-249: Characterization of Gynecological Tumor Heterogeneity Using Texture Analysis in the Context of An 18F-FDG PET Adaptive Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawrocki, J [Duke University Medical Physics Graduate Program, Durham, NC (United States); Chino, J; Craciunescu, O [Duke University Medical Center Department of Radiation Oncology, Durham, NC (United States); Das, S [University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We propose a method to examine gynecological tumor heterogeneity using texture analysis in the context of an adaptive PET protocol in order to establish if texture metrics from baseline PET-CT predict tumor response better than SUV metrics alone as well as determine texture features correlating with tumor response during radiation therapy. Methods: This IRB approved protocol included 29 women with node positive gynecological cancers visible on FDG-PET treated with EBRT to the PET positive nodes. A baseline and intra-treatment PET-CT was obtained. Tumor outcome was determined based on RECIST on posttreatment PET-CT. Primary GTVs were segmented using 40% threshold and a semi-automatic gradient-based contouring tool, PET Edge (MIM Software Inc., Cleveland, OH). SUV histogram features, Metabolic Volume (MV), and Total Lesion Glycolysis (TLG) were calculated. Four 3D texture matrices describing local and regional relationships between voxel intensities in the GTV were generated: co-occurrence, run length, size zone, and neighborhood difference. From these, 39 texture features were calculated. Prognostic power of baseline features derived from gradientbased and threshold GTVs were determined using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Receiver Operating Characteristics and logistic regression was performed using JMP (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) to find probabilities of predicting response. Changes in features during treatment were determined using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: Of the 29 patients, there were 16 complete responders, 7 partial responders, and 6 non-responders. Comparing CR/PR vs. NR for gradient-based GTVs, 7 texture values, TLG, and SUV kurtosis had a p < 0.05. Threshold GTVs yielded 4 texture features and TLG with p < 0.05. From baseline to intra-treatment, 14 texture features, SUVmean, SUVmax, MV, and TLG changed with p < 0.05. Conclusion: Texture analysis of PET imaged gynecological tumors is an effective method for early prognosis and should

  13. Clinical Implementation of an Online Adaptive Plan-of-the-Day Protocol for Nonrigid Motion Management in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijkoop, Sabrina T., E-mail: s.heijkoop@erasmusmc.nl; Langerak, Thomas R.; Quint, Sandra; Bondar, Luiza; Mens, Jan Willem M.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Hoogeman, Mischa S.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical implementation of an online adaptive plan-of-the-day protocol for nonrigid target motion management in locally advanced cervical cancer intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Each of the 64 patients had four markers implanted in the vaginal fornix to verify the position of the cervix during treatment. Full and empty bladder computed tomography (CT) scans were acquired prior to treatment to build a bladder volume-dependent cervix-uterus motion model for establishment of the plan library. In the first phase of clinical implementation, the library consisted of one IMRT plan based on a single model-predicted internal target volume (mpITV), covering the target for the whole pretreatment observed bladder volume range, and a 3D conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) motion-robust backup plan based on the same mpITV. The planning target volume (PTV) combined the ITV and nodal clinical target volume (CTV), expanded with a 1-cm margin. In the second phase, for patients showing >2.5-cm bladder-induced cervix-uterus motion during planning, two IMRT plans were constructed, based on mpITVs for empty-to-half-full and half-full-to-full bladder. In both phases, a daily cone beam CT (CBCT) scan was acquired to first position the patient based on bony anatomy and nodal targets and then select the appropriate plan. Daily post-treatment CBCT was used to verify plan selection. Results: Twenty-four and 40 patients were included in the first and second phase, respectively. In the second phase, 11 patients had two IMRT plans. Overall, an IMRT plan was used in 82.4% of fractions. The main reasons for selecting the motion-robust backup plan were uterus outside the PTV (27.5%) and markers outside their margin (21.3%). In patients with two IMRT plans, the half-full-to-full bladder plan was selected on average in 45% of the first 12 fractions, which was reduced to 35% in the last treatment fractions. Conclusions: The implemented

  14. SU-E-J-124: FDG PET Metrics Analysis in the Context of An Adaptive PET Protocol for Node Positive Gynecologic Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawrocki, J; Chino, J; Light, K; Vergalasova, I; Craciunescu, O [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare PET extracted metrics and investigate the role of a gradient-based PET segmentation tool, PET Edge (MIM Software Inc., Cleveland, OH), in the context of an adaptive PET protocol for node positive gynecologic cancer patients. Methods: An IRB approved protocol enrolled women with gynecological, PET visible malignancies. A PET-CT was obtained for treatment planning prescribed to 45–50.4Gy with a 55– 70Gy boost to the PET positive nodes. An intra-treatment PET-CT was obtained between 30–36Gy, and all volumes re-contoured. Standard uptake values (SUVmax, SUVmean, SUVmedian) and GTV volumes were extracted from the clinician contoured GTVs on the pre- and intra-treament PET-CT for primaries and nodes and compared with a two tailed Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The differences between primary and node GTV volumes contoured in the treatment planning system and those volumes generated using PET Edge were also investigated. Bland-Altman plots were used to describe significant differences between the two contouring methods. Results: Thirteen women were enrolled in this study. The median baseline/intra-treatment primary (SUVmax, mean, median) were (30.5, 9.09, 7.83)/( 16.6, 4.35, 3.74), and nodes were (20.1, 4.64, 3.93)/( 6.78, 3.13, 3.26). The p values were all < 0.001. The clinical contours were all larger than the PET Edge generated ones, with mean difference of +20.6 ml for primary, and +23.5 ml for nodes. The Bland-Altman revealed changes between clinician/PET Edge contours to be mostly within the margins of the coefficient of variability. However, there was a proportional trend, i.e. the larger the GTV, the larger the clinical contours as compared to PET Edge contours. Conclusion: Primary and node SUV values taken from the intratreament PET-CT can be used to assess the disease response and to design an adaptive plan. The PET Edge tool can streamline the contouring process and lead to smaller, less user-dependent contours.

  15. Multicast Routing Protocols in Adhoc Mobile networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Nagaprasad,

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The majority of applications are in areas where rapid deployment and dynamic reconfiguration are necessary and a wire line network is not available. These include military battlefields, emergency search and rescue sites, classrooms, and conventions where participants share information dynamically using their mobile devices. Well established routing protocols do exist to offer efficient multicasting service in conventional wired networks. These protocols, having been designed for fixed networks, may fails to keep up with node movements and frequent topology changes in a MANET. Therefore, adapting existing wired multicast protocols as such to a MANET, which completely lacks infrastructure, appear less promising. Providing efficient multicasting over MANET faces many challenges, includes scalability,quality of service, reliable service, security, Address configuration, Applications for multicast over MANET. The existing multicast routing protocol do not addresses these issues effectively over Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANET.

  16. Energy harvesting aware hybrid MAC protocol for WBANs

    OpenAIRE

    Ibarra, Ernesto; Antonopoulos, Angelos; KARTSAKLI, Elli; Verikoukis, Christos

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid polling Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol with Human Energy Harvesting capabilities, called HEH-BMAC, designed for Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs). The proposed protocol uses a dynamic schedule algorithm to combine User Identification polling (ID) and Probabilistic Contention (PC) random access, adapting the network operation to the random, time-varying nature of the human energy harvesting sources. HEH-BMAC offers different levels of node priorities ...

  17. Research on performance analysis for MAC protocol in wireless local area network%WLAN中MAC协议性能分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金莹; 吴其林; 张以文

    2012-01-01

    对媒体接入控制(Media Access Control,MAC)协议进行性能分析,可以深入理解MAC协议的操作特点,发现吞吐量、数据包时延与丢失等性能遭受影响的本质原因.对当前马尔可夫链性能分析法加以详细地分析与总结,分别阐述了无线局域网络中分布式协调功能和增强的分布式信道接入两种MAC协议的性能分析研究工作.对进一步的研究工作进行了分析与展望.%Through performance analysis for MAC (Media Access Control) protocol in Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), it can understand in depth the operational characteristic of MAC protocol and find out the essential reason of affecting the performance of MAC protocol, such as throughput, packet delay and packet loss. It elaborates detailedly the related work using the Markov chain analysis and gives a survey of the related work of performance analysis for the distributed coordination function and enhanced distributed channel access MAC protocol in WLAN. It gives analyses and outlooks for the further research.

  18. Prevention of: self harm in British South Asian women: study protocol of an exploratory RCT of culturally adapted manual assisted Problem Solving Training (C- MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraj Diwaker

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide is a major public health problem worldwide. In the UK suicide is the second most common cause of death in people aged 15-24 years. Self harm is one of the commonest reasons for medical admission in the UK. In the year following a suicide attempt the risk of a repeat attempt or death by suicide may be up to 100 times greater than in people who have never attempted suicide. Research evidence shows increased risk of suicide and attempted suicide among British South Asian women. There are concerns about the current service provision and its appropriateness for this community due to the low numbers that get involved with the services. Both problem solving and interpersonal forms of psychotherapy are beneficial in the treatment of patients who self harm and could potentially be helpful in this ethnic group. The paper describes the trial protocol of adapting and evaluating a culturally appropriate psychological treatment for the adult British South Asian women who self harm. Methods We plan to test a culturally adapted Problem Solving Therapy (C- MAP in British South Asian women who self harm. Eight sessions of problem solving each lasting approximately 50 minutes will be delivered over 3 months. The intervention will be assessed using a prospective rater blind randomized controlled design comparing with treatment as usual (TAU. Outcome assessments will be carried out at 3 and 6 months. A sub group of the participants will be invited for qualitative interviews. Discussion This study will test the feasibility and acceptability of the C- MAP in British South Asian women. We will be informed on whether a culturally adapted brief psychological intervention compared with treatment as usual for self-harm results in decreased hopelessness and suicidal ideation. This will also enable us to collect necessary information on recruitment, effect size, the optimal delivery method and acceptability of the intervention in preparation for a

  19. Erosion and Land Degradation in Mediterranean areas as a adaptive response to Mediterranean agriiculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imeson, Anton

    2014-05-01

    The motivation for this session is the statement or claim that Mediterranean areas are sensitive to erosion and desertification. One result of the LEDDRA Approach, which is applying the Complex Adaptive (CAS)paradigm at study sites in Mediterranean Spain, Greece and Italy is that there is just a single socio-environmental system in which land degradation is being caused by the actions of people and the Mediterranean soils have co-eveolved with people under the influence of fire and grazing. They are therefore resilient, and this was demonstrated by Naveh and Thornes. Also the Medalus field sites showed very low rates of erosion. With examples from different Mediterranean landscapes, it is considered that Mediterranean landscapes went through an initial phase of being sensitive to erosion which ended up with the original soils before ploughing or deforestation, being eroded from most of the areas, In some places these are found. LEDDRA The Leddra approach is to consider different states which are separated by transitions. The first state is that of the deforestaion and destruction of the forest that took place 6000 10000 years ago, in the Eastern and Northern Mediterranean, and 2000 to 4,000 years ago in large areas of the Western Mediterranean, and 100 to 400 years ago in California. Australia, New Zealand and Chile. The second state involves appropriating and settling the land from indigenous people and introducing cattle and sheep and Mediterranean crops. The current state of desertification is one in which erosion occurs because of the use of specific cultivation methods and subsidies for irrigating and producing crops outside of their range. In the Mediterranean landscape State, such as found near Santiago in Chile and in Crete, society gains many cultural benefits from grazing. However, the consequences of this are that the whole ecosystem is maintained in an arid state, so that areas in Crete receiving 800-1100 mm rainfall have a semi arid vegetation, instead

  20. Coupled modeling approach to assess climate change impacts on groundwater recharge and adaptation in arid areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, H.; Uvo, C. B.; Berndtsson, R.

    2015-10-01

    The effect of future climate scenarios on surface and groundwater resources was simulated using a modeling approach for an artificial recharge area in arid southern Iran. Future climate data for the periods of 2010-2030 and 2030-2050 were acquired from the Canadian Global Coupled Model (CGCM 3.1) for scenarios A1B, A2, and B1. These scenarios were adapted to the studied region using the delta-change method. A conceptual rainfall-runoff model (Qbox) was used to simulate runoff in a flash flood prone catchment. The model was calibrated and validated for the period 2002-2011 using daily discharge data. The projected climate variables were used to simulate future runoff. The rainfall-runoff model was then coupled to a calibrated groundwater flow and recharge model (MODFLOW) to simulate future recharge and groundwater hydraulic heads. As a result of the rainfall-runoff modeling, under the B1 scenario the number of floods is projected to slightly increase in the area. This in turn calls for proper management, as this is the only source of fresh water supply in the studied region. The results of the groundwater recharge modeling showed no significant difference between present and future recharge for all scenarios. Owing to that, four abstraction and recharge scenarios were assumed to simulate the groundwater level and recharge amount in the studied aquifer. The results showed that the abstraction scenarios have the most substantial effect on the groundwater level and the continuation of current pumping rate would lead to a groundwater decline by 18 m up to 2050.

  1. Security Protocol Design: A Case Study Using Key Distribution Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiner Dojen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays security protocols are a key component in providing security services for fixed and mobile networks. These services include data confidentiality, radio link encryption, message integrity, mobile subscriber authentication, electronic payment, certified e-mail, contract signing and nonrepudiation. This paper is concerned with design of effective security protocols. Security protocols are introduced and some common attacks against security protocols are discussed. The vulnerabilities that lead to theattacks are analyzed and guidelines for effective security protocol design are proposed. The presented guidelines are applied to the Andrew Secure RPC protocol and its adapted versions. It is demonstrated that compliance with the guidelines successfully avoidsfreshness and parallel session attacks.

  2. Adaptation to speed in macaque middle temporal and medial superior temporal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Nicholas S C; Born, Richard T

    2013-03-01

    The response of a sensory neuron to an unchanging stimulus typically adapts, showing decreases in response gain that are accompanied by changes in the shape of tuning curves. It remains unclear whether these changes arise purely due to spike rate adaptation within single neurons or whether they are dependent on network interactions between neurons. Further, it is unclear how the timescales of neural and perceptual adaptation are related. To examine this issue, we compared speed tuning of middle temporal (MT) and medial superior temporal neurons in macaque visual cortex after adaptation to two different reference speeds. For 75% of speed-tuned units, adaptation caused significant changes in tuning that could be explained equally well as lateral shifts, vertical gain changes, or both. These tuning changes occurred rapidly, as both neuronal firing rate and Fano factor showed no evidence of changing beyond the first 500 ms after motion onset, and the magnitude of tuning curve changes showed no difference between trials with adaptation durations shorter or longer than 1 s. Importantly, the magnitude of tuning shifts was correlated with the transient-sustained index, which measures a well characterized form of rapid response adaptation in MT, and is likely associated with changes at the level of neuronal networks. Tuning curves changed in a manner that increased neuronal sensitivity around the adapting speed, consistent with improvements in human and macaque psychophysical performance that we observed over the first several hundred ms of adaptation. PMID:23467352

  3. Systematic testing of flood adaptation options in urban areas through simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Roland; Urich, Christian; Sto. Domingo, Nina; Mark, Ole; Deletic, Ana; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    While models can quantify flood risk in great detail, the results are subject to a number of deep uncertainties. Climate dependent drivers such as sea level and rainfall intensities, population growth and economic development all have a strong influence on future flood risk, but future developments can only be estimated coarsely. In such a situation, robust decision making frameworks call for the systematic evaluation of mitigation measures against ensembles of potential futures. We have coupled the urban development software DAnCE4Water and the 1D-2D hydraulic simulation package MIKE FLOOD to create a framework that allows for such systematic evaluations, considering mitigation measures under a variety of climate futures and urban development scenarios. A wide spectrum of mitigation measures can be considered in this setup, ranging from structural measures such as modifications of the sewer network over local retention of rainwater and the modification of surface flow paths to policy measures such as restrictions on urban development in flood prone areas or master plans that encourage compact development. The setup was tested in a 300 ha residential catchment in Melbourne, Australia. The results clearly demonstrate the importance of considering a range of potential futures in the planning process. For example, local rainwater retention measures strongly reduce flood risk a scenario with moderate increase of rain intensities and moderate urban growth, but their performance strongly varies, yielding very little improvement in situations with pronounced climate change. The systematic testing of adaptation measures further allows for the identification of so-called adaptation tipping points, i.e. levels for the drivers of flood risk where the desired level of flood risk is exceeded despite the implementation of (a combination of) mitigation measures. Assuming a range of development rates for the drivers of flood risk, such tipping points can be translated into

  4. Effects of Global Change on U.S. Urban Areas: Vulnerabilities, Impacts, and Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Wilbanks, Thomas J.; Kirshen, Paul; Romero-Lnkao, Patricia; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ruth, Matthias; Solecki, William; Tarr, Joel

    2007-01-01

    .g. public health, urban planning for mitigation strategies) on how cities can cope and adapt to climate change and variability. This latter point parallels the concepts and ideas presented in the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Decadal Survey report on "Earth Science Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond" wherein the analysis of the impacts of climate change and variability, human health, and land use change are listed as key areas for development of future Earth observing remote sensing systems.

  5. Adaptive Levy processes and area-restricted search in human foraging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas T Hills

    Full Text Available A considerable amount of research has claimed that animals' foraging behaviors display movement lengths with power-law distributed tails, characteristic of Lévy flights and Lévy walks. Though these claims have recently come into question, the proposal that many animals forage using Lévy processes nonetheless remains. A Lévy process does not consider when or where resources are encountered, and samples movement lengths independently of past experience. However, Lévy processes too have come into question based on the observation that in patchy resource environments resource-sensitive foraging strategies, like area-restricted search, perform better than Lévy flights yet can still generate heavy-tailed distributions of movement lengths. To investigate these questions further, we tracked humans as they searched for hidden resources in an open-field virtual environment, with either patchy or dispersed resource distributions. Supporting previous research, for both conditions logarithmic binning methods were consistent with Lévy flights and rank-frequency methods-comparing alternative distributions using maximum likelihood methods-showed the strongest support for bounded power-law distributions (truncated Lévy flights. However, goodness-of-fit tests found that even bounded power-law distributions only accurately characterized movement behavior for 4 (out of 32 participants. Moreover, paths in the patchy environment (but not the dispersed environment showed a transition to intensive search following resource encounters, characteristic of area-restricted search. Transferring paths between environments revealed that paths generated in the patchy environment were adapted to that environment. Our results suggest that though power-law distributions do not accurately reflect human search, Lévy processes may still describe movement in dispersed environments, but not in patchy environments-where search was area-restricted. Furthermore, our results

  6. Adaptation to climate change in urban areas: climate-greening London, Rotterdam, and Toronto

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, H.L.P.; Driessen, P.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to gain insight into the governance capacity of cities to adapt to climate change through urban green planning, which we will refer to as climate-greening. The use of green space is considered a no-regrets adaptation strategy, since it not only absorbs rainfall and moderates temper

  7. Development Of Protocols For Simultaneous Measurements Of Rn, Tn Using Nuclear Track Detectors And Trial Application In Mining Areas Of Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive gases Radon (Rn) and Thoron (Tn) contribute of more than 50% of natural radiation dose. However, separate measurements of Rn and Tn have not been paid enough attention. An Intergovernmental Cooperation Project was conducted at the Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology with the help from Hungarian experts. The main tasks of the project were to finalize 02 protocols for simultaneous measurements of Rn and Tn using nuclear track detectors and to test these protocols in investigating the concentrations of Rn and Tn, calculating the natural dose due to Rn and Tn, and evaluating the increased radiation dose and radiation safety due to mining activities. Main results of the project include 02 protocols for simultaneous measurements of Rn and Tn and the test results in the mining areas. Rn and Tn concentrations inside the coal mining tunnels are in the average level of Vietnam and the world. Tn concentration inside the factory for separating Zircon at the Ha Tinh Zircon Processing Plant was found to be very high, up to 2931 Bq/m3. Based on annual effective dose calculation, workers inside the factory for separating Zircon at the Ha Tinh Zircon Processing Plant could receive an annual effective dose due to Rn and Tn of 4.890 mSv/year, and the increasing dose of 4.710 mSv/year is for higher than 1 mSv/year recommended by the IAEA. (author)

  8. Socio-economic factors influencing climate change adaptation among crop farmers in Umuahia South Area of Abia State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Anyoha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the socioeconomic factors influencing climate change adaptation among crop farmers in Umuahia South Area of Abia State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were to determine socioeconomic characteristics of crop farmers in the area, determine farmers level of awareness of climate change in the area, ascertain effects of climate change in crop production, identify adaptation strategies adopted by the farmers in the area and determine socioeconomic factors influencing adaptation to climate change. Data were collected through a questionnaire distributed to 120 farmers. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical tools such as tables, likert type scale and multiple regression analysis. Results of data collected shows that the strategies adopted to combat the effects of climate change by farmers in the area include tree planting, cultivation of early maturing crops, mixed farming, use of improved crop varieties, increased use of family labour, engagement in complementary/diverse livelihoods, cover cropping, changes in planting and harvesting dates, irrigation practices, crop rotation, riverside/bank cultivation, increased frequency of weeding etc, Results reveal that farm size, farming experience, household size, and social organization (MEM COP were significant at 5%, sex was significant at 1% . Extension educational campaign should be intensified to increase the knowledge about climate change. Government should collaborate with meteorologists in forecasting about climate change and also in bringing about measures to control the adverse effect of climate change especially in agriculture.

  9. Systems to establish bioclimatic analogies to predict the area of adaptability of plant species to new environments: The case of Moringa oleifera Lam. in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Santibañez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptability of a species to new territories is generally assessed by costly trial and error in situ experiments distributed throughout different agroclimatic environments. Nowadays climatic data are available to allow the construction of climatic maps based on data provided through world or local networks of climatic weather stations. The objective of this work was to establish a bioclimatic protocol, based on current and available sources of climate information, to make rapid surveys of suitability for plant species in a given environment. Moringa oleifera Lam. species, native from India, was chosen considering its rusticity and the increasing interest on this species due to its multiple uses, nutritional value, and medicinal properties. The first phase of this work was a compilation of data from climatic downscaling (WorldClim, University of East Anglia database (CRU, FAO database, and an historic datasets from Chilean meteorological stations. This information was used to test two different models to compare bioclimatic profiles, considering relevant climatic variables for plant adaptation: maximum and minimum temperatures, accumulated degree days, frost regime, and air humidity. The first approach, based on climatic analogy, was to compare each of these variables between Chilean and foreign localities, and the second, based on bioclimatic suitability, focus on the degree of meeting the minimum bioclimatic requirements by the species in each locality. This paper provides some tools to make this kind of comparisons. Both approaches were tested using M. oleifera as target. Both approaches were complementary and prove to be useful for identifying potential areas where the species could be cultivated. The use of these approaches suggested the existence of some bioclimatic suitability for this species in the coastal areas with mild winters and frosts, from 27° to 37° S lat.

  10. Economic analysis of climate change adaptation strategies in selected coastal areas in Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, M.L.; Sajise, A.J.U.; Ramirez, P.J.B.; Arias, J.K.B.; Purnomo, A.H.; Dipasupil, S.R.; Regoniel, P.A.; Nguyen, K.A.T.; Zamora, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change with its attendant geophysical hazards is well studied. A great deal of attention has gone into analyzing climate change impacts as well as searching out possible mitigating adaptive strategies. These matters are very real concerns, especially for coastal communities. Such communities are often the most vulnerable to climate change, since their citizens frequently live in abject poverty and have limited capacity to adapt to geophysical hazards. Their situation is further compli...

  11. An integrated method for assessing climate-related risks and adaptation alternatives in urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Yvonne Andersson-Sköld; Sofia Thorsson; David Rayner; Fredrik Lindberg; Sara Janhäll; Anna Jonsson; Ulf Moback; Ramona Bergman; Mikael Granberg

    2015-01-01

    The urban environment is a complex structure with interlinked social, ecological and technical structures. Global warming is expected to have a broad variety of impacts, which will add to the complexity. Climate changes will force adaptation, to reduce climate-related risks. Adaptation measures can address one aspect at the time, or aim for a holistic approach to avoid maladaptation. This paper presents a systematic, integrated approach for assessing alternatives for reducing the risks of hea...

  12. Variation of forest surface and carbon fixation in mountain areas of the Regione Veneto (Italy and the application of the Kyoto protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anfodillo T

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Parties that have signed the Kyoto Protocol must reduce global emissions of Greenhouse Gasses (GHG during the First Commitment Period (2008 - 2012 by at least 5% with respect to 1990. This share is 6.5% for Italy. The Kyoto Protocol lays down some measures for reducing GHG emissions, which include actions in agriculture and forestry. it will thus be possible to take emissions and absorptions resulting from land use changes into account in the National Balances. Given the widespread forests in Italy, it is very important to have an assessment of the aptitude of this sector to act as a carbon sink. In this study we analysed the variation of forestland cover in a mountain area of the Veneto Region (NE Italy. The analysis was done by comparing aerial photos taken in 1991 with orthophotos reported to 2003, by photointerpretation of points with casual distribution on sample areas, according to a stratified sampling. We estimated a statistically relevant increment of about 0.095% of forest land only up to 1500 m compared to the estimated forest cover for 1990 (about 42 ha, underlining how this low increase is mainly due to forest management. The second step was to estimate the fixed carbon in the areas where forests increased. This was achieved by collecting biometrical data in the field, and then using allometric functions. The annual carbon sink was estimated as 0.69 Mg ha-1 year-1. Comparing these results with previous studies done in the pre-alpine region we estimate the annual increment of the forest area in the whole Veneto region to be about 409.94 ha and that the total carbon sink is about 282.86 Mg C year-1. A method for estimating carbon sink in afforestation/reforestation areas is proposed that could also be applied to other sites in Italy.

  13. SU-E-J-262: Variability in Texture Analysis of Gynecological Tumors in the Context of An 18F-FDG PET Adaptive Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawrocki, J [Duke University Medical Physics Graduate Program, Durham, NC (United States); Chino, J; Das, S; Craciunescu, O [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This study examines the effect on texture analysis due to variable reconstruction of PET images in the context of an adaptive FDG PET protocol for node positive gynecologic cancer patients. By measuring variability in texture features from baseline and intra-treatment PET-CT, we can isolate unreliable texture features due to large variation. Methods: A subset of seven patients with node positive gynecological cancers visible on PET was selected for this study. Prescribed dose varied between 45–50.4Gy, with a 55–70Gy boost to the PET positive nodes. A baseline and intratreatment (between 30–36Gy) PET-CT were obtained on a Siemens Biograph mCT. Each clinical PET image set was reconstructed 6 times using a TrueX+TOF algorithm with varying iterations and Gaussian filter. Baseline and intra-treatment primary GTVs were segmented using PET Edge (MIM Software Inc., Cleveland, OH), a semi-automatic gradient-based algorithm, on the clinical PET and transferred to the other reconstructed sets. Using an in-house MATLAB program, four 3D texture matrices describing relationships between voxel intensities in the GTV were generated: co-occurrence, run length, size zone, and neighborhood difference. From these, 39 textural features characterizing texture were calculated in addition to SUV histogram features. The percent variability among parameters was first calculated. Each reconstructed texture feature from baseline and intra-treatment per patient was normalized to the clinical baseline scan and compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test in order to isolate variations due to reconstruction parameters. Results: For the baseline scans, 13 texture features showed a mean range greater than 10%. For the intra scans, 28 texture features showed a mean range greater than 10%. Comparing baseline to intra scans, 25 texture features showed p <0.05. Conclusion: Variability due to different reconstruction parameters increased with treatment, however, the majority of texture

  14. Eco Bio Cultural Protocols for Preservation of Endangered Agrobiodiversity Areas from the Adjacent Regions of Danube and Danube Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iudith Ipate

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Danube Strategy involves creating synergies between different sectors (tourism, environmental protection, agriculture and forestry, promoting solutions and contributing to the prosperity of social, economic and cultural sustainable development. It requires multiinterdisciplinary problem solving biodiversity conservation and environmental protection. Agrobiodiversity conservation and means must be assessed according to international risk categories, taking into account the culture, traditions and local lifestyle. Fundamental aspects of the protocols will be to assess species and breeds endangered and their influence on specific ecosystems of the Danube and Danube Delta to promote local tradition and cultural heritage. Our studies will have to reveal new interdependencies between socio- economic phenomena that occur in the context of regional sustainable development and identify viable solutions to ensure the conservation of agrobiodiversity as part of the natural and cultural heritage of the Danube Delta . Need of cooperation between Danube countries and between local authorities and research entities to conserve natural and cultural heritage that can be achieved based on eco-bio-diplomacy. Need of cooperation between Danube countries and between local authorities and research entities to conserve natural and cultural heritage that can be achieved based on eco-bio-diplomacy.

  15. Sustainable Energy and Environmental Management in a Solar Powered Adaptive Fuzzy Control Model for Ground Water Conservation in Suburban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    S. N. Singh,; Monika,; K. Pallavi Jha,; Madhu Bala

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper, a novel scheme of water level management of a storage tank, adaptive to varying water consumption by an end user, has been designed. This system proposes the control of water supply from a solar powered pump for the optimal use of ground water in suburban areas. It has been simulated and validated, for its satisfactory performance, by fuzzy control logic. The proposed system optimizes water consumption, leading to improvement in the ground-water life cycle and increasing...

  16. Adapting to the European Higher Education Area a questionnaire on student opinion about the teaching of lecturers.

    OpenAIRE

    Lukas, José Francisco; Santiago, Karlos; Etxeberria, Juan; Lizasoain, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present the adaptation to the European Higher Education Area of a questionnaire on the opinions of University of the Basque Country students about their lecturers teaching process. This process undertaken at the University used a mixed methodology approach. After reviewing questionnaires from other universities, taking into account the theoretical framework of the new questionnaire, the transversal skills adopted by the University and the three dimensions set out by...

  17. A Review of Assessment and Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change Impacts on the Coastal Areas in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yao-Dong; CHENG Xu-Hua; WANG Xian-Wei; AI Hui; DUAN Hai-Lai; HE Jian; WU Xiao-Xuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews assessment of climate change impacts on economy, society and ecological environment in the coastal areas of South China based on published literatures;it also proposes suitable adaptation strategies and counter-measures. Review shows that climate change has resulted in sea level rise in the coastal areas of South China, increasing the occurrence and intensity of storm surges, aggravating the influence of saltwater intrusion, coastal erosion, urban drainage and flood control, threatening the coastal facility and infrastructures, inundating lowland areas, offsetting mudflat silting, and degrading mangroves and coral reef ecosystem. Therefore, in order to reduce the adverse effects of climate change and to support the sustainable development in the coastal areas of South China, it is critical to improve the monitoring and early warning system, enhance prevention criteria, fortify coastal protection engineering, strengthen salt tide prevention, and reinforce the ecological restoration and protection.

  18. FLOOD RISK FACTORS IN SUBURBAN AREA IN THE CONTEXT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION POLICIES – CASE STUDY OF WROCLAW, POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Szewrański

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The uncontrolled sprawl of urban development exerts environmental impact in rural areas. The aim of this study is to identify areas vulnerable to climate change in the context of implementation of policies adapting to climate change at the local level. Such areas can be defined as those where the negative implication of flesh flood overlapping with soil sealing is observed. The study areas composed of municipalities which are influenced by the urban sprawl process of the city of Wroclaw, Poland. The analyses were performed using publicly available spatial data from aerial orthophotomaps from 2004–2012, the satellite images; archival and current land use maps. The database CORINE 1990, 2000, 2006; Urban Atlas and geodatabase of the European Environment Agency were also of an important usage for this study.

  19. Integrating Collaboration, Adaptive Management, and Scenario-Planning: Experiences at Las Cienegas National Conservation Area

    OpenAIRE

    Jeremy K. Caves; Gitanjali S. Bodner; Karen Simms; Larry A. Fisher; Tahnee Robertson

    2013-01-01

    There is growing recognition that public lands cannot be managed as islands; rather, land management must address the ecological, social, and temporal complexity that often spans jurisdictions and traditional planning horizons. Collaborative decision making and adaptive management (CAM) have been promoted as methods to reconcile competing societal demands and respond to complex ecosystem dynamics. We detail the experiences of land managers and stakeholders in using CAM at Las Cienegas Nationa...

  20. Adaptability of Paulownia tomentosa (thumb.) Sieb. et Zucc. on green areas in Belgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Stojičić Đurđa; Ocokoljić Mirjana; Obratov-Petković Dragica

    2010-01-01

    The taxa with the improved esthetical characteristics, increased or decreased productivity, higher resistance to diseases, insect attacks, air pollution, as well as with optimal adaptability in urban coenoses are of great importance to land­scape architecture, horticulture and forestry. The criteria for the selection of individual plants out of the number of many individuals depend on their future usage, but also on their esthetical features, morphology and physiology. One of the species that...

  1. Adaptive Sampling-Based Information Collection for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaobin; Zhao, Fang; Wang, Wendong; Tian, Hui

    2016-01-01

    To collect important health information, WBAN applications typically sense data at a high frequency. However, limited by the quality of wireless link, the uploading of sensed data has an upper frequency. To reduce upload frequency, most of the existing WBAN data collection approaches collect data with a tolerable error. These approaches can guarantee precision of the collected data, but they are not able to ensure that the upload frequency is within the upper frequency. Some traditional sampling based approaches can control upload frequency directly, however, they usually have a high loss of information. Since the core task of WBAN applications is to collect health information, this paper aims to collect optimized information under the limitation of upload frequency. The importance of sensed data is defined according to information theory for the first time. Information-aware adaptive sampling is proposed to collect uniformly distributed data. Then we propose Adaptive Sampling-based Information Collection (ASIC) which consists of two algorithms. An adaptive sampling probability algorithm is proposed to compute sampling probabilities of different sensed values. A multiple uniform sampling algorithm provides uniform samplings for values in different intervals. Experiments based on a real dataset show that the proposed approach has higher performance in terms of data coverage and information quantity. The parameter analysis shows the optimized parameter settings and the discussion shows the underlying reason of high performance in the proposed approach. PMID:27589758

  2. Building adaptive capacity for flood proofing in urban areas through synergistic interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerbeek, W.; Ashley, R.M.; Zevenbergen, C.; Rijke, J.S.; Gersonius, B.

    2010-01-01

    Few, if any urban areas are nowadays built in isolation from existing developments. Therefore, urban expansion and making existing urban areas more sustainable is a contemporary goal. There are major opportunities to do this through the ‘normal’ renewal of urban infrastructure and building stocks bo

  3. Systems to establish bioclimatic analogies to predict the area of adaptability of plant species to new environments: The case of Moringa oleifera Lam. in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Santibañez; Javier Mendoza; Carlos Muñoz; Carolina Caroca; Paula Santibañez; Loreto Prat

    2015-01-01

    Adaptability of a species to new territories is generally assessed by costly trial and error in situ experiments distributed throughout different agroclimatic environments. Nowadays climatic data are available to allow the construction of climatic maps based on data provided through world or local networks of climatic weather stations. The objective of this work was to establish a bioclimatic protocol, based on current and available sources of climate information, to make rapid surveys of sui...

  4. eHealth Use Among First-Generation Immigrants From Pakistan in the Oslo Area, Norway, With Focus on Diabetes: Survey Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Tatara, Naoe; Kjøllesdal, Marte Karoline Råberg; Mirkovic, Jelena; Andreassen, Hege Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Background A variety of eHealth services are available and commonly used by the general public. eHealth has the potential to engage and empower people with managing their health. The prerequisite is, however, that eHealth services are adapted to the sociocultural heterogeneity of the user base and are available in a language and with contents that fit the users’ preference, skills, and abilities. Pakistani immigrants in the Oslo area, Norway, have a much higher risk of Type-2 diabetes (T2D) t...

