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Sample records for ardennes b-1 reactor

  1. Sediment budget and tectonic evolution of the Meuse catchment in the Ardennes and the Roer Valley Rift System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balen, R.T. van; Houtgast, R.F.; Wateren, F.M. van der; Berghe, J. van den; Bogaart, P.W.

    2000-01-01

    The Meuse river system is located in the northeastern part of the Paris Basin, the Ardennes, and the Roer Valley Rift System (RVRS). The Meuse river system developed during the uplift of the Ardennes since the Eocene and it was affected by renewed rifting of the RVRS starting in the Late Oligocene.

  2. Kettneraspis, Radiaspis and Ceratarges (Trilobita) from the Middle Devonian of the Rochefort area (Ardennes, Belgium)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viersen, van A.P.

    2007-01-01

    The Middle Eifelian trilobite fauna of the Belgian Ardennes shows close affinities with that of the German Eifel. Two trilobite taxa are recorded from Middle Eifelian strata near the town of Jemelle, on the southern border of the Dinant Synclinorium, Belgium. Kettneraspis bayarti sp. nov. is closely

  3. Soil piping in a temperate humid climate. The Flemish Ardennes (Belgium).

    OpenAIRE

    Verachtert, Els

    2011-01-01

    Collapsible loess-derived soils are prone to subsurface soil erosion (piping), whereenlargement of macropores may lead to a subsurface pipe network and eventuallyto soil collapse. This PhD aimed at understanding the factors controlling theoccurrence of collapsed pipes in the Flemish Ardennes. In total, 137 parcelswith 560 collapsed pipes were mapped, indicating significant soil losses in aland use –pasture– that is typically considered to be non-susceptible to surfaceerosion. Logistic regress...

  4. Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    1988-01-01

    This standard applies to the following types of reactors: shunt reactors, current-limiting reactors including neutral-earthing reactors, damping reactors, tuning (filter) reactors, earthing transformers (neutral couplers), arc-suppression reactors, smoothing reactors, with the exception of the following reactors: small reactors with a rating generally less than 2 kvar single-phase and 10 kvar three-phase, reactors for special purposes such as high-frequency line traps or reactors mounted on rolling stock.

  5. Vitamin B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prize Alfred Nobel's Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Vitamin B1 - About The Chicken Farm educational game and ... the game window. Reading: "Christian Eijkman, Beriberi and Vitamin B1" - Who was Eijkman and why did he ...

  6. Spatial variability in channel and slope morphology within the Ardennes Massif, and its link with tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sougnez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphic processes that produce and transport sediment, and incise river valleys are complex; and often difficult to quantify over longer timescales of 103 to 105 years. Morphometric indices that describe the topography of hill slopes, valleys and river channels have commonly been used to compare morphological characteristics between catchments and to relate them to hydrological and erosion processes. This work focuses on a wide range of slope and river channel morphometric indices to study their behavior and strength in regions affected by low to moderate tectonic activity. We selected 10 catchments of about 150 to 250 km2 across the Ardennes Massif that cover various tectonic domains with uplift rates ranging from about 0.06 to 0.20 mm year−1 since mid-Pleistocene times. The morphometric analysis indicates that the slope and channel morphology of third-order catchments is not yet in topographic steady-state, and exhibits clear convexities in slope and river profiles. Our data indicate that the fluvial system is the main driver of topographic evolution and that the spatial pattern of uplift rates is reflected in the distribution of channel steepness and convexity. The spatial variation that we observe in slope and channel morphology between the 10 third-order catchments suggests that the response of the fluvial system was strongly diachronous, and that a transient signal of adjustment is migrating from the Meuse valley towards the Ardennian headwaters.

  7. The topographic signature of Quaternary tectonic uplift in the Ardennes massif (Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sougnez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphic processes that produce and transport sediment, and incise river valleys are complex; and often difficult to quantify over longer timescales of 103 to 105 y. Morphometric indices that describe the topography of hill slopes, valleys and river channels have commonly been used to compare morphological characteristics between catchments and to relate them to hydrological and erosion processes. This study aims to analyze the link between tectonic uplift rates and landscape morphology based on slope and channel morphometric indexes. To achieve this objective, we selected 10 catchments of about 150 to 250 km2 across the Ardennes Massif (a Palaeozoic massif of NW Europe, principally located in Belgium that cover various tectonic domains with uplift rates ranging from about 0.06 to 0.20 mm yr−1 since mid-Pleistocene times. The morphometric analysis indicates that the slope and channel morphology of third-order catchments is not yet in topographic steady-state, and exhibits clear convexities in slope and river profiles. Our analysis indicates that the fluvial system is the main driver of topographic evolution and that the spatial pattern of uplift rates is reflected in the distribution of channel steepness and convexity. The spatial variation that we observe in slope and channel morphology between the 10 third-order catchments suggests that the response of the fluvial system was strongly diachronic, and that a transient signal of adjustment is migrating from the Meuse valley towards the Ardennian headwaters.

  8. [Results and lessons after 10 years of universal neonatal hearing screening in the Champagne-Ardenne region of France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chays, André; Labrousse, Marc; Makeieff, Marc

    2014-01-01

    In France, universal newborn hearing screening has been mandatory since April23rd, 2012, but it began in the Champagne-Ardenne region on January 15th 2004. More than 99 % of 160 196 newborns have since been systematically screened in this region. Bilateral hearing impairment was thus identified in 116 infants when they were around 3.5 months old. Earlier diagnosis improves the outcome of deafness, which is only diagnosed around age 20 months without screening. The authors report their experience and the lessons learnt.

  9. Comparison of two landslide susceptibility assessments in the Champagne-Ardenne region (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Eeckhaut, M. Van; Marre, A.; Poesen, J.

    2010-02-01

    The vineyards of the Montagne de Reims are mostly planted on steep south-oriented cuesta fronts receiving a maximum of sun radiation. Due to the location of the vineyards on steep hillslopes, the viticultural activity is threatened by slope failures. This study attempts to better understand the spatial patterns of landslide susceptibility in the Champagne-Ardenne region by comparing a heuristic (qualitative) and a statistical (quantitative) model in a 1120 km² study area. The heuristic landslide susceptibility model was adopted from the Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières, the GEGEAA - Reims University and the Comité Interprofessionnel du Vin de Champagne. In this model, expert knowledge of the region was used to assign weights to all slope classes and lithologies present in the area, but the final susceptibility map was never evaluated with the location of mapped landslides. For the statistical landslide susceptibility assessment, logistic regression was applied to a dataset of 291 'old' (Holocene) landslides. The robustness of the logistic regression model was evaluated and ROC curves were used for model calibration and validation. With regard to the variables assumed to be important environmental factors controlling landslides, the two models are in agreement. They both indicate that present and future landslides are mainly controlled by slope gradient and lithology. However, the comparison of the two landslide susceptibility maps through (1) an evaluation with the location of mapped 'old' landslides and through (2) a temporal validation with spatial data of 'recent' (1960-1999; n = 48) and 'very recent' (2000-2008; n = 46) landslides showed a better prediction capacity for the statistical model produced in this study compared to the heuristic model. In total, the statistically-derived landslide susceptibility map succeeded in correctly classifying 81.0% of the 'old' and 91.6% of the 'recent' and 'very recent' landslides. On the susceptibility map

  10. CYP7B1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, P; Svenstrup, K; Danielsen, E R

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The SPG5A subtype of Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the CYP7B1 gene, which encodes a steroid cytochrome P450 7α-hydroxylase. This enzyme provides the primary metabolic route for neurosteroids. Clinica......UNLABELLED: The SPG5A subtype of Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the CYP7B1 gene, which encodes a steroid cytochrome P450 7α-hydroxylase. This enzyme provides the primary metabolic route for neurosteroids...

  11. SAFIRA. Sub-project B 1.3: Development of coupled in-situ reactors and optimisation of the geochemical processes in the discharge of different in situ reactor sytems. Final report; SAFIRA. Teilprojekt B 1.3: Entwicklung von gekoppelten in situ-Reaktoren und Optimierung der geochemischen Prozesse im Abstrom von verschiedenen in situ-Reaktor-Systemen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahmke, A.; Schaefer, D.; Koeber, R.; Plagentz, V.

    2002-12-01

    The Bitterfeld ground water is contaminated with many different pollutants over a large area. Long-term measures like reactive barriers for purification are required. However, groundwater contaminated with multiple contaminants cannot be purified by a single reactive material; for this reason, the effectivity of combinations of different reactive materials was investigated. Of the combinations investigated, reducing iron and activated carbon connected in series was the most effective: The iron will remove the reducible chlorinated hydrocarbons, while the rest of the contaminants are adsorbed to the activated carbon. Iron and ORC was another interesting option, but the combination of iron and activated carbon was found to be the most favourable option. Until a better method is available, it is recommended to connect iron and activated carbon in parallel for removing contaminant mixtures. Directly behind reactive iron barriers (also when combined with activated carbon), the limiting values of the Freshwater Ordinance for Fe(II) and pH are exceeded. Directly behind ORC reactors, the limiting values for Mg and pH are exceeded. Investigations in the outflow of these reactive materials showed that the high pH values are buffered by contact with the aquifer material to values typical of aquifers, which usually are below the limiting values of the Freshwater Ordinance. However, as the buffer capacity of the soil is exhausted, a zone with a higher pH starts to grow in the aquifer. The growth of this zone depends on the pH and on the aquifer material. Especially in soils as found at Bitterfeld, with a high concentration of organic matter, we find long-term desorption of pollutants from the aquifer materials which will burden the purified water leaving the water treatment system and prohibit its utilization. [German] Der Grundwasserleiter im Raum Bitterfeld ist grossraeumig mit vielen verschiedenen Substanzen kontaminiert. Aufgrund der grossraeumigen Erstreckung kommen nur

  12. SAFIRA. Sub-project B 1.3: Development of coupled in-situ reactors and optimisation of the geochemical processes in the discharge of different in situ reactor sytems. Final report; SAFIRA. Teilprojekt B 1.3: Entwicklung von gekoppelten in situ-Reaktoren und Optimierung der geochemischen Prozesse im Abstrom von verschiedenen in situ-Reaktor-Systemen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahmke, A.; Schaefer, D.; Koeber, R.; Plagentz, V.

    2002-12-01

    The Bitterfeld ground water is contaminated with many different pollutants over a large area. Long-term measures like reactive barriers for purification are required. However, groundwater contaminated with multiple contaminants cannot be purified by a single reactive material; for this reason, the effectivity of combinations of different reactive materials was investigated. Of the combinations investigated, reducing iron and activated carbon connected in series was the most effective: The iron will remove the reducible chlorinated hydrocarbons, while the rest of the contaminants are adsorbed to the activated carbon. Iron and ORC was another interesting option, but the combination of iron and activated carbon was found to be the most favourable option. Until a better method is available, it is recommended to connect iron and activated carbon in parallel for removing contaminant mixtures. Directly behind reactive iron barriers (also when combined with activated carbon), the limiting values of the Freshwater Ordinance for Fe(II) and pH are exceeded. Directly behind ORC reactors, the limiting values for Mg and pH are exceeded. Investigations in the outflow of these reactive materials showed that the high pH values are buffered by contact with the aquifer material to values typical of aquifers, which usually are below the limiting values of the Freshwater Ordinance. However, as the buffer capacity of the soil is exhausted, a zone with a higher pH starts to grow in the aquifer. The growth of this zone depends on the pH and on the aquifer material. Especially in soils as found at Bitterfeld, with a high concentration of organic matter, we find long-term desorption of pollutants from the aquifer materials which will burden the purified water leaving the water treatment system and prohibit its utilization. [German] Der Grundwasserleiter im Raum Bitterfeld ist grossraeumig mit vielen verschiedenen Substanzen kontaminiert. Aufgrund der grossraeumigen Erstreckung kommen nur

  13. Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert M.

    1976-10-05

    1. A neutronic reactor having a moderator, coolant tubes traversing the moderator from an inlet end to an outlet end, bodies of material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy disposed within the coolant tubes, and means for circulating water through said coolant tubes characterized by the improved construction wherein the coolant tubes are constructed of aluminum having an outer diameter of 1.729 inches and a wall thickness of 0.059 inch, and the means for circulating a liquid coolant through the tubes includes a source of water at a pressure of approximately 350 pounds per square inch connected to the inlet end of the tubes, and said construction including a pressure reducing orifice disposed at the inlet ends of the tubes reducing the pressure of the water by approximately 150 pounds per square inch.

  14. B1 Aerogels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1996-01-01

    , engineering and architectural basis which will support the appropriate use of aerogels in windows, solar collectors and passive solar applications, with the aim of saving or producing thermal energy for use in buildings".This objective is in very good agreement with the general scope of task 18 but where Task......The report summarizes the work that has been carried out within the project "B1 AEROGELS" as a part of the IEA SH&CP Task 18 "Advanced Glazing and Associated Materials For Solar And Building Applications".By providing at the same time thermal insulation and transparency the silica aerogel is a very...... of aerogel as a material for window applications. It was not a part of the project to make a further development of the aerogel material.The project was carried out in three main steps:1. Collection of information on aerogel production methods2. Measurements and evaluation of optical and thermal properties...

  15. aflatoxina b1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Valdivia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de probar que la suplementación dietética de ácido elágico (AE o N-Acetilcisteína (NAC en pollos de engorda, atenúa los efectos de una intoxicación aguda por la aflatoxina B1 (AFB1, se intoxicaron con AFB1 pura, tres grupos de diez pollos cada uno (3.0 mb/kg pc, IP. Otros tres grupos recibieron solamente el vehículo (aceite de maíz 2.0 ml/kg pc, IP. Cuatro días antes se administró un alimento testigo, o bien, la misma dieta adicionada con AE (2.5 g/kg o NAC (200 mg/kg pc/6 h. A las 24 horas de la administración de AFB1, se cuantificaron las concentraciones hepáticas de glutatión (GSH, de actividad enzimática específica de la transferasa de glutatión (GST, alanina aminotransferasa, aspartato aminotransferasa y de proteínas hepáticas totales. Los resultados mostraron que NAC atenúa el impacto negativo de la AFB1 sobre el crecimiento corporal y al igual que AE, incrementa la GST y revierte parcialmente los efectos de AFB1 sobre GSH, lo cual sugiere que ambas sustancias pudieran conferir un efecto protector de las aves

  16. Mixed brittle-plastic deformation behaviour in a slate belt. Examples from the High-Ardenne slate belt (Belgium, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintubin, Manuel; van Baelen, Hervé; van Noten, Koen; Muchez, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    In the High-Ardenne slate belt, part of the Rhenohercynian external fold-and-thrust belt at the northern extremity of the Late Palaeozoic Variscan orogen (Belgium, Germany, France), particular quartz vein occurrences can be observed in predominantly fine-grained siliciclastic metasediments. Detailed structural, petrographical and geochemical studies has revealed that these vein occurrences can be related to a mixed brittle-plastic deformation behaviour in a low-grade metamorphic mid-crustal environment. The first type of quartz veins are bedding-perpendicular, lens-shaped extension veins that are confined to the sandstone layers within the multilayer sequence. Fluid inclusion studies demonstrate high fluid pressures suggesting that the individual sandstone bodies acted as isolated high-pressure compartments in an overpressured basin. Hydraulic fracturing occurred during the tectonic inversion (from extension to compression) in the earliest stages of the Variscan orogeny. The vein fill shows a blocky character indicating crystal growth in open cavities. Both the typical lens shape of the veins and the subsequent cuspate-lobate folding of the bed interfaces in between the quartz veins suggest plastic deformation of cohesionless fluid-filled fissures. Metamorphic grade of the host rock and fluid temperature and pressure clearly indicates mid-crustal conditions below the brittle-plastic transition. This first type of quartz veins exemplifies mixed brittle-plastic deformation behaviour, possibly related to a transient deepening of the brittle-plastic transition. This is in contrast with contemporaneous bedding-perpendicular crack-seal veins observed in higher - upper-crustal - structural levels in the slate belt, reflecting pure brittle deformation behaviour. The second type are discordant quartz veins confined to extensional low-angle detachment shear zones. These very irregular veins transect a pre-existing pervasive cleavage fabric. They show no matching walls and

  17. CIAE Signs Contract on B1/B2 Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    CIAE signed Contract on Design,Commissioning and Technology Service for B1/B2 Project of Birine Reactor with CZEC in December,2015.The B1/B2 project which was won over by CZEC is PhaseⅠand PhaseⅡof an Algeria project which aimed to upgrade and rebuild Algeria Birine Nuclear Research Center.According to the contract with total fund amounting to 110million Yuan,CIAE will provide

  18. Assessing the Economic Cost of Landslide Damage in Low-Relief Regions: Case Study Evidence from the Flemish Ardennes (Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranken, L.; Van Turnhout, P.; Van Den Eeckhaut, M.; Vandekerckhove, L.; Vantilt, G.; Poesen, J.

    2012-04-01

    Several regions around the globe are at risk to incur damage from landslides. These landslides cause significant structural and functional damage to public and private buildings and infrastructure. Numerous studies investigated how natural factors and human activities control the (re-)activation of landslides. However, few studies have concentrated on a quantitative estimate of the overall damage caused by landslides at a regional scale. This study therefore starts with a quantitative economic assessment of the direct and indirect damage caused by landslides in the Flemish Ardennes (Belgium), a low-relief region (area=ca. 700 km2) susceptible to landslides. Based on focus interviews as well as on semi-structured interviews with homeowners, civil servants (e.g. from the technical services from the various towns), or with the owners and providers of lifelines such as electricity and sewage, we have quantitatively estimated the direct and indirect damage induced by landsliding and this for a 10 to 30 year period (depending on the type of infrastructure or buildings). Economic damage to public infrastructure and buildings was estimated for the entire region, while for private damage 10 cases with severe to small damage were quantified. For example, in the last 10 year, costs of road repair augmented to 814 560 €. Costs to repair damaged roads that have not yet been repaired, were estimated at 669 318 €. In the past 30 years, costs of measures to prevent road damage augmented to at least 14 872 380 €. More than 90% of this budget for preventive measures was spent 30 years ago, when an important freeway was damaged and had to be repaired. These preventive measures (building a grout wall and improving the drainage system) were effective as no further damage has been reported until present. To repair and prevent damage to waterworks and sewage systems, expenditures amounted to 551 044 € and this for the last 30 years. In the past 10 years, a new railway line

  19. On Products of Property b1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianjun WANG; Peiyong ZHU

    2012-01-01

    In this note,we present that:(1) Let X=σ{Xα:α ∈ A} be |A|-paracompact (resp.,hereditarily |A|-paracompact).If every finite subproduct of {Xα:α ∈ A} has property b1 (resp.,hereditarily property b1),then so is X.(2) Let X be a P-space and Y a metric space.Then,X × Y has property b1 iff X has property b1.(3) Let X be a strongly zero-dimensional and compact space.Then,X × Y has property b1 iff Y has property b1.

  20. 34 CFR 5b.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... maintained by the Department, including but not limited to the individual's education, financial transactions... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 5b.1 Section 5b.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 5b.1 Definitions. As used in this part:...

  1. 18 CFR 1b.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1b.1 Section 1b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.1 Definitions. For purposes of this part—...

  2. Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogerton, John

    1964-01-01

    This pamphlet describes how reactors work; discusses reactor design; describes research, teaching, and materials testing reactors; production reactors; reactors for electric power generation; reactors for supply heat; reactors for propulsion; reactors for space; reactor safety; and reactors of tomorrow. The appendix discusses characteristics of U.S. civilian power reactor concepts and lists some of the U.S. reactor power projects, with location, type, capacity, owner, and startup date.

  3. Cyclin B1 Vaccine Delays Spontaneous Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura A, Vella; Min, Yu; Amy, Phillips; Olivera J, Finn

    2012-01-01

    We previously identified cyclin B1-specific T cells and antibodies in cancer patients with cyclin B1+ tumors and also in some healthy individuals. We also demonstrated that these responses may be important in cancer immunosurveillance by showing that vaccination against cyclin B1 prevents growth of transplantable cyclin B1+ tumors in mice. Constitutive overexpression of cyclin B1 was determined to correlate with the lack of p53 function. This allowed us to use p53−/− mice as a model that better approximates human disease. p53−/− mice spontaneously develop cyclin B1+ tumors. At 5–6 weeks of age, when the mice were still healthy with no evidence of tumor, they received the cyclin B1 vaccine and were then observed for tumor growth. We demonstrate that cyclin B1 vaccination can delay spontaneous cyclin B1+ tumor growth and increases median survival of tumor bearing p53−/− mice. PMID:19769738

  4. 18 CFR 3b.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 3b.1 Section 3b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE...

  5. Observation of B Meson decays to b1pi and b1K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, B; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Tico, J Garra; Grauges, E; Lopez, L; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Pegna, D Lopes; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Osipenkov, I L; Ronan, M T; Tackmann, K; Tanabe, T; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo Sanchez, P; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Pelizaeus, M; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Barrett, M; Khan, A; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Zhang, L; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Wilson, M G; Winstrom, L O; Chen, E; Cheng, C H; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Gabareen, A M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Klose, V; Kobel, M J; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Lombardo, V; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Watson, J E; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Santoro, V; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Vazquez, W Panduro; Tibbetts, M; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gao, Y Y; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Lae, C K; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Béquilleux, J; D'Orazio, A; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bingham, I; Burke, J P; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; George, K A; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Paramesvaran, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Fisher, P H; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Zhao, M; Zheng, Y; McLachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Knoepfel, K J; Losecco, J M; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gagliardi, N; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Perez, A; Prendki, J; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Biesiada, J; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Baracchini, E; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Gioi, L Li; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Renga, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Hartmann, T; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Castelli, G; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Ricciardi, S; Roethel, W; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; Escalier, M; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; de Monchenault, G Hamel; Kozanecki, W; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kaminski, J; Kelsey, M H; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Macfarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ofte, I; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Pelliccioni, M; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martinez-Vidal, F; Milanes, D A; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Harrison, P F; Ilic, J; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Neal, H

    2007-12-14

    We present the results of searches for decays of B mesons to final states with a b1 meson and a charged pion or kaon. The data, collected with the BABAR detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, represent 382x10(6) BB[over ] pairs produced in e+e- annihilation. The results for the branching fractions are, in units of 10(-6), B(B+-->b1(0)pi+)=6.7+/-1.7+/-1.0, B(B+-->b1(0)K+)=9.1+/-1.7+/-1.0, B(B0-->b1(-/+)pi(+/-))=10.9+/-1.2+/-0.9, and B(B0-->b1(-)K+)=7.4+/-1.0+/-1.0, with the assumption that B(b1-->omega pi)=1. We also measure charge and flavor asymmetries A(ch)(B+-->b1(0)pi+)=0.05+/-0.16+/-0.02, Ach(B+-->b1(0)K+)=-0.46+/-0.20+/-0.02, A(ch)(B0-->b1(-/+)pi(+/-))=-0.05+/-0.10+/-0.02, C(B0-->b1(-/+)pi(+/-))=-0.22+/-0.23+/-0.05, DeltaC(B0-->b1(-/+)pi(+/-))=-1.04+/-0.23+/-0.08, and A(ch)(B0-->b1(-)K+)=-0.07+/-0.12+/-0.02. The first error quoted is statistical, and the second systematic.

  6. Observation of B-meson decays to b_1 pi and b_1 K

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Boutigny, D; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Garra Tico, J; Graugès-Pous, E; López, L; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lopes-Pegna, D; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Osipenkov, I L; Ronan, M T; Tackmann, K; Tanabé, T; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo-Sánchez, P; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Pelizaeus, M; Schröder, T; Steinke, M; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Zhang, L; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Wilson, M G; Winstrom, L O; Chen, E; Cheng, C H; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Gabareen, A M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Klose, V; Kobel, M J; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Lombardo, V; Thiebaux, C; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Watson, J E; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Santoro, V; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Panduro-Vazquez, W; Tibbetts, M; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gao, Y Y; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Lae, C K; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Bequilleux, J; D'Orazio, A; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bingham, I; Burke, J P; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; George, K A; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flächer, H U; Hopkins, D A; Paramesvaran, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Fisher, P H; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Zhao, M; Zheng, Y; Mclachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, Gallieno; Fabozzi, F; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Knoepfel, K J; LoSecco, J M; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gagliardi, N; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; De La Vaissière, C; Hamon, O; Leruste, P; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Pérez, A; Prendki, J; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Biesiada, J; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lü, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Baracchini, E; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Renga, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Hartmann, T; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Castelli, G; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Ricciardi, S; Röthel, W; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; Escalier, M; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kaminski, J; Kelsey, M H; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ofte, I; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Vavra, J; Van Bakel, N; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Pelliccioni, M; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martínez-Vidal, F; Milanes, D A; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Harrison, P F; Ilic, J; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Neal, H

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of searches for decays of B mesons to final states with a b_1 meson and a charged pion or kaon. The data, collected with the BaBar detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, represent 382 million B-Bbar pairs produced in e+e- annihilation. The results for the branching fractions are, in units of 10^{-6}, B(B+ -> b1^0 pi+) = 6.7 +/- 1.7 +/- 1.0 (4.0 sigma), B(B+ -> b1^0 K+ = 9.1+/- 1.7+/- 1.0 (5.3 sigma), B(B0 -> b1^-/+ pi^+/-) = 10.9 +/- 1.2 +/- 0.9 (8.9 sigma), and B(B0 -> b1^-K+) = 7.4 +/- 1.0 +/- 1.0 (6.1 sigma), with the assumption that B(b_1 -> omega pi)=1. We also measure charge and flavor asymmetries Ach(B+ -> b1^0 pi+) = 0.05 +/- 0.16 +/- 0.02, Ach(B+ -> b1^0 K+ = -0.46 +/- 0.20 +/- 0.02, Ach(B0 -> b1^-/+ pi^+/-) = -0.05 +/- 0.10 +/- 0.02, C(B0 -> b1^-/+ pi^+/-) = -0.22 +/- 0.23 +/- 0.05, deltaC(B0 -> b1^-/+ pi^+/-) = -1.04 +/- 0.23 +/- 0.08, and Ach(B0 -> b1^-K+) = -0.07 +/- 0.12 +/- 0.02, The first error quoted is statistical, the second systematic, and for the branch...

  7. H Reactor

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The H Reactor was the first reactor to be built at Hanford after World War II.It became operational in October of 1949, and represented the fourth nuclear reactor on...

  8. Feasibility Study B-1 Power Controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    Study performed by the Autonetics Strategic Systems Division ( ASSD ) of Rockwell International on Contract N62269-79-C-0294. The objective of this study...Modify the design of the ASSD B-1 SSPC, Part Number 12880-507-1, to be a 115 Vac quadruple SSPC unit, with a SOSTEL compatible interface. 3.1.2 115 Vac...Primary Power Modifications. The ASSD SSPC Unit, Appendix A, contains four identical PC’s operating from 230 Vac primary power. Referring to Figure 1

  9. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A

    2001-04-01

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.

  10. Comparative analysis between P1 and B1 equations for neutron moderation; Analise comparativa entre os metodos de obtencao e das solucoes das equacoes P1 e B1 para moderacao de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da; Cardoso, Carlos Eduardo Santos [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2000-07-01

    In order to calculate the neutron flux in nuclear reactors, B1 or P1 equations are solved by numerical methods for several groups of energy. The neutron fluxes obtained from the solutions of the B1 and P1 equations are similar when they are applied to large nuclear power reactors. However, an important difference between the two fluxes is that the system of P1 equations uses one more approximation than the B1 system and then, its flux is less precise. The present work shows the relations between both equations and analyzes for what conditions the two equations systems are equivalent. Furthermore, this equations are numerically solved in 54 groups of energy for a quadrangular arrange. (author)

  11. Reactor safeguards

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    1962-01-01

    Reactor Safeguards provides information for all who are interested in the subject of reactor safeguards. Much of the material is descriptive although some sections are written for the engineer or physicist directly concerned with hazards analysis or site selection problems. The book opens with an introductory chapter on radiation hazards, the construction of nuclear reactors, safety issues, and the operation of nuclear reactors. This is followed by separate chapters that discuss radioactive materials, reactor kinetics, control and safety systems, containment, safety features for water reactor

  12. Reactor operation

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, J

    2013-01-01

    Reactor Operation covers the theoretical aspects and design information of nuclear reactors. This book is composed of nine chapters that also consider their control, calibration, and experimentation.The opening chapters present the general problems of reactor operation and the principles of reactor control and operation. The succeeding chapters deal with the instrumentation, start-up, pre-commissioning, and physical experiments of nuclear reactors. The remaining chapters are devoted to the control rod calibrations and temperature coefficient measurements in the reactor. These chapters also exp

  13. Fumonisin B(1): a neurotoxic mycotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domijan, Ana-Marija

    2012-12-01

    Fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium spp. moulds that contaminate crop, predominantly maize, all around the world. More than 15 types of fumonisins have been indentified so far, but FB(1) is the most abundant and toxicologically the most significant one. FB(1) has a wide range of toxic effects, depending on animal species. In horses FB(1) causes equine leukoencephalomalacia (ELEM), in pigs pulmonary oedema and in experimental rodents nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. In humans exposure to FB(1) is linked with higher incidence of primary liver cancer and oesophageal cancer, which are frequent in certain regions of the world (such as Transkei region in South Africa) where maize is staple food. The occurrence of neural tube defect in children in some countries of Central America (such as Mexico and Honduras) is connected with the consumption of FB(1)-contaminated maize-based food. However, possible involvement of FB(1) in the development of human diseases is not clear. Nevertheless, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified FB(1) as a possible carcinogen to humans (group 2B). FB(1) is a causative agent of ELEM, a brain disorder in equines, indicating that brain is a target organ of FB(1) toxicity. Several studies on experimental animals or on cell cultures of neural origin have established that FB(1) has a neurodegenerative potential, although the mechanism of its neurotoxicity is still vague. The aim of this article is to give an overview of available literature on FB(1) neurotoxicity and involved mechanisms, and to offer a new perspective for future studies.

  14. Synthesis of 5-Deoxy-5-Acyloxyiminoavermectin B1 Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Four 5-deoxy-5-acyloxyiminoavermectin B1 derivatives 4a~d were synthesized via three steps from avermectin B1 and their biological activities were tested against Heliothis armigera,Laphygma exigua and Musca domestica.

  15. 26 CFR 301.7701(b)-1 - Resident alien.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resident alien. 301.7701(b)-1 Section 301.7701... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701(b)-1 Resident alien. (a) Scope. Section 301.7701(b)-1(b) provides rules for determining whether an alien individual is a lawful permanent...

  16. Compound list: aflatoxin B1 [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aflatoxin B1 AFB1 00165 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/aflatoxin..._B1.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/aflatoxin_B1.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ...

  17. Reactor Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Soo-Bong Kim; Thierry Lasserre; Yifang Wang

    2013-01-01

    We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments. Short-baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and their interest has been recently revived by the discovery of the reactor antineutrino anomaly, a discrepancy between the reactor neutrino flux state of the art prediction and the measurements at baselines shorter than one kilometer. Middle and long-baseline oscillation experiments at Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO provided very ...

  18. Aflatoxin B1: Mechanism of mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina M. Santella

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Aflatoxins are a group of toxic and carcinogenic fungal metabolites that frequently contaminate corn, peanuts and other products. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, the most potent of these, is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system into a number of hydroxylated metabolites and glutathione conjugates in the process of conversion to more hydrophilic forms for urinary excretion. Unfortunately, one of these metabolites is the aflatoxin-8,9-epoxide that is produced in two forms, endo and exo. Glutathione S-transferases (GST are able to conjugate and detoxify this reactive intermediate. Species differences in susceptibility to the effects of AFB1 are partially related to differences in expression of specific GSTs that are able to conjugate the epoxide to glutathione. The exo epoxide is able to intercalate into DNA and this is followed by reaction of the C8 position of the epoxide with the N7 position of guanine.

    NMR studies of oligonucleotide duplexes containing the adduct have demonstrated that the adduct exists with the aromatic portion intercalated on the 5' face of the guanine residue with Watson-Crick base pairing maintained.

    However, this covalent adduct is chemically unstable due to the charge on the ribose ring. As a result, the guanine can be released from the DNA leaving an apurinic site. This released guanine adduct can be detected in the urine and serves as a biomarker of exposure to AFB1. Alternatively, the ribose ring opens forming a stable formamidopyrimidine (FAPY adduct. This adduct somewhat stabilizes the DNA duplex. Time course studies in animals have demonstrated that the N7 adduct is rapidly removed, probably because it causes more distortion in the helix, while the FAPY adduct is more

  19. Search for B-meson decays to b1ρ and b1K*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, B.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Hooberman, B.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I. L.; Tackmann, K.; Tanabe, T.; Hawkes, C. M.; Soni, N.; Watson, A. T.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Barrett, M.; Khan, A.; Randle-Conde, A.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Bondioli, M.; Curry, S.; Eschrich, I.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Lund, P.; Mandelkern, M.; Martin, E. C.; Stoker, D. P.; Atmacan, H.; Gary, J. W.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Vitug, G. M.; Yasin, Z.; Sharma, V.; Campagnari, C.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Beck, T. W.; Eisner, A. M.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Schalk, T.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Wang, L.; Winstrom, L. O.; Cheng, C. H.; Doll, D. A.; Echenard, B.; Fang, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Narsky, I.; Ongmongkolkul, P.; Piatenko, T.; Porter, F. C.; Andreassen, R.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Mishra, K.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Bloom, P. C.; Chavez, A.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Hirschauer, J. F.; Nagel, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Feltresi, E.; Hauke, A.; Jasper, H.; Karbach, T. M.; Merkel, J.; Petzold, A.; Spaan, B.; Wacker, K.; Kobel, M. J.; Nogowski, R.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Bernard, D.; Latour, E.; Verderi, M.; Clark, P. J.; Playfer, S.; Watson, J. E.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Franchini, P.; Luppi, E.; Munerato, M.; Negrini, M.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Contri, R.; Guido, E.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Chaisanguanthum, K. S.; Morii, M.; Adametz, A.; Marks, J.; Schenk, S.; Uwer, U.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Klose, V.; Lacker, H. M.; Lueck, T.; Volk, A.; Bard, D. J.; Dauncey, P. D.; Tibbetts, M.; Behera, P. K.; Charles, M. J.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Dong, L.; Eyges, V.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rubin, A. E.; Gao, Y. Y.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Arnaud, N.; Béquilleux, J.; D'Orazio, A.; Davier, M.; Derkach, D.; Firmino da Costa, J.; Grosdidier, G.; Le Diberder, F.; Lepeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.; Malaescu, B.; Pruvot, S.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Serrano, J.; Sordini, V.; Stocchi, A.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Bingham, I.; Burke, J. P.; Chavez, C. A.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; Clarke, C. K.; di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Sigamani, M.; Cowan, G.; Paramesvaran, S.; Wren, A. C.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Hafner, A.; Alwyn, K. E.; Bailey, D.; Barlow, R. J.; Jackson, G.; Lafferty, G. D.; West, T. J.; Yi, J. I.; Anderson, J.; Chen, C.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Simi, G.; Tuggle, J. M.; Dallapiccola, C.; Salvati, E.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Fisher, P. H.; Henderson, S. W.; Sciolla, G.; Spitznagel, M.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Zhao, M.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Schram, M.; Biassoni, P.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Palombo, F.; Stracka, S.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Sonnek, P.; Summers, D. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; Nicholson, H.; de Nardo, G.; Lista, L.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Raven, G.; Snoek, H. L.; Jessop, C. P.; Knoepfel, K. J.; Losecco, J. M.; Wang, W. F.; Corwin, L. A.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Morris, J. P.; Rahimi, A. M.; Sekula, S. J.; Wong, Q. K.; Blount, N. L.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Igonkina, O.; Kolb, J. A.; Lu, M.; Rahmat, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Strube, J.; Torrence, E.; Castelli, G.; Gagliardi, N.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Voci, C.; Del Amo Sanchez, P.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Briand, H.; Chauveau, J.; Hamon, O.; Leruste, Ph.; Marchiori, G.; Ocariz, J.; Perez, A.; Prendki, J.; Sitt, S.; Gladney, L.; Biasini, M.; Manoni, E.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Morganti, M.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lu, C.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Anulli, F.; Baracchini, E.; Cavoto, G.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Jackson, P. D.; Li Gioi, L.

    2009-09-01

    We present a search for decays of B mesons to final states with a b1 meson and a ρ or K*(892) meson. The search is based on a data sample consisting of 465 million B Bmacr pairs collected by the BABAR detector at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. We do not observe any statistically significant signal. The upper limits we set on the branching fractions range from 1.4 to 8.0×10-6 at the 90% confidence level, including systematic uncertainties.

  20. Construction of HEK293 cells stably expressing wild-type organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1*1a) and variant OATP1B1*1b and OATP1B1*15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M; Qu, B X; Chen, X L; Hu, H H; Jiang, H D; Yu, L S; Zhou, Q; Zeng, S

    2016-06-01

    A transgenic cell line stably expressing the human organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP1B1) was established. Human Embryonic Kidney 293 (HEK293) cell line stably expressing OATP1B1*1a sequence was amplified through PCR with the extracted total RNA as templates from human liver, then subcloned into the plasmid pMD19-T and verified by sequencing. OATP1B1*1b/OATP1B1*15 mutant sequences were obtained by site-directed mutation PCR with pMD19-T/ OATP1B1*1a as templates. The plasmids pcDNA3.1(+)/OATP1B1*1a, *1b and *15 were constructed and transfected into HEK293 cell line using Lipofectamine 2000 transfection reagent. Several stable transfected clones were obtained after selection with G418. Using rosuvastatin as a probe substrate of OATP1B1, the intracellular rosuvastatin accumulation in HEK293 and HEK-OATP1B1*1a, *1b and *15 monoclone cells were validated by a ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. OATP1B1 mRNA and protein expression were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. The results from RT-PCR, rosuvastatin uptake and Western blot assay indicated that human OATP1B1 was highly expressed in transfected cells compared with controls. The HEK-293 cell lines stably expressing human OATP1B1-wild and variant (HEK-OATP1B1, *1b and *15) are potential models to study drug transport in vitro.

  1. MAN1B1 deficiency: an unexpected CDG-II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy Rymen

    Full Text Available Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG are a group of rare metabolic diseases, due to impaired protein and lipid glycosylation. In the present study, exome sequencing was used to identify MAN1B1 as the culprit gene in an unsolved CDG-II patient. Subsequently, 6 additional cases with MAN1B1-CDG were found. All individuals presented slight facial dysmorphism, psychomotor retardation and truncal obesity. Generally, MAN1B1 is believed to be an ER resident alpha-1,2-mannosidase acting as a key factor in glycoprotein quality control by targeting misfolded proteins for ER-associated degradation (ERAD. However, recent studies indicated a Golgi localization of the endogenous MAN1B1, suggesting a more complex role for MAN1B1 in quality control. We were able to confirm that MAN1B1 is indeed localized to the Golgi complex instead of the ER. Furthermore, we observed an altered Golgi morphology in all patients' cells, with marked dilatation and fragmentation. We hypothesize that part of the phenotype is associated to this Golgi disruption. In conclusion, we linked mutations in MAN1B1 to a Golgi glycosylation disorder. Additionally, our results support the recent findings on MAN1B1 localization. However, more work is needed to pinpoint the exact function of MAN1B1 in glycoprotein quality control, and to understand the pathophysiology of its deficiency.

  2. SerpinB1 Promotes Pancreatic β Cell Proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ouaamari, Abdelfattah; Dirice, Ercument; Gedeon, Nicholas; Hu, Jiang; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Shirakawa, Jun; Hou, Lifei; Goodman, Jessica; Karampelias, Christos; Qiang, Guifeng; Boucher, Jeremie; Martinez, Rachael; Gritsenko, Marina A.; De Jesus, Dario F.; Kahraman, Sevim; Bhatt, Shweta; Smith, Richard D.; Beer, Hans-Dietmar; Jungtrakoon, Prapaporn; Gong, Yanping; Goldfine, Allison B.; Liew, Chong Wee; Doria, Alessandro; Andersson, Olov; Qian, Wei-Jun; Remold-O’Donnell, Eileen; Kulkarni, Rohit N.

    2016-01-01

    Compensatory β-cell growth in response to insulin resistance is a common feature in diabetes. We recently reported that liver-derived factors participate in this compensatory response in the liver insulin receptor knockout (LIRKO) mouse, a model of significant islet hyperplasia. Here we show that serpinB1 is a liver-derived secretory protein that controls β-cell proliferation. SerpinB1 is abundant in the hepatocyte secretome and sera derived from LIRKO mice. SerpinB1 and small molecule compounds that partially mimic serpinB1 activity enhanced proliferation of zebrafish, mouse and human β-cells. We report that serpinB1-induced β-cell replication requires protease inhibition activity and mice lacking serpinB1 exhibit attenuated β-cell replication in response to insulin resistance. Finally, SerpinB1-treatment of islets modulated signaling proteins in growth and survival pathways such as MAPK, PKA and GSK3. Together, these data implicate SerpinB1 as a protein that can potentially be harnessed to enhance functional β-cell mass in patients with diabetes.

  3. 26 CFR 1.7702B-1 - Consumer protection provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consumer protection provisions. 1.7702B-1 Section 1.7702B-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME...-Term Care Insurance Model Act (Model Act) and Long-Term Care Insurance Model Regulation...

  4. 77 FR 52698 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of...: 18 AGM-65K2 MAVERICK All-Up- Round Missiles, 36 TGM-65K2 Captive Air Training Missiles, 3...

  5. 26 CFR 301.269B-1 - Stapled foreign corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stapled foreign corporations. 301.269B-1....269B-1 Stapled foreign corporations. In accordance with section 269B(a)(1), a stapled foreign corporation is subject to the same taxes that apply to a domestic corporation under Title 26 of the...

  6. 26 CFR 1.269B-1 - Stapled foreign corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stapled foreign corporations. 1.269B-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.269B-1 Stapled foreign corporations. (a) Treatment as a domestic corporation—(1) General rule. Except as otherwise provided, if a foreign corporation is a...

  7. Multifunctional reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    Multifunctional reactors are single pieces of equipment in which, besides the reaction, other functions are carried out simultaneously. The other functions can be a heat, mass or momentum transfer operation and even another reaction. Multifunctional reactors are not new, but they have received much

  8. CYP1B1 and hormone-induced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajjar, Ketan; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Martin, Francis L

    2012-11-01

    Cancers in hormone-responsive tissues (e.g., breast, ovary, endometrium, prostate) occur at high incidence rates worldwide. However, their genetic basis remains poorly understood. Studies to date suggest that endogenous/exogenous oestrogen and environmental carcinogens may play a role in development and/or progression of hormone-induced cancers via oxidative oestrogen metabolism. Cytochrome P450 1B1 is a key enzyme in its oestrogen metabolism pathway, giving rise to hydroxylation and conjugation. Although CYP1B1 is expressed in many cancers, particularly high levels of expression are observed in oestrogen-mediated disease. CYP1B1 is more readily found in tumour tissue compared to normal. Given the role of CYP1B1 in pro-carcinogen and oestrogen metabolism, polymorphisms in CYP1B1 could result in modifications in its enzyme activity and subsequently lead to hormone-mediated carcinogenesis. CYP1B1 may also be involved in progression of the disease by altering the tissue response to hormones and clinical response to chemotherapy. The exact mechanism behind these events is complex and unclear. Only a few functional single nucleotide polymorphisms of CYP1B1 are known to result in amino acid substitutions and have been extensively investigated. Studies examining the contribution of different CYP1B1 alleles to hormone-mediated cancer risks are inconsistent. The main focus of this review is to appraise the available studies linking the pathogenesis of the hormone-induced cancers to various CYP1B1 polymorphisms. Additionally, we explore the role of a neuronal protein, γ-synuclein, in CYP1B1-mediated pathogenesis.

  9. CYP1B1: a unique gene with unique characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiq, Muneeb A; Dada, Rima; Sharma, Reetika; Saluja, Daman; Dada, Tanuj

    2014-01-01

    CYP1B1, a recently described dioxin inducible oxidoreductase, is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily involved in the metabolism of estradiol, retinol, benzo[a]pyrene, tamoxifen, melatonin, sterols etc. It plays important roles in numerous physiological processes and is expressed at mRNA level in many tissues and anatomical compartments. CYP1B1 has been implicated in scores of disorders. Analyses of the recent studies suggest that CYP1B1 can serve as a universal/ideal cancer marker and a candidate gene for predictive diagnosis. There is plethora of literature available about certain aspects of CYP1B1 that have not been interpreted, discussed and philosophized upon. The present analysis examines CYP1B1 as a peculiar gene with certain distinctive characteristics like the uniqueness in its chromosomal location, gene structure and organization, involvement in developmentally important disorders, tissue specific, not only expression, but splicing, potential as a universal cancer marker due to its involvement in key aspects of cellular metabolism, use in diagnosis and predictive diagnosis of various diseases and the importance and function of CYP1B1 mRNA in addition to the regular translation. Also CYP1B1 is very difficult to express in heterologous expression systems, thereby, halting its functional studies. Here we review and analyze these exceptional and startling characteristics of CYP1B1 with inputs from our own experiences in order to get a better insight into its molecular biology in health and disease. This may help to further understand the etiopathomechanistic aspects of CYP1B1 mediated diseases paving way for better research strategies and improved clinical management.

  10. Reactor vessel

    OpenAIRE

    Makkee, M.; Kapteijn, F.; Moulijn, J.A

    1999-01-01

    A reactor vessel (1) comprises a reactor body (2) through which channels (3) are provided whose surface comprises longitudinal inwardly directed parts (4) and is provided with a catalyst (6), as well as buffer bodies (8, 12) connected to the channels (3) on both sides of the reactor body (2) and comprising connections for supplying (9, 10, 11) and discharging (13, 14, 15) via the channels (3) gases and/or liquids entering into a reaction with each other and substances formed upon this reactio...

  11. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  12. Reactor Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Bong Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments. Short-baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and their interest has been recently revived by the discovery of the reactor antineutrino anomaly, a discrepancy between the reactor neutrino flux state of the art prediction and the measurements at baselines shorter than one kilometer. Middle and long-baseline oscillation experiments at Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO provided very recently the most precise determination of the neutrino mixing angle θ13. This paper provides an overview of the upcoming experiments and of the projects under development, including the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy and the possible use of neutrinos for society, for nonproliferation of nuclear materials, and geophysics.

  13. Chemical Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, C. N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a course, including content, reading list, and presentation on chemical reactors at Cambridge University, England. A brief comparison of chemical engineering education between the United States and England is also given. (JN)

  14. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Aflatoxin B 1 from Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research describes the development of a Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) method to recover aflatoxin B1 from fortified soil. The effects of temperature, pressure, modifier (identity and percentage), and extraction type were assessed. Using the optimized SFE conditions, ...

  15. Analysis of CYP27B1 in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jay P; Bernales, Cecily Q; Lee, Joshua D; Sadovnick, A Dessa; Traboulsee, Anthony L; Vilariño-Güell, Carles

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of genetic variability in CYP27B1 and its effect on risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) has yielded conflicting results. Here we describe a study to genetically characterize CYP27B1 and elucidate its role on MS risk in the Canadian population. Sequencing CYP27B1 failed to identify mutations known to cause loss of enzymatic activity, however genotyping of p.R389H in cases and controls identified the mutation in one multi-incident family (allele frequency = 0.03%) in which the p.R389H mutation segregates with disease in five family members diagnosed with MS, thus providing additional support for CYP27B1 p.R389H in the pathogenicity of MS. PMID:24308945

  16. Reactor Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Lasserre, T.; Sobel, H.W.

    2005-01-01

    We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments, that toe the cutting edge of neutrino research. Short baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and are still searching for important phenomena such as the neutrino magnetic moment. They could open the door to the measurement of coherent neutrino scattering in a near future. Middle and long baseline oscillation experiments at Chooz and KamLAND have played a relevant role in neutrin...

  17. Synthesis of 4"-benzyloxyimino-4"-deoxyavermectin B1a derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Six new 4"-benzyloxyimino-4"-deoxyavermectin B1a derivatives were synthesized from avermectin B1a by the selective protection of C-5-hydroxy group, oxidation of C-4"-hydroxy group, and deprotection followed by reaction with O-substituted hydroxylamine hydrochlorides. Their structures were confirmed by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS. Insecticidal activities of the derivatives against Phopalosiphum pseudobrassicae, Spodoptera exigua and Pluteua xylosteua were evaluated.

  18. CYP1B1-mediated Pathobiology of Primary Congenital Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiq, Muneeb A; Dada, Rima; Qadri, Rizwana; Dada, Tanuj

    2015-01-01

    CYP1B1 is a dioxin-inducible enzyme belonging to the cytochrome P450 superfamily. It has been observed to be important in a variety of developmental processes including in utero development of ocular structures. Owing to its role in the developmental biology of eye, its dysfunction can lead to ocular developmental defects. This has been found to be true and CYP1B1 mutations have been observed in a majority of primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) patients from all over the globe. Primary congenital glaucoma is an irreversibly blinding childhood disorder (onset at birth or early infancy) typified by anomalous development of trabecular meshwork (TM). How CYP1B1 causes PCG is not known; however, some basic investigations have been reported. Understanding the CYP1B1 mediated etiopathomechanism of PCG is very important to identify targets for therapy and preventive management. In this perspective, we will make an effort to reconstruct the pathomechanism of PCG in the light of already reported information about the disease and the CYP1B1 gene. How to cite this article: Faiq MA, Dada R, Qadri R, Dada T. CYP1 B1-mediated Pathobiology of Primary Congenital Glaucoma. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2015;9(3):77-80.

  19. Evidence for the eta_b(1S) in the Decay Upsilon(2S)-> gamma eta_b(1S)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; /Bergen U.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Karlsruhe U., EKP /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2009-12-14

    We have performed a search for the {eta}{sub b}(1S) meson in the radiative decay of the {Upsilon}(2S) resonance using a sample of 91.6 million {Upsilon}(2S) events recorded with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. We observe a peak in the photon energy spectrum at E{sub {gamma}} = 610.5{sub -4.3}{sup +4.5}(stat) {+-} 1.8(syst) MeV, corresponding to an {eta}{sub b}(1S) mass of 9392.9{sub -4.8}{sup +4.6}(stat) {+-} 1.9(syst) MeV/c{sup 2}. The branching fraction for the decay {Upsilon}(2S) {yields} {gamma}{eta}{sub b}(1S) is determined to be (4.2{sub -1.0}{sup +1.1}(stat) {+-} 0.9(syst)) x 10{sup -4}. The ratio {Beta}({Upsilon}(2S) {yields} {gamma}{eta}{sub b}(1S))/{Beta}({Upsilon}(3S) {yields} {gamma}{eta}{sub b}(1S)) = 0.89{sub -0.23}{sup +0.25}(stat){sub -0.16}{sup +0.12}(syst) is consistent with the ratio expected for magnetic dipole transitions to the {eta}{sub b}(1S) meson.

  20. Occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Prado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The media claims for the consumption of natural resource-based food have gradually increased in both developing and developed countries. The interest in the safety of these products is partially due to the possible presence of toxigenic fungi acting as mycotoxin producers, such as aflatoxins produced during the secondary metabolism of Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius. Aflatoxins, mainly aflatoxin B1, are directly associated with liver cancer in human beings. This paper is aimed at evaluating the presence of aflatoxin B1 in a few vegetable drugs, dried plant extracts and industrialized products traded in 2010 in the city of Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The method used for the quantification of aflatoxin B1 was based on extraction through acetone:water (85:15, immunoaffinity column purification followed by separation and detection in high efficiency liquid chromatography. Under the conditions of analysis, the Limits of Detection and Quantification were 0.6 µg kg-1 and 1.0 µg kg-1respectively. The complete sets of analyses were carried out in duplicate. Aflatoxin B1 was noticed in a single sample (< 1.0 µg kg-1. The results revealed low aflatoxin B1contamination in the products under analysis. However, it is required to establish a broad monitoring program in order to obtain additional data and check up on the actual extension of contamination.

  1. SerpinB1 Promotes Pancreatic β Cell Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ouaamari, Abdelfattah; Dirice, Ercument; Gedeon, Nicholas; Hu, Jiang; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Shirakawa, Jun; Hou, Lifei; Goodman, Jessica; Karampelias, Christos; Qiang, Guifeng; Boucher, Jeremie; Martinez, Rachael; Gritsenko, Marina A; De Jesus, Dario F; Kahraman, Sevim; Bhatt, Shweta; Smith, Richard D; Beer, Hans-Dietmar; Jungtrakoon, Prapaporn; Gong, Yanping; Goldfine, Allison B; Liew, Chong Wee; Doria, Alessandro; Andersson, Olov; Qian, Wei-Jun; Remold-O'Donnell, Eileen; Kulkarni, Rohit N

    2016-01-12

    Although compensatory islet hyperplasia in response to insulin resistance is a recognized feature in diabetes, the factor(s) that promote β cell proliferation have been elusive. We previously reported that the liver is a source for such factors in the liver insulin receptor knockout (LIRKO) mouse, an insulin resistance model that manifests islet hyperplasia. Using proteomics we show that serpinB1, a protease inhibitor, which is abundant in the hepatocyte secretome and sera derived from LIRKO mice, is the liver-derived secretory protein that regulates β cell proliferation in humans, mice, and zebrafish. Small-molecule compounds, that partially mimic serpinB1 effects of inhibiting elastase activity, enhanced proliferation of β cells, and mice lacking serpinB1 exhibit attenuated β cell compensation in response to insulin resistance. Finally, SerpinB1 treatment of islets modulated proteins in growth/survival pathways. Together, these data implicate serpinB1 as an endogenous protein that can potentially be harnessed to enhance functional β cell mass in patients with diabetes.

  2. Glaucoma and Cytochrome P4501B1 Gene Mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Tanwar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental anomalies of the ocular anterior chamber angle may lead to an incomplete development of the structures that form the conventional aqueous outflow pathway. Thus, disorders that present with such dysfunction tend to be associated with glaucoma. Among them, Axenfeld-Rieger (ARS malformation is a rare clinical entity with an estimated prevalence of one in every 200,000 individuals. The changes in eye morphogenesis in ARS are highly penetrant and are associated with 50% risk of development of glaucoma. Mutations in the cytochrome P4501B1 (CYP1B1 gene have been reported to be associated with primary congenital glaucoma and other forms of glaucoma and mutations in pituitary homeobox 2 (PITX2 gene have been identified in ARS in various studies. This case was negative for PITX2 mutations and compound heterozygote for CYP1B1 mutations. Clinical manifestations of this patient include bilateral elevated intraocular pressure (>40 mmHg with increased corneal diameter (>14 mm and corneal opacity. Patient also had iridocorneal adhesions, anteriorly displaced Schwalbe line, anterior insertion of iris, broad nasal bridge and protruding umbilicus. This is the first study from north India reporting CYP1B1 mutations in Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome with bilateral buphthalmos and early onset glaucoma. Result of this study supports the role of CYP1B1 as a causative gene in ASD disorders and its role in oculogenesis.

  3. Transmission and Demographic Dynamics of Coxsackievirus B1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yu Chu

    Full Text Available The infectious activity of coxsackievirus B1 (CV-B1 in Taiwan was high from 2008 to 2010, following an alarming increase in severe neonate disease in the United States (US. To examine the relationship between CV-B1 strains isolated in Taiwan and those from other parts of the world, we performed a phylodynamic study using VP1 and partial 3Dpol (414 nt sequences from 22 strains of CV-B1 isolated in Taiwan (1989-2010 and compared them to sequences from strains isolated worldwide. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by neighbor-joining, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov Chain methods. Four genotypes (GI-IV in the VP1 region of CV-B1 and three genotypes (GA-C in the 3Dpol region of enterovirus B were identified and had high support values. The phylogenetic analysis indicates that the GI and GIII strains in VP1 were geographically distributed in Taiwan (1993-1994 and in India (2007-2009. On the other hand, the GII and GIV strains appear to have a wider spatiotemporal distribution and ladder-like topology A stair-like phylogeny was observed in the VP1 region indicating that the phylogeny of the virus may be affected by different selection pressures in the specified regions. Further, most of the GI and GII strains in the VP1 tree were clustered together in GA in the 3D tree, while the GIV strains diverged into GB and GC. Taken together, these data provide important insights into the population dynamics of CV-B1 and indicate that incongruencies in specific gene regions may contribute to spatiotemporal patterns of epidemicity for this virus.

  4. Sonochemical Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogate, Parag R; Patil, Pankaj N

    2016-10-01

    Sonochemical reactors are based on the generation of cavitational events using ultrasound and offer immense potential for the intensification of physical and chemical processing applications. The present work presents a critical analysis of the underlying mechanisms for intensification, available reactor configurations and overview of the different applications exploited successfully, though mostly at laboratory scales. Guidelines have also been presented for optimum selection of the important operating parameters (frequency and intensity of irradiation, temperature and liquid physicochemical properties) as well as the geometric parameters (type of reactor configuration and the number/position of the transducers) so as to maximize the process intensification benefits. The key areas for future work so as to transform the successful technique at laboratory/pilot scale into commercial technology have also been discussed. Overall, it has been established that there is immense potential for sonochemical reactors for process intensification leading to greener processing and economic benefits. Combined efforts from a wide range of disciplines such as material science, physics, chemistry and chemical engineers are required to harness the benefits at commercial scale operation.

  5. 78 FR 699 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... goals and national security objectives of the United States by meeting the legitimate security and... dissemination. It can be either fixed or mobile. In addition to the shelter housing the operator...

  6. βB1-crystallin: thermodynamic profiles of molecular interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika B Dolinska

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: β-Crystallins are structural proteins maintaining eye lens transparency and opacification. Previous work demonstrated that dimerization of both βA3 and βB2 crystallins (βA3 and βB2 involves endothermic enthalpy of association (∼8 kcal/mol mediated by hydrophobic interactions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thermodynamic profiles of the associations of dimeric βA3 and βB1 and tetrameric βB1/βA3 were measured using sedimentation equilibrium. The homo- and heteromolecular associations of βB1 crystallin are dominated by exothermic enthalpy (-13.3 and -24.5 kcal/mol, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Global thermodynamics of βB1 interactions suggest a role in the formation of stable protein complexes in the lens via specific van der Waals contacts, hydrogen bonds and salt bridges whereas those β-crystallins which associate by predominately hydrophobic forces participate in a weaker protein associations.

  7. 78 FR 36536 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... Department: Navy (GGW) (v) Prior Related Cases, if any: Multiple FMS cases dating back to 1997 (vi)...

  8. 76 FR 72180 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... require travel of U.S. Government or contractor representatives to Malaysia on a temporary basis for... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense...

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    2013-10-22

    ... circuits are classified Secret. The hardware, software, and data identified are classified to protect... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... data, U.S. Government and contractor technical assistance and other related logistics support,...

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    2012-03-07

    .... The hardware, software, and data identified are classified to protect vulnerabilities, design and... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... data, U.S. Government and contractor technical assistance and other related logistics support. \\*\\...

  11. 76 FR 61673 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security..., APX-72 Transponder, AN/ARN-147 VOR/ILS, AN/ARN-149 Receiver (ADF), HF-9000 HF Radio, ASN-150 Tactical... RADAR, ARC-210 UHF Radio, APX-72 Transponder, AN/ARN- 147 VOR/ILS, AN/ARN-149 Receiver (ADF), HF-9000...

  12. 78 FR 36534 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

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    2013-06-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... representatives to travel to Thailand for a period of five weeks for equipment de-processing/fielding,...

  13. 78 FR 41040 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

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    2013-07-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency.... Government and contractor representatives to travel to the region to support the program. There will be...

  14. 26 CFR 31.3306(b)-1 - Wages.

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    2010-04-01

    ... Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(b)-1 Wages. (a) Applicable law...

  15. 26 CFR 1.167(b)-1 - Straight line method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Straight line method. 1.167(b)-1 Section 1.167(b... Straight line method. (a) In general. Under the straight line method the cost or other basis of the... may be reduced to a percentage or fraction. The straight line method may be used in determining...

  16. 78 FR 62592 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

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    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... Republic of Singapore to contribute to regional security. Its contributions to counter-piracy...

  17. 78 FR 22848 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

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    2013-04-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... regional security. Its contributions to counter-piracy and counterterrorism efforts continue to stabilize...

  18. 78 FR 50045 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

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    2013-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... its borders and littoral waters, as well as conduct counter- terrorism/counter-piracy operations....