  5. [Social capital in rural areas: adaptation to Spanish and factor validation of a scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Niño, Julián Alfredo; Pinzón Flórez, Carlos Eduardo; Moreno Montoya, José; Cepeda Gil, Magda Cristiana; Idrovo Velandia, Alvaro Javier

    2014-07-01

    Social capital is considered a structural determinant of social development and wellbeing. Its cognitive component assesses the degree of confidence of the population in their systems for social organization, as well as community interactions to coordinate social responses to social problems. There are few available scales for measuring this construct. This work presents the adaptation to Spanish and psychometric validation of a scale for measuring social capital in a rural setting. The Wang Social Cognitive Scale was also adapted to Spanish. 1200 questionnaires were applied to adults in 12 villages of the municipality of Tierra Alta, (Colombia) recruited by random sampling. Factor analysis of the scale was performed based on a polychoric correlation matrix. Exploratory factor analysis suggests the existence of two principal factors distributed as follows: 7 items for factor 1, trust (eigenvalue 3.23) and 2 items, for factor 2, distrust (eigenvalue 1.40). As observed by Wang, Q9 and Q10 could be ambiguous questions which do not contribute enough to either of the factors. The first factor validation to Spanish language of the Wang Social Capital Scale is presented in the social context of rural Colombia. PMID:25014299

  6. A study on immigration from rural to urban areas and the adaptation process of immigrants: Van example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Etlan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, events terror which occurred in the region after 1980 and the migrations due to the effects of these events the socio-cultural and economic conditions of immigrants their adaptation to the city other problems was analyzed. Acceleration in the migrations from rural to urban areas in Van coincides with the years after 1980. The insecure environment and the broken economic balance has made rural are completely unpopular and repulsive. In this process, one of the cities which people leaving from rural areas chose to live first was Van.Screening method was used in the study. For this purpose a poll of 50 questions was prepared. The poll constituted with 4 parts for measuring the immigrants demographic, social-cultural and economic aspects and their adaptation process. The poll was applied to 290 subjects from 7 quarters where immigrants live intensely, and SPSS program was used in their evaluation.Immigrants usually come from the rural areas of Hakkari, Siirt, Bitlis and Van and are settled in sub-urban neighborhoods. The urban infrastructure problems which had already existed previously became much more complicated in the city with migrations. In addition, migrations caused many social-cultural an economic problem in the city. The immigrants who brought with themselves their own culture and lifestyles transformed the city into a village with the slums they constructed. Though they got rid of their rural habits, they still could not become accustomed to the civic environment.

  7. Building adaptive capacity for flood proofing in urban areas through synergistic interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Veerbeek, W.; Ashley, R.M.; Zevenbergen, C.; Rijke, J.S.; B. Gersonius

    2010-01-01

    Few, if any urban areas are nowadays built in isolation from existing developments. Therefore, urban expansion and making existing urban areas more sustainable is a contemporary goal. There are major opportunities to do this through the ‘normal’ renewal of urban infrastructure and building stocks both now and in the future. However, significant building renewal cycles occur every 30-50 years and major infrastructure renewal cycles at even longer timescales of more than 100 years. Despite this...

  8. Adaption of Cognitive Radio technology to low-cost and low-power wireless Personal Area Network devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, John; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg

    2011-01-01

    discusses the challenges associated with the implementation of highly reliable low-power WPAN networks for the future and the adaption of Cognitive Radio technology as a potential solution. A brief status on the maturity of CR technology will be presented as an integral part of this discussion.......The application of wireless personal area network (WPAN) and simple point-to-point wireless communication devices has increased drastically both in private household and in our workspaces in general over the last decade. Combined with the fact that the total number of wireless devices...

  9. The UMTS-AKA Protocols for Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Min-Shiang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of communication protocols into transport systems is a much adored research area today. Much of seminal work has been reported on the topic of intelligent transportation systems (ITS in the recent years. Many advanced techniques have been garnered to improve online communication and to promote the security, comfort, and efficiency of ITS. Of primary importance to the effective application of ITS is the communication protocol used. A fascinating development is that the yesterday's Global System for Mobile Communication protocol is being replaced by the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System protocol, which is the third-generation mobile technology. This article attempts to identify a suitable communication system for ITS applications. It is impracticable to substantially modify the original UMTS-IMS-AKA protocol which is in practice because it can disturb the operation of the current system, and thus we explore other possibilities through this research. We investigate a novel protocol to make the original UMTS-IMS-AKA protocol compliant with ITS as well as adaptable into the current UMTS protocol.

  10. Estimation of radiation dose and image quality of coronary 320-row area detector CT angiography by optimal prospective ECG-gated protocols for different heart rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to estimate radiation dose and image quality of electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated coronary 320-area detector CT (ADCT) angiography which was acquired using the protocols that were considered as optimal methods for different heart rates (HR) in 1031 consecutive patients (M/F =580/451, 65±12 yr) without arrhythmias. We set up 5 protocols for 320-ADCT based on the relationship among heart rates, temporal resolution, gantry rotation speed, optimal reconstruction phase and slow filling phase on 64-multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT), id est (ie), 1) mid-diastolic (75% of risk ratio (RR)) 1 beat scan (moderate disability (MD) 1 beat, N=761 (73.8%)) for HR ≤60, 2) mid-diastolic (75% of RR) 2 beat scan (MD 2 beat, N=135) for 61≤ HR ≤65, 3) end-systolic and mid-diastolic (37-80% of RR) 2 beat scan (embryonic stem (ES)-MD 2 beat, N=92) for 66≤ HR ≤75, 4) end-systolic (R +280-430 ms) 2 beat scan (ES 2 beat, N=21) for 76≤ HR ≤80, and 5) end-systolic (R +250-400 ms) 3 beat scan (ES 3 beat, N=22) for 81≤ HR ≤105. Image quality was classified into 3 categories (excellent (3 points), acceptable (2 points), and unacceptable (1 point)). Scanning time, DLP.e and image quality score were 1.4±0.1 s, 220±59 mGy·cm, 3.0±0.2 points in MD 1 beat, 2.2±0.2 s, 434±118 mGy·cm, 2.9±0.3 points in MD 2 beat, 2.1±0.2 s, 729±229 mGy·cm, 2.7±0.5 points in ES-MD 2 beat, 1.9±0.1 s, 432±148 mGy·cm, 2.2±0.6 points in ES 2 beat, and 2.4±0.2 s, 669±152 mGy·cm, 2.3±0.6 points in ES 3 beat respectively. In conclusion, the prospective ECG-gated scan protocol for coronary 320-ADCT angiography in any HR group was considered reasonable and proper for image quality and radiation dose. (author)

  11. Towards a New Policy for Climate Adaptive Water Management in Flanders: The Concept of Signal Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de smedt, P.G.A.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has a significant impact on the hydrological cycle and consequently on the future use of space. Flanders, like the Netherlands, is a low-lying area, and is therefore more vulnerable to changes in sea level, river discharge and rainfall. Furthermore, the so-called ‘Flemish Rhomb’, situ

  12. Mirror neurons in monkey area F5 do not adapt to the observation of repeated actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caggiano, Vittorio; Pomper, Joern K; Fleischer, Falk; Fogassi, Leonardo; Giese, Martin; Thier, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Repetitive presentation of the same visual stimulus entails a response decrease in the action potential discharge of neurons in various areas of the monkey visual cortex. It is still unclear whether this repetition suppression effect is also present in single neurons in cortical premotor areas responding to visual stimuli, as suggested by the human functional magnetic resonance imaging literature. Here we report the responses of 'mirror neurons' in monkey area F5 to the repeated presentation of action movies. We find that most single neurons and the population at large do not show a significant decrease of the firing rate. On the other hand, simultaneously recorded local field potentials exhibit repetition suppression. As local field potentials are believed to be better linked to the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal exploited by functional magnetic resonance imaging, these findings suggest caution when trying to derive conclusions on the spiking activity of neurons in a given area based on the observation of BOLD repetition suppression.

  13. Bromo volcano area as human-environment system: interaction of volcanic eruption, local knowledge, risk perception and adaptation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachri, Syamsul; Stötter, Johann; Sartohadi, Junun

    2013-04-01

    People in the Bromo area (located within Tengger Caldera) have learn to live with the threat of volcanic hazard since this volcano is categorized as an active volcano in Indonesia. During 2010, the eruption intensity increased yielding heavy ash fall and glowing rock fragments. A significant risk is also presented by mass movement which reaches areas up to 25 km from the crater. As a result of the 2010 eruption, 12 houses were destroyed, 25 houses collapsed and there were severe also effects on agriculture and the livestock sector. This paper focuses on understanding the interaction of Bromo volcanic eruption processes and their social responses. The specific aims are to 1) identify the 2010 eruption of Bromo 2) examine the human-volcano relationship within Bromo area in general, and 3) investigate the local knowledge related to hazard, risk perception and their adaptation strategies in specific. In-depth interviews with 33 informants from four districts nearest to the crater included local people and authorities were carried out. The survey focused on farmers, key persons (dukun), students and teachers in order to understand how people respond to Bromo eruption. The results show that the eruption in 2010 was unusual as it took continued for nine months, the longest period in Bromo history. The type of eruption was phreatomagmatic producing material dominated by ash to fine sand. This kind of sediment typically belongs to Tengger mountain eruptions which had produced vast explosions in the past. Furthermore, two years after the eruption, the interviewed people explained that local knowledge and their experiences with volcanic activity do not influence their risk perception. Dealing with this eruption, people in the Bromo area applied 'lumbung desa' (traditional saving systems) and mutual aid activity for surviving the volcanic eruption. Keywords: Human-environment system, local knowledge, risk perception, adaptation strategies, Bromo Volcano Indonesia

  14. The Learning About My Pain study protocol: Reducing disparities with literacy-adapted psychosocial treatments for chronic pain, a comparative behavioral trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, Joshua C; Thorn, Beverly E

    2016-09-01

    Chronic pain is a critical public health problem that affects over 100 million Americans. Medical pain treatments carry undesirable side effects, whereas low-risk psychosocial treatments offer notable benefits, in combination or in isolation. This report presents the protocol for the Learning About My Pain study, one of the first comparative-effectiveness trials funded by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute. Adhering to published standards for clinical trials (e.g. Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Intervention Trials), it provides an overview of the trial (n = 294), comparing cognitive-behavioral and education pain interventions to usual care, and a detailed description of how its methodology reduces the risks from bias. PMID:25712491

  15. An Adaptive Sampling System for Sensor Nodes in Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, R; Taylor, J

    2014-04-23

    The importance of body sensor networks to monitor patients over a prolonged period of time has increased with an advance in home healthcare applications. Sensor nodes need to operate with very low-power consumption and under the constraint of limited memory capacity. Therefore, it is wasteful to digitize the sensor signal at a constant sample rate, given that the frequency contents of the signals vary with time. Adaptive sampling is established as a practical method to reduce the sample data volume. In this paper a low-power analog system is proposed, which adjusts the converter clock rate to perform a peak-picking algorithm on the second derivative of the input signal. The presented implementation does not require an analog-to-digital converter or a digital processor in the sample selection process. The criteria for selecting a suitable detection threshold are discussed, so that the maximum sampling error can be limited. A circuit level implementation is presented. Measured results exhibit a significant reduction in the average sample frequency and data rate of over 50% and 38% respectively. PMID:24760918

  16. Application of Advanced Wide Area Early Warning Systems with Adaptive Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumstein, Carl [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Cibulka, Lloyd [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Thorp, James [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Centeno, Virgilio [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); King, Roger [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Reeves, Kari [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Ashrafi, Frank [Southern California Edison Co., Rosemead, CA (United States); Madani, Vahid [Pacific Gas & Electric Co., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Recent blackouts of power systems in North America and throughout the world have shown how critical a reliable power system is to modern societies, and the enormous economic and societal damage a blackout can cause. It has been noted that unanticipated operation of protection systems can contribute to cascading phenomena and, ultimately, blackouts. This project developed and field-tested two methods of Adaptive Protection systems utilizing synchrophasor data. One method detects conditions of system stress that can lead to unintended relay operation, and initiates a supervisory signal to modify relay response in real time to avoid false trips. The second method detects the possibility of false trips of impedance relays as stable system swings “encroach” on the relays’ impedance zones, and produces an early warning so that relay engineers can re-evaluate relay settings. In addition, real-time synchrophasor data produced by this project was used to develop advanced visualization techniques for display of synchrophasor data to utility operators and engineers.

  17. Wind speed variability and adaptation strategies in coastal areas of the Pacific Northwest

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Bradford

    2010-01-01

    Overall, previous wind speed studies in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) present conflicting results for wind speed trends (both increasing and decreasing) in relation to climate drivers. This study fills a gap in the understanding of PNW wind behaviour by: determining if relationships exist between wind speed distributions, ocean/atmospheric climate indices, and monitoring station-specific attributes; assessing the robustness of relationships for forecasting wind speeds within the study area; and...

  18. Kirtland's Warbler Annual Census - Seney National Wildlife Refuge (Kirtland's Warbler Wildlife Management Area)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Adaptation of Kirtland's Warbler Recovery Team census protocol as applied to Seney National Wildlife Refuge and Kirtland's Warbler Wildlife Management Area

  19. HEH-BMAC: hybrid polling MAC protocol for WBANs operated by human energy harvesting

    OpenAIRE

    Ibarra, Ernesto; Antonopoulos, Angelos; KARTSAKLI, Elli; Verikoukis, Christos

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces human energy harvesting medium access control (MAC) protocol (HEH-BMAC), a hybrid polling MAC suitable for wireless body area networks powered by human energy harvesting. The proposed protocol combines two different medium access methods, namely polling (ID-polling) and probabilistic contention access, to adapt its operation to the different energy and state (active/inactive) changes that the network nodes may experience due to their random nature and the time variation ...

  20. Adaption strategies to the effect of climate change on a coastal area in Northwest Germany with different land management scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeff, Thomas; Krause, Stefan; Maier, Martin; Oswald, Sascha

    2015-04-01

    Coastal areas are highly vulnerable to the impact of climate change and handling is difficult. Adaption to two different situations has to be taken into account. On the one hand, increasing global sea level in combination with increased precipitation and higher storm surge frequency has to be handled. On the other hand, in summer periods due to the increase of temperature, enhanced evapotranspiration and an increase of salty seawater intrusion into groundwater have to be managed. In this study we present different landuse management scenarios on a coastal area in Northwest Germany, East Frisia, and their effect on the hydrological response. Landuse is dominated by dairy farming and intensive crop farming. 30 percent of the area lies below sea level. A dense channel network in combination with several pumping stations allows permeant drainage. The soils are characterised by marsh soils and impermeable layers which prevent an interaction with the confined brackish aquifer. Observations in those areas indicate a high salinity with concentrations peaking during the summer period. The landuse strategies include a scenario that the technological level of the management will be adapted to rainfall and sea level but without additional drainage from the hinterland to reduce salt water concentration. A second scenario includes the adaptation to increasing precipitation and the sea level with a polder system and wetland areas designated as potential buffer for winter storm surges and inland floods and as freshwater storage for dry summer periods. Two scenarios use large polder areas in the future as potential buffer for winter storm surges and inland floods and as freshwater storage for dry summer periods, additional usage for nature conservation and as the storage of carbon sequestration or extensive farming are planned. Also, stakeholders have developed a system of several smaller polders in combination with an intensification of the water resource management, and this is

  1. Broad-area search for targets in SAR imagery with context-adaptive algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Tim J.; Fairchild, Scott R.

    1996-06-01

    This paper describes an ATR system based on gray scale morphology which has proven very effective in performing broad area search for targets of interest. Gray scale morphology is used to extract several distinctive sets of features which combine intensity and spatial information. Results of direct comparisons with other algorithms are presented. In a series of tests which were scored independently the morphological approach has shown superior results. An automated training systems based on a combination of genetic algorithms and classification and regression trees is described. Further performance gains are expected by allowing context sensitive selection of parameter sets for the morphological processing. Context is acquired from the image using texture measures to identify the local clutter environment. The system is designed to be able to build new classifiers on the fly to match specific image to image variations.

  2. On Designing Thermal-Aware Localized QoS Routing Protocol for in-vivo Sensor Nodes in Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mostafa Monowar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address the thermal rise and Quality-of-Service (QoS provisioning issue for an intra-body Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN having in-vivo sensor nodes. We propose a thermal-aware QoS routing protocol, called TLQoS, that facilitates the system in achieving desired QoS in terms of delay and reliability for diverse traffic types, as well as avoids the formation of highly heated nodes known as hotspot(s, and keeps the temperature rise along the network to an acceptable level. TLQoS exploits modular architecture wherein different modules perform integrated operations in providing multiple QoS service with lower temperature rise. To address the challenges of highly dynamic wireless environment inside the human body. TLQoS implements potential-based localized routing that requires only local neighborhood information. TLQoS avoids routing loop formation as well as reduces the number of hop traversal exploiting hybrid potential, and tuning a configurable parameter. We perform extensive simulations of TLQoS, and the results show that TLQoS has significant performance improvements over state-of-the-art approaches.

  3. Adaptation of the dynamic model for radiological assessment of nuclear accident in rural area under conditions of tropical climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following an accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere that leads to the contamination of large areas, a detailed and fast methodology to assess the prognosis of public exposure is needed, in order to estimate radiological consequences and propose and optimize decisions related to the protection of the public. The model ECOSYS has been chosen to integrate the SIEM, the Integrated Emergency System developed by IRD/CNEN, to assess the doses at the short, medium and long term to the public after an accidental contamination of rural areas. The objective of this work is to perform the adaptation of the model ECOSYS to be used in Brazil to assess public exposure and support decision processes regarding the implementation of protective measures but also to guide the need for studies and research aiming to improve the adequacy of estimates to the actual Brazilian situation. The area select for reference to this work consists on the 50 km radius area surrounding the Brazilian nuclear power plants, located at Angra dos Reis County, in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The methodology included the definition of criteria to select agricultural cultures and animals to be simulated, taking into account both the availability of the production at the selected area and the relevance of the food to the population regional diet. Radionuclides included in this study were 137Cs, 90 Sr and 131 I. A large survey has been performed to gather data related to both agricultural practices and behavior of radionuclides in the selected agricultural-systems. The results of simulation indicated the relevance of the knowledge of local aspects on the estimated doses. Important factors included the kind of products produced, seasonality, agricultural practices, animals feed practices, kind of soil, and ingestion habits of the population. (author)

  4. A father protocol for quantum broadcast channels

    OpenAIRE

    Dupuis, Frédéric; Hayden, Patrick; Li, Ke

    2006-01-01

    A new protocol for quantum broadcast channels based on the fully quantum Slepian-Wolf protocol is presented. The protocol yields an achievable rate region for entanglement-assisted transmission of quantum information through a quantum broadcast channel that can be considered the quantum analogue of Marton's region for classical broadcast channels. The protocol can be adapted to yield achievable rate regions for unassisted quantum communication and for entanglement-assisted classical communica...

  5. A father protocol for quantum broadcast channels

    CERN Document Server

    Dupuis, F; Dupuis, Fr\\'ed\\'eric; Hayden, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    We present a new protocol for quantum broadcast channels based on the fully quantum Slepian-Wolf protocol. The protocol yields an achievable rate region for entanglement-assisted transmission of quantum information through a quantum broadcast channel that can be considered the quantum analogue of Marton's region for classical broadcast channels. The protocol can be adapted to yield achievable rate regions for unassisted quantum communication and for entanglement-assisted classical communication. Regularized versions of all three rate regions are provably optimal.

  6. Adapted hydropower-driven water supply system: assessment of an underground application in an Indonesian karst area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, P.; Ikhwan, M.; Stoffel, D.; Nestmann, F.

    2016-06-01

    Populated karst landscapes can be found all over the world, although their natural boundary conditions mostly lead to distinct challenges regarding a sustainable water supply. Especially in developing and emerging countries, this situation aggravates since appropriate technologies and water management concepts are rarely available. Against this background, the interdisciplinary, German-Indonesian joint project "Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Indonesia", funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), focused on the development and exemplary implementation of adapted techniques to remedy the partly severe water scarcity in the region Gunung Sewu. This karst area, widely known as "Java's poorhouse", is located on the southern coast of Java Island and distinctly suffers from the mentioned constraints. Under the aegis of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), the conceptual and technical achievements of the "IWRM Indonesia" joint research project are characterized by a high potential for multiplication not only for karst areas but also for non-karst regions. One of the project's major accomplishments is the erection of an innovative hydropower-driven water supply facility located in a karst cave 100 m below ground and continuously supplying tens of thousands of people with fresh water. Referring to the plant's innovative character and the demanding conditions on-site, the implementation was a highly iterative process leading to today's autonomous operation by an Indonesian public authority. Based on the experiences gained during design, construction, operation and monitoring phase, this paper introduces an implementation approach for adapted technologies as well as a comprising technical and economical assessment of the plant's operation.

  7. Adapted hydropower-driven water supply system: assessment of an underground application in an Indonesian karst area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, P.; Ikhwan, M.; Stoffel, D.; Nestmann, F.

    2016-09-01

    Populated karst landscapes can be found all over the world, although their natural boundary conditions mostly lead to distinct challenges regarding a sustainable water supply. Especially in developing and emerging countries, this situation aggravates since appropriate technologies and water management concepts are rarely available. Against this background, the interdisciplinary, German-Indonesian joint project " Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Indonesia", funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), focused on the development and exemplary implementation of adapted techniques to remedy the partly severe water scarcity in the region Gunung Sewu. This karst area, widely known as " Java's poorhouse", is located on the southern coast of Java Island and distinctly suffers from the mentioned constraints. Under the aegis of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), the conceptual and technical achievements of the "IWRM Indonesia" joint research project are characterized by a high potential for multiplication not only for karst areas but also for non-karst regions. One of the project's major accomplishments is the erection of an innovative hydropower-driven water supply facility located in a karst cave 100 m below ground and continuously supplying tens of thousands of people with fresh water. Referring to the plant's innovative character and the demanding conditions on-site, the implementation was a highly iterative process leading to today's autonomous operation by an Indonesian public authority. Based on the experiences gained during design, construction, operation and monitoring phase, this paper introduces an implementation approach for adapted technologies as well as a comprising technical and economical assessment of the plant's operation.

  8. Integrating Collaboration, Adaptive Management, and Scenario-Planning to Address Rapid Change: Experiences at Las Cienegas National Conservation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caves, J. K.; Bodner, G.; Simms, K.; Fisher, L.; Robertson, T.

    2012-12-01

    There is growing recognition that public lands cannot be managed as islands; rather, land management must address the ecological, social, and temporal complexity that often spans jurisdictions and traditional planning horizons. Collaborative decision-making and adaptive management (CAM) have been promoted as methods to reconcile competing societal demands and respond to complex ecosystem dynamics. We present the experiences of land managers and stakeholders in using CAM at Las Cienegas National Conservation Area (LCNCA), a highly valued site under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The CAM process at Las Cienegas is marked by strong stakeholder engagement, with four core elements: 1) shared watershed goals with measurable resource objectives; 2) mechanisms to incorporate new information into decision-making; 3) efforts to make information increasingly relevant and reliable; and 4) shared learning to improve both the process and management actions. The combination of stakeholder engagement and adaptive management has led to agreement on contentious issues, more innovative solutions, and more effective land management. Yet the region is now experiencing rapid changes outside managers' control—including climate change, human population growth, and reduced federal budgets—with large but unpredictable impacts on natural resources. While CAM experience provides a strong foundation for making the difficult and contentious management decisions that such changes are likely to require, neither collaboration nor adaptive management provides a sufficient structure for addressing uncontrollable and unpredictable change. As a result, LCNCA is exploring two specific modifications to CAM that may better address emerging challenges, including: 1) Creating nested resource objectives to distinguish between those objectives which may be crucial from those which may hinder a flexible response to climate change, and 2) Incorporating scenario planning into CAM

  9. Models for dose assessments. Models adapted to the SFR-area, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a model system created to be used to predict dose rates to the most exposed individuals in case of a long-term release of radionuclides from the Final repository for radioactive operational waste (SFR) in Forsmark, Sweden. The system accounts for an underground point source emitting radionuclides to the biosphere,their transport and distribution in various ecosystem types, their uptake by various biota, and calculation of doses to man from a multitude of exposure pathways. Long-term aspects include the consideration of processes at geological time scales, such as land uplift and conversion of marine sediments to arable land. Model parameters are whenever possible based on local conditions and recent literature. The system has been used for simulations based on geospheric releases varying over time of a mixture of radionuclides. Here, the models have been subjected to various test scenarios, including different radionuclide entry points and sorption properties. Radionuclides released from SFR are efficiently diluted to low concentrations in the water of the coastal model. A large fraction of the nuclides leave the Model Area quickly as a consequence of the rapid water turnover. The total amount of radionuclides in water is about the same independent of particle affinity (Kd ), and at most some percents of the amounts retained in the sediments for some time. The latter is also true for the lake model when releases of radionuclides to the water is simulated. The role of sediments as a radionuclide source seems of minor importance in lakes at least for long-term radiation doses. Modelling the sediments as a source of radionuclides most of the 'low Kd radionuclides' will leave the lake whereas the 'high Kd nuclides' are still present within the deeper sediments after 1 000 years. The amount of 'low Kd radionuclides' present in the water and on suspended matter are about 8x10-5 of the initial inventory in the sediments. For 'high Kd nuclides' this

  10. Ad hoc mobile wireless networks principles, protocols and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Subir Kumar; Puttamadappa, C

    2007-01-01

    Ad hoc mobile wireless networks have seen increased adaptation in a variety of disciplines because they can be deployed with simple infrastructures and virtually no central administration. In particular, the development of ad hoc wireless and sensor networks provides tremendous opportunities in areas including disaster recovery, defense, health care, and industrial environments. Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Principles, Protocols and Applications explains the concepts, mechanisms, design, and performance of these systems. It presents in-depth explanations of the latest wireless technologies

  11. Models for dose assessments. Models adapted to the SFR-area, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Sara; Bergstroem, U.; Meili, M. [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2001-10-01

    This report presents a model system created to be used to predict dose rates to the most exposed individuals in case of a long-term release of radionuclides from the Final repository for radioactive operational waste (SFR) in Forsmark, Sweden. The system accounts for an underground point source emitting radionuclides to the biosphere,their transport and distribution in various ecosystem types, their uptake by various biota, and calculation of doses to man from a multitude of exposure pathways. Long-term aspects include the consideration of processes at geological time scales, such as land uplift and conversion of marine sediments to arable land. Model parameters are whenever possible based on local conditions and recent literature. The system has been used for simulations based on geospheric releases varying over time of a mixture of radionuclides. Here, the models have been subjected to various test scenarios, including different radionuclide entry points and sorption properties. Radionuclides released from SFR are efficiently diluted to low concentrations in the water of the coastal model. A large fraction of the nuclides leave the Model Area quickly as a consequence of the rapid water turnover. The total amount of radionuclides in water is about the same independent of particle affinity (K{sub d} ), and at most some percents of the amounts retained in the sediments for some time. The latter is also true for the lake model when releases of radionuclides to the water is simulated. The role of sediments as a radionuclide source seems of minor importance in lakes at least for long-term radiation doses. Modelling the sediments as a source of radionuclides most of the 'low K{sub d} radionuclides' will leave the lake whereas the 'high K{sub d} nuclides' are still present within the deeper sediments after 1 000 years. The amount of 'low K{sub d} radionuclides' present in the water and on suspended matter are about 8x10{sup -5} of the

  12. The Adaptation of Fishing Instruments by a Farmers' Community in the Thung Kula Area, in North Eastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worawan Ubonlert

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In a historical study of the ancient communities in the area of Thung Kula, it was revealed that there are important resources including rice, fish, salt and iron. Salt is used in making fermented fish (known locally as Pla Daek, a culinary culture which has been prevalent in the ethnic groups of Laos and Khmer. The availability of rice and fish in Thung Kula has continued to this day. Thung Kula farmers have extended their fishing sources from the government-owned places to their own fields or ponds. Approach: They use fishing instruments that had been developed out of folk wisdom in combination with the new technology in order to increase the fishing yields adequate for their own consumption and for commerce. The present research aimed to study the adaptation of fishing instruments of the farmers at Ban Ta Yuak, Thung Luang sub-district, Suwannaphum district, Roi-Et province. The studied area was Thung Kula in the North East of Thailand. The research method was qualitative. Data were collected from relevant documents and from field studies with 25 informants. Structured and unstructured interviews were conducted with local tradesmen, consumers, fishing-instrument shop owners. Results: The results were presented descriptively below. The adaptation of fishing instruments of Ban Ta Yuak farmers began with the increased population, the changing ecological systems as a result of the government’s construction of reservoirs, canals, public ponds and the market-oriented economy which had attracted the local fishing markets across the Thung Kula area. Ban Ta Yuak farmers have then adapted their fishing instruments to fit the available kinds of fish and the ecological systems of the local water sources. With assistance from the government, the farmers have their own fishing ponds. It was found that prior to the application of the national economic and social plan of 1962 these farmers created simple fishing instruments such as Sai (a

  13. Comprehensive small animal imaging strategies on a clinical 3 T dedicated head MR-scanner; adapted methods and sequence protocols in CNS pathologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepu R Pillai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Small animal models of human diseases are an indispensable aspect of pre-clinical research. Being dynamic, most pathologies demand extensive longitudinal monitoring to understand disease mechanisms, drug efficacy and side effects. These considerations often demand the concomitant development of monitoring systems with sufficient temporal and spatial resolution. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: This study attempts to configure and optimize a clinical 3 Tesla magnetic resonance scanner to facilitate imaging of small animal central nervous system pathologies. The hardware of the scanner was complemented by a custom-built, 4-channel phased array coil system. Extensive modification of standard sequence protocols was carried out based on tissue relaxometric calculations. Proton density differences between the gray and white matter of the rodent spinal cord along with transverse relaxation due to magnetic susceptibility differences at the cortex and striatum of both rats and mice demonstrated statistically significant differences. The employed parallel imaging reconstruction algorithms had distinct properties dependent on the sequence type and in the presence of the contrast agent. The attempt to morphologically phenotype a normal healthy rat brain in multiple planes delineated a number of anatomical regions, and all the clinically relevant sequels following acute cerebral ischemia could be adequately characterized. Changes in blood-brain-barrier permeability following ischemia-reperfusion were also apparent at a later time. Typical characteristics of intra-cerebral haemorrhage at acute and chronic stages were also visualized up to one month. Two models of rodent spinal cord injury were adequately characterized and closely mimicked the results of histological studies. In the employed rodent animal handling system a mouse model of glioblastoma was also studied with unequivocal results. CONCLUSIONS: The implemented customizations including extensive

  14. Self-Healing Protocol Implementations

    OpenAIRE

    Tschudin, Christian; Yamamoto, Lidia

    2005-01-01

    Current studies on self-configuring and adaptive networks aim at developing specific and fixed protocols which are able to optimize their configuration in a variable network environment. In this talk we study the problem where the protocols need to cope with a defective execution, including the lossy execution or the injection of foreign code. One guiding question will be the creation of robust execution circuits which can distribute over a network and which continue their service despite par...

  15. Dynamic Adaptive Approach to Transportation-Infrastructure Planning for Climate Change: San-Francisco-Bay-Area Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wall, T.A.; Walker, W.E.; Marchau, V.A.W.J.; Bertolini, L.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation of existing infrastructure is a response to climate change that can ensure a viable, safe, and robust transportation network. However, deep uncertainties associated with climate change pose significant challenges to adaptation planning. Specifically, current transportation planning method

  16. Adaptability of some legume trees on quartz tailings of a former tin mining area in Bangka Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B H Narendra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tin mining activities in Bangka Island, besides their important role in contributing to state revenues, also caused damage to the environment, among others in the form of quartz tailings overlay. To rehabilitate this land, in addition to the necessary efforts to improve soil conditions, success is also determined by the selection of appropriate plant species. This study was aimed to determine the adaptability of some legume trees grown on the quartz tailings in land rehabilitation trials in the post tin mining areas of Bangka Island. The legume trees tested were Calliandra calothyrsus Meisn., Caesalpinia sappan L., Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq. Griseb., Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walp., Delonix regia ( Hook. Raf., and Cassia siamea Lamk. Treatments of growing media applied  in  the field were medium I (a mixture of 20% organic material, 20% top soil, 1% NPK fertilizer, 5% calcium, and 54% quartz tailings, media II (a mixture of 25%organic material, 25%top soil, 2% NPK fertilizer, 6% calcium, 42% quartz tailings, and media III (a mixture of 30% organic material, 30% top soil, 3% NPK fertilizer, 7% calcium, and 30% quartz tailings. The observation was done by measuring the height and diameter of the stem of the plants, as well as the viability of one year after planting. Analysis of the results of measurements of stem height and diameter showed their diversity. Enterolobium cyclocarpum had the largest dimensions, while the lowest was Caesalpinia sappan. At the age of one year in the field, Gliricida sepium and Enterolobium cyclocarpum showed the average ability of the high life of up to 100%, whereas Calliandra calothyrsus was totally death. In general, the types of legumes selected in this trial showed good adaptability, except for of Calliandra calothyrsus

  17. BrAD-seq: Breath Adapter Directional sequencing: a streamlined, ultra-simple and fast library preparation protocol for strand specific mRNA library construction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad Thomas Townsley

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Next Generation Sequencing (NGS is driving rapid advancement in biological understanding and RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq has become an indispensable tool for biology and medicine. There is a growing need for access to these technologies although preparation of NGS libraries remains a bottleneck to wider adoption. Here we report a novel method for the production of strand specific RNA-seq libraries utilizing inherent properties of double-stranded cDNA to capture and incorporate a sequencing adapter. Breath Adapter Directional sequencing (BrAD-seq reduces sample handling and requires far fewer enzymatic steps than most available methods to produce high quality strand-specific RNA-seq libraries. The method we present is optimized for 3-prime Digital Gene Expression (DGE libraries and can easily extend to full transcript coverage shotgun (SHO type strand-specific libraries and is modularized to accommodate a diversity of RNA and DNA input materials. BrAD-seq offers a highly streamlined and inexpensive option for RNA-seq libraries.