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    2013-04-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... contributions to counter-piracy and counterterrorism efforts continue to stabilize a critical chokepoint...

  20. 78 FR 50047 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

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  1. 78 FR 15004 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

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    2013-03-08

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... Representatives, Transmittals 12-60 with attached transmittal, policy justification, and Sensitivity of Technology... RAPISCAN Mobile Eagle High Energy Mobile System Vehicles, 40 M60 RAPISCAN Mobile Eagle High Energy...

  2. 76 FR 66048 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

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    2011-10-25

    ... Technology: 1. The AVENGER system is a lightweight, highly mobile, and transportable surface-to-air missile... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... Representatives, Transmittals 11-38 with attached transmittal, policy justification, and Sensitivity of...

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    2013-08-16

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... Representatives, Transmittals 12-67 with attached transmittal, policy justification, and Sensitivity of Technology... Illuminator Radars, 216 MIM-23P HAWK Tactical Missiles, 2 Mobile Battalion Operation Centers (BOC), 3 HAWK...

  4. 78 FR 41036 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

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    2013-07-09

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... Representatives, Transmittal 13-40 with attached transmittal, policy justification, and Sensitivity of Technology... Reaper Remotely Piloted Aircraft 8 Mobile Ground Control Stations 48 Honeywell TPE331-10T...

  5. Aflatoxin B1content in patients with hepatic diseases Aflatoxina B1 en pacientes con enfermedades hepáticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara López

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are toxic metabolites of some Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius strains that occur in many foods and feeds. There are four major natural occurring aflatoxins: B1, B2, G1 and G2. These toxins can cause illness in human beings and animals. Aflatoxin B1 is the most abundant and toxic member of the family, and it is also the most potent hepatocarcinogen known. In order to estimate the potential human health risk of AFB1, it is useful to measure blood concentration. The presence of aflatoxin B1 in patients was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography, in serum samples, obtained from 20 patient volunteers with hepatic disease. Out of the 20 patients, the presence of AFB1 was detected in only one of them, in a concentration of 0.47 ng/cm³. Nevertheless, this result should draw the attention of control organizations in Argentina to the need for a thorough food and feed inspection.Las aflatoxinas son metabolitos tóxicos producidos por cepas de Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus y A. nomius, presentes en alimentos y piensos. Las cuatro aflatoxinas principales son: aflatoxina B1, B2, G1 y G2. Dichas toxinas pueden causar enfermedades tanto en seres humanos como en animales. La aflatoxina B1 es la más abundante y la más tóxica del grupo y es también el más potente hepatocarcinógeno conocido. El objetivo de este trabajo fue detectar la presencia de aflatoxina B1 en sangre humana para estimar el riesgo potencial de la salud. La determinación de aflatoxina B1 fue realizada por cromatografía líquida de alto rendimiento, en suero de 20 pacientes voluntarios con enfermedades hepáticas. En sólo uno de estos pacientes se detectó la presencia de aflatoxina B1, en una concentración de 0.47ng/cm³. Estos resultados deberían ser tenidos en cuenta por los responsables de la vigilancia y control de los alimentos en la Argentina.

  6. Effects of Aflatoxin B1 and Fumonisin B1 on the Viability and Induction of Apoptosis in Rat Primary Hepatocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Deise H. B.; Ferreira, Fabiane L.; da Silva, Valéria N.; Aquino, Simone; Corrêa, Benedito

    2010-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) either alone, or in association, on rat primary hepatocyte cultures. Cell viability was assessed by flow cytometry after propidium iodine intercalation. DNA fragmentation and apoptosis were assessed by agarose gel electrophoresis and acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining. At the concentrations of AFB1 and FB1 used, the toxins did not decrease cell viability, but did induce apoptosis in a concentration and time-dependent manner. PMID:20480051

  7. 78 FR 76114 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

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    2013-12-16

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... spares 16 AN/ARC-220 HF Radios 32 AN/ARC-186 VHF AM/FM Radios 16 AN/ARN 123 VOR ILS Marker Beacons 14 AN..., 2 per aircraft (14 ac x 2=28 engines) 5 T55-GA-714A Turbine to be used as spares. 16 AN/ARC-220...

  8. Comparison of Monte Carlo Critical Spectra from B1 Buckling Search and Albedo Search Methods. Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Yu Gwon; Yun, Sung Hwan; Cho, Nam Zin [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Since the Monte Carlo method overcomes limitations in multi-group approximation and geometry description, it is gaining increasing use in reactor physics problems. Recently, a new leakage-corrected method was suggested by the authors, in which the critical spectrum is obtained by albedo-based leakage correction in the Monte Carlo method. In this paper, the critical spectrum based on the albedo-based leakage-corrected method will be compared with the critical spectrum by conventional B1 method (with condensed cross sections) and reference critical whole-core assembly spectrum. These two methods are implemented in our local MCNP5 (version 1.50)

  9. First observation of the hadronic transition $ \\Upsilon(4S) \\to \\eta h_{b}(1P)$ and new measurement of the $h_b(1P)$ and $\\eta_b(1S)$ parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Tamponi, U; Abdesselam, A; Aihara, H; Arinstein, K; Asner, D M; Atmacan, H; Aushev, T; Ayad, R; Badhrees, I; Bakich, A M; Barberio, E; Bhardwaj, V; Bhuyan, B; Biswal, J; Bondar, A; Bonvicini, G; Bozek, A; Bračko, M; Browder, T E; Červenkov, D; Chen, A; Cheon, B G; Cho, K; Chobanova, V; Choi, S -K; Choi, Y; Cinabro, D; Danilov, M; Doležal, Z; Drásal, Z; Drutskoy, A; Eidelman, S; Epifanov, D; Farhat, H; Fast, J E; Ferber, T; Fulsom, B G; Gaur, V; Gabyshev, N; Garmash, A; Getzkow, D; Gillard, R; Goh, Y M; Golob, B; Haba, J; Hayasaka, K; Hayashii, H; He, X H; Hedges, M T; Hou, W -S; Iijima, T; Inami, K; Ishikawa, A; Jaegle, I; Joffe, D; Julius, T; Kato, E; Katrenko, P; Kichimi, H; Kiesling, C; Kim, D Y; Kim, H J; Kim, J H; Kim, K T; Kim, S H; Kinoshita, K; Kodyš, P; Korpar, S; Križan, P; Krokovny, P; Kumita, T; Kuzmin, A; Lange, J S; Lewis, P; Libby, J; Lukin, P; Matvienko, D; Miyabayashi, K; Miyata, H; Mizuk, R; Mohanty, G B; Moll, A; Mori, T; Nakano, E; Nakao, M; Nanut, T; Natkaniec, Z; Nayak, M; Nisar, N K; Nishida, S; Ogawa, S; Okuno, S; Olsen, S L; Ostrowicz, W; Oswald, C; Pakhlova, G; Pal, B; Park, H; Pedlar, T K; Pesántez, L; Pestotnik, R; Petriřc, M; Piilonen, L E; Ribežl, E; Ritter, M; Rostomyan, A; Ryu, S; Sakai, Y; Sandilya, S; Santelj, L; Sanuki, T; Sato, Y; Savinov, V; Schneider, O; Schnell, G; Schwanda, C; Semmler, D; Senyo, K; Sevior, M E; Shapkin, M; Shebalin, V; Shen, C P; Shibata, T -A; Shiu, J -G; Shwartz, B; Sibidanov, A; Simon, F; Sohn, Y -S; Sokolov, A; Starič, M; Steder, M; Stypula, J; Tanida, K; Teramoto, Y; Trabelsi, K; Uchida, M; Uglov, T; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Urquijo, P; Van Hulse, C; Vanhoefer, P; Varner, G; Vinokurova, A; Vossen, A; Wagner, M N; Wang, M -Z; Wang, X L; Watanabe, Y; Williams, K M; Won, E; Yamaoka, J; Yashchenko, S; Zhang, Z P; Zhilich, V; Zhulanov, V; Zupanc, A

    2015-01-01

    Using a sample of $771.6 \\times 10^{6}$ $\\Upsilon(4S)$ decays collected by the Belle experiment at the KEKB $e^+e^-$ collider, we observe for the first time the transition $\\Upsilon(4S) \\to \\eta h_b(1P)$ with the branching fraction ${\\cal B}[\\Upsilon(4S) \\to \\eta h_b(1P)]= (2.18 \\pm 0.11 \\pm 0.18) \\times 10^{-3}$ and we measure the $h_b(1P)$ mass $M_{h_{b}(1P)} = (9899.3 \\pm 0.4 \\pm 1.0)$ MeV/$c^{2}$, corresponding to the hyperfine splitting $\\Delta M_{\\mathrm HF}(1P) = (0.6 \\pm 0.4 \\pm 1.0)$ MeV/$c^{2}$. Using the transition $h_b(1P) \\to \\gamma \\eta_b(1S)$, we measure the $\\eta_b(1S)$ mass $M_{\\eta_{b}(1S)} = (9400.7 \\pm 1.7 \\pm 1.6)$ MeV/$c^{2}$, corresponding to $\\Delta M_{\\mathrm HF}(1S) = (59.6 \\pm 1.7 \\pm 1.6)$ MeV/$c^{2}$, the $\\eta_b(1S)$ width $\\Gamma_{\\eta_{b}(1S)} = (8 ^{+6}_{-5} \\pm 5)$ MeV/$c^{2}$ and the branching fraction ${\\cal B}[h_b(1P) \\to \\gamma \\eta_b(1S)]= (56 \\pm 8 \\pm 4) \\%$.

  10. Cytochrome P1B1 (CYP1B1) polymorphisms and ovarian cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajjar, Ketan; Owens, Gemma; Sperrin, Matthew; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Martin, Francis L

    2012-12-16

    CYP1B1 is a key P450 enzyme involved in the metabolism of exogenous and endogenous substrates and plays a key role in hormone-induced carcinogenesis. Risk factors for ovarian cancer are related to hormonal exposure and reproduction, and polymorphisms within genes involved in metabolism of oestrogen and certain xenobiotics may influence the risk of developing ovarian cancer. Current meta-analysis evaluated four CYP1B1 polymorphisms (Leu432Val, Arg48Gly, Ala119Ser and Asn453Ser) for their association with ovarian cancer risk. A search of the MEDLINE bibliographic database for the period up to April 2012 identified five relevant studies. With regards to Leu432Val polymorphism, all of the five studies were eligible (1199 cases and 2596 controls) for analysis, while for Arg48Gly (799 cases and 1169 controls), Ala119Ser (799 cases and 1172 controls) and Asn453Ser (361cases and 1577 controls) only two studies were eligible for analysis. Fixed-effect models were used to estimate pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) and chi-square based Q-test was used to test for heterogeneity. The pooled OR (95% CI) for CYP1B1_Leu432Val polymorphism were 1.1 (0.84-1.31) for heterozygous subjects and 0.82 (0.57-1.17) for homozygous Val subjects. In a recessive model, homozygous carriers of Leu432Val showed a weak trend towards reduced risk as compared to 'wild type' and heterozygous carriers (OR 0.8, 95% CI; 0.66-0.99); however, this association was of limited significance. Regarding Arg48Gly, the pooled OR (95% CI) were 1.06 (0.89-1.27) for heterozygous and 0.98 (1.72-1.33) for homozygous Gly subjects. With respect to Ala119Ser and Asn453Ser, the pooled OR were 1.06 (0.87-1.29) and 1.24 (0.94-1.63) for heterozygous and 1.1 (0.8-1.52) and 1.09 (0.5-2.34) for homozygous respectively. In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that CYP1B1 polymorphisms are not associated with ovarian cancer risk. Studies evaluating CYP1B1_Leu432Val polymorphism are required to

  11. Cytochrome P1B1 (CYP1B1) polymorphisms and cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 52 studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiping; Long, Bingshuang; Qin, Xianjing; Li, Weixiong; Zhou, Yang

    2015-01-02

    CYP1B1 plays a critical role in the oxidative metabolism of a variety of exogenous compounds, including carcinogenic compounds, which may be activated during metabolism. There are only a few studies that have examined the association between the two polymorphisms and cancer, and that these studies have been inconclusive. Hence, the aim of the present meta-analysis was to evaluate the relationship between polymorphisms in CYP1B1 G119T and A453G and cancer risk. We performed a detailed search using the PubMed and EMBASE libraries to obtain all relevant published reports on the relationship between the G119T and A453G polymorphisms in CYP1B1 and cancer risk. Combined odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by Stata version 11.2. We conducted stratified analyses based on cancer types, ethnicity, source of controls, and quality assessments. We also made assessments of heterogeneity tests, sensitivity analyses, and publication bias. There were a total of 25 articles with 15,376 cases and 18,382 controls concerning CYP1B1 G119T and 40 articles with 27,983 cases and 35,839 controls concerning A453G polymorphisms. Regarding G119T, the combined results indicate that the variant genotypes were significantly associated with a slightly increased cancer risk in comparison to the homozygote (TT versus GG: p=0.006, OR=1.231, 95% CI: 1.061-1.428), especially for breast cancer and prostate cancer. Moreover, significantly increased associations with cancer risk were demonstrated in Asians in all genetic models. The combined results indicated no association of A453G with cancer risk; however, an association was observed specifically for prostate cancer. This meta-analysis suggests that the CYP1B1 G119T polymorphism may confer to genetic susceptibility to cancer in Asians, especially to breast cancer and prostate cancer. The A453G polymorphism was found to modify the risk of prostate cancer.

  12. 3B1 beam line and its physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Futing; Wang, Peiwei; Jin, Ming; Wu, Jianwu

    1995-02-01

    The 3B1 beam line is in the hall of 13# on BSRF, and is used for the lithography, biology and multilayer reflection research. On the line, there are a cylinder mirror system, a vacuum control system, an exposure chamber and a beryllium window for lithography research. The mirror coated with gold receives the synchrotron radiation at a glance angle of 1.5°, and scans in the vertical for lithography. The light, reflected by the scanning mirror and absorbed by the window, produces a spectrum of 4-20 Å and a uniformity spot for the lithography.

  13. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  14. D and DR Reactors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The world's second full-scale nuclear reactor was the D Reactor at Hanford which was built in the early 1940's and went operational in December of 1944.D Reactor ran...

  15. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  16. Enhancement of neural and thermal vasoconstriction by prostaglandin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, J A; Greenberg, S; Wilson, W R

    1975-03-01

    The vascular effects of prostaglandin B1 (PGB1) were studied during constant-flow perfusion of the canine hindpaw. The effects of PGB1 (50-200 ng/kg/min ia) on systemic and hindpaw perfusion pressures and on responses to local cooling (4 degrees C for 90 sec) and local heating (45 degrees C for 60 sec) were measured in 15 dogs. PGB1 (50-100 ng/kg/min) decreased perfusion pressure without any significant effect on systemic arterial pressure. Higher concentrations of PGB1 (200 ng/kg/min) elevated perfusion pressure to control values. The pressor responses to local cooling were increased from 11 to 32 mmHg while the dilator responses to local heating and nitroglycerin were reduced during infusions of PGB1. PGB1 also enhanced the pressor responses to norepinephrine or tyramine. These findings support the conclusions that (1) low concentrations of prostaglandin B1 enhance neurotransmitter release with minimal effects on vascular smooth muscle cells and (2) these effects are not secondary to increased perfusion pressures or vascular wall stresses since infusions of PGB1 resulted in vasodilation.

  17. Synthesis of Polyclonal Antibodies against Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiyogo Prio Wicaksono

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyclonal antibodies of aflatoxin B1 were successfully produced from New Zealand White female rabbits after immunization by the hapten of aflatoxin B1-carboxymethyl hydroxylamine hemihydrochloride (AFB1-CMO conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA as the antigen. The hapten was synthesized using the carbodiimide method with CMO as a linker. Absorption peaks at 362, 264, and 218 nm were observed as a result of characterization with UV-Vis spectroscopy, while IR spectroscopy showed peaks at 3448 cm-1 and 1642 cm-1 attributable to the hydroxyl and nitrile groups, respectively. Furthermore, mass spectrometry showed fragmentation at the m/z of 386, 368.2, and 310, which confirms that the hapten of AFB1-CMO was successfully synthesized. The hapten was then conjugated with BSA to serve as an antigen of AFB1 when it was injected into the rabbits. The specificity of the antigen towards its antibody and the confirmation of hapten-BSA conjugation were characterized using the dot blot immunoassay, which showed a BSA concentration of 1.74 mg/mL. Two weeks after the primary immunization by its antigen, agar gel precipitation testing showed that the rabbit blood serum had positive results for polyclonal antibodiest against AFB1 with the highest concentration of antibodiest of 2.19 mg/mL.

  18. DELF B1 200 activités

    CERN Document Server

    Bloomfield, Anatole

    2006-01-01

    L'ouvrage est organisé par compétences de réception et de production. Chaque partie propose d'abord une présentation de l'épreuve correspondante, puis les activités de préparation suivies d'épreuves-types et d'une auto-évaluation. Dans le cadre d'une approche actionnelle, les activités fournissent les outils nécessaires à la préparation des examens. Elles donnent des exemples concrets répondant aux attentes des candidats comme à celle des examinateurs. LeNouveau DELF B1 propose des activités précises en vue d'atteindre les compétences nécessaires aux épreuves (oral, écrit, réception, production); sa simplicité et sa pédagogie en font une méthode complète. Dans la tradition de la collection Nouvel Entraînez-vous, cet ouvrage est pratique, didactique et se prête à une utilisation en autonomie ou en classe.Le niveau B1 dit " avancé " évalue un niveau de compétence où l'apprenant peut se considérer comme étant indépendant. Arrivé à ce stade, il est apte de comprendre l'inform...

  19. Reactor and method of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, John A.

    1976-08-10

    A nuclear reactor having a flattened reactor activity curve across the reactor includes fuel extending over a lesser portion of the fuel channels in the central portion of the reactor than in the remainder of the reactor.

  20. 16 CFR Appendix B1 to Part 305 - Upright Freezers With Manual Defrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upright Freezers With Manual Defrost B1 Appendix B1 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF...) Pt. 305, App. B1 Appendix B1 to Part 305—Upright Freezers With Manual Defrost Range...

  1. Mecanismos moleculares envolvidos na mutagenicidade induzida pela aflatoxina B1

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    La aflatoxina B1 (AFB1) es una micotoxina identificada como el más potente hepatocarcinógeno. El metabolito que resulta del proceso de detoxificación de la AFB1 en el hígado tiene la capacidad de reaccionar con el ADN genómico, generando el aducto AFB1-ADN; durante la replicación del ADN este aducto induce la transversión G:C→T:A. Polimorfismos en los genes que codifican las enzimas encargadas de la activación y detoxificación de la AFB1 y enzimas de reparación del ADN han sido asociados con ...

  2. 76 FR 11525 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. The entire meeting..., Reactor Safety Branch B, Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  3. Aflatoxin B1 in poultry: toxicology, metabolism and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Sumit; Kim, Ji Eun; Coulombe, Roger

    2010-12-01

    Aflatoxins (AF) are ubiquitous in corn-based animal feed and causes hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic effects. The most important AF in terms of toxic potency and occurrence is aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Poultry, especially turkeys, are extremely sensitive to the toxic and carcinogenic action of AFB1, resulting in millions of dollars in annual losses to producers due to reduced growth rate, increased susceptibility to disease, reduced egg production and other adverse effects. The extreme sensitivity of turkeys and other poultry to AFB1 is associated with efficient hepatic cytochrome P450-mediated bioactivation and deficient detoxification by glutathione S-transferases (GST). Discerning the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of this extreme sensitivity of poultry to AFB1, will contribute in the development of novel strategies to increase aflatoxin resistance. Since AFB1 is an unavoidable contaminant of corn-based poultry feed, chemoprevention strategies aimed at reducing AFB1 toxicity in poultry and in other animals have been the subject of numerous studies. This brief review summarizes many of the key recent findings regarding the action of aflatoxins in poultry.

  4. Aflatoxin B1 transfer and metabolism in human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Heidi A; El-Nezami, Hani S; Leppänen, Jukka M; Myllynen, Päivi K; Woodhouse, Heather J; Vähäkangas, Kirsi H

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a common dietary contaminant, is a major risk factor of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Early onset of HCC in some countries in Africa and South-East Asia indicates the importance of early life exposure. Placenta is the primary route for various compounds, both nutrients and toxins, from the mother to the fetal circulation. Furthermore, placenta contains enzymes for xenobiotic metabolism. AFB1, AFB1-metabolites, and AFB1-albumin adducts have been detected in cord blood of babies after maternal exposure during pregnancy. However, the role that the placenta plays in the transfer and metabolism of AFB1 is not clear. In this study, placental transfer and metabolism of AFB1 were investigated in human placental perfusions and in in vitro studies. Eight human placentas were perfused with 0.5 or 5microM AFB1 for 2-4 h. In vitro incubations with placental microsomal and cytosolic proteins from eight additional placentas were also conducted. Our results from placental perfusions provide the first direct evidence of the actual transfer of AFB1 and its metabolism to aflatoxicol (AFL) by human placenta. In vitro incubations with placental cytosolic fraction confirmed the capacity of human placenta to form AFL. AFL was the only metabolite detected in both perfusions and in vitro incubations. Since AFL is less mutagenic, but putatively as carcinogenic as AFB1, the formation of AFL may not protect the fetus from the toxicity of AFB1.

  5. Genotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 and its ammonium derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez Márquez, R; Tejada de Hernandez, I; Madrigal Bujaidar, E

    1995-01-01

    Aflatoxin (AF) B1 is a main contaminant in diverse agricultural products. In an attempt to reduce this problem and the hazards to human health, an AFB1 inactivating system with ammonia has been developed. In this work we evaluated the efficiency of the system in mice using micronucleus (MN) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) analysis. Four groups of animals were fed for 8 weeks with a special diet mainly composed of maize: (1) uncontaminated; (2) uncontaminated/inactivated; (3) contaminated/inactivated; and (4) contaminated. We evaluated MN at weekly intervals in peripheral blood, and in weeks 4 and 8 SCE frequencies were quantified in bone marrow cells. The results shows that animals fed with AFB1 contaminated/inactivated maize had a 45% lower level of induced cytogenetic damage than those animals fed with AFB1 contaminated but not inactivated maize. A residual amount of AFB1 after the inactivating treatment and reconversion back to AFB1 in the organism may account for the remaining increased levels of SCE and MN.

  6. Molecular ions in the protostellar shock L1157-B1

    CERN Document Server

    Podio, L; Ceccarelli, C; Codella, C; Bachiller, R

    2014-01-01

    We perform a complete census of molecular ions with an abundance larger than 1e-10 in the protostellar shock L1157-B1 by means of an unbiased high-sensitivity survey obtained with the IRAM-30m and Herschel/HIFI. By means of an LVG radiative transfer code the gas physical conditions and fractional abundances of molecular ions are derived. The latter are compared with estimates of steady-state abundances in the cloud and their evolution in the shock calculated with the chemical model Astrochem. We detect emission from HCO+, H13CO+, N2H+, HCS+, and, for the first time in a shock, from HOCO+, and SO+. The bulk of the emission peaks at blueshifted velocity, ~ 0.5-3 km/s with respect to systemic, has a width of ~ 4-8 km/s, and is associated with the outflow cavities (T_kin ~ 20-70 K, n(H2) ~ 1e5 cm-3). Observed HCO+ and N2H+ abundances are in agreement with steady-state abundances in the cloud and with their evolution in the compressed and heated gas in the shock for cosmic rays ionization rate Z = 3e-16 s-1. HOCO+...

  7. Regulation of nucleotide excision repair by nuclear lamin b1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Butin-Israeli

    Full Text Available The nuclear lamins play important roles in the structural organization and function of the metazoan cell nucleus. Recent studies on B-type lamins identified a requirement for lamin B1 (LB1 in the regulation of cell proliferation in normal diploid cells. In order to further investigate the function of LB1 in proliferation, we disrupted its normal expression in U-2 OS human osteosarcoma and other tumor cell lines. Silencing LB1 expression induced G1 cell cycle arrest without significant apoptosis. The arrested cells are unable to mount a timely and effective response to DNA damage induced by UV irradiation. Several proteins involved in the detection and repair of UV damage by the nucleotide excision repair (NER pathway are down-regulated in LB1 silenced cells including DDB1, CSB and PCNA. We propose that LB1 regulates the DNA damage response to UV irradiation by modulating the expression of specific genes and activating persistent DNA damage signaling. Our findings are relevant to understanding the relationship between the loss of LB1 expression, DNA damage signaling, and replicative senescence.

  8. PENGARUH KETEBALAN SUBSTRAT PADA FERMENTASI TEMPE TERHADAP KADAR VITAMIN B1 (THE INFLUENCE OF SUBSTRATE THICKNESS DURING TEMPE FERMENTATION ON VITAMINS B1 LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fifi Retiaty

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The level of vitamin B1 in tempe could be increased by modifying the surface of substrate during soybean fermentation. This research aimed to know the influence of substrate thickness during soybean fermentation into tempe to the levels of vitamin B1. The design of this research was completed randomized design with two replication. Vitamin B1 content was analyzed on raw soybeans, boiled soybeans, and tempe using spectrophotometer methods. The substrate thicknesses examined were 0.25 cm, 0.50 cm and 1.00cm. Vitamin B1 level on raw soybean was 0.7436 mg percent and on boiled soybean was 0.4898 mg percent, while in tempe with substrate thickness  0.25 cm, 0.50 cm and 1.00 cm, the vitamin B1 contents were 1.1413, 0.9044, and 0.7130 mg percent respectively. The thickness of tempe substrate affected on vitamin B1 content. A thinner substrate resulted on higher vitamin B1 level. Keywords: fermentation, tempe, vitamin B1   ABSTRAK Kadar vitamin B1 pada tempe dapat ditingkatkan dengan memodifikasi permukaan dari substrat dalam fermentasi kedelai. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh ketebalan substrat pada fermentasi kedelai menjadi tempe terhadap kadar vitamin B1. Disain penelitian ini adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap dengan dua kali ulangan. Kadar vitamin B1 dianalisis pada kedelai mentah, kedelai rebus, dan tempe dengan menggunakan metode spektrofotometri. Ketebalan substrat yang diteliti adalah 0.25 cm, 0,50 cm, 1,00 cm. Kadar vitamin B1 pada  kedelai mentah adalah 0,7436 mg persen dan pada kedelai rebus adalah 0.4898 mg persen. Sedangkan kadar vitamin B1 pada tempe dengan ketebalan 0,25, 0,5 dan 1 cm secara berturut-turut adalah 1,1413 mg persen , 0,9044 mg persen dan 0,7130 mg persen. Ketebalan substar tempe berpengaruh pada kandungan vitamin B1. Semakin tipis substrat, akan menghasilkan vitamin B1 yang semakin tinggi. [Penel Gizi Makan 2012, 35(2: 182-188]   Kata Kunci: fermentasi, tempe, vitamin B1

  9. Screening of CYP1B1 and MYOC in Moroccan families with primary congenital glaucoma: Three novel mutations in CYP1B1

    OpenAIRE

    Hilal, Latifa; Boutayeb, Soraya; Serrou, Aziza; Refass-Buret, Loubna; Shisseh, Hafsa; Bencherifa, Fatiha; El Mzibri, Mohammed; Benazzouz, Bouchra; Berraho, Amina

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the contribution of cytochrome P4501B1 (CYP1B1) and myocillin (MYOC) mutations to primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) in Moroccan families. Methods This study included 90 unrelated families with PCG and 100 normal control individuals. Two previously reported CYP1B1 mutations (g.4339delG and p.G61E) were first screened by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The coding exons of CYP1B1 were sequenced in g.4339delG- and p.G61E-negati...

  10. Aflatoxin B1 is toxic to porcine oocyte maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Wang, Qiao-Chu; Han, Jun; Xiong, Bo; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2015-07-01

    As a toxic secondary metabolite of Aspergillus species, Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a major food and feed contaminant in tropical and sub-tropical regions with high temperature and humidity. It has been reported to be toxic to the female reproductive system in laboratory and domestic animals. In the present study, the influence of acute exposure to AFB1 (10 and 50 μM, 44h) on porcine oocyte maturation and its possible mechanism were investigated. The maturation rates of oocytes decreased significantly in the presence of 50 μM of AFB1. Cell cycle analysis showed that most oocytes were arrested at germinal vesicle breakdown or meosis I stage. However, actin assembly, spindle structure and chromosome alignment were not disrupted after exposure to 50 μM AFB1. Further study showed that DNA methylation levels increased in treated oocytes (50 μM). Histone methylation levels were also analysed after treatment (50 μM): H3K27me3 and H3K4me2 levels decreased, whereas H3K9me3 level increased, indicating that epigenetic modification was affected. AFB1 treatment (50 μM) also induced oxidative stress and further led to autophagy, as shown by accumulation of reactive oxygen species, up-regulated LC3 protein expression and increased mRNA levels of ATG3, ATG5 and ATG7. Annexin V-FITC staining assay revealed that AFB1 treatment (50 μM) resulted in oocyte early apoptosis, which was confirmed by increased Bak, Bax, Bcl-xl mRNA levels. Collectively, our results suggest that AFB1 disrupts porcine oocyte maturation through changing epigenetic modifications as well as inducing oxidative stress, excessive autophagy and apoptosis.

  11. Aflatoxin B1 Degradation by a Pseudomonas Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangare, Lancine; Zhao, Yueju; Folly, Yawa Minnie Elodie; Chang, Jinghua; Li, Jinhan; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Xing, Fuguo; Zhou, Lu; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), one of the most potent naturally occurring mutagens and carcinogens, causes significant threats to the food industry and animal production. In this study, 25 bacteria isolates were collected from grain kernels and soils displaying AFB1 reduction activity. Based on its degradation effectiveness, isolate N17-1 was selected for further characterization and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa N17-1 could degrade AFB1, AFB2 and AFM1 by 82.8%, 46.8% and 31.9% after incubation in Nutrient Broth (NB) medium at 37 °C for 72 h, respectively. The culture supernatant of isolate N17-1 degraded AFB1 effectively, whereas the viable cells and intra cell extracts were far less effective. Factors influencing AFB1 degradation by the culture supernatant were investigated. Maximum degradation was observed at 55 °C. Ions Mn2+ and Cu2+ were activators for AFB1 degradation, however, ions Mg2+, Li+, Zn2+, Se2+, Fe3+ were strong inhibitors. Treatments with proteinase K and proteinase K plus SDS significantly reduced the degradation activity of the culture supernatant. No degradation products were observed based on preliminary LC-QTOF/MS analysis, indicating AFB1 was metabolized to degradation products with chemical properties different from that of AFB1. The results indicated that the degradation of AFB1 by P. aeruginosa N17-1 was enzymatic and could have a great potential in industrial applications. This is the first report indicating that the isolate of P. aeruginosa possesses the ability to degrade aflatoxin. PMID:25341538

  12. AFLATOXIN B1 RESIDUES IN EGGS AND FLESH OF LAYING HENS FED AFLATOXIN B1 CONTAMINATED DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saqer Mohammad Herzallah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin B1(AFB1 and total Aflatoxins (AFT contaminated feed effect on aflatoxins residue level in eggs, muscles (breast, leg, organs (liver, kidney, gizzard and excreted aflatoxins in chicken litter of layer hens were monitored. Laying hens were on four levels of aflatoxins for 6 weeks and monitored weekly for the change in both AFB1 and AFT levels. Pronouncedly, the AFB1 and AFT were detected in eggs, muscles (legs, breast, organs (liver, kidney and gizzard and litter in noticeable amounts. Total Aflatoxin (AFT level was lowest in chicken breast (0.63 ppb and highest in liver (2.12 ppb and gizzard (1.22 ppb of chicken fed diet with 965.12 ppb. Whereas, AFB1 residue was 0.66 ppb in eggs, 1.59 ppb in liver tissues of hens given feed contaminated with 894.12 ppb. Residue level of AFB1 was high in liver and kidney of all treatments. The chicken breast tissues were lowest in AFB1 and AFT of values 0.72 and 0.63, respectively. Eggs production was significantly (p<0.05 affected with AFB1 contaminated feed and egg production was decreased by more than 30%.

  13. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1CLMA-2B1UA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1CLMA-2B1UA 1CLM 2B1U A A LTEEQIAEFKEAFALFD-KDGDGTITTKELGTVMRSLGQ...NPTEAELQDMINEVDADGNGTIDFPEFLSLMARKMKEQDSEEELIEAFKVFDRDGNGLISAAELRHVMTNLGEKLTDDEVDEMIREADIDGDGHINYEEFVRMMVS 1CLM A 1CLMA FALFD-KDGDG

  14. Reactor Physics Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Raedt, C

    2000-07-01

    The Reactor Physics and Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis on reactor fuel. This expertise is applied within the Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Research Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments. Progress and achievements in 1999 in the following areas are reported on: (1) investigations on the use of military plutonium in commercial power reactors; (2) neutron and gamma calculations performed for BR-2 and for other reactors; (3) the updating of neutron and gamma cross-section libraries; (4) the implementation of reactor codes; (6) the management of the UNIX workstations; and (6) fuel cycle studies.

  15. Regularized estimation of magnitude and phase of multi-coil b1 field via Bloch-Siegert B1 mapping and coil combination optimizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Fessler, Jeffrey A; Wright, Steven M; Noll, Douglas C

    2014-10-01

    Parallel excitation requires fast and accurate B1 map estimation. Bloch-Siegert (BS) B1 mapping is very fast and accurate over a large dynamic range. When applied to multi-coil systems, however, this phase-based method may produce low signal-to-noise ratio estimates in low magnitude regions due to localized excitation patterns of parallel excitation systems. Also, the imaging time increases with the number of coils. In this work, we first propose to modify the standard BS B1 mapping sequence so that it avoids the scans required by previous B1 phase estimation methods. A regularized method is then proposed to jointly estimate the magnitude and phase of multi-coil B1 maps from BS B1 mapping data, improving estimation quality by using the prior knowledge of the smoothness of B1 magnitude and phase. Lastly, we use Cramer-Rao lower bound analysis to optimize the coil combinations, to improve the quality of the raw data for B1 estimation. The proposed methods are demonstrated by simulations and phantom experiments.

  16. Hyperglycemic activity of the recombinant crustacean hyperglycemic hormone B1 isoform (CHH-B1) of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Jiménez, Laura; Sánchez-Castrejón, Edna; Ponce-Rivas, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Márquez, Ma Enriqueta; Aguilar, Manuel B; Re, Ana Denisse; Díaz, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) is the most abundant neuropeptide produced by the X-organ/sinus gland (XO/SG) complex in the crustacean eyestalk. CHH plays a principal role in the control of glucose metabolism. The CHH-B1 isoform is produced in the eyestalk of Litopenaeus vannamei by alternative splicing of the chhB gene and its cDNA sequence has revealed that this isoform has a non-amidated C-terminal residue (CHH-like peptide). In this work, a recombinant CHH-B1 (rCHH-B1) with a sequence identical to the native hormone was expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris X-33 and purified from the culture medium by RP-HPLC. The identity of the purified rCHH-B1 was confirmed by N-terminal sequencing and by using an anti-CHH-B1 polyclonal antibody. An in vivo assay showed that the hyperglycemic effect was dependant of the dosage of rCHH-B1, and the maximal hyperglycemic response was obtained with 250pmol treatment. These results suggest that the amino acid sequence of the C-terminus and its correct structure are both important for the hyperglycemic activity of naturally occurring non-amidated CHH peptides, such as CHH-B1. CHH-B1 appears to be the first reported CHH-like peptide with significant hyperglycemic activity produced in the sinus gland of a penaeid shrimp.

  17. EphB1 Suppression in Acute Myelogenous Leukemia : Regulating the DNA Damage Control System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, K. R.; Scherpen, F. J. G.; Garcia-Manero, G.; Yang, H.; Kaspers, G. J. L.; Cloos, J.; Zwaan, C. M.; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M. M.; Kornblau, S. M.; De Bont, E. S. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Loss of ephrin receptor (EphB1) expression may associate with aggressive cancer phenotypes; however, the mechanism of action remains unclear. To gain detailed insight into EphB1 function in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), comprehensive analysis of EphB1 transcriptional regulation was conducted. In

  18. 22 CFR 9b.1 - Press access to the Department of State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Press access to the Department of State. 9b.1 Section 9b.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.1 Press access to the Department of State. (a) Media correspondents without...

  19. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1DJ2B-1ADIB [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1DJ2B-1ADIB 1DJ2 1ADI B B IGSLSQVSGVLGCQWGDEGKGKLVDILAQHFDIVARCQG...LLSEACPLILDYHVALDNAREKARGAKAIGTTGRGIGPAYEDKVARRGLRVGDLFDKETFAEKLKEVMEYHNFQLVNYYKAEAVDYQKVLDDTMAVADI...LY CA 195 PHE CA 263 LYS CA 227 TYR CA 251 1ADI B 1ADIB 1 1ADI B 1ADI

  20. Strain background modifies phenotypes in the ATP8B1-deficient mouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shah, S.; Sanford, U.R.; Vargas, J.C.; Xu, H.; Groen, A.; Paulusma, C.C.; Grenert, J.P.; Pawlikowska, L.; Sen, S.; Oude Elferink, R.P.J.; Bull, L.N.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mutations in ATP8B1 (FIC1) underlie cases of cholestatic disease, ranging from chronic and progressive (progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis) to intermittent (benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis). The ATP8B1-deficient mouse serves as an animal model of human ATP8B1 deficie

  1. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Hiroto

    1995-02-07

    A reactor container of the present invention has a structure that the reactor container is entirely at the same temperature as that at the inlet of the reactor and, a hot pool is incorporated therein, and the reactor container has is entirely at the same temperature and has substantially uniform temperature follow-up property transiently. Namely, if the temperature at the inlet of the reactor core changes, the temperature of the entire reactor container changes following this change, but no great temperature gradient is caused in the axial direction and no great heat stresses due to axial temperature distribution is caused. Occurrence of thermal stresses caused by the axial temperature distribution can be suppressed to improve the reliability of the reactor container. In addition, since the laying of the reactor inlet pipelines over the inside of the reactor is eliminated, the reactor container is made compact and the heat shielding structures above the reactor and a protection structure of container walls are simplified. Further, secondary coolants are filled to the outside of the reactor container to simplify the shieldings. The combined effects described above can improve economical property and reliability. (N.H.).

  2. Important roles of multiple Sp1 binding sites and epigenetic modifications in the regulation of the methionine sulfoxide reductase B1 (MsrB1 promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favaloro Bartolo

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msrs are enzymes that catalyze the reduction of oxidized methionine residues. Most organisms that were genetically modified to lack the MsrA gene have shown shortening of their life span. Methionine sulfoxide reductases B (MsrB proteins codified by three separate genes, named MsrB1, MsrB2, and MsrB3, are included in the Msrs system. To date, the mechanisms responsible for the transcriptional regulation of MsrB genes have not been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulation of MsrB1 selenoprotein levels through transcriptional regulation of the MsrB1 gene in MDA-MB231 and MCF-7 breast carcinoma cell lines. Results A MsrB1 gene promoter is located 169 base pairs upstream from the transcription start site. It contains three Sp1 binding sites which are sufficient for maximal promoter activity in transient transfection experiments. High levels of MsrB1 transcript, protein and promoter activity were detected in low metastatic MCF7 human breast cancer cells. On the contrary, very low levels of both MsrB1 transcript and promoter activity were detected in the highly metastatic counterpart MDA-MB231 cells. A pivotal role for Sp1 in the constitutive expression of the MsrB1 gene was demonstrated through transient expression of mutant MsrB1 promoter-reporter gene constructs and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments. Since Sp1 is ubiquitously expressed, these sites, while necessary, are not sufficient to explain the patterns of gene expression of MsrB1 in various human breast cancer cells. MDA-MB231 cells can be induced to express MsrB1 by treatment with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine, a demethylating agent. Therefore, the MsrB1 promoter is controlled by epigenetic modifications. Conclusion The results of this study provide the first insights into the transcriptional regulation of the human MsrB1 gene, including the discovery that the Sp1 transcription factor may play a central role in its

  3. CYP1B1 expression, a potential risk factor for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goth-Goldstein, Regine; Erdmann, Christine A.; Russell, Marion

    2001-05-31

    CYP1B1 expression in non-tumor breast tissue from breast cancer patients and cancer-free individuals was determined to test the hypothesis that high CYP1B1 expression is a risk factor for breast cancer. Large interindividual variations in CYP1B1 expression were found with CYP1B1 levels notably higher in breast cancer patients than cancer-free individuals. The results indicate that CYP1B1 might play a role in breast cancer either through increased PAH activation or through metabolism of endogenous estrogen to a carcinogenic derivative.

  4. Herschel observations of B1-bS and B1-bN: two first hydrostatic core candidates in the Perseus star-forming cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Pezzuto, Stefano; Schisano, E; Strafella, F; Di Francesco, J; Sadavoy, S; André, P; Benedettini, M; Bernard, J P; di Giorgio, A M; Facchini, A; Hennemann, M; Hill, T; Könyves, V; Molinari, S; Motte, F; Nguyen-Luong, Q; Peretto, N; Pestalozzi, M; Polychroni, D; Rygl, K L J; Saraceno, P; Schneider, N; Spinoglio, L; Testi, L; Ward-Thompson, D; White, G J

    2012-01-01

    We report far-IR Herschel observations obtained between 70 $\\mu$m and 500 $\\mu$m of two star-forming dusty condensations, B1-bS and B1-bN, in the B1 region of the Perseus star-forming cloud. In the Western part of the Perseus cloud, B1-bS is the only source detected in all of the 6 PACS and SPIRE photometric bands without being visible in the Spitzer map at 24 $\\mu$m. B1-bN is clearly detected between 100 $\\mu$m and 250 $\\mu$m. We have fitted the spectral energy distributions of these sources to derive their physical properties, and find that a simple greybody model fails to reproduce the observed SEDs. At least a two-component model, consisting of a central source surrounded by a dusty envelope is required. The properties derived from the fit, however, suggest that the central source is not a Class 0 object. We then conclude that while B1-bS and B1-bN appear to be more evolved than a pre-stellar core, the best-fit models suggest that their central objects are younger than a Class 0 source. Hence, they may be...

  5. Dependence of B1+ and B1− Field Patterns of Surface Coils on the Electrical Properties of the Sample and the MR Operating Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Manushka V.; Collins, Christopher M.; Sodickson, Daniel K.; Brown, Ryan; Wiggins, Graham C.; Lattanzi, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    In high field MRI, the spatial distribution of the radiofrequency magnetic (B1) field is usually affected by the presence of the sample. For hardware design and to aid interpretation of experimental results, it is important both to anticipate and to accurately simulate the behavior of these fields. Fields generated by a radiofrequency surface coil were simulated using dyadic Green’s functions, or experimentally measured over a range of frequencies inside an object whose electrical properties were varied to illustrate a variety of transmit (B1+) and receive (B1−) field patterns. In this work, we examine how changes in polarization of the field and interference of propagating waves in an object can affect the B1 spatial distribution. Results are explained conceptually using Maxwell’s equations and intuitive illustrations. We demonstrate that the electrical conductivity alters the spatial distribution of distinct polarized components of the field, causing “twisted” transmit and receive field patterns, and asymmetries between |B1+| and |B1−|. Additionally, interference patterns due to wavelength effects are observed at high field in samples with high relative permittivity and near-zero conductivity, but are not present in lossy samples due to the attenuation of propagating EM fields. This work provides a conceptual framework for understanding B1 spatial distributions for surface coils and can provide guidance for RF engineers.

  6. CYP1B1 is polymorphic in cynomolgus and rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Yasuhiro; Matsushita, Akinori; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2011-09-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1B1 is involved in the metabolic activation of various procarcinogens, and some CYP1B1 genetic variants alter CYP1B1-dependent procarcinogen metabolism. Cynomolgus and rhesus macaques are frequently used in toxicity tests due to their evolutionary closeness to humans. In this study, we attempted to identify CYP1B1 genetic variants in 13 cynomolgus and 4 rhesus macaques. A total of 17 genetic variants were identified, including 8 non-synonymous genetic variants, indicating that, similar to humans, CYP1B1 is polymorphic in macaques. These CYP1B1 genetic variants could be the basis for understanding potential inter-animal differences in macaque CYP1B1-dependent metabolism of promutagens.

  7. Light water reactor safety

    CERN Document Server

    Pershagen, B

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the principles and practices of reactor safety as applied to the design, regulation and operation of light water reactors, combining a historical approach with an up-to-date account of the safety, technology and operating experience of both pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. The introductory chapters set out the basic facts upon which the safety of light water reactors depend. The central section is devoted to the methods and results of safety analysis. The accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl are reviewed and their implications for light wate

  8. Nuclear reactor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering. Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide, and new power reactors with improved fuel cycles are being developed. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. The second edition of this successful comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics has been completely updated, revised and enlarged to include the latest developme

  9. Effects of GABA agonists on body temperature regulation in GABA(B(1))-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quéva, Christophe; Bremner-Danielsen, Marianne; Edlund, Anders; Ekstrand, A Jonas; Elg, Susanne; Erickson, Sven; Johansson, Thore; Lehmann, Anders; Mattsson, Jan P

    2003-09-01

    1. Activation of GABA(B) receptors evokes hypothermia in wildtype (GABA(B(1))+/+) but not in GABA(B) receptor knockout (GABA(B(1))-/-) mice. The aim of the present study was to determine the hypothermic and behavioural effects of the putative GABA(B) receptor agonist gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), and of the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol. In addition, basal body temperature was determined in GABA(B(1))+/+, GABA(B(1))+/- and GABA(B(1))-/- mice. 2. GABA(B(1))-/- mice were generated by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. Correct gene targeting was assessed by Southern blotting, PCR and Western blotting. GABA(B) receptor-binding sites were quantified with radioligand binding. Measurement of body temperature was done using subcutaneous temperature-sensitive chips, and behavioural changes after drug administration were scored according to a semiquantitative scale. 3. GABA(B(1))-/- mice had a short lifespan, probably caused by generalised seizure activity. No histopathological or blood chemistry changes were seen, but the expression of GABA(B(2)) receptor protein was below the detection limit in brains from GABA(B(1))-/- mice, in the absence of changes in mRNA levels. 4. GABA(B) receptor-binding sites were absent in brain membranes from GABA(B(1))-/- mice. 5. GABA(B(1))-/- mice were hypothermic by approximately 1 degrees C compared to GABA(B(1))+/+ and GABA(B(1))+/- mice. 6. Injection of baclofen (9.6 mg kg-1) produced a large reduction in body temperature and behavioural effects in GABA(B(1))+/+ and in GABA(B(1))+/- mice, but GABA(B(1))-/- mice were unaffected. The same pattern was seen after administration of GHB (400 mg kg-1). The GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol (2 mg kg-1), on the other hand, produced a more pronounced hypothermia in GABA(B(1))-/-mice. In GABA(B(1))+/+ and GABA(B(1))+/- mice, muscimol induced sedation and reduced locomotor activity. However, when given to GABA(B(1))-/- mice, muscimol triggered periods of intense jumping and wild

  10. CYP1B1 mRNA inducibility due to benzo(a)pyrene is modified by the CYP1B1 L432V gene polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmig, Simone; Wenzel, Sibylle; Maxeiner, Hagen; Schneider, Joachim

    2014-07-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), a primary component of tobacco smoke, is activated by cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1). Smokers homozygous for the C-allele (*1/*1) at the CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism have shown increased CYP1B1 expression, compared to smokers homozygous for the G-allele *3/*3. Since no difference has been shown in CYP1B1 expression between both genotypes in non-smokers, we assumed that the genetic impact is produced in combination with an exogenous induction (e.g. BaP). To confirm this theory and to quantify the effect, we induced human leucocytes with increasing BaP concentrations and determined CYP1B1 mRNA expression with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We incubated human leucocytes from 27 healthy donors with BaP concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 250 µM. We identified the CYP1B1 genotypes by melting curve analysis and assessed relative CYP1B1 mRNA expression using real-time PCR. Expression was related to β-2-microglobulin with the 2(-ΔΔCT) method. Inducibility of CYP1B1 mRNA by BaP was higher in leucocytes carrying the CYP1B1*1/*1 genotype than in leucocytes carrying the CYP1B1*3/*3 genotype (P = 0.012). We revealed significant differences, with BaP concentrations of 2.5 µM (P = 0.0094), 5 µM (P = 0.027), 10 µM (P = 0.0006), 25 µM (P = 0.0007) and 50 µM (P = 0.017). Homozygous carriers of the C-allele (*1/*1) at the CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism show a higher response to environmental factors, such as carcinogenic BaP, than homozygous carriers of the G-allele *3/*3.

  11. Spinning fluids reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  12. Overexpression of SULT2B1b Promotes Angiogenesis in Human Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Overexpression of cytosolic sulfotransferase 2B1b (SULT2B1b has been commonly found in colorectal and hepatocellular carcinoma, suggesting that SULT2B1b might act as a potential oncogenic protein. However, its clinical significance and biological role in gastric cancer progression remain largely unknown. Methods: Expressions of SULT2B1b in clinical gastric cancer (GC samples were examined using qRT-PCR and Western blot. Results: SULT2B1b was markedly overexpressed in human GC samples, and positively correlated with vessel density and associated with poor clinical features. We also demonstrated that overexpression of SULT2B1b resulted in increased tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth in mouse GC models. In addition, ablation of SULT2B1b in human GC cells lines BGC823 and MKN45 decreased the capability of the cells to recruit endothelial cells. Moreover, depletion of SULT2B1b in GC cells reduced VEGF-A expression by downregulating SP1 and AP2. Conclusion: Our results suggested that the SULT2B1b-mediated angiogenic pathway could serve as biomarkers for GC diagnosis and prognosis, and suppressing SULT2B1b-mediated angiogenic signaling might be a promising strategy for developing novel GC treatment.

  13. Observations and light curve solutions of the eclipsing binaries USNO-B1.0 1395-0370184 and USNO-B1.0 1395-0370731

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjurkchieva D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present follow-up photometric observations in Sloan filters g', i' of the newly discovered eclipsing stars USNO-B1.0 1395-0370184 and USNO-B1.0 1395-0370731. Our data revealed that their orbital periods are considerably bigger than the previous values. This result changed the classification of USNO-B1.0 1395-0370184 from ultrashort-period binary (P=0.197 d to short-period system (P=0.251 d. The light curve solutions of our observations revealed that USNOB1.0 1395-0370184 and USNO-B1.0 1395-0370731 are overcontact binaries in which components are K dwarfs, close in masses and radii. The light curve distortions were reproduced by cool spots with angular radius of around 20°.

  14. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Gridded Satellite Data from ISCCP B1 (GridSat-B1) Infrared Channel Brightness Temperature, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Gridded Satellite (GridSat-B1) data provides a uniform set of quality controlled geostationary satellite observations for the visible, infrared window and...

  15. Cell stress promotes the association of phosphorylated HspB1 with F-actin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P Clarke

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that the small heat shock protein, HspB1, has a direct influence on the dynamics of cytoskeletal elements, in particular, filamentous actin (F-actin polymerization. In this study we have assessed the influence of HspB1 phosphorylation on its interaction(s with F-actin. We first determined the distribution of endogenous non-phosphorylated HspB1, phosphorylated HspB1 and F-actin in neuroendocrine PC12 cells by immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy. We then investigated a potential direct interaction between HspB1 with F-actin by precipitating F-actin directly with biotinylated phalloidin followed by Western analyses; the reverse immunoprecipitation of HspB1 was also carried out. The phosphorylation influence of HspB1 in this interaction was investigated by using pharmacologic inhibition of p38 MAPK. In control cells, HspB1 interacts with F-actin as a predominantly non-phosphorylated protein, but subsequent to stress there is a redistribution of HspB1 to the cytoskeletal fraction and a significantly increased association of pHspB1 with F-actin. Our data demonstrate HspB1 is found in a complex with F-actin both in phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms, with an increased association of pHspB1 with F-actin after heat stress. Overall, our study combines both cellular and biochemical approaches to show cellular localization and direct demonstration of an interaction between endogenous HspB1 and F-actin using methodolgy that specifically isolates F-actin.

  16. Reactor Vessel Surveillance Program for Advanced Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Wan; Lee, Gyu-Mahn; Kim, Jong-Wook; Park, Keun-Bae; Kim, Keung-Koo

    2008-10-15

    This report provides the design requirements of an integral type reactor vessel surveillance program for an integral type reactor in accordance with the requirements of Korean MEST (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology Development) Notice 2008-18. This report covers the requirements for the design of surveillance capsule assemblies including their test specimens, test block materials, handling tools, and monitors of the surveillance capsule neutron fluence and temperature. In addition, this report provides design requirements for the program for irradiation surveillance of reactor vessel materials, a layout of specimens and monitors in the surveillance capsule, procedures of installation and retrieval of the surveillance capsule assemblies, and the layout of the surveillance capsule assemblies in the reactor.

  17. Montelukast Disposition: No Indication of Transporter-Mediated Uptake in OATP2B1 and OATP1B1 Expressing HEK293 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännström, Marie; Nordell, Pär; Bonn, Britta; Davis, Andrew M.; Palmgren, Anna-Pia; Hilgendorf, Constanze; Rubin, Katarina; Grime, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies with montelukast show variability in effect and polymorphic OATP2B1-dependent absorption has previously been implicated as a possible cause. This claim has been challenged with conflicting data and here we used OATP2B1-transfected HEK293 cells to clarify the mechanisms involved. For montelukast, no significant difference in cell uptake between HEK-OATP2B1 and empty vector cell lines was observed at pH 6.5 or pH 7.4, and no concentration-dependent uptake was detected. Montelukast is a carboxylic acid, a relatively potent inhibitor of OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP2B1, and has previously been postulated to be actively transported into human hepatocytes. Using OATP1B1-transfected HEK293 cells and primary human hepatocytes in the presence of OATP inhibitors we demonstrate for the first time that active OATP-dependent transport is unlikely to play a significant role in the human disposition of montelukast. PMID:26694455

  18. Flavonoids exhibit diverse effects on CYP11B1 expression and cortisol synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Li-Chuan; Li, Lih-Ann, E-mail: lihann@nhri.org.tw

    2012-02-01

    CYP11B1 catalyzes the final step of cortisol biosynthesis. The effects of flavonoids on transcriptional expression and enzyme activity of CYP11B1 were investigated using the human adrenocortical H295R cell model. All tested nonhydroxylated flavones including 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone, α-naphthoflavone, and β-naphthoflavone upregulated CYP11B1 expression and cortisol production, whereas apigenin and quercetin exhibited potent cytotoxicity and CYP11B1 repression at high concentrations. Nonhydroxylated flavones stimulated CYP11B1-catalyzed cortisol formation at transcriptional level. Resveratrol increased endogenous and substrate-supported cortisol production like nonhydroxylated flavones tested, but it had no effect on CYP11B1 gene expression and enzyme activity. Resveratrol appeared to alter cortisol biosynthesis at an earlier step. The Ad5 element situated in the − 121/− 106 region was required for basal and flavone-induced CYP11B1 expression. Overexpression of COUP-TFI did not improve the responsiveness of Ad5 to nonhydroxylated flavones. Although COUP-TFI overexpression increased CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 promoter activation, its effect was not mediated through the common Ad5 element. Treating cells with PD98059 (a flavone-type MEK1 inhibitor) increased CYP11B1 promoter activity, but not involving ERK signaling because phosphorylation of ERK1/2 remained unvarying throughout the course of treatment. Likewise, AhR was not responsible for the CYP11B1-modulating effects of flavonoids because inconsistency with their effects on AhR activation. 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone and 8-Br-cAMP additively activated CYP11B1 promoter activity. H-89 reduced 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone-induced CYP11B1 promoter activation but to a lesser extent as compared to its inhibition on cAMP-induced transactivation. Our data suggest that constant exposure to nonhydroxylated flavones raises a potential risk of high basal and cAMP-induced cortisol synthesis in consequence of increased CYP11B1

  19. Transcriptomic Characterization of SF3B1 Mutation Reveals Its Pleiotropic Effects in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Brooks, Angela N; Fan, Jean; Wan, Youzhong; Gambe, Rutendo; Li, Shuqiang; Hergert, Sarah; Yin, Shanye; Freeman, Samuel S; Levin, Joshua Z; Fan, Lin; Seiler, Michael; Buonamici, Silvia; Smith, Peter G; Chau, Kevin F; Cibulskis, Carrie L; Zhang, Wandi; Rassenti, Laura Z; Ghia, Emanuela M; Kipps, Thomas J; Fernandes, Stacey; Bloch, Donald B; Kotliar, Dylan; Landau, Dan A; Shukla, Sachet A; Aster, Jon C; Reed, Robin; DeLuca, David S; Brown, Jennifer R; Neuberg, Donna; Getz, Gad; Livak, Kenneth J; Meyerson, Matthew M; Kharchenko, Peter V; Wu, Catherine J

    2016-11-14

    Mutations in SF3B1, which encodes a spliceosome component, are associated with poor outcome in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), but how these contribute to CLL progression remains poorly understood. We undertook a transcriptomic characterization of primary human CLL cells to identify transcripts and pathways affected by SF3B1 mutation. Splicing alterations, identified in the analysis of bulk cells, were confirmed in single SF3B1-mutated CLL cells and also found in cell lines ectopically expressing mutant SF3B1. SF3B1 mutation was found to dysregulate multiple cellular functions including DNA damage response, telomere maintenance, and Notch signaling (mediated through KLF8 upregulation, increased TERC and TERT expression, or altered splicing of DVL2 transcript, respectively). SF3B1 mutation leads to diverse changes in CLL-related pathways.

  20. 26 CFR 1.50B-1 - Definitions of WIN expenses and WIN employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definitions of WIN expenses and WIN employees. 1.50B-1 Section 1.50B-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Rules for Computing Credit for Expenses of Work Incentive Programs § 1.50B-1 Definitions of WIN expenses and WIN employees. (a)...

  1. Transcriptional Response of Yeast to Aflatoxin B1: Recombinational Repair Involving RAD51 and RAD1

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The potent carcinogen aflatoxin B1 is a weak mutagen but a strong recombinagen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Aflatoxin B1 exposure greatly increases frequencies of both heteroallelic recombination and chromosomal translocations. We analyzed the gene expression pattern of diploid cells exposed to aflatoxin B1 using high-density oligonucleotide arrays comprising specific probes for all 6218 open reading frames. Among 183 responsive genes, 46 are involved in either DNA repair or in control of cel...

  2. SNTP program reactor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Lewis A.; Sapyta, Joseph J.

    1993-06-01

    The Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program is evaluating the feasibility of a particle bed reactor for a high-performance nuclear thermal rocket engine. Reactors operating between 500 MW and 2,000 MW will produce engine thrusts ranging from 20,000 pounds to 80,000 pounds. The optimum reactor arrangement depends on the power level desired and the intended application. The key components of the reactor have been developed and are being tested. Flow-to-power matching considerations dominate the thermal-hydraulic design of the reactor. Optimal propellant management during decay heat cooling requires a three-pronged approach. Adequate computational methods exist to perform the neutronics analysis of the reactor core. These methods have been benchmarked to critical experiment data.

  3. Fast Spectrum Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Donald; Tsvetkov, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Fast Spectrum Reactors presents a detailed overview of world-wide technology contributing to the development of fast spectrum reactors. With a unique focus on the capabilities of fast spectrum reactors to address nuclear waste transmutation issues, in addition to the well-known capabilities of breeding new fuel, this volume describes how fast spectrum reactors contribute to the wide application of nuclear power systems to serve the global nuclear renaissance while minimizing nuclear proliferation concerns. Readers will find an introduction to the sustainable development of nuclear energy and the role of fast reactors, in addition to an economic analysis of nuclear reactors. A section devoted to neutronics offers the current trends in nuclear design, such as performance parameters and the optimization of advanced power systems. The latest findings on fuel management, partitioning and transmutation include the physics, efficiency and strategies of transmutation, homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling, in addit...

  4. Hybrid reactors. [Fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-09-09

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of /sup 233/U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m/sup -2/, and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid.