  18. 低能量自适应分群分层协议的改进%Improvement of low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张飞鸽

    2014-01-01

    In order to avoid electing less energy nodes as cluster heads,which may cause premature death of these nodes, the selection of LEACH protocol cluster head is improved. The nodes with more residual energy are selected as cluster heads by the method of restting threshold according to their residual energy,the way of which avoids the nodes with less energy being elected as cluster heads and the cluster heads bearing overweight load. The simulation results show that the improved algorithm can effectively reduce the network energy consumption,and prolong the lifetime of the network.%为了避免能量较少节点当选为群首而过早死亡,对Leach协议群首的选取进行改进。采用结合节点剩余能量重新设置阈值的方法,选取剩余能量较多的节点作为群首,解决了能量较少节点当选为群首和群首负担载过重的问题。仿真结果表明,采用改进后的算法可以有效减少网络能量的消耗,延长网络生存时间。

  19. A Study of Disaster Adaptation Behavior and Risk Communication for watershed Area Resident - the Case of Kaoping River Watershed in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Pai, Jen; Chen, Yu-Yun; Huang, Kuan-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Along with the global climate change, the rainfall patterns become more centralized and cause natural disasters more frequently and heavily. Residents in river watersheds area are facing high risk of natural disasters and severe impacts, especially in Taiwan. From the experience of Typhoon Morakot in 2009, we learned that poor risk communication between the governments and the households and communities would lead to tremendous loss of property and life. Effective risk communication can trigger action to impending and current events. On the other hand, it can also build up knowledge on hazards and risks and encourage adaptation behaviors. Through the participation and cooperation of different stakeholders in disaster management, can reduce vulnerability, enhance adaptive capacity, improve the interaction between different stakeholders and also avoid conflicts. However, in Taiwan there are few studies about how households and communities perceive flood disaster risks, the process of risk communications between governments and households, or the relationship between risk communication and adaptation behaviors. Therefore, this study takes household and community of Kaoping River Watershed as study area. It aims to identify important factors in the process of disaster risk communication and find out the relationship between risk communication and adaptation behaviors. A framework of risk communication process was established to describe how to trigger adaptation behaviors and encourage adaptation behaviors with risk communication strategies. An ISM model was utilized to verify the framework by using household questionnaire survey. Moreover, a logit choice model was build to test the important factors for effective risk communication and adaption behavior. The result of this study would provide governments or relevant institutions suggestions about risk communication strategies and adaptation strategies to enhance the adaptive capacity of households and reduce the

  20. Adaptive grid secure routing protocol based on hash-chain in WSNs%一种基于散列链的自适应网格安全路由协议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王灿; 乔建华; 闫庆森

    2015-01-01

    LEACH(Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy)路由协议是无线传感器网络拓扑控制中最具代表性和重要性的算法之一。针对LEACH路由协议簇头分布不均匀,节点死亡率高,易产生路由空洞及其所面临安全威胁等问题,提出一种基于散列链的区域划分网格自治安全路由协议LEACH-SEED。剔除低能量节点入选簇头的权利,改进簇头选举机制,簇头选举完成之后,每个簇头节点随机从散列链组成的密钥池中分配q个链密钥,其他节点利用单向哈希函数和伪随机函数生成通信密钥,网络遭受攻击后利用网格自治和待选簇头身份标识编号进行网络恢复。实验结果表明,改进的分簇算法能有效地降低节点死亡率,增强抗攻击能力,提高数据融合度,延长网络生存时间。%LEACH(Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy)is a wireless sensor networks routing protocol in topology control algorithm of the most representative and important one. In order to solve LEACH uneven distribution of routing protocol suite, node high mortality rates, easy to produce issues of routing hole, security threats, it proposes an improved algorithms and simulation based on hash-chain and grid in wireless sensor networks. It deprives the right of selecting the low-energy node as a cluster node and improves cluster-head election mechanism. Each cluster head node is assigned with q chain keys from the hash chain randomly after cluster head selection. The other nodes use one-way hash function and pseudo-random function to generate communication keys. The network is recovered by adaptive grid and the cluster-head ID after attacking. The experimental results show that the improved clustering algorithm can reduce mortality node effec-tively, strengthen anti-attack ability of the network, improve data alignment and prolong network lifetimes.

  1. Low incidence of clonality in cold water corals revealed through the novel use of standardized protocol adapted to deep sea sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becheler, Ronan; Cassone, Anne-Laure; Noel, Philippe; Mouchel, Olivier; Morrison, Cheryl; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Sampling in the deep sea is a technical challenge, which has hindered the acquisition of robust datasets that are necessary to determine the fine-grained biological patterns and processes that may shape genetic diversity. Estimates of the extent of clonality in deep-sea species, despite the importance of clonality in shaping the local dynamics and evolutionary trajectories, have been largely obscured by such limitations. Cold-water coral reefs along European margins are formed mainly by two reef-building species, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata. Here we present a fine-grained analysis of the genotypic and genetic composition of reefs occurring in the Bay of Biscay, based on an innovative deep-sea sampling protocol. This strategy was designed to be standardized, random, and allowed the georeferencing of all sampled colonies. Clonal lineages discriminated through their Multi-Locus Genotypes (MLG) at 6–7 microsatellite markers could thus be mapped to assess the level of clonality and the spatial spread of clonal lineages. High values of clonal richness were observed for both species across all sites suggesting a limited occurrence of clonality, which likely originated through fragmentation. Additionally, spatial autocorrelation analysis underlined the possible occurrence of fine-grained genetic structure in several populations of both L. pertusa and M. oculata. The two cold-water coral species examined had contrasting patterns of connectivity among canyons, with among-canyon genetic structuring detected in M. oculata, whereas L. pertusa was panmictic at the canyon scale. This study exemplifies that a standardized, random and georeferenced sampling strategy, while challenging, can be applied in the deep sea, and associated benefits outlined here include improved estimates of fine grained patterns of clonality and dispersal that are comparable across sites and among species.

  2. Adapting environmental function analysis for management of protected areas in small islands--case of Pico Island (the Azores).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Helena; Bragagnolo, Chiara; Silva, Susana; Vergílio, Marta

    2016-04-15

    Protected areas (PAs) are considered key priorities for ensuring long-term sustainability of small islands. The traditional approach of conservation versus development is currently being replaced by an approach of "win-win" relationships. During the last decades PAs have been increasingly requested to simultaneously ensure biodiversity conservation, mainstream ecosystem services into main development policies, and accounting for leisure-related revenues to sustain local and regional economies. Following this new paradigm, the Smartparks project (Planning and Management System for Small Islands Protected Areas), encompassing this study, aimed at an innovative approach for supporting the management of PAs in small islands. In this study, we propose a methodology based on Environmental Functional Analyses (EFA) to compare the potential for conservation and the potential for use of PAs that can be used not only on small islands but also in other territories. For this purpose, a set of environmental and socio-economic components was defined and selected indicators describing each component to calculate conservation and use/development functions of PAs were established. Pico Island, in the Azores archipelago (Portugal), was selected as the case study for testing the methodology. The EFA for all PAs of Pico Island was performed identifying those with more potential for conservation or for development of human activities, and also those with high levels of conflict. A total of 34 indicators was applied (assigning a value from 1 to 3) to the 22 PAs composing the INP of Pico Island: 44% were scored with a value of 1, in both ecological and social components; 22% and 29% were scored 3 in ecological and social components respectively. Social indicators were generally considered less important than environmental ones. In general, PAs presented higher values for conservation. The results further show that the potential for conservation and/or development was consistent with the

  3. Sustainable Energy and Environmental Management in a Solar Powered Adaptive Fuzzy Control Model for Ground Water Conservation in Suburban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Singh,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, a novel scheme of water level management of a storage tank, adaptive to varying water consumption by an end user, has been designed. This system proposes the control of water supply from a solar powered pump for the optimal use of ground water in suburban areas. It has been simulated and validated, for its satisfactory performance, by fuzzy control logic. The proposed system optimizes water consumption, leading to improvement in the ground-water life cycle and increasing the life of submersible pumps and bore wells. Moreover, it reduces water wastage, maintains the water table and avoids damaging conditions for pump due to muddy water, without any inconvenience to the user. In the proposed system, keeping in view the poor grid availability in suburban areas, a solar-powered submersible pump raises ground water to an overhead storage water tank which is also connected to a reservoir water tank. The reservoir regularly supplies water in time schedule to the storage tank to fulfill the demand for water. In the absence of the reservoir, or when the supply from the reservoir is insufficient tomeet the demand, a submersible pump, operating on PV energy, acts as a supplementary system. It pumps water to the storage tank in accordance to the demand/consumption of water. This has been achieved with a fuzzy controller, which senses the varying level of water in the storage tank and the end user requirement, and fills up the storage tank from the reservoir tank and/or the submersible pump accordingly.

  4. An extended modeling approach to assess climate change impacts on groundwater recharge and adaptation in arid areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hashemi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of future climate scenarios on surface and groundwater resources was simulated using a modeling approach for an artificial recharge area in arid southern Iran. Future climate data for the periods of 2010–2030 and 2030–2050 were acquired from the Canadian Global Coupled Model (CGCM 3.1 for scenarios A1B, A2, and B1. These scenarios were adapted to the studied region using the delta-change method. The modified version of the HBV model (Qbox was used to simulate runoff in a flash flood prone catchment. The model was calibrated and validated for the period 2002–2011 using daily discharge data. The projected climate variables were used to simulate future runoff. The rainfall–runoff model was then coupled to a calibrated groundwater flow and recharge model (MODFLOW to simulate future recharge and groundwater hydraulic head. The results of the rainfall–runoff modeling showed that under the B1 scenario the number of floods might increase in the area. This in turn calls for a proper management, as this is the only source of fresh water supply in the studied region. The results of the groundwater recharge modeling showed no significant difference between present and future recharge for all scenarios. Owing to that, four abstraction and recharge scenarios were assumed to simulate the groundwater level and recharged water in the studied aquifer. The results showed that the abstraction scenarios have the most substantial effect on the groundwater level and the continuation of current pumping rate would lead to a groundwater decline by 18 m up to 2050.

  5. Adapting to the European Higher Education Area a questionnaire on student opinion about the teaching of lecturers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas, José Francisco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present the adaptation to the European Higher Education Area of a questionnaire on the opinions of University of the Basque Country students about their lecturers teaching process. This process undertaken at the University used a mixed methodology approach. After reviewing questionnaires from other universities, taking into account the theoretical framework of the new questionnaire, the transversal skills adopted by the University and the three dimensions set out by ANECA, a series of indicators and possible items deemed suitable to be included in the new questionnaire were drawn up. This theoretical framework, the indicators and the items were all compared and contrasted within various focus groups undertaken with experts in the topic, with lecturers from the different areas of the University, and with students. Based on this comparison, the pilot questionnaire, which had 18 items plus two more criterion-referenced items, was drawn up. This was applied to a sample of almost one thousand students. The analyses carried out to compare the efficacy of the items, as well as the reliability and the validity of the test, show that the questionnaire rigorously complies with the standards required by this type of instrument. Finally, in the discussion of the results, certain controversial aspects, or those relating to improving the evaluation of the university teaching staff, are presented. Indicated amongst these aspects, is the need to incorporate the questionnaire into a more wider-ranging evaluation plan, such as DOCENTIA, the possibility of creating banks of items, the inclusion of open items and the exigency of undertaking on-line applications of the questionnaire.

  6. Evaluating farmers’ adaptation strategies to climate change: A case study of Kaou local government area, Tahoua State, Niger Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moussa Tabbo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses local farmers’ strategies of coping with and building resilience against the negative impact of climate change. Information for the discussion was from data collected using a set of structured questionnaires from interviews scheduled with 128 farmers. The questionnaire was based on previous literature and direct reconnaissance interview with farmers, which culminated in 13 strategies used for the study being reported. For each question, respondents were asked to choose their best and worst strategies. Thus, the difference between the best and worst strategies consistent with random utility theory has been used for the modelling. Results show that semi-transhumance, various handicrafts making, rural migration, small-scale vegetable production and small-scale river exploitation were the most important strategies identified, whilst water transport and vending, shifting cultivation, gypsum mining, gathering and trading of wild fruits and edible plants as well as cattle and sheep fattening were the least appreciated strategies identified amongst the farmers facing climate change. These findings are therefore imperative for planning farmers’ capacity-building and resilience against climate change projects to ensure sustainability in the study area.Keywords: Farmers’ adaptation strategies; Climate change resilience; Kaou

  7. The ongoing development of a pragmatic and adaptive fire management policy in a large African savanna protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wilgen, Brian W; Govender, Navashni; Smit, Izak P J; MacFadyen, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes recent changes to the fire management policy of the 1.9 million ha Kruger National Park in South Africa. It provides a real-life example of adaptive learning in an environment where understanding is incomplete, but where management nonetheless has to proceed. The previous policy called for the application of fire to meet burnt area targets that were set for administrative subdivisions, and that were assessed at the scale of the entire park. This was problematic because the park is large and heterogeneous, and because sound ecological motivations that could link burning prescriptions to ecological objectives were missing. The new policy divides the park into five fire management zones on the basis of differences in mean annual rainfall, historic fire return periods, and geology. In addition, it proposes fire management actions designed to achieve specified ecological objectives in each zone, and includes fire-regime related thresholds and associated ecological outcomes against which to assess the effectiveness of management. The new policy is an improvement over previous iterations, but several challenges remain. Most important among these would be to continually improve the understanding of the effects of fire, and to develop frameworks for assessing the impacts of fire together with other ecosystem drivers that interact strongly with fire to influence the attainment of ecological objectives.

  8. Grazing game: a learning tool for adaptive management in response to climate variability in semiarid areas of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace B. Villamor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In West Africa, the most extreme predicted effects of climate change are expected to occur in desert and grassland areas. It is crucial for local populations in this region to better understand what such projections signify to them to identify sound adaptation policies and interventions. We developed a game, called the "grazing game," and conducted trials with local farmers at multiple study sites as a learning tool to better understand their behavior in response to climate variability under semiarid conditions in West Africa and to facilitate social learning. The grazing game was designed to reveal the processes that lead to overgrazing and desertification based on the players' interactions with environmental conditions and their resulting decisions. We conducted a total of 23 game trials around the Vea catchment of the Upper East Region of Ghana involving 243 individual farmers. From the games, local farmers exhibited a very positive response to how the game replicated rainfall fluctuations that they currently experience and led to the identification of coping strategies, such as selling cows, seeking government assistance, and engaging in alternative livelihood means. Participating farmers tended to avoid uncertain situations and sought to simplify their decisions, and the game provided insight into the rich local ecological knowledge of environmental indicators. Based on the game trial results, we found that the game facilitated instrumental and communicative learning among the players and facilitators. Further, the game served as a platform where players could share their views, knowledge, and perceptions of climate-related issues.

  9. Rational Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachin, Christian

    Security research continues to provide a plethora of new protocols and mechanisms; these solutions patch either existing vulnerabilities found in practical systems or solve hypothetical security problems in the sense that the problem is often conceived at the same time when the first solution is proposed. Yet only a very small fraction of this research is relevant to ordinary users in the sense that they are willing to actually deploy the technology.

  10. Effects of recreational aerobics on adaptation of female first-year students from urban area and rural area to conditions of higher school education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panikhina, A V; Kolesnikova, O B

    2012-02-01

    Experiments proved beneficial effects of additional classes for recreational aerobics on the realization of morphophysiological mechanisms of adaptation to the education in Higher School in female first-year students. PMID:22803115

  11. Protocol for a randomized controlled trial on risk adapted damage control orthopedic surgery of femur shaft fractures in multiple trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rixen Dieter

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fractures of the long bones and femur fractures in particular are common in multiple trauma patients, but the optimal management of femur fractures in these patients is not yet resolved. Although there is a trend towards the concept of "Damage Control Orthopedics" (DCO in the management of multiple trauma patients with long bone fractures as reflected by a significant increase in primary external fixation of femur fractures, current literature is insufficient. Thus, in the era of "evidence-based medicine", there is the need for a more specific, clarifying trial. Methods/Design The trial is designed as a randomized controlled open-label multicenter study. Multiple trauma patients with femur shaft fractures and a calculated probability of death between 20 and 60% will be randomized to either temporary fracture fixation with fixateur externe and defined secondary definitive treatment (DCO or primary reamed nailing (early total care. The primary objective is to reduce the extent of organ failure as measured by the maximum sepsis-related organ failure assessment (SOFA score. Discussion The Damage Control Study is the first to evaluate the risk adapted damage control orthopedic surgery concept of femur shaft fractures in multiple trauma patients in a randomized controlled design. The trial investigates the differences in clinical outcome of two currently accepted different ways of treating multiple trauma patients with femoral shaft fractures. This study will help to answer the question whether the "early total care" or the „damage control” concept is associated with better outcome. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN10321620

  12. Histology protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Tim D. Hewitson & Ian A. Darby (Eds Humana press, Totowa, New Jersey (USA Series: Springer Protocols Methods in Molecular Biology, Volume 611, 2010 Pages: 230; € 83.15 ISBN: 978-1-60327-344-2 Impressive as it can sounds in the era that Biology see a clear dominance of reductionism with the idea that complexity can be disentagled more and more thanks to the use of molecular tools, the reader will remain fascinated by this slim and agile volume devoted to bring together what apparently are two separeted words: molecular biology and histology. Simply remembering to the youngest scientists.....

  13. A Service-differentiated Based Adaptive MAC Protocol for Cognitive Radio Networks%认知无线网络中基于业务区分的自适应MAC协议*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江帆; 卢光跃

    2013-01-01

      为了提高认知用户的接入效率,同时兼顾其QoS需求,提出了一种应用于认知无线网络的基于业务区分的自适应MAC协议。对不同业务采取不同的最优频谱检测时间,实时业务(RT)以最小化接入时延为目的确定最优的频谱检测时间,而非实时用户( NRT)则以最大化吞吐率为目标确定最佳的频谱检测时间。根据所确定出的最佳频谱检测时间,结合当前的业务到达速率和调度策略,不同业务以时隙Aloha的方式接入空闲频谱。理论分析和仿真表明,所提出的自适应MAC协议能够自适应地为认知用户的不同业务确定最优频谱检测时间,从而有效地提高频谱使用效率,保证不同业务的QoS需求。%To improve the access efficiency of secondary users(SU)and consider their QoS requirements at the same time,a service-differentiated based adaptive Media Access Control(MAC)protocol is proposed for cognitive radio networks. Specifically,real time services determine the best spectrum sensing time aiming at minimizing the spectrum access time,while users with non-real time services select proper spectrum sensing time to obtain maximum throughput. Combined with service arriving rate and scheduling policy,different services adopt slotted Aloha for medium access. Theoretical analysis and simulation results demonstrate that the proposed MAC proto-col can adaptively adjust optimal spectrum sensing time for different type of services,so as to achieve higher spectrum utilization rate and ensure user′s Quality of Service(QoS)as well.

  14. Modelling of adaptation to climate change and decision-makers behaviours for the Veluwe forest area in the Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yousefpour, Rasoul; Didion, Markus; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl;

    2015-01-01

    We apply Bayesian updating theory to model how decision-makers may gradually learn about climate change and make use of this information in making adaptive forest management decisions. We develop modelling steps to i) simulate observation of a multi-dimensional climate system, ii) apply updating...... rules for beliefs about climate trends, iii) evaluate the performance of adaptive strategies, and iv) apply (i)–(iii) at the local and forest landscape scale to find and compare individual versus joint adaptive decisions. We search for optimal forest management decisions maximizing total biomass...

  15. Performance of a connectionless protocol over ATM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijenk, Geert J.; Moorsel, van Aad P.A.; Niemegeers, Ignas G.

    1992-01-01

    Recent studies show the existence of a demand for a connectionless broadband service. In order to cope with this demand, a connectionless protocol for the B-ISDN needs to be designed. Such a protocol should make use of ATM and the ATM Adaptation Layer. It needs to specify destination and bandwidth o

  16. The Formal Specifications for Protocols of Decoders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Meng-ting; WU Guo-qing; SHU Feng-di

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a formal approach, FSPD (Formal Specifications for Protocols of Decoders), to specify decoder communication protocols. Based on axiomatic, FSPD is a precise language with which programmers could use only one suitable driver to handle various types of decoders. FSPD is helpful for programmers to get high adaptability and reusability of decoder-driver software.

  17. Session Initiation Protocol Attacks and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Keshavarz, Hassan; Noor, Rafidah Md

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) has become widely used in current internet protocols. It is a text-based protocol much like Hyper Text Transport Protocol (HTTP) and Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP). SIP is a strong enough signaling protocol on the internet for establishing, maintaining, and terminating session. In this paper the areas of security and attacks in SIP are discussed. We consider attacks from diverse related perspectives. The authentication schemes are compared, the representative existing solutions are highlighted, and several remaining research challenges are identified. Finally, the taxonomy of SIP threat will be presented.

  18. Etude et simulation du protocole TTEthernet sur un sous-systeme de gestion de vols et adaptation de la planification des tâches a des fins de simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Dhafer

    TTEthernet is a deterministic network technology that makes enhancements to Layer 2 Quality-of-Service (QoS) for Ethernet. The components that implement its services enrich the Ethernet functionality with distributed fault-tolerant synchronization, robust temporal partitioning bandwidth and synchronous communication with fixed latency and low jitter. TTEthernet services can facilitate the design of scalable, robust, less complex distributed systems and architectures tolerant to faults. Simulation is nowadays an essential step in critical systems design process and represents a valuable support for validation and performance evaluation. CoRE4INET is a project bringing together all TTEthernet simulation models currently available. It is based on the extension of models of OMNeT ++ INET framework. Our objective is to study and simulate the TTEthernet protocol on a flight management subsystem (FMS). The idea is to use CoRE4INET to design the simulation model of the target system. The problem is that CoRE4INET does not offer a task scheduling tool for TTEthernet network. To overcome this problem we propose an adaptation for simulation purposes of a task scheduling approach based on formal specification of network constraints. The use of Yices solver allowed the translation of the formal specification into an executable program to generate the desired transmission plan. A case study allowed us at the end to assess the impact of the arrangement of Time-Triggered frames offsets on the performance of each type of the system traffic.

  19. Use of a hydrological model to evaluate the effects of climate change on adaptative capacity of a maize and fennel cultivation in an area of Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, Antonello; Basile, Angelo; de Lorenzi, Francesca; Riggi, Ezio; Avola, Giovanni; Menenti, Massimo

    2010-05-01

    Crop production depends significantly on the pedoclimatic conditions. The evolution of climate may thus endanger not only yield (IPCC, 2007), but, more significantly, the sustainability of the cultivation of current varieties. Adaptation of current production systems may be feasible, but requires a timely evaluation of weather adaptation to climate evolution might be limited to improving crop and soil management or should involve replacement of varieties or species altogether. This study addressed this question by evaluating the adaptive capacity of a flat area of 22.000 ha "Destra Sele" (Campania Region, Southern Italy) where the main crops are is maize for livestock and fennel. Two climate scenarios have been considered at + 5 and + 30 years, generated by a regional climate model applied to Europe and the Mediterranean Basin. For each climate scenario the hydro-thermal regime of the soils of the selected study area has been calculated by means of a simulation model of the soil-water-atmosphere system (SWAP). Synthetic indicators of the regimes (e.g., crop water stress index, available water content, soil temperature) have been calculated and compared with the thermal and water requirements of a set of maize and fennel varieties, including the ones currently cultivated in the area. The hydrological model SWAP was applied to the representative soils of the entire area (20 soil units): their soil hydraulic properties were derived applying the pedo-transfer function HYPRES which reliability was tested and validated on three soils of the same area. Upper boundary conditions were derived from the regional climate scenarios. Unit gradient in soil water potential was set as lower boundary condition. Crop-specific input data and model parameters were estimated on the basis of literature and assumed to be generically representative of the species. This applies to Leaf Area Index (LAI), crop coefficient (Kc) and the root water uptake function parameters. From the comparison

  20. Adaptation to the Impacts of Climate Extremes in Central Europe: A Case Study in a Rural Area in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Stojanov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this paper is to analyse households’ adaptation measures to the impacts of repeated extreme weather events, specifically floods, which belong amongst the most serious manifestation of ongoing climate change in Europe. The case study focuses on a rural area in the north-east part of the Czech Republic, in the catchment basin of the Bečva River. A total of 605 households were addressed within the framework of the questionnaire survey. On the basis of the conducted research, we determined that the total amount of adaptation measures adopted by those dwelling in residential homes within the investigated catchment area was relatively low. In contrast, however, one of the most important adaptation measures—house elevation—was applied by 46.94% of the houses (up to 1 m and by 21.16% houses (elevated more than 1 m respectively. We also found that the amount and scope of adaptation measures realized by households were influenced by certain socio-demographic factors of the inhabitants. The most statistically significant factors included households with more residents or families with more children living in the household, as well as those with a higher level of education. Flood experience, the level of damage, and individual flood risk perception also played an important role.

  1. Identifying sensitive areas of adaptive observations for prediction of the Kuroshio large meander using a shallow-water model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Guang'an; Wang, Qiang; Mu, Mu

    2016-09-01

    Sensitive areas for prediction of the Kuroshio large meander using a 1.5-layer, shallow-water ocean model were investigated using the conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation (CNOP) and first singular vector (FSV) methods. A series of sensitivity experiments were designed to test the sensitivity of sensitive areas within the numerical model. The following results were obtained: (1) the eff ect of initial CNOP and FSV patterns in their sensitive areas is greater than that of the same patterns in randomly selected areas, with the eff ect of the initial CNOP patterns in CNOP sensitive areas being the greatest; (2) both CNOP- and FSV-type initial errors grow more quickly than random errors; (3) the eff ect of random errors superimposed on the sensitive areas is greater than that of random errors introduced into randomly selected areas, and initial errors in the CNOP sensitive areas have greater eff ects on final forecasts. These results reveal that the sensitive areas determined using the CNOP are more sensitive than those of FSV and other randomly selected areas. In addition, ideal hindcasting experiments were conducted to examine the validity of the sensitive areas. The results indicate that reduction (or elimination) of CNOP-type errors in CNOP sensitive areas at the initial time has a greater forecast benefit than the reduction (or elimination) of FSV-type errors in FSV sensitive areas. These results suggest that the CNOP method is suitable for determining sensitive areas in the prediction of the Kuroshio large-meander path.

  2. Mac protocols for cyber-physical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Feng

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a literature review of various wireless MAC protocols and techniques for achieving real-time and reliable communications in the context of cyber-physical systems (CPS). The evaluation analysis of IEEE 802.15.4 for CPS therein will give insights into configuration and optimization of critical design parameters of MAC protocols. In addition, this book also presents the design and evaluation of an adaptive MAC protocol for medical CPS, which exemplifies how to facilitate real-time and reliable communications in CPS by exploiting IEEE 802.15.4 based MAC protocols. This book wil

  3. Climate-proof planning for flood-prone areas : assessing the adaptive capacity of planning institutions in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, Margo; Meijerink, Sander; Termeer, Catrien; Gupta, Joyeeta

    2014-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that adapting low-lying, flood-prone deltas to the projected impacts of climate change is of great importance. Deltas are densely populated and often subject to high risk. Climate-proof planning is, however, not only a new but also a highly complex task that poses proble

  4. Climate-proof planning for flood-prone areas: assessing the adaptive capacity of planning institutions in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den M.A.; Meijerink, S.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Gupta, J.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that adapting lowlying, flood-prone deltas to the projected impacts of climate change is of great importance. Deltas are densely populated and often subject to high risk. Climate-proof planning is, however, not only a new but also a highly complex task that poses problem

  5. Climate-proof planning for flood-prone areas: assessing the adaptive capacity of planning institutions in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van den Brink; S. Meijerink; C. Termeer; J. Gupta

    2013-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that adapting low-lying, flood-prone deltas to the projected impacts of climate change is of great importance. Deltas are densely populated and often subject to high risk. Climate-proof planning is, however, not only a new but also a highly complex task that poses proble

  6. Nature-based solutions to climate change mitigation and adaptation in urban areas: perspectives on indicators, knowledge gaps, barriers, and opportunities for action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Kabisch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nature-based solutions promoting green and blue urban areas have significant potential to decrease the vulnerability and enhance the resilience of cities in light of climatic change. They can thereby help to mitigate climate change-induced impacts and serve as proactive adaptation options for municipalities. We explore the various contexts in which nature-based solutions are relevant for climate mitigation and adaptation in urban areas, identify indicators for assessing the effectiveness of nature-based solutions and related knowledge gaps. In addition, we explore existing barriers and potential opportunities for increasing the scale and effectiveness of nature-based solution implementation. The results were derived from an inter- and transdisciplinary workshop with experts from research, municipalities, policy, and society. As an outcome of the workshop discussions and building on existing evidence, we highlight three main needs for future science and policy agendas when dealing with nature-based solutions: (i produce stronger evidence on nature-based solutions for climate change adaptation and mitigation and raise awareness by increasing implementation; (ii adapt for governance challenges in implementing nature-based solutions by using reflexive approaches, which implies bringing together new networks of society, nature-based solution ambassadors, and practitioners; (iii consider socio-environmental justice and social cohesion when implementing nature-based solutions by using integrated governance approaches that take into account an integrative and transdisciplinary participation of diverse actors. Taking these needs into account, nature-based solutions can serve as climate mitigation and adaptation tools that produce additional cobenefits for societal well-being, thereby serving as strong investment options for sustainable urban planning.

  7. Adapting ski area operations to a warmer climate in the Swiss Alps through snowmaking investments and efficiency improvements

    OpenAIRE

    Gonseth, Camille

    2008-01-01

    Economic consequences of climate change for the Swiss winter tourism have been assessed in two studies. Though estimates of the potential annual costs highly differ between them, they however agree on two points. On the one hand, winter tourism will be one of the most affected economic sectors. On the other hand, impacts of climate change on this sector will be very disruptive. In this context, adaptation strategies must play an important role in the Swiss winter tourism sector in order to al...

  8. Adapting ski area operations to a warmer climate in the Swiss Alps through snowmaking investments and efficiency improvements

    OpenAIRE

    Gonseth, Camille; Thalmann, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Economic consequences of climate change for the Swiss winter tourism have been assessed in two studies. Though estimates of the potential annual costs highly differ between them, they however agree on two points. On the one hand, winter tourism will be one of the most affected economic sectors. On the other hand, impacts of climate change on this sector will be very disruptive. In this context, adaptation strategies must play an important role in the Swiss winter tourism sector in order to al...

  9. 'A SPECT/T.D.M.? He will never fit under the camera' SPECT/T.D.M. osseous protocol adapted to the diagnostic emergency of the acute spondylodiscitis; 'Une TEMP/TDM? Il ne tiendra jamais sous la camera' Protocole TEMP/TDM osseux adapte a l'urgence diagnostique de la spondylodiscite aigue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girma, A.; Ramadan, A.; Paycha, F. [Unite de medecine nucleaire, CHU Louis-Mourier, Colombes, (France); Manceron, V.; Vinceneux, P. [service de medecine interne, CHU Louis-Mourier, Colombes, (France); Baccar, L.S.; Dion, E. [service de radiologie, CHU Louis-Mourier, Colombes, (France); Fihman, V.; Branger, C. [service de microbiologie, CHU Louis- Mourier, Colombes, (France)

    2009-05-15

    This file illustrates the possibility to realize a skeleton SPECT/T.D.M. of first intention for a restless or algesic patient by reducing the acquisition time and by targeting the field on the painful area in whole- body scanning in order to precise a diagnosis of spondylodiscitis or any other therapy emergency of the skeleton. (N.C.)

  10. Local area networks and protocols of data transmission in electric power systems: current status and tendencies; Redes locales y protocolos de transmision de datos en sistemas electricos de potencia: estado actual y tendencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellizzoni, Rodolfo [TRANSBA S.A., Empresa de Transporte de Energia Electrica por Distribucion Troncal de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vignoni, Roberto [Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), Ciudad de La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2001-07-01

    In electric power systems, overcome the stage of the remote system (SCADA) implementation, the current tendency is the automation and use of open architectures. That tendency is reflected in the use of standardized local area networks of industrial use and adoption of data transmission protocols which are based in international standards. The result is the connectivity and operationalization among the local devices and terminals usually called IED. In this document it is presented a summary of the standardized data transmission protocols, which have been used in electric power substations currently, based on a architecture which defines three layers of the OSI/ISO reference pattern. Based on the tendency increase of automation in substations, some ways of communication have been analyzed, they mean: local area networks such as the Ethernet pattern and some industrial ones and others such as Profibus and its respective implementation in electric power systems. It also is analyzed the tasks which have supported IEC and EPRI for defining a standardization and a model for the open communications in electric power substations.

  11. The Role of Biodiversity, Traditional Knowledge and Participatory Plant Breeding in Climate Change Adaptation in Karst Mountain Areas in SW China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yiching; Li, Jingsong [Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy (China)

    2011-07-15

    This is a report of a country case study on the impacts of climate change and local people's adaptation. The research sites are located in the karst mountainous region in 3 SW China provinces - Guangxi, Guizhou and Yunnan – an area inhabited by 33 ethnic groups of small farmers and the poor, with rich Plant Genetic Resources (PGR) and culture. Climate change is exacerbating already harsh natural conditions and impacting on biodiversity of remote farmers living in extreme poverty, with very limited arable land. Genetic diversity has also suffered from the adoption of high yielding hybrids. Yet traditional varieties, related TK and Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) for maize and rice are showing real potential for resilience and adaptation.

  12. Adaptive Slope Filtering of Airborne LiDAR Data in Urban Areas for Digital Terrain Model (DTM Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Susaki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A filtering algorithm is proposed that accurately extracts ground data from airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR measurements and generates an estimated digital terrain model (DTM. The proposed algorithm utilizes planar surface features and connectivity with locally lowest points to improve the extraction of ground points (GPs. A slope parameter used in the proposed algorithm is updated after an initial estimation of the DTM, and thus local terrain information can be included. As a result, the proposed algorithm can extract GPs from areas where different degrees of slope variation are interspersed. Specifically, along roads and streets, GPs were extracted from urban areas, from hilly areas such as forests, and from flat area such as riverbanks. Validation using reference data showed that, compared with commercial filtering software, the proposed algorithm extracts GPs with higher accuracy. Therefore, the proposed filtering algorithm effectively generates DTMs, even for dense urban areas, from airborne LiDAR data.

  13. Perceptions of Australian marine protected area managers regarding the role, importance, and achievability of adaptation for managing the risks of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Cvitanovic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of adaptation as a mainstream strategy for managing the risks of climate change has led to the emergence of a broad range of adaptation policies and management strategies globally. However, the success of such policies or management interventions depends on the effective integration of new scientific research into the decision-making process. Ineffective communication between scientists and environmental decision makers represents one of the key barriers limiting the integration of science into the decision-making process in many areas of natural resource management. This can be overcome by understanding the perceptions of end users, so as to identify knowledge gaps and develop improved and targeted strategies for communication and engagement. We assessed what one group of environmental decision makers, Australian marine protected area (MPA managers, viewed as the major risks associated with climate change, and their perceptions regarding the role, importance, and achievability of adaptation for managing these risks. We also assessed what these managers perceived as the role of science in managing the risks from climate change, and identified the factors that increased their trust in scientific information. We do so by quantitatively surveying 30 MPA managers across 3 Australian management agencies. We found that although MPA managers have a very strong awareness of the range and severity of risks posed by climate change, their understanding of adaptation as an option for managing these risks is less comprehensive. We also found that although MPA managers view science as a critical source of information for informing the decision-making process, it should be considered in context with other knowledge types such as community and cultural knowledge, and be impartial, evidence based, and pragmatic in outlining policy and management recommendations that are realistically achievable.

  14. Performance Evaluation of the WSN Routing Protocols Scalability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alazzawi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Scalability is an important factor in designing an efficient routing protocol for wireless sensor networks (WSNs. A good routing protocol has to be scalable and adaptive to the changes in the network topology. Thus scalable protocol should perform well as the network grows larger or as the workload increases. In this paper, routing protocols for wireless sensor networks are simulated and their performances are evaluated to determine their capability for supporting network scalability.

  15. Satellite-Friendly Protocols and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudelka, O.; Schmidt, M.; Ebert, J.; Schlemmer, H.; Kastner, S.; Riedler, W.