  5. Tobacco smoke induces CYP1B1 in the aerodigestive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port, Jeffrey L; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Du, Baoheng; De Lorenzo, Mariana; Chang, Mindy; Heerdt, Paul M; Kopelovich, Levy; Marcus, Craig B; Altorki, Nasser K; Subbaramaiah, Kotha; Dannenberg, Andrew J

    2004-11-01

    Several members of the P450 family, including cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1), can convert tobacco smoke (TS) procarcinogens, including benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), to carcinogenic intermediates. In this study we investigated the effects of TS condensate and B[a]P on the expression of CYP1B1 in vitro and in vivo. CYP1B1 mRNA and protein were induced by both TS condensate and B[a]P in cell lines derived from the human aerodigestive tract. Treatment with TS condensate stimulated binding of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) to an oligonucleotide containing a canonical xenobiotic response element (XRE) site and induced XRE-luciferase activity. These findings are consistent with prior evidence that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, known ligands of the AhR, stimulate CYP1B1 transcription by an XRE-dependent mechanism. To determine whether these in vitro findings applied in vivo, both murine and human studies were carried out. Short-term exposure to TS induced CYP1B1 in the tongue, esophagus, lung and colon of experimental mice. In contrast, CYP1B1 was not induced by TS in the aorta of these mice. Levels of CYP1B1 mRNA were also elevated in the bronchial mucosa of human tobacco smokers versus never smokers (P CYP1B1 in TS-induced carcinogenesis in the aerodigestive tract.

  6. Apoptotic extinction of germ cells in testes of Cyp26b1 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Glenn; Li, Hui; Metzger, Daniel; Chambon, Pierre; Petkovich, Martin

    2007-10-01

    Cyp26b1 encodes a retinoic acid (RA) metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzyme that is expressed in embryonic tissues undergoing morphogenesis, including the testes. We have generated transgenic mice lacking Cyp26b1 and have observed increased RA levels in embryonic testes. Cyp26b1(-/-) germ cells prematurely enter meiosis at embryonic d 13.5 and appear to arrest at pachytene stage. Furthermore, after embryonic d 13.5, a rapid increase in apoptosis is observed in male germ cells derived from Cyp26b1(-/-) embryos; germ cells are essentially absent in mutant male neonates. In contrast, testicular somatic cells appear to develop normally in the absence of Cyp26b1. Moreover, ovarian germ and somatic cells appear unaffected by the lack of CYP26B1. We also show that the synthetic retinoid Am580, which is resistant to CYP26 metabolism, induces meiosis of male germ cells in cultured gonads, suggesting that abnormal development of germ cells in the Cyp26b1(-/-) testes results from excess RA rather than the absence of CYP26B1-generated metabolites of RA. These results provide evidence that CYP26B1 maintains low levels of RA in the developing testes that blocks entry into meiosis and acts as a survival factor to prevent apoptosis of male germ cells.

  7. Multi purpose research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raina, V.K. [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)]. E-mail: vkrain@magnum.barc.ernet.in; Sasidharan, K. [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sengupta, Samiran [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Singh, Tej [Research Reactor Services Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2006-04-15

    At present Dhruva and Cirus reactors provide the majority of research reactor based facilities to cater to the various needs of a vast pool of researchers in the field of material sciences, physics, chemistry, bio sciences, research and development work for nuclear power plants and production of radio isotopes. With a view to further consolidate and expand the scope of research and development in nuclear and allied sciences, a new 20 MWt multi purpose research reactor is being designed. This paper describes some of the design features and safety aspects of this reactor.

  8. INVAP's Research Reactor Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Villarino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INVAP, an Argentine company founded more than three decades ago, is today recognized as one of the leaders within the research reactor industry. INVAP has participated in several projects covering a wide range of facilities, designed in accordance with the requirements of our different clients. For complying with these requirements, INVAP developed special skills and capabilities to deal with different fuel assemblies, different core cooling systems, and different reactor layouts. This paper summarizes the general features and utilization of several INVAP research reactor designs, from subcritical and critical assemblies to high-power reactors.

  9. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanbe, Mitsuru

    1997-04-04

    An LMFBR type reactor comprises a plurality of reactor cores in a reactor container. Namely, a plurality of pot containing vessels are disposed in the reactor vessel and a plurality of reactor cores are formed in a state where an integrated-type fuel assembly is each inserted to a pot, and a coolant pipeline is connected to each of the pot containing-vessel to cool the reactor core respectively. When fuels are exchanged, the integrated-type fuel assembly is taken out together with the pot from the reactor vessel in a state where the integrated-type fuel assembly is immersed in the coolants in the pot as it is. Accordingly, coolants are supplied to each of the pot containing-vessel connected with the coolant pipeline and circulate while cooling the integrated-type fuel assembly for every pot. Then, when the fuels are exchanged, the integrated type fuel assembly is taken out to the outside of the reactor together with the pot by taking up the pot from the pot-containing vessel. Then, neutron economy is improved to thereby improve reactor power and the breeding ratio. (N.H.)

  10. Targeting cyclin B1 inhibits proliferation and sensitizes breast cancer cells to taxol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strebhardt Klaus

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclin B1, the regulatory subunit of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1, is essential for the transition from G2 phase to mitosis. Cyclin B1 is very often found to be overexpressed in primary breast and cervical cancer cells as well as in cancer cell lines. Its expression is correlated with the malignancy of gynecological cancers. Methods In order to explore cyclin B1 as a potential target for gynecological cancer therapy, we studied the effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA on different gynecological cancer cell lines by monitoring their proliferation rate, cell cycle profile, protein expression and activity, apoptosis induction and colony formation. Tumor formation in vivo was examined using mouse xenograft models. Results Downregulation of cyclin B1 inhibited proliferation of several breast and cervical cancer cell lines including MCF-7, BT-474, SK-BR-3, MDA-MB-231 and HeLa. After combining cyclin B1 siRNA with taxol, we observed an increased apoptotic rate accompanied by an enhanced antiproliferative effect in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, control HeLa cells were progressively growing, whereas the tumor growth of HeLa cells pre-treated with cyclin B1 siRNA was strongly inhibited in nude mice, indicating that cyclin B1 is indispensable for tumor growth in vivo. Conclusion Our data support the notion of cyclin B1 being essential for survival and proliferation of gynecological cancer cells. Concordantly, knockdown of cyclin B1 inhibits proliferation in vitro as well as in vivo. Moreover, targeting cyclin B1 sensitizes breast cancer cells to taxol, suggesting that specific cyclin B1 targeting is an attractive strategy for the combination with conventionally used agents in gynecological cancer therapy.

  11. Global gene profiling of aging lungs in Atp8b1 mutant mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundararajan, Ramani; Stearns, Timothy M.; Czachor, Alexander; Fukumoto, Jutaro; Turn, Christina; Westermann-Clark, Emma; Breitzig, Mason; Tan, Lee; Lockey, Richard F.; King, Benjamin L.; Kolliputi, Narasaiah

    2016-01-01

    Objective Recent studies implicate cardiolipin oxidation in several age-related diseases. Atp8b1 encoding Type 4 P-type ATPases is a cardiolipin transporter. Mutation in Atp8b1 gene or inflammation of the lungs impairs the capacity of Atp8b1 to clear cardiolipin from lung fluid. However, the link between Atp8b1 mutation and age-related gene alteration is unknown. Therefore, we investigated how Atp8b1 mutation alters age-related genes. Methods We performed Affymetrix gene profiling of lungs isolated from young (7-9 wks, n=6) and aged (14 months, 14 M, n=6) C57BL/6 and Atp8b1 mutant mice. In addition, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was performed. Differentially expressed genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results Global transcriptome analysis revealed 532 differentially expressed genes in Atp8b1 lungs, 157 differentially expressed genes in C57BL/6 lungs, and 37 overlapping genes. IPA of age-related genes in Atp8b1 lungs showed enrichment of Xenobiotic metabolism and Nrf2-mediated signaling pathways. The increase in Adamts2 and Mmp13 transcripts in aged Atp8b1 lungs was validated by qRT-PCR. Similarly, the decrease in Col1a1 and increase in Cxcr6 transcripts was confirmed in both Atp8b1 mutant and C57BL/6 lungs. Conclusion Based on transcriptome profiling, our study indicates that Atp8b1 mutant mice may be susceptible to age-related lung diseases. PMID:27689529

  12. Strain background modifies phenotypes in the ATP8B1-deficient mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohela Shah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mutations in ATP8B1 (FIC1 underlie cases of cholestatic disease, ranging from chronic and progressive (progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis to intermittent (benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis. The ATP8B1-deficient mouse serves as an animal model of human ATP8B1 deficiency. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the effect of genetic background on phenotypes of ATP8B1-deficient and wild-type mice, using C57Bl/6 (B6, 129, and (B6-129 F1 strain backgrounds. B6 background resulted in greater abnormalities in ATP8B1-deficient mice than did 129 and/or F1 background. ATP8B1-deficient pups of B6 background gained less weight. In adult ATP8B1-deficient mice at baseline, those of B6 background had lower serum cholesterol levels, higher serum alkaline phosphatase levels, and larger livers. After challenge with cholate-supplemented diet, these mice exhibited higher serum alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin levels, greater weight loss and larger livers. ATP8B1-deficient phenotypes in mice of F1 and 129 backgrounds are usually similar, suggesting that susceptibility to manifestations of ATP8B1 deficiency may be recessive. We also detected differences in hepatobiliary phenotypes between wild-type mice of differing strains. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that the ATP8B1-deficient mouse in a B6 background may be a better model of human ATP8B1 deficiency and highlight the importance of informed background strain selection for mouse models of liver disease.

  13. Measuring electron-impact cross sections of water: elastic scattering and electronic excitation of the ã3B1 and Ã1B1 states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Midori; Hoshino, Masamitsu; Kato, Hidetoshi; Ferreira da Silva, Fillipe; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Here, we report elastic differential cross sections (DCSs) for electron scattering from water in the incident energy range of 2-100 eV. Furthermore, we present a complete study on the electronic excitation of the ã3B1 and Ã1B1 states at electron impact energies of 15, 20, and 30 eV and in the scattering angle range of 10° - 130°. Integral cross sections (ICSs) are determined from the DCSs. Measuring elastic DCSs in various experimental conditions confirmed the reproducibility of the data. The present results agree with the data previously obtained from a conventional collimating tube gas source. Ambiguities associated with the unfolding procedure of the electron energy loss (EEL) spectra for the electronic excitations have been reduced by comparison against the EEL spectrum at high electron impact energy and for small scattering angle. The reliability of the extracted DCSs is improved significantly for optically forbidden contributions from the overlap of the ã3B1 and Ã1B1 electronic states. The BEf-scaling model is also confirmed to produce the integral cross section for the optical allowed transition of the Ã1B1 state in the intermediate electron energy region above 15 eV.

  14. Metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and identification of the major aflatoxin B1-DNA adducts formed in cultured human bronchus and colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1979-01-01

    compared to aflatoxin B1, the binding level of benzo(a)pyrene to both bronchial and colonic DNA was generally higher. The major adducts formed in both tissues by the interaction of aflatoxin B1 and DNA were chromatographically identical to 2,3-dihydro-2-(N7-guanyl)-3-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 (Structure 1......) with the guanyl group and hydroxy group in trans-position and an adduct which has been tentatively identified by other investigators as 2,3-dihydro-2-(N5-formyl-2',5',6'-triamino-4'-oxo-N5-pyrimidyl)-3-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 (Structure 11). Seventy % of the radioactivity associated with bronchial DNA was found...... in these two peaks, and the ratio of radioactivity between the peaks was nearly 1. In colonic DNA, the ratio between Structures 1 and 11 was approximately 2. These observations add aflatoxin B1 to the list of chemical procarcinogens metabolized by cultured human tissues and in which the carcinogen-DNA adducts...

  15. Observation of B+->b_1+K0 and search for B-meson decays to b_10K0 and b_1pi0

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Bóna, M; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prencipe, E; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Garra Tico, J; Graugès-Pous, E; Lopezab, L; Palanoab, A; Pappagalloab, M; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Cahn, R N; Jacobsen, R G; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Osipenkov, I L; Ronan, M T; Tackmann, K; Tanabé, T; Hawkes, C M; Soni, N; Watson, A T; Koch, H; Schröder, T; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Barrett, M; Khan, A; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Buzykaev, A R; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Vitug, G M; Yasin, Z; Zhang, L; Sharma, V; Campagnari, C; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Wang, L; Wilson, M G; Winstrom, L O; Cheng, C H; Doll, D A; Echenard, B; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Clifton, Z C; Ford, W T; Gaz, A; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Ayad, R; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Karbach, M; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Kobel, M J; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Thiebaux, C; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Playfer, S; Watson, J E; Andreottiab, M; Bettonia, D; Bozzia, C; Calabreseab, R; Cecchiab, A; Cibinettoab, G; Franchiniab, P; Luppiab, E; Negriniab, M; Petrellaab, A; Piemontesea, L; Santoroab, V; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzoa, A; Contriab, R; Lo Vetereab, M; Macria, M M; Mongeab, M R; Passaggioa, S; Patrignaniab, C; Robuttia, E; Santroniab, A; Tosiab, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; De Nardoab, G; Listaa, L; Monorchioab, D; Onoratoab, G; Sciaccaab, C; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Nash, J A; Panduro-Vazquez, W; Tibbetts, M; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gao, Y Y; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Lae, C K; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Bquilleux, J; D'Orazio, A; Davier, M; Firminoda Costa, J; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bingham, I; Burke, J P; Chavez, C A; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; George, K A; Di Lodovico, F; Sacco, R; Sigamani, M; Cowan, G; Flächer, H U; Hopkins, D A; Paramesvaran, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Alwyn, K E; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Fisher, P H; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Zhao, M; Mclachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaroab, A; Lombardoa, V; Palomboab, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Knoepfel, K J; LoSecco, J M; Wang, W F; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Sekula, S J; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Castelliab, G; Gagliardiab, N; Margoniab, M; Morandina, M; Posoccoa, M; Rotondoa, M; Simonettoab, F; Stroiliab, R; Vociab, C; Del Amo-Sánchez, P; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; Leruste, P; Ocariz, J; Pérez, A; Prendki, J; Gladney, L; Biasiniab, M; Covarelliab, R; Manoniab, E; Angeliniab, C; Batignaniab, G; Bettariniab, S; Carpinelliab, M; Cervelliab, A; Fortiab, F; Giorgiab, M A; Lusianiac, A; Marchioriab, G; Morgantiab, M; Neriab, N; Paoloniab, E; Rizzoab, G; Walsha, J J; Biesiada, J; Lopes-Pegna, D; Lü, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Anullia, F; Baracchiniab, E; Cavotoa, G; del Reab, D; Di Marcoab, E; Facciniab, R; Ferrarottoa, F; Ferroniab, F; Gasperoab, M; Jacksona, P D; Li Gioia, L; Mazzonia, M A; Morgantia, S; Pireddaa, G; Polciab, F; Rengaab, F; Voenaa, C; Ebert, M; Hartmann, T; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Röthel, W; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; Escalier, M; Esteve, L; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Vasseur, G; Y`che, C; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, e W; Purohit, M V; White, R M; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Benitez, J F; Cenci, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Gabareen, A M; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Innes, W R; Kaminski, J; Kelsey, M H; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Lindquist, B; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; Neal, H; Nelson, S; O'Grady, C P; Ofte, I; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Vavra, J; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; West, C A; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Wulsin, H W; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Ziegler, V; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Miyashita, T S; Petersen, B A; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Zain, S B; Spanier, S M; Wogsland, B J; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Drummond, B W; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Bianchiab, F; Gambaab, D; Pelliccioniab, M; Bombenab, M; Bosisioab, L; Cartaroab, C; Della Riccaab, G; Lanceriab, L; Vitaleab, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martínez-Vidal, F; Milanes, D A; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, S; Bhuyan, B; Choi, H H F; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Lewczuk, M J; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Gershon, T J; Harrison, P F; Ilic, J; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Vuosalo, C O; Wu, S L

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of searches for decays of B mesons to final states with a b_1 meson and a neutral pion or kaon. The data, collected with the BABAR detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, represent 465 million BBbar pairs produced in e+e- annihilation. The results for the branching fractions are, in units of 1e-6, BR(B+ to b_1+K0) = 9.6+/-1.7+/-0.9, BR(B0 to b_10K0) = 5.1+/-1.8+/-0.5 (<7.8), BR(B+ to b_1+pi0) = 1.8+/-0.9+/-0.2 (<3.3), and BR(B0 to b_10pi0) = 0.4+/-0.8+/-0.2 (<1.9), with the assumption that BR(B_1 to omega pi)=1. We also measure the charge asymmetry A_ch(B+ to b_1+K0) = -0.03+/-0.15+/-0.02. The first error quoted is statistical, the second systematic, and the upper limits in parentheses indicate the 90% confidence level.

  16. The SH2B1 obesity locus and abnormal glucose homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prudente, S; Copetti, M; Morini, E

    2013-01-01

    affecting risk of obesity and insulin resistance might also modulate risk of T2D. Recently, 32 loci have been associated with body mass index (BMI) by genome-wide studies, including one locus on chromosome 16p11 containing the SH2B1 gene. Animal studies have suggested that SH2B1 is a physiological enhancer...

  17. Preparation and application of new fluorescein-labeled fumonisins B1 in fluorescence polarization analysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To prepare a new fluorescent tracer against common mycotoxins such as fumonisin B1 in order to replace 6-(4,6-Dichlorotriazinyl) aminofluorescein (6-DTAF), an expensive marker, and to develop a technique for quick detection of fumonisin B1 based on the principle of fluorescence polarizati...

  18. Tumor-specific expression of cytochrome P450 CYP1B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, G I; Taylor, M C; McFadyen, M C; McKay, J A; Greenlee, W F; Burke, M D; Melvin, W T

    1997-07-15

    Cytochrome P450 CYP1B1 is a recently cloned dioxin-inducible form of the cytochrome P450 family of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. An antibody raised against a peptide specific for CYP1B1 was found to recognize CYP1B1 expressed in human lymphoblastoid cells but not to recognize other forms of cytochrome P450, particularly CYP1A1 and CYP1A2. Using this antibody, the cellular distribution and localization of CYP1B1 were investigated by immunohistochemistry in a range of malignant tumors and corresponding normal tissues. CYP1B1 was found to be expressed at a high frequency in a wide range of human cancers of different histogenetic types, including cancers of the breast, colon, lung, esophagus, skin, lymph node, brain, and testis. There was no detectable immunostaining for CYP1B1 in normal tissues. These results provide the basis for the development of novel methods of cancer diagnosis based on the identification of CYP1B1 in tumor cells and the development of anticancer drugs that are selectively activated in tumors by CYP1B1.

  19. 26 CFR 1.666(b)-1A - Total taxes deemed distributed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total taxes deemed distributed. 1.666(b)-1A Section 1.666(b)-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Treatment of Excess Distributions of Trusts Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 §...

  20. 26 CFR 1.666(b)-1 - Total taxes deemed distributed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total taxes deemed distributed. 1.666(b)-1 Section 1.666(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Treatment of Excess Distributions of Trusts Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 §...

  1. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1B1GA-1CLMA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1B1GA-1CLMA 1B1G 1CLM A A KSPEELKGIFEKYAAK-EGDPNQLSKEELKLLLQTEFPS...-- LTEEQIAEFKEAFALFDKDGDGTITTKELGTVMRSL-----GQNPTEAELQDMINEVDADGNGTIDFPEFLSLMARKMKEQDSEEELIEAFK...SN CA 464 1CLM A 1CLMA...dbChain> 1CLMA LQDMINEVDADGN HHHHHH 2 1CLM A 1CLMA

  2. UNC93B1 mediates host resistance to infection with Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane B Melo

    Full Text Available UNC93B1 associates with Toll-Like Receptor (TLR 3, TLR7 and TLR9, mediating their translocation from the endoplasmic reticulum to the endolysosome, hence allowing proper activation by nucleic acid ligands. We found that the triple deficient '3d' mice, which lack functional UNC93B1, are hyper-susceptible to infection with Toxoplasma gondii. We established that while mounting a normal systemic pro-inflammatory response, i.e. producing abundant MCP-1, IL-6, TNFα and IFNγ, the 3d mice were unable to control parasite replication. Nevertheless, infection of reciprocal bone marrow chimeras between wild-type and 3d mice with T. gondii demonstrated a primary role of hemopoietic cell lineages in the enhanced susceptibility of UNC93B1 mutant mice. The protective role mediated by UNC93B1 to T. gondii infection was associated with impaired IL-12 responses and delayed IFNγ by spleen cells. Notably, in macrophages infected with T. gondii, UNC93B1 accumulates on the parasitophorous vacuole. Furthermore, upon in vitro infection the rate of tachyzoite replication was enhanced in non-activated macrophages carrying mutant UNC93B1 as compared to wild type gene. Strikingly, the role of UNC93B1 on intracellular parasite growth appears to be independent of TLR function. Altogether, our results reveal a critical role for UNC93B1 on induction of IL-12/IFNγ production as well as autonomous control of Toxoplasma replication by macrophages.

  3. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1DTGA-1B1XA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1DTGA-1B1XA 1DTG 1B1X A A ---KTVRWCAVSEHEATKCQSFRDHMKSVIPSDGPSVAC...VVRKSDADLTWNSLSGKKSCHTGVGRTAAWNIPMGLLFNQTGSCKFDKFFSQSCAPGADPQSSLCALCVGNNENENKCMPNSEERYYGYTGAFRCLAEKAGDVAFVKD...ndex>0 1DTG A 1DTGA A 1DTGA CQLCP-----GCGCS 2 1DTG A 1DTGA

  4. DREAM - A Novel Approach for Robust, Ultra-Fast, Multi-Slice B1 Mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nehrke, K.; Boernert, P.

    2012-01-01

    Fast and robust in vivo B1 mapping is an essential prerequisite forquantitative MRI or multi-element transmit applications like RF-shimming or accelerated multi-dimensional RF pulses. However, especially at higher field strength, the acquisition speed of current B1-mapping approaches is typicall

  5. Immunosuppressive effects of fumonisin B1 in the Trichinella spiralis model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs M de; Egmond HP van; Jong WH de; Loveren H van; LPI; ARO; MGB

    2002-01-01

    Fumonisine B1 is een mycotoxine geproduceerd door Fusarium moniliforme en wordt vooral gevonden in mais. Fumonisine B1 veroorzaakt oesophaguskanker in de mens, longoedeem in het varken en leuko-encephalomalacie in het paard. Effecten van dit mycotoxine op het immuunsysteem werden waargenomen in

  6. 26 CFR 1.802(b)-1 - Tax on life insurance companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax on life insurance companies. 1.802(b)-1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Life Insurance Companies § 1.802(b)-1 Tax on life insurance companies... August 16, 1954, section 802(b) imposes a tax on the 1954 life insurance company taxable income of...

  7. Construction and Virulence of Filamentous Hemagglutinin Protein B1 Mutant of Pasteurella multocida in Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Dong-chun; QU Lian-dong; SUN Yan; ZHANG Ai-qin; LIU Jia-sen; LU Yan; LIU Pei-xin; YUAN Dong-wei; JIANG Qian; SI Chang-de

    2014-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida, a Gram-negative nonmotile coccobacillus, is the causative agent of fowl cholera, bovine hemorrhagic septicemia, enzoonotic pneumonia and swine atropic rhinitis. Two iflamentous hemagglutinin genes, fhaB1 and fhaB2, are the potential virulence factors. In this study, an inactivation fhaB1 mutant of P. multocida in avian strain C48-102 was constructed by a kanamycin-resistance cassette. The virulence of the fhaB1 mutant and the wild type strain was assessed in chickens by intranasal and intramuscular challenge. The inactivation of fhaB1 resulted in a high degree of attenuation when the chickens were challenged intranasally and a lesser degree when challenged intramuscularly. The fhaB1 mutant and the wild type strain were investigated their sensitivity to the antibody-dependent classical complement-mediated killing pathway in 90%convalescent chicken serum. The fhaB1 mutant was serum sensitive as the viability has reduced between untreated serum and heat inactivated chicken serum (P<0.007). These results conifrmed that FhaB1 played the critical roles in the bacterial pathogenesis and further studies were needed to investigate the mechanism which caused reduced virulence of the fhaB1 mutant.

  8. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1B1ZA-2NTSA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1B1ZA-2NTSA 1B1Z 2NTS A A DPDPSQLHRSSLVKNLQNIYFLYE-GDPVTHENVKSVDQ...ELDYKVRKYLTDNKQLYTN--------------GPSKYETGYIKFIPKNKESFWFDFF-PEPEFTQSKYLMIYKDNETLDSNTSQIEVYLTT-- ...ine> 2NTS A 2NTSA 2NTS A 2NTS.../line> PHE CA 274 2NTS A 2NTS

  9. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1B1ZC-2NTSA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1B1ZC-2NTSA 1B1Z 2NTS C A DPDPSQLHRSSLVKNLQNIYFLYE-GDPVTHENVKSVDQ...ELDYKVRKYLTDNKQLYTNG--------------PSKYETGYIKFIPKNKESFWFDFFP-EPEFTQSKYLMIYKDNETLDSNTSQIEVYLTT-- ...e>THR CA 392 2NTS A 2NTS...CA 343 LYS CA 296 2NTS A 2NTS...208 PHE CA 276 THR CA 304 2NTS

  10. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1B1ZD-2NTSA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1B1ZD-2NTSA 1B1Z 2NTS D A DPDPSQLHRSSLVKNLQNIYFLYE-GDPVTHENVKSVDQ...ELDYKVRKYLTDNKQLYT--------------NGPSKYETGYIKFIPKNKESFWFDFFP-EPEFTQSKYLMIYKDNETLDSNTSQIEVYLTT-- ...R CA 395 2NTS A 2NTS... LYS CA 294 2NTS A 2NTS...e>PHE CA 282 THR CA 304 2NTS

  11. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1B1ZB-2NTSA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1B1ZB-2NTSA 1B1Z 2NTS B A DPDPSQLHRSSLVKNLQNIYFLYE-GDPVTHENVKSVDQ...ELDYKVRKYLTDNKQLYT--------------NGPSKYETGYIKFIPKNKESFWFDFF-PEPEFTQSKYLMIYKDNETLDSNTSQIEVYLTT-- ...4 2NTS A 2NTSA 2NTS A 2NTSAPHE CA 283 2NTS A 2NTS

  12. 26 CFR 1.668(b)-1A - Tax on distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax on distribution. 1.668(b)-1A Section 1.668(b... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Treatment of Excess Distributions of Trusts Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.668(b)-1A Tax on distribution. (a) In general. The partial tax imposed on...

  13. 26 CFR 1.669(b)-1A - Tax on distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax on distribution. 1.669(b)-1A Section 1.669(b... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Treatment of Excess Distributions of Trusts Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.669(b)-1A Tax on distribution. (a) In general. The partial tax imposed on...

  14. 26 CFR 1.6038B-1 - Reporting of certain transfers to foreign corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting of certain transfers to foreign corporations. 1.6038B-1 Section 1.6038B-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... either: (1) The transferor (or one or more successors) properly entered into a gain recognition...

  15. Cytochrome 450 1B1 (CYP1B1 polymorphisms associated with response to docetaxel in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price Douglas K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The selection of patients according to key genetic characteristics may help to tailor chemotherapy and optimize the treatment in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC patients. Functional polymorphisms within the cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1 gene have been associated with alterations in enzymatic expression and activity and may change sensitivity to the widely used docetaxel regimen. Methods CYP1B1 genotyping was performed on blood samples of 60 CRPC patients treated with docetaxel, using TaqMan probes-based assays. Association between CYP1B1-142C>G (leading to the 48ArgGly transition, 4326C>G (432LeuVal, and 4390A>G (453AsnSer polymorphisms and treatment response, progression-free-survival (PFS and overall-survival (OS was estimated using Pearson χ2 test, Kaplan-Meier curves and Log-rank test. Results Patients carrying the CYP1B1-432ValVal genotype experienced a significantly lower response-rate (P = 0.014, shorter progression-free-survival (P = 0.032 and overall-survival (P Conclusions CYP1B1-4326C>G (432LeuVal polymorphism emerged as possible predictive marker of response and clinical outcome to docetaxel in CRPC patients and may represent a potential new tool for treatment optimization. Larger prospective trials are warranted to validate these findings, which might be applied to the future practice of CRPC treatment.

  16. Sulfolobus Replication Factor C stimulates the activity of DNA Polymerase B1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xing, Xuanxuan; Zhang, Likui; Guo, Li;

    2014-01-01

    Replication factor C (RFC) is known to function in loading proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) onto primed DNA, allowing PCNA to tether DNA polymerase for highly processive DNA synthesis in eukaryotic and archaeal replication. In this report, we show that an RFC complex from...... with the ability of RFC to facilitate DNA binding by PolB1 through protein-protein interaction. These results suggest that Sulfolobus RFC may play a role in recruiting DNA polymerase for efficient primer extension, in addition to clamp loading, during DNA replication....... the hyperthermophilic archaea of the genus Sulfolobus physically interacts with DNA polymerase B1 (PolB1) and enhances both the polymerase and 3'-5' exonuclease activities of PolB1 in an ATP-independent manner. Stimulation of the PolB1 activity by RFC is independent of the ability of RFC to bind DNA but is consistent...

  17. Light water reactor program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franks, S.M.

    1994-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s Light Water Reactor Program is outlined. The scope of the program consists of: design certification of evolutionary plants; design, development, and design certification of simplified passive plants; first-of-a-kind engineering to achieve commercial standardization; plant lifetime improvement; and advanced reactor severe accident program. These program activities of the Office of Nuclear Energy are discussed.

  18. Space Nuclear Reactor Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, David Irvin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-06

    We needed to find a space reactor concept that could be attractive to NASA for flight and proven with a rapid turnaround, low-cost nuclear test. Heat-pipe-cooled reactors coupled to Stirling engines long identified as the easiest path to near-term, low-cost concept.

  19. Reactor Materials Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Walle, E

    2001-04-01

    The activities of the Reactor Materials Research Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) fusion, in particular mechanical testing; (2) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (3) nuclear fuel; and (4) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel (RPVS)

  20. Cytochrome P450 CYP1B1 activity in renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadyen, M C E; Melvin, W T; Murray, G I

    2004-08-31

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common malignancy of the kidney and has a poor prognosis due to its late presentation and resistance to current anticancer drugs. One mechanism of drug resistance, which is potentially amenable to therapeutic intervention, is based on studies in our laboratory. CYP1B1 is a cytochrome P450 enzyme overexpressed in a variety of malignant tumours. Our studies are now elucidating a functional role for CYP1B1 in drug resistance. Cytochrome P450 reductase (P450R) is required for optimal metabolic activity of CYP1B1. Both CYP1B1 and P450R can catalyse the biotransformation of anticancer drugs at the site of the tumour. In this investigation, we determined the expression of CYP1B1 and P450R in samples of normal kidney and RCC (11 paired normal and tumour and a further 15 tumour samples). The O-deethylation of ethoxyresorufin to resorufin was used to measure CYP1B1 activity in RCC. Cytochrome P450 reductase activity was determined by following the reduction of cytochrome c at 550 nm. The key finding of this study was the presence of active CYP1B1 in 70% of RCC. Coincubation with the CYP1B1 inhibitor alpha-naphthoflavone (10 nM) inhibited this activity. No corresponding CYP1B1 activity was detected in any of the normal tissue examined (n=11). Measurable levels of active P450R were determined in all normal (n=11) and tumour samples (n=26). The presence of detectable CYP1B1, which is capable of metabolising anticancer drugs in tumour cells, highlights a novel target for therapeutic intervention.

  1. Cyp26b1 within the growth plate regulates bone growth in juvenile mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minegishi, Yoshiki [Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, 53 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Fukui Hospital, 23-3 Matsuokashimoaizuki, Eiheiji-cho, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Department of Plastic Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Sakai, Yasuo [Department of Plastic Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Department of Plastic Surgery, Bellland General Hospital, 500-3 Higashiyama Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8247 (Japan); Yahara, Yasuhito [Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, 53 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Akiyama, Haruhiko [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagito, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Hideki [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Hosokawa, Ko [Department of Plastic Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tsumaki, Noriyuki, E-mail: ntsumaki@cira.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, 53 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan)

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • Retinoic acid and Cyp26b1 were oppositely localized in growth plate cartilage. • Cyp26b1 deletion in chondrocytes decreased bone growth in juvenile mice. • Cyp26b1 deletion reduced chondrocyte proliferation and growth plate height. • Vitamin A-depletion partially reversed growth plate abnormalities caused by Cyp26b1 deficiency. • Cyp26b1 regulates bone growth by controlling chondrocyte proliferation. - Abstract: Retinoic acid (RA) is an active metabolite of vitamin A and plays important roles in embryonic development. CYP26 enzymes degrade RA and have specific expression patterns that produce a RA gradient, which regulates the patterning of various structures in the embryo. However, it has not been addressed whether a RA gradient also exists and functions in organs after birth. We found localized RA activities in the diaphyseal portion of the growth plate cartilage were associated with the specific expression of Cyp26b1 in the epiphyseal portion in juvenile mice. To disturb the distribution of RA, we generated mice lacking Cyp26b1 specifically in chondrocytes (Cyp26b1{sup Δchon} cKO). These mice showed reduced skeletal growth in the juvenile stage. Additionally, their growth plate cartilage showed decreased proliferation rates of proliferative chondrocytes, which was associated with a reduced height in the zone of proliferative chondrocytes, and closed focally by four weeks of age, while wild-type mouse growth plates never closed. Feeding the Cyp26b1 cKO mice a vitamin A-deficient diet partially reversed these abnormalities of the growth plate cartilage. These results collectively suggest that Cyp26b1 in the growth plate regulates the proliferation rates of chondrocytes and is responsible for the normal function of the growth plate and growing bones in juvenile mice, probably by limiting the RA distribution in the growth plate proliferating zone.

  2. Key role for spinal dorsal horn microglial kinin B1 receptor in early diabetic pain neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couture Réjean

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pro-nociceptive kinin B1 receptor (B1R is upregulated on sensory C-fibres, astrocytes and microglia in the spinal cord of streptozotocin (STZ-diabetic rat. This study aims at defining the role of microglial kinin B1R in diabetic pain neuropathy. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were made diabetic with STZ (65 mg/kg, i.p., and 4 days later, two specific inhibitors of microglial cells (fluorocitrate, 1 nmol, i.t.; minocycline, 10 mg/kg, i.p. were administered to assess the impact on thermal hyperalgesia, allodynia and mRNA expression (qRT-PCR of B1R and pro-inflammatory markers. Spinal B1R binding sites ((125I-HPP-desArg10-Hoe 140 were also measured by quantitative autoradiography. Inhibition of microglia was confirmed by confocal microscopy with the specific marker Iba-1. Effects of intrathecal and/or systemic administration of B1R agonist (des-Arg9-BK and antagonists (SSR240612 and R-715 were measured on neuropathic pain manifestations. Results STZ-diabetic rats displayed significant tactile and cold allodynia compared with control rats. Intrathecal or peripheral blockade of B1R or inhibition of microglia reversed time-dependently tactile and cold allodynia in diabetic rats without affecting basal values in control rats. Microglia inhibition also abolished thermal hyperalgesia and the enhanced allodynia induced by intrathecal des-Arg9-BK without affecting hyperglycemia in STZ rats. The enhanced mRNA expression (B1R, IL-1β, TNF-α, TRPV1 and Iba-1 immunoreactivity in the STZ spinal cord were normalized by fluorocitrate or minocycline, yet B1R binding sites were reduced by 38%. Conclusion The upregulation of kinin B1R in spinal dorsal horn microglia by pro-inflammatory cytokines is proposed as a crucial mechanism in early pain neuropathy in STZ-diabetic rats.

  3. Nuclear reactor design

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on core design and methods for design and analysis. It is based on advances made in nuclear power utilization and computational methods over the past 40 years, covering core design of boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors, as well as fast reactors and high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. The objectives of this book are to help graduate and advanced undergraduate students to understand core design and analysis, and to serve as a background reference for engineers actively working in light water reactors. Methodologies for core design and analysis, together with physical descriptions, are emphasized. The book also covers coupled thermal hydraulic core calculations, plant dynamics, and safety analysis, allowing readers to understand core design in relation to plant control and safety.

  4. Status of French reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballagny, A. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Saclay (France)

    1997-08-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm{sup 3}. The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} as soon as its present stock of UO{sub 2} fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU.

  5. Structure-function relationships of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis transcription factor WhiB1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Smith

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Members of the WhiB-like (Wbl protein family possess iron-sulfur clusters and are implicated in the regulation of developmental processes in Actinomycetes. Mycobacterium tuberculosis possesses seven Wbl proteins. The [4Fe-4S] cluster of M. tuberculosis WhiB1 is relatively insensitive to O(2 but very sensitive to nitric oxide (NO. Nitric oxide nitrosylates the WhiB1 iron-sulfur cluster and promotes DNA-binding; the apo-forms of WhiB1 also bind DNA. However, the molecular requirements for iron-sulfur cluster acquisition and for DNA-binding by WhiB1 are poorly characterized. METHODS AND FINDINGS: WhiB1 variants were created by site-directed mutagenesis and the abilities of the corresponding proteins to acquire an iron-sulfur cluster and/or bind to whiB1 promoter DNA were assessed. All four Cys residues (Cys9, 37, 40, and 46 in the N-terminal region of WhiB1 were required for incorporation of a [4Fe-4S] cluster, whereas a possible alternative cluster ligand Asp13 (by analogy with M. smegmatis WhiB2 was not. The C-terminal region of WhiB1 is predicted to house the DNA-binding domain of the protein consisting of a predicted β-turn ((58GVWGG(62 followed by two amino acid motifs ((72KRRN(75 and (78TKAR(81 that are conserved in WhiB1 proteins. Gly residues (Gly58, 61 and 62 in the β-turn and positively-charged residues (Lys72, Arg73, Arg74, Lys79 and Arg81 in the downstream conserved regions were required for binding of WhiB1 DNA. CONCLUSIONS: Site-directed mutagenesis of M. tuberculosis whiB1 and characterization of the corresponding proteins has been used to explore structure-function relationships of the NO-responsive transcription factor WhiB1. This showed that all four conserved Cys residues in the N-terminal region are required for incorporation of iron-sulfur clusters but not for DNA-binding. Analysis of variants with amino acid substitutions in the C-terminal region revealed the crucial roles played by a predicted β-turn and two

  6. Interaction of vitamin B1 with bovine serum albumin investigation using vitamin B1-selective electrode: potentiometric and molecular modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Reza; Khorsandi, Khatereh

    2016-09-01

    Vitamin B1 or thiamin is one of the B vitamins. All B vitamins help the body to convert food (carbohydrates) into fuel (glucose), which produces energy. The B vitamins are necessary for healthy skin, eyes, hair, and liver. It also could help the nervous system function properly, and is necessary for brain functions. Drug interactions with protein can affect the distribution of the drug and eliminate the drug in living systems. In this study, the binding of thiamine hydrochloride (vitamin B1) to bovine serum albumin (BSA) was evaluated using a new proposed vitamin B1 (thiamine)-selective membrane electrode under various experimental conditions, such as pH, ionic strength, and protein concentration; in addition molecular modeling was applied as well. The binding isotherms plotted based on potentiometric data and analyzed using the Wyman binding potential concept. The apparent binding constant was determined and used for the calculation of intrinsic Gibbs free energy of binding. According to the electrochemical and molecular docking results, it can be concluded that the hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen binding are major interactions between BSA and vitamin B1.

  7. Pathogenesis-Related Protein 1b1 (PR1b1) Is a Major Tomato Fruit Protein Responsive to Chilling Temperature and Upregulated in High Polyamine Transgenic Genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Tahira; Topuz, Muhamet; Bernadec, Anne; Sicher, Richard; Handa, Avtar K.; Mattoo, Autar K.

    2016-01-01

    Plants execute an array of mechanisms in response to stress which include upregulation of defense-related proteins and changes in specific metabolites. Polyamines – putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), and spermine (Spm) – are metabolites commonly found associated with abiotic stresses such as chilling stress. We have generated two transgenic tomato lines (556HO and 579HO) that express yeast S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase and specifically accumulate Spd and Spm in fruits in comparison to fruits from control (556AZ) plants (Mehta et al., 2002). Tomato fruits undergo chilling injury at temperatures below 13°C. The high Spd and Spm tomato together with the control azygous line were utilized to address role(s) of polyamines in chilling-injury signaling. Exposure to chilling temperature (2°C) led to several-fold increase in the Put content in all the lines. Upon re-warming of the fruits at 20°C, the levels of Spd and Spm increased further in the fruit of the two transgenic lines, the higher levels remaining stable for 15 days after re-warming as compared to the fruit from the control line. Profiling their steady state proteins before and after re-warming highlighted a protein of ∼14 kD. Using proteomics approach, protein sequencing and immunoblotting, the ∼14-kD protein was identified as the pathogenesis related protein 1b1 (PR1b1). The PR1b1 protein accumulated transiently in the control fruit whose level was barely detectable at d 15 post-warming while in the fruit from both the 556HO and 579HO transgenic lines PR1b1 abundance increased and remained stable till d 15 post warming. PR1b1 gene transcripts were found low in the control fruit with a visible accumulation only on d 15 post warming; however, in both the transgenic lines it accumulated and increased soon after rewarming being several-fold higher on day 2 while in 556HO line this increase continued until d 6 than the control fruit. The chilling-induced increase in PR1b1 protein seems independent

  8. Determination of Aflatoxin B1 in Smokeless Tobacco Products by Use of UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitomer, Nicholas; Rybak, Michael E; Li, Zhong; Walters, Matthew J; Holman, Matthew R

    2015-10-21

    This work developed a UHPLC-MS/MS method for the detection and quantitation of aflatoxins in smokeless tobacco products, which was then used to determine aflatoxin B1 concentrations in 32 smokeless tobacco products commercially available in the United States. Smokeless tobacco products were dried, milled, and amended with (13)C17-labeled internal standards, extracted in water/methanol solution in the presence of a surfactant, isolated through use of immunoaffinity column chromatography, and reconstituted in mobile phase prior to UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. The method was capable of baseline separation of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in a 2.5 min run by use of a fused core C18 column and a water/methanol gradient. MS/MS transition (m/z) 313.3 → 241.2 was used for aflatoxin B1 quantitation, with 313.3 → 285.1 used for confirmation. The limit of detection (LOD) for aflatoxin B1 was 0.007 parts per billion (ppb). Method imprecision for aflatoxin B1 (expressed as coefficient of variation) ranged from 5.5 to 9.4%. Spike recoveries were 105-111%. Aflatoxin B1 concentrations in the smokeless tobacco products analyzed ranged from snuffs and chews, whereas all moist snuff products tested were below LOD. The amounts of aflatoxin B1 detected were low relative to the 20 ppb regulatory limit established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for foods and feeds.

  9. Schisandrin A and B induce organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 transporter activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Cheng-Xian; Deng, Sheng; Yin, Ji-Ye; Liu, Zhao-Qian; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) is the most important transporter in the organic anion transporting polypeptide family. OATP1B1 plays an important role in the hepatic uptake of many endogenous compounds and xenobiotics, including many clinical drugs. At present, the combinational usage of Chinese traditional herbal medicines and conventional chemical pharmaceuticals may affect the activity of enzymes and transporters activity and cause absorption of their substrates and metabolic changes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of schisandrin A, schisandrin B and tanshinone IIA, which were extracted from medicinal plants, on OATP1B1 activity. HepG2 cells are used as in vitro models for OATP1B1 activity studies. A combination of 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tertazolium bromide (MTT) assays, real-time RT-PCR, and transporter activity analysis were employed. We found that schisandrin A and B increased OATP1B1 mRNA levels by 1.81-fold (p Schisandrin A of 1 μM and 10 μM and schisandrin B of 10 μM significantly increased the uptake of [3H] estrone-3-sulfate (p schisandrin A and B induced OATP1B1 expression and increased its transporter activity in HepG2 cells.

  10. Spontaneous mutation 7B-1 in tomato impairs blue light-induced stomatal opening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavinka, Jan; Nauš, Jan; Fellner, Martin

    2013-08-01

    It was reported earlier that 7B-1 mutant in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), an ABA overproducer, is defective in blue light (BL) signaling leading to BL-specific resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses. In this work, we examine responses of stomata to blue, red and white lights, fusicoccin, anion channel blockers (anthracene-9-carboxylic acid; 9-AC and niflumic acid; NIF) and ABA. Our results showed that the aperture of 7B-1 stomata does not increase in BL, suggesting that 7B-1 mutation impairs an element of BL signaling pathway involved in stomatal opening. Similar stomatal responses of 7B-1 and wild type (WT) to fusicoccin or 9-AC points out that activity of H(+)-ATPase and 9-AC-sensitive anion channels per se is not likely affected by the mutation. Since 9-AC restored stomatal opening of 7B-1 in BL, it seems that 9-AC and BL could block similar type of anion channels. The stomata of both genotypes did not respond to NIF neither in darkness nor in any light conditions tested. In light, 9-AC but not NIF restored stomatal opening inhibited by ABA in WT and 7B-1. We suggest that in comparison to WT, the activity of S-type anion channels in 7B-1 is more promoted by increased ABA content, and less reduced by BL, because of the mutant resistance to BL.

  11. 1 Cases of Allergic Shock Induced by Vitamin B1%维生素B1致过敏性休克1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾春燕; 贾春娟; 李延龙

    2014-01-01

    维生素B1是多种酶系统的辅酶,由此通常在临床消化系统疾病和神经损伤方面应用,维生素B1可以有效的促进消化系统功能正常协调,在临床治疗中起到辅助治疗的作用。但是在临床应用中,我们应该采用肌肉注射,因为静脉注射会发生过敏,甚至由于个体不同会发生休克或更严重导致死亡,由此在维生素B1用药过程中,一定要避免医疗事故的发生,在进行肌肉注射时应先皮试,皮试结果为阴性时再进行用药。对于维生素B1的应用我们要谨慎,在用药前一定要做好对患者各项生命体征的检测和观察,严谨用药程序,减少医疗纠纷的发生。并且在用药期间,护理人员一定要做好巡查工作,发现不良反映,应及时处理并向医生反映,并要向患者交代清楚维生素B1的禁忌和注意事项,确保用药的安全性。%Vitamin B1 enzymes system, which usual y in clinical diseases of digestive system and nerve injury, vitamin B1 can promote digestive system normal coordinate ef ective, play the role of adjuvant therapy in clinical treatment. But in practice, we should adopt the intramuscular injection, intravenous injection of al ergy occurs because, even because of dif erent individual wil shock or a more serious cause death, resulting in the process of vitamin B1 medication, must avoid medical accidents, should first skin test in intramuscular injection, skin test result is negative in medicine.The application of vitamin B1 we need to be cautious, before administration must do the detection and observation of the patient vital signs, rigorous treatment procedures, reduce medical disputes.And during the treatment, the nursing staf must do inspections, found adverse reactions, should be promptly dealt with and to reflect the doctor, and to explain clearly to the patient of vitamin B1 taboos and mat ers needing at ention, to ensure the safety of drug use.

  12. Drug-drug interactions between rosuvastatin and oral antidiabetic drugs occurring at the level of oatp1b1s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeg, E. van de; Greupink, R.; Schreurs, M.; Nooijen, I.H.G.; Verhoeck, K.C.M.; Hanemaaijer, R.; Ripken, D.; Monshouwer, M.; Vlaming, M.L.H.; DeGroot, J.; Verwei, M.; Russel, F.G.M.; Huisman, M.T.; Wortelboer, H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) is an important hepatic uptake transporter, of which the polymorphic variant OATP1B1*15 (Asn130Asp and Val174Ala) has been associated with decreased transport activity. Rosuvastatin is an OATP1B1 substrate and often concomitantly prescribed with o

  13. Spatiotemporal Expression Patterns and Antibody Reactivity of Taeniidae Endophilin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Chun-Seob; Bae, Young-An; Kim, Seon-Hee; Kim, Jeong-Geun; Yu, Jae-Ran; Yang, Hyun-Jong; Eom, Keeseon S; Wang, Hu; Kang, Insug; Yang, Yichao; Kong, Yoon

    2016-10-01

    Larval Taeniidae, such as metacestodes of Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus, and Echinococcus multilocularis, produce chronic and fatal helminthic diseases. Proper identification of these zoonotic cestodiases is often challenging and is hampered in some clinical settings. Endophilin B1 plays critical roles in the maintenance of membrane contours and endocytosis. We isolated proteins homologous to endophilin B1 from T. solium, Taenia saginata, and Taenia asiatica The three Taeniidae endophilin B1 proteins shared 92.9 to 96.6% sequence identity. They harbored a Bin1/amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain and residues for a dimeric interface but lacked a SRC homology 3 (SH3) domain. Endophilin B1 showed a unique immunological profile and was abundantly expressed in the tegumental syncytium of Taeniidae metacestodes and adults. Bacterially expressed recombinant T. solium endophilin B1 (rTsMEndoB1) demonstrated a sensitivity of 79.7% (345/433 cases) for serodiagnosis of larval Taeniidae infections. The protein showed strong immune recognition patterns against sera from patients with chronic neurocysticercosis, cystic echinococcosis, or advanced-stage alveolar echinococcosis. Adult Taeniidae infections exhibited moderate degrees of positive antibody responses (65.7% [23/35 samples]). rTsMEndoB1 showed some cross-reactivity with sera from patients infected with Diphyllobothriidae (23.6% [25/106 samples]) but not with sera from patients with other parasitic diseases or normal controls. The specificity was 91.7% (256/301 samples). The positive and negative predictive values were 93.6% and 73.4%, respectively. Our results demonstrate that Taeniidae endophilin B1 may be involved in the control of membrane dynamics, thus contributing to shaping and maintaining the tegumental curvature. rTsMEndoB1 may be useful for large-scale screening, as well as for individual diagnosis and follow-up surveillance of Taeniidae infections.

  14. SF3B1 haploinsufficiency leads to formation of ring sideroblasts in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconte, Valeria; Rogers, Heesun J; Singh, Jarnail; Barnard, John; Bupathi, Manoj; Traina, Fabiola; McMahon, James; Makishima, Hideki; Szpurka, Hadrian; Jankowska, Anna; Jerez, Andres; Sekeres, Mikkael A; Saunthararajah, Yogen; Advani, Anjali S; Copelan, Edward; Koseki, Haruhiko; Isono, Kyoichi; Padgett, Richard A; Osman, Sami; Koide, Kazunori; O'Keefe, Christine; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P; Tiu, Ramon V

    2012-10-18

    Whole exome/genome sequencing has been fundamental in the identification of somatic mutations in the spliceosome machinery in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) and other hematologic disorders. SF3B1, splicing factor 3b subunit 1 is mutated in 60%-80% of refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts (RARS) and RARS associated with thrombocytosis (RARS-T), 2 distinct subtypes of MDS and MDS/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDSs/MPNs). An idiosyncratic feature of RARS/RARS-T is the presence of abnormal sideroblasts characterized by iron overload in the mitochondria, called RS. Based on the high frequency of mutations of SF3B1 in RARS/RARS-T, we investigated the consequences of SF3B1 alterations. Ultrastructurally, SF3B1 mutants showed altered iron distribution characterized by coarse iron deposits compared with wild-type RARS patients by transmission electron microscopy. SF3B1 knockdown experiments in K562 cells resulted in down-regulation of U2-type intron-splicing by RT-PCR. RNA-sequencing analysis of SF3B1 mutants showed differentially used genes relevant in MDS pathogenesis, such as ASXL1, CBL, EZH, and RUNX families. A SF3B pharmacologic inhibitor, meayamycin, induced the formation of RS in healthy BM cells. Further, BM aspirates of Sf3b1 heterozygous knockout mice showed RS by Prussian blue. In conclusion, we report the first experimental evidence of the association between SF3B1 and RS phenotype. Our data suggest that SF3B1 haploinsufficiency leads to RS formation.

  15. SH2B1 regulation of energy balance, body weight, and glucose metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangyou; Rui

    2014-01-01

    The Src homology 2B(SH2B)family members(SH2B1,SH2B2 and SH2B3)are adaptor signaling proteins containing characteristic SH2 and PH domains.SH2B1(also called SH2-B and PSM)and SH2B2(also called APS)are able to form homo-or hetero-dimers via their N-terminal dimerization domains.Their C-terminal SH2 domains bind to tyrosyl phosphorylated proteins,including Janus kinase 2(JAK2),TrkA,insulin receptors,insulin-like growth factor-1 receptors,insulin receptor substrate-1(IRS1),and IRS2.SH2B1 enhances leptin signaling by both stimulating JAK2 activity and assembling a JAK2/IRS1/2 signaling complex.SH2B1 promotes insulin signaling by both enhancing insulin receptor catalytic activity and protecting against dephosphorylation of IRS proteins.Accordingly,genetic deletion of SH2B1 results in severe leptin resistance,insulin resistance,hyperphagia,obesity,and type 2 diabetes in mice.Neuronspecific overexpression of SH2B1βtransgenes protects against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.SH2B1 in pancreaticβcells promotesβcell expansion and insulin secretion to counteract insulin resistance in obesity.Moreover,numerous SH2B1 mutations are genetically linked to leptin resistance,insulin resistance,obesity,and type 2 diabetes in humans.Unlike SH2B1,SH2B2 and SH2B3 are not required for the maintenance of normal energy and glucose homeostasis.The metabolic function of the SH2B family is conserved from insects to humans.

  16. Slurry reactor design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Akgerman, A. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA)); Smith, J.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  17. Genetic variation of Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) and risk of breast cancer among Polish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudet, Mia M; Chanock, Stephen; Lissowska, Jolanta; Berndt, Sonja I; Yang, Xiaohong Rose; Peplonska, Beata; Brinton, Louise A; Welch, Robert; Yeager, Meredith; Bardin-Mikolajczak, Alicja; Sherman, Mark E; Sutter, Thomas R; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat

    2006-08-01

    Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP1B1 (Ex2 + 143 C > G, Ex2 + 356 G > T, Ex3 + 251 G > C, Ex3 + 315 A > G) cause amino acid changes (R48G, A119S, L432V and N453S, respectively) and are associated with increased formation of catechol estrogens; however, epidemiologic evidence only weakly supports an association between these variants and breast cancer risk. Because genetic variability conferring increased susceptibility could exist beyond these putative functional variants, we comprehensively examined the common genetic variability within CYP1B1. A total of eight haplotype-tagging (ht)SNPs (including Ex3 + 315 A > G), in addition to two putatively functional SNPs (Ex2 + 143 C > G and Ex3 + 251 G > C), were selected and genotyped in a large case-control study of Polish women (1995 cases and 2296 controls). Haplotypes were estimated using the expectation-maximization algorithm, and overall differences in the haplotype distribution between cases and controls were assessed using a global score test. We also evaluated levels of tumor CYP1B1 protein expression in a subset of 841 cases by immunohistochemistry, and their association with genetic variants. In the Polish population, we observed two linkage disequilibrium (LD)-defined blocks. Neither haplotypes (global P-value of 0.99 and 0.67 for each block of LD, respectively), nor individual SNPs (including three putatively functional SNPs) were associated with breast cancer risk. CYP1B1 was expressed in most tumor tissues (98%), and the level of expression was not related to the studied genetic variants. We found little evidence for modification of the estimated effect of haplotypes or individual SNPs by age, family history of breast cancer, or tumor hormone receptor status. The present study provides strong evidence against the existence of a substantial overall association between common genetic variation in CYP1B1 and breast cancer risk.

  18. Association between CYP1B1 Gene Polymorphisms and Risk Factors and Susceptibility to Laryngeal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Peng-Ju; Chen, Wei-Guan; Feng, Quan-Lin; Chen, Wei; Jiang, Man-Jie; Li, Ze-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the association between polymorphism of the cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) gene, a metabolic enzyme gene, and the susceptibility to laryngeal cancer among the Chinese Han population. Material/Methods In a case-control study, we investigated polymorphisms in the CYP1B1 gene (rs10012, rs1056827, and rs1056836) with a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay (TaqMan). The study was conducted with 300 Chinese Han patients with ...

  19. The capsular polysaccharide Vi from Salmonella Typhi is a B1b antigen

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Jennifer L.; Flores-Langarica, Adriana; Kingsley, Robert A.; Hitchcock, Jessica R; Ross, Ewan A.; Lopez-Macias, Constantino; Lakey, Jeremy; Martin, Laura B; Toellner, Kai-michael; MacLennan, Calman A.; MacLennan, Ian C; Henderson, Ian R.; Dougan, Gordon; Cunningham, Adam F.

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination with purified capsular polysaccharide Vi antigen from Salmonella Typhi can protect against typhoid fever, although the mechanism for its efficacy is not clearly established. Here, we have characterised the B cell response to this vaccine in wild-type and T cell-deficient mice. We show that immunization with Typhim Vi rapidly induces proliferation in B1b peritoneal cells, but not in B1a cells or marginal zone (MZ) B cells. This induction of B1b proliferation is concomitant with the...

  20. Use of gamma irradiation to prevent aflatoxin B 1 production in smoked dried fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbadu, G. H.

    Smoked dried fish bought from the Nigerian market was inoculated with spores of barAspergillus flavus (U.I. 81) and irradiated with doses of 0.625, 1.25, 2.50 and 5.00 KGy gamma irradiation. The effect of aflatoxin B 1 production on subsequent incubation for 8 days as stationary cultures was measured. The amount of aflatoxin B 1 produced was found to decrease with increased gamma irradiation dose levels. While the non-irradiated control produced significantly (at 1% level) greater amounts of aflatoxin B 1 as compared to the treated cultures.

  1. Early onset of puberty and early ovarian failure in CYP7B1 knockout mice

    OpenAIRE

    Omoto, Yoko; Lathe, Richard; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2005-01-01

    CYP7B1 is the enzyme responsible for hydroxylation and termination of the estrogenic actions of the androgen metabolite, 5α-androstane-3β, 17β-diol (3βAdiol). 3βAdiol is estrogenic in ERα or ERβ positive cells only if they do not express CYP7B1. In this study we show that female CYP7B1–/– mice experience early onset of growth of the uterus and mammary glands and commence estrus cycles 2 days earlier than their wild-type littermates. Adult mammary glands and uteri appear to be under continuous...

  2. Search for eta_b(1S) in Inclusive Radiative Decays of the Upsilon(3S)

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmood, A H; Danko, I; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; McGee, S; Bornheim, A; Lipeles, E; Pappas, S P; Shapiro, A; Sun, W M; Weinstein, A J; Mahapatra, R; Briere, R A; Chen, G P; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G T; Vogel, H; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Berkelman, K; Boisvert, V; Cassel, David G; Drell, P S; Duboscq, J E; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gittelman, B; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hsu, L; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Magerkurth, A; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Meyer, T O; Mistry, N B; Nordberg, E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Pivarski, J; Riley, D; Sadoff, A J; Schwarthoff, H; Shepherd, M R; Thayer, J G; Urner, D; Viehhauser, G; Warburton, A; Weinberger, M; Athar, S B; Avery, P; Breva-Newell, L; Potlia, V; Stöck, H; Yelton, J; Brandenburg, G; Kim, D Y J; Wilson, R; Benslama, K; Eisenstein, B I; Ernst, J; Gollin, G D; Hans, R M; Karliner, I; Lowrey, N; Plager, C; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; Thaler, J J; Williams, J; Edwards, K W; Ammar, R; Besson, D; Zhao, X; Anderson, S; Frolov, V V; Kubota, Y; Lee, S J; Li, S Z; Poling, R A; Smith, A; Stepaniak, C J; Urheim, J; Metreveli, Z V; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A G; Zweber, P; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Jian, L; Saleem, M; Wappler, F; Eckhart, E; Gan, K K; Gwon, C; Hart, T; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pedlar, T K; Thayer, J B; Von Törne, E; Wilksen, T; Zoeller, M M; Muramatsu, H; Richichi, S J; Severini, H; Skubic, P L; Dytman, S A; Müller, J A; Nam, S; Savinov, V; Chen, S; Hinson, J W; Lee, J; Miller, D H; Pavlunin, V; Shibata, E I; Shipsey, I P J; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Lyon, A L; Park, C S; Park, W; Thorndike, E H; Coan, T E; Gao, Y S; Liu, F; Maravin, Y; Stroynowski, R; Artuso, M; Boulahouache, C; Bukin, K; Dambasuren, E; Khroustalev, K; Mountain, R; Nandakumar, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C

    2002-01-01

    We have searched for the bottomonium eta_b(1S) via the hindered magnetic dipole (M1) photon transition Upsilon(3S) -> gamma eta_b(1S). No evidence for such a transition is found in the data sample of 4.7 x 10^6 Upsilon(3S)'s collected with the CLEO-III detector. We set upper limits on the branching ratio from 9.30 to 9.43 GeV/c^2 of eta_b(1S) masses. These upper limits rule out many previously published phenomenological estimates of the rate for this transition.