    2002-01-01

    We are currently observing a development unprecedented with other services, the enormous growth of the Internet. Video, voice and data applications can be supported via this network in high quality. Multi-media applications require high bandwidth which may not be available in many areas. When making proper use of the broadcast feature of a communications satellite, the performance of the satellite-based system can compare favourably to terrestrial solutions. Internet applications are in many cases highly asymmetric, making them very well suited to applications using small and inexpensive terminals. Data from one source may be used simultaneously by a large number of users. The Internet protocol suite has become the de-facto standard. But this protocol family in its original form has not been designed to support guaranteed quality of service, a prerequisite for real-time, high quality traffic. The Internet Protocol has to be adapted for the satellite environment, because long roundtrip delays and the error behaviour of the channel could make it inefficient over a GEO satellite. Another requirement is to utilise the satellite bandwidth as efficiently as possible. This can be achieved by adapting the access system to the nature of IP frames, which are variable in length. In the framework of ESA's ARTES project a novel satellite multimedia system was developed which utilises Multi-Frequency TDMA in a meshed network topology. The system supports Quality of Service (QoS) by reserving capacity with different QoS requirements. The system is centrally controlled by a master station with the implementation of a demand assignment (DAMA) system. A lean internal signalling system has been adopted. Network management is based on the SNMP protocol and industry-standard network management platforms, making interfaces to standard accounting and billing systems easy. Modern communication systems will have to be compliant to different standards in a very flexible manner. The

  16. Myocardial area at risk and salvage measured by T2-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance: reproducibility and comparison of two T2-weighted protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønborg, Jacob; Vejlstrup, Niels; Mathiasen, Anders B;

    2011-01-01

    Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and T2-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) provides a means to measure myocardial area at risk (AAR) and salvage. Several T2-weighted CMR sequences are in use, but there is no consensus in terms of which sequence to be the preferred. Therefore, the aim...

  17. Effective Protocols for Mobile Communications and Networking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, J.; Sholander, P.; Van Leeuwen, B,

    1998-12-01

    This report examines methods of mobile communications with an emphasis on mobile computing and wireless communications. Many of the advances in communications involve the use of Internet Protocol (IP), Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), and ad hoc network protocols. However, many of the advances in these protocols have been focused on wired communications. Recently much focus has been directed at advancing communication technology in the area of mobile wireless networks. This report discusses various protocols used in mobile communications and proposes a number of extensions to existing protocols. A detailed discussion is also included on desirable protocol characteristics and evaluation criteria. In addition, the report includes a discussion on several network simulation tools that maybe used to evaluate network protocols.

  18. The Invasion of Coastal Areas in South China by Ipomoea cairica May Be Accelerated by the Ecotype Being More Locally Adapted to Salt Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Gao, Yang; Huang, Fang-Fang; Yuan, Ming-Yue; Peng, Shao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity are two alternative mechanisms used by invasive plants for range expansion. We conducted a series of experiments to investigate the role of these mechanisms in the recent expansion of the invasive Ipomoea cairica from non-saline to salt-stressed coastal habitats. A comparison of the plant's photosynthetic traits and construction costs across habitats was conducted through a field survey. Meanwhile, a full factorial greenhouse experiment was conducted with two ecotypes (non-saline and coastal) of I. cairica and two salinity gradients (water and 4 g L-1 NaCl solution) to evaluate the roles of the two strategies by comparing their main traits. The results revealed that the construction cost and Amax of I. cairica did not change with the habitat type. The ecotype and saline treatments, however, significantly influenced the plant growth. The non-saline ecotype (NE) generally showed higher or equal plasticity of biomass-allocation and functional traits compared to the coastal ecotype (CE). However, the fitness and biomass of the NE significantly decreased with salinity, whereas those aspects of the CE did not change. Our results indicate that the recent expansion of I. cairica into coastal areas may be accelerated by the local adaptation of the CE to salt stress. Additionally, in South China, the CE will most likely evolve adaptations to both saline and non-saline environments, which will further broaden the invasion range of I. cairica in the future. PMID:26867222

  19. Interplanetary Overlay Network Bundle Protocol Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) system's BP package, an implementation of the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Bundle Protocol (BP) and supporting services, has been specifically designed to be suitable for use on deep-space robotic vehicles. Although the ION BP implementation is unique in its use of zero-copy objects for high performance, and in its use of resource-sensitive rate control, it is fully interoperable with other implementations of the BP specification (Internet RFC 5050). The ION BP implementation is built using the same software infrastructure that underlies the implementation of the CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) built into the flight software of Deep Impact. It is designed to minimize resource consumption, while maximizing operational robustness. For example, no dynamic allocation of system memory is required. Like all the other ION packages, ION's BP implementation is designed to port readily between Linux and Solaris (for easy development and for ground system operations) and VxWorks (for flight systems operations). The exact same source code is exercised in both environments. Initially included in the ION BP implementations are the following: libraries of functions used in constructing bundle forwarders and convergence-layer (CL) input and output adapters; a simple prototype bundle forwarder and associated CL adapters designed to run over an IPbased local area network; administrative tools for managing a simple DTN infrastructure built from these components; a background daemon process that silently destroys bundles whose time-to-live intervals have expired; a library of functions exposed to applications, enabling them to issue and receive data encapsulated in DTN bundles; and some simple applications that can be used for system checkout and benchmarking.

  20. Secure E-payment Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sattar J Aboud

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The vast spreading of information in the last decade has led to greatdevelopment in e-commerce. For instance, e-trade and e-bank are two mainInternet services that implement e-transaction from anyplace in the world. Thishelps merchant and bank to ease the financial transaction process and to giveuser friendly services at any time. However, the cost of workers andcommunications falls down considerably while the cost of trusted authority andprotecting information is increased. E-payment is now one of the most centralresearch areas in e-commerce, mainly regarding online and offline paymentscenarios. In this paper, we will discuss an important e-payment protocol namelyKim and Lee scheme examine its advantages and delimitations, whichencourages the author to develop more efficient scheme that keeping allcharacteristics intact without concession of the security robustness of theprotocol. The suggest protocol employs the idea of public key encryption schemeusing the thought of hash chain. We will compare the proposed protocol with Kimand Lee protocol and demonstrate that the proposed protocol offers moresecurity and efficiency, which makes the protocol workable for real worldservices.

  1. Mobile internet protocol analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Brachfeld, Lawrence J.

    1999-01-01

    Mobile Internet Protocol (IP) is a proposed standard that builds on the current Internet Protocol by making the fact that a user is mobile transparent to applications and higher level protocols such as Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Mobile IP allows mobile computers to send and receive packets addressed with their home network IP address, regardless of the IP address of their current point of attachment on the Internet while maintaining any current conne...

  2. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... as possible. Evaluations show that the proposed protocol provides considerable gains over the standard tree splitting protocol applying SIC. The improvement comes at the expense of an increased feedback and receiver complexity....

  3. Universal protocol for alopecia areata clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesinkovska, Natasha A; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2013-12-01

    Within the area of alopecia areata research, there is an obvious need for well-designed clinical trials of therapeutic agents. The National Alopecia Areata Foundation (NAAF) has created an initiative for the development of a unified protocol with guidelines for clinical studies. The NAAF universal protocol represents a joint effort of clinicians and investigators with experience in treating alopecia areata. This protocol will serve as a tremendous resource to facilitate future clinical studies. PMID:24326554

  4. Multicast Protocol for Uni-Directional Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄皓; 陈贵海; 谢立; 孙钟秀

    2000-01-01

    A very inexpensive receive-only satellite receiver can receive high bandwidth traffic from a feeder. Therefore the connection between the feeder and the receiver is uni-directional. The existing routing protocols, such as Link-State and Distance-Vector, are designed on the premise that any links are bidirectional and they cannot handle the uni-directional links. In this paper, a dynamic multicast routing protocol is proposed, which can handle uni-directional networks. This protocol can also adapt to the dynamic change of the topology of the network and has good scalability. A formal description of the protocol by Petri net is given. Liveness,deadlock free and other properties of the protocol are proved.

  5. An Adaptive Color Image Visible Watermark Algorithm Supporting for Interested Area and its Application System Based on Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Guoqing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interested area visible watermark algorithm for digital color image based on internet. By converting color image from RGB to HSI and using the original image information to obtain the watermark coefficient, the algorithm embeds watermark on the spatial domain and selects the interested area by clicking on the picture. By visiting the site (http://dgdz.ccee.cqu.edu.cn/watermark/watermarkb.aspx and uploading the original image and watermark image, the color image with the visible watermark can be gained on web. Experimental results show that the algorithm has only a little influence on the original image and the image of watermark is clearly visible. It is very suitable for obvious identification of the copyright from digital image through Internet.

  6. Assessing the response of area burned to changing climate in western boreal North America using a Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balshi, M. S.; McGuire, A.D.; Duffy, P.; Flannigan, M.; Walsh, J.; Melillo, J.

    2009-01-01

    Fire is a common disturbance in the North American boreal forest that influences ecosystem structure and function. The temporal and spatial dynamics of fire are likely to be altered as climate continues to change. In this study, we ask the question: how will area burned in boreal North America by wildfire respond to future changes in climate? To evaluate this question, we developed temporally and spatially explicit relationships between air temperature and fuel moisture codes derived from the Canadian Fire Weather Index System to estimate annual area burned at 2.5?? (latitude ?? longitude) resolution using a Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline (MARS) approach across Alaska and Canada. Burned area was substantially more predictable in the western portion of boreal North America than in eastern Canada. Burned area was also not very predictable in areas of substantial topographic relief and in areas along the transition between boreal forest and tundra. At the scale of Alaska and western Canada, the empirical fire models explain on the order of 82% of the variation in annual area burned for the period 1960-2002. July temperature was the most frequently occurring predictor across all models, but the fuel moisture codes for the months June through August (as a group) entered the models as the most important predictors of annual area burned. To predict changes in the temporal and spatial dynamics of fire under future climate, the empirical fire models used output from the Canadian Climate Center CGCM2 global climate model to predict annual area burned through the year 2100 across Alaska and western Canada. Relative to 1991-2000, the results suggest that average area burned per decade will double by 2041-2050 and will increase on the order of 3.5-5.5 times by the last decade of the 21st century. To improve the ability to better predict wildfire across Alaska and Canada, future research should focus on incorporating additional effects of long-term and successional

  7. What is the impact on fish recruitment of anthropogenic physical and structural habitat change in shallow nearshore areas in temperate systems? A systematic review protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacUra, B.; Lönnstedt, O.M.; Byström, P.;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Shallow nearshore marine ecosystems are changing at an increasing rate due to a range of human activities such as urbanisation and commercial development. The growing numbers of constructions and other physical and structural alterations of the shoreline often take place in nursery...... and spawning habitats of many fish and other aquatic species. Several coastal fish populations have seen marked declines in abundance and diversity during the past two decades. A systematic review on the topic would clarify if anthropogenic physical and structural changes of near-shore areas have effects...... on fish recruitment and which these effects are. Methods: The review will examine how various physical and structural anthropogenic changes of nearshore fish habitats affect fish recruitment. Relevant studies include small- and large-scale field studies in marine and brackish systems or large lakes...

  8. Overview of the InterGroup protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berket, Karlo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Agarwal, Deborah A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Melliar-Smith, P. Michael [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Moser, Louise E. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Existing reliable ordered group communication protocols have been developed for local-area networks and do not, in general, scale well to large numbers of nodes and wide-area networks. The InterGroup suite of protocols is a scalable group communication system that introduces a novel approach to handling group membership, and supports a receiver-oriented selection of service. The protocols are intended for a wide-area network, with a large number of nodes, that has highly variable delays and a high message loss rate, such as the Internet. The levels of the message delivery service range from unreliable unordered to reliable group timestamp ordered.

  9. Mind the gap in SEA: An institutional perspective on why assessment of synergies amongst climate change mitigation, adaptation and other policy areas are missing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vammen Larsen, Sanne, E-mail: sannevl@plan.aau.dk [Aalborg University, Lautrupvang 1A, 2750 Ballerup (Denmark); Kornov, Lone, E-mail: lonek@plan.aau.dk [Aalborg University, Fibigerstraede 13, 9220 Aalborg O (Denmark); Wejs, Anja, E-mail: wejs@plan.aau.dk [Aalborg University, Fibigerstraede 13, 9220 Aalborg O (Denmark)

    2012-02-15

    This article takes its point of departure in two approaches to integrating climate change into Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA): Mitigation and adaptation, and in the fact that these, as well as the synergies between them and other policy areas, are needed as part of an integrated assessment and policy response. First, the article makes a review of how positive and negative synergies between a) climate change mitigation and adaptation and b) climate change and other environmental concerns are integrated into Danish SEA practice. Then, the article discusses the implications of not addressing synergies. Finally, the article explores institutional explanations as to why synergies are not addressed in SEA practice. A document analysis of 149 Danish SEA reports shows that only one report comprises the assessment of synergies between mitigation and adaptation, whilst 9,4% of the reports assess the synergies between climate change and other environmental concerns. The consequences of separation are both the risk of trade-offs and missed opportunities for enhancing positive synergies. In order to propose explanations for the lacking integration, the institutional background is analysed and discussed, mainly based on Scott's theory of institutions. The institutional analysis highlights a regulatory element, since the assessment of climate change synergies is underpinned by legislation, but not by guidance. This means that great focus is on normative elements such as the local interpretation of legislation and of climate change mitigation and adaptation. The analysis also focuses on how the fragmentation of the organisation in which climate change and SEA are embedded has bearings on both normative and cultural-cognitive elements. This makes the assessment of synergies challenging. The evidence gathered and presented in the article points to a need for developing the SEA process and methodology in Denmark with the aim to include climate change in the assessments

  10. Mind the gap in SEA: An institutional perspective on why assessment of synergies amongst climate change mitigation, adaptation and other policy areas are missing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article takes its point of departure in two approaches to integrating climate change into Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA): Mitigation and adaptation, and in the fact that these, as well as the synergies between them and other policy areas, are needed as part of an integrated assessment and policy response. First, the article makes a review of how positive and negative synergies between a) climate change mitigation and adaptation and b) climate change and other environmental concerns are integrated into Danish SEA practice. Then, the article discusses the implications of not addressing synergies. Finally, the article explores institutional explanations as to why synergies are not addressed in SEA practice. A document analysis of 149 Danish SEA reports shows that only one report comprises the assessment of synergies between mitigation and adaptation, whilst 9,4% of the reports assess the synergies between climate change and other environmental concerns. The consequences of separation are both the risk of trade-offs and missed opportunities for enhancing positive synergies. In order to propose explanations for the lacking integration, the institutional background is analysed and discussed, mainly based on Scott's theory of institutions. The institutional analysis highlights a regulatory element, since the assessment of climate change synergies is underpinned by legislation, but not by guidance. This means that great focus is on normative elements such as the local interpretation of legislation and of climate change mitigation and adaptation. The analysis also focuses on how the fragmentation of the organisation in which climate change and SEA are embedded has bearings on both normative and cultural–cognitive elements. This makes the assessment of synergies challenging. The evidence gathered and presented in the article points to a need for developing the SEA process and methodology in Denmark with the aim to include climate change in the assessments in

  11. Summary Report on Rational Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alwen, Joël; Cachin, Christian; Pereira, Olivier;

    This report gives an overview of some of the models and techniques in rational cryptography, an emerging research area which in particular uses the methodologies and techniques of game theory to analyze cryptographic protocols and which uses cryptographic protocol theory to implement game theoretic...

  12. Secure Key Management Protocol in WIMAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noudjoud Kahya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WIMAX /IEEE 802.16, is new technology basedon wireless metropolitan area network. Security of connections access in WIMAX /IEEE 802.16 iscomplete with respect to the Privacy Key Management (PKM protocol. The protocol is responsible forproviding the secure distribution of keying data from Base Station (BS to Subscriber Station (SS. In thispaper we provide the formal analysis of PKMv2 using Scyther tool to verify the security properties. Wefound that PKMv2 is vulnerable to replay, DoS, Man-in-the middle attacks. At last we have proposed asecure protocol (SPKM to prevent the authorization protocol from such attacks.

  13. CNEN-NN 6.04 standard adaptation in Brazil for industrial radiographic work in occupied areas or public roads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The industrial radiographic work that uses mobile equipment in Brazil must be in compliance with the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) Regulation CNEN-NN 6.04. It states that every works that employs radiographic equipment in occupied areas or public roads requires a specific radiation protection procedure. This procedure must be approved by the CNEN at least fifteen days before starting the job. It is not always possible to the users to get their licensing work at time, because the industrial radiography jobs need immediate actions. Furthermore, the CNEN-NN 6.04 Regulation does not specify what type of information the procedures should involve, so that some important information had been often missed, causing a delaying in the licensing procedures. The corrective and preventive actions taken by the CNEN to optimize this kind of jobs and to overcome bureaucratic difficulties are described. A standard radiation protection procedure is also presented. (authors). 2 refs., 2 tabs

  14. Development of mathematical models to elaborate strategies, select alternatives and development of plans for adaptation of communities to climate change in different geographical areas including costs to implement it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, J. M.; Grau, J. B.; Tarquis, A. M.; Andina, D.; Cisneros, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    There is evidence that the climate changes and that now, the change is influenced and accelerated by the CO2 augmentation in atmosphere due to combustion by humans. Such "Climate change" is on the policy agenda at the global level, with the aim of understanding and reducing its causes and to mitigate its consequences. In most countries and international organisms UNO (e.g. Rio de Janeiro 1992), OECD, EC, etc … the efforts and debates have been directed to know the possible causes, to predict the future evolution of some variable conditioners, and trying to make studies to fight against the effects or to delay the negative evolution of such. The Protocol of Kyoto 1997 set international efforts about CO2 emissions, but it was partial and not followed e.g. by USA and China …, and in Durban 2011 the ineffectiveness of humanity on such global real challenges was set as evident. Among all that, the elaboration of a global model was not boarded that can help to choose the best alternative between the feasible ones, to elaborate the strategies and to evaluate the costs, and the authors propose to enter in that frame for study. As in all natural, technological and social changes, the best-prepared countries will have the best bear and the more rapid recover. In all the geographic areas the alternative will not be the same one, but the model must help us to make the appropriated decision. It is essential to know those areas that are more sensitive to the negative effects of climate change, the parameters to take into account for its evaluation, and comprehensive plans to deal with it. The objective of this paper is to elaborate a mathematical model support of decisions, which will allow to develop and to evaluate alternatives of adaptation to the climatic change of different communities in Europe and Latin-America, mainly in especially vulnerable areas to the climatic change, considering in them all the intervening factors. The models will consider criteria of physical

  15. Traffic Engineering With Traditional IP Routing Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Fortz, Bernard; Rexford, Jennifer; Thorup, Mikkel

    2002-01-01

    Traffic engineering involves adapting the routing of traffic to the network conditions, with the joint goals of good user performance and efficient use of network resources. In this paper, we describe an approach to intradomain traffic engineering that works within the existing deployed base of Interior Gateway Protocols (IGPs), such as Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) and Intermediate System-Intermediate System (IS-IS). We explain how to adapt the configuration of link weights, based on a ...

  16. Research on Protocol Migration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪芸; 顾冠群; 等

    1996-01-01

    This paper elaborates the concept and model of protocol migration in network interconnection.Migration strategies and principles are discussed and several cases are studied in detail which show the basic procedure and techniques used in protocol migration.

  17. Leak test adapter for containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Brian H.; Hartley, Michael S.

    1996-01-01

    An adapter is provided for facilitating the charging of containers and leak testing penetration areas. The adapter comprises an adapter body and stem which are secured to the container's penetration areas. The container is then pressurized with a tracer gas. Manipulating the adapter stem installs a penetration plug allowing the adapter to be removed and the penetration to be leak tested with a mass spectrometer. Additionally, a method is provided for using the adapter.

  18. Adaptive thresholding with inverted triangular area for real-time detection of the heart rate from photoplethysmogram traces on a smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen Jun; Wittek, Peter; Zhao, Li; Gao, Shi Chao

    2014-01-01

    Photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals acquired by smartphone cameras are weaker than those acquired by dedicated pulse oximeters. Furthermore, the signals have lower sampling rates, have notches in the waveform and are more severely affected by baseline drift, leading to specific morphological characteristics. This paper introduces a new feature, the inverted triangular area, to address these specific characteristics. The new feature enables real-time adaptive waveform detection using an algorithm of linear time complexity. It can also recognize notches in the waveform and it is inherently robust to baseline drift. An implementation of the algorithm on Android is available for free download. We collected data from 24 volunteers and compared our algorithm in peak detection with two competing algorithms designed for PPG signals, Incremental-Merge Segmentation (IMS) and Adaptive Thresholding (ADT). A sensitivity of 98.0% and a positive predictive value of 98.8% were obtained, which were 7.7% higher than the IMS algorithm in sensitivity, and 8.3% higher than the ADT algorithm in positive predictive value. The experimental results confirmed the applicability of the proposed method. PMID:25570674

  19. Climate Change Adaptation Strategies through Indigenous Knowledge System: Aspect on Agro-Crop Production in the Flood Prone Areas of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Abdullah Al Mamun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the climate change adaptation strategies for agro crop production and assesses the financial suitability through indigenous knowledge in flood prone areas of Bangladesh. However, for this purpose two types of experiments have conducted with selected eight agro crop species. Firstly, the seven treatments have been experimented in a Tub (an earthen pot. In this case, Tomato (Lycoperscion esculeatum is more beneficial among these seven treatments and average benefit-cost ratio of this treatment was 3.54. Thereafter, the seven treatments also have been experimenting in Tukri (a bamboo basket. Likewise, Tomato (Lycoperscion esculeatum is more beneficial in the second experiment and average benefit-cost ratio in this treatment is 3.52 because the soil and the cow dung mixture have been used as a potting medium. On the contrary, Long coriander (Eryngium foetidum is more beneficial and average benefit-cost ratio in this treatment is 4.74 after using the soil and water hyacinth mixture as a potting medium. According to indigenous knowledge, these results could be developed from different climate change adaptation strategies in farming system for production of common agro crops as well as their financial suitability by the flood affected people of Bangladesh to harness the effect of climate change.

  20. Spatial Analysis of Soil Subsidence in Peat Meadow Areas in Friesland in Relation to Land and Water Management, Climate Change, and Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouns, Karlijn; Eikelboom, Tessa; Jansen, Peter C.; Janssen, Ron; Kwakernaak, Cees; van den Akker, Jan J. H.; Verhoeven, Jos T. A.

    2015-02-01

    Dutch peatlands have been subsiding due to peat decomposition, shrinkage and compression, since their reclamation in the 11th century. Currently, subsidence amounts to 1-2 cm/year. Water management in these areas is complex and costly, greenhouse gases are being emitted, and surface water quality is relatively poor. Regional and local authorities and landowners responsible for peatland management have recognized these problems. In addition, the Netherlands Royal Meteorological Institute predicts higher temperatures and drier summers, which both are expected to enhance peat decomposition. Stakeholder workshops have been organized in three case study areas in the province of Friesland to exchange knowledge on subsidence and explore future subsidence rates and the effects of land use and management changes on subsidence rates. Subsidence rates were up to 3 cm/year in deeply drained parcels and increased when we included climate change in the modeling exercises. This means that the relatively thin peat layers in this province (ca 1 m) would shrink or even disappear by the end of the century when current practices continue. Adaptation measures were explored, such as extensive dairy farming and the production of new crops in wetter conditions, but little experience has been gained on best practices. The workshops have resulted in useful exchange of ideas on possible measures and their consequences for land use and water management in the three case study areas. The province and the regional water board will use the results to develop land use and water management policies for the next decades.

  1. Spatial analysis of soil subsidence in peat meadow areas in Friesland in relation to land and water management, climate change, and adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouns, Karlijn; Eikelboom, Tessa; Jansen, Peter C; Janssen, Ron; Kwakernaak, Cees; van den Akker, Jan J H; Verhoeven, Jos T A

    2015-02-01

    Dutch peatlands have been subsiding due to peat decomposition, shrinkage and compression, since their reclamation in the 11th century. Currently, subsidence amounts to 1-2 cm/year. Water management in these areas is complex and costly, greenhouse gases are being emitted, and surface water quality is relatively poor. Regional and local authorities and landowners responsible for peatland management have recognized these problems. In addition, the Netherlands Royal Meteorological Institute predicts higher temperatures and drier summers, which both are expected to enhance peat decomposition. Stakeholder workshops have been organized in three case study areas in the province of Friesland to exchange knowledge on subsidence and explore future subsidence rates and the effects of land use and management changes on subsidence rates. Subsidence rates were up to 3 cm/year in deeply drained parcels and increased when we included climate change in the modeling exercises. This means that the relatively thin peat layers in this province (ca 1 m) would shrink or even disappear by the end of the century when current practices continue. Adaptation measures were explored, such as extensive dairy farming and the production of new crops in wetter conditions, but little experience has been gained on best practices. The workshops have resulted in useful exchange of ideas on possible measures and their consequences for land use and water management in the three case study areas. The province and the regional water board will use the results to develop land use and water management policies for the next decades.

  2. Protocol Implementation Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho Quaresma, Jose Nuno; Probst, Christian W.

    2010-01-01

    Users expect communication systems to guarantee, amongst others, privacy and integrity of their data. These can be ensured by using well-established protocols; the best protocol, however, is useless if not all parties involved in a communication have a correct implementation of the protocol and all...

  3. [The teaching of microbiology and parasitology in undergraduate medical education and its adaptation to the European Higher Education Area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Vicente Ausina; Otero, Beatriz Mirelis; Pastor, Guillem Prats

    2010-10-01

    The creation of the European Higher Education Area provides a series of opportunities for far-reaching reform of medical education and changes in the way both students and teachers work. The Bologna process must be implemented before 2010 in signatory countries, which include Spain, and must allow education and academic titles to be homologated. Medical degrees must consist of 360 European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) credits, divided into six academic years (60 credits per academic year). The Faculty of Medicine of the Autonomous University of Barcelona has already put the finishing touches to a proposal for the distribution of subjects in the new curriculum. This proposal strengthens and reassesses the teaching of microbiology and parasitology compared with current curricula, giving these subjects appropriate weight in undergraduate medical education. The teaching of medical microbiology and parasitology is included as a core subject worth 8 ECTS in the third year and two free-choice modules of 2.5 and 3 ECTS to be taken in the first semesters of the fifth and sixth years as part of the minor in "Clinical and Experimental Laboratory"(30 ECTS). The teaching of microbiology will also play an important role in the Integrated Learning in Medicine (INTEL-M) course in the third, fourth and fifth years. INTEL-M is an innovation in the syllabus based on the joint planning, organization and evaluation of a series of subjects (24.5 ECTS) that are developed in small groups of students and in the form of problem-based learning.

  4. Research on Container Behaviors Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With the development of middleware technology, there are some new features to be adopted on demand in middleware platform based on container component. Aiming at the adaptation of middleware platform, from the nature of component container, this paper begins with behaviors features of EJB (Enterprise Java Bean) container, extracts general behaviors protocol of container, and defines its formal behaviors specification. In the end, the interactive relationship of components is described by WRIGHT language, and the configuration of whole system is shown. The method proposed in this paper mines the hidden features of framework of component container, and applies to refactor middleware platform in reflection and aspect-oriented programming technology.

  5. New Models for Population Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Michail, Othon

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are about to be part of everyday life. Homes and workplaces capable of self-controlling and adapting air-conditioning for different temperature and humidity levels, sleepless forests ready to detect and react in case of a fire, vehicles able to avoid sudden obstacles or possibly able to self-organize routes to avoid congestion, and so on, will probably be commonplace in the very near future. Mobility plays a central role in such systems and so does passive mobility, that is, mobility of the network stemming from the environment itself. The population protocol model was

  6. Adaption of the MODIS aerosol retrieval algorithm using airborne spectral surface reflectance measurements over urban areas: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäkel, E.; Mey, B.; Levy, R.; Gu, X.; Yu, T.; Li, Z.; Althausen, D.; Heese, B.; Wendisch, M.

    2015-12-01

    MODIS (MOderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) retrievals of aerosol optical depth (AOD) are biased over urban areas, primarily because the reflectance characteristics of urban surfaces are different than that assumed by the retrieval algorithm. Specifically, the operational "dark-target" retrieval is tuned towards vegetated (dark) surfaces and assumes a spectral relationship to estimate the surface reflectance in blue and red wavelengths. From airborne measurements of surface reflectance over the city of Zhongshan, China, were collected that could replace the assumptions within the MODIS retrieval algorithm. The subsequent impact was tested upon two versions of the operational algorithm, Collections 5 and 6 (C5 and C6). AOD retrieval results of the operational and modified algorithms were compared for a specific case study over Zhongshan to show minor differences between them all. However, the Zhongshan-based spectral surface relationship was applied to a much larger urban sample, specifically to the MODIS data taken over Beijing between 2010 and 2014. These results were compared directly to ground-based AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) measurements of AOD. A significant reduction of the differences between the AOD retrieved by the modified algorithms and AERONET was found, whereby the mean difference decreased from 0.27±0.14 for the operational C5 and 0.19±0.12 for the operational C6 to 0.10±0.15 and -0.02±0.17 by using the modified C5 and C6 retrievals. Since the modified algorithms assume a higher contribution by the surface to the total measured reflectance from MODIS, consequently the overestimation of AOD by the operational methods is reduced. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the MODIS AOD retrieval with respect to different surface types was investigated. Radiative transfer simulations were performed to model reflectances at top of atmosphere for predefined aerosol properties. The reflectance data were used as input for the retrieval methods. It

  7. Plant Fungal Pathogens: Methods and Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolton, M.D.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the course of evolution, fungi have adapted to occupy specific niches, from symbiotically inhabiting the flora of the intestinal tract of mammals to saprophytic growth on leaf litter resting on the forest floor. In Plant Fungal Pathogens: Methods and Protocols, expert researchers in the field d

  8. Adaptation of the dynamic model for radiological assessment of nuclear accident in rural area under conditions of tropical climate; Adaptacao do modelo dinamico para avaliacao radiologica de acidente nuclear em area rural nas condicoes de clima tropical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinhas, Denise Martins

    2004-07-01

    Following an accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere that leads to the contamination of large areas, a detailed and fast methodology to assess the prognosis of public exposure is needed, in order to estimate radiological consequences and propose and optimize decisions related to the protection of the public. The model ECOSYS has been chosen to integrate the SIEM, the Integrated Emergency System developed by IRD/CNEN, to assess the doses at the short, medium and long term to the public after an accidental contamination of rural areas. The objective of this work is to perform the adaptation of the model ECOSYS to be used in Brazil to assess public exposure and support decision processes regarding the implementation of protective measures but also to guide the need for studies and research aiming to improve the adequacy of estimates to the actual Brazilian situation. The area select for reference to this work consists on the 50 km radius area surrounding the Brazilian nuclear power plants, located at Angra dos Reis County, in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The methodology included the definition of criteria to select agricultural cultures and animals to be simulated, taking into account both the availability of the production at the selected area and the relevance of the food to the population regional diet. Radionuclides included in this study were {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90} Sr and {sup 131} I. A large survey has been performed to gather data related to both agricultural practices and behavior of radionuclides in the selected agricultural-systems. The results of simulation indicated the relevance of the knowledge of local aspects on the estimated doses. Important factors included the kind of products produced, seasonality, agricultural practices, animals feed practices, kind of soil, and ingestion habits of the population. (author)

  9. Blind Collective Signature Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay A. Moldovyan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the digital signature (DS scheme specified by Belarusian DS standard there are designed the collective and blind collective DS protocols. Signature formation is performed simultaneously by all of the assigned signers, therefore the proposed protocols can be used also as protocols for simultaneous signing a contract. The proposed blind collective DS protocol represents a particular implementation of the blind multisignature schemes that is a novel type of the signature schemes. The proposed protocols are the first implementations of the multisignature schemes based on Belarusian signature standard.

  10. Energy Efficient (EECP) Clustered Protocol for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Surender; Prateek, Manish; Bhushan, Bharat

    2014-01-01

    Energy Conservation and prolonging the life of Wireless Sensor Network is one of the major issues in the wireless sensor network as sensor nodes are highly energy constrained devices. Many routing protocols have been proposed for sensor network, especially cluster based routing protocols. Cluster based routing protocols are best known for its energy efficiency, network stability and for increasing the life time of the sensor network. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) is one of ...

  11. Adaptation to climate change, Vulnerability and Micro- Insurance Business: A Study on Forest Dependent Communities in Drought prone areas of West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Jyotish Prakash Basu

    2011-01-01

    There are two main responses to climate change. One is adaptation and other is mitigation. The adaptation process includes three essential stages i.e. vulnerability assessment, capacity building and implementation of adaptation measures. The fundamental goal of adaptation strategies is the reduction of the vulnerabilities to climate-induced change. In India 700 million rural populations directly depend on climate-sensitive sectors like agriculture, forest and fisheries and natural resources s...

  12. Examining the Specific Effects of Context on Adaptive Behavior and Achievement in a Rural African Community: Six Case Studies from Rural Areas of Southern Province, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mei; Reich, Jodi; Hart, Lesley; Thuma, Philip E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    Generally accepted as universal, the construct of adaptive behavior differs in its manifestations across different cultures and settings. The Vineland-II (Sparrow et al. in "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second edn." AGS Publishing, Circle Pines, MN, 2005) was translated into Chitonga and adapted to the setting of rural Southern…

  13. Power Control Protocols in VANET

    OpenAIRE

    Samara, Ghassan; Salem, Amer O. Abu; Alhmiedat, Tareq

    2013-01-01

    Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET) is one of the most challenging research area in the field of the Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET), Power control is a critical issue in VANETwhere is should be managed carefully to help the channel to have high performance. In this paper a comparative study in the published protocols in the field of safety message dynamic power control will be presented and evaluated.

  14. On the Connection between Leakage Tolerance and Adaptive Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Venturi, Daniele; Zottarel, Angela

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the context of leakage-tolerant interactive protocols as defined by Bitanski, Canetti and Halevi (TCC 2012). Our contributions can be summarized as follows: For the purpose of secure message transmission, any encryption protocol with message space M and secret key space SK tolerating...... at the end of the protocol execution, if and only if the protocol has passive adaptive security against an adaptive corruption of one party at the end of the protocol execution. This shows that as soon as a little leakage is tolerated, one needs full adaptive security. In case more than one party can...... be corrupted, we get that leakage tolerance is equivalent to a weaker form of adaptivity, which we call semi-adaptivity. Roughly, a protocol has semi-adaptive security if there exist a simulator which can simulate the internal state of corrupted parties, however, such a state is not required...

  15. A new surgical and prosthetic protocol for dental implant treatment in the aesthetic area%美学区种植外科修复治疗流程新方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    满毅; 吴庆庆; 龚婷; 宫苹

    2015-01-01

    上颌前牙区缺牙后解剖变化复杂,美学风险高,种植治疗面临巨大挑战。各种软硬组织扩增方法的出现使得种植体成功植入和最终美学修复成为可能。但软硬组织扩增方法种类众多,效果受多种因素影响,软组织扩增技术又缺乏大量追踪报道,这些因素使得临床医生在选择方法和治疗时间点时面临较大困难。本文在回顾美学区种植治疗的临床证据并结合大量临床实践的基础上,总结出一套美学区种植治疗新方案,为临床医生开展美学区种植治疗提供了参考依据。%The anterior maxilla undergoes complex anatomical changes following tooth loss. The high risk of implant treatment in anterior maxilla increases the challenge. Implant placement and aesthetic restoration became possible with the emergence of various hard and soft tissue augmentation techniques. However, the variety of techniques, poor predictability, and lack of evidence in soft tissue research increases the difficulty of dentists in choosing the proper technique and treatment time point. Based on literature and accumulated clinical experiences in dental implant treatment of edentulous aesthetic area, the present article proposes a new surgical and prosthetic treatment protocol, which may help the dentists in treating edentulous aesthetic area.

  16. Block Advertisement Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Nemirovsky, Danil

    2015-01-01

    Bitcoin, a decentralized cryptocurrency, has attracted a lot of attention from academia, financial service industry and enthusiasts. The trade-off between transaction confirmation throughput and centralization of hash power do not allow Bitcoin to perform at the same level as modern payment systems. Block Advertisement Protocol is proposed as a step to resolve this issue. The protocol allows block mining and block relaying to happen in parallel. The protocol dictates a miner to advertise the ...