  3. CYP1B1 Mutations in Individuals With Primary Congenital Glaucoma and Residing in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønskov, Karen; Redó-Riveiro, Alba; Sandfeld, Lisbeth;

    2016-01-01

    Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG OMIM 231300) can be caused by pathogenic sequence variations in cytochrome P450, subfamily 1, polypeptide 1 (CYP1B1). The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of sequence variations in CYP1B1 in a cohort of individuals with PCG residing...... mutations, 5 of which were novel. The frequency of CYP1B1 mutations in this cohort was comparable with other populations. We also detected an individual heterozygous for p.(Tyr81Asn) mutation, previously suggested to cause autosomal dominant primary open-angle glaucoma....

  4. Gas cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-06-01

    Although most of the development work on fast breeder reactors has been devoted to the use of liquid metal cooling, interest has been expressed for a number of years in alternative breeder concepts using other coolants. One of a number of concepts in which interest has been retained is the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR). As presently envisioned, it would operate on the uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel cycle, similar to that used in the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR), and would use helium gas as the coolant.

  5. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, Ralph G [Champaign, IL; Mitrovski, Svetlana M [Urbana, IL

    2011-03-22

    A microfluidic electrochemical reactor includes an electrode and one or more microfluidic channels on the electrode, where the microfluidic channels are covered with a membrane containing a gas permeable polymer. The distance between the electrode and the membrane is less than 500 micrometers. The microfluidic electrochemical reactor can provide for increased reaction rates in electrochemical reactions using a gaseous reactant, as compared to conventional electrochemical cells. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors can be incorporated into devices for applications such as fuel cells, electrochemical analysis, microfluidic actuation, pH gradient formation.

  6. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

  7. Observation and Properties of L=1 B_1 and B_2* Mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Abazov, V M; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguiló, E; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Assis-Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, P; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benítez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Berntzon, L; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Biscarat, C; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Böhnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chan, K; Chandra, A; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clément, C; Clement, B; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M C; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; Da Motta, H; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; De Jong, S J; de Jong, P; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Ford, M; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; García, C; García-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Gelé, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, P; Grivaz, J F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, J; Guo, F; Gutíerrez, P; Gutíerrez, G; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Hansson, P; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Käfer, D; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J R; Kalk, J M; Kappler, S; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Kasper, P; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A I; Kharzheev, Yu M; Khatidze, D; Kim, H; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J P; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kothari, B; Kozelov, A V; Krop, D; Kryemadhi, A; Kühl, T; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G L; Lazoflores, J; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Lellouch, J; Lesne, V; Lévêque, J; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Li, L; Lietti, S M; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajícek, M; Lounis, A; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; Melnitchouk, A; Mendes, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, J; Meyer, A; Michaut, M; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Oteroy-Garzon, G J; Owen, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perea, P M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Petroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M E; Polozov, P; Pompo, A; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S D; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Rani, K J; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F K; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A F S; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, A D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schliephake, T; Schmitt, C; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Sen-Gupta, S; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Shpakov, D; Siccardi, V; Simák, V; Sirotenko, V I; Skubic, P L; Slattery, P F; Smirnov, D; Smith, R P; Snow, J; Snow, G R; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Strauss, E; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tomoto, M; Toole, T; Torchiani, I; Trefzger, T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, S; Uvarov, L; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; Van den Berg, P J; van Eijk, B; Van Kooten, R; Van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vartapetian, A H; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Séguier, F; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Von Törne, E; Voutilainen, M; Vreeswijk, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; Wang, M H L; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Weber, G; Weerts, H; Wenger, A; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Williams, M R J; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Yu, C; Yurkewicz, A; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, D; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2007-01-01

    Excited B mesons B_1 and B_2* are observed directly for the first time as two separate states in fully reconstructed decays to B+(*) pi-. The mass of B_1 is measured to be (5720.6 +- 2.4 +- 1.4) MeV/c^2 and the mass difference DeltaM between B_2* and B_1 is (26.2 +- 3.1 +- 0.9) MeV/c^2, giving the mass of the B_2* as (5746.8 +- 2.4 +- 1.7) MeV/c^2. The production rate for B_1 and B_2* mesons is determined to be a fraction (13.9 +- 1.9 +- 3.2)% of the production rate of the B+ meson.

  8. Biotransformation of aflatoxin B1 and its conjugated metabolites by rat gastrointestinal microfloras.

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    Rat cecal microflora from high- and low-fiber-fed animals hydrolyzed aflatoxin conjugates to metabolites indistinguishable from aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin P1, but aflatoxicol was not a transformation product.

  9. Total synthesis and stereochemical confirmation of manassantin A, B, and B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanessian, Stephen; Reddy, Gone Jayapal; Chahal, Navjot

    2006-11-23

    Stereocontrolled total syntheses of manassantins A, B, and B1 and saucerneol are described for the first time based on a novel cycloetherification of end-differentiated benzylic alcohols as a common intermediate. [structure: see text].

  10. The impact of SF3B1 mutations in CLL on the DNA-damage response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Te Raa, G D; Derks, I A M; Navrkalova, V;

    2015-01-01

    Mutations or deletions in TP53 or ATM are well-known determinants of poor prognosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), but only account for approximately 40% of chemo-resistant patients. Genome-wide sequencing has uncovered novel mutations in the splicing factor sf3b1, that were in part...... associated with ATM aberrations, suggesting functional synergy. We first performed detailed genetic analyses in a CLL cohort (n=110) containing ATM, SF3B1 and TP53 gene defects. Next, we applied a newly developed multiplex assay for p53/ATM target gene induction and measured apoptotic responses to DNA damage....... Interestingly, SF3B1 mutated samples without concurrent ATM and TP53 aberrations (sole SF3B1) displayed partially defective ATM/p53 transcriptional and apoptotic responses to various DNA-damaging regimens. In contrast, NOTCH1 or K/N-RAS mutated CLL displayed normal responses in p53/ATM target gene induction...

  11. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1DJ2B-1ADIA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1DJ2B-1ADIA 1DJ2 1ADI B A IGSLSQVSGVLGCQWGDEGKGKLVDILAQHFDIVARCQG...LLSEACPLILDYHVALDNAREKARGAKAIGTTGRGIGPAYEDKVARRGLRVGDLFDKETFAEKLKEVMEYHNFQLVNYYKAEAVDYQKVLDDTMAVADI...5 PHE CA 263 LYS CA 227 TYR CA 251 1ADI... A 1ADIA 1 1ADI A 1ADI

  12. Immunohistochemical localization of TGF-B1 during morphogenetic movements of the developing mouse palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J M; Robinson, R A; Solursh, M

    1991-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-B1) may play an important role in developmentally active tissues in which it is found in high concentrations. We localized TGF-B1 in the developing fetal mouse palate immunohistochemically using a polyclonal antibody. Mouse fetal palates at 12-17 days (inclusive) of gestation were examined and specific focal concentrations of TGF-B1 identified regions undergoing active morphogenesis. The association of TGF-B1 with aggregates of mesenchymal cells in the palate and chondroblasts, rhabdomyocytes, and epithelia of the craniofacial complex strongly implicates its role in proliferation and differentiation in the developing mouse palate. We believe these findings have important bearing on the normal development of the palate as well as cleft anomalies.

  13. An Overview of B-1 Cells as Antigen-Presenting Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popi, Ana F.; Longo-Maugéri, Ieda M.; Mariano, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The role of B cells as antigen-presenting cells (APCs) has been extensively studied, mainly in relation to the activation of memory T cells. Considering the B cell subtypes, the role of B-1 cells as APCs is beginning to be explored. Initially, it was described that B-1 cells are activated preferentially by T-independent antigens. However, some reports demonstrated that these cells are also involved in a T-dependent response. The aim of this review is to summarize information about the ability of B-1 cells to play a role as APCs and to briefly discuss the role of the BCR and toll-like receptor signals in this process. Furthermore, some characteristics of B-1 cells, such as natural IgM production and phagocytic ability, could interfere in the participation of these cells in the onset of an adaptive response. PMID:27148259

  14. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1CB4B-1FUNF [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1CB4B-1FUNF 1CB4 1FUN B F ATKAVCVLKGDGPVQGTIHFEAKG--DTVVVTGSITGLT...VIGIAK ATKAVAVLKGDGPVQGIINFEQKESNGPVKVWGSIKGLTEGLHGFHVHEFGDNTAGCTSAGPHFNPLSRKHGGPKDEERHVGDLGNVT...E EEEEEEEE GGG EEEEE EEEEEEE EEEEE HHHH EEEEEEE EVID> 01FUN F 1FUNF FEQKESNGPVKV

  15. MISR Level 1B1 Local Mode Radiance Data V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the Local Mode Level 1B1 Product containing the DNs radiometrically scaled to radiances with no geometric resampling (Suggested Usage: The MISR Instrument...

  16. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P

    2001-04-01

    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is still one of SCK-CEN's important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. During the last three years, the availability of the installation was maintained at an average level of 97.6 percent. In the year 2000, the reactor was operated for a total of 104 days at a mean power of 56 MW. In 2000, most irradiation experiments were performed in the CALLISTO PWR loop. The report describes irradiations achieved or under preparation in 2000, including the development of advanced facilities and concept studies for new programmes. An overview of the scientific irradiation programmes as well as of the R and D programme of the BR2 reactor in 2000 is given.

  17. Reactor Neutrino Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, A C

    2016-01-01

    We present a review of the antineutrino spectra emitted from reactors. Knowledge of these and their associated uncertainties are crucial for neutrino oscillation studies. The spectra used to-date have been determined by either conversion of measured electron spectra to antineutrino spectra or by summing over all of the thousands of transitions that makeup the spectra using modern databases as input. The uncertainties in the subdominant corrections to beta-decay plague both methods, and we provide estimates of these uncertainties. Improving on current knowledge of the antineutrino spectra from reactors will require new experiments. Such experiments would also address the so-called reactor neutrino anomaly and the possible origin of the shoulder observed in the antineutrino spectra measured in recent high-statistics reactor neutrino experiments.

  18. New reactor type proposed

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Russian scientists at the Research Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering in Moscow are hoping to develop a new reactor that will use lead and bismuth as fuel instead of uranium and plutonium" (1/2 page).

  19. Variant alleles of the CYP1B1 gene are associated with colorectal cancer susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    Trubicka Joanna; Grabowska-Kłujszo Ewa; Suchy Janina; Masojć Bartłomiej; Serrano-Fernandez Pablo; Kurzawski Grzegorz; Cybulski Cezary; Górski Bohdan; Huzarski Tomasz; Byrski Tomasz; Gronwald Jacek; Złowocka Elżbieta; Kładny Józef; Banaszkiewicz Zbigniew; Wiśniowski Rafał

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background CYP1B1 is a P450 enzyme which is involved in the activation of pro-carcinogens to carcinogens as well as sex hormone metabolism. Because differences in the activity of the enzyme have been correlated with variant alleles of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), it represents an attractive candidate gene for studies into colorectal cancer susceptibility. Methods We genotyped 597 cancer patients and 597controls for three CYP1B1 SNPs, which have previously been shown to be ...

  20. Plexin B1 inhibits MET through direct association and regulates Shp2 expression in melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, Joanne; Scott, Glynis

    2013-01-15

    Plexin B1, the receptor for Semaphorin 4D (Sema4D), is expressed by melanocytes in the skin. We recently showed that Sema4D suppresses activation of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor, MET, in melanocytes, and that knockdown of Plexin B1 results in activation of MET. MET signaling mediates proliferation, survival and migration in melanocytes, and its activation is associated with transformation of melanocytes to melanoma. In this report we investigated the mechanism by which Plexin B1 inhibits MET activation. Our results show that Plexin B1 and MET exist as an oligomeric receptor-receptor complex in melanocytes, and that receptor association is increased by Sema4D. MET and Plexin B1 receptor complexes were identified along the cell body of melanocytes, and Sema4D increased receptor association on dendrites, suggesting that Sema4D regulates MET-dependent processes at precise locations on the melanocyte. Despite activation of MET, Plexin B1 knockdowns proliferated slowly and showed increased apoptosis compared with controls. Shp2, a non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase, translates growth and survival signals from MET and other receptor tyrosine kinases. Plexin B1 knockdowns had markedly lower levels of Shp2 compared with controls, and Sema4D upregulated Shp2 expression at the protein and message level in normal melanocytes. Functional studies showed that blockade of Shp2 activity abrogated MET-dependent activation of Erk1/Erk2 and Akt in melanocytes. These results suggest a complex role for Sema4D and Plexin B1 in orchestrating signaling from the MET receptor in melanocytes. Because Shp2 is a downstream adaptor protein for multiple receptors, Sema4D may control the effects of several growth factors on melanocytes through regulation of Shp2.

  1. Evidence for altered osteoclastogenesis in splenocyte cultures from Cyp27b1 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Daniel C; Kogawa, Masakazu; Barratt, Kate R; Morris, Howard A; Anderson, Paul H; Atkins, Gerald J

    2016-11-01

    The association between increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25D) and reduced osteoclastic bone resorption is well known. Previously, we have demonstrated that mechanism by which this occurs, may include the conversion of 25D to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) by osteoclasts, catalysed by the CYP27B1 enzyme. Local 1,25D synthesis in osteoclasts was shown to regulate osteoclastogenesis and moderating resorptive activity. Thus, we hypothesised that osteoclasts differentiated from mice with global deletion of the Cyp27b1 gene (Cyp27b1 KO) would display enhanced resorptive capacity due to the lack of an ameliorating effect of 1,25D. Splenocytes isolated from Cyp27b1 KO mice or their wild-type (WT) littermates between 6 and 8 weeks of age were cultured under osteoclast-forming conditions for up to 14 days. Osteoclast formation was measured by staining for the osteoclast marker tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). Bone resorption activity was measured by plating the cells on a bone-like substrate. In Cyp27b1 KO cultures, osteoclastogenesis was reduced, as indicated by fewer TRAP-positive multinucleated cells at all time points measured (p<0.05) when compared to wild-type (WT) levels. However, Cyp27b1 KO osteoclasts demonstrated greater resorption on a per cell basis than their WT counterparts (p<0.03). In addition, the ratio of expression of the pro-apoptotic gene Bax to the pro-survival gene Bcl-2 was decreased in Cyp27b1 KO cultures, implying that these smaller osteoclasts survive longer than WT osteoclasts. Our data indicate abnormal osteoclastogenesis due to the absence of CYP27B1 expression, consistent with the notion that endogenous metabolism of 25D optimises osteoclastogenesis and ameliorates the resulting activity of mature osteoclasts.

  2. Role of CYP1B1 in PAH-DNA adduct formation and breast cancer risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goth-Goldstein, Regine; Russell, Marion L.; Muller, A.P.; Caleffi, M.; Eschiletti, J.; Graudenz, M.; Sohn, Michael D.

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that increased exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) increases breast cancer risk. PAHs are products of incomplete burning of organic matter and are present in cigarette smoke, ambient air, drinking water, and diet. PAHs require metabolic transformation to bind to DNA, causing DNA adducts, which can lead to mutations and are thought to be an important pre-cancer marker. In breast tissue, PAHs appear to be metabolized to their cancer-causing form primarily by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1B1. Because the genotoxic impact of PAH depends on their metabolism, we hypothesized that high CYP1B1 enzyme levels result in increased formation of PAH-DNA adducts in breast tissue, leading to increased development of breast cancer. We have investigated molecular mechanisms of the relationship between PAH exposure, CYP1B1 expression and breast cancer risk in a clinic-based case-control study. We collected histologically normal breast tissue from 56 women (43 cases and 13 controls) undergoing breast surgery and analyzed these specimens for CYP1B1 genotype, PAH-DNA adducts and CYP1B1 gene expression. We did not detect any difference in aromatic DNA adduct levels of cases and controls, only between smokers and non-smokers. CYP1B1 transcript levels were slightly lower in controls than cases, but the difference was not statistically significant. We found no correlation between the levels of CYP1B1 expression and DNA adducts. If CYP1B1 has any role in breast cancer etiology it might be through its metabolism of estrogen rather than its metabolism of PAHs. However, due to the lack of statistical power these results should be interpreted with caution.

  3. Helias reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beidler, C.D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Grieger, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Harmeyer, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Kisslinger, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Karulin, N. [Nuclear Fusion Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Maurer, W. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany); Nuehrenberg, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Rau, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Sapper, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Wobig, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    1995-10-01

    The present status of Helias reactor studies is characterised by the identification and investigation of specific issues which result from the particular properties of this type of stellarator. On the technical side these are issues related to the coil system, while physics studies have concentrated on confinement, alpha-particle behaviour and ignition conditions. The usual assumptions have been made in those fields which are common to all toroidal fusion reactors: blanket and shield, refuelling and exhaust, safety and economic aspects. For blanket and shield sufficient space has been provided, a detailed concept will be developed in future. To date more emphasis has been placed on scoping and parameter studies as opposed to fixing a specific set of parameters and providing a detailed point study. One result of the Helias reactor studies is that physical dimensions are on the same order as those of tokamak reactors. However, it should be noticed that this comparison is difficult in view of the large spectrum of tokamak reactors ranging from a small reactor like Aries, to a large device such as SEAFP. The notion that the large aspect ratio of 10 or more in Helias configurations also leads to large reactors is misleading, since the large major radius of 22 m is compensated by the average plasma radius of 1.8 m and the average coil radius of 5 m. The plasma volume of 1400 m{sup 3} is about the same as the ITER reactor and the magnetic energy of the coil system is about the same or even slightly smaller than envisaged in ITER. (orig.)

  4. Future Reactor Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    He, Miao

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ opens a gateway for the next generation experiments to measure the neutrino mass hierarchy and the leptonic CP-violating phase. Future reactor experiments will focus on mass hierarchy determination and the precision measurement of mixing parameters. Mass hierarchy can be determined from the disappearance of reactor electron antineutrinos based on the interference effect of two separated oscillation modes. Relative and absolute measure...

  5. Reactor Neutrino Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Jun

    2007-01-01

    Precisely measuring $\\theta_{13}$ is one of the highest priority in neutrino oscillation study. Reactor experiments can cleanly determine $\\theta_{13}$. Past reactor neutrino experiments are reviewed and status of next precision $\\theta_{13}$ experiments are presented. Daya Bay is designed to measure $\\sin^22\\theta_{13}$ to better than 0.01 and Double Chooz and RENO are designed to measure it to 0.02-0.03. All are heading to full operation in 2010. Recent improvements in neutrino moment measu...

  6. Department of Reactor Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde

    The general development of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risø during 1981 is presented, and the activities within the major subject fields are described in some detail. Lists of staff, publications, and computer programs are included.......The general development of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risø during 1981 is presented, and the activities within the major subject fields are described in some detail. Lists of staff, publications, and computer programs are included....

  7. Toxicity of aflatoxin B1 towards the vitamin D receptor (VDR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Paola; Santini, Antonello; Fattore, Luigi; Novellino, Ettore; Ritieni, Alberto

    2015-02-01

    This research describes an unexpected toxicity of the aflatoxin B1 towards the vitamin D receptors. Rickets is a childhood disease, and calcium deficiency is the aetiological cause in Africa, being primarily associated with nutritional problems; in this research the contribution of aflatoxin B1 exposure during the early months of life is an interesting factor to deepen in order to prevent liver damages or the development of rickets. The results show that the expression of vitamin D receptor in osteosarcoma cell line SAOS-2 is significantly down-modulated by exposure to aflatoxin B1. This seems to suggest that Aflatoxin B1, toxic towards the vitamin D receptor, interferes with the actions of the vitamin D on calcium binding gene expression in the kidney and intestine. Experimental data indicate a 58% and 86% decrease if the cells are exposed to 5 ng/mL and 50 ng/mL of aflatoxin B1, respectively. These results seem to indicate that natural occurrence of the aflatoxin B1 and allelic variant of vitamin D receptor on (F allele) increase the risk of developing rickets of African children.

  8. Modulating the strength and threshold of NOTCH oncogenic signals by mir-181a-1/b-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Fragoso

    Full Text Available Oncogenes, which are essential for tumor initiation, development, and maintenance, are valuable targets for cancer therapy. However, it remains a challenge to effectively inhibit oncogene activity by targeting their downstream pathways without causing significant toxicity to normal tissues. Here we show that deletion of mir-181a-1/b-1 expression inhibits the development of Notch1 oncogene-induced T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL. mir-181a-1/b-1 controls the strength and threshold of Notch activity in tumorigenesis in part by dampening multiple negative feedback regulators downstream of NOTCH and pre-T cell receptor (TCR signaling pathways. Importantly, although Notch oncogenes utilize normal thymic progenitor cell genetic programs for tumor transformation, comparative analyses of mir-181a-1/b-1 function in normal thymocyte and tumor development demonstrate that mir-181a-1/b-1 can be specifically targeted to inhibit tumor development with little toxicity to normal development. Finally, we demonstrate that mir-181a-1/b-1, but not mir-181a-2b-2 and mir-181-c/d, controls the development of normal thymic T cells and leukemia cells. Together, these results illustrate that NOTCH oncogene activity in tumor development can be selectively inhibited by targeting the molecular networks controlled by mir-181a-1/b-1.

  9. Eph:ephrin-B1 forward signaling controls fasciculation of sensory and motor axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxey, Maëva; Jungas, Thomas; Laussu, Julien; Audouard, Christophe; Garces, Alain; Davy, Alice

    2013-11-15

    Axon fasciculation is one of the processes controlling topographic innervation during embryonic development. While axon guidance steers extending axons in the accurate direction, axon fasciculation allows sets of co-extending axons to grow in tight bundles. The Eph:ephrin family has been involved both in axon guidance and fasciculation, yet it remains unclear how these two distinct types of responses are elicited. Herein we have characterized the role of ephrin-B1, a member of the ephrinB family in sensory and motor innervation of the limb. We show that ephrin-B1 is expressed in sensory axons and in the limb bud mesenchyme while EphB2 is expressed in motor and sensory axons. Loss of ephrin-B1 had no impact on the accurate dorso-ventral innervation of the limb by motor axons, yet EfnB1 mutants exhibited decreased fasciculation of peripheral motor and sensory nerves. Using tissue-specific excision of EfnB1 and in vitro experiments, we demonstrate that ephrin-B1 controls fasciculation of axons via a surround repulsion mechanism involving growth cone collapse of EphB2-expressing axons. Altogether, our results highlight the complex role of Eph:ephrin signaling in the development of the sensory-motor circuit innervating the limb.

  10. Plasma extravasation mediated by lipopolysaccharide-induction of kinin B1 receptors in rat tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Wille

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to: (a evaluate the effects of kinin B1 (Sar{D-Phe8}-des-Arg9-BK; 10 nmol/kg and B2 (bradykinin (BK; 10 nmol/kg receptor agonists on plasma extravasation in selected rat tissues; (b determine the contribution of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS (100 μ g/kg to the effects triggered by B1 and B2 agonists; and (c characterize the selectivity of B1 ({Leu8}desArg9-BK; 10 nmol/kg and B2 (HOE 140; 10 nmol/kg antagonists as inhibitors of this kinin-induced phenomenon. B1 and B2 agonists were shown to increase plasma extravasation in the duodenum, ileum and also in the urinary bladder of the rat. LPS pretreatment enhanced the plasma extravasation mediated only by the B1 agonist in the duodenum, ileum, trachea, main and segmentar bronchi. These effects were prevented by the B1. but not the B2 antagonist. In normal rats, the B2 antagonist inhibited the effect of B2 agonist in all the tissues analyzed. However, in LPS-treated rats, the B2 antagonist was ineffective in the urinary bladder.

  11. Cytochrome P450 CYP1B1 over-expression in primary and metastatic ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadyen, M C; Cruickshank, M E; Miller, I D; McLeod, H L; Melvin, W T; Haites, N E; Parkin, D; Murray, G I

    2001-07-20

    Ovarian cancer is the most frequent cause of death from gynaecological malignancies world wide. Little improvement has been made in the long-term outcome of this disease, with the 5-year survival of patients only 30%. This poor prognosis is due to the late presentation of the disease and to the unpredictable response of ovarian cancer to chemotherapy. The cytochrome P450 enzymes are a superfamily of haemoproteins, known to be involved in the metabolic activation and/or detoxification of a number of anti-cancer drugs. CYP1B1 is a tumour-related form of cytochrome P450 which is over expressed in a wide variety of primary tumours of different histological type. The presence of CYP1B1 may be of importance in the modulation of these tumours to anti-cancer drugs. We have conducted a comprehensive immunohistochemical investigation, into the presence of cytochrome P450 CYP1B1 in primary and metastatic ovarian cancer. The key findings of this study are the increased expression of CYP1B1 in the majority of ovarian cancers investigated (92%), with a strong correlation demonstrated between CYP1B1 expression in both primary and metastatic ovarian cancer (P = 0.005 Spearman's rank correlation test). In contrast no detectable CYP1B1 was found in normal ovary.

  12. Moon base reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, H.; Flores, J.; Nguyen, M.; Carsen, K.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of our reactor design is to supply a lunar-based research facility with 20 MW(e). The fundamental layout of this lunar-based system includes the reactor, power conversion devices, and a radiator. The additional aim of this reactor is a longevity of 12 to 15 years. The reactor is a liquid metal fast breeder that has a breeding ratio very close to 1.0. The geometry of the core is cylindrical. The metallic fuel rods are of beryllium oxide enriched with varying degrees of uranium, with a beryllium core reflector. The liquid metal coolant chosen was natural lithium. After the liquid metal coolant leaves the reactor, it goes directly into the power conversion devices. The power conversion devices are Stirling engines. The heated coolant acts as a hot reservoir to the device. It then enters the radiator to be cooled and reenters the Stirling engine acting as a cold reservoir. The engines' operating fluid is helium, a highly conductive gas. These Stirling engines are hermetically sealed. Although natural lithium produces a lower breeding ratio, it does have a larger temperature range than sodium. It is also corrosive to steel. This is why the container material must be carefully chosen. One option is to use an expensive alloy of cerbium and zirconium. The radiator must be made of a highly conductive material whose melting point temperature is not exceeded in the reactor and whose structural strength can withstand meteor showers.

  13. 茶叶中黄曲霉毒素B1的检测方法研究%Determination methods of aflatoxin B1 in tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国华; 赵榕; 里南; 王雄

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare the three different methods for the determination of aflatoxin B1 in tea samples, including gold immune chromatography assay (GICA), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Methods Method validation was done based on black tea, green tea and jasmine tea. And black tea, green tea, oolong tea, jasmine tea, extracted tea, medicinal health tea as representatives were detected with different methods. Results Both of optimized GICA and HPLC achieved high accuracy and precision. ELISA assay produced fake positive. Only one of eleven tested samples had aflatoxin B1 in random test.%目的:针对茶叶中黄曲霉毒素 B1的检测,对比胶体金免疫层析法、高效液相色谱、酶联免疫法的差异。方法以红茶、绿茶、花茶为基质,进行方法验证。并选取具有代表性的红茶、绿茶、乌龙茶、及花茶、萃取茶、药用保健茶分别用不同的方法检测。结果改良后的液相法和胶体金免疫层析法准确度和精密度较高,酶联免疫法存在假阳性。随机检测11种茶叶仅有一种检出黄曲霉毒素B1

  14. 76 FR 18586 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) will hold a meeting on April 20, 2011, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike... would result in a major inconvenience. Dated: March 29, 2011. Yoira Diaz-Sanabria, Reactor Safety...

  15. 78 FR 27442 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147). Detailed meeting... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on May 23, Room T-2B1,...

  16. 75 FR 13611 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Planning and Procedures Subcommittee Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Planning and Procedures Subcommittee Meeting; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Planning and Procedures Subcommittee will hold a meeting on April 7, 2010, at Room T2-B1, at 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. The entire meeting will be open to...

  17. 75 FR 1830 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Planning and Procedures Subcommittee Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Planning and Procedures Subcommittee Meeting; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Planning and Procedures Subcommittee will hold a meeting on February 3, 2010, Room T2-B1, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. The entire meeting will be open to...

  18. 75 FR 7634 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Planning and Procedures Subcommittee Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Planning and Procedures Subcommittee Meeting; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Planning and Procedures Subcommittee will hold a meeting on March 3, 2010, Room T2-B1, at 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. The entire meeting will be open to...

  19. Analysis of CYP1B1 in pediatric and adult glaucoma and other ocular phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Linda M.; Tyler, Rebecca C.; Weh, Eric; Hendee, Kathryn E.; Kariminejad, Ariana; Abdul-Rahman, Omar; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg; Manning, Melanie A.; McCarty, Catherine A.; Kitchner, Terrie E.; Costakos, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The CYP1B1 gene encodes an enzyme that is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily. Mutations in CYP1B1 have been mainly reported in recessive pediatric ocular phenotypes, such as primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) and congenital glaucoma with anterior segment dysgenesis (CG with ASD), with some likely pathogenic variants also identified in families affected with adult-onset primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods We examined CYP1B1 in 158 pediatric patients affected with PCG (eight), CG with ASD (22), CG with other developmental ocular disorders (11), juvenile glaucoma with or without additional ocular anomalies (26), and ASD or other developmental ocular conditions without glaucoma (91); in addition, a large cohort of adult patients with POAG (193) and POAG-negative controls (288) was examined. Results Recessive pathogenic variants in CYP1B1 were identified in two PCG pedigrees, three cases with CG and ASD, and two families with CG and other ocular defects, such as sclerocornea in one patient and microphthalmia in another individual; neither sclerocornea nor microphthalmia has been previously associated with CYP1B1. Most of the identified causative mutations are new occurrences of previously reported pathogenic alleles with two novel variants identified: a c.1325delC, p.(Pro442Glnfs*15) frameshift allele in a family with PCG and a c.157G>A, p.(Gly53Ser) variant identified in a proband with CG, Peters anomaly, and microphthalmia. Analysis of the family history in the CYP1B1-positive families revealed POAG in confirmed or presumed heterozygous relatives in one family with PCG and two families with ASD/CG; POAG was associated with the c.1064_1076del, p.(Arg355Hisfs*69) allele in two of these pedigrees. Screening of an unrelated POAG cohort identified the same c.1064_1076del heterozygous allele in one individual with sporadic POAG but not in age- and ethnicity-matched POAG-negative individuals. Overall, there was no significant enrichment for mutant

  20. Expansion of B-1a Cells with Germline Heavy Chain Sequence in Lupus Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holodick, Nichol E.; Zeumer, Leilani; Rothstein, Thomas L.; Morel, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    B6.Sle1.Sle2.Sle3 (B6.TC) lupus-prone mice carrying the NZB allele of Cdkn2c, encoding for the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor P18INK4, accumulate B-1a cells due to a higher rate of proliferative self-renewal. However, it is unclear whether this affects primarily early-appearing B-1a cells of fetal origin or later-appearing B-1a cells that emerge from bone marrow. B-1a cells are the major source of natural autoantibodies, and it has been shown that their protective nature is associated with a germline-like sequence, which is characterized by few N-nucleotide insertions and a repertoire skewed toward rearrangements predominated during fetal life, VH11 and VH12. To determine the nature of B-1a cells expanded in B6.TC mice, we amplified immunoglobulin genes by PCR from single cells in mice. Sequencing showed a significantly higher proportion of B-1a cell antibodies that display fewer N-additions in B6.TC mice than in B6 control mice. Following this lower number of N-insertions within the CDR-H3 region, the B6.TC B-1a cells display shorter CDR-H3 length than B6 B-1a cells. The absence of N-additions is a surrogate for fetal origin, as TdT expression starts after birth in mice. Therefore, our results suggest that the B-1a cell population is not only expanded in autoimmune B6.TC mice but also qualitatively different with the majority of cells from fetal origin. Accordingly, our sequencing results also demonstrated the overuse of VH11 and VH12 in autoimmune B6.TC mice as compared to B6 controls. These results suggest that the development of lupus autoantibodies in these mice is coupled with skewing of the B-1a cell repertoire and possible retention of protective natural antibodies. PMID:27047495

  1. Expansion of B-1a cells with germline heavy chain sequence in lupus mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichol E Holodick

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available B6.Sle1.Sle2.Sle3 (B6.TC lupus-prone mice carrying the NZB allele of Cdkn2c, encoding for the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor P18INK4, accumulate B-1a cells due to a higher rate of proliferative self-renewal. However, it is unclear whether this affects primarily early appearing B-1a cells of fetal origin or later appearing B-1a cells that emerge from bone marrow. B-1a cells are the major source of natural autoantibodies, and it has been shown that their protective nature is associated with a germline-like sequence, which is characterized by few N-nucleotide insertions and a repertoire skewed towards rearrangements predominated during fetal life, VH11 and VH12. To determine the nature of B-1a cells expanded in B6.TC mice, we amplified immunoglobulin genes by PCR from single cells in mice. Sequencing showed a significantly higher proportion of B-1a cell antibodies display fewer N-additions in B6.TC mice than in B6 control mice. Following this lower number of N-insertions within the CDR-H3 region, the B6.TC B-1a cells display shorter CDR-H3 length than B6 B-1a cells. The absence of N-additions is a surrogate for fetal origin, as TdT expression starts after birth in mice. Therefore, our results suggest that the B-1a cell population is not only expanded in autoimmune B6.TC mice but also qualitatively different with the majority of cells from fetal origin. Accordingly, our sequencing results also demonstrated overuse of VH11 and VH12 in autoimmune B6.TC mice as compared to B6 controls. These results suggest that the development of lupus autoantibodies in these mice is coupled with skewing of the B-1a cell repertoire and possible retention of protective natural antibodies.

  2. 黄曲霍毒素B1人工抗原的合成及鉴定%Synthesis and Identification of Aflatoxin B1 Artificial Antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍鑫茹; 杨雪娇; 赵肃清; 张焜

    2013-01-01

    Carboxyl group was introduced to Aflatoxin B1 (aflatoxin B1, AFB1) by derivatization method to synthesis the hapten (AFB1 carboxymethyl activator). And the AFBiO was coupled with BSA by using N-hydroxy-succinimide method to prepare the complete antigen of AFB,. The results of ECI-MS and ultraviolet spectroscopy showed that the target hapten was successfully synthesized. Through combined with ultraviolet spectrophotometry and regression equation, the standard curves of the different concentration hapten and BSA were abtained as follow: y=0.1440x+0.0103 (R2 =0.9986) and y=0.0059x+0.0808 (R2 =0.9889) respectively. The concentrations of AFB1O and BSA in adduct were 186.32 μg/mlL and 6127.46 ng/mL respectively, and the molar ration was 5.13:1.%采用衍生化在黄曲霉毒素B1(aflatoxin B1,AFB1)上引入羧基合成AFB1羧甲基活化物,通过N-羟琥珀酰亚胺酯(N-hydroxy-succinimide NHS)法将AFB1O与牛血清白蛋白(BSA)偶联,制备黄曲霉毒素B1完全抗原AFB1-BSA.ECI-MS和紫外光谱法的鉴定结果表明目标半抗原合成成功.结合紫外分光光度法和回归方程,分别测得不同浓度的半抗原和蛋白质线性曲线为:Y=0.1440X+0.0103,R2=0.9986; Y=0.0059X+0.0808,R2=0.9889.偶联物中半抗原和蛋白质的浓度分别为186.32 μg/mL、6127.46 μg/mL,即求得抗原分子结合比为5.13∶1,从而为制备抗AFB1抗体奠定基础.

  3. Three polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) gene and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economopoulos, Konstantinos P; Sergentanis, Theodoros N

    2010-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is a P450 enzyme implicated in the metabolism of exogenous and endogenous substrates. The metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other procarcinogens through CYP1B1 may well lead to their activation. Apart from the extensively studied Val432Leu polymorphism, three single nucleotide polymorphisms in CYP1B1 have been studied concerning their potential implication in terms of breast cancer risk: Arg48Gly, Ala119Ser and Asn453Ser. This meta-analysis aims to examine whether the three aforementioned polymorphisms are associated with breast cancer risk. Eligible articles were identified by a search of MEDLINE bibliographical database for the period up to December 2009. Concerning Arg48Gly polymorphism, 10 studies were eligible (11,321 cases and 13,379 controls); 11 studies were eligible for Ala119Ser (10,715 cases and 11,678 controls); 12 cases were eligible regarding Asn453Ser (11,630 cases and 14,053 controls). Pooled odds ratios (OR) were appropriately derived form fixed-effects or random-effects models. Sensitivity analysis excluding studies whose genotype frequencies in controls significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was performed. Concerning Arg48Gly, the pooled ORs (95% CI) were 0.933 (0.808-1.078) for heterozygous and 0.819 (0.610-1.100) for homozygous Gly subjects. Regarding Ala119Ser, the pooled ORs were 0.992 (0.896-1.097) for heterozygous and 0.935 (0.729-1.198) for homozygous Ser subjects. With respect to Asn453Ser, the pooled ORs were 0.961 (0.906-1.019) for heterozygous and 0.984 (0.846-1.144) for homozygous Ser subjects. In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that CYP1B1 Arg48Gly, Ala119Ser and Asn453Ser polymorphisms are not associated with breast cancer risk. Studies on Chinese populations are needed, to elucidate race-specific effects on East Asian populations, if any.

  4. Incidência de fumonisina B1, aflatoxinas B1, B2, G1 e G2, ocratoxina A e zearalenona em produtos de milho Occurrence of fumonisin B1, aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in corn products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Mie Kawashima

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Levantamentos de ocorrência de micotoxinas em alimentos foram realizados nas últimas duas décadas nas regiões Sudeste e Sul do Brasil. Levantamentos em alimentos comercializados em outras regiões têm-se limitado a aflatoxinas em amendoim e castanhas do Brasil. O presente trabalho pesquisou a presença de fumonisina B1, aflatoxinas B1, B2, G1 e G2, ocratoxina A e zearalenona em 74 amostras de produtos a base de milho adquiridas no comércio da cidade de Recife, PE, durante o período de 1999 a 2001. Fumonisina B1 foi determinada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detecção por fluorescência e as demais toxinas foram determinadas por cromatografia em camada delgada. Fumonisina B1 foi encontrada em 94,6% das amostras em concentrações variando de 20 a 8600 µg/kg. Apenas 5 amostras continham aflatoxina B1 e o teor máximo encontrado foi 20 µg/kg. Duas amostras ultrapassaram o limite de 20 µg/kg para a somatória das aflatoxinas B1, B2, G1 e G2 (farinha de milho pré-cozida com 21,5 µg/kg e quirera (xerém com 23,3 µg/kg. As aflatoxinas G1 e G2, ocratoxina A e zearalenona não foram detectadas em nenhuma das amostras. Todas as amostras contaminadas com aflatoxinas também apresentaram fumonisina B1.Research concerning the presence of mycotoxin in food has been conducted in the Southwest and South regions of Brazil over the last two decades. Research in other regions has been limited to aflatoxin in peanuts and Brazil nuts. The aim of this work is to study the presence of fumonisin B1, aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in 74 samples of corn products acquired in shops and food markets in the city of Recife (PE from 1999 to 2001. Fumonisin B1 was determined by high performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence was detected. The other toxins were determined by thin layer chromatography. Fumonisin B1 was found in 94.6% of the samples in levels from 20 to 8600 µg/kg. Only 5 samples contained

  5. Bioinformatics Analysis of Endophilin B1 Gene and Protein%Endophilin B1基因及蛋白的生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王铸; 何霞; 冯发深; 关琳琳; 徐霖; 张定梅; 汪杨; 罗燕芬; 曹开源

    2012-01-01

    目的:利用生物信息学方法分析人Endophilin B1基因以及蛋白的结构,为进一步研究其功能和参与的调控机制提供一定的理论依据.方法:通过GenBank搜索EndophilinB1基因及蛋白序列,采用生物信息学方法分析该基因在不同物种中的差异,分析该蛋白的亚细胞定位,二级结构,功能域以及抗原表位.结果:该基因编码一个长度为365个氨基酸的蛋白,具有两个BAR和SH3两个功能域.EndophilinB1蛋白理论分子量为40796.3,理论等电点为5.78.二级结构中α螺旋(H)占56.44%,β折叠(E)占5.48%,无规卷曲占38.08%.EndophilinB1蛋白含有4个可能的N连接糖基化位点,5个潜在的酪蛋白激酶Ⅱ磷酸化位点,7个豆蔻酰基化位点,3个PKC磷酸化位点以及2个酪氨酸激酶磷酸化位点.并进一步利用DNAstar软件分析了了该蛋白的抗原表位.结论:利用生物信息学预测出的结构和功能信息,能为EndophinB1蛋白的相关研究提供一定的信息基础.%Objective: To investigate the function and regulatory mechanisms of human Endophilin B1 gene and protein in human disease. Methods: Search Endophilin B1 gene and protein sequences from GenBank. The differences in different species, subcelluar location, secondary struture, functional domains and epitopes were analyzed by using Bioinformatics tools. Results: The gene encodes a length of 365 amina acid protein with two functional domains, BAR and SH3 domain. Its molecular weight is 40796.3, theoretical isoelectric point is 5.78. α-helix secondary structure (H) accounted for 56.44%, β fold (E) accounted for 5.48%, random coil accounting for 38.08%. Endophilin Bl protein contains four potential N-linked glycosylation sites, five potential casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, seven cardamom acylation sites, three PKC phosphorylation sites and two tyrosine kinase phosphorylation sites. And a further analyzed of its protein epitopes by DNAstar software was completed. Conclusion

  6. Ultrafine carbon particles down-regulate CYP1B1 expression in human monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziegler-Heitbrock Loems

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytochrome P450 monoxygenases play an important role in the defence against inhaled toxic compounds and in metabolizing a wide range of xenobiotics and environmental contaminants. In ambient aerosol the ultrafine particle fraction which penetrates deeply into the lungs is considered to be a major factor for adverse health effects. The cells mainly affected by inhaled particles are lung epithelial cells and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Results In this study we have analyzed the effect of a mixture of fine TiO2 and ultrafine carbon black Printex 90 particles (P90 on the expression of cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1 in human monocytes, macrophages, bronchial epithelial cells and epithelial cell lines. CYP1B1 expression is strongly down-regulated by P90 in monocytes with a maximum after P90 treatment for 3 h while fine and ultrafine TiO2 had no effect. CYP1B1 was down-regulated up to 130-fold and in addition CYP1A1 mRNA was decreased 13-fold. In vitro generated monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM, epithelial cell lines, and primary bronchial epithelial cells also showed reduced CYP1B1 mRNA levels. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP is inducing CYB1B1 but ultrafine P90 can still down-regulate gene expression at 0.1 μM of BaP. The P90-induced reduction of CYP1B1 was also demonstrated at the protein level using Western blot analysis. Conclusion These data suggest that the P90-induced reduction of CYP gene expression may interfere with the activation and/or detoxification capabilities of inhaled toxic compounds.

  7. Hypocotyl expression and light downregulation of the soybean tubulin gene, tubB1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonoike, H; Han, I S; Jongewaard, I; Doyle, M; Guiltinan, M; Fosket, D E

    1994-03-01

    The tubB1 beta-tubulin gene of Glycine max (previously named s beta 1) is highly expressed only in rapidly elongating regions of etiolated seedling hypocotyls and this expression is strongly downregulated when the seedlings are exposed to light. Primer extension demonstrated that the gene was transcribed in these tissues and contained two sites of transcriptional initiation. To determine the mechanism regulating tubB1 expression, a chimeric reporter gene was constructed by fusing 5' upstream regions of tubB1 to a promoterless beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene and these constructs were introduced into protoplasts by electroporation. Strong transient expression of the reporter gene was obtained after electroporation of chimeric constructs containing 1 kb of tubB1 5' upstream sequence into tobacco protoplasts. Deletion of the distal most 300 bp from the 5' sequence of tubB1 enhanced expression, suggesting the possibility of a negative transcriptional regulator in this region. Additional deletions of the 5' sequence reduced expression substantially. Constructs containing a tubB1 3' terminus were expressed at much lower levels than those containing a nopaline synthase (NOS) 3' terminus. The tubB1-GUS chimeric gene also was introduced into tobacco by Agrobacterium-mediated Ti plasmid transformation and the organ-specific expression pattern of the chimeric gene was determined in seedlings of the transgenic plants. Hypocotyls exhibited strong GUS activity when the seedlings were germinated in darkness, but lacked the GUS enzyme when the seedlings were germinated in the light.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. The Role of Heat Shock Protein 90B1 in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Mo, Hui; Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Yongxian; Peng, Xiuhong; Luo, Xiping

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogenetic disorder in women that is characterized by arrested follicular growth and anovulatory infertility. The altered protein expression levels in the ovarian tissues reflect the molecular defects in folliculogenesis. To identify aberrant protein expression in PCOS, we analyzed protein expression profiles in the ovarian tissues of patients with PCOS. We identified a total of 18 protein spots that were differentially expressed in PCOS compared with healthy ovarian samples. A total of 13 proteins were upregulated and 5 proteins were downregulated. The expression levels of heat shock protein 90B1 (HSP90B1) and calcium signaling activator calmodulin 1 (CALM1) were increased by at least two-fold. The expression levels of HSP90B1 and CALM1 were positively associated with ovarian cell survival and negatively associated with caspase-3 activation and apoptosis. Knock-down of HSP90B1 with siRNA attenuated ovarian cell survival and increased apoptosis. In contrast, ovarian cell survival was improved and cell apoptosis was decreased in cells over-expressing HSP90B1. These results demonstrated the pivotal role of HSP90B1 in the proliferation and survival of ovarian cells, suggesting a critical role for HSP90B1 in the pathogenesis of PCOS. We also observed a downregulation of anti-inflammatory activity-related annexin A6 (ANXA6) and tropomyosin 2 (TPM2) compared with the normal controls, which could affect cell division and folliculogenesis in PCOS. This is the first study to identify novel altered gene expression in the ovarian tissues of patients with PCOS. These findings may have significant implications for future diagnostic and treatment strategies for PCOS using molecular interventions.

  9. The Role of Heat Shock Protein 90B1 in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a heterogenetic disorder in women that is characterized by arrested follicular growth and anovulatory infertility. The altered protein expression levels in the ovarian tissues reflect the molecular defects in folliculogenesis. To identify aberrant protein expression in PCOS, we analyzed protein expression profiles in the ovarian tissues of patients with PCOS. We identified a total of 18 protein spots that were differentially expressed in PCOS compared with healthy ovarian samples. A total of 13 proteins were upregulated and 5 proteins were downregulated. The expression levels of heat shock protein 90B1 (HSP90B1 and calcium signaling activator calmodulin 1 (CALM1 were increased by at least two-fold. The expression levels of HSP90B1 and CALM1 were positively associated with ovarian cell survival and negatively associated with caspase-3 activation and apoptosis. Knock-down of HSP90B1 with siRNA attenuated ovarian cell survival and increased apoptosis. In contrast, ovarian cell survival was improved and cell apoptosis was decreased in cells over-expressing HSP90B1. These results demonstrated the pivotal role of HSP90B1 in the proliferation and survival of ovarian cells, suggesting a critical role for HSP90B1 in the pathogenesis of PCOS. We also observed a downregulation of anti-inflammatory activity-related annexin A6 (ANXA6 and tropomyosin 2 (TPM2 compared with the normal controls, which could affect cell division and folliculogenesis in PCOS. This is the first study to identify novel altered gene expression in the ovarian tissues of patients with PCOS. These findings may have significant implications for future diagnostic and treatment strategies for PCOS using molecular interventions.

  10. Scavenger receptor B1 facilitates macrophage uptake of silver nanoparticles and cellular activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldossari, Abdullah A.; Shannahan, Jonathan H. [The University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (United States); Podila, Ramakrishna [Clemson University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United States); Brown, Jared M., E-mail: jared.brown@ucdenver.edu [The University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Due to increased use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for their antimicrobial activity, concerns have risen regarding potential adverse human health effects. Scavenger receptor B1 (SR-B1), a major receptor for high-density lipoprotein (HDL), is expressed by macrophages and has also been reported to play a role in recognition of negatively charged particles. We, therefore, hypothesized that SR-B1 mediates macrophage uptake of AgNPs and inflammatory activation. To test this hypothesis, we exposed a mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 (RAW) and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) to 20 nm citrate-suspended AgNPs. To verify the role of the SR-B1 receptor, we utilized a SR-B1 inhibitor (Blt2). In vitro studies demonstrated uptake of AgNPs and HDL-coated AgNPs by macrophages which were significantly reduced following pretreatment with Blt2. Inflammatory cytokine arrays revealed that macrophages exposed to AgNPs up-regulated expression of Tnf-α, Oncostatin m (OSM), Ccl4, Il17f, Ccl7, and Ccl2, whereas Il16 was found to be down-regulated. Macrophage activation was observed following AgNP and HDL-coated AgNP exposure as measured by OSM protein production and increased surface expression of CD86. These markers of activation were reduced with Blt2 pretreatment. The in vitro findings were confirmed in vivo through pulmonary instillation of AgNPs in mice. Pulmonary instillation of AgNPs resulted in a recruitment of inflammatory cells that were reduced in SR-B1-deficient mice or following Blt2 pretreatment. This study suggests that SR-B1 plays a major role in cellular recognition of AgNPs and the induction of cell responses that could contribute to inflammation caused by AgNP exposure.

  11. Activation of the kinin B1 receptor attenuates melanoma tumor growth and metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Dillenburg-Pilla

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a very aggressive tumor that does not respond well to standard therapeutic approaches, such as radio- and chemotherapies. Furthermore, acquiring the ability to metastasize in melanoma and many other tumor types is directly related to incurable disease. The B1 kinin receptor participates in a variety of cancer-related pathophysiological events, such as inflammation and angiogenesis. Therefore, we investigated whether this G protein-coupled receptor plays a role in tumor progression. We used a murine melanoma cell line that expresses the kinin B1 receptor and does not express the kinin B2 receptor to investigate the precise contribution of activation of the B1 receptor in tumor progression and correlated events using various in vitro and in vivo approaches. Activation of the kinin B1 receptor in the absence of B2 receptor inhibits cell migration in vitro and decreases tumor formation in vivo. Moreover, tumors formed from cells stimulated with B1-specific agonist showed several features of decreased aggressiveness, such as smaller size and infiltration of inflammatory cells within the tumor area, higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines implicated in the host anti-tumor immune response, lower number of cells undergoing mitosis, a poorer vascular network, no signs of invasion of surrounding tissues or metastasis and increased animal survival. Our findings reveal that activation of the kinin B1 receptor has a host protective role during murine melanoma tumor progression, suggesting that the B1 receptor could be a new anti-tumor GPCR and provide new opportunities for therapeutic targeting.

  12. The CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism and risk of urinary system cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Lin, Chang-sheng; Zhang, Ai-min; Song, Hua; Fan, Chang-chun

    2014-05-01

    The cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) gene plays a key role in the metabolism of various carcinogens. The CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism leads to leucine to valine substitution at codon 432. A lot of studies have shown that the CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism was associated with urinary system cancers, especially prostate cancer. However, the results were still inconclusive. In this meta-analysis, by searching online databases and references of related reviews, we identified 17 eligible studies to assess the relationship between CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism and urinary system cancers, including 7,783 cancer cases and 7,238 controls. By pooling all eligible studies, we found that the CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism was not associated with overall urinary system cancers. However, in subgroup analyses, we found that the variant 432Val allele significantly increased the risk of prostate cancer (Val vs. Leu, odds ratio (OR) = 1.064, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.981-1.154; Pheterogeneity = 0.002), while no association was found for bladder cancer (Val vs. Leu, OR = 0.942, 95% CI 0.853-1.041; Pheterogeneity = 0.504). No evidence of publication bias was found (Begg's test, P = 0.053; Egger's test, P = 0.073). In conclusion, based on 17 eligible studies, we found that the CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer, while no association of bladder cancer was observed.

  13. Reactor Safety Planning for Prometheus Project, for Naval Reactors Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Delmolino

    2005-05-06

    The purpose of this letter is to submit to Naval Reactors the initial plan for the Prometheus project Reactor Safety work. The Prometheus project is currently developing plans for cold physics experiments and reactor prototype tests. These tests and facilities may require safety analysis and siting support. In addition to the ground facilities, the flight reactor units will require unique analyses to evaluate the risk to the public from normal operations and credible accident conditions. This letter outlines major safety documents that will be submitted with estimated deliverable dates. Included in this planning is the reactor servicing documentation and shipping analysis that will be submitted to Naval Reactors.

  14. REACTOR GROUT THERMAL PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimke, J.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Guerrero, H.

    2011-01-28

    Savannah River Site has five dormant nuclear production reactors. Long term disposition will require filling some reactor buildings with grout up to ground level. Portland cement based grout will be used to fill the buildings with the exception of some reactor tanks. Some reactor tanks contain significant quantities of aluminum which could react with Portland cement based grout to form hydrogen. Hydrogen production is a safety concern and gas generation could also compromise the structural integrity of the grout pour. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a non-Portland cement grout to fill reactors that contain significant quantities of aluminum. Grouts generate heat when they set, so the potential exists for large temperature increases in a large pour, which could compromise the integrity of the pour. The primary purpose of the testing reported here was to measure heat of hydration, specific heat, thermal conductivity and density of various reactor grouts under consideration so that these properties could be used to model transient heat transfer for different pouring strategies. A secondary purpose was to make qualitative judgments of grout pourability and hardened strength. Some reactor grout formulations were unacceptable because they generated too much heat, or started setting too fast, or required too long to harden or were too weak. The formulation called 102H had the best combination of characteristics. It is a Calcium Alumino-Sulfate grout that contains Ciment Fondu (calcium aluminate cement), Plaster of Paris (calcium sulfate hemihydrate), sand, Class F fly ash, boric acid and small quantities of additives. This composition afforded about ten hours of working time. Heat release began at 12 hours and was complete by 24 hours. The adiabatic temperature rise was 54 C which was within specification. The final product was hard and displayed no visible segregation. The density and maximum particle size were within specification.

  15. German Special Operations in the 1944 Ardennes Offensive

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-03

    through the maze of traffic jams and poor roads, Skorzeny could not assemble them for an attack on the 19th, and accordingly the operation was...requesting care for his men.9 0 Von der Heydte traveled east on the 21st with his executive officer and runner towards Monschau, wlhich he a.bwned was In

  16. Scaleable, High Efficiency Microchannel Sabatier Reactor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Microchannel Sabatier Reactor System (MSRS) consisting of cross connected arrays of isothermal or graded temperature reactors is proposed. The reactor array...

  17. Prenatal exposure to aflatoxin B1: developmental, behavioral, and reproductive alterations in male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriya, Ch.; Reddy, P. Sreenivasula

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) inhibits androgen biosynthesis as a result of its ability to form a high-affinity complex with the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein. The results of the present study demonstrate the postnatal effects of in utero exposure to AfB1 in the rat. Pregnant Wistar rats were given 10, 20, or 50 μg AfB1/kg body weight daily from gestation day (GD) 12 to GD 19. At parturition, newborns were observed for clinical signs and survival. All animals were born alive and initially appeared to be active. Male pups from control and AfB1-exposed animals were weaned and maintained up to postnatal day (PD) 100. Litter size, birth weight, sex ratio, survival rate, and crown-rump length of the pups were significantly decreased in AfB1-exposed rats when compared to controls. Elapsed time (days) for testes to descend into the scrotal sac was significantly delayed in experimental pups when compared to control pups. Behavioral observations such as cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, surface rightening activity, ascending wire mesh, open field behavior, and exploratory and locomotory activities were significantly impaired in experimental pups. Body weights and the indices of testis, cauda epididymis, prostate, seminal vesicles, and liver were significantly reduced on PD 100 in male rats exposed to AfB1 during embryonic development when compared with controls. Significant reduction in the testicular daily sperm production, epididymal sperm count, and number of viable, motile, and hypo-osmotic tail coiled sperm was observed in experimental rats. The levels of serum testosterone and activity levels of testicular hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner with a significant increase in the serum follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in experimental rats. Deterioration in the testicular and cauda epididymal architecture was observed in experimental rats. The results of fertility

  18. B1 SOX coordinate cell specification with patterning and morphogenesis in the early zebrafish embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Okuda

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The B1 SOX transcription factors SOX1/2/3/19 have been implicated in various processes of early embryogenesis. However, their regulatory functions in stages from the blastula to early neurula remain largely unknown, primarily because loss-of-function studies have not been informative to date. In our present study, we systematically knocked down the B1 sox genes in zebrafish. Only the quadruple knockdown of the four B1 sox genes sox2/3/19a/19b resulted in very severe developmental abnormalities, confirming that the B1 sox genes are functionally redundant. We characterized the sox2/3/19a/19b quadruple knockdown embryos in detail by examining the changes in gene expression through in situ hybridization, RT-PCR, and microarray analyses. Importantly, these phenotypic analyses revealed that the B1 SOX proteins regulate the following distinct processes: (1 early dorsoventral patterning by controlling bmp2b/7; (2 gastrulation movements via the regulation of pcdh18a/18b and wnt11, a non-canonical Wnt ligand gene; (3 neural differentiation by regulating the Hes-class bHLH gene her3 and the proneural-class bHLH genes neurog1 (positively and ascl1a (negatively, and regional transcription factor genes, e.g., hesx1, zic1, and rx3; and (4 neural patterning by regulating signaling pathway genes, cyp26a1 in RA signaling, oep in Nodal signaling, shh, and mdkb. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of the her3, hesx1, neurog1, pcdh18a, and cyp26a1 genes further suggests a direct regulation of these genes by B1 SOX. We also found an interesting overlap between the early phenotypes of the B1 sox quadruple knockdown embryos and the maternal-zygotic spg embryos that are devoid of pou5f1 activity. These findings indicate that the B1 SOX proteins control a wide range of developmental regulators in the early embryo through partnering in part with Pou5f1 and possibly with other factors, and suggest that the B1 sox functions are central to coordinating cell fate

  19. The capsular polysaccharide Vi from Salmonella Typhi is a B1b antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jennifer L.; Flores-Langarica, Adriana; Kingsley, Robert A.; Hitchcock, Jessica R.; Ross, Ewan A.; Lopez-Macias, Constantino; Lakey, Jeremy; Martin, Laura B.; Toellner, Kai-Michael; MacLennan, Calman A.; MacLennan, Ian C; Henderson, Ian R.; Dougan, Gordon; Cunningham, Adam F.

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination with purified capsular polysaccharide Vi antigen from Salmonella Typhi can protect against typhoid fever, although the mechanism for its efficacy is not clearly established. Here, we have characterised the B cell response to this vaccine in wild-type and T cell-deficient mice. We show that immunization with Typhim Vi rapidly induces proliferation in B1b peritoneal cells, but not in B1a cells or marginal zone (MZ) B cells. This induction of B1b proliferation is concomitant with the detection of splenic Vi-specific antibody secreting cells and protective antibody and Rag1-deficient B1b cell chimeras generated by adoptive transfer induced specific antibody after Vi immunization. Furthermore, antibody derived from peritoneal B cells is sufficient to confer protection against Salmonella that express Vi antigen. Expression of Vi by Salmonella during infection did not inhibit the development of early antibody responses to non-Vi antigens. Despite this, the protection conferred by immunization of mice with porin proteins from Salmonella, which induce antibody-mediated protection, was reduced after infection with Vi-expressing Salmonella, although protection was not totally abrogated. This work therefore suggests that in mice, B1b cells contribute to the protection induced by Vi antigen and targeting non-Vi antigens as sub-unit vaccines may offer an attractive strategy to augment current Vi-based vaccine strategies. PMID:23162127

  20. The capsular polysaccharide Vi from Salmonella typhi is a B1b antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jennifer L; Flores-Langarica, Adriana; Kingsley, Robert A; Hitchcock, Jessica R; Ross, Ewan A; López-Macías, Constantino; Lakey, Jeremy; Martin, Laura B; Toellner, Kai-Michael; MacLennan, Calman A; MacLennan, Ian C; Henderson, Ian R; Dougan, Gordon; Cunningham, Adam F

    2012-12-15

    Vaccination with purified capsular polysaccharide Vi Ag from Salmonella typhi can protect against typhoid fever, although the mechanism for its efficacy is not clearly established. In this study, we have characterized the B cell response to this vaccine in wild-type and T cell-deficient mice. We show that immunization with typhoid Vi polysaccharide vaccine rapidly induces proliferation in B1b peritoneal cells, but not in B1a cells or marginal zone B cells. This induction of B1b proliferation is concomitant with the detection of splenic Vi-specific Ab-secreting cells and protective Ab in Rag1-deficient B1b cell chimeras generated by adoptive transfer-induced specific Ab after Vi immunization. Furthermore, Ab derived from peritoneal B cells is sufficient to confer protection against Salmonella that express Vi Ag. Expression of Vi by Salmonella during infection did not inhibit the development of early Ab responses to non-Vi Ags. Despite this, the protection conferred by immunization of mice with porin proteins from Salmonella, which induce Ab-mediated protection, was reduced postinfection with Vi-expressing Salmonella, although protection was not totally abrogated. This work therefore suggests that, in mice, B1b cells contribute to the protection induced by Vi Ag, and targeting non-Vi Ags as subunit vaccines may offer an attractive strategy to augment current Vi-based vaccine strategies.

  1. Temperature dependent expression of cdc2 and cyclin B1 in spermatogenic cells during spermatogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    p34cdc2 and Cyclin Bi are key components of cell cycle controlling machine and are believed to play a fundamental role in gametogenesis. It is also well known that, in scrotal mammals, spermatogenesis depends greatly on the maintenance of comparatively low temperature in the scrotum. To investigate whether the expression of cdc2 and cyclin B1 in spermatogenic cells during spermatogenesis is actually a temperature dependent event, in situ hybridization, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry analysis were used to study the expression of cdc2 and cyclin B1 in normal and cryptorchid testis. Results showed that the abdominal temperature had no significant influence on the transcription of cdc2 and cyclin B1 in the spermatogonia and pachytene/diplotene primary spermatocytes, but it blocked the translation of them. Due to the deficiency of p34cdc2 and Cyclin B1, the spermatogonia and pachytene/diplotene primary spermatocytes were unable to form MPF, hence, they couldn't undergo karyokinesis. The development of primary spermato cytes was arrested at the G2 to M phase transition. We also found that testosterone could regulate the Cyclin B1 expression in spermatogenic cells. Muscular injection of testosterone could recover spermatogenesis in the unilateral scrotal testis which was influenced by the contralateral cryptorchid testis, but it could not salvage the spermatogenesis block in the cryptorchid testis.

  2. The aflatoxin B1 isolating potential of two lactic acid bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adel Hamidi; Reza Mirnejad; Emad Yahaghi; Vahid Behnod; Ali Mirhosseini; Sajad Amani; Sara Sattari; Ebrahim Khodaverdi Darian

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To determine lactic acid bacteria’s capability to enhance the process of binding and isolating aflatoxin B1 and to utilize such lactic acid bacteria as a food supplement or probiotic products for preventing absorption of aflatoxin B1 in human and animal bodies. Methods: In the present research, the bacteria were isolated from five different sources. For surveying the capability of the bacteria in isolating aflatoxin B1, ELISA method was implemented, and for identifying the resultant strains through 16S rRNA sequencing method, universal primers were applied. Results: Among the strains which were isolated, two strains of Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus beveris exhibited the capability of absorbing and isolating aflatoxin B1 by respectively absorbing and discharging 17.4%and 34.7%of the aforementioned toxin existing in the experiment solution. Conclusions:Strains of Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus beveris were isolated from human feces and local milk samples, respectively. And both strains has the ability to isolate or bind with aflatoxin B1.

  3. Evidence for the eta(b)(1S) meson in radiative Upsilon(2S) decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, B; Bona, M; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prencipe, E; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Garra Tico, J; Grauges, E; Lopez, L; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Lynch, G; Osipenkov, I L; Tackmann, K; Tanabe, T; Hawkes, C M; Soni, N; Watson, A T; Koch, H; Schroeder, T; Asgeirsson, D J; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Barrett, M; Khan, A; Randle-Conde, A; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Buzykaev, A R; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Atmacan, H; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Vitug, G M; Yasin, Z; Zhang, L; Sharma, V; Campagnari, C; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Martinez, A J; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Winstrom, L O; Cheng, C H; Doll, D A; Echenard, B; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Bloom, P C; Ford, W T; Gaz, A; Hirschauer, J F; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Smith, J G; Wagner, S R; Ayad, R; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Karbach, M; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Kobel, M J; Nogowski, R; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Playfer, S; Watson, J E; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Santoro, V; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Adametz, A; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bernlochner, F U; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Tibbetts, M; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gao, Y Y; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Arnaud, N; Béquilleux, J; D'Orazio, A; Davier, M; Firmino da Costa, J; Grosdidier, G; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bingham, I; Burke, J P; Chavez, C A; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Clarke, C K; Di Lodovico, F; Sacco, R; Sigamani, M; Cowan, G; Paramesvaran, S; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Gradl, W; Alwyn, K E; Bailey, D; Barlow, R J; Jackson, G; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Dallapiccola, C; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Fisher, P H; Henderson, S W; Sciolla, G; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Zhao, M; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Simard, M; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, G; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Onorato, G; Sciacca, C; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Knoepfel, K J; Losecco, J M; Wang, W F; Corwin, L A; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Sekula, S J; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Castelli, G; Gagliardi, N; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Del Amo Sanchez, P; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Ocariz, J; Perez, A; Prendki, J; Sitt, S; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Lopes Pegna, D; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Anulli, F; Baracchini, E; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Renga, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Hartmann, T; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; Esteve, L; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; White, R M; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Benitez, J F; Cenci, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Gabareen, A M; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Innes, W R; Kaminski, J; Kelsey, M H; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Lindquist, B

    2009-10-16

    We have performed a search for the eta_{b}(1S) meson in the radiative decay of the Upsilon(2S) resonance using a sample of 91.6x10(6) Upsilon(2S) events recorded with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. We observe a peak in the photon energy spectrum at Egamma=609.3(-4.5)(+4.6)(stat)+/-1.9(syst) MeV, corresponding to an eta(b)(1S) mass of 9394.2(-4.9)(+4.8)(stat)+/-2.0(syst) MeV/c2. The branching fraction for the decay Upsilon(2S)-->gamma(eta)b(1S) is determined to be [3.9+/-1.1(stat)-0.9+1.1(syst)]x10(-4). We find the ratio of branching fractions B[Upsilon(2S)-->gamma(eta)b(1S)]/B[Upsilon(3S)-->gamma(eta)b(1S)]=0.82+/-0.24(stat)(-0.19)(+0.20)(syst).

  4. Evidence for the ηb(1S) Meson in Radiative Υ(2S) Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I. L.; Tackmann, K.; Tanabe, T.; Hawkes, C. M.; Soni, N.; Watson, A. T.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Fulsom, B. G.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Barrett, M.; Khan, A.; Randle-Conde, A.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Bondioli, M.; Curry, S.; Eschrich, I.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Lund, P.; Mandelkern, M.; Martin, E. C.; Stoker, D. P.; Abachi, S.; Buchanan, C.; Atmacan, H.; Gary, J. W.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Vitug, G. M.; Yasin, Z.; Zhang, L.; Sharma, V.; Campagnari, C.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Beck, T. W.; Eisner, A. M.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Schalk, T.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Winstrom, L. O.; Cheng, C. H.; Doll, D. A.; Echenard, B.; Fang, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Narsky, I.; Piatenko, T.; Porter, F. C.; Andreassen, R.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Mishra, K.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Bloom, P. C.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Hirschauer, J. F.; Nagel, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Soffer, A.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Feltresi, E.; Hauke, A.; Jasper, H.; Karbach, M.; Merkel, J.; Petzold, A.; Spaan, B.; Wacker, K.; Kobel, M. J.; Nogowski, R.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Volk, A.; Bernard, D.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Latour, E.; Verderi, M.; Clark, P. J.; Playfer, S.; Watson, J. E.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Franchini, P.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Contri, R.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Chaisanguanthum, K. S.; Morii, M.; Adametz, A.; Marks, J.; Schenk, S.; Uwer, U.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Klose, V.; Lacker, H. M.; Bard, D. J.; Dauncey, P. D.; Tibbetts, M.; Behera, P. K.; Chai, X.; Charles, M. J.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Dong, L.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rubin, A. E.; Gao, Y. Y.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Arnaud, N.; Béquilleux, J.; D'Orazio, A.; Davier, M.; Firmino da Costa, J.; Grosdidier, G.; Le Diberder, F.; Lepeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.; Pruvot, S.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Serrano, J.; Sordini, V.; Stocchi, A.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Bingham, I.; Burke, J. P.; Chavez, C. A.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; Clarke, C. K.; di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Sigamani, M.; Cowan, G.; Paramesvaran, S.; Wren, A. C.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Alwyn, K. E.; Bailey, D.; Barlow, R. J.; Jackson, G.; Lafferty, G. D.; West, T. J.; Yi, J. I.; Anderson, J.; Chen, C.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Simi, G.; Tuggle, J. M.; Dallapiccola, C.; Salvati, E.; Saremi, S.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Fisher, P. H.; Henderson, S. W.; Sciolla, G.; Spitznagel, M.; Taylor, F.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Zhao, M.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Palombo, F.; Bauer, J. M.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Summers, D. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; Nicholson, H.; de Nardo, G.; Lista, L.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Raven, G.; Snoek, H. L.; Jessop, C. P.; Knoepfel, K. J.; Losecco, J. M.; Wang, W. F.; Corwin, L. A.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Morris, J. P.; Rahimi, A. M.; Regensburger, J. J.; Sekula, S. J.; Wong, Q. K.; Blount, N. L.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Igonkina, O.; Kolb, J. A.; Lu, M.; Rahmat, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Strube, J.; Torrence, E.; Castelli, G.; Gagliardi, N.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Voci, C.; Del Amo Sanchez, P.; Ben-Haim, E.; Briand, H.; Chauveau, J.; Hamon, O.; Leruste, Ph.; Ocariz, J.; Perez, A.; Prendki, J.; Sitt, S.; Gladney, L.; Biasini, M.; Manoni, E.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Morganti, M.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lu, C.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Anulli, F.; Baracchini, E.; Cavoto, G.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Jackson, P. D.; Li Gioi, L.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Morganti, S.; Piredda, G.; Renga, F.; Voena, C.; Ebert, M.

    2009-10-01

    We have performed a search for the ηb(1S) meson in the radiative decay of the Υ(2S) resonance using a sample of 91.6×106 Υ(2S) events recorded with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. We observe a peak in the photon energy spectrum at Eγ=609.3-4.5+4.6(stat)±1.9(syst)MeV, corresponding to an ηb(1S) mass of 9394.2-4.9+4.8(stat)±2.0(syst)MeV/c2. The branching fraction for the decay Υ(2S)→γηb(1S) is determined to be [3.9±1.1(stat)-0.9+1.1(syst)]×10-4. We find the ratio of branching fractions B[Υ(2S)→γηb(1S)]/B[Υ(3S)→γηb(1S)]=0.82±0.24(stat)-0.19+0.20(syst).

  5. SoxB1-driven transcriptional network underlies neural-specific interpretation of morphogen signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterveen, Tony; Kurdija, Sanja; Ensterö, Mats; Uhde, Christopher W; Bergsland, Maria; Sandberg, Magnus; Sandberg, Rickard; Muhr, Jonas; Ericson, Johan

    2013-04-30

    The reiterative deployment of a small cadre of morphogen signals underlies patterning and growth of most tissues during embyogenesis, but how such inductive events result in tissue-specific responses remains poorly understood. By characterizing cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) associated with genes regulated by Sonic hedgehog (Shh), retinoids, or bone morphogenetic proteins in the CNS, we provide evidence that the neural-specific interpretation of morphogen signaling reflects a direct integration of these pathways with SoxB1 proteins at the CRM level. Moreover, expression of SoxB1 proteins in the limb bud confers on mesodermal cells the potential to activate neural-specific target genes upon Shh, retinoid, or bone morphogenetic protein signaling, and the collocation of binding sites for SoxB1 and morphogen-mediatory transcription factors in CRMs faithfully predicts neural-specific gene activity. Thus, an unexpectedly simple transcriptional paradigm appears to conceptually explain the neural-specific interpretation of pleiotropic signaling during vertebrate development. Importantly, genes induced in a SoxB1-dependent manner appear to constitute repressive gene regulatory networks that are directly interlinked at the CRM level to constrain the regional expression of patterning genes. Accordingly, not only does the topology of SoxB1-driven gene regulatory networks provide a tissue-specific mode of gene activation, but it also determines the spatial expression pattern of target genes within the developing neural tube.

  6. Association of CYP1B1 with hypersensitivity induced by taxane therapy in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Roberta; Spaggiari, Federica; Indelli, Monica; Lelli, Giorgio; Baricordi, Olavio R; Rimessi, Paola; Ferlini, Alessandra

    2010-11-01

    Taxanes represent a group of anticancer drugs with a wide range of activity against breast cancer. Therapy side effects include haematologic toxicity (neutropenia, leucopenia), peripheral neuropathy and hypersensitivity, and demonstrate inter-individual variations. Since it is known that three genes are implicated in taxane turnover, namely ABCB1 in the transport, CYP2C8 in the metabolism and CYP1B1 in the activity, we explored the association among polymorphisms (single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) in these three genes and the occurrence of taxane-induced toxicity. We studied 95 patients affected by breast cancer and under treatment with taxanes as adjuvant, metastatic or neo-adjuvant therapy. We genotyped them for SNPs in the CYP2C8 (alleles *1, *2, *3 and *4), CYP1B1 (alleles *1 and *3) and ABCB1 (1236 C>T; 2677 G>T/A; 3435 C>T) genes by real-time PCR assay. We observed a significant association between the CYP1B1*3 allele and a lower occurrence of hypersensitivity reactions to taxane treatment. We speculate that the highest production of 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE2) metabolite by CYP1B1*3 allele could increase the formation of the 4-OHE2-taxane adduct and possibly inhibit taxane toxicity. We suggest that CYP1B1 might affect taxane hypersensitivity therefore representing, if confirmed in a large cohort of patients, an exploratory hypersensitivity predictive biomarker.

  7. CYP1B1 polymorphisms and k-ras mutations in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous-Bou, Marta; De Vivo, Immaculata; Porta, Miquel; Pumarega, José A; López, Tomàs; Alguacil, Joan; Morales, Eva; Malats, Núria; Rifà, Juli; Hunter, David J; Real, Francisco X

    2008-05-01

    The frequency of CYP1B1 polymorphisms in pancreatic cancer has never been reported. There is also no evidence on the relationship between CYP1B1 variants and mutations in ras genes (K-, H- or N-ras) in any human neoplasm. We analyzed the following CYP1B1 polymorphisms in 129 incident cases of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA): the m1 allele (Val to Leu at codon 432) and the m2 allele (Asn to Ser at codon 453). The calculated frequencies for the m1 Val and m2 Asn alleles were 0.45 and 0.68, respectively. CYP1B1 genotypes were out of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium; this was largely due to K-ras mutated PDA cases. The Val/Val genotype was over five times more frequent in PDA cases with a K-ras mutation than in wild-type cases (OR = 5.25; P = 0.121). In PDA, polymorphisms in CYP1B1 might be related with K-ras activation pathways.

  8. Herschel Observations of a Potential Core Forming Clump: Perseus B1-E

    CERN Document Server

    Sadavoy, S I; Andre, Ph; Pezzuto, S; Bernard, J -P; Bontemps, S; Bressert, E; Chitsazzadeh, S; Fallscheer, C; Hennemann, M; Hill, T; Martin, P; Motte, F; Luong, Q Nguyen; Peretto, N; Reid, M; Schneider, N; Testi, L; White, G J; Wilson, C

    2011-01-01

    We present continuum observations of the Perseus B1-E region from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey. These Herschel data reveal a loose grouping of substructures at 160 - 500 micron not seen in previous submillimetre observations. We measure temperature and column density from these data and select the nine densest and coolest substructures for follow-up spectral line observations with the Green Bank Telescope. We find that the B1-E clump has a mass of ~ 100 solar masses and appears to be gravitationally bound. Furthermore, of the nine substructures examined here, one substructure (B1-E2) appears to be itself bound. The substructures are typically less than a Jeans length from their nearest neighbour and thus, may interact on a timescale of ~ 1 Myr. We propose that B1-E may be forming a first generation of dense cores, which could provide important constraints on the initial conditions of prestellar core formation. Our results suggest that B1-E may be influenced by a strong, localized magnetic field, but further...

  9. Herschel observations of a potential core-forming clump: Perseus B1-E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadavoy, S. I.; di Francesco, J.; André, Ph.; Pezzuto, S.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bontemps, S.; Bressert, E.; Chitsazzadeh, S.; Fallscheer, C.; Hennemann, M.; Hill, T.; Martin, P.; Motte, F.; Nguyen Luong, Q.; Peretto, N.; Reid, M.; Schneider, N.; Testi, L.; White, G. J.; Wilson, C.

    2012-04-01

    We present continuum observations of the Perseus B1-E region from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey. These Herschel data reveal a loose grouping of substructures at 160-500 μm not seen in previous submillimetre observations. We measure temperature and column density from these data and select the nine densest and coolest substructures for follow-up spectral line observations with the Green Bank Telescope. We find that the B1-E clump has a mass of ~100 M⊙ and appears to be gravitationally bound. Furthermore, of the nine substructures examined here, one substructure (B1-E2) appears to be itself bound. The substructures are typically less than a Jeans length from their nearest neighbour and thus, may interact on a timescale of ~1 Myr. We propose that B1-E may be forming a first generation of dense cores, which could provide important constraints on the initial conditions of prestellar core formation. Our results suggest that B1-E may be influenced by a strong, localized magnetic field, but further observations are still required.

  10. Determination of Vitamin B1 in Pharmaceutical Preparations by Flow-injection Analysis with Biamperometric Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li-jun; CHENG Hao; ZHAO Chuan; HU Xiao-ge

    2005-01-01

    A new electrochemical method for the on-line determination of vitamin B1 is presented. Based on dead-stop endpoint biamperometry by using two platinum foil electrodes with an applied potential difference of 150 mV, vitamin B1can be oxidized by hexacyanoferrate ( Ⅲ ) in a sodium hydroxide medium via a reversible indicating couple Fe( CN)64-/Fe(CN)63-. The cell current is linear with the concentration of vitamin B1 in the concentration range of 4.0×10-6-1.0 × 10-3 mol/L with a detection limit of 8.0×10-7 mol/L(0. 27 μg/mL). Most familiar excipients,ions and vitamins do not interfere with the determination of vitamin B1. The method displays the advantages of simplicity, high efficiency( 180 samples/h), and high selectivity, and is suitable for the determination of vitamin B1 in pharmaceutical preparations.

  11. Structures of the ozonolysis products and ozonolysis pathway of aflatoxin B1 in acetonitrile solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Enjie; Shan, Changpo; Hou, Hanxue; Wang, Shanshan; Li, Minghua; Dong, Haizhou

    2012-09-12

    The ozonolysis of aflatoxin B(1) (400 μg/mL) in acetonitrile solution was conducted with an ozone concentration of 6.28 mg/L at the flow rate of 60 mL/min for different times. The results showed that ozone was an effective detoxification agent because of its powerful oxidative role. Thin-layer chromatography and liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectra were applied to confirm and identify the ozonolysis products of aflatoxin B(1). A total of 13 products were identified, and 6 of them were main products. The structural identification of these products provided effective information for understanding the ozonolysis pathway of aflatoxin B(1). Two ozonolysis pathways were proposed on the basis of the accurate mass and molecular formulas of these product ions. Nine ozonolysis products came from the first oxidative pathway based on the Criegee mechanism, and the other four products were produced from the second pathway based on the oxidative and electrophilic reactions of ozone. According to the toxicity mechanism of aflatoxin B(1) to animals, the toxicity of aflatoxin B(1) was significantly reduced because of the disappearance of the double bond on the terminal furan ring or the lactone moiety on the benzene ring.

  12. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Takeshi; Iida, Masaaki; Moriki, Yasuyuki

    1994-10-18

    A reactor core is divided into a plurality of coolants flowrate regions, and electromagnetic pumps exclusively used for each of the flowrate regions are disposed to distribute coolants flowrates in the reactor core. Further, the flowrate of each of the electromagnetic pumps is automatically controlled depending on signals from a temperature detector disposed at the exit of the reactor core, so that the flowrate of the region can be controlled optimally depending on the burning of reactor core fuels. Then, the electromagnetic pumps disposed for every divided region are controlled respectively, so that the coolants flowrate distribution suitable to each of the regions can be attained. Margin for fuel design is decreased, fuels are used effectively, as well as an operation efficiency can be improved. Moreover, since the electromagnetic pump has less flow resistance compared with a mechanical type pump, and flow resistance of the reactor core flowrate control mechanism is eliminated, greater circulating flowrate can be ensured after occurrence of accident in a natural convection using a buoyancy of coolants utilizable for after-heat removal as a driving force. (N.H.).

  13. Reactor Structural Materials: Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaouadi, R

    2000-07-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on Rector Pressure Vessel (RPV) Steels are:(1) to complete the fracture toughness data bank of various reactor pressure vessel steels by using precracked Charpy specimens that were tested statically as well as dynamically; (2) to implement the enhanced surveillance approach in a user-friendly software; (3) to improve the existing reconstitution technology by reducing the input energy (short cycle welding) and modifying the stud geometry. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported.

  14. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-08-01

    Paper presented at the 29th IECEC in Monterey, CA in August 1994. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their (thermionic reactor) performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling.

  15. Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Lanin, Anatoly

    2013-01-01

    The development of a nuclear rocket engine reactor (NRER ) is presented in this book. The working capacity of an active zone NRER under mechanical and thermal load, intensive neutron fluxes, high energy generation (up to 30 MBT/l) in a working medium (hydrogen) at temperatures up to 3100 K is displayed. Design principles and bearing capacity of reactors area discussed on the basis of simulation experiments and test data of a prototype reactor. Property data of dense constructional, porous thermal insulating and fuel materials like carbide and uranium carbide compounds in the temperatures interval 300 - 3000 K are presented. Technological aspects of strength and thermal strength resistance of materials are considered. The design procedure of possible emergency processes in the NRER is developed and risks for their origination are evaluated. Prospects of the NRER development for pilotless space devices and piloted interplanetary ships are viewed.

  16. Operation of Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    3.1 Annual Report of SPR Operation Chu Shaochu Having overseen by National Nuclear Safety Administration and specialists, the reactor restarted up successfully after Safety renovation on April 16, 1996. In August 1996 the normal operation of SPR was approved by the authorities of Naitonal Nuclear Safety Administration. 1 Operation status In 1996, the reactor operated safely for 40 d and the energy released was about 137.3 MW·d. The operation status of SPR is shown in table 1. The reactor started up to higher power (power more than 1 MW) and lower power (for physics experiments) 4 times and 14 times respectively. Measurement of control rod efficiency and other measurement tasks were 2 times and 5 times respectively.

  17. Inhibition effects of Chinese cabbage powder on aflatoxin B1-induced liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tuoyi; Li, Chunyan; Liu, Yang; Li, Tiezhu; Zhang, Jie; Sun, Yonghai

    2015-11-01

    In this study, 0.25 μg/ml aflatoxin B1 was used to establish a liver cancer model for assessing the potential anticancer ability of Chinese cabbage powder, which is a complex water-soluble extract from Chinese cabbage by spray-drying at an outlet temperature of 130 °C. We found at least 11 potential anticancer substances in Chinese cabbage powder. A 90-d animal experiment demonstrated that 10% of Chinese cabbage powder in drinking water could improve the plasma micronutrient status, inhibit the formation of aflatoxin B1-DNA adducts in liver cells, and effectively reduce the incidence of liver tumor induced by aflatoxin B1 from 6.67% to 0%. The dose effect experiment revealed that 10% may be the minimal effective dose to prevent the occurrence of early liver tumors. This study will help elucidate the basis of epidemiological observations of dietary cancer prevention in humans, as well as explore related mechanisms.

  18. Altered response to benzodiazepine anxiolytics in mice lacking GABA B(1) receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mombereau, Cedric; Kaupmann, Klemens; van der Putten, Herman; Cryan, John F

    2004-08-16

    Recently, we demonstrated that mice lacking the GABA(B(1)) subunit were more anxious than wild-type animals in several behavioural paradigms, most notably in the light-dark test. In an attempt to assess the effects of classical benzodiazepine anxiolytics on anxiety-like behaviour observed in these mice, animals were administered either chlordiazepoxide (10 mg/kg, p.o.) or diazepam (7.5 mg/kg, p.o.) prior to testing in the light-dark box. Surprisingly, in contrast with the wild-type mice, neither benzodiazepines decreased anxiety-like behaviour in GABA(B(1))(-/-) mice. These data suggest that targeted deletion of GABA(B(1)) subunit alters GABA(A) receptor function in vivo.

  19. Targeting the SR-B1 receptor as a gateway for cancer therapy and tumor imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda K Mooberry

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant tumors display remarkable heterogeneity to the extent that even at the same tissue site different types of cells with varying genetic background may be found. In contrast, a relatively consistent marker the scavenger receptor type B1 (SR-B1 has been found to be consistently over expressed by most tumor cells. In addition, the SR-B1 receptor has been shown to serve as a potential gateway for the delivery of therapeutic agents when reconstituted high density lipoprotein (rHDL nanoparticles are used for their transport to cancer cells and tumors. Opportunities for the development of new technologies, particularly in the areas of cancer therapy and tumor imaging are discussed.

  20. Oligomerization of Vibrio cholerae Hemolysin Induces CXCR3 Upregulation and Activation of B-1a Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gayatri Mukherjee; Kalyan K Banerjee; Tapas Biswas

    2008-01-01

    The hemolysin oligomer promotes the proliferation of B-1a cells and the expression of CD25, which is indicative of cell activation, on B-1a cells. The upregulation of CD86 induced by the oligomer showed its selective bias for the B7-2 member of B7 family while the monomer failed to induce these effects. The oligomer induced the expression of CXCR3, associated with B cell activation, while the monomer induced the expression of CXCL4, a powerful angiostatic chemokine. In conclusion, we found that B-1a cells responded to the apoptogenic monomer by expressing CXCL4, whereas oligomerization of the immunogen induced CXCR3 to shift the response towards activation. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2008;5(3):231-234.

  1. Aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol production on irradiated corn kernels: Influence of inoculum size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnoli, C; Etcheverry, M G; Cavaglieri, L; Saenz, M; Alvarez, G; Lecumberry, S

    1998-03-01

    The influence of inoculum size on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEN) and deoxynivalenol (DON) production was examined on irradiated corn kernels.Spore concentrations were determined in serial dilutions and adjusted to 10,10(2),10(3),10(5) and 10(6) spores/ml. Aflatoxin B1 production was dependent on the inoculum size. The high levels of aflatoxin B1 produced byA. parasiticus (21 and 30 mg/kg) were obtained with 10(2) and 10(3) spores/ml after 35 and 20 days incubation. There was no spore concentration influence on zearalenone and deoxynivalenol production after 10, 20 and 35 days incubation. At 28°C and 0.97 water activity (aw), the mean levels of zearalenone production were 382, 267 and 520 µg/kg and the mean levels on deoxynivalenol production were 697,465 and 782 µg/kg.

  2. Studies on Non-potentiometric Piezoelectric Sensor System for Determination of Vitamin B1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Jin-bin; NIE Li-hua; YAO Shou-zhuo

    2003-01-01

    A piezoelectric sensor responsive to vitamin B1 was fabricated based on the vitamin B1-tetraphenylborate ion pair. The general performance characteristics of the sensor are presented here. The proposed sensor showed a wide working pH range, a good sensitivity and selectivity. The response range is between 1.0×10-7-4.9×10-5 mol/L with a detection limit of 8×10-8 mol/L at pH 4.0. The selectivity should be attributed to the preferential adsorption of the component ion on the membrane/solution interface. The adsorption behavior of vitamin B1 on the crystal surface was investigated with a quartz crystal impedance(QCI) system.

  3. Intrinsic fluorescence spectra characteristics of vitamin B1, B2, and B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Xiao, Xue; Zhao, Xuesong; Hu, Lan; Lv, Caofang; Yin, Zhangkun

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the intrinsic fluorescence characteristics of vitamin B1, B2 and B6 measured with 3D fluorescence Spectrophotometer. Three strong fluorescence areas of vitamin B2 locate at λex/λem=270/525nm, 370/525nm and 450/525nm, one fluorescence areas of vitamin B1 locates at λex/λem=370/460nm, two fluorescence areas of vitamin B6 locates at λex/λem=250/370nm and 325/370nm were found. The influence of pH of solution to the fluorescence profile was also discussed. Using the PARAFAC algorithm, 10 vitamin B1, B2 and B6 mixed solutions were successfully decomposed, and the emission profiles, excitation profiles, central wavelengths and the concentration of the three components were retrieved precisely through about 5 iteration times.

  4. Extracellular roles of high-mobility-group B1%高迁移率族蛋白B1的细胞核外作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠堂; 姚咏明; 盛志勇

    2004-01-01

    High-mobility-group B1 (HMGB1), an abundant, highly conserved cellular protein, is widely known as a nuclear DNA - binding protein that stabilizes nucleosome formation, and facilitates gene transcription. Recent studies suggested that HMGBI could be overexpressed and released from cellular nucleosome upon endotoxin and cytokine stimulation, or other stress challenge including bums, shock, as well as infection.Therefore, extracellular HMGB1 might be involved in the pathogenesis of sepsis and subsequent multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Moreover, experimental data showedextracellular HMGB1 might play vital roles in nerves development, tumor metastasis, atherosclerosis and restenosis after vascular damage.

  5. An Overview of Reactor Concepts, a Survey of Reactor Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    Public Affairs Office and is releasaole to the National Technical Information Services (NTIS). At NTIS, it will be available to the general public...Reactors that use deu- terium (heavy water) as a coolant can use natural uranium as a fuel. The * Canadian reactor, CANDU , utilizes this concept...reactor core at the top and discharged at the Dotton while the reactor is in operation. The discharged fuel can then b inspected to see if it can De used

  6. Oscillatory flow chemical reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavnić Danijela S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global market competition, increase in energy and other production costs, demands for high quality products and reduction of waste are forcing pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and biochemical industries, to search for radical solutions. One of the most effective ways to improve the overall production (cost reduction and better control of reactions is a transition from batch to continuous processes. However, the reactions of interests for the mentioned industry sectors are often slow, thus continuous tubular reactors would be impractically long for flow regimes which provide sufficient heat and mass transfer and narrow residence time distribution. The oscillatory flow reactors (OFR are newer type of tube reactors which can offer solution by providing continuous operation with approximately plug flow pattern, low shear stress rates and enhanced mass and heat transfer. These benefits are the result of very good mixing in OFR achieved by vortex generation. OFR consists of cylindrical tube containing equally spaced orifice baffles. Fluid oscillations are superimposed on a net (laminar flow. Eddies are generated when oscillating fluid collides with baffles and passes through orifices. Generation and propagation of vortices create uniform mixing in each reactor cavity (between baffles, providing an overall flow pattern which is close to plug flow. Oscillations can be created by direct action of a piston or a diaphragm on fluid (or alternatively on baffles. This article provides an overview of oscillatory flow reactor technology, its operating principles and basic design and scale - up characteristics. Further, the article reviews the key research findings in heat and mass transfer, shear stress, residence time distribution in OFR, presenting their advantages over the conventional reactors. Finally, relevant process intensification examples from pharmaceutical, polymer and biofuels industries are presented.

  7. Montmorillonite modified with copper ions: Efficient adsorbent for aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daković Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the results of preparation of material for adsorption of aflatoxin B1, based on modification of montmorillonite with copper ions (Cu-MONT, are presented. The bentonite clay from Sokolac deposit (Šipovo, Bosnia was used as the starting raw material. After modification of concentrate of montmorillonite (MONT with copper, the content of copper in Cu-MONT, was 2.65%. It was shown that MONT, as well as the Cu-MONT were efficient in adsorption of aflatoxin B1, at different mass ratios of adsorbent : toxin, and at different pH values. It was determined that for MONT, at the mass ratio adsorbent : toxin = 5000 : 1, aflatoxin B1 adsorption index was 100% at pH 3, 98% at pH 7 and 96% at pH 9. For Cu-MONT, at the same mass ratio, the following aflatoxin B1 adsorption indexes were achieved: 98% at pH 3, 98% at pH 7 and 96% at pH 9. No differences in adsorption of this toxin by both montmorillonites with decreasing the mass ratio of adsorbent : toxin (250 : 1 were observed. That means that ion exchange of inorganic cations in montmorillonite with copper ions did not cause any changes in aflatoxin B1 adsorption, at pH 3, as well as at pH 7 and 9. It was also noticed that adsorption of aflatoxin B1 by MONT and Cu-MONT was not pH dependent.

  8. Moulds identification and detection of aflatoxin B1 on commercial codiments fermented of shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOOR SOESANTI HANDAJANI

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian tropical climate have an opportunity for fungi growth as Aspergillus flavus Link which can produce aflatoxin within foodstuffs, include condiment of fermented shrimp. Aflatoxin B1 is the dangerous agent having roles as carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic. The aims of this research were known kinds of moulds and detection of aflatoxin B1 on commercial condiments fermented of shrimp. Two brands of commercial condiments fermented of shrimp were taken from traditional markets and supermarkets in Surakarta. Isolation was done by made suspension of sample in aquadets. Suspension on appropriate dilutions was grown on CDA (Czapek’s Dox Agar media with surface spread. The grown colonies were separated and grown on PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar slant media. Furthermore, isolates were cultured on CDA and MEA (Malt Extract Agar media. The grown colonies were microscopes and microscopes examined and identified. Existence of aflatoxin B1 was known by Commercial RIDA Screen ELISA Kit that could detect qualitatively and quantitatively with detection sensitive < 1.7 ppb. Moulds that could be isolated from condiments fermented of shrimp were: Aspergillus flavus Link, Aspergillus niger van Tieghem, Aspergillus wentii Wehmer, Aspergillus PU1 or Aspergillus PU2 and Penicillium citrinum Thom. There was aflatoxin B1 contaminated to 2 brands of commercial condiments fermented of shrimp that were examined. Traditional markets’ commercial condiments fermented of shrimp contained higher aflatoxin B1 than supermarkets’. The brands of commercial condiment of fermented shrimp which had better inner package quality contained lower aflatoxin B1 than the worst inner package quality of commercial condiments of fermented of shrimp.

  9. Cdc2/cyclin B1 regulates centrosomal Nlp proteolysis and subcellular localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuelian; Jin, Shunqian; Song, Yongmei; Zhan, Qimin

    2010-11-01

    The formation of proper mitotic spindles is required for appropriate chromosome segregation during cell division. Aberrant spindle formation often causes aneuploidy and results in tumorigenesis. However, the underlying mechanism of regulating spindle formation and chromosome separation remains to be further defined. Centrosomal Nlp (ninein-like protein) is a recently characterized BRCA1-regulated centrosomal protein and plays an important role in centrosome maturation and spindle formation. In this study, we show that Nlp can be phosphorylated by cell cycle protein kinase Cdc2/cyclin B1. The phosphorylation sites of Nlp are mapped at Ser185 and Ser589. Interestingly, the Cdc2/cyclin B1 phosphorylation site Ser185 of Nlp is required for its recognition by PLK1, which enable Nlp depart from centrosomes to allow the establishment of a mitotic scaffold at the onset of mitosis . PLK1 fails to dissociate the Nlp mutant lacking Ser185 from centrosome, suggesting that Cdc2/cyclin B1 might serve as a primary kinase of PLK1 in regulating Nlp subcellular localization. However, the phosphorylation at the site Ser589 by Cdc2/cyclin B1 plays an important role in Nlp protein stability probably due to its effect on protein degradation. Furthermore, we show that deregulated expression or subcellular localization of Nlp lead to multinuclei in cells, indicating that scheduled levels of Nlp and proper subcellular localization of Nlp are critical for successful completion of normal cell mitosis, These findings demonstrate that Cdc2/cyclin B1 is a key regulator in maintaining appropriate degradation and subcellular localization of Nlp, providing novel insights into understanding on the role of Cdc2/cyclin B1 in mitotic progression.

  10. Perspectives on reactor safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskin, F.E. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Camp, A.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) maintains a technical training center at Chattanooga, Tennessee to provide appropriate training to both new and experienced NRC employees. This document describes a one-week course in reactor, safety concepts. The course consists of five modules: (1) historical perspective; (2) accident sequences; (3) accident progression in the reactor vessel; (4) containment characteristics and design bases; and (5) source terms and offsite consequences. The course text is accompanied by slides and videos during the actual presentation of the course.

  11. Reactor Materials Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Walle, E

    2002-04-01

    The activities of SCK-CEN's Reactor Materials Research Department for 2001 are summarised. The objectives of the department are: (1) to evaluate the integrity and behaviour of structural materials used in nuclear power industry; (2) to conduct research to unravel and understand the parameters that determine the material behaviour under or after irradiation; (3) to contribute to the interpretation, the modelling of the material behaviour and to develop and assess strategies for optimum life management of nuclear power plant components. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (2) nuclear fuel; and (3) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel.

  12. The induction of neoplastic lesions by aflatoxin-B1 in the Egyptian toad (Bufo regularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Mofty, M M; Sakr, S A

    1988-01-01

    The carcinogenic activity of aflatoxin-B1, the metabolic product of the mold Aspergillus flavus (a commonly occurring contaminant of groundnuts and other foodstuffs), was tested using the Egyptian toad (Bufo regularis). Injecting the toads with aflatoxin-B1 at a dose level of 0.01 mg/50 g body wt in 1 ml corn oil once a week for 15 weeks induced hepatocellular carcinomas in 19% of the experimental toads. Four toads developed tumors in the kidney due to metastases from the primary hepatocellular carcinomas.

  13. Microwave assisted convenient synthesis of quino[2,3-b][1,5]benzoxazepines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Swapnil S.Sonar; Sandip A.Sadaphal; Shivaji S.Pawar; Bapurao B.Shingate; Murlidhar S.Shingare

    2009-01-01

    A convenient synthesis of quino[2,3-b][1,5]benzoxazepines from substituted 2-chloroquinoline-3-carbaldehyde and 2-hydroxy-aniline by using stable,non-toxic and inexpensive catalyst 1,8-diazabicyclo-undecan-7-ene (DBU)/silica gel is described.This method affords the quino[2,3-b][1,5]benzoxazepines under the influence of microwave irradiation (360 W) in solvent-free conditions within short reaction times (2-3 min),giving high yields of products (93-96%).

  14. Biotechnological Fluorescent Ligands of the Bradykinin B1 Receptor: Protein Ligands for a Peptide Receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Charest-Morin

    Full Text Available The bradykinin (BK B1 receptor (B1R is a peculiar G protein coupled receptor that is strongly regulated to the point of being inducible in immunopathology. Limited clinical evidence suggests that its expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells is a biomarker of active inflammatory states. In an effort to develop a novel imaging/diagnostic tool, we report the rational design and testing of a fusion protein that is a ligand of the human B1R but not likely to label peptidases. This ligand is composed of a fluorescent protein (FP (enhanced green FP [EGFP] or mCherry prolonged at its N-terminus by a spacer peptide and a classical peptide agonist or antagonist (des-Arg9-BK, [Leu8]des-Arg9-BK, respectively. The design of the spacer-ligand joint peptide was validated by a competition assay for [3H]Lys-des-Arg9-BK binding to the human B1R applied to 4 synthetic peptides of 18 or 19 residues. The labeling of B1R-expressing cells with EGFP or mCherry fused with 7 of such peptides was performed in parallel (microscopy. Both assays indicated that the best design was FP-(Asn-Glyn-Lys-des-Arg9-BK; n = 15 was superior to n = 5, suggesting benefits from minimizing steric hindrance between the FP and the receptor. Cell labeling concerned mostly plasma membranes and was inhibited by a B1R antagonist. EGFP-(Asn-Gly15-Lys-des-Arg9-BK competed for the binding of [3H]Lys-des-Arg9-BK to human recombinant B1R, being only 10-fold less potent than the unlabeled form of Lys-des-Arg9-BK to do so. The fusion protein did not label HEK 293a cells expressing recombinant human BK B2 receptors or angiotensin converting enzyme. This study identifies a modular C-terminal sequence that can be adapted to protein cargoes, conferring high affinity for the BK B1R, with possible applications in diagnostic cytofluorometry, histology and drug delivery (e.g., in oncology.

  15. Kinin B1 receptors contributes to acute pain following minor surgery in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahim Jaime S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kinins play an important role in regulation of pain and hyperalgesia after tissue injury and inflammation by activating two types of G-protein-coupled receptors, the kinin B1 and B2 receptors. It is generally accepted that the B2 receptor is constitutively expressed, whereas the B1 receptor is induced in response to inflammation. However, little is known about the regulatory effects of kinin receptors on the onset of acute inflammation and inflammatory pain in humans. The present study investigated the changes in gene expression of kinin receptors and the levels of their endogenous ligands at an early time point following tissue injury and their relation to clinical pain, as well as the effect of COX-inhibition on their expression levels. Results Tissue injury resulted in a significant up-regulation in the gene expression of B1 and B2 receptors at 3 hours post-surgery, the onset of acute inflammatory pain. Interestingly, the up-regulation in the gene expression of B1 and B2 receptors was positively correlated to pain intensity only after ketorolac treatment, signifying an interaction between prostaglandins and kinins in the inflammatory pain process. Further, the gene expression of both B1 and B2 receptors were correlated. Following tissue injury, B1 ligands des-Arg9-BK and des-Arg10-KD were significantly lower at the third hour compared to the first 2 hours in both the placebo and the ketorolac treatment groups but did not differ significantly between groups. Tissue injury also resulted in the down-regulation of TRPV1 gene expression at 3 hours post-surgery with no significant effect by ketorolac treatment. Interestingly, the change in gene expression of TRPV1 was correlated to the change in gene expression of B1 receptor but not B2 receptor. Conclusions These results provide evidence at the transcriptional level in a clinical model of tissue injury that up-regulation of kinin receptors are involved in the development of the

  16. Initial Observations of Fruit Fly;s Flight with its b1 Motor Neuron Altered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. Jane; Melfi, James, Jr.

    2015-11-01

    Recently we have suggested that one of the fly's 17 steering muscles, the first basalar muscle (b1) is responsible for maintaining flight stability. To test this, we compare the flight behavior of normal flies with genetically modified flies whose motor neuron to the b1 muscle is silenced. We report our initial observation of the difference and similarity between these two lines supplied by Janelia Farm. We also discuss the basic question for quantifying flight, what makes a good flier? Partly supported by the Visiting Scientist program at HHMI-Janelia Farm.

  17. 26 CFR 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information by other agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... other agencies. 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 Section 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 Disclosure of returns and return information... regulations thereunder, including, if applicable, safeguards imposed by section 6103(p)(4). (d) Records...

  18. Reactor operation environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselow, J.S.; Price, V.; Stephenson, D.E.; Bledsoe, H.W.; Looney, B.B.

    1989-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) produces nuclear materials, primarily plutonium and tritium, to meet the requirements of the Department of Defense. These products have been formed in nuclear reactors that were built during 1950--1955 at the SRS. K, L, and P reactors are three of five reactors that have been used in the past to produce the nuclear materials. All three of these reactors discontinued operation in 1988. Currently, intense efforts are being extended to prepare these three reactors for restart in a manner that protects human health and the environment. To document that restarting the reactors will have minimal impacts to human health and the environment, a three-volume Reactor Operations Environmental Impact Document has been prepared. The document focuses on the impacts of restarting the K, L, and P reactors on both the SRS and surrounding areas. This volume discusses the geology, seismology, and subsurface hydrology. 195 refs., 101 figs., 16 tabs.

  19. High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HFIR at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a light-water cooled and moderated reactor that is the United States’ highest flux reactor-based neutron source. HFIR...

  20. Cytotoxic assessment of the regulated, co-existing mycotoxins aflatoxin B1, fumonisin B1 and ochratoxin, in single, binary and tertiary mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Rachel; Connolly, Lisa; Frizzell, Caroline; Elliott, Christopher T

    2014-11-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are contaminants which have been shown to regularly co-occur in a range of foods. However, only a small number of studies have evaluated the interactive effect of binary and tertiary mycotoxins. The present study evaluated the effects of low levels of each mycotoxin in combination at their EU regulatory limits. Toxic effect with respect to cell viability was measured by MTT and neutral red assays, assessing mitochondria and lysosome integrities respectively. Individual toxicity showed that OTA (10 μg/ml) was the most cytotoxic mycotoxin in all three cell lines studied (caco-2, MDBK and raw 264.7). Binary combinations were cytotoxic to the MDBK cell line in the order [OTA/FB1] > [AFB1/FB1] > [AFB1/OTA], whilst all effects observed were classified as being additive. Tertiary combinations of AFB1, FB1 and OTA at the EU regulatory limits were tested and not found to exhibit measurable cytotoxicity in MDBK, caco-2 or raw 264.7 cells. However by increasing these concentrations above the legal limits to OTA (3 μg/ml), FB1 (8 μg/ml) and AFB1 (1.28 μg/ml), cytotoxicity was observed with up to 26% reduction in cell viability and synergistic effects were evident with regard to mitochondrial integrity.

  1. Reactor operation safety information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The report contains a reactor facility description which includes K, P, and L reactor sites, structures, operating systems, engineered safety systems, support systems, and process and effluent monitoring systems; an accident analysis section which includes cooling system anomalies, radioactive materials releases, and anticipated transients without scram; a summary of onsite doses from design basis accidents; severe accident analysis (reactor core disruption); a description of operating contractor organization and emergency planning; and a summary of reactor safety evolution. (MB)

  2. Thermal Reactor Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning fire risk and protection; transient thermal-hydraulic analysis and experiments; class 9 accidents and containment; diagnostics and in-service inspection; risk and cost comparison of alternative electric energy sources; fuel behavior and experiments on core cooling in LOCAs; reactor event reporting analysis; equipment qualification; post facts analysis of the TMI-2 accident; and computational methods.

  3. Chromatographic and Related Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-07

    special information about effects of surface heteroge- neity in the methanation reaction. Studies of an efficient multicolumn assembly for measuring...of organic basic catalysts such as pyridine and 4-methylpicoline. It was demonstrated that the chromatographic reactor gave special information about...Programmed Reaction to obtain special information about surface heterogeneity in the methanation reaction. Advantages of stopped flow over steady state

  4. Nuclear Reactors and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C. [eds.

    1992-01-01

    This publication Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on the Energy Science and Technology Database and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.

  5. Fusion reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1989-01-01

    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics.

  6. WATER BOILER REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L.D.P.

    1960-11-22

    As its name implies, this reactor utilizes an aqueous solution of a fissionable element salt, and is also conventional in that it contains a heat exchanger cooling coil immersed in the fuel. Its novelty lies in the utilization of a cylindrical reactor vessel to provide a critical region having a large and constant interface with a supernatant vapor region, and the use of a hollow sleeve coolant member suspended from the cover assembly in coaxial relation with the reactor vessel. Cool water is circulated inside this hollow coolant member, and a gap between its outer wall and the reactor vessel is used to carry off radiolytic gases for recombination in an external catalyst chamber. The central passage of the coolant member defines a reflux condenser passage into which the externally recombined gases are returned and condensed. The large and constant interface between fuel solution and vapor region prevents the formation of large bubbles and minimizes the amount of fuel salt carried off by water vapor, thus making possible higher flux densities, specific powers and power densities.

  7. The First Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    On December 2, 1942, in a racquet court underneath the West Stands of Stagg Field at the University of Chicago, a team of scientists led by Enrico Fermi created the first controlled, self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction. This updated and revised story of the first reactor (or "pile") is based on postwar interviews (as told to Corbin…

  8. MULTISTAGE FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonke, A.A.; Graae, J.E.A.; Levitz, N.M.

    1959-11-01

    A multistage fluidized bed reactor is described in which each of a number of stages is arranged with respect to an associated baffle so that a fluidizing gas flows upward and a granular solid downward through the stages and baffles, whereas the granular solid stopsflowing downward when the flow of fluidizing gas is shut off.

  9. Emericella astellata, a new producer of aflatoxin B-1, B-2 and sterigmatocystin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R.A.; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    To report on aflatoxin B-1 and B-2 production from a species of Emericella. Methods and Results: Aflatoxins and sterigmatocystin were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection and confirmed by HPLC with mass spectrometry detection. Among 30 known species ...

  10. Effect of fumonisin B1 on rat hepatic P450 system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spotti, M.; Maas, R.F.M.; Nijs, C.M. de; Fink-Gremmels, J.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1) on the hepatic cytochrome P450 system were investigated in male rats dosed daily by oral gavage with 3 mg FB1 per kg body weight for 9 consecutive days. FB1 treatment resulted in a reduced weight gain. At the same time, CYP2E activity was increased, wh

  11. Effect of fungicide on Fusarium verticillioides mycelial morphology and fumonisin B 1 production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Tatiana de Á.; Bordini, Jaqueline G.; Saito, Gervásio H.; Andrade, Célia G.T. de J.; Ono, Mario A.; Hirooka, Elisa Y.; Vizoni, Édio; Ono, Elisabete Y.S.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M on the mycelial morphology, sporulation and fumonisin B 1 production by Fusarium verticillioides 103 F was evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the fungicide caused inhibition of hyphal growth and defects on hyphae morphology such as cell wall disruption, withered hyphae, and excessive septation. In addition, extracellular material around the hyphae was rarely observed in the presence of fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M. While promoting the reduction of mycelial growth, the fungicide increased sporulation of F. verticillioides compared to the control, and the highest production occurred on the 14 th day in the treatments and on the 10 th day in the control cultures. Fumonisin B 1 production in the culture media containing the fungicide (treatment) was detected from the 7 th day incubation, whereas in cultures without fungicide (control) it was detected on the 10 th day. The highest fumonisin B 1 production occurred on the 14 th day, both for the control and for the treatment. Fludioxonil + metalaxyl - M can interfere in F. verticillioides mycelial morphology and sporulation and increase fumonisin B 1 levels. These data indicate the importance of understanding the effects of fungicide to minimize the occurrence of toxigenic fungi and fumonisins. PMID:26221120

  12. Regression of Aflatoxin B1-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinomas by Reduced Glutathione

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novi, Anna M.

    1981-05-01

    Reduced glutathione administered to rats bearing aflatoxin B1-induced liver tumors caused regression of tumor growth and resulted in survival of the animals. Since glutathione is a harmless natural product, it merits further investigation as a potential antitumor drug for humans.

  13. Chromatin looping and epigenetic regulation at the maize b1 locus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwers, M.L.D.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, the effect of epigenetic regulation on long-range chromatin looping is studied. As a model system we used two maize b1 epialleles involved in paramutation. Paramutation entails a trans-interaction between two alleles whereby one allele heritably changes the expression level of the ot

  14. Improved method for quantitative analysis of the cyclotide kalata B1 in plasma and brain homogenate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Camilla; Jansson, Britt; Göransson, Ulf; Hammarlund‐Udenaes, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study provides a new method for quantifying the cyclotide kalata B1 in both plasma and brain homogenate. Cyclotides are ultra‐stable peptides with three disulfide bonds that are interesting from a drug development perspective as they can be used as scaffolds. In this study we describe a new validated LC‐MS/MS method with high sensitivity and specificity for kalata B1. The limit of quantification was 2 ng/mL in plasma and 5 ng/gmL in brain homogenate. The method was linear in the range 2–10,000 ng/mL for plasma and 5–2000 ng/g for brain. Liquid Chromatographic separation was performed on a HyPurity C18 column, 50 × 4.6 mm, 3 µm particle size. The method had inter‐ and intra‐day precision and accuracy levels <15% and 12% respectively. Applying the method to in vivo plasma samples and brain homogenate samples from equilibrium dialysis yielded satisfying results and was able to describe the plasma pharmacokinetics and brain tissue binding of kalata B1. The described method is quick, reproducible and well suited to quantifying kalata B1 in biological matrices. PMID:27603276

  15. Aptamer-tagged DNA origami for spatially addressable detection of aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhisong; Wang, Ying; Xu, Dan; Pang, Lei

    2017-01-10

    A DNA origami-based platform for detecting aflatoxin B1 has been constructed with the assistance of aptamer probes and its complementary ssDNA-modified gold nanoparticles. This work may open new horizons for the application of DNA origami in the detection of a variety of small molecules.

  16. Improved method for quantitative analysis of the cyclotide kalata B1 in plasma and brain homogenate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melander, Erik; Eriksson, Camilla; Jansson, Britt; Göransson, Ulf; Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta

    2016-11-01

    This study provides a new method for quantifying the cyclotide kalata B1 in both plasma and brain homogenate. Cyclotides are ultra-stable peptides with three disulfide bonds that are interesting from a drug development perspective as they can be used as scaffolds. In this study we describe a new validated LC-MS/MS method with high sensitivity and specificity for kalata B1. The limit of quantification was 2 ng/mL in plasma and 5 ng/gmL in brain homogenate. The method was linear in the range 2-10,000 ng/mL for plasma and 5-2000 ng/g for brain. Liquid Chromatographic separation was performed on a HyPurity C18 column, 50 × 4.6 mm, 3 µm particle size. The method had inter- and intra-day precision and accuracy levels plasma samples and brain homogenate samples from equilibrium dialysis yielded satisfying results and was able to describe the plasma pharmacokinetics and brain tissue binding of kalata B1. The described method is quick, reproducible and well suited to quantifying kalata B1 in biological matrices.

  17. 26 CFR 1.927(b)-1T - Temporary regulations; Definition of gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary regulations; Definition of gross...(b)-1T Temporary regulations; Definition of gross receipts. (a) General rule. Under section 927(b.... The FSC's gross receipts for purposes of computing its profit under the administrative pricing...

  18. Analytical potential energy function and spectroscopyparameters for B1Ⅱ state of KH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingjuan Liang; Chuanlu Yang; Lizhi Wang; Qinggang Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Multi-reference configuration interaction is used to produce potential energy curves (PECs) for the excited B1II state of KH molecule. To investigate the correlation effect of core-valence electrons, five schemes are employed which include the different correlated electrons and different active spaces. The PECs are fitted into analytical potential energy functions (APEFs). The spectroscopic parameters, ro-vibrational levels, and transition frequencies are determined based on the APEFs and compared with available experimental and theoretical data. The molecular properties for B1II obtained in this letter, which are better than those available in literature, can be reproduced with calculations using the suitable correlated electrons and active space of orbitals.%Multi-reference configuration interaction is used to produce potential energy curves (PECs) for the excited B1Ⅱ state of KH molecule.To investigate the correlation effect of core-valence electrons,five schemes are employed which include the different correlated electrons and different active spaces.The PECs are fitted into analytical potential energy functions (APEFs).The spectroscopic parameters,ro-vibrational levels,and transition frequencies are determined based on the APEFs and compared with available experimental and theoretical data.The molecular properties for B1Ⅱ obtained in this letter,which are better than those available in literature,can be reproduced with calculations using the suitable correlated electrons and active space of orbitals.

  19. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1AO5B-1ELCA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1AO5B-1ELCA 1AO5 1ELC B A VVGGFNCEKNSQPWQVAVYYQ----KEHICGGVLLDRNW...TPTWQKPDDLQCVFITLLPNENCAKV--YLQKVTDVMLCAGEMGGGKDTCRDDSGGPLICD----GILQGTTSYGPV-PCGKPGVPAIYTNLIKFNSWIKDTMMKNA TRP CA 491 1ELC A 1ELCA...hain> 1ELC A 1ELCA PLHCLVNGQYAVHG... PRO CA 225 1ELC A 1ELCA

  20. Design and verification of the Risø-B1 airfoil family for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, P.; Bak, C.; Gaunaa, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the design and experimental verification of the Risø-B1 airfoil family for MW-size wind turbines with variable speed and pitch control. Seven airfoils were designed with thickness-to-chord ratios between 15% and 53% to cover the entire span of a wind turbine blade. The airfoils...... were designed to have high maximum lift and high design lift to allow a slender flexible blade while maintaining high aerodynamic efficiency. The design was carried out with a Risø in-house multi disciplinary optimization tool. Wind tunnel testing was done for Risø-B1-18 and Risø-B1-24 in the VELUX...... wind tunnel, Denmark, at a Reynolds number of 1.6x10(6). For both airfoils the predicted target characteristics were met. Results for Risø-B1-18 showed a maximum lift coefficient of 1.64. A standard case of zigzag tape leading edge roughness caused a drop in maximum lift of only 3.7%. Cases of more...

  1. Genome sequence of the Bacteroides fragilis phage ATCC 51477-B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Shawn A; Layton, Alice C; Ripp, Steven; Williams, Dan; Sayler, Gary S

    2008-01-01

    The genome of a fecal pollution indicator phage, Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 51477-B1, was sequenced and consisted of 44,929 bases with a G+C content of 38.7%. Forty-six putative open reading frames were identified and genes were organized into functional clusters for host specificity, lysis, replication and regulation, and packaging and structural proteins. PMID:18710568

  2. Mineralogy and Petrology of EK-459-5-1, A Type B1 CAI from Allende

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffcoat, C. R.; Kerekgyarto, A. G.; Lapen, T. J.; Andreasen, R.; Righter, M.; Ross, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are a type of coarse-grained clast composed of Ca-, Al-, and Mg-rich silicates and oxides found in chondrite meteorites. Type B (CAIs) are exclusively found in the CV chondrite meteorites and are the most well studied type of inclusion found in chondritic meteorites. Type B1 CAIs are distinguished by a nearly monomineralic rim of melilite that surrounds an interior predominantly composed of melilite, fassaite (Ti and Al-rich clinopyroxene), anorthite, and spinel with varying amounts of other minor primary and secondary phases. The formation of Type B CAIs has received considerable attention in the course of CAI research and quantitative models, experimental results and observations from Type B inclusions remain largely in disagreement. Recent experimental results and quantitative models have shown that the formation of B1 mantles could have occurred by the evaporative loss of Si and Mg during the crystallization of these objects. However, comparative studies suggest that the lower bulk SiO2 compositions in B1s result in more prior melilite crystallization before the onset of fassaite and anorthite crystallization leading to the formation of thick melilite rich rims in B1 inclusions. Detailed petrographic and cosmochemical studies of these inclusions will further our understanding of these complex objects.

  3. Organic anion transporting polypeptide-1B1 haplotypes in Chinese patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-yong XU; Hong-hao ZHOU; Zhen-qiu SUN; Yi-jing HE; Wei ZHANG; Sheng Deng; Qing LI; Wei-xia ZHANG; Zhao-qian LIU; Dan WANG; Yuan-fei HUANG

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To detect 388G>A and 521T>C variant alleles in the organic anion transporting polypeptide- 1B 1 (OATP 1B 1, encoding gene SLCOIB1) gene. Methods:One hundred and eleven healthy volunteers were screened for OATPIB 1 alleles in our study. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to identify the 388G>A polymorphism and a 1-step tetra-primer method was developed for the determination of 521T>C mutation. Results: The frequencies of the 388G>A and 521T>C variant alleles in the Chinese population were 73.4%and 14.0%,respectively. The frequencies of the SLCO1BI*lb and *15 haplotypes were 59.9% and 14.0%, respectively. Conclusion: The SLCO1B1*1b and SLCO1B1*15 variants are relatively common in the Chinese population. Their frequencies are similar to that in the Japanese, but significantly different from that in Caucasians and blacks.

  4. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1BU1B-1OOTA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1BU1B-1OOTA 1BU1 1OOT B A -IIVVALYDYEAIHHEDLSFQKGDQMVVLEESGE---WW... 1OOT A 1OOTA -18.01099967956543 29.775999069213867 13.968000411987305 ...381469727 -0.722000002861023 -0.6259999871253967 tion> 1.83514404296875...1OOT A 1OOTA WTGRV--NGREG

  5. 26 CFR 31.3306(b)(1)-1 - $3,000 limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(b)(1)-1 $3,000... $3,000 for employment performed in 1956. The $2,500 paid in 1955 is subject to tax in 1955....

  6. 26 CFR 31.3302(b)-1 - Additional credit against tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3302(b)-1 Additional... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional credit against tax....