  17. Multi-Gateway-Based Energy Holes Avoidance Routing Protocol for WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Sharma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks (WSNs, efficient energy conservation is required to prolong the lifetime of the network. In this work, we have given emphasis on balanced energy consumption and energy holes avoidance. This paper proposes a multi-gateway-based approach to reduce the transmission distance between the sender and the sink node. The area to be monitored is divided into regions and gateway nodes are deployed at optimal positions. We have designed a transmission scheme, in which sensors in the sink region communicate directly to the sink, sensors in the gateway region communicate directly to the gateway, and sensors in the cluster region transmit their data directly to their respective cluster head which transmits data to the gateway in its region. If the distance between a cluster head and the sink is less than the distance between the cluster head and the gateway node, the cluster head transmits data to the sink instead of the gateway node. We have compared the proposed protocol with Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH, Gateway Based Energy Aware Multi-Hop Routing (M-GEAR, and Gateway Based Stable Election Protocol (GSEP protocols. The protocol performs better than other protocols in terms of throughput, stability period, lifetime, residual energy, and the packet transmitted to the sink.

  18. Transport Protocol Throughput Fairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Bhatti

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Interest continues to grow in alternative transport protocols to the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP. These alternatives include protocols designed to give greater efficiency in high-speed, high-delay environments (so-called high-speed TCP variants, and protocols that provide congestion control without reliability. For the former category, along with the deployed base of ‘vanilla’ TCP – TCP NewReno – the TCP variants BIC and CUBIC are widely used within Linux: for the latter category, the Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP is currently on the IETF Standards Track. It is clear that future traffic patterns will consist of a mix of flows from these protocols (and others. So, it is important for users and network operators to be aware of the impact that these protocols may have on users. We show the measurement of fairness in throughput performance of DCCP Congestion Control ID 2 (CCID2 relative to TCP NewReno, and variants Binary Increase Congestion control (BIC, CUBIC and Compound, all in “out-of-the box” configurations. We use a testbed and endto- end measurements to assess overall throughput, and also to assess fairness – how well these protocols might respond to each other when operating over the same end-to-end network path. We find that, in our testbed, DCCP CCID2 shows good fairness with NewReno, while BIC, CUBIC and Compound show unfairness above round-trip times of 25ms.

  19. Linear Logical Voting Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeYoung, Henry; Schürmann, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    . In response, we promote linear logic as a high-level language for both specifying and implementing voting protocols. Our linear logical specifications of the single-winner first-past-the-post (SW- FPTP) and single transferable vote (STV) protocols demonstrate that this approach leads to concise...

  20. A Low Energy Intelligent Clustering Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qiao; Cui, Lingguo; Zhang, Baihai;

    2010-01-01

    LEACH (low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy) is a well-known self-organizing, adaptive clustering protocol of wireless sensor networks. However it has some shortcomings when it faces such problems as the cluster construction and energy management. In this paper, LEICP (low energy intelligent ...

  1. Secure Key Management Protocol in WIMAX

    OpenAIRE

    Noudjoud Kahya; Nacira Ghoualmi; Pascal Lafourcade

    2012-01-01

    The Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WIMAX /IEEE 802.16), is new technology basedon wireless metropolitan area network. Security of connections access in WIMAX /IEEE 802.16 iscomplete with respect to the Privacy Key Management (PKM) protocol. The protocol is responsible forproviding the secure distribution of keying data from Base Station (BS) to Subscriber Station (SS). In thispaper we provide the formal analysis of PKMv2 using Scyther tool to verify the security properties. ...

  2. The obscure future of the Kyoto protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Tsayem Demaze, Moise

    2013-01-01

    Since it came into effect in 2005 followed by its first period of application from 2008 to 2012, the Kyoto protocol has been subject to debates and international negotiations about its post-2012 future. Many grey areas persist, even though the Durban conference, held in December 2011, and the Doha conference, held in December 2012, ratified the principle of a second period of application of the protocol and started negotiations for a new international treaty supposed to come into effect in 2020.

  3. Changes of water demand - possible adaptation of agricultural crops and management options to improve water use efficiency in the Marchfeld area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, S.; Eitzinger, J.; Dubrovsky, M.; Trnka, M.

    2009-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the vulnerability of current agricultural cropping systems in the Marchfeld region to climate change. The investigation area Marchfeld is located in the north-eastern (NE) part of Austria and is characterized by a semi-arid climate with low annual rainfall. It is one of the driest regions in the country, but also one of the main field crop production areas. The soil conditions in Marchfeld demonstrate a significant spatial variability, which include soils with low to moderate water-storage capacities. Higher temperatures in the next decades imply higher evaporation and consequently higher water demand for the crops. The phenological development rates of the cultivars will accelerate and an increase of heat stress as well as drought stress can be expected. These points influence intense the water balance and subsequently the yield of the crops in the investigation area. In order to improve water use efficiency under those changing conditions, a shift of average sowing dates and an adjustment of tillage were analyzed. The DSSAT cropping system model was applied for winter wheat and spring barley to assess potential yield under climate scenarios for NE Austria. The scenarios were carried out with ECHAM5, HadCM3 and NCAR PCM global circulation models (GCMs) for present conditions (reference period 1961-1990) and 2035's (2021-2050), based on SRES-A1B emission scenarios. Yield model simulations were done for all defined scenarios (climate, management, crop) and different soil classes. The simulations contain the CO2 fertilizing effect, rain fed farming, adapted sowing date and contemporary crops without consideration of potential profit cuts caused by pest or diseases. Simulation results indicate that climate change will force a delay of the sowing date for winter wheat of maximal 14 days in October. In case of spring barley, climate change allows an earlier sowing date in spring (up to 14 days). Both crops show a

  4. Comparison of CSMA based MAC protocols of wireless sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    singh, Himanshu

    2012-01-01

    Energy conservation has been an important area of interest in Wireless Sensor networks (WSNs). Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols play an important role in energy conservation. In this paper, we describe CSMA based MAC protocols for WSN and analyze the simulation results of these protocols. We implemented S-MAC, T-MAC, B-MAC, B-MAC+, X-MAC, DMAC and Wise-MAC in TOSSIM, a simulator which unlike other simulators simulates the same code running on real hardware. Previous surveys mainly focused on the classification of MAC protocols according to the techniques being used or problem dealt with and presented a theoretical evaluation of protocols. This paper presents the comparative study of CSMA based protocols for WSNs, showing which MAC protocol is suitable in a particular environment and supports the arguments with the simulation results. The comparative study can be used to find the best suited MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks in different environments.

  5. IPv6 Protocol Analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    With the emerging of next generation Intemet protocol (IPv6), it is expected to replace the current version of Internet protocol (IPv4) that will be exhausted in the near future. Besides providing adequate address space, some other new features are included into the new 128 bits of IP such as IP auto configuration, quality of service, simple routing capability, security, mobility and multicasting. The current protocol analyzer will not be able to handle IPv6 packets. This paper will focus on developing protocol analyzer that decodes IPv6 packet. IPv6 protocol analyzer is an application module,which is able to decode the IPv6 packet and provide detail breakdown of the construction of the packet. It has to understand the detail construction of the IPv6, and provide a high level abstraction of bits and bytes of the IPv6 packet.Thus it increases network administrators' understanding of a network protocol,helps he/she in solving protocol related problem in a IPv6 network environment.

  6. Mega drought in the Colorado River Basin, water supply, and adaptive scenario planning for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area; simulations using WaterSim 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Decision Center for a Desert City (DCDC), a boundary organization, bridges science and policy (to foster knowledge-based decision making); we study how decisions are made in the face of uncertainty. Our water policy and management model for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area (hereafter "Phoenix"), termed WaterSim, represents one such bridging mechanism. We evaluated the effect of varying the length of drought on water availability for Phoenix. We examined droughts (starting in 2000) lasting 15, 25, and 50 years. We picked a 60-year window of runoff estimates from the paleo reconstruction data for the Colorado River (CO) (1121 through 1180 A.D.), and the two local rivers (1391 through 1450 A.D.), and assumed that the proportional difference in median flow between these periods and the long-term record represented an estimate of potential drought reductions on river flows. This resulted in a 12%, and 19% reduction in flows for the CO River and the Salt-Verde (SV) Rivers, respectively. WaterSim uses 30-year trace periods from the historical flow records to simulate river flow for future projections. We used each 30-year trace from the historical record (1906 to present, CO River; 1945 to present SV Rivers) , and default settings, to simulate 60 year projections of Lake Mead elevation and the accompanying Colorado River water shortages to Phoenix. Overall, elevations for Lake Mead fell below the 1st shortage sharing tier (1075 ft) in 83% of the simulations; 74% of the simulations fell below the 2nd tier (1050 ft), and 64% fell below the 3rd (1025 ft). Length of drought, however, determined the shortage tiers met. Median elevations for droughts ending in 2015, 2025, and 2050 were 1036, 1019, and 967 feet msl, respectively. We present the plausible water futures with adaptive anticipatory scenario planning for the projected reductions in surface water availability to demonstrate decision points for water conservation measures to effectively manage shortage conditions.

  7. Playing With Population Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Koegler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Population protocols have been introduced as a model of sensor networks consisting of very limited mobile agents with no control over their own movement: A collection of anonymous agents, modeled by finite automata, interact in pairs according to some rules. Predicates on the initial configurations that can be computed by such protocols have been characterized under several hypotheses. We discuss here whether and when the rules of interactions between agents can be seen as a game from game theory. We do so by discussing several basic protocols.

  8. ATM and Internet protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Bentall, M; Turton, B

    1998-01-01

    Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a protocol that allows data, sound and video being transferred between independent networks via ISDN links to be supplied to, and interpreted by, the various system protocols.ATM and Internet Protocol explains the working of the ATM and B-ISDN network for readers with a basic understanding of telecommunications. It provides a handy reference to everyone working with ATM who may not require the full standards in detail, but need a comprehensive guide to ATM. A substantial section is devoted to the problems of running IP over ATM and there is some discussion o

  9. Routing Protocol Performance Issues and Evaluation Considerations in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Venkata Maheswara,

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobile nodes in Wire less a d-hoc networ k need to operate as routers in or d er to maintain the informa tion ab out network connectivity as there is no centralized infrastructure. Therefore,Routing Protocols are required which could adapt dynamically to the changing topologies and works at low data rates. As are sult, there arises a need for the compreh ensive performance evaluation of the ad-doc routing protocols in same frame work to under stand their comparative merits and suitability for deployment in different scenarios. In this paper the protocols suite selected for comparison are AODV, DSR, TORA and OLSR ad- hoc routing protocols, as these were the most promising from all other protocols. The performance of these protocols is evaluated through exhaustive simulations using the OPNET Model network simulator under different parameters like routing over head, delay , throughput and network load under varying the mobile nodes .

  10. AN INTERACTIVE VISUALIZATION TOOL FOR ANIMATING BEHAVIOR OF CRYPTOGRAPHIC PROTOCOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabroka Maeref

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cryptography and Network Security is a difficult subject to understand, mainly because of the complexity of security protocols and the mathematical rigour required to understand encryption algorithms. Realizing the need for an interactive visualization tool to facilitate the understanding of cryptographic concepts and protocols, several tools had been developed. However, these tools cannot be easily adapted to animate different protocols. The aim of this paper is to propose an interactive visualization tool, called the Cryptographic Protocol Animator (CPAnim. The tool enables a student to specify a protocol and gain knowledge about the impact of its behavior. The protocol is specified by using a scenario-based approach and it is demonstrated as a number of scenes displaying a complete scenario. The effectiveness of this tool was tested using an empirical evaluation method. The results show that this tool was effective in meeting its learning objectives.

  11. A Performance Comparison of Two Real Time WLAN MAC Protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Chun-sheng; LI Feng; ZHANG Wei-dong

    2007-01-01

    By modifying the IEEE 802.11 wireless local area network (WLAN) medium access protocol (MAC), a contention based and a polling based protocol are proposed to deal with the case every station possesses two classes of frame in real time applications. Both protocols can ensure the real time frame only need to wait a determinable bounded time. These two protocols are introduced briefly and a performance comparison between them is made. Simulation results show that each protocol has advantage over the others in certain network condition.

  12. Snakebite management in Iran: Devising a protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mostafa Monzavi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Snakebite in Iran has been a health concern. However, management of snakebite is not standardized and varies from center to center. This study is aimed at devising an evidence-based comprehensive protocol for snakebite management in Iran, to reduce unnecessary variations in practice. Materials and Methods: A narrative search in electronic databases was performed. Fifty peer-reviewed articles, guidelines, and textbooks were reviewed and practical details were extracted. Our currently used protocol in the Mashhad Toxicology Center was supplemented with this information. Consequently an improved wide-range protocol was developed. The protocol was then discussed and amended within a focus group comprised of medical toxicologists and internal medicine specialists. The amended version was finally discussed with expert physicians specialized in different areas of medicine, to be optimized by supplementing other specific considerations. Results: During a one-year process, the protocol was finalized. The final version of the protocol, which was designed in six steps, comprised of three components: A schematic algorithm, a severity grading scale, and instructions for supportive and adjunctive treatments. The algorithm pertains to both Viperidae and Elapidae snakebite envenomations and consists of a planned course of action and dosing of antivenom, based on the severity of the envenomation. Conclusion: Snakebite envenomation is a clinical toxicologic emergency, which needs to be treated in a timely and organized manner. Hence, a multi-aspect protocol was designed to improve the clinical outcomes, reduce unnecessary administration of antivenom, and help physicians make more proper clinical judgments.

  13. 1996 : Track Count Protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge's Track Count Protocol is to provide an index to the population size of game animals inhabiting St. Vincent Island.

  14. USA-USSR protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    On 30 November the USA Atomic Energy Commission and the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy signed, in Washington, a protocol 'on carrying out of joint projects in the field of high energy physics at the accelerators of the National Accelerator Laboratory (Batavia) and the Institute for High Energy Physics (Serpukhov)'. The protocol will be in force for five years and can be extended by mutual agreement.

  15. Effect of Blackhole Attack on Single Hop and Multihop Leach Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiq Iqbal,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless micro sensor networks provide reliable monitoring of remote areas for data-gathering. Due to the limited battery capacity of sensor nodes, energy consumption plays an important role in the operation of WSN. This can be improved by using a protocol called Low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH.Malicious attacks are generated in the network due to power supply, processing abilities and capacity for high power radio transmission. In this paper one such attack namely BlackHole attack and its effect on single hop LEACH and multihop LEACH has been compared, simulated and analyzed.

  16. Kyoto protocol and cogeneration in rural areas: institutional and organizational configuration and perspectives; Protocolo de Kyoto e co-geracao no meio rural: configuracao institucional e organizacional e perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Zilmar Jose de; Azevedo, Paulo Furquim de [Fundacao Getulio Vargas (EESP/FGV), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola de Economia de Sao Paulo], e-mails: zilmar.souza@energiasdobrasil.com.br, pfa@fgvsp.br

    2006-07-01

    This article presents a brief historical record concerning the Brazilian institutional arrangement given to the Kyoto Protocol and, based on the Brazilian emissions profile, discusses general perspectives to the use of the CDM, mainly in projects involving co-generation in the agricultural sector. It is observed high uncertainty about the liquidity and development of the carbon credit market, above all, with reference to the definition of the second period of the Kyoto Protocol commitments. Even so, with the consolidation of the institutional environment, the carbon credit market must become favorable to the projects of co-generation in agricultural sector, especially in countries as Brazil. (author)

  17. Energy-Efficient Boarder Node Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Razaque; Elleithy, Khaled M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design, implementation, and performance analysis of the scalable and mobility-aware hybrid protocol named boarder node medium access control (BN-MAC) for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which leverages the characteristics of scheduled and contention-based MAC protocols. Like contention-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC achieves high channel utilization, network adaptability under heavy traffic and mobility, and low latency and overhead. Like schedule-based MAC protocols,...

  18. Performance of Conferencing over MANET Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ibrahim Abdullah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless ad hoc network represents a system of wireless nodes that can freely and dynamically self-organize into arbitrary and temporary network topologies, allowing people and devices to seamlessly internet-work in areas without any preexisting communication infrastructure. The routing protocols of this network elapsed much time in route discovery and route maintenances. In this research work we have studied the performance of routing protocols DSR and AODV when the nodes involved in video conferencing. Simulation studies show that AODV is better than DSR in coverage area with acceptable delay and packet loss.

  19. 一种自适应功率控制的信道预约多址接入协议%Channel reservation MAC protocol with adaptive power control mechanism carrier sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁韵洁; 李波; 闫中江

    2013-01-01

    提出了一种动态调整发送功率和载波侦听门限的信道预约多址接入协议(PC-CRM).该协议将功率控制技术应用于信道预约机制,通过对预约节点发送功率的优化设定和载波侦听门限的动态调整,使得相邻节点可以同时复用信道,从而在增强预约稳定性的基础上,提升了网络容量,降低了节点能耗.仿真结果显示,与IEEE 802.11 DCF和基本信道预约协议相比,PC-CRM协议在网络吞吐率、能量消耗效率和分组延迟抖动方面均有明显优势.%vA channel reservation MAC protocol with the adjustable transmission power and carrier sensing threshold, called PC-CRM, is proposed. PC-CRM solves the problems of poor transmission quality, low network capacity and high energy consumption, which are caused by the distributed contention based channel access scheme in Ad Hoc networks. By employing power control into the channel reservation schemes, PC-CRM adjusts the transmission power and carrier sensing threshold to the optimum values, such that the channel is multiplexed in space. Additionally, PC-CRM is also capable of stabilizing the channel reservation, improving the network capacity, and reducing the energy cost. Simulation results show that, compared with IEEE 802. 11DCF and the basic channel reservation scheme, PC-CRM performs better in terms of the throughput, energy efficiency and delay jitter.

  20. Chain-Chain Based Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia A Ali

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN is an emerging technology for monitoring physical world. WSNs consist of large numbers of sensor nodes operated by battery mostly in harsh environment. Thus energy conservation is a primary issue for organization of these sensor nodes. Another crucial issue is the data delivery time by sensor nodes to the sink node, especially in Military, medical fields, and security monitoring systems where minimum delay is desirable. Number of protocols has been proposed in the literature for routing. One of such protocols is the cluster based routing protocol LEACH (low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy. LEACH protocol organizes WSN into a set of clusters and a periodic voting for cluster head is performed in order to be evenly distributed among all the sensors of the WSN. This periodical cluster head voting in LEACH, however, consumes an amount of non-negligible energy and other resources. For energy conservation, PEGASIS (power efficient gathering in sensor information systems a near optimal chain-based protocol has been proposed, however, it is faced with the challenge of long delay for the transmitted data. Another routing protocol called CCM (Chain-Cluster based Mixed routing, which is mainly a hybrid of LEACH and PEGASIS is proposed, the consumed energy increases as network size increases. In this paper, we propose an efficient routing protocol called CCBRP (Chain-Chain based routing protocol, it achieves both minimum energy consumption and minimum delay. The CCBRP protocol mainly divides a WSN into a number of chains (Greedy algorithm is used to form each chain as in PEGSIS protocol and runs in two phases. In the first phase, sensor nodes in each chain transmit data to their chain leader nodes in parallel. In the second phase, all chain leader nodes form a chain (also, using Greedy algorithm and choose randomly a leader node then all chain leader nodes send their data to this chosen leader node. This chosen leader node

  1. Cytoskeleton - Methods and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cytoskeleton - Methods and ProtocolsSecond edition, 2010; Ray H. Gavin (Ed; Springer Protocols methods in molecular biology, vol. 586 Humana press, Totowa, New Jersey (USA; Pages: 390; €95.44; ISBN: 978-1-60761-375-6Ray H. Gavin, from the Brooklyn College of The City University of New York, Brooklyn, NY, USA, wrote a few line as preface of this book. This is quite understandable: there is not a great need of words when there are facts that sustain and favour the dissemination of a cultural product. This is the case of the second edition of Cytoskeleton - Methods and Protocols, which appears just ten years after the first edition...

  2. DNA repair protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms...... that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including...... recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly...

  3. Implementation and Experimental Evaluation of Wireless Ad hoc Routing Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Lundgren, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    A wireless ad hoc network consists of a number of mobile nodes that temporarily form a dynamic infrastructure-less network. New routing protocols that can adapt to the frequent topology changes induced by node mobility and varying link qualities are needed. During the last decade dozens of different ad hoc routing protocols have been proposed, optimized and partially compared, mainly through simulation studies. This thesis takes an experimental approach to the evaluation of ad hoc routing pro...

  4. Addressing Mobility in Wireless Sensor Media Access Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Huan Pham; Sanjay Jha

    2005-01-01

    Handling mobility in wireless sensor networks presents several new challenges. Techniques developed for other mobile networks, such as mobile phone or mobile adhoc networks can not be applicable, as in these networks energy is not a very critical resource. This paper presents a new adaptive Mobility-aware Sensor MAC protocol (MS-MAC) for mobile sensor applications. In MS-MAC protocol, a node detects its neighbor's mobility based on a change in its received signal level from the neighbor, or a...

  5. IMPLEMENTATION OF HTTP LIVE STREAMING PROTOCOL IN JAVA

    OpenAIRE

    Rehar, Anže

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we discuss protocols for streaming to mobile devices. Tremendous growth of smartphone and tablet sales numbers over the past few years push content providers to seek new ways to offer video content. However, these devices have some limitations that make the implementation of video streaming a complex project. Most depends on the streaming protocol selection. There is a set of HTTP based technologies but there are no standards for adaptive streaming to mobile devices. In thesis ...

  6. Adaptation to climate change in the biosphere reserves: a case study of Katunskiy Biosphere Reserve, Russia. eco.mont (Journal on Protected Mountain Areas Research)|eco.mont Vol. 3 No. 1 3 1|

    OpenAIRE

    Yashina, Tatjana

    2011-01-01

    Climate change is increasingly recognized as the driver of biodiversity change. In recent years, the issues related to climate change have left the purely scientific realm and got on the agenda of many international organizations, programmes, conventions and initiatives seeking ways to mitigate and adapt to this phenomenon. Protected areas and biosphere reserves (BRs) in particular, focused as they are on the conservation of ecosystem services and on fostering sustainable regional development...

  7. Adaptive Lighting

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive LightingAdaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled i...

  8. Apoptosis - Methods and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis - Methods and ProtocolsSecond edition, 2009; Peter Erhardt and Ambrus Toth (Eds; Springer Protocols - Methods in molecular biology, vol. 559; Humana press, Totowa, New Jersey (USA; Pages: 400; €88.35; ISBN: 978-1-60327-016-8The editors rightly begin the preface telling us that: “The ability to detect and quantify apoptosis, to understand its biochemistry and to identify its regulatory genes and proteins is crucial to biomedical research”. Nowadays this is a grounding concept of biology and medicine. What is particularly remarkable...

  9. Security Protocols in a Nutshell

    OpenAIRE

    Toorani, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Security protocols are building blocks in secure communications. They deploy some security mechanisms to provide certain security services. Security protocols are considered abstract when analyzed, but they can have extra vulnerabilities when implemented. This manuscript provides a holistic study on security protocols. It reviews foundations of security protocols, taxonomy of attacks on security protocols and their implementations, and different methods and models for security analysis of pro...

  10. Business protocol in integrated Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Pavelová, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The first chapter devotes to definitions of basic terms such as protocol or business protocol, to differences between protocol and etiquette, and between social etiquette and business etiquette. The second chapter focuses on the factors influencing the European business protocol. The third chapter is devoted to the etiquette of business protocol in the European countries. It touches the topics such as punctuality and planning of business appointment, greeting, business cards, dress and appear...

  11. Development of IT-based Data Communication Protocol for Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The communication protocol, which provide overall communication rules and methods and give ways how to exchange information, is the most important part and it can affect the overall performance of communication network. Therefore, the first step of development of the communication network of an NPP is its own communication protocol design, which conforms to the requirements and characteristics of an NPP I and C. To manage the protocol development process, we establish development procedure and define detail substantive based on the procedure and we examine the adaptability of existing commercial communication protocols to the communication protocol of an NPP I and C. Existing commercial communication protocols based on Information Technology(IT) can be categorized into 3 groups: general commercial communication protocols, industrial communication protocols, military communication protocols. We analyze the design criteria and performance requirements of popular protocols in each group. And also, we examine the adaptability to the communication protocol of an NPP. Based on these results, we developed our own protocol for NPP I and C, which meet the required specifications through design overall protocol architecture and data frame format, definition of functional requirements and specifications

  12. AR-RBFS: Aware-Routing Protocol Based on Recursive Best-First Search Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Kiani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy issue is one of the most important problems in wireless sensor networks. They consist of low-power sensor nodes and a few base station nodes. They must be adaptive and efficient in data transmission to sink in various areas. This paper proposes an aware-routing protocol based on clustering and recursive search approaches. The paper focuses on the energy efficiency issue with various measures such as prolonging network lifetime along with reducing energy consumption in the sensor nodes and increasing the system reliability. Our proposed protocol consists of two phases. In the first phase (network development phase, the sensors are placed into virtual layers. The second phase (data transmission is related to routes discovery and data transferring so it is based on virtual-based Classic-RBFS algorithm in the lake of energy problem environments but, in the nonchargeable environments, all nodes in each layer can be modeled as a random graph and then begin to be managed by the duty cycle method. Additionally, the protocol uses new topology control, data aggregation, and sleep/wake-up schemas for energy saving in the network. The simulation results show that the proposed protocol is optimal in the network lifetime and packet delivery parameters according to the present protocols.

  13. A classification of service discovery protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin Perianu, Raluca; Hartel, Pieter; Scholten, Hans

    2005-01-01

    Service discovery is an emerging field in the area of ubiquitous computing. There are various techniques and protocols (proposed or/and already implemented) particularly tailored to specific sets of objectives. This paper analyses the current state of the art and presents a taxonomy of service disco

  14. Dynamic Routing Protocol for Computer Networks with Clustering Topology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a hierarchical dynamic routing protocol (HDRP) based on the discrete dynamic programming principle. The proposed protocol can adapt to the dynamic and large computer networks (DLCN) with clustering topology. The procedures for realizing routing update and decision are presented in this paper. The proof of correctness and complexity analysis of the protocol are also made. The performance measures of the HDRP including throughput and average message delay are evaluated by using of simulation. The study shows that the HDRP provides a new available approach to the routing decision for DLCN or high speed networks with clustering topology.

  15. Model Additional Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the end of the cold war a series of events has changed the circumstances and requirements of the safeguards system. The discovery of a clandestine nuclear weapons program in Iraq, the continuing difficulty in verifying the initial report of Democratic People's Republic of Korea upon entry into force of their safeguards agreement, and the decision of the South African Government to give up its nuclear weapons program and join the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons have all played a role in an ambitious effort by IAEA Member States and the Secretariat to strengthen the safeguards system. A major milestone in this effort was reached in May 1997 when the IAEA Board of Governors approved a Model Protocol Additional to Safeguards Agreements. The Model Additional Protocol was negotiated over a period of less than a year by an open-ended committee of the Board involving some 70 Member States and two regional inspectorates. The IAEA is now in the process of negotiating additional protocols, State by State, and implementing them. These additional protocols will provide the IAEA with rights of access to information about all activities related to the use of nuclear material in States with comprehensive safeguards agreements and greatly expanded physical access for IAEA inspectors to confirm or verify this information. In conjunction with this, the IAEA is working on the integration of these measures with those provided for in comprehensive safeguards agreements, with a view to maximizing the effectiveness and efficiency, within available resources, the implementation of safeguards. Details concerning the Model Additional Protocol are given. (author)

  16. Energy-Efficient Boarder Node Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razaque

    2014-03-01

    -synchronous feature with a low duty cycle, which is advantageous for reducing the latency and energy consumption for several WSN application areas to improve the throughput. BN-MAC uses a unique window slot size to enhance the contention resolution issue for improved throughput. BN-MAC also prefers to communicate within a one-hop destination using Anycast, which maintains load balancing to maintain network reliability. BN-MAC is introduced with the goal of supporting four major application areas: monitoring and behavioral areas, controlling natural disasters, human-centric applications, and tracking mobility and static home automation devices from remote places. These application areas require a congestion-free mobility-supported MAC protocol to guarantee reliable data delivery. BN-MAC was evaluated using network simulator-2 (ns2 and compared with other hybrid MAC protocols, such as Zebra medium access control (Z-MAC, advertisement-based MAC (A-MAC, Speck-MAC, adaptive duty cycle SMAC (ADC-SMAC, and low-power real-time medium access control (LPR-MAC. The simulation results indicate that BN-MAC is a robust and energy-efficient protocol that outperforms other hybrid MAC protocols in the context of quality of service (QoS parameters, such as energy consumption, latency, throughput, channel access time, successful delivery rate, coverage efficiency, and average duty cycle.

  17. A Geographical Heuristic Routing Protocol for VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Urquiza-Aguiar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs leverage the communication system of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS. Recently, Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN routing protocols have increased their popularity among the research community for being used in non-safety VANET applications and services like traffic reporting. Vehicular DTN protocols use geographical and local information to make forwarding decisions. However, current proposals only consider the selection of the best candidate based on a local-search. In this paper, we propose a generic Geographical Heuristic Routing (GHR protocol that can be applied to any DTN geographical routing protocol that makes forwarding decisions hop by hop. GHR includes in its operation adaptations simulated annealing and Tabu-search meta-heuristics, which have largely been used to improve local-search results in discrete optimization. We include a complete performance evaluation of GHR in a multi-hop VANET simulation scenario for a reporting service. Our study analyzes all of the meaningful configurations of GHR and offers a statistical analysis of our findings by means of MANOVA tests. Our results indicate that the use of a Tabu list contributes to improving the packet delivery ratio by around 5% to 10%. Moreover, if Tabu is used, then the simulated annealing routing strategy gets a better performance than the selection of the best node used with carry and forwarding (default operation.

  18. A family of quantum protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Devetak, I; Winter, A

    2003-01-01

    We introduce two dual, purely quantum protocols: for entanglement distillation assisted by quantum communication (``mother'' protocol) and for entanglement assisted quantum communication (``father'' protocol). We show how a large class of ``children'' protocols (including many previously known ones) can be derived from the two by direct application of teleportation or super-dense coding. Furthermore, the parent may be recovered from most of the children protocols by making them ``coherent''. We also summarize the various resource trade-offs these protocols give rise to.

  19. 北京门头沟采石场废弃地造林树种生长状况调查%Adaptability analysis of planting species in the abandoned area of quarry in Mentougou District of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石丽丽; 赵廷宁; 王雄宾; 谷建才

    2013-01-01

    矿山废弃地生态恢复是环境建设的一项重要工作,为了探讨不同矿山废弃地植被恢复措施,作者对门头沟采石场不同植被恢复措施中实施6年后的乔木、灌木树种生长状况进行了调查,在建立树种适应性指数的基础上,对11种树种在门头沟采石场废弃地适应性进行了评价.结果表明:1)灌木类型适应性普遍高于乔木树种类型,各乔木、灌木适应性差异显著;2)乔木适应性表现为黄栌>银杏>油松>火炬>侧柏>桧柏+侧柏混交林>杜仲>国槐,灌木适应性表现为桃树>丁香>连翘.%The ecological restoration of abandoned mines is an important work to environment construction. In order to discuss vegetation restoration measures of abandoned mines, the growth adaptability of planting species were investigated after different vegetation restoration measures were implemented for six years on abandoned quarry in Mentougou. The adaptability of 11 kinds of planting species was evaluated based on the adaptability index. The vegetation investigation was implemented in the abandoned area of quarry in Mentougou, and the adaptability of 11 kinds of planting species was evaluated based on the adaptability index. The results showed; the adaptability of shrubs was better than that of arbors; the difference of the adaptability of the 11 kinds of planting species was significant. Adaptability of the 8 arbors were in the following order; Cotinus coggygria > Ginkgo biloba > Pinus tabulaeformis > Rhus typhina > Platycladus orientalis > mixed forest of Sabina chinensis and Platycladus orientalis > Eucommia ulmoides > Sophora japonica, and that of shrubs were; Amygdalus persica > Syringa pekinensis > Forsythia suspensa.

  20. Symmetric cryptographic protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Ramkumar, Mahalingam

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on protocols and constructions that make good use of symmetric pseudo random functions (PRF) like block ciphers and hash functions - the building blocks for symmetric cryptography. Readers will benefit from detailed discussion of several strategies for utilizing symmetric PRFs. Coverage includes various key distribution strategies for unicast, broadcast and multicast security, and strategies for constructing efficient digests of dynamic databases using binary hash trees.   •        Provides detailed coverage of symmetric key protocols •        Describes various applications of symmetric building blocks •        Includes strategies for constructing compact and efficient digests of dynamic databases

  1. Phototherapy Modalities and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayten Ferahbaş

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, the development of irradiation devices with new emission spectra has led to an expanded role for phototherapy in the treatment of skin diseases. This development is best illustrated by the increasing frequency with which 311 nm UVB phototherapy is used for the treatment of psoriasis and vitiligo, especially. Another example is UVA1 340-400 nm. UVA1 was first used to treat patients with atopic dermatitis, but it has been found to be efficacious in several other skin diseases. This is overview of the protocols for phototherapy with UV in the treatment of skin diseases as currently used according to recent literature review. There are, of course, other protocols in use that are effective.

  2. Mitosis Methods & Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mitosis Methods & Protocols Andrew D. McAinsh (Edt Humana press, Totowa, New Jersey (USA Series: Springer Protocols Methods in Molecular Biology, Volume 545, 2009 ISBN: 978-1-60327-992-5   It is quite clear from the contents of this book that the remarkably fascinating phenomenon of mitosis (that captured, and still is capturing, the attention of entire generations of scientists is still open to research. This is mainly due to our lack of knowledge of so many multifaced events of this extraordinarly complex process. The reader giving a glace through the Contents and Contributors sections is speechless: All of the first-class models (i.e., budding yeast, Caenorabditis, Drosophila, Xenopus and Human are presented..... 

  3. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Nemr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children, 29.25 (adult women, 22.75 (adult men, and 27.10 (seniors. CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics.

  4. Evaluate Dynamic Source Routing Protocol Performance in Wireless MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Perti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Routing protocols used in ad hoc networks must automatically adjust to environments that can vary between the extremes of high mobility with low bandwidth, and low mobility with high bandwidth. In my research paper I have analyzed a routing protocol called Dynamic Source Routing (DSR. At the ed of my Research paper result of its unique design, the protocol adapts quickly to routing changes when node movement is frequent, yet requires little or no overhead during periods in which nodes move less frequently. By graphical form a detailed analysis of DSR’s behaviour in a variety of situations, this paper generalizes the lessons learned from DSR so that they can be applied to the many other new routing protocols that have adopted the basic DSR framework. In the DSR protocol, a backup route will be initiated to transfer data (in route cache when the initial route is broken. However, a backup route affects the overall network performance such as end-to-end delay, etc. In this paper, I showed the simulation results of the dynamic source routing protocol based on it’s throughput, pause time, packet received, drop packet ratio, end to end delay, packet delivery fraction, and routing overhead. This results shows that dynamic source routing protocol is an efficient protocol to be used in Ad Hoc network.

  5. Adaptive Communication Techniques for the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Du

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The vision for the Internet of Things (IoT demands that material objects acquire communications and computation capabilities and become able to automatically identify themselves through standard protocols and open systems, using the Internet as their foundation. Yet, several challenges still must be addressed for this vision to become a reality. A core ingredient in such development is the ability of heterogeneous devices to communicate adaptively so as to make the best of limited spectrum availability and cope with competition which is inevitable as more and more objects connect to the system. This survey provides an overview of current developments in this area, placing emphasis on wireless sensor networks that can provide IoT capabilities for material objects and techniques that can be used in the context of systems employing low-power versions of the Internet Protocol (IP stack. The survey introduces a conceptual model that facilitates the identification of opportunities for adaptation in each layer of the network stack. After a detailed discussion of specific approaches applicable to particular layers, we consider how sharing information across layers can facilitate further adaptation. We conclude with a discussion of future research directions.

  6. Automatic Validation of Protocol Narration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, Pierpablo;

    2003-01-01

    We perform a systematic expansion of protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to make precise some of the detailed checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we...... demonstrate that these techniques suffice for identifying a number of authentication flaws in symmetric key protocols such as Needham-Schroeder, Otway-Rees, Yahalom and Andrew Secure RPC....

  7. An automatic protocol composition checker

    OpenAIRE

    Kojovic, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Formal analysis is widely used to prove security properties of the protocols. There are tools to check protocols in isolation, but in fact we use many protocols in parallel or even vertically stacked, e.g. running an application protocol (like login) over a secure channel (like TLS) and in general it is unclear if that is safe. There are several works that give sufficient conditions for parallel and vertical composition, but there exists no program to check whether these conditions are actual...

  8. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... distributed differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial...

  9. Static Validation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, P.;

    2005-01-01

    We methodically expand protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to specify some of the checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we demonstrate that these techniques...

  10. High dynamic adaptive mobility network model and performance analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hui; ZHANG Jun

    2008-01-01

    Since mobile networks are not currently deployed on a large scale, research in this area is mostly by simulation. Among other simulation parameters, the mobility model plays a very important role in determining the protocol performance in MANET. Based on random direction mobility model, a high dynamic adaptive mo-bility network model is proposed in the paper. The algorithms and modeling are mainly studied and explained in detail. The technique keystone is that normal dis-tribution is combined with uniform distribution and inertial feedback control is combined with kinematics, through the adaptive control on nodes speed and pre-diction tracking on nodes routes, an adaptive model is designed, which can be used in simulations to produce realistic and dynamic network scenarios. It is the adaptability that nodes mobile parameters can be adjusted randomly in three-dimensional space. As a whole, colony mobility can show some rules. Such ran-dom movement processes as varied speed and dwells are simulated realistically. Such problems as sharp turns and urgent stops are smoothed well. The model can be adapted to not only common dynamic scenarios, but also high dynamic sce-narios. Finally, the mobility model performance is analyzed and validated based on random dynamic scenarios simulations.

  11. The challenges of additional protocol implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Board of Governors approved the Model Protocol Additional to Safeguards Agreements, INFCIRC/540, (referred to as the Additional Protocol) in May 1997. The Additional Protocol provides for new mechanisms that include expanded information on State's nuclear activities to be declared to the IAEA and increased physical access to locations for IAEA inspectors. Given the expanded capability under the additional protocol for the Agency to draw conclusions regarding the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities, Safeguards Department staff have had to broaden their outlook with respect to all safeguards activities being conducted. Beyond verification of nuclear material, inspectors are being called upon to conduct a wider range of activities, with more emphasis on observation of indicators of a State's nuclear-related activities and consideration of the consistency of the other information with a State's declarations. This includes consideration of how the evaluation of all information available to the Agency affects the planning and prioritizing of future safeguards activities, for example in resolving questions or inconsistencies in the declared information or selecting locations for conducting complementary access. The implementation of strengthened safeguards and the additional protocol has led to a need to institutionally change the roles of many staff members in the various Safeguards Divisions and increase the interaction between the Divisions to most effectively draw State-level conclusions regarding the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. This paper focuses on the significant changes in the roles of safeguards inspectors, in particular facility officers and country officers, in the implementation of strengthened safeguards. It outlines the nature of the changes, and some of the challenges being faced in order to adapt to these roles, including changes in the nature of interaction between the Operations and Support Divisions

  12. Robust Adaptive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendra, K. S.; Annaswamy, A. M.

    1985-01-01

    Several concepts and results in robust adaptive control are are discussed and is organized in three parts. The first part surveys existing algorithms. Different formulations of the problem and theoretical solutions that have been suggested are reviewed here. The second part contains new results related to the role of persistent excitation in robust adaptive systems and the use of hybrid control to improve robustness. In the third part promising new areas for future research are suggested which combine different approaches currently known.

  13. Adaptive network countermeasures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClelland-Bane, Randy; Van Randwyk, Jamie A.; Carathimas, Anthony G.; Thomas, Eric D.

    2003-10-01

    This report describes the results of a two-year LDRD funded by the Differentiating Technologies investment area. The project investigated the use of countermeasures in protecting computer networks as well as how current countermeasures could be changed in order to adapt with both evolving networks and evolving attackers. The work involved collaboration between Sandia employees and students in the Sandia - California Center for Cyber Defenders (CCD) program. We include an explanation of the need for adaptive countermeasures, a description of the architecture we designed to provide adaptive countermeasures, and evaluations of the system.

  14. Reliability and validity of the Chinese version Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, W. (Wenwei); Yuan, S. (Suwei); Wei, F. (Fengqing); Yang, J. (Jing); Zhang, Z. (Zhe); Zhu, C. (Changbin); Ma, J. (Jin)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To adapt the Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol (AEP) to the specific settings of health care in China and to validate the Chinese version AEP (C-AEP). Methods: Forward and backward translations were carried out to the original criteria. Twenty experts participated in the con

  15. 高速公路服务区危化品车辆停放的适应性评价%Study on Adaptability Evaluation of Dangerous Chemical Vehicles Parking in Expressway Service Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘玲

    2014-01-01

    Based on a wide investigation of parking facilities and safety management requirements for dangerous chemical vehicles in highway service areas of Guangdong Province, a series of indexes for evaluating the adaptability of dangerous chemical vehicles parking in a service area are designed and selected. The evaluation standards and weights of those indexes are also determined. Then an adaptability evaluation system of dangerous chemical vehicles parking in service areas is proposed. Taking 5 typical service areas as examples, such as Liang Jinshan, Houmen, Heng Shishui, Zhongxin and Xiangang Service Areas, the evaluation method proposed in this paper is applied to value the adaptabilities of dan-gerous chemical vehicles parking in those service areas. The effectiveness of the evaluation method is showed by comparison between evaluation results and actual investigations. The research conclusions provide some theory evidences for highway dangerous chemical vehicle parking planning.%在广泛调研广东省高速公路服务区危化品车辆的停车配套及服务区安全管理要求的基础上,设计、筛选服务区危化品车辆停放的适应性评价指标,确定各指标的赋值标准与权重,建立服务区危化品车辆停放的适应性评价体系。选取梁金山、鲘门、横石水、忠信和蚬岗5个典型服务区作试点,运用该评价方法判断各服务区危化品车辆停放的适应程度,并与实际调研情况比对,说明该评价方法的有效性。评价结果为高速公路危化品车辆的停靠规划提供理论依据。

  16. EMPLOYING SENSOR NETWORK TO GUIDE FIREFIGHTERS IN DANGEROUS AREA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koohi, Hamidreza; Nadernejad, Ehsan; Fathi, Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we intend to focus on the sensor network applications in firefighting. A distributed algorithm is developed for the sensor network to guide firefighters through a burning area. The sensor network models the danger of the area under coverage as obstacles, and has the property to adapt...... itself against possible changes. The protocol developed, will integrate the artificial potential field of the sensors with the information of the intended place of moving firefighter so that it guides the firefighter step by step through the sensor network by choosing the safest path in dangerous zones....... This protocol is simulated by Visual-Sense and the simulation results are available. Keyword: Firefighter, Sensor Network, Potential Field, Area’s Danger, Navigation...

  17. Do we know how to reconcile preservation of landscapes with adaptation of agriculture to climate change? A case-study in a hilly area in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menenti, Massimo; Alfieri, Silvia; Basile, Angelo; Bonfante, Antonello; Monaco, Eugenia; Riccardi, Maria; De Lorenzi, Francesca

    2013-04-01

    Limited impacts of climate change on agricultural yields are unlikely to induce any significant changes in current landscapes. Larger impacts, unacceptable on economic or social ground, are likely to trigger interventions towards adaptation of agricultural production systems by reducing or removing vulnerabilities to climate variability and change. Such interventions may require a transition to a different production system, i.e. complete substitution of current crops, or displacement of current crops at their current location towards other locations, e.g. at higher elevations within the landscape. We have assessed the impacts of climate change and evaluated options for adaptation of a valley in Southern Italy, dominated by vine and olive orchards with a significant presence of wheat. We have first estimated the climatic requirements of several varieties for each dominant species. Next, to identify options for adaptation we have evaluated the compatibility of such requirements with indicators of a reference (current) climate and of future climate. This climate - compatibility assessment was done for each soil unit within the valley, leading to maps of locations where each crop is expected to be compatible with climate. This leads to identify both potential crop substitutions within the entire valley and crop displacements from one location to another within the valley. Two climate scenarios were considered: reference (1961-90) and future (2021-2050) climate, the former from climatic statistics, and the latter from statistical downscaling of general circulation models (AOGCM). Climatic data consists of daily time series of maximum and minimum temperature, and daily rainfall on a grid with a spatial resolution of 35 km. We evaluated the adaptive capacity of the "Valle Telesina" (Campania Region, Southern Italy). A mechanistic model of water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere system (SWAP) was used to describe the hydrological conditions in response to climate for each

  18. Organisms adaptable concrete. Eco-concrete for fresh water area; Seibutsu to kyoseisuru eco-concrete. Tansuiiki taiogata eco-concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, k. [Hokkaido Development Bureau, Hokkaido Development Agency, Sapporo (Japan); Shindo, K. [Kyowa Concrete Industry Co. Ltd., Sapporo (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Described herein are the current statuses of organisms in fresh water and organisms adaptable concrete for fresh water use, and results of the tests in which cylindrical blocks of porous concrete are placed in fresh water to follow types of organisms clinging to them and temporal changes in their numbers. These tests have confirmed that porous concrete can be used as the one compatible with the environment, because large quantities of aqueous insects and algae are found to cling to these blocks. The major findings are: larger quantities of aqueous insects cling to porous concrete than to ordinary one, and sometimes than to natural river floors; no effect of concrete composition on algae clinging thereto is observed; types of algae clinging to porous concrete are diversified with time; and it is possible to minimize changes in natural environments by replacing ordinary concrete by porous one. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  19. Assessing health systems for type 1 diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa: developing a 'Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Courten Maximilian

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to improve the health of people with Type 1 diabetes in developing countries, a clear analysis of the constraints to insulin access and diabetes care is needed. We developed a Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access, comprising a series of questionnaires as well as a protocol for the gathering of other data through site visits, discussions, and document reviews. Methods The Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access draws on the principles of Rapid Assessment Protocols which have been developed and implemented in several different areas. This protocol was adapted through a thorough literature review on diabetes, chronic condition management and medicine supply in developing countries. A visit to three countries in sub-Saharan Africa and meetings with different experts in the field of diabetes helped refine the questionnaires. Following the development of the questionnaires these were tested with various people familiar with diabetes and/or healthcare in developing countries. The Protocol was piloted in Mozambique then refined and had two further iterations in Zambia and Mali. Translations of questionnaires were made into local languages when necessary, with back translation to ensure precision. Results In each country the protocol was implemented in 3 areas – the capital city, a large urban centre and a predominantly rural area and their respective surroundings. Interviews were carried out by local teams trained on how to use the tool. Data was then collected and entered into a database for analysis. Conclusion The Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access was developed to provide a situational analysis of Type 1 diabetes, in order to make recommendations to the national Ministries of Health and Diabetes Associations. It provided valuable information on patients' access to insulin, syringes, monitoring and care. It was thus able to sketch a picture of the health care system with regards to its ability to

  20. Transfusion protocol in trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Paramjit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood and blood components are considered drugs because they are used in the treatment of diseases. As with any drug, adverse effects may occur, necessitating careful consideration of therapy. Like any other therapeutic decision, the need for transfusion should be considered on the basis of risks and benefits and alternative treatments available to avoid over- and under-transfusion. This review is focused on the blood transfusion protocol in trauma patients with hemorrhagic shock. Besides, issues related to emergency and massive transfusion have also been elaborated. We conducted a comprehensive MEDLINE search and reviewed the relevant literature, with particular reference to emergency medical care in trauma.

  1. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 74683-79494

    2000-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.2000, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-015 Should the three spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose two passport photographs for a new card. In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.

  2. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division du Personnel

    1999-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.1999, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to:Bureau des cartes, bâtiment 33.1-025Should the 3 spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose 2 passport photographs for a new card.In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.Personnel DivisionTel. 79494/74683

  3. Provenance Query Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Miles, S.; Moreau, L; Groth, P; Tan, V.; Munroe, S; Jiang, Sheng

    2006-01-01

    A related document defines schemas to be used for documentation about the execution of a process. It also defines the provenance of a data item as the process that led to that item. A provenance query is a query for the provenance of a data item and the results of such a query is documentation of the process that led to the item. In this document, we specify a protocol by which a querying actor and provenance store can communicate in performing a provenance query. This primarily takes the for...

  4. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... the investigations of lighting scenarios carried out in two test installations: White Cube and White Box. The test installations are discussed as large-scale experiential instruments. In these test installations we examine what could potentially occur when light using LED technology is integrated and...

  5. Adaptive Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, William

    1999-01-01

    Provides information on various adaptive technology resources available to people with disabilities. (Contains 19 references, an annotated list of 129 websites, and 12 additional print resources.) (JOW)

  6. ADAPT Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT) Project Lead: Scott Poll Subject Fault diagnosis in electrical power systems Description The Advanced...

  7. Rate Compatible Protocol for Information Reconciliation: An application to QKD

    CERN Document Server

    Elkouss, David; Lancho, Daniel; Martin, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    Information Reconciliation is a mechanism that allows to weed out the discrepancies between two correlated variables. It is an essential component in every key agreement protocol where the key has to be transmitted through a noisy channel. The typical case is in the satellite scenario described by Maurer in the early 90's. Recently the need has arisen in relation with Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) protocols, where it is very important not to reveal unnecessary information in order to maximize the shared key length. In this paper we present an information reconciliation protocol based on a rate compatible construction of Low Density Parity Check codes. Our protocol improves the efficiency of the reconciliation for the whole range of error rates in the discrete variable QKD context. Its adaptability together with its low interactivity makes it specially well suited for QKD reconciliation.

  8. POWER EFFICIENT CLUSTERING PROTOCOL (PECP- HETEREGENOUS WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Taruna

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new Power Efficient Clustering Protocol(PECP for prolonging the sensornetwork lifetime. Homogeneous clustering protocols assume that all the sensor nodes are equipped withthe same amount of energy and as a result, they cannot take the advantage of the presence of nodeheterogeneity. Adapting this approach, we propose a new protocol named PECP (Power EfficientClustering Protocol to improve the stable region of the clustering hierarchy process using thecharacteristics parameters of heterogeneity, namely the fraction of powerful nodes( with more energymore suitable to become a cluster head. Intuitively, powerful nodes have to become cluster heads moreoften than normal nodes. The performance of the PECP via computer simulation is evaluated andcompared with other clustering algorithms. It has been found that PECP prolongs the sensor networklifetime.

  9. 都市密集区的气候风险与适应性建设——以上海为例%Climate Risk and Adaptation Strategies in Metropolis Dense Areas: A Case Study of Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋蕾

    2012-01-01

    Frequent extreme climate events are increasing climate risk and challenging adaptive capabilities in metropolis dense areas. The vulnerability assessment and the demands for adaptive capabilities are the crux of climate risk management and policy-making decisions. This research had emphasis on the specific characteristics of climate risk as well as the impact factors of vulnerabilities. Furthermore, grounded on the approach of participatory analysis, the case studies in Shanghai had been carried out, which reflected how different the stakeholders had the perception of climate risk and the demands of adaptation. The main hazard factors of climate change in Shanghai focused on the typhoons, rain storms and heat waves, which had impacts on social and economic development including the transportations, energy supply, agricultural development and urban waterlogging. The participatory stakeholder analysis in Shanghai depicted the different adaption demands. The communities in Shanghai emphasized the adaptation demands for heat weaves. The meteorologists paid more attention on the agricultural climate adaptation. Compared with the formers, Shanghai municipal managers would rather pay more concern on flood risk management. The research outcomes discussed the force driving factors of metropolitan climate risk including coastal geographic location, the population vulnerabilities (aging and high-density population), ecological vulnerabilities (the degraded ecological bearing capacities and resilience) and the vulnerabilities of economic structures. All in all, the metropolitan areas should build more incremental adaptive capabilities. In Shanghai' case, it should highlight adaptive capabilities building in communicates and ecological environments.%频繁发生的极端气候灾害正在挑战都市密集区的气候风险管理能力.气候脆弱性评价和适应性建设需求是气候风险管理及政策制定的关键.研究着重探讨都市密集区

  10. RESEARCH ON SECURITY PROTOCOL FOR COLLABORATING MOBILE AGENTS IN NETWORK INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumide Simeon Ogunnusi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the popularity of mobile agents in academic and commercial arena, the security issues associated with them have hindered their adoption on large scale distributed applications. However, researchers are making relentless effort to overcome the security impediments so that the interesting properties inherent in mobile agent application, especially in the field of intrusion detection, can be harnessed. Such properties include: adaptability, autonomous nature, low bandwidth utilization, latency eradication, mobility and intelligence. A number of protocols have been developed by researchers for different key distribution techniques to enhance their performance and to protect communicating entities against malicious attacks that can hinder their activities. However, they do not take into account the availability and fault tolerance of the protocols in case of any possible attack despite the authentication methods offered by encryption. This study therefore, proposes a fault-tolerant key distribution protocol for distributed mobile agents (communicating entities in network intrusion detection system to facilitate hitch-free collaboration geared towards intrusive packets detection in Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN.

  11. COMPARATIVE REVIEW FOR ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem S. A. Hamatta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks is one of the attractive research field that growing exponentially in the last decade. it surrounded by much challenges that should be solved the improve establishment of such networks. Failure of wireless link is considered as one of popular challenges faced by Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs. As this type of networks does not require any pre-exist hardware. As well as, every node have the ability of roaming where it can be connected to other nodes dynamically. Therefore, the network internal structure will be unpredictably changed frequently according to continuous activities between nodes that simultaneously update network topology in the basis of active ad-hoc nature. This model puts the functionality of routing operation in crucial angle in the area of research under mobile adhoc network field due to highly dynamic nature. Adapting such kernel makes MANET indigence new routing techniques to settle these challenges. Thereafter, tremendous amount of routing protocols proposed to argue with ad-hoc nature. Thus, it is quite difficult to specify which protocols operate efficiently under different mobile ad-hoc scenarios. This paper examines some of the prominent routing protocols that are designed for mobile ad-hoc networks by describing their structures, operations, features and then comparing their various characteristics.

  12. Spatial Analysis of Soil Subsidence in Peat Meadow Areas in Friesland in Relation to Land and Water Management, Climate Change, and Adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouns, Karlijn; Eikelboom, Tessa; Jansen, Peter C; Janssen, Ron; Kwakernaak, Cees; van den Akker, Jan J H; Verhoeven, Jos T A

    2015-01-01

    Dutch peatlands have been subsiding due to peat decomposition, shrinkage and compression, since their reclamation in the 11th century. Currently, subsidence amounts to 1-2 cm/year. Water management in these areas is complex and costly, greenhouse gases are being emitted, and surface water quality is

  13. A review of imaging protocols for suspected skeletal dysplasia and a proposal for standardisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Sarah G. [Royal Surrey County Hospital, Department of Radiology, Surrey (United Kingdom); Calder, Alistair D. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Offiah, Amaka C. [Sheffield Children' s NHS Foundation Trust, The University of Sheffield Academic Unit of Child Health, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Negus, Samantha [St George' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    Expert radiology opinions are often requested to aid diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias or dysostoses, but due to variability in the imaging protocols used at different centres the views presented may be considered inadequate or incomplete resulting in diagnostic delays and increased patient and family anxiety. We propose the introduction of a standardised protocol that may be adapted in certain specific situations. (orig.)

  14. Heterogeneous LEACH Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishi Sharma

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks are networks of large number of tiny, battery powered sensor nodes having limited on-board storage, processing, and radio capabilities. Nodes sense and send their reports toward a processing center which is called base station. Since this transmission and reception process consumes lots of energy as compare to data processing, Designing protocols and applications for such networks has to be energy aware in order to prolong the lifetime of the network. Generally, real life applications deal with such Heterogeneity rather than Homogeneity. In this paper, a protocol is proposed, which is heterogeneous in energy. We analyze the basic distributed clustering routing protocol LEACH (Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy, which is a homogeneous system, and then we study the impact of heterogeneity in energy of nodes to prolong the life time of WSN. Simulation results using MATLAB shows that the proposed Leach-heterogeneous system significantly reduces energy consumption and increase the total lifetime of the wireless sensor network.

  15. Optimal Scanning Protocols for Dual-Energy CT Angiography in Peripheral Arterial Stents: An in Vitro Phantom Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Almutairi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the optimal dual-energy computed tomography (DECT scanning protocol for peripheral arterial stents while achieving a low radiation dose, while still maintaining diagnostic image quality, as determined by an in vitro phantom study. Methods: Dual-energy scans in monochromatic spectral imaging mode were performed on a peripheral arterial phantom with use of three gemstone spectral imaging (GSI protocols, three pitch values, and four kiloelectron volts (keV ranges. A total of 15 stents of different sizes, materials, and designs were deployed in the phantom. Image noise, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, different levels of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR, and the four levels of monochromatic energy for DECT imaging of peripheral arterial stents were measured and compared to determine the optimal protocols. Results: A total of 36 scans with 180 datasets were reconstructed from a combination of different protocols. There was a significant reduction of image noise with a higher SNR from monochromatic energy images between 65 and 70 keV in all investigated preset GSI protocols (p < 0.05. In addition, significant effects were found from the main effect analysis for these factors: GSI, pitch, and keV (p = 0.001. In contrast, there was significant interaction on the unstented area between GSI and ASIR (p = 0.015 and a very high significant difference between keV and ASIR (p < 0.001. A radiation dose reduction of 50% was achieved. Conclusions: The optimal scanning protocol and energy level in the phantom study were GSI-48, pitch value 0.984, and 65 keV, which resulted in lower image noise and a lower radiation dose, but with acceptable diagnostic images.

  16. Optimal Scanning Protocols for Dual-Energy CT Angiography in Peripheral Arterial Stents: An in Vitro Phantom Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Abdulrahman; Sun, Zhonghua; Al Safran, Zakariya; Poovathumkadavi, Abduljaleel; Albader, Suha; Ifdailat, Husam

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the optimal dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) scanning protocol for peripheral arterial stents while achieving a low radiation dose, while still maintaining diagnostic image quality, as determined by an in vitro phantom study. Methods: Dual-energy scans in monochromatic spectral imaging mode were performed on a peripheral arterial phantom with use of three gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) protocols, three pitch values, and four kiloelectron volts (keV) ranges. A total of 15 stents of different sizes, materials, and designs were deployed in the phantom. Image noise, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), different levels of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), and the four levels of monochromatic energy for DECT imaging of peripheral arterial stents were measured and compared to determine the optimal protocols. Results: A total of 36 scans with 180 datasets were reconstructed from a combination of different protocols. There was a significant reduction of image noise with a higher SNR from monochromatic energy images between 65 and 70 keV in all investigated preset GSI protocols (p < 0.05). In addition, significant effects were found from the main effect analysis for these factors: GSI, pitch, and keV (p = 0.001). In contrast, there was significant interaction on the unstented area between GSI and ASIR (p = 0.015) and a very high significant difference between keV and ASIR (p < 0.001). A radiation dose reduction of 50% was achieved. Conclusions: The optimal scanning protocol and energy level in the phantom study were GSI-48, pitch value 0.984, and 65 keV, which resulted in lower image noise and a lower radiation dose, but with acceptable diagnostic images. PMID:26006234

  17. Advanced routing protocols for wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Campista , Miguel Elias Mitre

    2014-01-01

    This text introduces the principles of routing protocols and metrics as they affect wireless networking environments, specifically in urban areas. Timely because of the recent rise in small city life, this topic includes the consideration of ad hoc, mesh, vehicular, sensor, and delay tolerant networks. These approaches are each unique, and author Miguel Mitre Campista provides a thorough, but accessible, explanation of their individual characteristics for engineers, computer scientists, IT professionals, and curious Internet users.

  18. Prognostic Value of Adaptive Textural Features–The Effect of Standardizing Nuclear First-Order Gray Level Statistics and Mixing Information from Nuclei Having Different Area

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Birgitte; Danielsen, Håvard E

    2006-01-01

    Background: Nuclear texture analysis is a useful method to obtain quantitative information for use in prognosis of cancer. The first-order gray level statistics of a digitized light microscopic nuclear image may be influenced by variations in the image input conditions. Therefore, we have previously standardized the nuclear gray level mean value and standard deviation. However, there is a clear relation between nuclear DNA content, area, first-order statistics, and texture. For nuclei with ap...

  19. Adapting to a changing world: unraveling the role of man-made habitats as alternative feeding areas for slender-billed gull (Chroicocephalus genei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ramírez

    Full Text Available Current rates of wildlife habitat loss have placed increasing demands on managers to develop, validate and implement tools aimed at improving our ability to evaluate such impacts on wildlife. Here, we present a case study conducted at the Natural Area of Doñana (SW Spain where remote sensing and stable isotope (δ(13C, δ(15N analyses of individuals were combined to unravel (1 the effect of variations in availability of natural food resources (i.e. from natural marshes on reproductive performance of a Slender-billed Gull (Chroicocephalus genei population, and (2 the role of two adjacent, artificial systems (a fish farm and saltmines as alternate anthropogenic feeding areas. Based on long-term (1983-2004 remote-sensing, we inferred the average extent of flooded area at the marshland (a proxy to natural resource availability annually. Estimated flooded areas (ranging from extreme drought [ca. 151 ha, 1995] to high moisture [15,049 ha, 2004] were positively related to reproductive success of gulls (estimated for the 1993-2004 period, and ranging from ca. 0 to 1.7 fledglings per breeding pairs, suggesting that habitat availability played a role in determining their reproductive performance. Based on blood δ(13C and δ(15N values of fledglings, 2001-2004, and a Bayesian isotopic mixing model, we conclude that saltmines acted as the main alternative foraging habitat for gulls, with relative contributions increasing as the extent of marshland decreased. Although adjacent, anthropogenic systems have been established as the preferred breeding sites for this gull population, dietary switches towards exploitation of alternative (anthropogenic food resources negatively affected the reproductive output of this species, thus challenging the perception that these man-made systems are necessarily a reliable buffer against loss of natural feeding habitats. The methodology and results derived from this study could be extended to a large suite of threatened

  20. Rapid object category adaptation during unlabelled classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadas, David; Intrator, Nathan; Yovel, Galit

    2010-01-01

    Recent reports from electrophysiological and psychophysical experiments provide evidence that repeated exposure to an ordered sequence of morphed stimuli may over time adapt a prelearned object category such that the category may generalise the entire sequence as belonging to the same object. Here, a new protocol that includes a single exposure to a morphing sequence is presented. Subjects exposed to the new protocol replaced a prelearned face with an entirely different face within just 3 days, significantly faster than in previous reports.

  1. Stream Control Transmission Protocol Steganography

    CERN Document Server

    Fraczek, Wojciech; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a new transport layer protocol that is due to replace TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol) protocols in future IP networks. Currently, it is implemented in such operating systems like BSD, Linux, HP-UX or Sun Solaris. It is also supported in Cisco network devices operating system (Cisco IOS) and may be used in Windows. This paper describes potential steganographic methods that may be applied to SCTP and may pose a threat to network security. Proposed methods utilize new, characteristic SCTP features like multi-homing and multistreaming. Identified new threats and suggested countermeasures may be used as a supplement to RFC 5062, which describes security attacks in SCTP protocol and can induce further standard modifications.

  2. Protocols for Scholarly Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Pepe, Alberto; Pepe, Alberto; Yeomans, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, has operated an institutional preprint repository for more than 10 years. The repository contains over 850,000 records of which more than 450,000 are full-text OA preprints, mostly in the field of particle physics, and it is integrated with the library's holdings of books, conference proceedings, journals and other grey literature. In order to encourage effective propagation and open access to scholarly material, CERN is implementing a range of innovative library services into its document repository: automatic keywording, reference extraction, collaborative management tools and bibliometric tools. Some of these services, such as user reviewing and automatic metadata extraction, could make up an interesting testbed for future publishing solutions and certainly provide an exciting environment for e-science possibilities. The future protocol for scientific communication should naturally guide authors towards OA publication and CERN wants to help reach a full...

  3. Unconditionally Secure Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meldgaard, Sigurd Torkel

    they are used to speed up secure computation. An Oblivious RAM is a construction for a client with a small $O(1)$ internal memory to store $N$ pieces of data on a server while revealing nothing more than the size of the memory $N$, and the number of accesses. This specifically includes hiding the access pattern......This thesis contains research on the theory of secure multi-party computation (MPC). Especially information theoretically (as opposed to computationally) secure protocols. It contains results from two main lines of work. One line on Information Theoretically Secure Oblivious RAMS, and how....... We construct an oblivious RAM that hides the client's access pattern with information theoretic security with an amortized $\\log^3 N$ query overhead. And how to employ a second server that is guaranteed not to conspire with the first to improve the overhead to $\\log^2 N$, while also avoiding...

  4. A PROGRAMMED LABOUR - PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A Prospective randomized Clinical study of outcome of labour following. “A Programmed labour. Protocol” was done at Department of OBG, MRMC Gulbarga. The Protocol was aimed with dual. Objective of Providing Pain relief during labour and teaching the goal of safe motherhood by optimizing objective outcome. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Shortening of duration of labour. Effect of labour analgesia. Monitoring of the events during labour. Lowering the incidence of operative deliveries. METHODS: 100 cases primi pregnant women admitted in labour room are randomly selected. It is designed to apply to low risk primi parous, singleton cephalic presentation without evidence of CPD and spontaneous onset of labour. RESULTS: Shortened duration of all the stages of Labour, especially significant reduction in duration of active phase of labour. CONCLUSION: The programmed labour is simple easy and effective method for painless and safe delivery.

  5. Adapting to sea-level rise in the US Southeast: The influence of built infrastructure and biophysical factors on the inundation of coastal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, R. C. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Gornitz, V. M. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York, NY (United States). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies; Mehta, A. J.; Lee, Saychong [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering

    1992-11-01

    The earth' s global mean surface air temperature has increased by 0.5°C over the past 100 years. This warming trend has occurred concurrently with increases in the concentration and number of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. These gases may cause this trend to accelerate in the future and result in a net increase in the earth's global mean surface air temperature of 1.5 to 4.5°C by the year 2100. An increase of this magnitude could cause sea surface temperatures to increase would cause sea levels to rise -from thermal expansion of the sea, and the addition of melt waters from alpine glaciers and continental ice sheets. To allow for the cost-effective analysis of the impacts that sea-level rise may have on the US Southeast, a method is needed that will allow sites that are potentially at risk to be identified for study. Previously, no objective method was available to identify such sites. This project addresses this problem by using a geographic data base with information on both physical and climatological factors to identify coastal areas of the US Southeast that are at risk to inundation or accelerated erosion due to sea-level rise. The following six areas were selected for further study from the many identified as being at high risk: Galveston, Texas; Caminada Pass, Louisiana; Bradenton Beach, Florida; Daytona Beach, Florida; McClellanville, South Carolina; and Nags Head, North Carolina. For each study area the amount of land, by land use type, in danger from inundation from three sea-level-rise scenarios was calculated. The calculated values were based on elevation alone.

  6. Adapting to sea-level rise in the US Southeast: The influence of built infrastructure and biophysical factors on the inundation of coastal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, R.C. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Gornitz, V.M. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York, NY (United States). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies; Mehta, A.J.; Lee, Saychong [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering; Cushman, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-11-01

    The earth` s global mean surface air temperature has increased by 0.5{degrees}C over the past 100 years. This warming trend has occurred concurrently with increases in the concentration and number of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. These gases may cause this trend to accelerate in the future and result in a net increase in the earth`s global mean surface air temperature of 1.5 to 4.5{degrees}C by the year 2100. An increase of this magnitude could cause sea surface temperatures to increase would cause sea levels to rise -from thermal expansion of the sea, and the addition of melt waters from alpine glaciers and continental ice sheets. To allow for the cost-effective analysis of the impacts that sea-level rise may have on the US Southeast, a method is needed that will allow sites that are potentially at risk to be identified for study. Previously, no objective method was available to identify such sites. This project addresses this problem by using a geographic data base with information on both physical and climatological factors to identify coastal areas of the US Southeast that are at risk to inundation or accelerated erosion due to sea-level rise. The following six areas were selected for further study from the many identified as being at high risk: Galveston, Texas; Caminada Pass, Louisiana; Bradenton Beach, Florida; Daytona Beach, Florida; McClellanville, South Carolina; and Nags Head, North Carolina. For each study area the amount of land, by land use type, in danger from inundation from three sea-level-rise scenarios was calculated. The calculated values were based on elevation alone.

  7. Cluster protocols in Underwater Sensor Networks: a Research Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ovaliadis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSN have different characteristics in relation to terrestrial wireless sensor networks; such as limited bandwidth capacity, high propagation delays and limited battery power. Although there has been much work completed in developing protocols and models for terrestrial networks, these are rarely applicable for underwater sensor networks. Up to today major efforts have been made for designing efficient protocols while considering the underwater communication characteristics. An important issue on this research area is the construction of an efficient clustering algorithm. Clustering in the context of UWSN is important as it contributes a great deal towards the efficient use of energy resources. This paper reviews the most significant cluster based protocols proposed for UWSN. Major performance issues of these protocols with respect to the network conditions such as packet delivery ratio, average packet delay, node mobility effect and energy consumption are examined. The advantages and disadvantages of each protocol are also pointed out.

  8. Analysis on Ad Hoc Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.N.Renjith

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Outlook of wireless communication system marked an extreme transform with the invention of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN. WSN is a promising technolog y for enabling a variety of applications like environmental monitoring, security and applications that save our lives and assets. In WSN, large numbers of sensor nodes are deployed to sensing and gathering information and forward them to the base station with the help of routing protocol. Routing protocols plays a major role by identifying and maintaining the routes in the network. Competence o f sensor networks relay on the strong and effective routing protocol used. In this paper, we present a simulation based performance evaluation of differen t Ad hoc routing protocols like AODV, DYMO, FSR, LANM AR, RIP and ZRP in Wireless Sensor Networks. Based on the study, the future research areas and k ey challenges for routing protocol in WSN are to optimize network performance for QoS support and en ergy conservation

  9. Proof of fault coverage for a formal protocol test procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Michael A.

    1992-12-01

    Due to the speed and complexity of communication networks being designed today, it is imperative to ensure that they operate correctly. Todays fiber optic networks, which can transmit billions of bits per second over thousands of miles, are heavily dependent on sophisticated software and protocols which are becoming increasingly difficult to test. Conformance testing is a method that is used for this purpose: to test the design of a protocol against an implementation of the design. This thesis provides some insight into the conformance testing problem by first providing background on some current protocol test methods and then focusing on a newer method, which is based on a formal protocol specification. A proof is given that demonstrates the method's error detection capabilities. Two well known local area network protocols, Token Bus and Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI), are used as examples to illustrate how the test method is applied to a specification.