  7. CYP1B1 gene mutations causing primary congenital glaucoma in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyacoub, Yosra; Ben Yahia, Salim; Abroug, Nesrine; Kahloun, Rim; Kefi, Rym; Khairallah, Moncef; Abdelhak, Sonia

    2014-07-01

    Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) is responsible for a significant proportion of childhood blindness in Tunisia. Early prevention based on genetic diagnosis is therefore required. This study sought to determine the frequency of CYP1B1 (cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily B, polypeptide 1) mutations in 18 PCG patients, recruited from Central and Southern of Tunisia. Genomic DNA was extracted and the coding regions of CYP1B1 were analysed by direct sequencing. A phylogenetic network of CYP1B1 haplotypes was drawn using the median-joining algorithm. Sequence analysis revealed a "tetra-allelic mutation" (two novel mutations, p.F231I and p.P437A in the homozygous state) in one patient. The healthy members of his family carried those variations on the same allele. Two previously described mutations p.G61E and c.535delG were also identified in the homozygous state in seven and two probands, respectively. Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms were identified and used to generate haplotypes. Our results showed that the CYP1B1 mutations were present in 55% of Tunisian PCG patients' alleles. Haplotype analysis allowed us to define the proto-haplotype and to confirm historical migratory flows. Establishment of PCG genetic aetiology in Tunisia will improve genetic diagnosis and counselling.

  8. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1B1GA-1AK8A [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available entryIDChain>1B1GA KEGDP-NQLSK > - EEE...> A 1AK8A FDKDGDGTITT H ...A LFEEL---DKNGD >HHHHH--- ...entryIDChain>1AK8A LQDMINEVDADGN ...>HHHHH > ATOM 722 CA LEU A 48 3.325 7.917 -3.325 1.00 0

  9. Periprosthetic Vancouver type B1 and C fractures treated by locking-plate osteosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froberg, Lonnie; Troelsen, Anders; Brix, Michael

    2012-01-01

    internal fixation, and the introduction of locking-plate osteosynthesis may lead to improved outcome. We evaluated the outcome of Vancouver type B1 and C PFFs treated by locking-plate osteosynthesis, by assessing rates of fracture union and reoperations and by analyzing failure cases....

  10. A NEW CELL CLONE DERIVED FROM TRICHOPLUSIA NI TN5B1-4 CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-xiaoTian; Chang-youLi; Gui-lingZheng; Guo-xunLi; PingWang; Granados

    2004-01-01

    The characteristics of a cultured cell line do not always remain stable and may change upon continuous passage. Most continuous cell lines, even after cloning, possess several genotypes that are constantly changing. There are numerous selective and adaptive culture processes, in addition to genetic instability, that may improve phenotypic change in cell growth, virus susceptibility, gene expression, and production of virus. Similar detrimental effects of long term passaging of insect cells have also been reported for continuous cell lines, for example, Tn5B 1-4 cells, which are the most widely used for the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS), provide superior production of recombinant proteins,however, this high productivity may be more evident in low passage cells. In this paper, we describe the isolation of a cell clone, Tn5B-40, from low passage Tn5B 1-4 cells. The growth characteristics,productions of virus, and high level of recombinant protein productions were determined. The results showed the susceptibility of both clone and Tn5B 1-4 cells to wild-type AcNPV was approximately the same rate with over 95% of infection; when the cloned cells were infected with recombinant baculoviruses expressing β-galactosidase and secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP), expression of the recombinant proteins from the cloned cells exceeded that from the parental Tn5B 1-4 cells.

  11. 2D Magnetic resonance electrical property tomography based on B1(-) field mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuqing Wan; Negishi, Michiro; Constable, R Todd

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Electrical Property Tomography (MREPT) is a method to visualize electrical conductivity and permittivity distributions in the object. Traditional MREPT relies on either the radio frequency (RF) transmit field (B(+)1) mapping, or using a transmit/receive RF coil, to compute tissue's electrical conductivity and permittivity. This paper introduces an alternative approach based on the reconstructed receive field (B(-)1) By solving a system of homogeneous equations consisting of the signal ratios from multi-channel receive coils, the receive field distribution with both magnitude and phase can be computed. Similar to (B(+)1) based MREPT method, the conductivity and permittivity in the imaging object can be calculated from the (B(-)1) field. We demonstrated the feasibility to image electrical property contrasts through computer simulated studies and phantom experiments. Although this study focuses on the 2D reconstruction, the presented method can be extended to full 3D. This method can be applied to regular MR imaging collected with multi-channel receive coils, and therefore, tissue anomaly based on electrical properties can potentially be revealed with a higher imaging quality, providing useful information for clinical diagnosis.

  12. A patient with a rare leukodystrophy related to lamin B1 duplication.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Molloy, A

    2012-06-01

    The hereditary leukodystrophies are rare disorders caused by molecular abnormalities leading to destruction of or failure of development of central white matter. For almost 30 years there has been increasing recognition of later onset Autosomal Dominant Leukodystrophy (ADLD). We report the first genetically confirmed case of lamin B1 duplication causing ADLD from Ireland.

  13. 17 CFR 270.34b-1 - Sales literature deemed to be misleading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales literature deemed to be... (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.34b-1 Sales literature deemed to be misleading. Any advertisement, pamphlet, circular, form letter, or other sales literature addressed to...

  14. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1BT8B-1UNFX [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1BT8B-1UNFX 1BT8 1UNF B X ---AVYTLPELPYDYSALEPYISGEIMELHHDKHHKAYV...EEEEEEEEEGGG EEEEEEE EEE EEE HHHH HHHHHHHHHH EEHHHHHHHHHHHHHH EVID> 1UNF X 1UNFX VN...d>2.942183017730713 5.374790191650391 ...> TRP CA 395 ASP CA 318 ASP CA 362 1UNF

  15. 26 CFR 1.414(b)-1 - Controlled group of corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Controlled group of corporations. 1.414(b)-1... Controlled group of corporations. (a) Defintion of controlled group of corporations. For purposes of this section, the term “controlled group of corporations” has the same meaning as is assigned to the term...

  16. 26 CFR 41.4482(b)-1 - Definition of taxable gross weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... oilfield machinery, etc.) mounted on the vehicle for use on construction jobs, in oilfield operations, etc...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX ON USE OF CERTAIN HIGHWAY MOTOR VEHICLES Tax on Use of Certain Highway Motor Vehicles § 41.4482(b)-1 Definition of taxable gross weight. (a) Actual unloaded weight—(1)...

  17. Brazilian multipurpose reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project is an action of the Federal Government, through the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI) and has its execution under the responsibility of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Within the CNEN, the project is coordinated by the Research and Development Directorate (DPD) and developed through research units of this board: Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (IPEN); Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN); Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN); Regional Center of Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-NE); and Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD). The Navy Technological Center in Sao Paulo (CTMSP) and also the participation of other research centers, universities, laboratories and companies in the nuclear sector are important and strategic partnerships. The conceptual design and the safety analysis of the reactor and main facilities, related to nuclear and environmental licensing, are performed by technicians of the research units of DPD / CNEN. The basic design was contracted to engineering companies as INTERTHECNE from Brazil and INVAP from Argentine. The research units from DPD/CNEN are also responsible for the design verification on all engineering documents developed by the contracted companies. The construction and installation should be performed by specific national companies and international partnerships. The Nuclear Reactor RMB will be a open pool type reactor with maximum power of 30 MW and have the OPAL nuclear reactor of 20 MW, built in Australia and designed by INVAP, as reference. The RMB reactor core will have a 5x5 configuration, consisting of 23 elements fuels (EC) of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} dispersion-type Al having a density of up to 3.5 gU/cm{sup 3} and enrichment of 19.75% by weight of {sup 23{sup 5}}U. Two positions will be available in the core for materials irradiation devices. The main objectives of the RMB Reactor and the other nuclear and radioactive

  18. Involvement of EphB1 receptors signalling in models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Cibert-Goton

    Full Text Available EphB receptors tyrosine kinases and ephrinB ligands were first identified as guidance molecules involved in the establishment of topographical mapping and connectivity in the nervous system during development. Later in development and into adulthood their primary role would switch from guidance to activity-dependent modulation of synaptic efficacy. In sensory systems, they play a role in both the onset of inflammatory and neuropathic pain, and in the establishment of central sensitisation, an NMDA-mediated form of synaptic plasticity thought to underlie most forms of chronic pain. We studied wild type and EphB1 knockout mice in a range of inflammatory and neuropathic pain models to determine 1, whether EphB1 expression is necessary for the onset and/or maintenance of persistent pain, regardless of origin; 2, whether in these models cellular and molecular changes, e.g. phosphorylation of the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor, increased c-fos expression or microglial activation, associated with the onset of pain, are affected by the lack of functional EphB1 receptors. Differences in phenotype were examined behaviourally, anatomically, biochemically and electrophysiologically. Our results establish firstly, that functional EphB1 receptors are not essential for the development of normal nociception, thermal or mechanical sensitivity. Secondly, they demonstrate a widespread involvement of EphB1 receptors in chronic pain. NR2B phosphorylation, c-fos expression and microglial activation are all reduced in EphB1 knockout mice. This last finding is intriguing, since microglial activation is supposedly triggered directly by primary afferents, therefore it was not expected to be affected. Interestingly, in some models of long-term pain (days, mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia develop both in wild type and EphB1 knockout mice, but recovery is faster in the latter, indicating that in particular models these receptors are required for the maintenance

  19. Genetic Variation in the HSD17B1 Gene and Risk of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Peter; Pharoah, Paul; Chanock, Stephen J; Albanes, Demetrius; Kolonel, Laurence N; Hayes, Richard B; Altshuler, David; Andriole, Gerald; Berg, Christine; Boeing, Heiner; Burtt, Noel P; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Calle, Eugenia E; Cann, Howard; Canzian, Federico; Chen, Yen-Ching; Crawford, David E; Dunning, Alison M; Feigelson, Heather S; Freedman, Matthew L; Gaziano, John M; Giovannucci, Ed; Gonzalez, Carlos Alberto; Haiman, Christopher A; Hallmans, Goran; Henderson, Brian E; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Hunter, David J; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy; Marchand, Loic Le; Ma, Jing; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Pike, Malcolm C; Riboli, Elio; Rodriguez, Carmen; Setiawan, Wendy V; Stampfer, Meir J; Stram, Daniel O; Thomas, Gilles; Thun, Michael J; Travis, Ruth; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wacholder, Sholom

    2005-01-01

    Steroid hormones are believed to play an important role in prostate carcinogenesis, but epidemiological evidence linking prostate cancer and steroid hormone genes has been inconclusive, in part due to small sample sizes or incomplete characterization of genetic variation at the locus of interest. Here we report on the results of a comprehensive study of the association between HSD17B1 and prostate cancer by the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium, a large collaborative study. HSD17B1 encodes 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1, an enzyme that converts dihydroepiandrosterone to the testosterone precursor Δ5-androsterone-3β,17β-diol and converts estrone to estradiol. The Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium researchers systematically characterized variation in HSD17B1 by targeted resequencing and dense genotyping; selected haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs) that efficiently predict common variants in U.S. and European whites, Latinos, Japanese Americans, and Native Hawaiians; and genotyped these htSNPs in 8,290 prostate cancer cases and 9,367 study-, age-, and ethnicity-matched controls. We found no evidence that HSD17B1 htSNPs (including the nonsynonymous coding SNP S312G) or htSNP haplotypes were associated with risk of prostate cancer or tumor stage in the pooled multiethnic sample or in U.S. and European whites. Analyses stratified by age, body mass index, and family history of disease found no subgroup-specific associations between these HSD17B1 htSNPs and prostate cancer. We found significant evidence of heterogeneity in associations between HSD17B1 haplotypes and prostate cancer across ethnicity: one haplotype had a significant (p < 0.002) inverse association with risk of prostate cancer in Latinos and Japanese Americans but showed no evidence of association in African Americans, Native Hawaiians, or whites. However, the smaller numbers of Latinos and Japanese Americans in this study makes these subgroup analyses

  20. Genetic variation in the HSD17B1 gene and risk of prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kraft

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Steroid hormones are believed to play an important role in prostate carcinogenesis, but epidemiological evidence linking prostate cancer and steroid hormone genes has been inconclusive, in part due to small sample sizes or incomplete characterization of genetic variation at the locus of interest. Here we report on the results of a comprehensive study of the association between HSD17B1 and prostate cancer by the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium, a large collaborative study. HSD17B1 encodes 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1, an enzyme that converts dihydroepiandrosterone to the testosterone precursor Delta5-androsterone-3beta,17beta-diol and converts estrone to estradiol. The Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium researchers systematically characterized variation in HSD17B1 by targeted resequencing and dense genotyping; selected haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs that efficiently predict common variants in U.S. and European whites, Latinos, Japanese Americans, and Native Hawaiians; and genotyped these htSNPs in 8,290 prostate cancer cases and 9,367 study-, age-, and ethnicity-matched controls. We found no evidence that HSD17B1 htSNPs (including the nonsynonymous coding SNP S312G or htSNP haplotypes were associated with risk of prostate cancer or tumor stage in the pooled multiethnic sample or in U.S. and European whites. Analyses stratified by age, body mass index, and family history of disease found no subgroup-specific associations between these HSD17B1 htSNPs and prostate cancer. We found significant evidence of heterogeneity in associations between HSD17B1 haplotypes and prostate cancer across ethnicity: one haplotype had a significant (p < 0.002 inverse association with risk of prostate cancer in Latinos and Japanese Americans but showed no evidence of association in African Americans, Native Hawaiians, or whites. However, the smaller numbers of Latinos and Japanese Americans in this study makes

  1. Expression of HER2 and bradykinin B1 receptors in precursor lesions of gallbladder carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cesar Toledo; Carola E Matus; Ximena Barraza; Pamela Arroyo; Pamela Ehrenfeld; Carlos D Figueroa; Kanti D Bhoola; Maeva del Pozo; Maria T Poblete

    2012-01-01

    AIM:TO determine the expression of HER2 and bradykinin B1 receptors (B1R) in the two pathogenic models of gallbladder cancer:the metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma and the adenoma-carcinoma pathways.METHODS:Receptor proteins were visualized by immunohistochemistry on 5-μm sections of paraffin-embedded tissue.Expression of both receptors was studied in biopsy samples from 92 patients (6 males and 86 females; age ranging from 28 to 86 years,mean 56 years).High HER2 expression in specimens was additionally investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization.Cell proliferation in each sample was assessed by using the Ki-67 proliferation marker.RESULTS:HER2 receptor protein was absent in adenomas and in normal gallbladder epithelium.On the contrary,there was intense staining for HER2 on the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells of intestinal metaplasia (22/24; 91.7%) and carcinoma in situ (9/10;90%),the lesions that displayed a significantly high proliferation index.Protein up-regulation of HER2 in the epithelium with metaplasia or carcinoma in situ was not accompanied by HER2 gene amplification.A similar result was observed in invasive carcinomas (0/12).The B1R distribution pattern mirrored that of HER2 except that B1R was additionally observed in the adenomas.The B1R appeared either as cytoplasmic dots or labelingon the apical cell membrane of the cells composing the epithelia with intestinal metaplasia (24/24; 100%) and carcinoma in situ (10/10; 100%) and in the epithelial cells of adenomas.In contrast,both HER2 (4/12; 33%)and B1R (1/12; 8.3%) showed a low expression in invasive gallbladder carcinomas.CONCLUSION:The up-regulation of HER2 and B1R in precursor lesions of gallbladder carcinoma suggests cross-talk between these two receptors that may be of importance in the modulation of cell proliferation in gallbladder carcinogenesis.

  2. Modeling Chemical Reactors I: Quiescent Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Michoski, C E; Schmitz, P G

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a fully generalized quiescent chemical reactor system in arbitrary space $\\vdim =1,2$ or 3, with $n\\in\\mathbb{N}$ chemical constituents $\\alpha_{i}$, where the character of the numerical solution is strongly determined by the relative scaling between the local reactivity of species $\\alpha_{i}$ and the local functional diffusivity $\\mathscr{D}_{ij}(\\alpha)$ of the reaction mixture. We develop an operator time-splitting predictor multi-corrector RK--LDG scheme, and utilize $hp$-adaptivity relying only on the entropy $\\mathscr{S}_{\\mathfrak{R}}$ of the reactive system $\\mathfrak{R}$. This condition preserves these bounded nonlinear entropy functionals as a necessarily enforced stability condition on the coupled system. We apply this scheme to a number of application problems in chemical kinetics; including a difficult classical problem arising in nonequilibrium thermodynamics known as the Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction where we utilize a concentration-dependent diffusivity tensor $\\mathscr{D}_{ij}(...

  3. Fumonisin B(1) is hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic in milk-fed calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, S; Constable, P D; Eppley, R M; Waggoner, A L; Tumbleson, M E; Haschek, W M

    2001-04-01

    Fumonisins are a group of mycotoxins that alter sphingolipid biosynthesis and induce leukoencephalomalacia in horses and pulmonary edema in pigs. Experimental administration of fumonisin induces hepatotoxicity in all species, including cattle, as well as nephrotoxicity in rats, rabbits, and sheep. We investigated the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of fumonisin B(1) to calves. Ten milk-fed male Holstein calves aged 7 to 14 days were instrumented to obtain blood and urine. Treated calves (n = 5) were administered fumonisin B(1) at 1 mg/kg, iv, daily and controls (n = 5) 10 ml 0.9% NaCl, iv, daily until euthanized on day 7. Fumonisin B(1)-treated calves were lethargic and had decreased appetite from day 4 onward, serum biochemical evidence of severe liver and bile duct injury, and impaired hepatic function. Treated calves also had biochemical evidence of renal injury that functionally involved the proximal convoluted tubules. Sphinganine and sphingosine concentrations in liver, kidney, lung, heart, and skeletal muscle were increased in treated calves. Sphinganine, but not sphingosine, concentration was increased in brains of treated calves. In fumonisin B(1)-treated calves, hepatic lesions were characterized by disorganized hepatic cords, varying severity of hepatocyte apoptosis, hepatocyte proliferation, and proliferation of bile ductular cells. Renal lesions in treated calves consisted of vacuolar change, apoptosis, karyomegaly, and proliferation of proximal renal tubular cells, as well as dilation of proximal renal tubules, which contained cellular debris and protein. This is the first report of fumonisin B(1)-induced renal injury and organ sphingolipid alterations in cattle.

  4. miR-379 regulates cyclin B1 expression and is decreased in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Khan

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that control gene expression post-transcriptionally, and are known to be altered in many diseases including breast cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the relevance of miR-379 in breast cancer. miR-379 expression was quantified in clinical samples including tissues from breast cancer patients (n=103, healthy controls (n=30 and patients with benign breast disease (n=35. The level of miR-379 and its putative target Cyclin B1 were investigated on all breast tissue specimens by RQ-PCR. Potential relationships with gene expression and patient clinicopathological details were also determined. The effect of miR-379 on Cyclin B1 protein expression and function was investigated using western blot, immunohistochemistry and proliferation assays respectively. Finally, the levels of circulating miR-379 were determined in whole blood from patients with breast cancer (n=40 and healthy controls (n=34. The level of miR-379 expression was significantly decreased in breast cancer (Mean(SEM 1.9 (0.09 Log10 Relative Quantity (RQ compared to normal breast tissues (2.6 (0.16 Log10 RQ, p<0.01. miR-379 was also found to decrease significantly with increasing tumour stage. A significant negative correlation was determined between miR-379 and Cyclin B1 (r=-0.31, p<0.001. Functional assays revealed reduced proliferation (p<0.05 and decreased Cyclin B1 protein levels following transfection of breast cancer cells with miR-379. Circulating miR-379 was not significantly dysregulated in patients with breast cancer compared to healthy controls (p=0.42. This data presents miR-379 as a novel regulator of Cyclin B1 expression, with significant loss of the miRNA observed in breast tumours.

  5. A polymorphism in the CYP1B1 promoter is functionally associated with primary congenital glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Subhabrata; Ghanekar, Yashoda; Kaur, Kiranpreet; Kaur, Inderjeet; Mandal, Anil K; Rao, Kollu N; Parikh, Rajul S; Thomas, Ravi; Majumder, Partha P

    2010-10-15

    Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) is a childhood autosomal-recessive disorder caused by developmental defects in the trabecular meshwork and anterior chamber angle. These defects cause raised intraocular pressure (IOP) that damages the optic nerve and if left untreated, results in irreversible blindness. Mutations in CYP1B1 gene at the GLC3A locus (2p21) are associated with PCG. However, there has been very limited exploration of its promoter region. We resequenced the CYP1B1 promoter in a large cohort (n = 835) that included patients with PCG (n = 301), other primary glaucomas (primary open-angle glaucoma: n = 115 and primary angle closure glaucoma: n = 100) and unaffected controls (n = 319). We functionally characterized one associated variant by luciferase reporter assay using the trabecular meshwork (TM3) cell line. We found evidence of strong (P = 6.01 × 10(-4)) association of rs2567206 (T2805C) SNP in PCG and not in other primary glaucomas. Luciferase assay indicated a ∼90% reduction in CYP1B1 promoter activity in the risk-allele (C) compared to the other allele (T). The association of the risk allele was stronger in cases harboring homozygous CYP1B1 mutations (P = 3.42 × 10(-12)). The risk haplotype 'C-C-G' in the promoter had a strong non-random association to the previously characterized risk haplotype 'C-G-G-T-A' in the coding region. The independent effect of genotype at the promoter T2805C locus (P = 0.001), and the interaction effect of genotypes at the promoter and coding region mutations loci (P = 0.001) were significant for the presenting IOP of the worst affected eye. This is the first study that unequivocally shows the functional involvement of a CYP1B1 promoter variant in PCG.

  6. B1a lymphocytes in the rectal mucosa of ulcerative colitis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lino Polese; Stefano Merigliano; Riccardo Boetto; Giuseppe De Franchis; Imerio Angriman; Andrea Porzionato; Lorenzo Norberto; Giacomo Carlo Sturniolo; Veronica Macchi; Raffaele De Caro

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To assess B1a cell expression in the rectal mucosa of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients in comparison with healthy controls. METHODS: Rectal mucosa biopsies were collected from 15 UC patients and 17 healthy controls. CD5+ B cells were analysed by three colour flow cytometry from rectal mucosal samples after mechanical disaggregation by Medimachine?. Immunohistochemical analysis of B and T lymphocytes was also performed. Correlations between, on the one hand, rectal B1a cell concentrations and, on the other, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels and clinical, endoscopic and histological disease activity indices were evaluated.RESULTS: Rectal B-lymphocyte (CD19+/CD45+) rate and concentration were higher in UC patients compared with those in healthy controls (47.85% ± 3.12% vs 26.10% ± 3.40%, P = 0.001 and 501 ± 91 cells/ mm2 vs 117 ± 18 cells/mm2, P < 0.001); Rectal B1a cell density (CD5+CD19+) was higher in UC patients than in healthy controls (85 ± 15 cells/mm2 vs 31 ± 6.7 cells/mm2, P = 0.009). Rectal B1a cell (CD5/CD19+) rate correlated inversely with endoscopic classification (Rs = -0.637, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: B1a lymphocytes seem to be involved in the pathogenesis of UC, however, the role they play in its early phases and in disease activity, have yet to be defined.

  7. Alternative approaches to fusion. [reactor design and reactor physics for Tokamak fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The limitations of the Tokamak fusion reactor concept are discussed and various other fusion reactor concepts are considered that employ the containment of thermonuclear plasmas by magnetic fields (i.e., stellarators). Progress made in the containment of plasmas in toroidal devices is reported. Reactor design concepts are illustrated. The possibility of using fusion reactors as a power source in interplanetary space travel and electric power plants is briefly examined.

  8. Reactor monitoring using antineutrino detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, N. S.

    2011-08-01

    Nuclear reactors have served as the antineutrino source for many fundamental physics experiments. The techniques developed by these experiments make it possible to use these weakly interacting particles for a practical purpose. The large flux of antineutrinos that leaves a reactor carries information about two quantities of interest for safeguards: the reactor power and fissile inventory. Measurements made with antineutrino detectors could therefore offer an alternative means for verifying the power history and fissile inventory of a reactor as part of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and/or other reactor safeguards regimes. Several efforts to develop this monitoring technique are underway worldwide.

  9. Reactor vessel support system. [LMFBR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, M.P.; Holley, J.C.

    1980-05-09

    A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

  10. Hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase SULT2B1b promotes hepatocellular carcinoma cells proliferation in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Yang

    Full Text Available Hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase 2B1b (SULT2B1b is highly selective for the addition of sulfate groups to 3β-hydroxysteroids. Although previous reports have suggested that SULT2B1b is correlated with cell proliferation of hepatocytes, the relationship between SULT2B1b and the malignant phenotype of hepatocarcinoma cells was not clear. In the present study, we found that SULT2B1 was comparatively higher in the human hepatocarcinoma tumorous tissues than their adjacent tissues. Besides, SULT2B1b overexpression promoted the growth of the mouse hepatocarcinoma cell line Hepa1-6, while Lentivirus-mediated SULT2B1b interference inhibited growth as assessed by the CCK-8 assay. Likewise, inhibition of SULT2B1b expression induced cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in Hepa1-6 cells by upregulating the expression of FAS, downregulating the expression of cyclinB1, BCL2 and MYC in vitro and in vivo at both the transcript and protein levels. Knock-down of SULT2B1b expression significantly suppressed tumor growth in nude mouse xenografts. Moreover, proliferation rates and SULT2B1b expression were highly correlated in the human hepatocarcinoma cell lines Huh-7, Hep3B, SMMC-7721 and BEL-7402 cells. Knock-down of SULT2B1b inhibited cell growth and cyclinB1 levels in human hepatocarcinoma cells and suppressed xenograft growth in vivo. In conclusion, SULT2B1b expression promotes proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo, which may contribute to the progression of HCC.

  11. A Theoretical Study of 8-Chloro-9-Hydroxy-Aflatoxin B1, the Conversion Product of Aflatoxin B1 by Neutral Electrolyzed Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo-González, René; Méndez-Albores, Abraham; Villarreal-Barajas, Tania; Aceves-Hernández, Juan Manuel; Miranda-Ruvalcaba, René; Nicolás-Vázquez, Inés

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical studies of 8-chloro-9-hydroxy-aflatoxin B1 (2) were carried out by Density Functional Theory (DFT). This molecule is the reaction product of the treatment of aflatoxin B1 (1) with hypochlorous acid, from neutral electrolyzed water. Determination of the structural, electronic and spectroscopic properties of the reaction product allowed its theoretical characterization. In order to elucidate the formation process of 2, two reaction pathways were evaluated—the first one considering only ionic species (Cl+ and OH−) and the second one taking into account the entire hypochlorous acid molecule (HOCl). Both pathways were studied theoretically in gas and solution phases. In the first suggested pathway, the reaction involves the addition of chlorenium ion to 1 forming a non-classic carbocation assisted by anchimeric effect of the nearest aromatic system, and then a nucleophilic attack to the intermediate by the hydroxide ion. In the second studied pathway, as a first step, the attack of the double bond from the furanic moiety of 1 to the hypochlorous acid is considered, accomplishing the same non-classical carbocation, and again in the second step, a nucleophilic attack by the hydroxide ion. In order to validate both reaction pathways, the atomic charges, the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital were obtained for both substrate and product. The corresponding data imply that the C9 atom is the more suitable site of the substrate to interact with the hydroxide ion. It was demonstrated by theoretical calculations that a vicinal and anti chlorohydrin is produced in the terminal furan ring. Data of the studied compound indicate an important reduction in the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of the target molecule, as demonstrated previously by our research group using different in vitro assays. PMID:27455324

  12. The Crystal Structure of Cytochrome P450 4B1 (CYP4B1) Monoxygenase Complexed with Octane Discloses Several Structural Adaptations for ω-Hydroxylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Mei-Hui; Baer, Brian R; Rettie, Allan E; Johnson, Eric F

    2017-02-06

    P450 family 4 fatty acid ω-hydroxylases preferentially oxygenate primary C-H bonds over adjacent, energetically favored secondary C-H bonds, but the mechanism explaining this intriguing preference is unclear. To this end, the structure of rabbit P450 4B1 complexed with its substrate octane was determined by X-ray crystallography to define features of the active site that contribute to a preference for ω-hydroxylation. The structure indicated that octane is bound in a narrow active site cavity that limits access of the secondary C-H bond to the reactive intermediate. A highly conserved sequence motif on helix I contributes to positioning the terminal carbon of octane for ω-hydroxylation. Glu-310 of this motif auto-catalytically forms an ester bond with the heme 5-methyl, and the immobilized E310 contributes to substrate positioning. The preference for ω-hydroxylation was decreased in a E310A mutant having a shorter side-chain, but overall rates of metabolism were retained. E310D and E310Q substitutions having longer side-chains exhibit lower overall rates, likely due to higher conformational entropy for these residues, but they retained high preferences for octane ω-hydroxylation. Sequence comparisons indicated that active-site residues constraining octane for ω-hydroxylation are conserved in family 4 P450s. Moreover, the heme 7-propionate is positioned in the active site and provides additional restraints on substrate binding. In conclusion, P450 4B1 exhibits structural adaptations for ω-hydroxylation that include changes in the conformation of the heme and changes in a highly conserved helix I motif that is associated with selective oxygenation of un-activated primary C-H bonds.

  13. A Theoretical Study of 8-Chloro-9-Hydroxy-Aflatoxin B1, the Conversion Product of Aflatoxin B1 by Neutral Electrolyzed Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Escobedo-González

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical studies of 8-chloro-9-hydroxy-aflatoxin B1 (2 were carried out by Density Functional Theory (DFT. This molecule is the reaction product of the treatment of aflatoxin B1 (1 with hypochlorous acid, from neutral electrolyzed water. Determination of the structural, electronic and spectroscopic properties of the reaction product allowed its theoretical characterization. In order to elucidate the formation process of 2, two reaction pathways were evaluated—the first one considering only ionic species (Cl+ and OH− and the second one taking into account the entire hypochlorous acid molecule (HOCl. Both pathways were studied theoretically in gas and solution phases. In the first suggested pathway, the reaction involves the addition of chlorenium ion to 1 forming a non-classic carbocation assisted by anchimeric effect of the nearest aromatic system, and then a nucleophilic attack to the intermediate by the hydroxide ion. In the second studied pathway, as a first step, the attack of the double bond from the furanic moiety of 1 to the hypochlorous acid is considered, accomplishing the same non-classical carbocation, and again in the second step, a nucleophilic attack by the hydroxide ion. In order to validate both reaction pathways, the atomic charges, the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital were obtained for both substrate and product. The corresponding data imply that the C9 atom is the more suitable site of the substrate to interact with the hydroxide ion. It was demonstrated by theoretical calculations that a vicinal and anti chlorohydrin is produced in the terminal furan ring. Data of the studied compound indicate an important reduction in the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of the target molecule, as demonstrated previously by our research group using different in vitro assays.

  14. Bacterial toxin-inducible gene expression of cathelicidin-B1 in the chicken bursal lymphoma-derived cell line DT40: functional characterization of cathelicidin-B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Asuna; Tsubaki, Takashi; Sagae, Nozomi; Onda, Yumiko; Inada, Yuri; Mochizuki, Takuya; Okumura, Kazuo; Kikuyama, Sakae; Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Iwamuro, Shawichi

    2014-09-01

    Chicken cathelicidin-B1 (chCATH-B1) is a major host defense peptide of the chicken bursa of Fabricius (BF). To investigate the mechanisms of chCATH-B1 gene expression in the BF, we focused on the DT40 cell line derived from chicken bursal lymphoma as a model for analysis. A cDNA encoding chCATH-B1 precursor was cloned from DT40 cells. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA was identical with that of the BF chCATH-B1. A broth dilution analysis showed that the synthetic chCATH-B1 exhibited a significant defensive activity against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. A scanning microscopic analysis demonstrated that chCATH-B1 inhibited bacterial growth through membrane destruction with formation of blebs and spheroplasts. Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay and electromobility shift assay results revealed that chCATH-B1 bound to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), which are the surface substances of the E. coli and S. aureus cell, respectively. A chemotactic assay results revealed that chCATH-B1 showed mouse-derived P-815 mastocytoma migrating activity dose-dependently but with a higher concentration, resulting in a loss of the activity. A semi-quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that LPS stimulated chCATH-B1 gene expression in a dose-dependent manner and that the LPS-inducible chCATH-B1 gene expression was inhibited by the administration of dexamethasone. The chCATH-B1 mRNA levels in DT40 cells were also increased by the administration of bacterial LTA. The results indicate that bacterial toxins induce chCATH-B1 gene expression in the chicken BF and the peptide expressed in the organ would act against pathogenic microorganisms not only directly but also indirectly by attracting mast cells.

  15. Methanogenesis in Thermophilic Biogas Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1995-01-01

    Methanogenesis in thermophilic biogas reactors fed with different wastes is examined. The specific methanogenic activity with acetate or hydrogen as substrate reflected the organic loading of the specific reactor examined. Increasing the loading of thermophilic reactors stabilized the process...... as indicated by a lower concentration of volatile fatty acids in the effluent from the reactors. The specific methanogenic activity in a thermophilic pilot-plant biogas reactor fed with a mixture of cow and pig manure reflected the stability of the reactor. The numbers of methanogens counted by the most...... against Methanothrix soehngenii or Methanothrix CALS-I in any of the thermophilic biogas reactors examined. Studies using 2-14C-labeled acetate showed that at high concentrations (more than approx. 1 mM) acetate was metabolized via the aceticlastic pathway, transforming the methyl-group of acetate...

  16. Cytochrome P450 1B1 polymorphisms and risk of renal cell carcinoma in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Inik; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Wong, Darryn K; Gill, Ankurpreet; Mitsui, Yozo; Majid, Shahana; Saini, Sharanjot; Yamamura, Soichiro; Chiyomaru, Takeshi; Hirata, Hiroshi; Ueno, Koji; Arora, Sumit; Shahryari, Varahram; Deng, Guoren; Tabatabai, Z Laura; Greene, Kirsten L; Shin, Dong Min; Enokida, Hideki; Shiina, Hiroaki; Nonomura, Norio; Dahiya, Rajvir; Tanaka, Yuichiro

    2014-10-01

    The cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) enzyme activates xenobiotics to reactive forms as well as convert estradiol to 4-hydroxy-estradiol that has been shown to play a role in the carcinogenesis process of the kidney in male but not female animals. Prior reports show polymorphic variants of CYP1B1 to alter catalytic activity, and thus, we hypothesize that polymorphisms of the CYP1B1 gene are involved in the malignant transformation of the renal cell in men. The genetic distributions of five CYP1B1 polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism in 480 normal healthy subjects and 403 sporadic renal cell carcinoma cases. All subjects were Caucasian men. The sites evaluated were codons 48 (C → G, Arg → Gly, rs10012), 119 (G → T, Ala → Ser, rs1056827), 432 (C → G, Leu → Val, rs1056836), 449 (C → T, Asp, rs1056837), and 453 (A → G, Asn → Ser, rs1800440). A trend was demonstrated for the 432 Val/Val (χ2, P = 0.06) and 449 T/T (χ2, P = 0.1) genotypes to play a protective role against renal cancer. Odds ratio (95 % confidence interval) for Val/Val compared to Leu/Leu at codon 432 was 0.65 (0.44-0.95) and T/T compared to C/C at codon 449 was 0.67 (0.45-0.99). Codons 432 and 449 were observed to be linked (D = 0.24), and haplotype involving 432 Val and 449 T was significantly reduced in cancer cases (P = 0.04). No association was found, however, when analyzing polymorphic sites with clinical stage of cancer. These results demonstrate polymorphisms of CYP1B1 to be associated with renal carcinogenesis and are of importance in understanding their role in the pathogenesis of renal cell carcinoma.

  17. MEANS FOR COOLING REACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, J.A.

    1957-11-01

    A design of a reactor is presented in which the fuel elements may be immersed in a liquid coolant when desired without the necessity of removing them from the reactor structure. The fuel elements, containing the fissionable material are in plate form and are disposed within spaced slots in a moderator material, such as graphite to form the core. Adjacent the core is a tank containing the liquid coolant. The fuel elements are mounted in spaced relationship on a rotatable shaft which is located between the core and the tank so that by rotation of the shaft the fuel elements may be either inserted in the slots in the core to sustain a chain reaction or immersed in the coolant.

  18. Compact fusion reactors

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Fusion research is currently to a large extent focused on tokamak (ITER) and inertial confinement (NIF) research. In addition to these large international or national efforts there are private companies performing fusion research using much smaller devices than ITER or NIF. The attempt to achieve fusion energy production through relatively small and compact devices compared to tokamaks decreases the costs and building time of the reactors and this has allowed some private companies to enter the field, like EMC2, General Fusion, Helion Energy, Lawrenceville Plasma Physics and Lockheed Martin. Some of these companies are trying to demonstrate net energy production within the next few years. If they are successful their next step is to attempt to commercialize their technology. In this presentation an overview of compact fusion reactor concepts is given.

  19. Reactor Neutrino Spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, A. C.; Vogel, Petr

    2016-01-01

    We present a review of the antineutrino spectra emitted from reactors. Knowledge of these spectra and their associated uncertainties is crucial for neutrino oscillation studies. The spectra used to date have been determined either by converting measured electron spectra to antineutrino spectra or by summing over all of the thousands of transitions that make up the spectra, using modern databases as input. The uncertainties in the subdominant corrections to β-decay plague both methods, and we ...

  20. REACTOR MODERATOR STRUCTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstreet, B.L.

    1963-12-31

    A system for maintaining the alignment of moderator block structures in reactors is presented. Integral restraining grids are placed between each layer of blocks in the moderator structure, at the top of the uppermost layer, and at the bottom of the lowermost layer. Slots are provided in the top and bottom surfaces of the moderator blocks so as to provide a keying action with the grids. The grids are maintained in alignment by vertical guiding members disposed about their peripheries. (AEC)

  1. ESTIMATION OF AFLATOXIN B1 IN FEED INGREDIENTS AND COMPOUND POULTRY FEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Mahmood Bhatti, Tanzeela Talat and Rozina Sardar

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 3230 samples of feed ingredients of vegetable and animal origin and commercially available compound poultry feed received over a period of 5 years at Feed Testing Laboratory of the Institute were tested for Aflatoxin B1 contents (ppb . In all feed ingredients and compound feed stuffs, minimum level of aflatoxin B1 was 13 ppb and maximum level was found to be 78 ppb. No correlation of aflatoxin levels with month of collection of the year which are subject to variation in temperature and humidity could be detected. Mean values of aflatoxin concentration in feed stuffs such as rice, rice polish, wheat bran, wheat bread, maize, fish meal, blood meal, bone meal, guar meal, corn gluten 30%, corn gluten 60%, sun flower meal, soyabean meal and cotton seed meal were found to be higher than safe level of 20 ppb recommended by FDA.

  2. [Biofilm Formation by the Nonflagellated flhB1 Mutant of Azospirillum brasilense Sp245].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelud'ko, A V; Filip'echeva, Yu A; Shumiliva, E M; Khlebtsov, B N; Burov, A M; Petrova, L P; Katsy, E I

    2015-01-01

    Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 with mixed flagellation are able to form biofilms on various surfaces. A nonflagellated mutant of this strain with inactivated chromosomal copy of the flhB gene (flhB1) was shown to exhibit specific traits at the later stages of biofilm formation on a hydrophilic (glass) surface. Mature biofilms of the flhB1::Omegon-Km mutant Sp245.1063 were considerably thinner than those of the parent strain Sp245. The biofilms of the mutant were more susceptible to the forces of hydrodynamic shear. A. brasilense Sp245 cells in biofilms were not found to possess lateral flagella. Cells with polar flagella were, however, revealed by atomic force microscopy of mature native biofilms of strain Sp245. Preservation of a polar flagellum (probably nonmotile) on the cells of A. brasilense Sp245 may enhance the biofilm stability.

  3. Vitamin B1 and B6 in the malaria parasite: requisite or dispensable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wrenger

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins are essential compounds mainly involved in acting as enzyme co-factors or in response to oxidative stress. In the last two years it became apparent that apicomplexan parasites are able to generate B vitamers such as vitamin B1 and B6 de novo. The biosynthesis pathways responsible for vitamin generation are considered as drug targets, since both provide a high degree of selectivity due to their absence in the human host. This report updates the current knowledge about vitamin B1 and B6 biosynthesis in malaria and other apicomplexan parasites. Owing to the urgent need for novel antimalarials, the significance of the biosynthesis and salvage of these vitamins is critically discussed in terms of parasite survival and their exploitation for drug development.

  4. Kinetics of aflatoxin B1 and G2 adsorption on Ca-clinoptilolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VERA DONDUR

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of aflatoxins B1 and G2 adsorption on Ca-clinoptilolite at pH 2 and 7, in aqueous electrolyte at 37°C were studied. For both aflatoxins, the adsorption process begins with a fast reaction whereby most of the toxin is adsorbed in the first few minutes. This fast process is followed by the significantly slower process of aflatoxin bonding at active centers of mineral adsorbent. The initial rate method showed that the fast adsorption process of aflatoxin B1 and G2, at both pH values is a first order reaction, while the slow adsorption process of these aflatoxins is a zero order reaction. The adsorption indexes and adsorption rates for both examined toxins were pH dependent. In the investigated initial toxins concentration ranges (500–3000 µg/dm3, high adsorption indexes were achieved (> 80 %.

  5. Using pi_2(1670) -> b_1(1235) pi to Constrain Hadronic Models

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R; Page, Philip R.; Capstick, Simon

    2003-01-01

    We show that current analyses of experimental data indicate that the strong decay mode pi_2 -> b_1 pi is anomalously small. Non-relativistic quark models with spin-1 quark pair creation, such as ^3P_0, ^3S_1 and ^3D_1 models, as well as instanton and lowest order one-boson (in this case pi) emission models, can accommodate the analyses of experimental data, because of a quark-spin selection rule. Models and effects that violate this selection rule, such as higher order one-boson emission models, as well as mixing with other Fock states, may be constrained by the small pi_2 -> b_1 pi decay. This can provide a viability check on newly proposed decay mechanisms. We show that for mesons made up of a heavy quark and anti-quark, the selection rule is exact to all orders of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) perturbation theory.

  6. Molecular Detection of Toxoplasmosis Using Specific Primers P30, B1, and rDNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisnu Nurcahyo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Study in order to develop molecular techniques using specific primers for the early diagnosis oftoxoplasmosis have been conducted. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii genome was performed usingpolymerase chain reaction (PCR technique. The primers used in this study were rDNA, P30, and B1. ThePCR products were further run using gel electrophoresis (gel 1.5% – 2.0% and the band was documented.Toxoplasma was detected at 500 bp and 600 bp using primer P30 and B1, respectively. Whereas usingprimer rDNA no band was observed. It was assumed that primer rDNA was not sensitive since the targetamplification was 88 bp.

  7. BOILER-SUPERHEATED REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, T.P.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear power reactor of the type in which a liquid moderator-coolant is transformed by nuclear heating into a vapor that may be used to drive a turbo- generator is described. The core of this reactor comprises a plurality of freely suspended tubular fuel elements, called fuel element trains, within which nonboiling pressurized liquid moderator-coolant is preheated and sprayed through orifices in the walls of the trains against the outer walls thereof to be converted into vapor. Passage of the vapor ovcr other unwetted portions of the outside of the fuel elements causes the steam to be superheated. The moderatorcoolant within the fuel elements remains in the liqUid state, and that between the fuel elements remains substantiaily in the vapor state. A unique liquid neutron-absorber control system is used. Advantages expected from the reactor design include reduced fuel element failure, increased stability of operation, direct response to power demand, and circulation of a minimum amount of liquid moderatorcoolant. (A.G.W.)

  8. ACIDOSIS LÁCTICA TIPO B1 SECUNDARIA A LINFOMA DE BURKITT.

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Brenes, Natalia; Rojas Vega, Jason; Barguil Meza, Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    Lactic acidosis is a rare complication of malignant neoplasms first described in patients with acute leukemia in 1963. Since then, there hasbeen seen more often, particularly in hematological malignancies and rarely in solid tumors. Wereport the case of a 53 years old male with lactacidosis B1 and gastric Burkitt lymphoma whowas admitted to the hospital with constitutionalsymptoms, weight loss, diarrhea and melena.Arterial blood gases revealed a metabolic acidosis with increased anion gap (pH...

  9. Interaction of DNA repair gene polymorphisms and aflatoxin B1 in the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is an important environmental carcinogen and can induce DNA damage and involve in the carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The deficiency of DNA repair capacity related to the polymorphisms of DNA repair genes might play a central role in the process of HCC tumorigenesis. However, the interaction of DNA repair gene polymorphisms and AFB1 in the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated whether six polymorphisms (i...

  10. EphB1 as a Novel Drug Target to Combat Pain and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    molecular weight drug-like compounds that antagonize the EphB1:NR1 protein-protein interaction. In year 1 of the project we have cloned , expressed, and...protein-protein interaction with NR1 and may provide better binding results. As a major accomplishment in year 1, we successfully cloned all the...o Changes that had a significant impact on expenditures None, resources have been conserved as we work our way on refining our protein-protein

  11. Genome sequence of the Bacteroides fragilis phage ATCC 51477-B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkins Shawn A

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genome of a fecal pollution indicator phage, Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 51477-B1, was sequenced and consisted of 44,929 bases with a G+C content of 38.7%. Forty-six putative open reading frames were identified and genes were organized into functional clusters for host specificity, lysis, replication and regulation, and packaging and structural proteins.

  12. Stratigraphic structure of the B1 Tertiary tectonostratigraphic unit in eastern Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Bogomir Jelen; Helena Rifelj

    2002-01-01

    High inconsistency and incoherence in the stratigraphy of the Slovenian upper Paleogene and lower Miocene have remained unsolved in the past 150 years. To solve the problem, we tried to rigorously conduct the authentic Galilei’s scientific method. Steps of logical and empirical verification confirmed the existence of the posited B1 Tertiary tectonostratigraphic unit, and a general chronostratigraphic model of new positional relationships of lithologic units resulted from rather good biochrono...

  13. Exercices de grammaire B1 du cadre européen

    CERN Document Server

    Beaulieu, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Ce cahier d'exercices s'adresse à des apprenants en français. Il présente des activités d'entraînement correspondant au niveau B1 du Cadre Européen commun de référence pour les langues. Ce cahier peut être utilisé en classe ou en autonomie.

  14. CYP1B1 Asn453Ser polymorphism and colorectal cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Qiang; Zhou, Daijun; Han, Jialong; Lu, Hai; Tang, Bo

    2012-09-01

    Studies investigating the association between cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) Asn453Ser (453 A/G, rs1800440) polymorphism and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk report conflicting results. The aim of this study was to quantitatively summarize the evidence for such a relationship. Two investigators independently searched the Medline and Embase Databases. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for CYP1B1 polymorphism and CRC were calculated in a fixed-effects model (the Mantel-Haenszel method) and a random-effects model (the DerSimonian and Laird method) when appropriate. The pooled ORs were performed for co-dominant model (GG vs AA, GA vs AA), dominant model (GG+GA vs AA), and recessive model (GG vs GA+AA). This meta-analysis included 7 case-control studies, which included 6375 CRC cases and 7003 controls. Overall, the variant genotypes (GG and GA) of the 453 A/G were not associated with CRC risk when compared with the wild-type AA homozygote (GG vs AA, OR=0.94, 95% CI=0.77-1.14; GA vs AA, OR=0.99, 95% CI=0.87-1.12). Similarly, no associations were found in the dominant and recessive models (dominant model, OR=0.98, 95% CI=0.87-1.09; recessive model, OR=0.94, 95% CI=0.77-1.14). When stratifying for country, study sample size, matched control and source of controls, no evidence of significant association was observed in any subgroup, except among those studies from "Canada". No publication bias was found in the present study. No association was found between the CYP1B1 Asn453Ser polymorphism and risk of CRC among Caucasians.

  15. Synergistic drug combinations against the in vitro replication of Coxsackie B1 virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaeva-Glomb, Lubomira; Galabov, Angel S.

    2004-01-01

    International audience; The existence of synergistic drug combinations against the in vitro replication of poliovirus type 1 (Mahoney) (PV-1) had been established in our previous work. The objective of the present study was to test the combined effects of the different drugs against another representative of the enterovirus genus, i.e. Coxsackievirus B1 (CBV-1). Dual combinations of enviroxime, disoxaril, arildone, PTU-23, HBB and S-7 were evaluated. The susceptibility of CBV-1 to the individ...

  16. Hidden Color and the $b_1$ structure function of the deuteron

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Gerald A

    2014-01-01

    The $b_1$ structure function is an observable feature of a spin-1 system sensitive to non-nucleonic components of the target nuclear wave function. A simple model for hidden-color, six-quark configurations is proposed and found to give substantial contributions for values of $ x>0.2$. Good agreement with Hermes data is obtained. Predictions are made for an upcoming JLab experiment.

  17. Overgroups of D1(F) in B1(F) and its pronor-madity%D1(F)在B1(F)中的扩群及其泛正规性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金永容

    2001-01-01

    域F上D1(1≥4)型Chevalley群D1(F)可自然地嵌入到B1(F)中去.当Chr F≠2,且F=F2时,本文定出了D1(F)在(B1(F)中的所有扩群,由此获得了B1(F)的一类极大子群.进而证明了D1(F)是B1(F)的泛正规子群.

  18. Comparative immunohistochemical localisation of GABA(B1a), GABA(B1b) and GABA(B2) subunits in rat brain, spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, K J; Evans, M L; Robbins, M J; Calver, A R; Leslie, R A; Pangalos, M N

    2001-01-01

    GABA(B) receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors mediating the slow onset and prolonged synaptic actions of GABA in the CNS. The recent cloning of two genes, GABA(B1) and GABA(B2), has revealed a novel requirement for GABA(B) receptor signalling. Studies have demonstrated that the two receptor subunits associate as a GABA(B1)/GABA(B2) heterodimer to form a functional GABA(B) receptor. In this study we have developed polyclonal antisera specific to two splice variants of the GABA(B1) subunit, GABA(B1a) and GABA(B1b), as well as an antiserum to the GABA(B2) subunit. Using affinity-purified antibodies derived from these antisera we have mapped out the distribution profile of each subunit in rat brain, spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion. In brain the highest areas of GABA(B1a), GABA(B1b) and GABA(B2) subunit expression were found in neocortex, hippocampus, thalamus, cerebellum and habenula. In spinal cord, GABA(B1) and GABA(B2) subunits were expressed in the superficial layers of the dorsal horn, as well as in motor neurones in the deeper layers of the ventral horn. GABA(B) receptor subunit immunoreactivity in dorsal root ganglion suggested that expression of GABA(B1b) was restricted to the large diameter neurones, in contrast to GABA(B1a) and GABA(B2) subunits which were expressed in both large and small diameter neurones. Although expression levels of GABA(B1) and GABA(B2) subunits varied we found no areas in which GABA(B1) was expressed in the absence of GABA(B2). This suggests that most, if not all, GABA(B1) immunoreactivity may represent functional GABA(B) receptors. Although our data are in general agreement with functional studies, some discrepancies in GABA(B1) subunit expression occurred with respect to other immunohistochemical studies. Overall our data suggest that GABA(B) receptors are widely expressed throughout the brain and spinal cord, and that GABA(B1a) and GABA(B1b) subunits can associate with GABA(B2) to form both pre- and post-synaptic receptors.

  19. Evaluation of Extraction and Degradation Methods to Obtain Chickpeasaponin B1 from Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kun; Gao, Hua; Wang, Rong-Rong; Liu, Yang; Hou, Yu-Xue; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Kun; Wang, Wei

    2017-02-21

    The objective of this research is to implement extraction and degradation methods for the obtainment of 3-O-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-galactopyranosyl] soyasapogenol B (chickpeasaponin B1) from chickpea. The effects of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) processing parameters-such as ethanol concentration, solvent/solid ratio, extraction temperature, microwave irradiation power, and irradiation time-were evaluated. Using 1g of material with 8 mL of 70% aqueous ethanol and an extraction time of 10 min at 70 °C under irradiation power 400W provided optimal extraction conditions. Compared with the conventional extraction techniques, including heat reflux extraction (HRE), Soxhlet extraction (SE), and ultrasonic extraction (UE), MAE produced higher extraction efficiency under a lower extraction time. DDMP (2,3-dihydro-2,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one) saponin can be degraded to structurally stable saponin B by the loss of its DDMP group. The influence of pH and the concentration of potassium hydroxide on transformation efficiency of the target compound was investigated. A solution of 0.25 M potassium hydroxide in 75% aqueous ethanol was suitable for converting the corresponding DDMP saponins of chickpeasaponin B1. The implementation by the combining MAE technique and alkaline hydrolysis method for preparing chickpeasaponin B1 provides a convenient technology for future applications.

  20. Calcium Homeostasis and Muscle Energy Metabolism Are Modified in HspB1-Null Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Brigitte; Kammoun, Malek; Gagaoua, Mohammed; Barboiron, Christiane; Meunier, Bruno; Chambon, Christophe; Cassar-Malek, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Hsp27—encoded by HspB1—is a member of the small heat shock proteins (sHsp, 12–43 kDa (kilodalton)) family. This protein is constitutively present in a wide variety of tissues and in many cell lines. The abundance of Hsp27 is highest in skeletal muscle, indicating a crucial role for muscle physiology. The protein identified as a beef tenderness biomarker was found at a crucial hub in a functional network involved in beef tenderness. The aim of this study was to analyze the proteins impacted by the targeted invalidation of HspB1 in the Tibialis anterior muscle of the mouse. Comparative proteomics using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed 22 spots that were differentially abundant between HspB1-null mice and their controls that could be identified by mass spectrometry. Eighteen spots were more abundant in the muscle of the mutant mice, and four were less abundant. The proteins impacted by the absence of Hsp27 belonged mainly to calcium homeostasis (Srl and Calsq1), contraction (TnnT3), energy metabolism (Tpi1, Mdh1, PdhB, Ckm, Pygm, ApoA1) and the Hsp proteins family (HspA9). These data suggest a crucial role for these proteins in meat tenderization. The information gained by this study could also be helpful to predict the side effects of Hsp27 depletion in muscle development and pathologies linked to small Hsps.

  1. Mild phenotype of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Tatsufumi; Kutoku, Yumiko; Nishimura, Hirotake; Hayashi, Makiko; Abe, Akiko; Hayasaka, Kiyoshi; Sunada, Yoshihide

    2013-11-15

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 4B1 (CMT4B1) is a rare autosomal recessive demyelinating neuropathy caused by mutation of the myotubularin-related 2 (MTMR2) gene. It is characterized by a severe early-onset motor and sensory neuropathy, and myelin outfoldings on nerve biopsy. We describe a mild phenotype of CMT4B1 in a Japanese patient. She noticed difficulty in walking as an initial symptom at age 13. Her symptoms progressed slowly, and she could still walk at age 34. There was no cranial neuropathy. A nerve conduction study demonstrated demyelinating neuropathy. Sural nerve biopsy revealed a moderate-to-severe loss of myelinated fibers, and many focally folded myelin sheaths. Electron micrographs showed myelin outfoldings and infoldings. DNA tests for CMT showed that she is a homozygote for the MTMR2 p.R628PfsX18 mutation. The mild phenotype in our patient is probably due to the C-terminal position of the frame-shift mutation in MTMR2.

  2. Stratigraphic structure of the B1 Tertiary tectonostratigraphic unit in eastern Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomir Jelen

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available High inconsistency and incoherence in the stratigraphy of the Slovenian upper Paleogene and lower Miocene have remained unsolved in the past 150 years. To solve the problem, we tried to rigorously conduct the authentic Galilei’s scientific method. Steps of logical and empirical verification confirmed the existence of the posited B1 Tertiary tectonostratigraphic unit, and a general chronostratigraphic model of new positional relationships of lithologic units resulted from rather good biochronostratigraphic resolution achieved by nannoplankton and planktonic foraminifera biostratigraphy. The application of principles of newly developed fields in science helped us to avoid errors in transmission of messages (to reduce noise from the source (rock to the concept formation,which had been done previously. This in turn has strongly reduced inconsistency andincoherence (high information entropy = uncertainty. The released amount of information enabled us to answer also questions that reached beyond the original difficulty, e.g.: is the tectonostratigraphic structure of eastern Slovenia a manifestation of plate tectonics processes, and of which ones, are theories of continental escape in the Alps and associated dissection and offset of the formerly uniform Slovenian-Hungarian Paleogene basin tenableor not, are then there in the B1 stratigraphic equivalents of the Hungarian Paleogene basin formations, where are the important Eocene / Oligocene, Paleogene / Neogene, Rupelian / Chattian and Kiscellian / Egerian boundaries in Slovenia, and is there acontinuation of the B1 in Croatia and in the Mid-Hungarian tectonic zone?

  3. Association between the CYP1B1 polymorphisms and risk of cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie-Ying; Yang, Yu; Liu, Zhi-Zhong; Xie, Jian-Jun; Du, Ya-Ping; Wang, Wei

    2015-04-01

    The previous, published data on the association between CYP1B1 polymorphisms and cancer risk remained controversial. To derive a more precise estimation of the association between the CYP1B1 polymorphisms and cancer risk, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the association between cancer susceptibility and CYP1B1 Leu432Val, Asn453Ser, Arg48Gly, and Ala119Ser polymorphisms. For Asn453Ser and Arg48Gly polymorphisms, significantly decreased endometrial cancer was observed among Caucasians. For Ala119Ser polymorphism, we found that individuals with the minor variant genotypes had a high risk of prostate cancer. For Leu432Val polymorphism, we found that individuals with the minor variant genotypes had a higher risk of endometrial cancer and lung cancer and had a lower risk of ovarian cancer. In summary, this meta-analysis suggests that Leu432Val polymorphism is associated with ovarian cancer, lung cancer, and endometrial cancer risk; Asn453Ser and Arg48Gly polymorphisms are associated with endometrial cancer risk among Caucasians, Ala119Ser polymorphism is associated with prostate cancer risk, and Ala119Ser polymorphism is associated with breast cancer risk in Caucasians. In addition, our work also points out the importance of new studies for Ala119Ser polymorphism in endometrial cancer, because high heterogeneity was observed (I (2) > 75 %).

  4. Mutations of the CYP1B1 gene in congenital anterior staphylomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Judaibi R

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ramzi Al Judaibi,1 Khaled K Abu-Amero,2,3 Jose Morales,1 Sami Al Shahwan,1 Deepak P Edward1,4 1King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, 2Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Jacksonville, FL, USA; 4Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore MD, USA Purpose: Here, we present two patients with congenital anterior staphyloma, with mutations in the CYP1B1 gene. Methods: We reviewed the medical records, including the genetic analysis. Results: Two unrelated patients presented with congenital anterior staphylomas. Both patients showed mutations in the CYP1B1 gene. The first patient, the product of a consanguineous marriage, showed a homozygous misssense mutation g.3987G>A (p.G61E. The second patient had compound heterozygous misssense mutations [g.4160 G>T (p.A119S and g.8131 C>G (p.L432V]. Conclusion: CYP1B1 gene mutation may be associated with congenital anterior staphylomas. Keywords: mutation analysis, congenital glaucoma, consanguinity, congenital aphakia

  5. Genotyping, pathogenicity, and immunogenicity of Avibacterium paragallinarum serovar B-1 isolates from the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Erasto, V; Fernández-Rosas, P; Negrete-Abascal, E; Salazar-García, F; Blackall, P J; Soriano-Vargas, E

    2014-06-01

    The bacterium Avibacterium paragallinarum is the etiologic agent of infectious coryza of chickens. Among the nine Kume serovars currently recognized in this bacterium, serovar B-1 is a common serovar in the Americas. In the current study, serovar B-1 isolates from Ecuador (seven isolates), Mexico (seven isolates) and Panama (two isolates) were genotyped. In addition one Panamanian, one Ecuadorian, and two Mexican isolates were used in a vaccination-challenge trial in which the vaccine was based on the 2671 serovar B-1 reference strain. Genotyping by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-based PCR (ERIC-PCR) resulted in ten distinguishable ERIC patterns for the 16 isolates and the two reference strains of Av. paragallinarum included in the study. No ERIC patterns were shared among isolates of the three different countries. In the vaccination-challenge trial, one isolate from Panama showed a significantly lower virulence than did the three other isolates. In terms of cross-protection, chickens vaccinated with reference strain 2671 and challenged with an Ecuadorian strain showed 40% protection, a significantly lower protection than the homologous protection level. The other three field isolates gave a similar protection level to the homologous challenge.

  6. Evaluation of Extraction and Degradation Methods to Obtain Chickpeasaponin B1 from Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Cheng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to implement extraction and degradation methods for the obtainment of 3-O-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-β-d-galactopyranosyl] soyasapogenol B (chickpeasaponin B1 from chickpea. The effects of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE processing parameters—such as ethanol concentration, solvent/solid ratio, extraction temperature, microwave irradiation power, and irradiation time—were evaluated. Using 1g of material with 8 mL of 70% aqueous ethanol and an extraction time of 10 min at 70 °C under irradiation power 400W provided optimal extraction conditions. Compared with the conventional extraction techniques, including heat reflux extraction (HRE, Soxhlet extraction (SE, and ultrasonic extraction (UE, MAE produced higher extraction efficiency under a lower extraction time. DDMP (2,3-dihydro-2,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one saponin can be degraded to structurally stable saponin B by the loss of its DDMP group. The influence of pH and the concentration of potassium hydroxide on transformation efficiency of the target compound was investigated. A solution of 0.25 M potassium hydroxide in 75% aqueous ethanol was suitable for converting the corresponding DDMP saponins of chickpeasaponin B1. The implementation by the combining MAE technique and alkaline hydrolysis method for preparing chickpeasaponin B1 provides a convenient technology for future applications.

  7. Electrochemical Immunosensor Based on Polythionine/Gold Nanoparticles for the Determination of Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph H.O. Owino

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available An aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 electrochemical immunosensor was developed by the immobilisation of aflatoxin B1-bovine serum albumin (AFB1-BSA conjugate on a polythionine (PTH/gold nanoparticles (AuNP-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE. The surface of the AFB1-BSA conjugate was covered with horseradish peroxidase (HRP, in order to prevent non-specific binding of the immunosensors with ions in the test solution. The AFB1 immunosensor exhibited a quasi-reversible electrochemistry as indicated by a cyclic voltammetric (CV peak separation (ΔEp value of 62 mV. The experimental procedure for the detection of AFB1 involved the setting up of a competition between free AFB1 and the immobilised AFB1-BSA conjugate for the binding sites of free anti-aflatoxin B1 (anti-AFB1 antibody. The immunosensor’s differential pulse voltammetry (DPV responses (peak currents decreased as the concentration of free AFB1 increased within a dynamic linear range (DLR of 0.6 - 2.4 ng/mL AFB1 and a limit of detection (LOD of 0.07 ng/mL AFB1. This immunosensing procedure eliminates the need for enzyme-labeled secondary antibodies normally used in conventional ELISA–based immunosensors.

  8. Theoretical study of B3-to-B1 phase transition in ZnS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Zhang, Rui; Lv, Tianquan; Cao, Qilong

    2016-10-01

    The pressure-induced phase transformation from B3 to B1 structures in ZnS using first-principle projector-augmented wave method is studied. To understand the nature and driving force behind the transition, the interesting properties in both phases, including enthalpy, phonon dispersion curves and elastic constants, are systematically investigated. The results show that the calculated transition pressure is within the range of 16.33 GPa to 19.04 GPa, which is in good agreement with the available experimental and theoretical data. The transition process can be viewed as the appearance and disappearance of very slight lattice distortion accompanied by the movement of Zn and S atoms along the [111] crystallographic axis. The physical driving force of the B3-B1 phase transition is confirmed to be a coupling effect between the mechanical instability of B3 phase under pressure and the softening acoustic phonon mode resulting from the pressure-induced lattice deformation. For B1 phase, it is further predicted that a new phase transition takes place at about 59.9 GPa.

  9. Facile synthesis of cyclopentenone B1- and L1-type Phytoprostanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre eGuy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Phytoprostanes (PhytoPs represent non-enzymatic metabolites of α-linolenic acid (ALA, the essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA derived from plants. PhytoPs are present in the plant kingdom and represent endogenous mediators capable of protecting cells from oxidative stress damages in plants. Recently, it was found that such metabolites are present in cooking oil in high quantities, and also that B1-PhytoPs protect immature neurons from oxidant injury and promote differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitors through PPAR-γ activation. We report a novel and facile synthesis of natural 2,3-substituted cyclopentenone PhytoPs, 16-B1-PhytoP and 9-L1-PhytoP. Our strategy is based on reductive alkylation at the 2-position of 1,3-cyclopentanedione using a recent protocol developed by Ramachary et al., and on a cross-coupling metathesis to access conjugate dienone system. In conclusion, this strategy permitted access to B1- and L1-PhytoPs in a relative short sequence process, and afford the possibility to easily develop analogs of PhytoPs.

  10. Water in Comets 71P/Clark and C/2004 B1 (LINEAR) with Spitzer

    CERN Document Server

    Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Kelley, Michael S; Wooden, Diane H

    2009-01-01

    We present 5.5 to 7.6 micron spectra of comets 71P/Clark (2006 May 27.56 UT, r_h = 1.57 AU pre-perihelion) and C/2004 B1 (LINEAR) (2005 October 15.22 UT, r_h = 2.21 AU pre-perihelion and 2006 May 16.22 UT, r_h = 2.06 AU post-perihelion) obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The nu_2 vibrational band of water is detected with a signal-to-noise ratio of 11 to 50. Fitting the spectra using a fluorescence model of water emission yields a water rotational temperature of < 18 K for 71P/Clark and approximately less than or equivalent to 14 +/- 2 K (pre-perihelion) and 23 +/- 4 K (post-perihelion) for C/2004 B1 (LINEAR). The water ortho-to-para ratio in C/2004 B1 (LINEAR) is measured to be 2.31 +/- 0.18, which corresponds to a spin temperature of 26^{+3}_{-2} K. Water production rates are derived. The agreement between the water model and the measurements is good, as previously found for Spitzer spectra of C/2003 K4 (LINEAR). The Spitzer spectra of these three comets do not show any evidence for emission from...

  11. Nuclear research reactors in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota, Anna Paula Leite; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias, E-mail: aplc@cdtn.b, E-mail: amir@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The rising concerns about global warming and energy security have spurred a revival of interest in nuclear energy, giving birth to a 'nuclear power renaissance' in several countries in the world. Particularly in Brazil, in the recent years, the nuclear power renaissance can be seen in the actions that comprise its nuclear program, summarily the increase of the investments in nuclear research institutes and the government target to design and build the Brazilian Multipurpose research Reactor (BMR). In the last 50 years, Brazilian research reactors have been used for training, for producing radioisotopes to meet demands in industry and nuclear medicine, for miscellaneous irradiation services and for academic research. Moreover, the research reactors are used as laboratories to develop technologies in power reactors, which are evaluated today at around 450 worldwide. In this application, those reactors become more viable in relation to power reactors by the lowest cost, by the operation at low temperatures and, furthermore, by lower demand for nuclear fuel. In Brazil, four research reactors were installed: the IEA-R1 and the MB-01 reactors, both at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares (IPEN, Sao Paulo); the Argonauta, at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN, Rio de Janeiro) and the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor, at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN, Belo Horizonte). The present paper intends to enumerate the characteristics of these reactors, their utilization and current academic research. Therefore, through this paper, we intend to collaborate on the BMR project. (author)

  12. 维生素B1的电化学聚合及催化作用%Electrochemistry and Electrocatalysis of Electropolymerized Vitamin B1 Film Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秋霞; 马玉荣; 何畏; 王雪琳

    2001-01-01

    A polymer film of vitamin B1 was obtained at a graphite carbon electrode by cyclic voltammetric method in phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Cyclic voltammograms of the film electrode in PBS (pH 5) exhibited one pair redox waves, Epa=350 mV,Epc=325 mV,different from monomer vitamin B1. The peak currents of poly-VB1 films was proportional to (scan rate)1/2, which showed that the charge transfer was controlled by diffusion in the polymer film. The Poly-VB1 modified electrode showed a good catalytic ability to dopamine and epinephrine. At the modified electrod, the peak potential for oxidation of dopamine occurred at 250 mV and 200 mV for epinephrine, while they were shifted towards the negative direction 100 mV and 300 mV respectively at the bare glassy carbon electrode . And their peak current had a linear relationship to the concentrations in the range of 8.0×10-7~1.0×10-4 mol/L for dopamine and 1.0×10-6~1.0×10-4 mol/L for epinephrine.%用循环伏安法在石墨电极上制备了VB1聚合膜修饰电极,VB1聚合膜在pH 5的PBS中有一对氧化还原峰,峰电位Epa=350 mV,Epc=325 mV,峰电流与扫描速率的平方根成正比,表明电子在膜中的传递为扩散控制,且聚合膜与VB1单体有不同的电化学性质。实验表明VB1聚合膜对多巴胺、肾上腺素等神经递质有显著的电催化作用。

  13. Direct protein-protein interactions and substrate channeling between cellular retinoic acid binding proteins and CYP26B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Cara H; Peng, Chi-Chi; Lutz, Justin D; Yeung, Catherine K; Zelter, Alex; Isoherranen, Nina

    2016-08-01

    Cellular retinoic acid binding proteins (CRABPs) bind all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) tightly. This study aimed to determine whether atRA is channeled directly to cytochrome P450 (CYP) CYP26B1 by CRABPs, and whether CRABPs interact directly with CYP26B1. atRA bound to CRABPs (holo-CRABP) was efficiently metabolized by CYP26B1. Isotope dilution experiments showed that delivery of atRA to CYP26B1 in solution was similar with or without CRABP. Holo-CRABPs had higher affinity for CYP26B1 than free atRA, but both apo-CRABPs inhibited the formation of 4-OH-RA by CYP26B1. Similar protein-protein interactions between soluble binding proteins and CYPs may be important for other lipophilic CYP substrates.

  14. 76 FR 68793 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... No: 2011-28738] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and Procedures; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and Procedures will hold a meeting on November 29, 2011, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville...

  15. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-06-01

    During the 1960's and early 70's the author performed extensive design studies, analyses, and tests aimed at thermionic reactor concepts that differed significantly from those pursued by other investigators. Those studies, like most others under Atomic Energy Commission (AEC and DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsorship, were terminated in the early 1970's. Some of this work was previously published, but much of it was never made available in the open literature. U.S. interest in thermionic reactors resumed in the early 80's, and was greatly intensified by reports about Soviet ground and flight tests in the late 80's. This recent interest resulted in renewed U.S. thermionic reactor development programs, primarily under Department of Defense (DOD) and Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship. Since most current investigators have not had an opportunity to study all of the author's previous work, a review of the highlights of that work may be of value to them. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling. Where the author's concepts differed from the later Topaz-2 design was in the relative location of the emitter and the collector. Placing the fueled emitter on the outside of the cylindrical diodes permits much higher axial conductances to reduce ohmic

  16. New function of the adaptor protein SH2B1 in brain-derived neurotrophic factor-induced neurite outgrowth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hung Shih

    Full Text Available Neurite outgrowth is an essential process for the establishment of the nervous system. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF binds to its receptor TrkB and regulates axonal and dendritic morphology of neurons through signal transduction and gene expression. SH2B1 is a signaling adaptor protein that regulates cellular signaling in various physiological processes. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of SH2B1 in the development of the central nervous system. In this study, we show that knocking down SH2B1 reduces neurite formation of cortical neurons whereas overexpression of SH2B1β promotes the development of hippocampal neurons. We further demonstrate that SH2B1β promotes BDNF-induced neurite outgrowth and signaling using the established PC12 cells stably expressing TrkB, SH2B1β or SH2B1β mutants. Our data indicate that overexpressing SH2B1β enhances BDNF-induced MEK-ERK1/2, and PI3K-AKT signaling pathways. Inhibition of MEK-ERK1/2 and PI3K-AKT pathways by specific inhibitors suggest that these two pathways are required for SH2B1β-promoted BDNF-induced neurite outgrowth. Moreover, SH2B1β enhances BDNF-stimulated phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 at serine 727. Finally, our data indicate that the SH2 domain and tyrosine phosphorylation of SH2B1β contribute to BDNF-induced signaling pathways and neurite outgrowth. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that SH2B1β promotes BDNF-induced neurite outgrowth through enhancing pathways involved MEK-ERK1/2 and PI3K-AKT.

  17. Cytochrome P450 1B1 Contributes to the Development of Atherosclerosis and Hypertension in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chi Young; Ghafoor, Khuzema; Ghafoor, Hafiz U; Khan, Nayaab S; Thirunavukkarasu, Shyamala; Jennings, Brett L; Estes, Anne M; Zaidi, Sahar; Bridges, Dave; Tso, Patrick; Gonzalez, Frank J; Malik, Kafait U

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1B1 contributes to vascular smooth muscle cell growth and hypertension in male mice. This study was conducted to determine the contribution of CYP1B1 to the development of atherosclerosis and hypertension and associated pathogenesis in 8-week-old male apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)/Cyp1b1(+/+)), and ApoE- and CYP1B1-deficient (ApoE(-/-)/Cyp1b1(-/-)) mice fed a normal or atherogenic diet for 12 weeks. A separate group of ApoE(-/-)/Cyp1b1(+/+) mice on an atherogenic diet was injected every third day with the CYP1B1 inhibitor, 2,3',4,5'-tetramethoxystilbene (300 μg/kg), or its vehicle, dimethyl sulfoxide (30 μL, IP); systolic blood pressure was measured by the tail cuff method. After 12 weeks, mice were euthanized, blood collected for lipid analysis, and aortas harvested for measuring lesions and remodeling, and for infiltration of inflammatory cells by histological and immunohistochemical analysis, respectively, and for reactive oxygen species production. Blood pressure, areas of lipids and collagen deposition, elastin breaks, infiltration of macrophages and T lymphocytes, reactive oxygen species generation in the aorta, and plasma lipid levels were increased in ApoE(-/-)/Cyp1b1(+/+) mice on an atherogenic diet; these changes were minimized in mice given 2,3',4,5'-tetramethoxystilbene, and in ApoE(-/-)/Cyp1b1(-/-) mice on an atherogenic diet; absorption/production of lipids remained unaltered in these mice. These data suggest that aortic lesions, hypertension, and associated pathogenesis in ApoE(-/-)/Cyp1b1(+/+) mice on an atherogenic diet are most likely dependent on CYP1B1-generated oxidative stress and increased plasma lipid levels independent of blood pressure and absorption of lipids. CYP1B1 could serve as a novel target for developing drugs to treat atherosclerosis and hypertension caused by hypercholesterolemia.

  18. 高迁移率族蛋白 B1与缺血性卒中%High-mobility group protein B1 and ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹翔; 徐运

    2016-01-01

    High mobility group protein box 1 (HMGB1) is a typical nonhistone chromosomal protein. It has many celular functions in nucleus. Studies in recent years have showed that HMGB1 can be released to the outside of cels to exert a wide range of cytological effects. Ischemic stroke is one of the diseases with the highest morbidity and disability. More and more evidence has shown that HMGB1 plays a variety of important roles in the occurrence and development process of ischemic stroke. This article reviews the roles of HMGB1 in ischemic stroke.%高迁移率族蛋白 B1(high mobility group protein box 1, HMGB1)是一种典型的非组蛋白,在细胞核内具有多种功能。近年来的研究表明,HMGB1可释放到细胞外发挥广泛的细胞学效应。缺血性卒中是发病率和致残率最高的疾病之一。越来越多的证据表明,HMGB1在缺血性卒中的发生和发展过程中起到多种重要作用。文章就 HMGB1在缺血性卒中中的作用进行了综述。

  19. Measurement of the eta_b(1S) mass and the branching fraction for Upsilon(3S) --> gamma eta_b(1S)

    CERN Document Server

    Bonvicini, G; Lincoln, A; Smith, M J; Zhou, P; Zhu, J; Naik, P; Rademacker, J; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Reed, J; Robichaud, A N; Tatishvili, G; White, E J; Briere, R A; Vogel, H; Onyisi, P U E; Rosner, J L; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hunt, J M; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Ledoux, J; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Lowrey, N; Mehrabyan, S; Selen, M; Wiss, J; Kornicer, M; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Tarbert, C M; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Xavier, J; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Poling, R; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tan, B J Y; Tomaradze, A G; Brisbane, S; Libby, J; Martin, L; Powell, A; Spradlin, P; Thomas, C; Wilkinson, G; Méndez, H; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; Ecklund, K M; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Khalil, S; Mountain, R; Randrianarivony, K; Skwarnicki, T; Wang, J C; Zhang, L M

    2009-01-01

    We report evidence for the ground state of bottomonium, eta_b(1S), in the radiative decay Upsilon(3S) --> gamma eta_b in e^+e^- annihilation data taken with the CLEO III detector. Using 6 million Upsilon(3S) decays, and assuming Gamma(eta_b) = 10 MeV/c^2, we obtain B(Upsilon(3S) --> gamma eta_b) = (7.1 +- 1.8 +- 1.1) X 10^{-4}, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. The statistical significance is about 4 sigma. The mass is determined to be M(eta_b) = 9391.8 +- 6.6 +- 2.0 MeV/c^2, which corresponds to the hyperfine splitting Delta M_{hf}(1S)_b = 68.5 +- 6.6 +- 2.0 MeV/c^2. Using 9 million Upsilon(2S) decays, we place an upper limit on the corresponding Y(2S) decay, B(Y(2S) --> gamma eta_b) < 8.4 X 10^{-4} at 90 % confidence level.

  20. Effect of water molecules on the fluorescence enhancement of Aflatoxin B1 mediated by Aflatoxin B1:beta-cyclodextrin complexes. A theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Galicia, Guillermo; Garduño-Juárez, Ramón; Gabriela Vargas, M

    2007-01-01

    In order to explain the observed fluorescence enhancement of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) when forming AFB1:beta-cyclodextrin (AFB1:beta-CD) inclusion complexes, we have performed a theoretical (quantum chemistry calculations) study of AFB1 and AFB1:beta-CD in vacuum and in the presence of aqueous solvent. The AM1 method was used to calculate the absorption and emission wavelengths of these molecules. With the help of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) vibrational frequencies and related excitation energies of AFB1 and AFB1.(H2O)m = 4,5,6,11 were calculated. On the basis of these calculations we propose a plausible mechanism for the fluorescence enhancement of AFB1 in the presence of beta-CD: (1) before photoexcitation of AFB1 to its S1 excited state, there is a vibrational coupling between the vibrational modes involving the AFB1 carbonyl groups and the bending modes of the nearby water molecules (CG + WM); (2) these interactions allow a thermal relaxation of the excited AFB1 molecules that results in fluorescence quenching; (3) when the AFB1 molecules form inclusion complexes with beta-CD the CG + WM interaction decreases; and (4) this gives rise to a fluorescence enhancement.

  1. Cyclin B1 and p21cipl在急性白血病中的表达及其相关性研究%Expressions of Cyclin B1 and p21cipl in Adult Acute Leukemia and Their Correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马卫东; 徐世荣; 阎蕴力; 郭晓楠; 乔淑凯; 薛芳; 高晓丽

    2005-01-01

    细胞周期蛋白(cyclin)B1作为调节细胞进行有丝分裂的正性调节因子,在细胞增殖中起到重要作用.本研究旨在评价cyclin B1在急性白血病(AL)发生、发展中的作用及其对AL患者预后判断的价值.采用流式细胞术对136例初治AL成人患者、10例持续完全缓解(CCR)患者及17例正常人进行cyclin B1、p21cipl蛋白表达水平检测和细胞周期分布分析;采用RT-PCR测定Cyclin B1、p21 cipl和增殖细胞核抗原(PCNA)mRNA水平.结果显示:136例初治AL患者cyclin B1蛋白表达水平明显高于正常对照组;复发AL患者的cyclin B1表达水平明显高于正常对照组,但低于初治AL患者;缓解AL患者及CCR的AL患者cyclin B1蛋白表达水平与正常对照比较均无显著性差异;所有cyclin B1高表达的AL患者出现非顺序表达(cyclin B1在G1期出现,有些甚至G2期高表达),cyclin B1与p21cipl的蛋白表达呈负相关;cyclin B1蛋白表达与其mRNA水平呈正相关;cyclin B1表达与PCNA及细胞增殖指数(PI)表达水平呈正相关;cyclin B1表达水平高的AL患者有较高的缓解率和生存率,但有较高的复发率.结论:本研究首次发现cyclin B1在成人AL患者有过度表达和异常分布,认为cyclin B1与AL发生、发展有关,是影响AL患者预后的因素之一.%Cyclin B1, a positive regulator, controls mitosis occurrence, plays an important role in cell proliferation.To investigate the clinical significance of cyclin B1, the expression of cyclin B1 in acute leukemia (AL) patients was measured; the expression of cyclin B1 and p21 cipl, and their cell cycle distribution were assayed by flow cytometry in 136 adult patients with newly diagnosed AL, 10 continuous complete remission (CCR) AL and 17 normal controls; the mRNA of cyclin B 1 and p21 cipl, and the proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in patients and normal controls were detected with semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The

  2. Suicidal gene therapy with rabbit cytochrome P450 4B1/4-ipomeanol, 2-aminoanthracene system in glioma cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Su Jin; Kang, Joo Hyun; Kim, Kwang Il; Lee, Tae Sup; Lee, Yong Jin; Woo, Kwang Sun; Chung, Wee Sup; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Suicidal gene therapy is based on the transduction of tumor cells with 'suicide' genes encoding for prodrugactivating enzymes that render target cells susceptible to prodrug treatment. Suicidal gene therapy results in the death of tumor with the expression of gene encoding enzyme that converts non-toxic prodrug into cytotoxic product. Cytochrome P450 4B1 (CYP4B1) activates 4- ipomeanol (4-ipo) and 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA) to cytotoxic furane epoxide and unsaturated dialdehyde intermediate. In this study, therapeutic effects of suicidal gene therapy with rabbit CYP4B1/4-ipo or CYP4B1/2-AA system

  3. Association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in CYP1B1 and COMT Genes with Breast Cancer Susceptibility in Indian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Sharawan Yadav; Naveen Kumar Singhal; Virendra Singh; Neeraj Rastogi; Pramod Kumar Srivastava; Mahendra Pratap Singh

    2009-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) and catechol-$O$-methyltransferase (COMT) enzymes play critical roles in estrogen metabolism. Alterations in the catalytic activity of CYP1B1 and COMT enzymes have been found associated with altered breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women in many populations. The substitution of leucine (Leu) to valine (Val) at codon 432 increases the catalytic activity of CYP1B1, however, substitution of Val to methionine (Met) at codon 158 decreases the catalytic activity of ...

  4. Turning points in reactor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckjord, E.S.

    1995-09-01

    This article provides some historical aspects on nuclear reactor design, beginning with PWR development for Naval Propulsion and the first commercial application at Yankee Rowe. Five turning points in reactor design and some safety problems associated with them are reviewed: (1) stability of Dresden-1, (2) ECCS, (3) PRA, (4) TMI-2, and (5) advanced passive LWR designs. While the emphasis is on the thermal-hydraulic aspects, the discussion is also about reactor systems.

  5. Fast reactor programme in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Chellapandi; P R Vasudeva Rao; Prabhat Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Role of fast breeder reactor (FBR) in the Indian context has been discussed with appropriate justification. The FBR programme since 1985 till 2030 is highlighted focussing on the current status and future direction of fast breeder test reactor (FBTR), prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) and FBR-1 and 2. Design and technological challenges of PFBR and design and safety targets with means to achieve the same are the major highlights of this paper.

  6. Acceptability of reactors in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.

    1981-04-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it dies not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  7. Spiral-shaped disinfection reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2015-08-20

    This disclosure includes disinfection reactors and processes for the disinfection of water. Some disinfection reactors include a body that defines an inlet, an outlet, and a spiral flow path between the inlet and the outlet, in which the body is configured to receive water and a disinfectant at the inlet such that the water is exposed to the disinfectant as the water flows through the spiral flow path. Also disclosed are processes for disinfecting water in such disinfection reactors.

  8. Hydrogen Production in Fusion Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Sudo, S.; Tomita, Y.; Yamaguchi, S.; Iiyoshi, A.; Momota, H; Motojima, O.; Okamoto, M.; Ohnishi, M.; Onozuka, M; Uenosono, C.

    1993-01-01

    As one of methods of innovative energy production in fusion reactors without having a conventional turbine-type generator, an efficient use of radiation produced in a fusion reactor with utilizing semiconductor and supplying clean fuel in a form of hydrogen gas are studied. Taking the candidates of reactors such as a toroidal system and an open system for application of the new concepts, the expected efficiency and a concept of plant system are investigated.

  9. Neutrino Oscillation Studies with Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Petr; Zhang, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective, and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavors are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos.

  10. Cyclin B1和survivin在非小细胞肺癌中的表达和意义%The expression and significance of cyclin B1 and survivin in human non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guosheng Li; Xuhan Liu; Daorong Zhang; Dong Liu; Zhiyong Li

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We studied the expression of cyclin B1 and survivin in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and the relationship between such expression and clinicopathological features of NSCLC. Methods: One hundred cases of tissue specimen including NSCLC, neighboring noncancerous tissue and normal lung tissue were collected at random. These specimens were detected by immunohistochemical methods. Results: The expression of cyclin B1 and survivin showed significant difference (P 0.05) in NSCLC. Statistical significance was marked between different clinical stages of NSCLC and the expression of cyclin B1 and survivin (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The overexpression of cyclin B1 and survivin was found in NSCLC. The expression of cyclin B1 and survivin might be up-regulated during an early step of tumorigenesis and during the development of NSCLC. The progression of cell cycle could be efficiently connected with the control of apoptosis by the interrelations between the overexpression of cyclin B1 and that of survivin in NSCLC during the G2/M phase. The overexpression of cyclin B1 and survivin might be used as marker in showing the dividing and proliferating ability, and the inhibiting apoptosis ability (lengthening cell lifespan) of NSCLC. Moreover, the overexpression of cyclin B1 and survivin was associated with the clinic stages of NSCLC.

  11. FAST NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, A.H.

    1957-12-01

    This patent relates to a reactor and process for carrying out a controlled fast neutron chain reaction. A cubical reactive mass, weighing at least 920 metric tons, of uranium metal containing predominantly U/sup 238/ and having a U/sup 235/ content of at least 7.63% is assembled and the maximum neutron reproduction ratio is limited to not substantially over 1.01 by insertion and removal of a varying amount of boron, the reactive mass being substantially freed of moderator.

  12. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.D.

    1993-12-14

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase is described. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figures.

  13. Could a B-1 cell derived phagocyte "be one" of the peritoneal macrophages during LPS-driven inflammation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flavia Popi

    Full Text Available The inflammatory response is driven by signals that recruit and elicit immune cells to areas of tissue damage or infection. The concept of a mononuclear phagocyte system postulates that monocytes circulating in the bloodstream are recruited to inflamed tissues where they give rise to macrophages. A recent publication demonstrated that the large increase in the macrophages observed during infection was the result of the multiplication of these cells rather than the recruitment of blood monocytes. We demonstrated previously that B-1 cells undergo differentiation to acquire a mononuclear phagocyte phenotype in vitro (B-1CDP, and we propose that B-1 cells could be an alternative origin for peritoneal macrophages. A number of recent studies that describe the phagocytic and microbicidal activity of B-1 cells in vitro and in vivo support this hypothesis. Based on these findings, we further investigated the differentiation of B-1 cells into phagocytes in vivo in response to LPS-induced inflammation. Therefore, we investigated the role of B-1 cells in the composition of the peritoneal macrophage population after LPS stimulation using osteopetrotic mice, BALB/Xid mice and the depletion of monocytes/macrophages by clodronate treatment. We show that peritoneal macrophages appear in op/op((-/- mice after LPS stimulation and exhibit the same Ig gene rearrangement (VH11 that is often found in B-1 cells. These results strongly suggest that op/op((-/- peritoneal "macrophages" are B-1CDP. Similarly, the LPS-induced increase in the macrophage population was observed even following monocyte/macrophage depletion by clodronate. After monocyte/macrophage depletion by clodronate, LPS-elicited macrophages were observed in BALB/Xid mice only following the transfer of B-1 cells. Based on these data, we confirmed that B-1 cell differentiation into phagocytes also occurs in vivo. In conclusion, the results strongly suggest that B-1 cell derived phagocytes are a component of

  14. CYP1B1 polymorphisms and susceptibility to prostate cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtuan Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1 and prostate cancer (PCa risk report conflicting results. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship between CYP1B1 polymorphisms and PCa risk, a meta-analysis was performed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify all eligible studies of CYP1B1 polymorphisms and PCa risk. A total of 14 independent studies, including 6380 cases and 5807 controls, were identified. We investigated by meta-analysis the effects of 5 polymorphisms in CYP1B1 L432V (12 studies, 5999 cases, 5438 controls, R48G (6 studies, 1647 cases, 1846 controls, N453S (4 studies, 1407 cases, 1499 controls, -13C/T (4 studies, 1116 cases, 1114 controls, and A119S (4 studies, 1057 cases, 1018 controls. There was no evidence that L432V had significant association with PCa in overall population. After subgroup analyses by ethnicity, we found that L432V was significantly associated with PCa risk in Asians (additive: OR = 2.38, 95%CI = 1.31-4.33, P = 0.004; recessive: OR = 2.11, 95%CI = 1.17-3.79, P = 0.01; dominant: OR = 1.52, 95%CI = 1.14-2.01, P = 0.004; allelic: OR = 1.52, 95%CI = 1.20-1.92, P = 0.0006. When stratified by source of controls, significantly elevated PCa risk was found in all genetic models in population based studies (additive: OR = 1.34, 95%CI = 1.14-1.57, P = 0.0003; recessive: OR = 1.25, 95%CI = 1.09-1.43, P = 0.002; dominant: OR = 1.25, 95%CI = 1.11-1.41, P = 0.0002; allelic: OR = 1.18, 95%CI = 1.09-1.28, P<0.0001. For N453S, there was a significant association between N453S polymorphism and PCa risk in both overall population (dominant: OR = 1.18, 95%CI = 1.00-1.38, P = 0.04 and mixed population (domiant: OR = 1.31, 95%CI = 1.06-1.63, P = 0.01; allelic: OR

  15. In vitro study of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 adsorption on zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basić Zorica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Zeolites are the hydratised alumosilicates of alcali and earthalcali cations, which have a long three-dimensional crystal structure. Preparations on the basis of zeolites are used for adsorption of organic and nonorganic toxic substances and they, also, find more and more use in veterinary and human medicine and pharmacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibilities of zeolite to adsorb vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in acid and neutral solutions, as well as the characteristics of the process (saturability, reversibility and competitivness. Methods. The specific and sensitive HPLC method with fluorescent detector was used for determination of vitamins B1, B2 and B6. Analyte separation and detection were carried out by applying the reverse-phase method on column C18. An in vitro experiment was done by testing the influence of pH value (2 and 7, concentration of vitamin solution (1, 2 and 5 mg/L, the lenght of contact with zeolite (10-180 min and cation competitiveness on the exchange capacity, which is achieved by media and zeolite contact, as well as a possible vitamins desorption through changing pH value of the solution at 37°C. Jon competitiveness was examined by adding commercial feed mixture (grower with a defined content of the examined vitamines in zeolite solutions the pH = 2 and pH = 7. Results. Vitamins B1, B2 and B6 were stable in both pH=2 and pH = 7 solutions at 37°C, in the defined time intervals. In acid solution concentrations of vitamins significantly declined in the first 10 min, with no significant decline in further 30 min for all the three concentrations testch. In neutral solution, after the addition of 1% zeolite, decrease in vitamins concentrations was slightly lower than in acid solution, but also significant in the first 10 min of the contact with zeolite. It was found that zeolite, which adsorbed vitamins in acid solution, transferred in the neutral one released a significant quantity of adsorbed

  16. Variant alleles of the CYP1B1 gene are associated with colorectal cancer susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background CYP1B1 is a P450 enzyme which is involved in the activation of pro-carcinogens to carcinogens as well as sex hormone metabolism. Because differences in the activity of the enzyme have been correlated with variant alleles of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), it represents an attractive candidate gene for studies into colorectal cancer susceptibility. Methods We genotyped 597 cancer patients and 597controls for three CYP1B1 SNPs, which have previously been shown to be associated with altered enzymatic activity. Using the three SNPs, eight different haplotypes were constructed. The haplotype frequencies were estimated in cases and controls and then compared. The odds ratio for each tumour type, associated with each haplotype was estimated, with reference to the most common haplotype observed in the controls. Results The three SNPs rs10012, rs1056827 and rs1056836 alone did not provide any significant evidence of association with colorectal cancer risk. Haplotypes of rs1056827 and rs10012 or rs1056827 and rs1056836 revealed an association with colorectal cancer which was significantly stronger in the homozygous carriers. One haplotype was under represented in the colorectal cancer patient group compared to the control population suggesting a protective effect. Conclusion Genetic variants within the CYP1B1 that are associated with altered function appear to influence susceptibility to a colorectal cancer in Poland. Three haplotypes were associated with altered cancer risk; one conferred protection and two were associated with an increased risk of disease. These observations should be confirmed in other populations. PMID:20701755

  17. Sustained spindle-assembly checkpoint response requires de novo transcription and translation of cyclin B1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Mena

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microtubule-targeting drugs induce mitotic delay at pro-metaphase by preventing the spindle assembly checkpoint to be satisfied. However, especially after prolonged treatments, cells can escape this arrest in a process called mitotic slippage. The mechanisms underlying the spindle assembly checkpoint and slippage are not fully understood. It has been generally accepted that during mitosis there is a temporary shutdown of high-energy-consuming processes, such as transcription and translation. However, the synthesis of specific proteins is maintained or up-regulated since protein synthesis is necessary for entry into and progression through mitosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work we investigated whether the mitotic arrest caused by the mitotic checkpoint is independent of transcription and translation. By using immunofluorescent microscopy and western blotting, we demonstrate that inhibition of either of these processes induces a shortening of the mitotic arrest caused by the nocodazole treatment, and ultimately leads to mitotic slippage. Our western blotting and RTQ-PCR results show that inhibition of transcription during mitotic arrest does not affect the expression of the spindle checkpoint proteins, whereas it induces a significant decrease in the mRNA and protein levels of Cyclin B1. The exogenous expression of Cyclin B1 substantially rescued the mitotic phenotype in nocodazole cells treated with the inhibitors of transcription and translation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work emphasizes the importance of transcription and translation for the maintenance of the spindle assembly checkpoint, suggesting the existence of a mechanism dependent on cyclin B1 gene regulation during mitosis. We propose that continuous transcription of mitotic regulators is required to sustain the activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint.

  18. H2S in the L1157-B1 bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdship, Jonathan; Viti, Serena; Jimenez-Serra, Izaskun; Lefloch, Bertrand; Codella, Claudio; Podio, Linda; Benedettini, Milena; Fontani, Francesco; Bachiller, Rafael; Tafalla, Mario; Ceccarelli, Cecilia

    2016-11-01

    Sulphur-bearing molecules are highly reactive in the gas phase of the interstellar medium. However, the form in which most of the sulphur is locked on to interstellar dust grains is unknown. By taking advantage of the short time-scales of shocks in young molecular outflows, one could track back the main form of sulphur in the ices. In this paper, six transitions of H2S and its isotopologues in the L1157-B1 bow shock have been detected using data from the Herschel-Chemical HErschel Surveys of Star forming regions survey and the IRAM-30m Astrochemical Surveys At IRAM large programme. These detections are used to calculate the properties of H2S gas in L1157-B1 through use of a rotation diagram and to explore the possible carriers of sulphur on the grains. The isotopologue detections allow the first calculation of the H2S deuteration fraction in an outflow from a low-mass protostar. The fractional abundance of H2S in the region is found to be 6.0 × 10-7 and the deuteration fraction is 2 × 10-2. In order to investigate the form of sulphur on the grains, a chemical model is run with four different networks, each with different branching ratios for the freeze out of sulphur-bearing species into molecules such as OCS and H2S. It is found that the model best fits the data when at least half of each sulphur-bearing species hydrogenates when freezing. We therefore conclude that a significant fraction of sulphur in L1157-B1 is likely to be locked in H2S on the grains.

  19. 法语DELF(B1)测试分析及攻略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敏

    2014-01-01

    本文力图通过对DELF(Diplôme d’études en langue française)B1级的解读,分析题型模式、评分标准、考试内容等,研究《共同参考框架》策略下的学习、教学、评估理念和方法,以期提供攻关考试和相应的教学对策,同时为我们国内的法语评估提供借鉴和参考。%[Résumé]L’objectif de cet article est de faire une analyse sur le mode de contrôle, le contenu du test ,le méthode et le critère d’évaluation du Diplôme d’études en langue française Niveau B1, à la recherche du stratégie de l’apprentissage, de l’enseignement et de l’évaluation dans le cadre européen commun de référence pour les langues, afin de trouver les moyens pour mieux réussir le Test DELF B1 ainsi que montrer des références concernant l’évaluation et l’enseignement dans le cadre européen commun pour améliorer l’enseignement du français en Chine.

  20. THE VITAMIN B(1) AND B(2) G CONTENT OF LIVER EXTRACT AND BREWERS' YEAST CONCENTRATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D K; Rhoads, C P

    1934-02-28

    1. Liver extract powder, No. 343 Lilly, and the same material prepared for parenteral use, when administered daily by mouth in amounts derived from 2.5 gm. of fresh whole liver, to rats weighing from 40 to 50 gm., contain sufficient vitamin B(1) to support normal growth, provided the animals receive in addition an adequate amount of vitamin B(2) G. Moreover, liver extract in the forms mentioned, administered in the same amounts, does not contain sufficient vitamin B(2) G to maintain normal growth of similar rate when all other necessary constituents of the diet are provided. 2. Liver extract (Lilly) in the form prepared for parenteral use, when administered daily by intraperitoneal injections, in amounts derived from 2.5 gm. of fresh whole liver, to rats under standard experimental conditions, does not contain sufficient vitamin B(2) G to maintain normal growth. Furthermore, the amount of vitamin B(1) present in liver extract in this form is not as effective in supporting normal growth when given by intraperitoneal injection as it is when given by mouth. 3. Vegex, when administered daily in amounts of 50, 150, and 250 mg. to rats of 40 to 50 gm. in weight contains sufficient vitamin B(1) to maintain normal growth of the rats, provided the animals receive in addition an adequate amount of vitamin B(2) G. However, vegex in the same amounts does not contain sufficient vitamin B(2) G to support normal growth of similar rats when all other necessary constituents of the diet are provided. 4. These experiments indicate that the extrinsic, anti-anemic factor of Castle and the thermostable growth-promoting food constituent, commonly known as vitamin B(2) G, are not identical.

  1. Identification of the hepatic efflux transporters of organic anions using double-transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells expressing human organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1)/multidrug resistance-associated protein 2, OATP1B1/multidrug resistance 1, and OATP1B1/breast cancer resistance protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Soichiro; Maeda, Kazuya; Kondo, Chihiro; Hirano, Masaru; Sasaki, Makoto; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2005-09-01

    Until recently, it was generally believed that the transport of various organic anions across the bile canalicular membrane was mainly mediated by multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2/ABCC2). However, a number of new reports have shown that some organic anions are also substrates of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1/ABCB1) and/or breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2), implying MDR1 and BCRP could also be involved in the biliary excretion of organic anions in humans. In the present study, we constructed new double-transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney II (MDCKII) cells expressing organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1)/MDR1 and OATP1B1/BCRP, and we investigated the transcellular transport of four kinds of organic anions, estradiol-17beta-d-glucuronide (EG), estrone-3-sulfate (ES), pravastatin (PRA), and cerivastatin (CER), to identify which efflux transporters mediate the biliary excretion of compounds using double-transfected cells. We observed the vectorial transport of EG and ES in all the double transfectants. MRP2 showed the highest efflux clearance of EG among these efflux transporters, whereas BCRP-mediated clearance of ES was the highest in these double transfectants. In addition, two kinds of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors, CER and PRA, were also substrates of all these efflux transporters. The rank order of the efflux clearance of PRA mediated by each transporter was the same as that of EG, whereas the contribution of MDR1 to the efflux of CER was relatively greater than for PRA. This experimental system is very useful for identifying which transporters are involved in the biliary excretion of organic anions that cannot easily penetrate the plasma membrane.

  2. Variant alleles of the CYP1B1 gene are associated with colorectal cancer susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trubicka Joanna

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CYP1B1 is a P450 enzyme which is involved in the activation of pro-carcinogens to carcinogens as well as sex hormone metabolism. Because differences in the activity of the enzyme have been correlated with variant alleles of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, it represents an attractive candidate gene for studies into colorectal cancer susceptibility. Methods We genotyped 597 cancer patients and 597controls for three CYP1B1 SNPs, which have previously been shown to be associated with altered enzymatic activity. Using the three SNPs, eight different haplotypes were constructed. The haplotype frequencies were estimated in cases and controls and then compared. The odds ratio for each tumour type, associated with each haplotype was estimated, with reference to the most common haplotype observed in the controls. Results The three SNPs rs10012, rs1056827 and rs1056836 alone did not provide any significant evidence of association with colorectal cancer risk. Haplotypes of rs1056827 and rs10012 or rs1056827 and rs1056836 revealed an association with colorectal cancer which was significantly stronger in the homozygous carriers. One haplotype was under represented in the colorectal cancer patient group compared to the control population suggesting a protective effect. Conclusion Genetic variants within the CYP1B1 that are associated with altered function appear to influence susceptibility to a colorectal cancer in Poland. Three haplotypes were associated with altered cancer risk; one conferred protection and two were associated with an increased risk of disease. These observations should be confirmed in other populations.

  3. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Order DOE 5480.6, Safety of Department of Energy-Owned Nuclear Reactors, establishes reactor safety requirements to assure that reactors are sited, designed, constructed, modified, operated, maintained, and decommissioned in a manner that adequately protects health and safety and is in accordance with uniform standards, guides, and codes which are consistent with those applied to comparable licensed reactors. This document identifies nuclear safety criteria applied to NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) licensed reactors. The titles of the chapters and sections of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.70, Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Rev. 3, are used as the format for compiling the NRC criteria applied to the various areas of nuclear safety addressed in a safety analysis report for a nuclear reactor. In each section the criteria are compiled in four groups: (1) Code of Federal Regulations, (2) US NRC Regulatory Guides, SRP Branch Technical Positions and Appendices, (3) Codes and Standards, and (4) Supplemental Information. The degree of application of these criteria to a DOE-owned reactor, consistent with their application to comparable licensed reactors, must be determined by the DOE and DOE contractor.

  4. Degradation and Application of Aflatoxin B1 by Aspergillus Niger%黑曲霉对黄曲霉毒素B1的降解与应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冰; 董征英; 常维山

    2012-01-01

    试验利用黑曲霉对黄曲霉毒素B1进行了降解率、活性组分的确定、安全性及对饲料中降解黄曲霉毒素效果的研究。研究结果表明,黑曲霉对黄曲霉毒素B1的降解率达93.28%,其中黑曲霉的胞外粗提液对黄曲霉毒素B1的降解活性最高,证明黑曲霉对黄曲霉毒素B1的降解是一种生物化学反应,黑曲霉发酵液对饲料中的黄曲霉毒素B1具有很强的降解作用。小鼠的急性毒理学试验证明,试验用黑曲霉本身具有良好的安全性。%The determination of degradation efficiency and active components of aflatoxin B1 safety and the effect of degradation aflatoxin in feed about the screened aspergillus was researched in this experiment used aspergillus niger. The result showed that the degradation of aflatoxin B1 by aspergillus niger was 93.28%, the degrading efficiencies of aflatoxin B1 by exocellular coarse extraction liquid was highest, and this proved that the degration of aflatoxin B1 by aspergillus niger was a biological reaction. The degrading effect of aflatoxin B1 in feed by aspergillus fermented liquid was strong. A favorable safety of aspergillus niger was testified through the acute toxicology experiments in mice.

  5. Genetic variation of Aflatoxin B(1) aldehyde reductase genes (AFAR) in human tumour cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praml, Christian; Schulz, Wolfgang; Claas, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    AFAR genes play a key role in the detoxification of the carcinogen Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)). In the rat, Afar1 induction can prevent AFB(1)-induced liver cancer. It has been proposed that AFAR enzymes can metabolise endogenous diketones and dialdehydes that may be cytotoxic and/or genotoxic....... Furthermore, human AFAR1 catalyses the rate limiting step in the synthesis of the neuromodulator gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and was found elevated in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). The human AFAR gene family maps to a genomic region in 1p36 of frequent...

  6. Thiamin (Vitamin B1 Biosynthesis and Regulation: A Rich Source of Antimicrobial Drug Targets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinglin Du, Honghai Wang, Jianping Xie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance of pathogens has necessitated the identification of novel targets for antibiotics. Thiamin (vitamin B1 is an essential cofactor for all organisms in its active form thiamin diphosphate (ThDP. Therefore, its metabolic pathways might be one largely untapped source of antibiotics targets. This review describes bacterial thiamin biosynthetic, salvage, and transport pathways. Essential thiamin synthetic enzymes such as Dxs and ThiE are proposed as promising drug targets. The regulation mechanism of thiamin biosynthesis by ThDP riboswitch is also discussed. As drug targets of existing antimicrobial compound pyrithiamin, the ThDP riboswitch might serves as alternative targets for more antibiotics.

  7. 3-Bromo-7-methoxy-2-phenylimidazo[2,1-b][1,3]benzothiazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Bunev

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title molecule, C16H11BrN2OS, the central imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]benzothiazole tricycle is essentially planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.021 Å. The terminal phenyl ring is twisted at 36.18 (5° from the mean plane of the tricycle. In the crystal, pairs of eak C—H...O hydrogen bonds link molecules into centrosymmetric dimers, which are further packed into stacks along the a axis.

  8. Targeting Sulfotransferase (SULT) 2B1b as a Regulator of Cholesterol Metabolism in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    designing a tet- inducible CRISPR /CAS9-based method to directly edit the genome by inserting LoxP sites flanking critical exon(s) in the SULT2b1b gene and...suppressed growth and greatly enhanced cell death, we performed further analysis to Figure 3. LNCaP cells were transfected with indicated siRNA...until we can generate the stable inducible cell lines using the CRISPR /CAS9 method described above in subtask 2. Major Task 4: Development  of

  9. Oxidative Role of Aflatoxin B1 on the Liver of Wheat Milling Workers

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The study aimed to estimate oxidative role of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on the liver in wheat milling workers. Materials and Methods: Case-control study was conducted to compare between the levels of AFB1/albumin (AFB1/alb), liver enzymes (ALT, AST, GGT, and ALP), P53, MDA, GST, SOD, zinc and vitamin C in 35 wheat milling workers and 40 control subjects. Results: Statistical analysis revealed that ALT, AST, GGT, ALP, P53, MDA, GST and SOD in workers were significantly elevated compared...

  10. Degradation of Aflatoxin B1 during the Fermentation of Alcoholic Beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Naoki Mochizuki; Yasushi Nagatomi; Atsuo Uyama; Tomonori Inoue

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a contaminant of grain and fruit and has one of the highest levels of carcinogenicity of any natural toxin. AFB1 and the fungi that produce it can also contaminate the raw materials used for beer and wine manufacture, such as corn and grapes. Therefore, brewers must ensure strict monitoring to reduce the risk of contamination. In this study, the fate of AFB1 during the fermentation process was investigated using laboratory-scale bottom and top beer fermentation and wine...

  11. Role of Orphan Nuclear Receptor DAX-1/NR0B1 in Development, Physiology, and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo Lalli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DAX-1/NR0B1 is an unusual orphan receptor that has a pivotal role in the development and function of steroidogenic tissues and of the reproductive axis. Recent studies have also indicated that this transcription factor has an important function in stem cell biology and in several types of cancer. Here I critically review the most important findings on the role of DAX-1 in development, physiology, and disease of endocrine tissues since the cloning of its gene twenty years ago.

  12. Numerical study of the static and pitching RISØ-B1-18 airfoil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this report is the better understanding of the physics of the aeroelastic motion of wind turbine blades in order to improve the numerical models used for their design. In this study, the case of the RISØ-B1-18 airfoil which was equippedand measured in an open jet wind tunnel...... is studied. Two and three dimensional Navier-Stokes calculations using the k-w SST and Detached Eddy Simulation turbulence models are conducted. An engineering semi-empirical dynamic stall model is also used forperforming calculations. Computational results are compared to the experimental results...

  13. Aflatoxin B1 levels in groundnut and sunflower oils in different Sudanese states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariod, Abdalbasit Adam; Idris, Yousif Mohamed Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the level of contamination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in groundnut and sunflower oils was determined. The 241 oil samples were collected from Khartoum, Gezira, Kordofan and Algadarif states of Sudan and assessed for AFB1 using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). AFB1 levels in groundnut oil samples ranged from 0.5 to 70 µg/kg and were 0.7 to 35 µg/kg in sunflower oil samples. High contamination was found in unrefined samples. It was concluded that AFB1 levels in oil samples indicated that growing, harvesting, handling and storage of the crops were not done properly.

  14. Reactor Physics Analysis Models for a CANDU Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok

    2007-10-15

    Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor physics analysis is typically performed in three steps. At first, macroscopic cross-sections of the reference lattice is produced by modeling the reference fuel channel. Secondly macroscopic cross-sections of reactivity devices in the reactor are generated. The macroscopic cross-sections of a reactivity device are calculated as incremental cross-sections by subtracting macroscopic cross-sections of a three-dimensional lattice without reactivity device from those of a three-dimensional lattice with a reactivity device. Using the macroscopic cross-sections of the reference lattice and incremental cross-sections of the reactivity devices, reactor physics calculations are performed. This report summarizes input data of typical CANDU reactor physics codes, which can be utilized for the future CANDU reactor physics analysis.

  15. B1 homogeneity of breast MRI using RF shimming with individual specific values in volunteers simulating patients after mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takayuki

    2016-11-01

    Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a 3-T MRI scanner is now widely used for clinical examinations. However, B1 inhomogeneity becomes larger with MRI scanners using 3-T and higher. It especially becomes a problem in the breast. To improve B1 homogeneity, a RF shimming technique has been developed. Purpose To evaluate the B1 homogeneity of breast MRI using RF shimming with individual specific values for subjects after mastectomy. Material and Methods The subjects are healthy female volunteers who underwent normal breast imaging, followed by imaging of one breast while the other breast was bound tightly to the chest by bleached cotton cloths (simulating volunteers after mastectomy). B1 mappings were performed with RF shimming using two techniques: (i) optimized fixed value; and (ii) individual specific values using a 3-T MRI scanner. The means and standard deviations of the B1 maps for all slices in the breast were measured and compared between the fixed value and the individual specific value cases. Results For normal volunteers, the breast B1 variation was not statistically significantly different between the RF shimming techniques. For volunteers after simulated surgery, the breast B1 variation was (1.02 ± 0.29) with the fixed value and (0.98 ± 0.22) with the individual specific value ( P volunteers after simulated surgery. Conclusion RF shimming with individual specific values has the potential to improve the B1 homogeneity of breast MRI in patients after mastectomy.

  16. KINETICS OF PERITONEAL B-1A CELLS (CD5 B-CELLS) IN YOUNG-ADULT MICE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEENEN, GJ; KROESE, FGM

    1993-01-01

    In the mouse, conventional B cells are continuously generated from precursor cells located in the bone marrow (BM), whereas the small subset of B-1 cells (formerly called Ly-1 B cells) constitute a self-replenishing population of cells. Here we studied the kinetics of murine peritoneal B-1a cells (i

  17. Screening a Strain of Aspergillus niger and Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for Degradation of Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin B1, a type of highly toxic mycotoxin produced by some species belonging to the Aspergillus genus, such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is widely distributed in feed matrices. Here, coumarin was used as the sole carbon source to screen microorganism strains that were isolated from types of feed ingredients. Only one isolate (ND-1 was able to degrade aflatoxin B1 after screening. ND-1 isolate, identified as a strain of Aspergillus niger using phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 18S rDNA, could remove 26.3% of aflatoxin B1 after 48 h of fermentation in nutrient broth (NB. Optimization of fermentation conditions for aflatoxin B1 degradation by selected Aspergillus niger was also performed. These results showed that 58.2% of aflatoxin B1 was degraded after 24 h of culture under the optimal fermentation conditions. The aflatoxin B1 degradation activity of Aspergillus niger supernatant was significantly stronger than cells and cell extracts. Furthermore, effects of temperature, heat treatment, pH, and metal ions on aflatoxin B1 degradation by the supernatant were examined. Results indicated that aflatoxin B1 degradation of Aspergillus niger is enzymatic and this process occurs in the extracellular environment.

  18. Development and Characterization of an Electroless Plated Silver/Cysteine Sensor Platform for the Electrochemical Determination of Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Paul Wacoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An electroless plated silver/cysteine sensor platform [Glass|silver|cysteine|aflatoxin B1|horseradish peroxidase] for the Electrochemical detection of aflatoxin B1 was developed and characterized. This involved four major steps: (1 an electroless deposition of silver (plating onto a glass slide, (2 immobilization of cysteine; (3 conjugation of aflatoxin B1 to cysteine groups; and (4 blocking of free cysteine groups with horseradish peroxidase (HRP. The binding of cysteine to the silver was demonstrated by the disappearance of thiol (S-H groups at 2500 cm−1 using Fourier transmittance infrared spectra (FT-IR, while the subsequent steps in the assembly of sensor platform were monitored using both FT-IR and cyclic voltammetry, respectively. The sensor platform exhibited a broadened nonsymmetrical redox couple as indicated by cyclic voltammetry. The platform was further characterized for sensitivity and limit of detection. The indirect competitive immunoassay format, whereby free and immobilized aflatoxin B1 on the sensor competed for the binding site of free anti-aflatoxin B1 antibody, was used at various concentrations of aflatoxin B1. The sensor generated differential staircase voltammogram that was inversely proportional to the concentration of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin B1 in the range of 0.06–1.1 ng/mL with a detection limit of 0.08 ng/mL could be detected.

  19. 26 CFR 1.673(b)-1 - Income payable to charitable beneficiaries before amendment by Tax Reform Act of 1969).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... before amendment by Tax Reform Act of 1969). 1.673(b)-1 Section 1.673(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Grantors and... amendment by Tax Reform Act of 1969). (a) Pursuant to section 673(b) a grantor is not treated as an owner...

  20. Protein-RNA Networks Regulated by Normal and ALS-Associated Mutant HNRNPA2B1 in the Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Fernando J; Pratt, Gabriel A; Van Nostrand, Eric L; Batra, Ranjan; Huelga, Stephanie C; Kapeli, Katannya; Freese, Peter; Chun, Seung J; Ling, Karen; Gelboin-Burkhart, Chelsea; Fijany, Layla; Wang, Harrison C; Nussbacher, Julia K; Broski, Sara M; Kim, Hong Joo; Lardelli, Rea; Sundararaman, Balaji; Donohue, John P; Javaherian, Ashkan; Lykke-Andersen, Jens; Finkbeiner, Steven; Bennett, C Frank; Ares, Manuel; Burge, Christopher B; Taylor, J Paul; Rigo, Frank; Yeo, Gene W

    2016-11-23

    HnRNPA2B1 encodes an RNA binding protein associated with neurodegeneration. However, its function in the nervous system is unclear. Transcriptome-wide crosslinking and immunoprecipitation in mouse spinal cord discover UAGG motifs enriched within ∼2,500 hnRNP A2/B1 binding sites and an unexpected role for hnRNP A2/B1 in alternative polyadenylation. HnRNP A2/B1 loss results in alternative splicing (AS), including skipping of an exon in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-associated D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) that reduces D-serine metabolism. ALS-associated hnRNP A2/B1 D290V mutant patient fibroblasts and motor neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC-MNs) demonstrate abnormal splicing changes, likely due to increased nuclear-insoluble hnRNP A2/B1. Mutant iPSC-MNs display decreased survival in long-term culture and exhibit hnRNP A2/B1 localization to cytoplasmic granules as well as exacerbated changes in gene expression and splicing upon cellular stress. Our findings provide a cellular resource and reveal RNA networks relevant to neurodegeneration, regulated by normal and mutant hnRNP A2/B1. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  1. Identification, characterization, and cloning of TIP-B1, a novel protein inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor-induced lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berleth, E S; Nadadur, S; Henn, A D; Eppolito, C; Shiojiri, S; Gurtoo, H L; Ehrke, M J; Mihich, E

    1999-11-01

    Some cancer cells evade elimination by virtue of their insensitivity to agents that induce apoptosis. Conversely, the side effects of anticancer agents could be diminished if normal cells were more resistant. To further elucidate the factors that contribute to the susceptibility of a cell to apoptosis, these investigations were designed to identify proteins isolated from cells exposed to low concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) that, when incubated with normally TNF-sensitive cells, protect these cells from TNF-induced cytotoxicity. TIP-B1, a novel protein, has been identified, purified, and characterized from cytosolic extracts of TNF-treated human fibroblasts. The approximately 27 kDa pI-4.5 TIP-B1 protein is unique based on both the sequence of three internal peptides (comprising 51 amino acids) and the nucleotide sequence of the corresponding 783-bp cDNA partial clone. Western blot analyses using polyclonal antisera raised against both the purified native TIP-B1 and the approximately 14 kDa product of the cDNA partial TIP-B1 clone, as well as Northern blot analyses using the cDNA insert as a probe, indicate that TIP-B1 may belong to a family of proteins that are expressed in a number of cell lines from diverse tissues. TNF-sensitive cells, when exposed to 4-10 microg/ml concentrations of TIP-B1 prior to the addition of TNF, are completely protected from TNF-induced lysis. Furthermore, TIP-B1 protects cells from apoptotic lysis induced by TNF. Preincubation of TIP-B1 with TNF does not affect the ability of TNF to induce lysis. Moreover, TIP-B1 does not seem to interfere with the interactions between TNF and the TNF receptors, based on a preliminary flow cytometric analysis of the cellular binding of biotinylated TNF. On the basis of these characteristics, TIP-B1 is not a soluble TNF receptor, an anti-TNF antibody, nor a protease that degrades TNF; yet TIP-B1 functions when added exogenously to cells. These characteristics, its novel sequence, and its

  2. Rescue of defective ATP8B1 trafficking by CFTR correctors as a therapeutic strategy for familial intrahepatic cholestasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Woerd, Wendy L; Wichers, Catharina G K; Vestergaard, Anna L;

    2016-01-01

    in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), associated with cystic fibrosis, impair protein folding and trafficking. The aim of this study was to investigate whether compounds that rescue CFTR F508del trafficking are capable of improving p.I661T-ATP8B1 plasma membrane expression. METHODS...... functionality. Combination therapy of SAHA and compound C4 resulted in an additional improvement of ATP8B1 cell surface abundance. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that several CFTR correctors can improve trafficking of p.I661T-ATP8B1 to the plasma membrane in vitro. Hence, these compounds may be suitable...... in other protein folding diseases. Using these compounds, we could indeed show improved trafficking to the (apical) plasma membrane of a mutated ATP8B1 protein, carrying the p.I661T missense mutation. This is the most frequently identified mutation in this rare cholestatic disorder. Importantly, ATP8B1...

  3. Isolation and characterization of a UV-sensitive mutator (mutB1) mutant of Haemophilus influenzae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, R.B.; Stuy, J.H.

    1988-06-01

    The mutB1 mutant of Haemophilus influenzae is very sensitive to UV radiation but only slightly sensitive to methylmethane sulfonate or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Cultures of mutB1 cells contain high numbers of spontaneous mutants and show hypermutability after exposure to the latter mutagen. Normally high-efficiency transforming markers, as well as low-efficiency ones, transform mutB1 recipients at similarly low efficiencies. Significant host cell reactivation was observed when mutB1 cells were exposed to UV-damaged phage; however, these mutants showed a decrease in phage recombination. This mutant did not degrade its DNA following exposure to UV. It is speculated that the mutB1 mutation is similar to the Escherichia coli uvrD mutation.

  4. Brookhaven leak reactor to close

    CERN Multimedia

    MacIlwain, C

    1999-01-01

    The DOE has announced that the High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven is to close for good. Though the news was not unexpected researchers were angry the decision had been taken before the review to assess the impact of reopening the reactor had been concluded (1 page).