  10. Analyzing environmental and structural charactersitics of concrete for carbon mitigation and climate adaptation in urban areas: A case study in Rajkot, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Andrea Valdez

    Increasing temperatures, varying rain events accompanied with flooding or droughts coupled with increasing water demands, and decreasing air quality are just some examples of stresses that urban systems face with the onset of climate change and rapid urbanization. Literature suggests that greenhouse gases are a leading cause of climate change and are of a result of anthropogenic activities such as infrastructure development. Infrastructure development is heavily dependent on the production of concrete. Yet, concrete can contribute up to 7% of total CO29 emissions globally from cement manufacturing alone. The goal of this dissertation was to evaluate current concrete technologies that could contribute to carbon mitigation and climate adaptation in cities. The objectives used to reach the goal of the study included (1) applying a material flow and life cycle analysis (MFA-LCA) to determine the environmental impacts of pervious and high volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete compared to ordinary portland cement (OPC) concrete in a developing country; (2) performing a comparative assessment of pervious concrete mixture designs for structural and environmental benefits across the U.S. and India; and (3) Determining structural and durability benefits from HVFA concrete mixtures when subjected to extreme hot weather conditions (a likely element of climate change). The study revealed that cities have a choice in reducing emissions, improving stormwater issues, and developing infrastructure that can sustain higher temperatures. Pervious and HVFA concrete mixtures reduce emissions by 21% and 47%, respectively, compared to OPC mixtures. A pervious concrete demonstration in Rajkot, India showed improvements in water quality (i.e. lower levels of nitrogen by as much as 68% from initial readings), and a reduction in material costs by 25%. HVFA and OPC concrete mixtures maintained compressive strengths above a design strength of 27.6 MPa (4000 psi), achieved low to moderate permeability

  11. Adaptable data management for systems biology investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdick David

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within research each experiment is different, the focus changes and the data is generated from a continually evolving barrage of technologies. There is a continual introduction of new techniques whose usage ranges from in-house protocols through to high-throughput instrumentation. To support these requirements data management systems are needed that can be rapidly built and readily adapted for new usage. Results The adaptable data management system discussed is designed to support the seamless mining and analysis of biological experiment data that is commonly used in systems biology (e.g. ChIP-chip, gene expression, proteomics, imaging, flow cytometry. We use different content graphs to represent different views upon the data. These views are designed for different roles: equipment specific views are used to gather instrumentation information; data processing oriented views are provided to enable the rapid development of analysis applications; and research project specific views are used to organize information for individual research experiments. This management system allows for both the rapid introduction of new types of information and the evolution of the knowledge it represents. Conclusion Data management is an important aspect of any research enterprise. It is the foundation on which most applications are built, and must be easily extended to serve new functionality for new scientific areas. We have found that adopting a three-tier architecture for data management, built around distributed standardized content repositories, allows us to rapidly develop new applications to support a diverse user community.

  12. Data Relay Board with Protocol for High-Speed, Free-Space Optical Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Malcolm; Clare, Loren; Gould, Gary; Pedyash, Maxim

    2004-01-01

    In a free-space optical communication system, the mitigation of transient outages through the incorporation of error-control methods is of particular concern, the outages being caused by scintillation fades and obscurants. The focus of this innovative technology is the development of a data relay system for a reliable high-data-rate free-spacebased optical-transport network. The data relay boards will establish the link, maintain synchronous connection, group the data into frames, and provide for automatic retransmission (ARQ) of lost or erred frames. A certain Quality of Service (QoS) can then be ensured, compatible with the required data rate. The protocol to be used by the data relay system is based on the draft CCSDS standard data-link protocol Proximity-1, selected by orbiters to multiple lander assets in the Mars network, for example. In addition to providing data-link protocol capabilities for the free-space optical link and buffering the data, the data relay system will interface directly with user applications over Gigabit Ethernet and/or with highspeed storage resources via Fibre Channel. The hardware implementation is built on a network-processor-based architecture. This technology combines the power of a hardware switch capable of data switching and packet routing at Gbps rates, with the flexibility of a software- driven processor that can host highly adaptive and reconfigurable protocols used, for example, in wireless local-area networks (LANs). The system will be implemented in a modular multi-board fashion. The main hardware elements of the data relay system are the new data relay board developed by Rockwell Scientific, a COTS Gigabit Ethernet board for user interface, and a COTS Fibre Channel board that connects to local storage. The boards reside in a cPCI back plane, and can be housed in a VME-type enclosure.

  13. FUZZY LOGIC BASED ENERGY EFFICIENT PROTOCOL IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Wei Siew

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs have been vastly developed due to the advances in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS using WSN to study and monitor the environments towards climates changes. In environmental monitoring, sensors are randomly deployed over the interest area to periodically sense the physical environments for a few months or even a year. Therefore, to prolong the network lifetime with limited battery capacity becomes a challenging issue. Low energy adaptive cluster hierarchical (LEACH is the common clustering protocol that aim to reduce the energy consumption by rotating the heavy workload cluster heads (CHs. The CHs election in LEACH is based on probability model which will lead to inefficient in energy consumption due to least desired CHs location in the network. In WSNs, the CHs location can directly influence the network energy consumption and further affect the network lifetime. In this paper, factors which will affect the network lifetime will be presented and the demonstration of fuzzy logic based CH selection conducted in base station (BS will also be carried out. To select suitable CHs that will prolong the network first node dies (FND round and consistent throughput to the BS, energy level and distance to the BS are selected as fuzzy inputs.

  14. Automated Image Intelligence Adaptive Sensor Management System for High Altitude Long Endurance UAVs in a Dynamic and Anti-Access Area Denial Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gi Young

    The problem we investigate deals with an Image Intelligence (IMINT) sensor allocation schedule for High Altitude Long Endurance UAVs in a dynamic and Anti-Access Area Denial (A2AD) environment. The objective is to maximize the Situational Awareness (SA) of decision makers. The value of SA can be improved in two different ways. First, if a sensor allocated to an Areas of Interest (AOI) detects target activity, then the SA value will be increased. Second, the SA value increases if an AOI is monitored for a certain period of time, regardless of target detections. These values are functions of the sensor allocation time, sensor type and mode. Relatively few studies in the archival literature have been devoted to an analytic, detailed explanation of the target detection process, and AOI monitoring value dynamics. These two values are the fundamental criteria used to choose the most judicious sensor allocation schedule. This research presents mathematical expressions for target detection processes, and shows the monitoring value dynamics. Furthermore, the dynamics of target detection is the result of combined processes between belligerent behavior (target activity) and friendly behavior (sensor allocation). We investigate these combined processes and derive mathematical expressions for simplified cases. These closed form mathematical models can be used for Measures of Effectiveness (MOEs), i.e., target activity detection to evaluate sensor allocation schedules. We also verify these models with discrete event simulations which can also be used to describe more complex systems. We introduce several methodologies to achieve a judicious sensor allocation schedule focusing on the AOI monitoring value. The first methodology is a discrete time integer programming model which provides an optimal solution but is impractical for real world scenarios due to its computation time. Thus, it is necessary to trade off the quality of solution with computation time. The Myopic Greedy

  15. Protocols for Robotic Telescope Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Klotz

    2010-01-01

    This paper is addressed to astronomers who are not specialists in computer science. We give explanations of some basic and advanced protocols to receive events and how to implement them in a robotic observatory software. We describe messages such as GCN notices, VOEvents or RTML, and protocols such as CGI, HTTP, SOAP, RSS, and XMPP.

  16. Forests and the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetze, D.C. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation referred to carbon sinks in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) as specified in the Kyoto Protocol. Policy issues, opportunities and challenges were discussed. The slides summarized the environmental potential of carbon sink projects, the current status of carbon sinks in the CDM, and strategies towards a CDM carbon sink. The Nyakach, Kenya biomass enhancement case study was presented, along with the Colombian Andean biodiversity corridor reforestation project. Potential sink projects were described as those resulting in direct reduction of emissions. These include reducing deforestation by protecting forests from being converted to agriculture, by protecting forests from the impacts of human activities, and by substituting biomass energy sources for fossil fuels. Indirect reduction of emissions via sequestration involves restoring natural forests in deforested or degraded areas and expanding agroforests and plantations. The co-benefits of carbon sink projects are biodiversity and socio-economic benefits. Under the Bonn Agreement, afforestation and reforestation projects are eligible under the CDM. Credits are limited to 1 per cent of Annex 1 party's base year emissions per year. The important elements of the Marrakech Accord are the prompt start of the CDM, as well as modalities and procedures.

  17. Performance enhancement of OSPF protocol in the private network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Lu, Yang; Lin, Xiaokang

    2005-11-01

    The private network serves as an information exchange platform to support the integrated services via microwave channels and accordingly selects the open shortest path first (OSPF) as the IP routing protocol. But the existing OSPF can't fit the private network very well for its special characteristics. This paper presents our modifications to the standard protocol in such aspects as the single-area scheme, link state advertisement (LSA) types and formats, OSPF packet formats, important state machines, setting of protocol parameters and link flap damping. Finally simulations are performed in various scenarios and the results indicate that our modifications can enhance the OSPF performance in the private network effectively.

  18. Formal Models and Techniques for Analyzing Security Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Cortier, V

    2011-01-01

    Security protocols are the small distributed programs which are omnipresent in our daily lives in areas such as online banking and commerce and mobile phones. Their purpose is to keep our transactions and personal data secure. Because these protocols are generally implemented on potentially insecure networks like the internet, they are notoriously difficult to devise. The field of symbolic analysis of security protocols has seen significant advances during the last few years. There is now a better understanding of decidability and complexity questions and successful automated tools for the pro

  19. General characterisation of study area and definition of experimental protocols. WP 1 in the project 'Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research project EPORA (Effects of Industrial Pollution on the Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems) is part of the EU Nuclear Fission Safety Programme 1994 - 1998. The main purpose of EPORA is to study the influence of strong chemical pollution on the behaviour of artificial radionuclides (137Cs,90Sr, 239,240Pu) in a northern boreal ecosystem and subsequently to assess the significance of the findings to the radiation exposure of the population in such areas. The present report is a documentation of the selection of study areas based on the assessment of available information on pollution in the Kola Peninsula and Northern Fennoscandia and of sampling and analysing methods. (orig.)

  20. On Invertible Sampling and Adaptive Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishai, Yuval; Kumarasubramanian, Abishek; Orlandi, Claudio;

    2011-01-01

    Secure multiparty computation (MPC) is one of the most general and well studied problems in cryptography. We focus on MPC protocols that are required to be secure even when the adversary can adaptively corrupt parties during the protocol, and under the assumption that honest parties cannot reliably...... erase their secrets prior to corruption. Previous feasibility results for adaptively secure MPC in this setting applied either to deterministic functionalities or to randomized functionalities which satisfy a certain technical requirement. The question whether adaptive security is possible for all...... functionalities was left open. We provide the first convincing evidence that the answer to this question is negative, namely that some (randomized) functionalities cannot be realized with adaptive security. We obtain this result by studying the following related invertible sampling problem: given an efficient...

  1. Classifying climate change adaptation frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    Complex socio-ecological demographics are factors that must be considered when addressing adaptation to the potential effects of climate change. As such, a suite of deployable climate change adaptation frameworks is necessary. Multiple frameworks that are required to communicate the risks of climate change and facilitate adaptation. Three principal adaptation frameworks have emerged from the literature; Scenario - Led (SL), Vulnerability - Led (VL) and Decision - Centric (DC). This study aims to identify to what extent these adaptation frameworks; either, planned or deployed are used in a neighbourhood vulnerable to climate change. This work presents a criterion that may be used as a tool for identifying the hallmarks of adaptation frameworks and thus enabling categorisation of projects. The study focussed on the coastal zone surrounding the Sizewell nuclear power plant in Suffolk in the UK. An online survey was conducted identifying climate change adaptation projects operating in the study area. This inventory was analysed to identify the hallmarks of each adaptation project; Levels of dependency on climate model information, Metrics/units of analysis utilised, Level of demographic knowledge, Level of stakeholder engagement, Adaptation implementation strategies and Scale of adaptation implementation. The study found that climate change adaptation projects could be categorised, based on the hallmarks identified, in accordance with the published literature. As such, the criterion may be used to establish the matrix of adaptation frameworks present in a given area. A comprehensive summary of the nature of adaptation frameworks in operation in a locality provides a platform for further comparative analysis. Such analysis, enabled by the criterion, may aid the selection of appropriate frameworks enhancing the efficacy of climate change adaptation.

  2. Protocols for Scholarly Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, A.; Yeomans, J.

    2007-10-01

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, has operated an institutional preprint repository for more than 10 years. The repository contains over 850,000 records of which more than 450,000 are full-text OA preprints, mostly in the field of particle physics, and it is integrated with the library's holdings of books, conference proceedings, journals and other grey literature. In order to encourage effective propagation and open access to scholarly material, CERN is implementing a range of innovative library services into its document repository: automatic keywording, reference extraction, collaborative management tools and bibliometric tools. Some of these services, such as user reviewing and automatic metadata extraction, could make up an interesting testbed for future publishing solutions and certainly provide an exciting environment for e-science possibilities. The future protocol for scientific communication should guide authors naturally towards OA publication, and CERN wants to help reach a full open access publishing environment for the particle physics community and related sciences in the next few years.

  3. Internet Protocol Television (IPTV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokesh Mittal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available IPTV is one of the mostly used technology of Internet and IP application. IPTV is a service for the delivery of broadcast TV, movies on demand and other interactive multimedia services over a secure, end-to-end operator managed broadband IP data network with desired QoS to the public with a broadband Internet connection. IPTV system may also include Internet services such as Web access and VoIP where it may be called Triple Play and is typically supplied by a broadband operator using the same infrastructure. IPTV is not the Internet Video that simply allows users to watch videos, like movie previews and web-cams, over the Internet in a best effort fashion. IPTV technology offers revenue-generating opportunities for the telecom and cable service providers. For traditional telephone service providers, Triple Play is delivered using a combination of optical fiber and Digital Subscriber Line (DSL technologies to its residential base. IPTV is a system where a digital television service is delivered by using Internet Protocol over a network infrastructure, which may include delivery by a broadband connection. A general definition of IPTV is television content that, instead of being delivered through traditional broadcast and cable formats, is received by the viewer through the technologies used for computer networks. In this paper I am trying to discuss this topic as my knowledge, including what is IPTV, how it works, its advantages and its applications

  4. Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation? Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Flores Nogueira Diniz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition, joined with the study of recycling, remaking, and every form of retelling. The film deals with the attempt by the scriptwriter Charles Kaufman, cast by Nicholas Cage, to adapt/translate a non-fictional book to the cinema, but ends up with a kind of film which is by no means what it intended to be: a film of action in the model of Hollywood productions. During the process of creation, Charles and his twin brother, Donald, undergo a series of adventures involving some real persons from the world of film, the author and the protagonist of the book, all of them turning into fictional characters in the film. In the film, adaptation then signifies something different from itstraditional meaning. The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition

  5. 论壮族地区的水稻种植与环境适应的关系%Relationship between Rice Planting and Environmental Adaptation in the Zhuang Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘祥学

    2013-01-01

    The Zhuang is a typical rice planting nationality in China. Rice planting in the Zhuang area is characterized by its strong adaptation to the environment. In different geomorphic regions, the Zhuang people have been fully aware of the profound influence of natural geographical environment, climate and soil on rice planting. In order to adapt their planting to the natural geographical environment and achieve maximum production efficiency, the Zhuang people who live in mountain area always choose to plant Japonica rice which grows for a longer growth period and is cold-resistant and infertility-endurable, while those who live in river valley and hilly area always choose to plant indica rice which grows for a shorter period . In Karst mountain areas suffering from water deficiency and drought, the local Zhuang people usually plant upland rice. However, as the upland rice tastes poor and the relation between people and land is changing from comfortable to tight, the upland rice planting status is falling in Zhuang’s planting structure. In addition, the position of the rice used in Zhuang’s life also affects the selection and planting of rice varieties.%水稻种植过程中,常具有浓厚的环境适应的特征。分布在不同地貌区的壮族是典型的稻作民族,已充分意识到所在地区气候、土壤等自然地理环境对水稻种植的深刻影响。为适应自然地理环境,发挥最大的生产效益,山居壮族多选择种植生长期较长、耐寒、耐肥的粳稻为主;在平原丘陵地区的壮族则以种植生长期短的籼稻居多;为适应岩溶山区干旱少水、不利于灌溉的环境,当地壮族则多种陆稻,但由于陆稻口感不佳以及所在地区人地关系由宽趋紧,导致陆稻在壮族种植结构中的地位不断下降。此外,壮族在生活中对水稻用途的定位,也影响到水稻品种的选择与种植。

  6. AN IMPROVED AUTHENTICATED KEY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In 1999, Seo and Sweeney proposed a simple authenticated key agreement protocol that was designed to act as a Diffie-Hellman key agreement protocol with user authentication.Various attacks on this protocol are described and enhanced in the literature. Recently, Ku and Wang proposed an improved authenticated key agreement protocol, where they asserted the protocol could withstand the existing attacks. This paper shows that Ku and Wang's protocol is still vulnerable to the modification attack and presents an improved authenticated key agreement protocol to enhance the security of Ku and Wang's protocol. The protocol has more efficient performance by replacing exponentiation operations with message authentication code operations.

  7. Intestinal mucosal adaptation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laurie Drozdowski; Alan BR Thomson

    2006-01-01

    Intestinal failure is a condition characterized by malnutrition and/or dehydration as a result of the inadequate digestion and absorption of nutrients. The most common cause of intestinal failure is short bowel syndrome, which occurs when the functional gut mass is reduced below the level necessary for adequate nutrient and water absorption. This condition may be congenital, or may be acquired as a result of a massive resection of the small bowel. Following resection, the intestine is capable of adaptation in response to enteral nutrients as well as other trophic stimuli. Identifying factors that may enhance the process of intestinal adaptation is an exciting area of research with important potential clinical applications.

  8. Bayesian Adaptive Exploration

    CERN Document Server

    Loredo, T J

    2004-01-01

    I describe a framework for adaptive scientific exploration based on iterating an Observation--Inference--Design cycle that allows adjustment of hypotheses and observing protocols in response to the results of observation on-the-fly, as data are gathered. The framework uses a unified Bayesian methodology for the inference and design stages: Bayesian inference to quantify what we have learned from the available data and predict future data, and Bayesian decision theory to identify which new observations would teach us the most. When the goal of the experiment is simply to make inferences, the framework identifies a computationally efficient iterative ``maximum entropy sampling'' strategy as the optimal strategy in settings where the noise statistics are independent of signal properties. Results of applying the method to two ``toy'' problems with simulated data--measuring the orbit of an extrasolar planet, and locating a hidden one-dimensional object--show the approach can significantly improve observational eff...

  9. 内蒙古典型地区牧户气候变化感知与适应的实证研究%Herdsmen's perceptions and adaptation of climate change in typical areas of Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯向阳; 韩颖

    2011-01-01

    我国北方草原地区是气候变化影响的脆弱和敏感地区。研究北方草原地区牧户对气候变化的感知和适应,对于提高牧区气候变化的适应能力,促进草原地区可持续发展意义重大。本文利用问卷调查的实证分析方法,研究了内蒙古草甸草原、荒漠草原、荒漠生态区牧户对气候变化趋势和极端气候灾害事件的感知和适应的现状与行为特征。结果表明:过去30年内蒙古草原地区气候基本呈暖湿化趋势,近10年极端气候灾害事件有所增加,其中大雪和干旱分别是东、西部草原地区最主要的极端气候灾害;牧户能够正确感知变暖趋势,但无法正确判断降水情况;东部牧户对大雪事件的感知度较高,西部牧户对干旱的记忆最深刻,并分别针对大雪和干旱采取有差别的应对措施;当前,牧户应对措施相对缺失,需要进一步探求更为积极、高效的应对行为,以便更好更快地适应气候变化。%Temperate steppe of northern China is very vulnerable and sensitive to climate change.It is significant to study herdsmen's perception and adaptation of climate change to enhance adaptive capacity and sustainable development of grassland area.Using a household survey based on questionnaire,this study analyzes the current status and behavior characters of herdsmen's perception and adaptation to climate change and extreme climate events in meadow steppe,desert steppe and desert respectively.The results showed that the climate became warmer and wetter in the last 30 years.There was more heavy snow in the east but more droughts in the west,and extreme climate disasters occurred more frequently in the last 10 years in the grassland area of Inner Mongolia.Although most herdsmen correctly perceived the change of temperature,they gave wrong judge to precipitation.Herdsmen in the east were more impressible to heavy snow and their counterparts in the west more impressible to droughts

  10. Adaptive filtering and change detection

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafsson, Fredrik

    2003-01-01

    Adaptive filtering is a classical branch of digital signal processing (DSP). Industrial interest in adaptive filtering grows continuously with the increase in computer performance that allows ever more conplex algorithms to be run in real-time. Change detection is a type of adaptive filtering for non-stationary signals and is also the basic tool in fault detection and diagnosis. Often considered as separate subjects Adaptive Filtering and Change Detection bridges a gap in the literature with a unified treatment of these areas, emphasizing that change detection is a natural extensi

  11. SIP protocol model for OMNET++

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kucerak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes our new SIP protocol implementation for the OMNeT++ simulation framework. OMNeT++ simulation framework provides an extensive support of IP related protocols, nevertheless a working SIP protocol implementation is missing. Real measurements were also done using a SIPp traffic generator and the results are compared to those obtained by our new SIP model. Since this work is a part of bigger project concerned strictly on measuring "first response times" over networks with a faulty transmission links, the actually collected statistics are focused only this way.

  12. Adaptive test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Eriksen, Mette Rose

    2010-01-01

    Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale.......Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale....

  13. Strategic Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of theoretical contributions that have influenced the discourse around strategic adaptation including contingency perspectives, strategic fit reasoning, decision structure, information processing, corporate entrepreneurship, and strategy process. The related...... concepts of strategic renewal, dynamic managerial capabilities, dynamic capabilities, and strategic response capabilities are discussed and contextualized against strategic responsiveness. The insights derived from this article are used to outline the contours of a dynamic process of strategic adaptation....... This model incorporates elements of central strategizing, autonomous entrepreneurial behavior, interactive information processing, and open communication systems that enhance the organization's ability to observe exogenous changes and respond effectively to them....

  14. Adaptive management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive management has explicit structure, including a careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. The process is iterative, and serves to reduce uncertainty, build knowledge and improve management over time in a goal-oriented and structured process.

  15. Incorporating Fault Tolerance in LEACH Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudranath Mitra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Routing protocols have been a challenging issue in wireless sensor networks. WSN is one of the focussed are of research because of its multi-aspect applications. These networks are self-organized using clustering algorithms to conserve energy. LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy protocol[1] is one of the significant protocols for routing in WSN. In LEACH, sensor nodes are organized in several small clusters where there are cluster heads in each cluster. These CHs gather data from their local clusters aggregate them & send them to the base station. On the LEACH many new schemes have been proposed to enhance its activity like its efficiency, security etc. In this paper the fault tolerance issue is being incorporated.

  16. The use of a hydrological physically based model to evaluate the vine adaptability to future climate: the case study of a Protected Designation of Origin area (DOC and DOCG) of Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, Antonello; Basile, Angelo; Menenti, Massimo; Monaco, Eugenia; Alfieri, Silvia Maria; Manna, Piero; Langella, Giuliano; De Lorenzi, Francesca

    2013-04-01

    The quality of grape and wine is variety-specific and depends significantly on the pedoclimatic conditions, thus from the terroir characteristics. In viticulture the concept of terroir is known to be very complex. At present some changes are occurring in the studies of terroir. Their spatial analysis is improving by means of studies that account for the spatial distribution of solar radiation and of bioclimatic indexes. Moreover, simulation models are used to study the water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere system in order to determine the water balance of vines as a function of i) soil physical properties, ii) climatic regime and iii) agro-ecosystems characteristics. The future climate evolution may endanger not only yield production (IPCC, 2007), but also its quality. The effects on quality may be relevant for grape production, since they can affect the sustainability of the cultivation of grape varieties in the areas where they are currently grown. This study addresses this question by evaluating the adaptive capacity of grape's cultivars in a 20000 ha viticultural area in the "Valle Telesina" (Campania Region, Southern Italy). This area has a long tradition in the production of high quality wines (DOC and DOCG) and it is characterized by a complex geomorphology with a large variability of soils and micro-climate. Two climate scenarios were considered: "past" (1961-1990) and "future" (2021-2050), the latter constructed applying statistical downscaling to GCMs scenarios. For each climate scenario the moisture regime of the soils of the study area was calculated by means of a simulation model of the soil-water-atmosphere system (SWAP). The hydrological model SWAP was applied to the representative soils of the entire area (47 soil units); the soil hydraulic properties were estimated (by means of pedo-transfer function HYPRES) and measured. Upper boundary conditions were derived from the climate scenarios. Unit gradient in soil water potential was set as lower

  17. Adaptive Alternating Minimization Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Niesen, Urs; Wornell, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    The classical alternating minimization (or projection) algorithm has been successful in the context of solving optimization problems over two variables or equivalently of finding a point in the intersection of two sets. The iterative nature and simplicity of the algorithm has led to its application to many areas such as signal processing, information theory, control, and finance. A general set of sufficient conditions for the convergence and correctness of the algorithm is quite well-known when the underlying problem parameters are fixed. In many practical situations, however, the underlying problem parameters are changing over time, and the use of an adaptive algorithm is more appropriate. In this paper, we study such an adaptive version of the alternating minimization algorithm. As a main result of this paper, we provide a general set of sufficient conditions for the convergence and correctness of the adaptive algorithm. Perhaps surprisingly, these conditions seem to be the minimal ones one would expect in ...

  18. Community mobilisation with women's groups facilitated by Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs to improve maternal and newborn health in underserved areas of Jharkhand and Orissa: study protocol for a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Rajesh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Around a quarter of the world's neonatal and maternal deaths occur in India. Morbidity and mortality are highest in rural areas and among the poorest wealth quintiles. Few interventions to improve maternal and newborn health outcomes with government-mandated community health workers have been rigorously evaluated at scale in this setting. The study aims to assess the impact of a community mobilisation intervention with women's groups facilitated by ASHAs to improve maternal and newborn health outcomes among rural tribal communities of Jharkhand and Orissa. Methods/design The study is a cluster-randomised controlled trial and will be implemented in five districts, three in Jharkhand and two in Orissa. The unit of randomisation is a rural cluster of approximately 5000 population. We identified villages within rural, tribal areas of five districts, approached them for participation in the study and enrolled them into 30 clusters, with approximately 10 ASHAs per cluster. Within each district, 6 clusters were randomly allocated to receive the community intervention or to the control group, resulting in 15 intervention and 15 control clusters. Randomisation was carried out in the presence of local stakeholders who selected the cluster numbers and allocated them to intervention or control using a pre-generated random number sequence. The intervention is a participatory learning and action cycle where ASHAs support community women's groups through a four-phase process in which they identify and prioritise local maternal and newborn health problems, implement strategies to address these and evaluate the result. The cycle is designed to fit with the ASHAs' mandate to mobilise communities for health and to complement their other tasks, including increasing institutional delivery rates and providing home visits to mothers and newborns. The trial's primary endpoint is neonatal mortality during 24 months of intervention. Additional

  19. MANETs performance analysis with dos attack at different routing protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Zain

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANET is widely used in many industrial and people's life applications, such as earth monitoring, natural disaster prevention, agriculture biomedical related applications, and many other areas. Security threat is one of the major aspects of MANET, as it is one of the basic requirements of wireless sensor network, yet this problem has not been sufficiently explored. The main purpose of this paper is to study different MANETs routing protocols with three scenarios of Denial of Service (DoS attacks on network layer using proactive routing protocol i.e. Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR and Reactive routing protocols like Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV, Hybrid routing protocols like Geographic Routing Protocol (GRP. Moreover, a comparative analysis of DoS attacks for throughput, Data loss, delay and network load is taken into account. The performance of MANET under the attack is studied to find out which protocol is more vulnerable to the attack and how much is the impact of the attack on both protocols. The simulation is done using OPNET 17.

  20. How to Implement a Protocol for Babel RMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumfert, G; Leek, J

    2006-03-30

    RMI support in Babel has two main goals: transparency & flexibility. Transparency meaning that the new RMI features are entirely transparent to existing Babelized code; flexibility meaning the RMI capability should also be flexible enough to support a variety of RMI transport implementations. Babel RMI is a big success in both areas. Babel RMI is completely transparent to already Babelized implementation code, allowing painless upgrade, and only very minor setup changes are required in client code to take advantage of RMI. The Babel RMI transport mechanism is also extremely flexible. Any protocol that implements Babel's minimal, but complete, interface may be used as a Babel RMI protocol. The Babel RMI API allows users to select the best protocol and connection model for their application, whether that means a WebServices-like client-server model for use over a WAP, or a faster binary peer-to-peer protocol for use on different nodes in a leadership-class supercomputer. Users can even change protocols without recompiling their code. The goal of this paper is to give network researchers and protocol implementors the information they need to develop new protocols for Babel RMI. This paper will cover both the high-level interfaces in the Babel RMI API, and the low level details about how Babel RMI handles RMI objects.

  1. Dynamic random channel reservation protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Yanying; Zhang Wenjun; Yu Songyu

    2005-01-01

    Demand assignment MAC protocols have been used widely in wireless networks. It can effectively utilize wireless bandwidth. Some strategies can be used by demand assignment MAC protocols to further improve their efficiency. The concept of transmit probability is introduced. This concept allows a request slot to be assigned to many different traffic classes at the same time. Based on it, the dynamic random channel reservation (DRCR) protocol is proposed. The DRCR protocol operates dynamically by observing the traffic conditions. It uses information about the recent traffic conditions to assign transmit probability with which an mobile station can select request slots with lower traffic. The performance of DRCR is evaluated and compared with RSCA. The results show that DRCR is more stable than RSCA, it offers shorter delays of requests than RSCA and can relieve heavily stressed traffic classes faster than RSCA.

  2. National Elk Refuge vaccination protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal by the State of Wyoming, Wyoming Game and Fish Department, to vaccinate elk on the National Elk Refuge. The proposal provides a protocol for vaccinating...

  3. Automatic Sequencing for Experimental Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Paul F.; Stern, Ivan

    We present a paradigm and implementation of a system for the specification of the experimental protocols to be used for the calibration of AXAF mirrors. For the mirror calibration, several thousand individual measurements need to be defined. For each measurement, over one hundred parameters need to be tabulated for the facility test conductor and several hundred instrument parameters need to be set. We provide a high level protocol language which allows for a tractable representation of the measurement protocol. We present a procedure dispatcher which automatically sequences a protocol more accurately and more rapidly than is possible by an unassisted human operator. We also present back-end tools to generate printed procedure manuals and database tables required for review by the AXAF program. This paradigm has been tested and refined in the calibration of detectors to be used in mirror calibration.

  4. Planning and costing agriculture's adaptation to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambwera, Muyeye; Downing, Tom; Venton, Courtenay Cabot; Dyszynski, Jillian; Crawford, Victoria; Butterfield, Ruth; Kaur, Nanki; Birch, Tom; Loga, Denise

    2011-11-15

    Changing climate will have adverse effects on food production, food distribution, infrastructure, land availability for agriculture, and livelihood assets and opportunities in rural and urban areas. Adapting food systems to both enhance food security for the poor and to prevent the future negative impacts of climate change will require attention to more than just agricultural production. Food security can only be ensured and enhanced through a range of interventions across different agricultural systems and along the associated value chains, from production to distribution and allocation. The current efforts to get agriculture into the global climate policy framework after the expiry of the Kyoto Protocol emphasises mitigation. Adaptation is an equally important objective in a world that cannot avoid climate change any more because of already accumulated greenhouse gases. In developing countries, adaptation is the primary concern due to their vulnerability to climate change and high dependence on weather-dependent agricultural systems. A complete response to climate change that integrates agriculture should therefore pursue both agricultural mitigation and adaptation. In order to plan for adaptation effectively, policy makers need reliable information from developing countries on the nature of adaptation, its costs and how these are related to ongoing efforts to develop the agriculture sector and food systems of developing countries. This study set out to inform climate policy development by analysing agricultural adaptation in developing countries using a combination of desk studies and country case studies to provide a framework, areas to focus on when planning agricultural adaptation and the likely costs. It followed key steps for bringing together global and local perspectives for the benefit of both global stakeholders and developing countries.

  5. Implementing the Transport Layer Security Protocol for Embedded Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Werstén, Bengt

    2007-01-01

    Web servers are increasingly being used in embedded devices as a communication medium. As more systems connect to the Internet, the need for security is increasing. The Transport Layer Protocol (TLS) is the successor of Secure Socket Layer (SSL) and provides security in almost all secure Internet transactions. This thesis aims to investigate if TLS can be adapted to embedded systems without sacrificing much of the system resources available. A literature study and an implementation of TLS hav...

  6. Improved Authenticated Multi-Key Agreement Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hua; YUAN Zheng; WEN Qiaoyan

    2006-01-01

    Zhou et al give an attack on Harn's modified authenticated multi-key agreement protocol, and give a protocol that can prevent the unknown key-share attack. The paper points out that the protocol is vulnerable to a concatenation attack. This paper proposes an improved authenticated multi-key agreement protocol which shows how to make Harn's protocol more secure by modifying the signature and verification. And this protocol can escape the concatenation attack.

  7. Analysis of Security Protocols for Mobile Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazid, Mohammad; Zeadally, Sherali; Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga

    2016-11-01

    Mobile Healthcare (mHealth) continues to improve because of significant improvements and the decreasing costs of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs). mHealth is a medical and public health practice, which is supported by mobile devices (for example, smartphones) and, patient monitoring devices (for example, various types of wearable sensors, etc.). An mHealth system enables healthcare experts and professionals to have ubiquitous access to a patient's health data along with providing any ongoing medical treatment at any time, any place, and from any device. It also helps the patient requiring continuous medical monitoring to stay in touch with the appropriate medical staff and healthcare experts remotely. Thus, mHealth has become a major driving force in improving the health of citizens today. First, we discuss the security requirements, issues and threats to the mHealth system. We then present a taxonomy of recently proposed security protocols for mHealth system based on features supported and possible attacks, computation cost and communication cost. Our detailed taxonomy demonstrates the strength and weaknesses of recently proposed security protocols for the mHealth system. Finally, we identify some of the challenges in the area of security protocols for mHealth systems that still need to be addressed in the future to enable cost-effective, secure and robust mHealth systems. PMID:27640159

  8. Analysis of Security Protocols for Mobile Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazid, Mohammad; Zeadally, Sherali; Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga

    2016-11-01

    Mobile Healthcare (mHealth) continues to improve because of significant improvements and the decreasing costs of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs). mHealth is a medical and public health practice, which is supported by mobile devices (for example, smartphones) and, patient monitoring devices (for example, various types of wearable sensors, etc.). An mHealth system enables healthcare experts and professionals to have ubiquitous access to a patient's health data along with providing any ongoing medical treatment at any time, any place, and from any device. It also helps the patient requiring continuous medical monitoring to stay in touch with the appropriate medical staff and healthcare experts remotely. Thus, mHealth has become a major driving force in improving the health of citizens today. First, we discuss the security requirements, issues and threats to the mHealth system. We then present a taxonomy of recently proposed security protocols for mHealth system based on features supported and possible attacks, computation cost and communication cost. Our detailed taxonomy demonstrates the strength and weaknesses of recently proposed security protocols for the mHealth system. Finally, we identify some of the challenges in the area of security protocols for mHealth systems that still need to be addressed in the future to enable cost-effective, secure and robust mHealth systems.

  9. Routing in IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPAN: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 6LoWPANs (IPv6-based Low-Power Personal Area Networks are formulated by devices that are compatible with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. To moderate the effects of network mobility, the Internet Protocol (IP does not calculate routes; it is left to a routing protocol, which maintains routing tables in the routers. 6LowPAN uses an adaptation layer between the network (IPv6 and data link layer (IEEE802.15.4 MAC to fragment and reassemble IPv6 packets. The routing in 6LoWPAN is primarily divided on the basis of routing decision taken on adaptation or network layer. The objective of this paper is to present a state-of-the-art survey of existing routing protocols: LOAD, M-LOAD, DYMO-Low, Hi-Low, Extended Hi-Low, and S-AODV. These routing protocols have compared on the basis of different metric like energy consumption, memory uses, mobility, scalability, routing delay, an RERR message, a Hello message, and local repair. We have also presented the taxonomy of routing requirement; parameter for evaluating routing algorithm, and it was found that the routing protocol has its own advantages depending upon the application where it is used.

  10. Petri Net-based Analysis of the Safety Communication Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hongjie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a few research in area of safety-critical system, therefore the study of performance analyzing method of the protocol has important practical significance for transportation engineering. This paper first briefly introduces the execution procedure of safety communication protocol, then explores the application of Petri net to establish the model of the protocol, including the process of state transition and corresponding timer which record the time, then obtains related performance data such as maintainability and failure probability, which users usually pay most attention to, with different probability of time delay and no fault in channel by simulation. Finally this paper finds that how the probability of time delay and no fault in channel could influent the maintainability and failure probability through data process with theory of probability and mathematical statistic, this could provide a certain reference for development of safety communication protocol.    

  11. Advanced Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzati Abdellah,

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs is anticipated to bring enormous changes in data gathering, processing and dissemination for different environments and applications. However, a WSN is a power constrained system, since nodes run on limited power batteries which shorten its lifespan. Prolonging the network lifetime depends on efficient management of sensing node energy resource. Hierarchicalrouting protocols are best known in regard to energy efficiency. By using a clustering technique hierarchical routing protocols greatly minimize energy consumed in collecting and disseminating data. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH is one of the undamental protocols in this class. In this paper we propose Advanced LEACH (A-LEACH, a heterogeneous-energy protocol to decrease probability of failure nodes and to prolong the time interval before the death of the first node (we refer to as stability period and increasing the lifetime in heterogeneous WSNs, which is crucial for many applications.

  12. Bayesian Adaptive Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loredo, Thomas J.

    2004-04-01

    I describe a framework for adaptive scientific exploration based on iterating an Observation-Inference-Design cycle that allows adjustment of hypotheses and observing protocols in response to the results of observation on-the-fly, as data are gathered. The framework uses a unified Bayesian methodology for the inference and design stages: Bayesian inference to quantify what we have learned from the available data and predict future data, and Bayesian decision theory to identify which new observations would teach us the most. When the goal of the experiment is simply to make inferences, the framework identifies a computationally efficient iterative ``maximum entropy sampling'' strategy as the optimal strategy in settings where the noise statistics are independent of signal properties. Results of applying the method to two ``toy'' problems with simulated data-measuring the orbit of an extrasolar planet, and locating a hidden one-dimensional object-show the approach can significantly improve observational efficiency in settings that have well-defined nonlinear models. I conclude with a list of open issues that must be addressed to make Bayesian adaptive exploration a practical and reliable tool for optimizing scientific exploration.

  13. Adaptation Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huq, Saleemul

    2011-11-15

    Efforts to help the world's poor will face crises in coming decades as climate change radically alters conditions. Action Research for Community Adapation in Bangladesh (ARCAB) is an action-research programme on responding to climate change impacts through community-based adaptation. Set in Bangladesh at 20 sites that are vulnerable to floods, droughts, cyclones and sea level rise, ARCAB will follow impacts and adaptation as they evolve over half a century or more. National and international 'research partners', collaborating with ten NGO 'action partners' with global reach, seek knowledge and solutions applicable worldwide. After a year setting up ARCAB, we share lessons on the programme's design and move into our first research cycle.

  14. Adaptive ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berth, Mette

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of an adaptive ethnography when studying such phenomena as young people's use of mobile media in a learning perspective. Mobile media such as PDAs and mobile phones have a number of affordances which make them potential tools for learning. However, before we begin...... formal and informal learning contexts. The paper also proposes several adaptive methodological techniques for studying young people's interaction with mobiles....... to design and develop educational materials for mobile media platforms we must first understand everyday use and behaviour with a medium such as a mobile phone. The paper outlines the research design for a PhD project on mobile learning which focuses on mobile phones as a way to bridge the gap between...

  15. Hedonic "adaptation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available People live in a world in which they are surrounded by potential disgust elicitors such as ``used'' chairs, air, silverware, and money as well as excretory activities. People function in this world by ignoring most of these, by active avoidance, reframing, or adaptation. The issue is particularly striking for professions, such as morticians, surgeons, or sanitation workers, in which there is frequent contact with major disgust elicitors. In this study, we study the ``adaptation'' process to dead bodies as disgust elicitors, by measuring specific types of disgust sensitivity in medical students before and after they have spent a few months dissecting a cadaver. Using the Disgust Scale, we find a significant reduction in disgust responses to death and body envelope violation elicitors, but no significant change in any other specific type of disgust. There is a clear reduction in discomfort at touching a cold dead body, but not in touching a human body which is still warm after death.

  16. Adaptive noise

    OpenAIRE

    Viney, Mark; Reece, Sarah E.

    2013-01-01

    In biology, noise implies error and disorder and is therefore something which organisms may seek to minimize and mitigate against. We argue that such noise can be adaptive. Recent studies have shown that gene expression can be noisy, noise can be genetically controlled, genes and gene networks vary in how noisy they are and noise generates phenotypic differences among genetically identical cells. Such phenotypic differences can have fitness benefits, suggesting that evolution can shape noise ...

  17. Adaptable positioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 22 fig. 6 ref

  18. Distributed Certificateless Key Encapsulation Mechanism Secure Against the Adaptive Adversary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Yu; LI Xiang-xue; CHEN Ke-fei; HONG Xuan

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an adaptively secure solution to certificateless distributed key encapsulation mechanism from pairings by using Canetti's adaptive secure key generation scheme based on discrete logarithm. The proposed scheme can withstand adaptive attackers that can choose players for corruption at any time during the run of the protocol, and this kind of attack is powerful and realistic. In contrast, all previously presented threshold certificateless public key cryptosystems are proven secure against the more idealized static adversaries only. They choose and fix the subset of target players before running the protocol. We also prove security of this scheme in the random oracle model.

  19. Protocols.io: Virtual Communities for Protocol Development and Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoliartchouk, Alexei; Kindler, Lori; Hurwitz, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    The detailed know-how to implement research protocols frequently remains restricted to the research group that developed the method or technology. This knowledge often exists at a level that is too detailed for inclusion in the methods section of scientific articles. Consequently, methods are not easily reproduced, leading to a loss of time and effort by other researchers. The challenge is to develop a method-centered collaborative platform to connect with fellow researchers and discover state-of-the-art knowledge. Protocols.io is an open-access platform for detailing, sharing, and discussing molecular and computational protocols that can be useful before, during, and after publication of research results. PMID:27547938

  20. Protocols.io: Virtual Communities for Protocol Development and Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teytelman, Leonid; Stoliartchouk, Alexei; Kindler, Lori; Hurwitz, Bonnie L

    2016-08-01

    The detailed know-how to implement research protocols frequently remains restricted to the research group that developed the method or technology. This knowledge often exists at a level that is too detailed for inclusion in the methods section of scientific articles. Consequently, methods are not easily reproduced, leading to a loss of time and effort by other researchers. The challenge is to develop a method-centered collaborative platform to connect with fellow researchers and discover state-of-the-art knowledge. Protocols.io is an open-access platform for detailing, sharing, and discussing molecular and computational protocols that can be useful before, during, and after publication of research results. PMID:27547938

  1. International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force recommendations for a veterinary epilepsy-specific MRI protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusbridge, Clare; Long, Sam; Jovanovik, Jelena; Milne, Marjorie; Berendt, Mette; Bhatti, Sofie F M; De Risio, Luisa; Farqhuar, Robyn G; Fischer, Andrea; Matiasek, Kaspar; Muñana, Karen; Patterson, Edward E; Pakozdy, Akos; Penderis, Jacques; Platt, Simon; Podell, Michael; Potschka, Heidrun; Stein, Veronika M; Tipold, Andrea; Volk, Holger A

    2015-08-28

    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological diseases in veterinary practice. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is regarded as an important diagnostic test to reach the diagnosis of idiopathic epilepsy. However, given that the diagnosis requires the exclusion of other differentials for seizures, the parameters for MRI examination should allow the detection of subtle lesions which may not be obvious with existing techniques. In addition, there are several differentials for idiopathic epilepsy in humans, for example some focal cortical dysplasias, which may only apparent with special sequences, imaging planes and/or particular techniques used in performing the MRI scan. As a result, there is a need to standardize MRI examination in veterinary patients with techniques that reliably diagnose subtle lesions, identify post-seizure changes, and which will allow for future identification of underlying causes of seizures not yet apparent in the veterinary literature.There is a need for a standardized veterinary epilepsy-specific MRI protocol which will facilitate more detailed examination of areas susceptible to generating and perpetuating seizures, is cost efficient, simple to perform and can be adapted for both low and high field scanners. Standardisation of imaging will improve clinical communication and uniformity of case definition between research studies. A 6-7 sequence epilepsy-specific MRI protocol for veterinary patients is proposed and further advanced MR and functional imaging is reviewed.

  2. Wastewater GHG Accounting Protocols as Compared to the State of GHG Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, John L; Yuan, Zhiguo; Murthy, Sudhir

    2016-08-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting protocols have addressed emissions from wastewater conveyance and treatment using a variety of simplifying methodologies. While these methodologies vary to some degree by protocol, within each protocol they provide consistent tools for organizational entities of varying size and scope to report and verify GHG emissions. Much of the science supporting these methodologies is either limited or the protocols have failed to keep abreast of developing GHG research. This state-of-the-art review summarizes the sources of direct GHG emissions (both those covered and not covered in current protocols) from wastewater handling; provides a review of the wastewater-related methodologies in a select group of popular protocols; and discusses where research has out-paced protocol methodologies and other areas where the supporting science is relatively weak and warrants further exploration.

  3. Performance Evaluation of DSDV and MDSDV Routing Protocol with Varying Node Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Mahajan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET is an important and challenging research area. The routing protocol should detect and maintain a good route between source and destination nodes in these dynamic networks. Many routing protocols have been proposed for mobile ad hoc networks, and none can be considered as the best under all conditions. This thesis work consist a systematic comparative evaluation of a new multipath routing protocol for MANETS. The new protocol, called Multipath Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (MDSDV is based on the well known single path Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV is compared with known protocol DSDV. This work containing evaluates the protocols on a range of MANETS with between 50, 75 and 100 nodes, which are static nodes. The protocol comparison metrics are Throughput and Residual Energy

  4. Study on the Adaptability of Suffolk Sheep in the Yili River Valley Area of Zhaosu County%萨福克羊在伊犁河谷昭苏县的适应性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宜勇; 柯丽白; 谭小海; 努尔巴哈提

    2012-01-01

    昭苏马场于2004年引进萨福克羊,通过对萨福克羊在昭苏马场生长发育、繁殖性能、改良效果观察,进口萨福克羊的初生重、断奶重、日增重、繁殖率达到了本品种水平,表明萨福克羊在昭苏有良好的适应性,在肉羊改良中具有很高的推广价值。%Since Suffolk Sheep was introduced into Zhaosu Horse Farm in 2004, we have realized based on the results of the observation of its growth, reproductivity and effect of breeding that the weight of birth, weaning, daily gain and reproduction rate all have reached to its original level of the Sheep. These positive results showed that Suffolk Sheep can adapt well to the environment of Zhaosu County, and the Sheep has high value for promoting and improving meat sheep in the area.

  5. The Internet of Things Key Applications and Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Hersent, Olivier; Elloumi, Omar

    2011-01-01

    An all-in-one reference to the major Home Area Networking, Building Automation and AMI protocols, including 802.15.4 over radio or PLC, 6LowPAN/RPL, ZigBee 1.0 and Smart Energy 2.0, Zwave, LON, BACNet, KNX, ModBus, mBus, C.12 and DLMS/COSEM, and the new ETSI M2M system level standard. In-depth coverage of Smart-grid and EV charging use cases. This book describes the Home Area Networking, Building Automation and AMI protocols and their evolution towards open protocols based on IP such as 6LowPAN and ETSI M2M. The authors discuss the approach taken by service providers to interconnect the protoc

  6. Cryptographic Protocols under Quantum Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Lunemann, Carolin

    2011-01-01

    The realm of this thesis is cryptographic protocol theory in the quantum world. We study the security of quantum and classical protocols against adversaries that are assumed to exploit quantum effects to their advantage. Security in the quantum world means that quantum computation does not jeopardize the assumption, underlying the protocol construction. But moreover, we encounter additional setbacks in the security proofs, which are mostly due to the fact that some well-known classical proof techniques are forbidden by certain properties of a quantum environment. Interestingly, we can exploit some of the very same properties to the benefit of quantum cryptography. Thus, this work lies right at the heart of the conflict between highly potential effects but likewise rather demanding conditions in the quantum world.

  7. Superposition Attacks on Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Funder, Jakob Løvstad; Nielsen, Jesper Buus;

    2011-01-01

    Attacks on classical cryptographic protocols are usually modeled by allowing an adversary to ask queries from an oracle. Security is then defined by requiring that as long as the queries satisfy some constraint, there is some problem the adversary cannot solve, such as compute a certain piece...... string model. While our protocol is classical, it is sound against a cheating unbounded quantum prover and computational zero-knowledge even if the verifier is allowed a superposition attack. Finally, we consider multiparty computation and show that for the most general type of attack, simulation based...... of information. In this paper, we introduce a fundamentally new model of quantum attacks on classical cryptographic protocols, where the adversary is allowed to ask several classical queries in quantum superposition. This is a strictly stronger attack than the standard one, and we consider the security...

  8. Symbolic Analysis of Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten

    a concrete protocol by Blumberg et al. using one-way functions and commitments for providing various location based vehicle services, and report on our ndings and experience of carrying out its analysis using the ProVerif tool. Third, we make an abstract model of the powerful simulation-based Universally...... Compos- able framework by Canetti for specifying and analysing protocols, and show that our model is sound with respect to its standard computational interpretation. Our model supports powerful primitives such as homomorphic encryption and non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs, which we show may be used...... to implement several interesting two-party functionalities. As a case study we use the ProVerif tool to analyse an oblivious transfer protocol by Damgard et al. under static corruption...

  9. Lightweight Distance Bounding Protocol against Relay Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Seok; Cho, Kookrae; Yum, Dae Hyun; Hong, Sung Je; Lee, Pil Joong

    Traditional authentication protocols are based on cryptographic techniques to achieve identity verification. Distance bounding protocols are an enhanced type of authentication protocol built upon both signal traversal time measurement and cryptographic techniques to accomplish distance verification as well as identity verification. A distance bounding protocol is usually designed to defend against the relay attack and the distance fraud attack. As there are applications to which the distance fraud attack is not a serious threat, we propose a streamlined distance bounding protocol that focuses on the relay attack. The proposed protocol is more efficient than previous protocols and has a low false acceptance rate under the relay attack.

  10. Joint Subcarrier Pairing and Resource Allocation for Cognitive Network and Adaptive Relaying Strategy

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza

    2012-05-01

    Recent measurements show that the spectrum is under-utilized by licensed users in wireless communication. Cognitive radio (CR) has been proposed as a suitable solution to manage the inefficient usage of the spectrum and increase coverage area of wireless networks. The concept is based on allowing a group of secondary users (SUs) to share the unused radio spectrum originally owned by the primary user (PUs). The operation of CR should not cause harmful interference to the PUs. In the other hand, relayed transmission increases the coverage and achievable capacity of communication systems and in particular in CR systems. In fact there are many types of cooperative communications, however the two main ones are decode-and-forward (DAF) and amplify-and-forward (AAF). Adaptive relaying scheme is a relaying technique by which the benefits of the amplifying or decode and forward techniques can be achieved by switching the forwarding technique according to the quality of the signal. In this dissertation, we investigate the power allocation for an adaptive relaying protocol (ARP) scheme in cognitive system by maximizing the end-to-end rate and searching the best carriers pairing distribution. The optimization problem is under the interference and power budget constraints. The simulation results confirm the efficiency of the proposed adaptive relaying protocol in comparison to other relaying techniques, and the consequence of the choice of the pairing strategy.

  11. MITIGATING HELLO FLOOD ATTACK ON WSN BY LEACH PROTOCOL USING ENERGY LEVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Di lpreet Kaur; Rupinderpal Singh

    2015-01-01

    Various Wireless sensor network applications use hierarchical routing protocol for routing sensed data to sink. LEACH (Low energy adaptive clustering Hierarchical) is one of the broadly used hierarchical, distributed clustering protocol in WSN. In LEACH, Non - Cluster head Nodes decide to join a cluster head based on Distance between Cluster head and nodes and Received Signal Strength (RSS) of receiving HELLO packets from Cluster head’s making it vul...

  12. A protocol for Self-synchronized duty-cycling in sensor networks: Generic implementation in Wiselib

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez H.; Blesa M.J.; Blum C.; Baumgartner T.; Fekete S.P.; Kroller A.

    2010-01-01

    In this work we present a protocol for self-synchronized duty-cycling in wireless sensor networks with energy harvesting capabilities. The protocol is implemented in Wiselib, a library of generic algorithms for sensor networks. Simulations are conducted with the sensor network simulator Shawn. They are based on the specifications of real hardware known as iSense sensor nodes. The experimental results show that the proposed mechanism is able to adapt to changing energy availabilities. Moreo...

  13. FHC-NCTSR: Node Centric Trust Based secure Hybrid Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Prasuna V G; Dr. S Madhusudahan Verma

    2012-01-01

    To effectively support communication in such a dynamic networking environment as the ad hoc networks, the routing mechanisms should adapt to secure and trusted route discovery and service quality in data transmission. In this context, the paper proposed a routing protocol called Node Centric Trust based Secure Hybrid Routing Protocol [FHC-NCTSR] that opted to fixed hash chaining for data transmission and node centric trust strategy for secure route discovery. The route discovery is reactive i...

  14. The Kyoto protocol development; La viabilite du protocole de Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R. [Harvard Univ., Barrow, AK (United States); Guesneris, R. [College de France, 75 - Paris (France)

    2002-04-01

    From the author R. Cooper point of view the Kyoto Protocol is a flawed concept. The reasons for dropping Kyoto are presented in this paper insisting that rejecting Kyoto not means to imply that global climate change is not a serious problem. After a presentation of the US policy facing the Climatic Change, some concluding propositions are proposed. (A.L.B.)

  15. Additional protocol experience in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN) is the national regulatory body with regulation, authorization and control responsibilities. CNCAN has the right and obligation to ensure that safeguards are applied, in accordance with the terms of the safeguards agreement, on all source or special fissionable material in all peaceful nuclear activities within the State, under its jurisdiction or carried out under its control anywhere, for the exclusive purpose of verifying that such material is not diverted to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. CNCAN has built a strong primary and secondary legislation in order to have a strong legal framework to fulfill the NPT, Safeguards Agreement and Additional Protocol requirements. In respect of the non-proliferation issues CNCAN has as a major goal to strengthen the effectiveness and to improve the efficiency of the safeguards system. Also closer co-operation between the IAEA and CNCAN as coordinator of the national system of accounting for and control of nuclear material has been developed by organizing international and national seminars on the implementation of safeguards and the additional protocol. After the entry into force of the Additional Protocol, CNCAN prepared appropriate declarations and answers to the relevant IAEA questions in order to obtain a drawn conclusion of the absence of undeclared nuclear material and nuclear activities within Romania territory. The IAEA evaluated in Romania not only the results of its nuclear material related activities under the Safeguards Agreement but also the results of its broader, more qualitative, evaluation and verification activities under the Additional Protocol. CNCAN assured that the IAEA inspectors have complementary access according to the Additional Protocol as requested in accordance with the provisions of the Safeguards Agreement and the Additional Protocol and cooperated in resolving in a timely manner, any questions or

  16. The Simplest Protocol for Oblivious Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chou, Tung; Orlandi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Oblivious Transfer (OT) is the fundamental building block of cryptographic protocols. In this paper we describe the simplest and most efficient protocol for 1-out-of-n OT to date, which is obtained by tweaking the Diffie-Hellman key-exchange protocol. The protocol achieves UC-security against...... optimizations) is at least one order of magnitude faster than previous work. Category / Keywords: cryptographic protocols / Oblivious Transfer, UC Security, Elliptic Curves, Efficient Implementation...

  17. Analysis of the Transport Layer Security protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Firing, Tia Helene

    2010-01-01

    In this master thesis we have presented a security analysis of the TLS protocol with particular emphasis on the recently discovered renegotiation attack. From our security proof we get that the Handshake protocol with renegotiation, including the fix from IETF, is secure, and hence not vulnerable to the renegotiation attack anymore. We have also analysed the Handshake protocol with session resumption, and the Application data protocol together with the Record protocol. Both of these prot...

  18. Developing security protocols in χ-Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Milicia, Giuseppe

    2002-01-01

    It is of paramount importance that a security protocol effectively enforces the desired security requirements. The apparent simplicity of informal protocol descriptions hides the inherent complexity of their interactions which, often, invalidate informal correctness arguments and justify the effo......-Spaces aids several steps in the development of a security protocolprotocol executions can be simulated in hostile environments, a security protocol can be implemented, and security properties of implementations can be formally verified....

  19. HYBRID MAC PROTOCOL FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS USED IN TIME CRITICAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandeeswaran Chelliah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a H-MAC protocol (Hybrid Medium Access Control protocol has been proposed, which is an energy efficient and low latency MAC protocol which uses node ID method to assign priority for certain wireless sensor nodes that are assumed to be present in critical loops for an industrial process control domain. H-MAC overcomes some of the limitations in the existing approaches. In the case of industrial automation scenario, certain sensor loops are found to be time critical, where data’s have to be transferred without any further delay, as failure in immediate transmission leads to catastrophic results for humans as well as machinery in industrial domain. The proposed H-MAC protocol is simulated in NS2 environment, from the result it is observed that the proposed protocol provides better performance compared to the conventional MAC protocols mentioned in the recent literature for the conceded problem. A MAC protocol which provides both energy saving mechanism and that can handle emergency situation is the most desired for any industry. In any industry time and mission critical scenarios requires strict timeliness and reliability along with the energy efficiency. However there are dynamic and harsh environmental conditions for which the MAC protocol must survive and do transmission accordingly. The dynamic changes in topology must also be adapted so that the nodes are in constant link to the destination. Most of the existing MAC protocols have been identified as they face a number of limitations for industrial application domain.

  20. Yoga protocol for treatment of breast cancer-related lymphedema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narahari, SR; Aggithaya, Madhur Guruprasad; Thernoe, Liselotte; Bose, Kuthaje S; Ryan, Terence J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Vaqas and Ryan (2003) advocated yoga and breathing exercises for lymphedema. Narahari et al. (2007) developed an integrative medicine protocol for lower-limb lymphedema using yoga. Studies have hypothesized that yoga plays a similar role as that of central manual lymph drainage of Foldi's technique. This study explains how we have used yoga and breathing as a self-care intervention for breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). Methods: The study outcome was to create a yoga protocol for BCRL. Selection of yoga was based on the actions of muscles on joints, anatomical areas associated with different groups of lymph nodes, stretching of skin, and method of breathing in each yoga. The protocol was piloted in eight BCRL patients, observed its difficulties by interacting with patients. A literature search was conducted in PubMed and Cochrane library to identify the yoga protocols for BCRL. Results: Twenty yoga and 5 breathing exercises were adopted. They have slow, methodical joint movements which helped patients to tolerate pain. Breathing was long and diaphragmatic. Flexion of joints was coordinated with exhalation and extension with inhalation. Alternate yoga was introduced to facilitate patients to perform complex movements. Yoga's joint movements, initial positions, and mode of breathing were compared to two other protocols. The volume reduced from 2.4 to 1.2 L in eight patients after continuous practice of yoga and compression at home for 3 months. There was improvement in the range of movement and intensity of pain. Discussion: Yoga exercises were selected on the basis of their role in chest expansion, maximizing range of movements: flexion of large muscles, maximum stretch of skin, and thus part-by-part lymph drainage from center and periphery. This protocol addressed functional, volume, and movement issues of BCRL and was found to be superior to other BCRL yoga protocols. However, this protocol needs to be tested in centers routinely managing BCRL

  1. Energy efficient TDMA-based MAC protocol associated with GAF for wireless sensor networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Xiao; ZHENG Bao-yu; YAN Zhen-ya; CHEN Chao

    2007-01-01

    The design of media access control (MAC) protocol for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) with the idea of cross layer attracts more and more attention. People can improve the MAC protocol by obtaining certain information regarding the network layer and physical layer. This article synthesizes and optimizes certain cross-layer protocols which have existed. On the basis of the routing, topology information in the network layer, and transmission power information in the physical layer, the time slot assignment algorithm has been improved in the MAC layer.By using geographical adaptive fidelity algorithm (GAF) to divide the grids, controlling of transmission power and scheduling the work/sleep duty cycle for sensor nodes, a new MAC protocol has been proposed to decrease energy consumption and enlarge the lifetime of WSNs. Simulation results show that the MAC protocol functions well.

  2. Exercise and Training at Altitudes: Physiological Effects and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Cecilia Vargas Pinilla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in altitude leads to a proportional fall in the barometric pressure, and a decrease in atmospheric oxygen pressure, producing hypobaric hypoxia that affects, in different degrees, all body organs, systems and functions. The chronically reduced partial pressure of oxygen causes that individuals adapt and adjust to physiological stress. These adaptations are modulated by many factors, including the degree of hypoxia related to altitude, time of exposure, exercise intensity and individual conditions. It has been established that exposure to high altitude is an environmental stressor that elicits a response that contributes to many adjustments and adaptations that influence exercise capacity and endurance performance. These adaptations include in crease in hemoglobin concentration, ventilation, capillary density and tissue myoglobin concentration. However, a negative effect in strength and power is related to a decrease in muscle fiber size and body mass due to the decrease in the training intensity. Many researches aim at establishing how training or living at high altitudes affects performance in athletes. Training methods, such as living in high altitudes training low, and training high-living in low altitudes have been used to research the changes in the physical condition in athletes and how the physiological adaptations to hypoxia can enhanceperformance at sea level. This review analyzes the literature related to altitude training focused on how physiological adaptations to hypoxic environments influence performance, and which protocols are most frequently used to train in high altitudes.

  3. Wireless Networks : Analysis, Protocols, Architecture and Towards Convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, P.R.

    2003-01-01

    International audience We present a brief account of some recent work of our group in four areas: i) Information theoretic limits on how much traffic wireless networks can carry. ii) Information theoretically optimal strategies for operating wireless networks. iii) Protocols for media access control, power control, clustering, and routing. iv) The importance of architecture in the oncoming convergence of control with communication and computing.

  4. Reactive GTS Allocation Protocol for Sporadic Events Using the IEEE 802.15.4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtar Azeem

    2014-01-01

    by the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. The proposed control protocol ensures that a given offline sporadic schedule can be adapted online in a timely manner such that the static periodic schedule has not been disturbed and the IEEE 802.15.4 standard compliance remains intact. The proposed protocol is simulated in OPNET. The simulation results are analyzed and presented in this paper to prove the correctness of the proposed protocol regarding the efficient real-time sporadic event delivery along with the periodic event propagation.

  5. Modeling Adaptive Educational Methods with IMS Learning Design

    OpenAIRE

    Specht, Marcus; Burgos, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes a classification system for adaptive methods developed in the area of adaptive educational hypermedia based on four dimensions: What components of the educational system are adapted? To what features of the user and the current context does the system adapt? Why does the system adapt? How does the system get the necessary information? Based on this taxonomy several classical methods of adaptive educational hypermedia are classified. In a second step the paper gives an over...

  6. Protocol biopsies for renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rush David

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Protocol biopsies in renal transplantation are those that are procured at predetermined times post renal transplantation, regardless of renal function. These biopsies have been useful to study the natural history of the transplanted kidney as they have detected unexpected - i.e. "subclinical" pathology. The most significant subclinical pathologies that have been detected with protocol biopsies have been acute lesions, such as cellular and antibody mediated rejection, and chronic lesions, such as interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy, and transplant glomerulopathy. The potential benefit of early recognition of the above lesions is that their early treatment may result in improved long-term outcomes. Conversely, the identification of normal histology on a protocol biopsy, may inform us about the safety of reduction in overall immunosuppression. Our centre, as well as others, is attempting to develop non-invasive methods of immune monitoring of renal transplant patients. However, we believe that until such methods have been developed and validated, the protocol biopsy will remain an indispensable tool for the complete care of renal transplant patients.

  7. Kyoto protocol on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reports a short overview of main points of Kyoto protocol to United Nations Framework Convention on climate Change and of some options still to be defined, evolutions of Italian emissions with respect to other European countries, check of decree by inter ministerial committee on economic planning on national plan to reduce emissions

  8. Performance Evaluation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Curti, Michele;

    2005-01-01

    We use a special operational semantics which drives us in inferring quantitative measures on systems describing cryptographis cryptographic protocols. We assign rates to transitions by only looking at these labels. The rates reflect the distributed architecture running applications and the use of...... of possibly different cryptosystems. We then map transition systems to Markov chains and evaluate performance of systems, using standard tools....

  9. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...

  10. From protocol to published report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Louise; Callréus, Torbjörn; Petersen, Lene Grejs;

    2016-01-01

    %) of the sample, and 87% (95% CI: 80 to 94%) of the trials were hospital based. CONCLUSIONS: Overall consistency between protocols and their corresponding published reports was low. Motivators for the inconsistencies are unknown but do not seem restricted to economic incentives....

  11. Improving the DGK comparison protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veugen, P.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    When processing signals in the encrypted domain, homomorphic encryption can be used to enable linear operations on encrypted data. Comparison of encrypted data however requires an additional protocol between the parties and will be relatively expensive. A well-known and frequently used comparison pr

  12. The Kyoto Protocol and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘巧云

    2005-01-01

    The kyoto Protocol is an agreement to the United Nations Framework Convention on CLimate Change (UNFCCC)2,an international treaty on global warming .It is a legally binding agreement under which industrialized countries will reduce their collective emissions of greenhouse gases by an average of 5.2% compared to the level of 1990 during the 2008-12 period.

  13. Recursive Ping-Pong Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huttel, Hans; Srba, Jiri

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a process calculus with recursion which allows us to express an unbounded number of runs of the ping-pong protocols introduced by Dolev and Yao. We study the decidability issues associated with two common approaches to checking security properties, namely reachability analysis...

  14. Bundle Security Protocol for ION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Birrane, Edward J.; Krupiarz, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This software implements bundle authentication, conforming to the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Internet Draft on Bundle Security Protocol (BSP), for the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) implementation of DTN. This is the only implementation of BSP that is integrated with ION.

  15. Automata-theoretic protocol programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, Sung-Shik Theodorus Quirinus

    2016-01-01

    Parallel programming has become essential for writing scalable programs on general hardware. Conceptually, every parallel program consists of workers, which implement primary units of sequential computation, and protocols, which implement the rules of interaction that workers must abide by. As progr

  16. A Student Teamwork Induction Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamau, Caroline; Spong, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    Faulty group processes have harmful effects on performance but there is little research about intervention protocols to pre-empt them in higher education. This naturalistic experiment compared a control cohort with an inducted cohort. The inducted cohort attended a workshop, consultations, elected a leader and used tools (a group log and group…

  17. Recovery Act: Energy Efficiency of Data Networks through Rate Adaptation (EEDNRA) - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Andrews; Spyridon Antonakopoulos; Steve Fortune; Andrea Francini; Lisa Zhang

    2011-07-12

    using feasibly-implementable rate adaptivity. • A buffer-management algorithm that is designed to reduce the size of router buffers, and hence energy consumed. • A packet-scheduling algorithm designed to minimize packet-processing energy requirements. Additional research is recommended in at least two areas: further exploration of rate-adaptation in network switching equipment, including incorporation of rate-adaptation in actual hardware, allowing experimentation in operational networks; and development of control protocols that allow parts of networks to be shut down while minimizing disruption to traffic flow in the network. The research is an integral part of a large effort within Bell Laboratories, Alcatel-Lucent, aimed at dramatic improvements in the energy efficiency of telecommunication networks. This Study did not explicitly consider any commercialization opportunities.

  18. Adaptive management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rist, Lucy; Campbell, Bruce Morgan; Frost, Peter

    2013-01-01

    in scientific articles, policy documents and management plans, but both understanding and application of the concept is mixed. This paper reviews recent literature from conservation and natural resource management journals to assess diversity in how the term is used, highlight ambiguities and consider how...... a management framework, as well as of identified challenges and pathologies, are needed. Further discussion and systematic assessment of the approach is required, together with greater attention to its definition and description, enabling the assessment of new approaches to managing uncertainty, and AM itself.......Adaptive management (AM) emerged in the literature in the mid-1970s in response both to a realization of the extent of uncertainty involved in management, and a frustration with attempts to use modelling to integrate knowledge and make predictions. The term has since become increasingly widely used...

  19. Designing Adaptive Web Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The unique characteristic of web applications is that they are supposed to be used by much bigger and diverse set of users and stakeholders. An example application area is e-Learning or business to business interaction. In eLearning environment, various users with different background use the e......Learning system to study a discipline. In business to business interaction, different requirements and parameters of exchanged business requests might be served by different services from third parties. Such applications require certain intelligence and a slightly different approach to design. Adpative web...... adaptation to the changed parameters of environments, user or context. Adaptation can be seen as an orthogonal concern or viewpoint in a design process. In this paper I will discuss design abstractions which are employed in current design methods for web applications. I will exemplify the use...

  20. Validity of Short and Long Self-Administered Food Frequency Questionnaires in Ranking Dietary Intake in Middle-Aged and Elderly Japanese in the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study for the Next Generation (JPHC-NEXT) Protocol Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yuta; Takachi, Ribeka; Ishihara, Junko; Ishii, Yuri; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Sawada, Norie; Shinozawa, Yurie; Tanaka, Junta; Kato, Erika; Kitamura, Kaori; Nakamura, Kazutoshi; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Longitudinal epidemiological studies require both the periodic update of intake information via repeated dietary survey and the minimization of subject burden in responding to questionnaires. We developed a 66-item Food Frequency Questionnaire (short-FFQ) for the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective Study for the Next Generation (JPHC-NEXT) follow-up survey using major foods from the FFQ developed for the original JPHC Study. For the JPHC-NEXT baseline survey, we used a larger 172-item FFQ (long-FFQ), which was also derived from the JPHC-FFQ. We compared the validity of ranking individuals by levels of dietary consumption by these FFQs among residents of selected JPHC-NEXT study areas. Methods From 2012 to 2013, 240 men and women aged 40–74 years from five areas in the JPHC-NEXT protocol were asked to respond to the long-FFQ and provide 12-day weighed food records (WFR) as reference; 228 also completed the short-FFQ. Spearman’s correlation coefficients (CCs) between estimates from the FFQs and WFR were calculated and corrected for intra-individual variation of the WFR. Results Median CC values for energy and 53 nutrients for the short-FFQ for men and women were 0.46 and 0.44, respectively. Respective values for the long-FFQ were 0.50 and 0.43. Compared with the long-FFQ, cross-classification into exact plus adjacent quintiles with the short-FFQ ranged from 68% to 91% in men and 58% to 85% in women. Conclusions Similar to the long-FFQ, the short-FFQ provided reasonably valid measures for ranking middle-aged and elderly Japanese for many nutrients and food groups. The short-FFQ can be used in follow-up surveys in prospective cohort studies aimed at updating diet rank information. PMID:27064130