  5. Thermochemical reactor systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipinski, Wojciech; Davidson, Jane Holloway; Chase, Thomas Richard

    2016-11-29

    Thermochemical reactor systems that may be used to produce a fuel, and methods of using the thermochemical reactor systems, utilizing a reactive cylindrical element, an optional energy transfer cylindrical element, an inlet gas management system, and an outlet gas management system.

  6. Chemical-vapor-deposition reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, S.

    1979-01-01

    Reactor utilizes multiple stacked trays compactly arranged in paths of horizontally channeled reactant gas streams. Design allows faster and more efficient deposits of film on substrates, and reduces gas and energy consumption. Lack of dead spots that trap reactive gases reduces reactor purge time.

  7. Glucoamylase starch-binding domain of Aspergillus niger B1: molecular cloning and functional characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paldi, Tzur; Levy, Ilan; Shoseyov, Oded

    2003-01-01

    Carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) are protein domains located within a carbohydrate-active enzyme, with a discrete fold that can be separated from the catalytic domain. Starch-binding domains (SBDs) are CBMs that are usually found at the C-terminus in many amylolytic enzymes. The SBD from Aspergillus niger B1 (CMI CC 324262) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as an independent domain and the recombinant protein was purified on starch. The A. niger B1 SBD was found to be similar to SBD from A. kawachii, A. niger var. awamori and A. shirusami (95-96% identity) and was classified as a member of the CBM family 20. Characterization of SBD binding to starch indicated that it is essentially irreversible and that its affinity to cationic or anionic starch, as well as to potato or corn starch, does not differ significantly. These observations indicate that the fundamental binding area on these starches is essentially the same. Natural and chemically modified starches are among the most useful biopolymers employed in the industry. Our study demonstrates that SBD binds effectively to both anionic and cationic starch. PMID:12646045

  8. Metabolism of Terephthalic Acid and Its Effects on CYP4B1 Induction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investgate the metabolism of terephthalic acid (TPA) in rats and its mechanism. Methods Metabolism was evaluated by incubating sodium terephthalate (NaTPA) with rat normal liver microsomes, or with microsomes pretreated by phenobarbital sodium, or with 3-methycholanthrene, or with diet control following a NADPH-generating system. The determination was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the mutagenic activation was analyzed by umu tester strain Salmonella typhimurium NM2009. Expression of CYP4B 1 mRNA was detected by RT-PCR. Results The amount of NaTPA (12.5-200 μmol· L-1) detected by HPLC did not decrease in microsomes induced by NADPH-generating system. Incubation of TPA (0.025-0.1 mmol·L-1) with induced or noninduced liver microsomes in an NM2009 umu response system did not show any mutagenic activation. TPA exposure increased the expression of CYP4B 1 mRNA in rat liver, kidney, and bladder. Conclusion Lack of metabolism of TPA in liver and negative genotoxic data from NM2009 study are consistent with other previous short-term tests, suggesting that the carcinogenesis in TPA feeding animals is not directly interfered with TPA itself and/or its metabolites.

  9. Structure and Function of the Intracellular Region of the Plexin-B1 Transmembrane Receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Yufeng; Hota, Prasanta K.; Penachioni, Junia Y.; Hamaneh, Mehdi B.; Kim, SoonJeung; Alviani, Rebecca S.; Shen, Limin; He, Hao; Tempel, Wolfram; Tamagnone, Luca; Park, Hee-Won; Buck, Matthias; (Torino); (Toronto); (Case Western U.-Med)

    2010-02-11

    Members of the plexin family are unique transmembrane receptors in that they interact directly with Rho family small GTPases; moreover, they contain a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) domain for R-Ras, which is crucial for plexin-mediated regulation of cell motility. However, the functional role and structural basis of the interactions between the different intracellular domains of plexins remained unclear. Here we present the 2.4 {angstrom} crystal structure of the complete intracellular region of human plexin-B1. The structure is monomeric and reveals that the GAP domain is folded into one structure from two segments, separated by the Rho GTPase binding domain (RBD). The RBD is not dimerized, as observed previously. Instead, binding of a conserved loop region appears to compete with dimerization and anchors the RBD to the GAP domain. Cell-based assays on mutant proteins confirm the functional importance of this coupling loop. Molecular modeling based on structural homology to p120{sup GAP} {center_dot}H-Ras suggests that Ras GTPases can bind to the plexin GAP region. Experimentally, we show that the monomeric intracellular plexin-B1 binds R-Ras but not H-Ras. These findings suggest that the monomeric form of the intracellular region is primed for GAP activity and extend a model for plexin activation.

  10. Synthesis and antitubercular evaluation of imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun M. Patel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a series of imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole derivatives 5(a–j were synthesized and characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectral technique. The compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain by using Alamar Blue susceptibility test as part of the TAACF TB screening program under direction of the US National Institutes of Health, the NIAID division. Among the tested compounds, 2-(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl-6-(4-nitrophenylimidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole (5f has shown the highest (98% inhibitory activity with MIC of 3.14 μg/ml as compared to other tested compounds. Further, some potent compounds were also assessed for their cytotoxic activity against a mammalian Vero cell line using MTT assay. The results reveal that these compounds exhibit anti-tubercular activity at non-cytotoxic concentrations.

  11. Transcriptomic Analysis of Aflatoxin B1-Regulated Genes in Rat Hepatic Epithelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳; 季静; 李光辉; 李君文; 陈招立; 王海勇

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins are the most popular hepatotoxicants. Chronic exposure to aflatoxins leads to a wide variety of liver diseases, such as hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we analyzed the genome wide expression profiles of aflatoxin B1-induced rat hepatic epithelial cells. The expression of 325, 184 and 199 special genes was altered when exposed to 0.03, 0.1 and 0.2 μmol/L aflatoxin B1 respectively, and 239 genes were commonly expressed. After the functional analysis on these dose-special genes, we determined several key pathways related to hepatotoxicity, such as TGF-beta signaling pathway, tight junction, adherens junction, the regulation of actin cytoskeleton, ErbB signaling pathway, p53 signaling pathway, pathways in cancer and axon guidance. Common genes were mainly associated with focal adhesion, ECM-receptor interaction, and cell adhesion molecules. Gene ontology annotations showed a good concordance with these pathways. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction(PCR) analysis of selected genes showed similar patterns in microarrays. The toxicogenomic study provides a better understanding of molecular mechanisms of aflatoxins.

  12. Effect of climate change on Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin B1 production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel eMedina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This review considers the available information on the potential impact of key environmental factors and their interactions on the molecular ecology, growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus in vitro and in maize grain. The recent studies which have been carried out to examine the impact of water activity x temperature on aflatoxin biosynthesis and phenotypic aflatoxin production are examined. These have shown that there is a direct relationship between the relative expression of key regulatory and structural genes under different environmental conditions which correlate directly with aflatoxin B1 production. A model has been developed to integrate the relative expression of 10 biosynthetic genes in the pathway, growth and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 production which was validated under elevated temperature and water stress conditions. The effect of interacting conditions of aw x temperature x elevated CO2 (2x and 3x existing levels are detailed for the first time. This suggests that while such interacting environmental conditions have little effect on growth they do have a significant impact on aflatoxin biosynthetic gene expression (structural aflD and regulatory aflR genes and can significantly stimulate the production of AFB1. While the individual factors alone have an impact, it is the combined effect of these three abiotic factors which have an impact on mycotoxin production. This approach provides data which is necessary to help predict the real impacts of climate change on mycotoxigenic fungi.

  13. Measurement and assessment of aflatoxin B1 and its producing molds in Iranian sausages and burgers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Maktabi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is one of the most well-known hepatocarcinogens in humans. Contamination of raw materials, used in the production of sausages and burgers, with aflatoxin producing molds can lead to increased level of aflatoxin in the final products and can impose hazards to human health. Unfortunately, aflatoxin is resistant to heating and freezing processes, etc. and can remain in these products untile consumption. Methods: During a six-month period, 45 sausage and 53 burger samples from valid brands across the country were randomly purchased from the stores. The samples were analyzed for AFB1 by ELISA technique. Meanwhile, the number of molds was calculated and aflatoxin producing molds were identified by direct and slide culture methods. Results: The findings showed that 2 susage samples (4.9% and 3 burger samples (6.3% were contaminated with >1 ng/g aflatoxin. Moreover, 4 burger samples (8.9% contaminated with mold included aspergillus flavus, aspergillus niger, mucor, and penicillium while, none of the susage samples showed mold contamination. Conclusion: The Iranian meat products had a relative aflatoxin B1 contamination during the study period, but the contamination rate was low and in allowable range. Standard hygienic preparation and packaging of meat products molds is recommended to reduce fungal contamination, especially aflatoxin-producing molds.

  14. H2S in the L1157-B1 Bow shock

    CERN Document Server

    Holdship, Jonathan; Jimenez-Serra, Izaskun; Lefloch, Bertrand; Codella, Claudio; Podio, Linda; Benedettini, Milena; Fontani, Francesco; Bachiller, Rafael; Tafalla, Mario; Ceccarelli, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur-bearing molecules are highly reactive in the gas phase of the ISM. However, the form in which most of the sulfur is locked onto interstellar dust grains is unknown. By taking advantage of the short time-scales of shocks in young molecular outflows, one could track back the main form of sulfur in the ices. In this paper, six transitions of H$_2$S and its isotopologues in the L1157-B1 bowshock have been detected using data from the Herschel-CHESS survey and the IRAM-30m ASAI large program. These detections are used to calculate the properties of H$_2$S gas in L1157-B1 through use of a rotation diagram and to explore the possible carriers of sulfur on the grains. The isotopologue detections allow the first calculation of the H$_2$S deuteration fraction in an outflow from a low mass protostar. The fractional abundance of H$_2$S in the region is found to be 6.0$\\times$10$^{-7}$ and the deuteration fraction is 2$\\times$10$^{-2}$. In order to investigate the form of sulfur on the grains, a chemical model is r...

  15. Biosynthesis of the cyclotide Kalata B1 using protein splicing tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, R; Krishnan, K; Camarero, J A

    2005-07-13

    Cyclotides are a new emerging family of large cyclic polypeptides ({approx}30 residues long) that share a disulfide-stabilized core (3 disulfide bonds) with an unusual knotted structure (Fig. 1A) [1]. Cyclotides contrast with other circular polypeptides in that they have a highly defined three-dimensional structure, and despite their small size, can be considered as miniproteins. Their unique circular backbone topology and knotted arrangement of 3 disulfide bonds makes them exceptionally stable to thermal and enzymatic degradation. Furthermore, their well defined structures have been also associated with a range of biological activities, including uterotonic activity, inhibition of neurotension binding, hemolytic, anti-HIV, insecticidal as well as trypsin inhibitory activity. Altogether, these characteristics make cyclotides ideal candidates to be used as molecular scaffolds for the development of stable peptide drugs [2]. Access to biosynthetic cyclotides using recombinant DNA expression techniques would offer the exciting possibility of producing large combinatorial libraries of highly stable miniproteins using the tools of molecular biology. This would allow the generation of cell-based combinatorial libraries that could be screened inside living cells for their ability to regulate cellular processes. In the present work we describe for the first time the biosynthesis of the cyclotide Kalata B1 in E. coli. Our approach is based on the use of an intramolecular version of the native chemical ligation combined with the use of a modified protein splicing unit [3]. In order to accomplish the cyclization of Kalata B1, the different linear precursors tested in this work (Fig. 1B) were fused at the N-terminus with a Met residue, and at the C-terminus with an VMA engineered intein (available in the pTXB expression vectors family from New England Biolabs). The Met residue was efficiently removed in vivo in E. coli by an endogenous Met amino peptidase. This in vivo

  16. Vitamin B1 in marine sediments: pore water concentration gradient drives benthic flux with potential biological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle eMonteverde

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B1, or thiamin, can limit primary productivity in marine environments, however the major marine environmental sources of this essential coenzyme remain largely unknown. Vitamin B1 can only be produced by organisms that possess its complete synthesis pathway, while other organisms meet their cellular B1 quota by scavenging the coenzyme from exogenous sources. Due to high bacterial cell density and diversity, marine sediments could represent some of the highest concentrations of putative B1 producers, yet these environments have received little attention as a possible source of B1 to the overlying water column. Here we report the first dissolved pore water profiles of B1 measured in cores collected in two consecutive years from Santa Monica Basin, CA. Vitamin B1 concentrations were fairly consistent between the two years ranging from 30 pM up to 770 pM. A consistent maximum at ~5 cm sediment depth covaried with dissolved concentrations of iron. Pore water concentrations were higher than water column levels and represented some of the highest known environmental concentrations of B1 measured to date, (over two times higher than maximum water column concentrations suggesting increased rates of cellular production and release within the sediments. A one dimensional diffusion-transport model applied to the B1 profile was used to estimate a diffusive benthic flux of ~0.7 nmol m 2 d-1. This is an estimated flux across the sediment-water interface in a deep sea basin; if similar magnitude B-vitamin fluxes occur in shallow coastal waters, benthic input could prove to be a significant B1-source to the water column and may play an important role in supplying this organic growth factor to auxotrophic primary producers.

  17. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in CYP1B1 and COMT genes with breast cancer susceptibility in Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sharawan; Singhal, Naveen Kumar; Singh, Virendra; Rastogi, Neeraj; Srivastava, Pramod Kumar; Singh, Mahendra Pratap

    2009-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzymes play critical roles in estrogen metabolism. Alterations in the catalytic activity of CYP1B1 and COMT enzymes have been found associated with altered breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women in many populations. The substitution of leucine (Leu) to valine (Val) at codon 432 increases the catalytic activity of CYP1B1, however, substitution of Val to methionine (Met) at codon 158 decreases the catalytic activity of COMT. The present study was performed to evaluate the associations of CYP1B1 Leu(432)Val and/or COMT Val(158)Met polymorphisms with total, premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer risks in Indian women. COMT and CYP1B1 polymorphisms in controls and breast cancer patients were analyzed employing polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) followed by gel electrophoresis. Although CYP1B1 and COMT genotypes did not exhibit statistically significant association with breast cancer risks when analyzed individually, COMT wild type (Val(158)Val) in combination with CYP1B1 heterozygous variant (Leu(432)Val) [OR: 0.21; 95% CI (0.05-0.82), p value; 0.021] and COMT heterozygous variant (Val(158)Met) in combination with CYP1B1 wild type (Leu(432)Leu) [OR: 0.29; 95% CI (0.08-0.96), p value; 0.042] showed significant protective association with premenopausal breast cancer risk. The results demonstrate that CYP1B1 wild type in combination with COMT heterozygous or their inverse combination offer protection against breast cancer in premenopausal Indian women.

  18. Association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in CYP1B1 and COMT Genes with Breast Cancer Susceptibility in Indian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharawan Yadav

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1 and catechol-$O$-methyltransferase (COMT enzymes play critical roles in estrogen metabolism. Alterations in the catalytic activity of CYP1B1 and COMT enzymes have been found associated with altered breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women in many populations. The substitution of leucine (Leu to valine (Val at codon 432 increases the catalytic activity of CYP1B1, however, substitution of Val to methionine (Met at codon 158 decreases the catalytic activity of COMT. The present study was performed to evaluate the associations of CYP1B1 Leu432Val and/or COMT Val158Met polymorphisms with total, premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer risks in Indian women. COMT and CYP1B1 polymorphisms in controls and breast cancer patients were analyzed employing polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP followed by gel electrophoresis. Although CYP1B1 and COMT genotypes did not exhibit statistically significant association with breast cancer risks when analyzed individually, COMT wild type (Val158Val in combination with CYP1B1 heterozygous variant (Leu432Val [OR: 0.21; 95% CI (0.05–0.82, p value; 0.021] and COMT heterozygous variant (Val158Met in combination with CYP1B1 wild type (Leu432Leu [OR: 0.29; 95% CI (0.08–0.96, p value; 0.042] showed significant protective association with premenopausal breast cancer risk. The results demonstrate that CYP1B1 wild type in combination with COMT heterozygous or their inverse combination offer protection against breast cancer in premenopausal Indian women.

  19. Association of the CYP1B1*3 allele with survival in patients with prostate cancer receiving docetaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissung, Tristan M; Danesi, Romano; Price, Douglas K; Steinberg, Seth M; de Wit, Ronald; Zahid, Muhammad; Gaikwad, Nilesh; Cavalieri, Ercole; Dahut, William L; Sackett, Dan L; Figg, William D; Sparreboom, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Using a single nucleotide polymorphism association study in 52 men with prostate cancer receiving docetaxel, we found that individuals carrying two copies of the CYP1B1*3 polymorphic variant had a poor prognosis after docetaxel-based therapies compared with individuals carrying at least one copy of the CYP1B1*1 allele (30.6 versus 12.8 months; P=0.0004). The association between CYP1B1*3 and response to therapy was not observed in similar subjects receiving non-taxane-based therapy (P=0.18). The systemic clearance of docetaxel was also unrelated to CYP1B1 genotype status (P=0.39), indicating that the association of CYP1B1*3 with clinical response is not due to docetaxel metabolism. To explain these results, we hypothesized that an indirect gene-drug interaction was interfering with the primary mechanism of action of docetaxel, tubulin polymerization. We therefore conducted tubulin polymerization experiments with taxanes in the presence or absence of certain CYP1B1 estrogen metabolites, which are known to bind to nucleophilic sites in proteins and DNA, that revealed the primary estrogen metabolite of CYP1B1, 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE2), when oxidized to estradiol-3,4-quinone strongly inhibits tubulin polymerization. The 4-OHE2 is also formed more readily by the protein encoded by the CYP1B1*3 allele, validating further our data in patients. Furthermore, estradiol-3,4-quinone reacted in vitro with docetaxel to form the 4-OHE2-docetaxel adduct. This pilot study provides evidence that CYP1B1*3 may be an important marker for estimating docetaxel efficacy in patients with prostate cancer. This link is likely associated with CYP1B1*3 genotype-dependent estrogen metabolism.

  20. Antineutrino Monitoring of Thorium Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Akindele, Oluwatomi A; Norman, Eric B

    2015-01-01

    Various groups have demonstrated that antineutrino monitoring can be successful in assessing the plutonium content in water-cooled nuclear reactors for nonproliferation applications. New reactor designs and concepts incorporate nontraditional fuels types and chemistry. Understanding how these properties affect the antineutrino emission from a reactor can extend the applicability of antineutrino monitoring.Thorium molten salt reactors (MSR) breed U-233, that if diverted constitute an IAEA direct use material. The antineutrino spectrum from the fission of U-233 has been determined, the feasibility of detecting the diversion of a significant quantity, 8 kg of U-233, within the IAEA timeliness goal of 30 days has been evaluated. The antineutrino emission from a thorium reactor operating under normal conditions is compared to a diversion scenario at a 25 meter standoff by evaluating the daily antineutrino count rate and the energy spectrum of the detected antineutrinos. It was found that the diversion of a signifi...

  1. Engineering reactors for catalytic reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vivek V Ranade

    2014-03-01

    Catalytic reactions are ubiquitous in chemical and allied industries. A homogeneous or heterogeneous catalyst which provides an alternative route of reaction with lower activation energy and better control on selectivity can make substantial impact on process viability and economics. Extensive studies have been conducted to establish sound basis for design and engineering of reactors for practising such catalytic reactions and for realizing improvements in reactor performance. In this article, application of recent (and not so recent) developments in engineering reactors for catalytic reactions is discussed. Some examples where performance enhancement was realized by catalyst design, appropriate choice of reactor, better injection and dispersion strategies and recent advances in process intensification/ multifunctional reactors are discussed to illustrate the approach.

  2. Unsteady processes in catalytic reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matros, Yu.Sh.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years a realization has occurred that reaction and reactor dynamics must be considered when designing and operating catalytic reactors. In this book, the author has focussed on both the processes occurring on individual porous-catalyst particles as well as the phenomena displayed by collections of these particles in fixed-bed reactors. The major topics discussed include the effects of unsteady-state heat and mass transfer, the influence of inhomogeneities and stagnant regions in fixed beds, and reactor operation during forced cycling of operating conditions. Despite the title of the book, attention is also paid to the determination of the number and stability of fixed-bed steady states, with the aim of describing the possibility of controlling reactors at unstable steady states. However, this development is somewhat dated, given the recent literature on multiplicity phenomena and process control.

  3. A model of reactor kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, A.S.; Thompson, B.R.

    1988-09-01

    The analytical model of nuclear reactor transients, incorporating both mechanical and nuclear effects, simulates reactor kinetics. Linear analysis shows the stability borderline for small power perturbations. In a stable system, initial power disturbances die out with time. With an unstable combination of nuclear and mechanical characteristics, initial disturbances persist and may increase with time. With large instability, oscillations of great magnitude occur. Stability requirements set limits on the power density at which particular reactors can operate. The limiting power density depends largely on the product of two terms: the fraction of delayed neutrons and the frictional damping of vibratory motion in reactor core components. As the fraction of delayed neutrons is essentially fixed, mechanical damping largely determines the maximum power density. A computer program, based on the analytical model, calculates and plots reactor power as a nonlinear function of time in response to assigned values of mechanical and nuclear characteristics.

  4. Metallic fuels for advanced reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmack, W. J.; Porter, D. L.; Chang, Y. I.; Hayes, S. L.; Meyer, M. K.; Burkes, D. E.; Lee, C. B.; Mizuno, T.; Delage, F.; Somers, J.

    2009-07-01

    In the framework of the Generation IV Sodium Fast Reactor Program, the Advanced Fuel Project has conducted an evaluation of the available fuel systems supporting future sodium cooled fast reactors. This paper presents an evaluation of metallic alloy fuels. Early US fast reactor developers originally favored metal alloy fuel due to its high fissile density and compatibility with sodium. The goal of fast reactor fuel development programs is to develop and qualify a nuclear fuel system that performs all of the functions of a conventional fast spectrum nuclear fuel while destroying recycled actinides. This will provide a mechanism for closure of the nuclear fuel cycle. Metal fuels are candidates for this application, based on documented performance of metallic fast reactor fuels and the early results of tests currently being conducted in US and international transmutation fuel development programs.

  5. Study on aflatoxin B1 detecting in sauce by colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay%胶体金免疫层析法检测酱油中黄曲霉毒素B1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖卫华; 刘道峰; 邓省亮

    2012-01-01

    采用胶体金免疫层析法检测酱油中的黄曲霉毒素B1.加标的酱油样品经提取后,以胶体金免疫层析法对其进行黄曲霉毒素B1测定,并与酶联免疫吸附法进行比较.结果表明,当酱油中黄曲霉毒素含量超过国家限量标准(5 μg/kg),胶体金免疫层析法检测结果为阳性,说明该方法能够满足酱油样品中黄曲霉毒素B1监控的要求.%Colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay was used to detect the Aflatoxin B1 in Sauce. After spiking with aflatoxin B1 and extracting, the samples from sauce were detected by colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The data showed that the result of colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay would be positive when the concentration of aflatoxin B1 in sauce exceeding the maximum limit of China (5 jig/kg). The immunochromatographic assay can be used to screen aflatoxin B1 of sauce products.

  6. Heparan sulfate D-glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotransferase-3B1 (HS3ST3B1) promotes angiogenesis and proliferation by induction of VEGF in acute myeloid leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Song, Kai; Zhou, Ling; Xie, Zhishen; Zhou, Ping; Zhao, Yiming; Han, Yue; Xu, Xiaojun; Li, Ping

    2015-06-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) are complex polysaccharides that reside on the plasma membrane of almost all mammalian cells, and play an important role in physiological and pathological conditions. Heparan sulfate D-glucosamine 3-O-sulfotransferase 3B1 (HS3ST3B1) participates in the last biosynthetic steps of HS and transfers sulfate to the 3-O-position of glucosamine residues to yield mature sugar chains. To date very few biological processes or proteins have been described that are modulated by HS3ST3B1. In this study, we observed that HS3ST3B1 positively contributed to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) progression in vitro and in vivo, and these activities were associated with an induction of the proangiogenic factor VEGF expression and shedding. Moreover, the effects of HS3ST3B1 on VEGF release can be attenuated after treatment of heparanase inhibitor suramin, which prevented VEGF secretion and subsequently blocked VEGF-induced activation of ERK and AKT, suggesting that 3-O-sulfation of HS by HS3ST3B1 facilitated VEGF shedding; the effects of HS3ST3B1 on activation of ERK and AKT can also be blocked by VEGFR inhibitor axitinib, suggestive of a relationship between 3-O-sulfation of HS and VEGF-activated signaling pathways. Taken together, our findings support that VEGF is an important functional target of HS3ST3B1 and provide a new mechanism of HS3ST3B1 in AML.

  7. Up-regulation and subcellular localization of hnRNP A2/B1 in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Guocai

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the world's leading causes of death among cancer patients. It is important to find a new biomarker that diagnoses HCC and monitors its treatment. In our previous work, we screened a single-chain antibody (scFv N14, which could specifically recognize human HepG2 HCC cells but not human non-cancerous liver LO2 cells. However, the antigen it recognized in the cells remained unknown. Methods Recombinant scFv N14 antibody was expressed as an active antibody. Using this antibody with a combination of immunological and proteomic approaches, we identified the antigen of scFv N14 antibody as the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 (hnRNP A2/B1. The expression of hnRNP A2/B1 in HCC cells was then investigated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results We found that the up-regulation of hnRNP A2/B1 was measured at both transcriptional and translational levels in rat HCC cells but not in rat hepatic cells. We also found that in various human hepatic tissues, hnRNP A2/B1 was highly expressed in both human hepatitis virus positive liver tissues and human HCC tissues but not in normal liver tissues. Interestingly, we observed that the localization of hnRNP A2/B1 in HCC cells was altered during the development of HCC. In human hepatitis virus infected tissues hnRNP A2/B1 resides exclusively in the nuclei of hepatocytes. However, when the HCC progressed from a well differentiated to a poorly differentiated stage, hnRNP A2/B1 was increasingly localized in the cytoplasm. In contrast, the HCC tissues with hnRNP A2/B1 highly expressed in the nucleus decreased. Conclusions This work is the first to show that hnRNP A2/B1 is the antigen specifically recognized by the scFv N14 antibody in HCC cells. The over-expression of hnRNP A2/B1 was confirmed in cultured human and rat HCC cell lines, human virus related hepatitis liver tissues and human HCC tissues. The increased localization

  8. Influence of the Cyp1B1 L432V gene polymorphism and exposure to tobacco smoke on Cyp1B1 mRNA expression in human leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmig, Simone; Hadzaad, Bahar; Döhrel, Juliane; Schneider, Joachim

    2009-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1), a phase I enzyme, is involved in the activation of a broad spectrum of procarcinogens. An association of the Cyp1B1 L432V polymorphism with diverse types of cancer, as well as an impact on the catalytic activity of the enzyme, has been described. To show the functional impact of the allelic variant Cyp1B1*3, we investigated the quantitative Cyp1B1 mRNA expression in a population of smokers, nonsmokers, and ex-smokers and determined their genotypes. Detection of the L432V polymorphism in exon 3 of the Cyp1B1 gene was performed by rapid capillary polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with melting curve analysis. For quantitative comparison of Cyp1B1 mRNA levels, real-time PCR was performed using SYBR Green fluorescence in a LightCycler system. Calculations of expression were made with the 2(-DeltaDeltaCT) method. In comparing relative Cyp1B1 mRNA expression, highly significant differences between the two homozygote genotypes *1/*1 and *3/*3 (0.185 +/- 0.027, n = 118 versus 0.071 +/- 0.013, n = 56; p = 0.000), as well as between the heterozygote genotype *1/*3 and the homozygote genotype *3/*3 (0.178 +/- 0.025, n = 171 versus 0.071 +/- 0.013, n = 56; p = 0.000), were revealed. Significant differences between the genotypes were also detected within the subgroups of smokers, nonsmokers, and ex-smokers. No significant differences were determined in comparing the relative Cyp1B1 mRNA expression with regard to tobacco smoke exposure. Our results suggest that genotypes carrying the C allele (*1/*1 and *1/*3) at Cyp1B1 L432V polymorphism have a significantly higher Cyp1B1 mRNA expression compared with the genotype without the C allele (*3/*3). Gene expression of Cyp1B1 mRNA cannot be used as a biomarker for exposure of tobacco smoke.

  9. Study of Infrared Emission Spectroscopy for the B1Δg-A1Πu and B'1Σg+-A1Πu Systems of C2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian; Chen, Wang; Kawaguchi, Kentarou; Bernath, Peter F.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, we carried out the perturbation analysis of C_2 spectra and identified forbidden singlet-triplet intersystem transitions, which aroused further interest in other C_2 spectra for the many low-lying electronic states of this fundamental molecule. In 1988, the B1Δg-A1Πu and B'1Σg+-A1Πu band systems were discovered by Douay et al., who observed eight bands of the B1Δg-A1Πu system with v up to 5 for the B1Δg state and six bands of the B'1Σg+-A1Πu system with v up to 3 for the B'1Σg+ state in the Fourier transform infrared emission spectra of hydrocarbon discharges. In the work presented here, we identified twenty-four bands of the two systems, among which the B'1Σg+ v = 4 and the B1Δg v = 6, 7 and 8 vibrational levels involved in nine bands were studied for the first time. A direct global analysis with Dunham parameters was carried out satisfactorily for the B1Δg-A1Πu system except for a small perturbation in the B1Δg v = 6 level. The calculated rovibrational term energies up to B1Δg v = 12 showed that the level crossing between the B1Δg and d3Πg states is responsible for many of the prominent perturbations in the Swan system observed previously. Nineteen lines of the B1Δg-a3Πu forbidden transitions were identified and the off-diagonal spin-orbit interaction constant AdB between d3Πg and B1Δg was derived as 8.3(1) wn. For the B'1Σg+-A1Πu system, only individual band analyses for each vibrational level in the B'1Σg+ state could be done satisfactorily and Dunham parameters obtained from these effective parameters showed that the anharmonic vibrational constant ω_e x_e is anomalously small (nearly zero). Inspection of the RKR potential curves for the B'1Σg+ and X1Σg+ states revealed that an avoided crossing may occur around 30000 wn, which is responsible for the anomalous molecular constants in these two states. W. Chen, K. Kawaguchi, P. F. Bernath, and J. Tang, J. Chem. Phys., 141, 064317 (2015) M. Douay, R. Nietmann and P. F. Bernath

  10. Neutrino Experiments at Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reines, F.; Gurr, H. S.; Jenkins, T. L.; Munsee, J. H.

    1968-09-09

    A description is given of the electron-antineutrino program using a large fission reactor. A search has been made for a neutral weak interaction via the reaction (electron antineutrino + d .> p + n + electron antineutrino), the reaction (electron antineutrino + d .> n + n + e{sup +}) has now been detected, and an effort is underway to observe the elastic scattering reaction (electron antineutrino + e{sup -} .> electron antineutrino + e{sup -}) as well as to measure more precisely the reaction (electron antineutrino + p .> n + e{sup+}). The upper limit on the elastic scattering reaction which we have obtained with our large composite NaI, plastic, liquid scintillation detector is now about 50 times the predicted value.

  11. Neutronic Reactor Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermi, Enrico; Zinn, Walter H.

    The argument of the present Patent is a radiation shield suitable for protection of personnel from both gamma rays and neutrons. Such a shield from dangerous radiations is achieved to the best by the combined action of a neutron slowing material (a moderator) and a neutron absorbing material. Hydrogen is particularly effective for this shield since it is a good absorber of slow neutrons and a good moderator of fast neutrons. The neutrons slowed down by hydrogen may, then, be absorbed by other materials such as boron, cadmium, gadolinium, samarium or steel. Steel is particularly convenient for the purpose, given its effectiveness in absorbing also the gamma rays from the reactor (both primary gamma rays and secondary ones produced by the moderation of neutrons). In particular, in the present Patent a shield is described, made of alternate layers of steel and Masonite (an hydrolized ligno-cellulose material). The object of the present Patent is not discussed in any other published paper.

  12. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This document is a compilation and source list of nuclear safety criteria that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) applies to licensed reactors; it can be used by DOE and DOE contractors to identify NRC criteria to be evaluated for application to the DOE reactors under their cognizance. The criteria listed are those that are applied to the areas of nuclear safety addressed in the safety analysis report of a licensed reactor. They are derived from federal regulations, USNRC regulatory guides, Standard Review Plan (SRP) branch technical positions and appendices, and industry codes and standards.

  13. ClpB1 overproduction in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 increases tolerance to rapid heat shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Esquer, C Raul; Vermaas, Wim F J

    2013-10-01

    ClpB1 is a heat shock protein known to disaggregate large protein complexes. Constitutive, 16-fold ClpB1 overproduction in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 increased cell survival by 20-fold when cultures were heated quickly (1°C/s) to 50°C and delayed cell death by an average of 3 min during incubation at high temperatures (>46°C). Cooverexpression of ClpB1 and another heat shock protein, DnaK2, further increased cell survival. According to immunocytochemistry results, ClpB1 is dispersed throughout the cytoplasm but is concentrated in specific areas and is more prevalent near thylakoid membranes. However, ClpB1 overproduction does not lead to a change in the morphology, chlorophyll content, or photosystem ratio. Whereas electron microscopy demonstrated that apparent protein aggregation occurred after heat treatment in the control strain, protein aggregate size was maintained in the ClpB1 overexpresser. Constitutive ClpB1 overproduction allows an earlier response to heat shock and protects from rapid heating of cultures.

  14. Cytochrome P450 1B1 expression in rat esophageal tumorigenesis promoted by gastric and duodenal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Andrea H; McIlroy, Marie; McKeen, Hayley D; Bonde, Pramode; Menezes, A A Carlos; Swarbrick, Christine J; Robson, Tracy; Hirst, David G; Campbell, F Charles; McGuigan, James A; McKeown, Stephanie R

    2009-02-01

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) mRNA is constitutively expressed in most normal extra-hepatic tissues; however the protein is not detectable in these tissues but is expressed in a wide variety of tumors. CYP1B1 is responsible for the activation of a number of carcinogens present in tobacco smoke and food. A surgical model of rat esophageal tumorigenesis, promoted by gastric or duodenal reflux was used to determine CYP1B1 expression in premalignant esophageal tissue. Immunohistochemistry was performed using a modified amplified fluorescein tyramide protocol. CYP1B1 was not observed in normal esophageal mucosa, submucosa, or muscularis mucosa. Animals exposed to gastric reflux developed mild hyperplasia. Varying degrees of hyperplasia were observed in the duodenal reflux group. All regions of hyperplasia showed moderate or strong CYP1B1 immunoreactivity. Duodenal reflux induced a small number of premalignant changes: immunoreactivity was absent from the epithelium of squamous dysplasia (0/10), Barrett's esophagus (0/7), and majority of dysplastic Barrett's esophagus (1/4). Moderate or strong immunoreactivity was observed in the majority (7/8) of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in situ. Immunoreactivity was also observed in the lamina propria and submucosa in association with inflammation, regardless of the severity of inflammation. The expression of CYP1B1 in hyperplasia, SCCs in situ, or in association with inflammation may increase the production of carcinogenic metabolites, which may promote esophageal tumorigenesis.

  15. Dishevelled mediates ephrinB1 signalling in the eye field through the planar cell polarity pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Shik; Bong, Yong-Sik; Moore, Kathryn B; Soria, Kathleen; Moody, Sally A; Daar, Ira O

    2006-01-01

    An important step in retinal development is the positioning of progenitors within the eye field where they receive the local environmental signals that will direct their ultimate fate. Recent evidence indicates that ephrinB1 functions in retinal progenitor movement, but the signalling pathway is unclear. We present evidence that ephrinB1 signals through its intracellular domain to control retinal progenitor movement into the eye field by interacting with Xenopus Dishevelled (Xdsh), and by using the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway. Blocking Xdsh translation prevents retinal progeny from entering the eye field, similarly to the morpholino-mediated loss of ephrinB1 (ref. 2). Overexpression of Xdsh can rescue the phenotype induced by loss of ephrinB1, and this rescue (as well as a physical association between Xdsh and ephrinB1) is completely dependent on the DEP (Dishevelled, Egl-10, Pleckstrin) domain of Xdsh. Similar gain- and loss-of-function experiments suggest that Xdsh associates with ephrinB1 and mediates ephrinB1 signalling through downstream members of the PCP pathway during eye field formation.

  16. Assessment of aflatoxin B1 in livestock feed and feed ingredients by high-performance thin layer chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korrapati Kotinagu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Detection of aflatoxin B1 in Livestock compound Feed and feed ingredients by high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC. Materials and Methods: Chromatography was performed on HPTLC silica gel 60 F 254, aluminum sheets by CAMAG automatic TLC sampler 4, with mobile phase condition chloroform:acetone:water (28:4:0.06. Extraction of aflatoxin B1 from samples was done as per AOAC method and screening and quantification done by HPTLC Scanner 4 under wavelength 366 nm. Results: A total of 97 livestock feed (48 and feed ingredients (49 samples received from different livestock farms and farmers were analyzed for aflatoxin B1of which 29 samples were contaminated, constituting 30%. Out of 48 livestock compound feed samples, aflatoxin B1 could be detected in 16 samples representing 33%, whereas in livestock feed ingredients out of 49 samples, 13 found positive for aflatoxin B1 representing 24.5%. Conclusion: HPTLC assures good recovery, precision, and linearity in the quantitative determination of aflatoxin B1 extracted from Livestock compound feed and feed ingredients. As more number of feed and feed ingredients are contaminated with aflatoxin B1 which causes deleterious effects in both animal and human beings, so there is a need for identifying the source of contamination, executing control measures, enabling better risk assessment techniques, and providing economic benefits.

  17. Design, synthesis and evaluation of (18)F-labeled bradykinin B1 receptor-targeting small molecules for PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengxing; Kuo, Hsiou-Ting; Lau, Joseph; Jenni, Silvia; Zhang, Chengcheng; Zeisler, Jutta; Bénard, François; Lin, Kuo-Shyan

    2016-08-15

    Two fluorine-18 ((18)F) labeled bradykinin B1 receptor (B1R)-targeting small molecules, (18)F-Z02035 and (18)F-Z02165, were synthesized and evaluated for imaging with positron emission tomography (PET). Z02035 and Z02165 were derived from potent antagonists, and showed high binding affinity (0.93±0.44 and 2.80±0.50nM, respectively) to B1R. (18)F-Z02035 and (18)F-Z02165 were prepared by coupling 2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl tosylate with their respective precursors, and were obtained in 10±5 (n=4) and 22±14% (n=3), respectively, decay-corrected radiochemical yield with >99% radiochemical purity. (18)F-Z02035 and (18)F-Z02165 exhibited moderate lipophilicity (LogD7.4=1.10 and 0.59, respectively), and were stable in mouse plasma. PET imaging and biodistribution studies in mice showed that both tracers enabled visualization of the B1R-positive HEK293T::hB1R tumor xenografts with better contrast than control B1R-negative HEK293T tumors. Our data indicate that small molecule antagonists can be used as pharmacophores for the design of B1R-targeting PET tracers.

  18. Characterization of an Additional Splice Acceptor Site Introduced into CYP4B1 in Hominoidae during Evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva M Schmidt

    Full Text Available CYP4B1 belongs to the cytochrome P450 family 4, one of the oldest P450 families whose members have been highly conserved throughout evolution. The CYP4 monooxygenases typically oxidize fatty acids to both inactive and active lipid mediators, although the endogenous ligand(s is largely unknown. During evolution, at the transition of great apes to humanoids, the CYP4B1 protein acquired a serine instead of a proline at the canonical position 427 in the meander region. Although this alteration impairs P450 function related to the processing of naturally occurring lung toxins, a study in transgenic mice suggested that an additional serine insertion at position 207 in human CYP4B1 can rescue the enzyme stability and activity. Here, we report that the genomic insertion of a CAG triplet at the intron 5-exon 6 boundary in human CYP4B1 introduced an additional splice acceptor site in frame. During evolution, this change occurred presumably at the stage of Hominoidae and leads to two major isoforms of the CYP4B1 enzymes of humans and great apes, either with or without a serine 207 insertion (insSer207. We further demonstrated that the CYP4B1 enzyme with insSer207 is the dominant isoform (76% in humans. Importantly, this amino acid insertion did not affect the 4-ipomeanol metabolizing activities or stabilities of the native rabbit or human CYP4B1 enzymes, when introduced as transgenes in human primary cells and cell lines. In our 3D modeling, this functional neutrality of insSer207 is compatible with its predicted location on the exterior surface of CYP4B1 in a flexible side chain. Therefore, the Ser207 insertion does not rescue the P450 functional activity of human CYP4B1 that has been lost during evolution.

  19. CYP72B1 Inactivates Brassinosteroid Hormones: An Intersection between Photomorphogenesis and Plant Steroid Signal Transduction1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Edward M.; Fujioka, Shozo; Seto, Hideharu; Shimada, Yukihisa; Takatsuto, Suguru; Yoshida, Shigeo; Denzel, Megan A.; Torres, Quetzal I.; Neff, Michael M.

    2003-01-01

    Active brassinosteroids, such as brassinolide (BL) and castasterone, are growth promoting plant hormones. An Arabidopsis cytochrome P450 monooxygenase encoded by CYP72B1 has been implicated in brassinosteroid catabolism as well as photomorphogenesis. We expressed CYP72B1 in yeast, coupled with brassinosteroid feeding, and established the biochemical function to be the hydroxylation of BL and castasterone, to give 26-hydroxybrassinolide and 26-hydroxycastasterone, respectively. Brassinosteroid feeding experiments with wild-type Arabidopsis, a CYP72B1 null mutant, and a CYP72B1 overexpression line demonstrated that carbon 26 hydroxylation of active brassinosteroids is an endogenous function of CYP72B1. Seedling growth assays demonstrated that 26-hydroxybrassinolide is an inactive brassinosteroid. Genetic and physiological analysis of the hypocotyl response to exogenous BL and varying intensities of white and monochromatic light suggested that CYP72B1 modulates photomorphogenesis primarily through far-red light and to a lesser extent through blue- and red-light pathways. CYP72B1 transcript accumulation in dark-grown seedlings was organ specific and down-regulated after 1 h of illumination in dim white, red, and blue light, but not far-red light. CYP72B1 translational fusions with the β-glucuronidase reporter gene demonstrated that protein levels increased in the hypocotyl elongation zone when shifted from the dark to far-red light, but not blue or red light. We propose a model in which Arabidopsis seedling development switches from dark-grown development (skotomorphogenesis) to light-grown development (photomorphogenesis) in part by rapid modulation of brassinosteroid sensitivity and levels. CYP72B1 provides an intersection between the light and brassinosteroid pathways mainly by far-red-light-dependent modulation of brassinosteroid levels. PMID:14605216

  20. Cytochrome P450 1B1 gene polymorphisms as predictors of anticancer drug activity: studies with in vitro models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche-Clary, Audrey; Le Morvan, Valérie; Yamori, Takao; Robert, Jacques

    2010-12-01

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is found in tumor tissue and is suspected to play a role in oncogenesis and drug resistance. CYP1B1 gene polymorphisms have been associated with the risk of developing lung and other cancers. They may be associated with tumor response to anticancer drugs. We have determined 4 frequent nonsynonymous gene polymorphisms of CYP1B1 in the human tumor cell lines panels of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research (JFCR): rs10012 (R48G), rs1056827 (A119S), rs1056836 (L432V), and rs1800440 (N453S). Numerous anticancer drugs have been tested against these panels that offer the opportunity to detect associations between gene polymorphisms and drug sensitivity. CYP1B1 single nucleotide polymorphisms were in marked linkage disequilibrium. The L432V allelic variants were significantly associated with reduced sensitivity to DNA-interacting anticancer agents, alkylators, camptothecins, topoisomerase II inhibitors, and some antimetabolites. For instance, in the NCI panel, cell lines homozygous for the V432 allele were globally 2-fold resistant to alkylating agents (P = 5 × 10(-10)) and 4.5-fold to camptothecins (P = 6.6 × 10(-9)) than cell lines homozygous for the L432 allele. Similar features were exhibited by the JFCR panel. Cell lines homozygous for the V432 allele were globally less sensitive to DNA-interfering drugs than cell lines having at least 1 common allele. There was no significant association between mRNA expression of CYP1B1 and CYP1B1 genotype, and no significant association between CYP1B1 mRNA expression and drug cytotoxicity. These observations open the way to clinical studies exploring the role of CYP1B1 gene polymorphisms for predicting tumor sensitivity to chemotherapy.

  1. CYP1B1 enhances the resistance of epithelial ovarian cancer cells to paclitaxel in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhuangyan; Mu, Yaqin; Qi, Caixia; Wang, Jian; Xi, Guoping; Guo, Juncheng; Mi, Ruoran; Zhao, Fuxi

    2015-02-01

    Ovarian cancer (OC) is the most frequent cause of mortality among gynecological malignancies, with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 30%. The standard regimen for OC therapy includes a platinum agent combined with a taxane, to which the patients frequently acquire resistance. Resistance arises from the oxidation of anticancer drugs by CYP1B1, a cytochrome P450 enzyme overexpressed in malignant OC. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of CYP1B1 expression in the drug resistance of OC to the taxane, paclitaxel (PTX). Immunohistochemical staining was used to assess CYP1B1 expression in a panel of ovarian samples (53 primary cancer samples, 14 samples of metastastic cancer, 30 benign tumor samples and 19 normal tissue samples). Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was also performed to determine CYP1B1 expression in several OC cell lines. Finally, we used proliferation and toxicity assays, as well as a mouse xenograft model using nude mice to determine whether α-naphthoflavone (ANF), a CYP1B1 specific inhibitor, reduces resistance to PTX. CYP1B1 was overexpressed in the samples from primary and metastatic loci of epithelial ovarian cancers. In some cell lines, PTX induced CYP1B1 expression, which resulted in drug resistance. Exposure to ANF reduced drug resistance and enhanced the sensitivity of OC cells to PTX in vitro and in vivo. The expression profile of CYP1B1 suggests that it has the potential to be a useful diagnostic marker and prognostic factor for malignant OC. The inhibition of CYP1B1 expression by specific agents may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of patients resistant to PTX and may improve the prognosis of these patients.

  2. Modifying file syntax for interactive decoding the recommendation CCSDS-122-B-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vílchez, Fernando; Aulí-Llinàs, Francesc; Serra-Sagristà, Joan

    2007-09-01

    In 2005, the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) approved a new Recommendation (CCSDS 122.0-B-1) for Image Data Compression. This Recommendation defines a coding system for image-data compression applicable to digital data from payload instruments, specifying both a file syntax to allow the transmission of the data in multiple packets and techniques to control the compression ratio. In this paper we propose a new file syntax that provides scalability by quality, spatial location, resolution and component. The main advantages of the proposed file syntax for the Recommendation are: 1) the definition of multiple types of progression order, which enhances abilities in transmission scenarios, and 2) the support for the extraction and decoding of specific windows of interest without needing to decode the complete code-stream. This will enable the use of the Recommendation in interactive transmission scenarios.

  3. Excretion of Aflatoxin M1 in milk of goats fed diet contaminated by Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Battacone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to study the excretion of aflatoxin M1(AFM1 in milk of three goats fed a single dose (0.8mg/head of pure aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. The values of AFM1 concentration excreted in milk was highly variable among goats, even if the pattern of excretion over time was very similar among the three animals. AFM1 was first detected at the milking performed 1h after the AFB1 administration. The highest values of AFM1 concentration in milk were reached 3 and 6h after the AFB1 intake. The trend of clearance of AFM1 in milk over time was expressed by a decreasing exponential equation. AFM1 concentration was below the EU maximum allowed level (50 ng/L in milk collected 36 h after the AFB1 administration.

  4. Cytochrome P3-450 cDNA encodes aflatoxin B1-4-hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faletto, M B; Koser, P L; Battula, N; Townsend, G K; Maccubbin, A E; Gelboin, H V; Gurtoo, H L

    1988-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a potent hepatocarcinogen and ubiquitous dietary contaminant in some countries, is detoxified to aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) via cytochrome P-450-mediated AFB1-4-hydroxylase. Genetic studies in mice have demonstrated that the expression of AFB1-4-hydroxylase is regulated by the aryl hydrocarbon locus and suggested that different cytochrome P-450 isozymes catalyze AFB1-4-hydroxylase and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activities. We have now examined lysates from mammalian cells infected with recombinant vaccinia viruses containing expressible cytochrome P1-450 or P3-450 cDNAs for their ability to metabolize AFB1 to AFM1. Our results show that cytochrome P3-450 cDNA specifies AFB1-4-hydroxylase. This is the first direct assignment of a specific cytochrome P-450 to an AFB1 detoxification pathway. This finding may have relevance to the dietary modulation of AFB1 hepatocarcinogenesis.

  5. Synthesis and cytotoxic activity of carboxamide derivatives of benzo[b][1,6]naphthyridines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deady, Leslie W; Rodemann, Thomas; Zhuang, Li; Baguley, Bruce C; Denny, William A

    2003-03-13

    The reaction of 4-dimethylaminomethylene-6-methyl-4H-pyrano[4,3-b]quinoline-1,3-dione with a range of primary amines gave rise to a series of 2-substituted 6-methyl-1-oxo-1,2-dihydrobenzo[b][1,6]naphthyridine-4-carboxylic acids. The derived 4-N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]carboxamides were tested for growth inhibitory properties against murine P388 leukemia, Lewis lung carcinoma (LLTC), and human Jurkat leukemia cell lines. Most compounds were potent cytotoxins, with some having IC(50) values less than 10 nM. Five were tested in vivo against subcutaneous colon 38 tumors in mice, and a single dose (3.9 mg/kg) proved to be curative for the 2-methyl and 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl) derivatives in this refractory model.

  6. Adsorptive stripping voltammetric study of vitamin B1 at multi-walled carbon nanotube paste electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar Brahman

    2016-11-01

    The reduction peak current varies linearly with the concentration of vitamin B1 over the range of 1.0 × 10−7–1.0 × 10−6 M. The limits of detection and quantification of the pure drug are 1.1 × 10−10 M and 2.0 × 10−9 M, with the correlation coefficient, r = 0.997 and the relative standard deviation, RSD = 1.2% (n = 5. Experimental results reveal that the MWCNTPE has advantages of small background current, high signal to background current ratio and good reproducibility.

  7. [Pyrido[2,3-b][1,4]diazepinones with CNS activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelli, F; Boido, A; Pirisino, G; Piu, L; Satta, M; Manca, P

    1987-11-01

    In the interests of developing our research on compounds with a pyrazinone nucleus, cyclohomologues, characterised by the presence of one diazepinone nucleus, were prepared. The 5-[(dialkylamino)alkyl]-3,5-dihydro-2-methyl/phenyl-4H-pyrido[2,3- b][1,4]diazepin-4-ones obtained by means of condensation of the 2-(dialkylamino)alkylamino-3-aminopyridines with ethyl acetyl- or benzoyl- acetate, were subjected to pharmacological experimentation in order to evaluate their effect upon mice with regard to exploratory activity, motor coordination, and spontaneous activity. In addition their analgesic activity was evaluated and also their anti-strychnine, anti-cardiazole, anti-amphetamine and anti-reserpine activities.

  8. STRUCTURE AND SUPERCONDUCTIVITY OF Mg(B1-xCx)2 COMPOUNDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG SHAO-YING; CHENG ZHAO-HUA; SHEN BAO-GEN; RONG CHUAN-BING; ZHAO TONG-YUN; ZHANG JIAN

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the structural properties and superconductivity of Mg(B1-xCx)2 compounds. Powder X-ray diffraction results indicate that the samples crystallize in a hexagonal AlB2-type structure. Due to the chemical activity of Mg powders, a small amount of MgO impurity phase is detected by X-ray diffraction. The lattice parameters decrease slightly with the increasing carbon content. Magnetization measurements indicate that the non-stoichiometry of MgB2 has no influence on the superconducting transition temperature and the transition temperature width. The addition of carbon results in a decrease of Tc and an increase of the superconducting transition width, implying the loss of superconductivity.

  9. Differential inhibition of aflatoxin B1 oxidation by gestodene action on human liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B R; Oh, H S; Kim, D H

    1997-11-01

    Human cytochrome P450 (P450) 3A is known to be involved in the formation of both aflatoxin B1-exo-8,9-epoxide (exo-epoxidation) and aflatoxin Q1 (3 alpha-hydroxylation). Gestodene, a known inactivator of P450 3A4, inhibited the formation of AFB1 metabolites in a variety of ways depending on the incubation condition. Preincubation of gestodene with human liver microsomes prior to the addition of AFB1 inhibited both exo-epoxidation and 3 alpha-hydroxylation whereas simultaneous incubation of gestodene with AFB1 only inhibited 3 alpha-hydroxylation. These results suggest that two independent substrate binding sites exist in P450 3A4, and AFB1 binds to both of the binding sites. Gestodene selectively binds to one of the binding sites leading to the formation of AFQ1, whereas it does not affect the formation of exo-epoxide via the other binding site.

  10. The microfocus small-angle X-ray scattering at SSRF BL16B1

    CERN Document Server

    Hua, Wenqiang; Zhou, Ping; Li, Xiuhong; Bian, Fenggang; Wang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Offering high-brilliance X-ray beams on micrometer length scales, the microfocus SAXS at SSRF BL16B1 was established with a KB mirror system for studying small sample volumes, or probing micro-scopic morphologies. The SAXS minimum q value was 0.1nm^-1 with a flux of 1.5 x 10^10photons/s. Two position-resolved scanning experimental methods was combined with microfocus SAXS that include STXM and CT. The experimental results of a standard sample was presented to illustrate the performance of the microfocus SAXS method. Because of the significant smearing effect in the horizontal direction, an effective and easy-to-use desmearing procedure for two-dimensional SAXS pattern based on the blind deconvolution was developed and the deblurring results demonstrated the good restoration effect for the defocus image.

  11. Emericella venezuelensis, a new species with stellate ascospores producing sterigmatocystin and aflatoxin B-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    , variecoxanthone A, B, C, isoemericellin, kojic acid, varitriol, varioxiran, dihydroterrein, 7-hydroxyemodin, avariquinone and stromemycin. E. pluriseminata produces several unknown specific extrolites. E. venezuelensis is the first organism of marine origin reported to produce aflatoxin. Aflatoxin production by E...... media. The three species also differ in their profiles of extrolites (secondary metabolites). Emericella venezuelensis produces aflatoxin B-1, sterigmatocystin, and terrein and compounds with chromophores of the shamixanthone, emerin and desertorin type of compounds. F. variecolor produces asteltoxin....... venezuelensis makes this species an attractive model organism for the study of the regulation of this important type of carcinogenic mycotoxins in combination with the knowledge on sterigmatocystin production by E. nidulans, soon to be whole genome sequenced. The isolates were also analyzed cladistically using...

  12. The Silicon Wheel of CMS-SiB1 Milestone Report

    CERN Document Server

    Wittmer, Bruno

    1998-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Barrel Detector is a subsystem of the CMS Tracker and consists of seven wheels. For the SiB1-Milestone, that was completed in Summer 1997, one of these wheels has been built and equipped with 14 working silicon microstrip detector modules and 112 dummy modules. The working modules consist of two detectors glued together each one having 1024 strips with a pitch of 50 micron that are read out by eight PreMux 128 Chips. In the dummy modules the Readout Electronics have been substituted by resistors simulating the heat load. The dummy silicon sensors have fiducial marks and were alligned with a precision of 5 micron. The supporting wheel structure is made out of carbon fiber and incorporates all services. The assembly precision of the support structure was better than 100 micron.

  13. Discovery of a Centrifugal Magnetosphere Around the He-Strong Magnetic B1 Star ALS 3694

    CERN Document Server

    Shultz, Matt; Rivinius, Thomas; Sikora, James

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of 6 nights of Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope spectropolarimetric ESPaDOnS observations of the He-strong, magnetic B1 type star ALS 3694. The longitudinal magnetic field is approximately 2 kG in all 6 observations, showing essentially no variation between nights. The H$\\alpha$ line displays variable emission on all nights, peaking at high velocities ($\\sim 3 v\\sin{i}$). Given the presence of a strong ($B_{\\rm d}>$6 kG) magnetic field, and the similarity of the emission profile to that of other magnetic B-type stars, we interpret the emission as a consequence of a centrifugal magnetosphere.

  14. Reactor service life extension program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, G.R.; Sindelar, R.L.; Ondrejcin, R.S.; Baumann, E.W.

    1990-12-31

    A review of the Savannah River Site production reactor systems was initiated in 1980 and led to implementation of the Reactor Materials Program in 1984 to assess reactor safety and reactor service life. The program evaluated performance of the reactor tanks, primary coolant piping, and thermal shields, components of welded construction that were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel. The structural integrity analysis of the primary coolant system has shown that the pressure boundary is not susceptible to gross rupture, including a double ended guillotine break or equivalent large area bank. Residual service life is potentially limited by two material degradation modes, irradiation damage and intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Analysis of the structural integrity of the tanks and piping has shown that continued safe operation of the reactors for several additional decades is not limited by the material performance of the primary coolant system. Although irradiation damage has not degraded material behavior to an unacceptable level, past experience has revealed serious difficulties with repair welding on irradiated stainless steel. Stress corrosion can be mitigated by newly identified limits on impurity concentrations in the coolant water and by stress mitigation of weld residual stresses. Work continues in several areas: the effects of helium on mechanical behavior of irradiated stainless steel; improved weld methods for piping and the reactor tanks; and a surveillance program to track irradiation effects on the tank walls.

  15. Reactor service life extension program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, G.R.; Sindelar, R.L.; Ondrejcin, R.S.; Baumann, E.W.

    1990-01-01

    A review of the Savannah River Site production reactor systems was initiated in 1980 and led to implementation of the Reactor Materials Program in 1984 to assess reactor safety and reactor service life. The program evaluated performance of the reactor tanks, primary coolant piping, and thermal shields, components of welded construction that were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel. The structural integrity analysis of the primary coolant system has shown that the pressure boundary is not susceptible to gross rupture, including a double ended guillotine break or equivalent large area bank. Residual service life is potentially limited by two material degradation modes, irradiation damage and intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Analysis of the structural integrity of the tanks and piping has shown that continued safe operation of the reactors for several additional decades is not limited by the material performance of the primary coolant system. Although irradiation damage has not degraded material behavior to an unacceptable level, past experience has revealed serious difficulties with repair welding on irradiated stainless steel. Stress corrosion can be mitigated by newly identified limits on impurity concentrations in the coolant water and by stress mitigation of weld residual stresses. Work continues in several areas: the effects of helium on mechanical behavior of irradiated stainless steel; improved weld methods for piping and the reactor tanks; and a surveillance program to track irradiation effects on the tank walls.

  16. Schistosome asparaginyl endopeptidase (legumain) is not essential for cathepsin B1 activation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautz-Peterson, Greice; Skelly, Patrick J

    2008-05-01

    Schistosomes are parasitic platyhelminths that constitute an important public health problem. Adult parasites live in the vasculature of their vertebrate hosts where they consume blood. Ingested blood proteins are degraded by a proteolytic cascade. One of the best characterized schistosome proteases is cathepsin B1 (SmCB1 or Sm31). This protein is synthesized as a large 38 kDa precursor form which is proteolytically cleaved to yield a mature, active 31 kDa enzyme. A second schistosome protease--the asparaginyl endopeptidase SmAE (also known as Sm32, or schistosome legumain), has been proposed to proteolytically convert the 38 kDa precursor SmCB1 into its mature form. Recombinant activated SmAE has been shown to trans-process SmCB1 into the mature, catalytic form in vitro. In the present study, our aim was to test the hypothesis that in vivo SmAE likewise processes SmCB1 into its active form. To do this, expression of the SmAE gene was suppressed in adult Schistosoma mansoni using RNA interference (RNAi). The results of these experiments show that, even in the absence of detectable SmAE protein, SmCB1 is fully processed and active and support the assertion that SmAE is not essential to activate SmCB1 in vivo. The data indicate that our original hypothesis is incorrect and that SmAE is not pivotal in the in vivo conversion of cathepsin B1 into its mature, active form.

  17. On the active site of mononuclear B1 metallo β-lactamases: a computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgrignani, Jacopo; Magistrato, Alessandra; Dal Peraro, Matteo; Vila, Alejandro J.; Carloni, Paolo; Pierattelli, Roberta

    2012-04-01

    Metallo-β-lactamases (MβLs) are Zn(II)-based bacterial enzymes that hydrolyze β-lactam antibiotics, hampering their beneficial effects. In the most relevant subclass (B1), X-ray crystallography studies on the enzyme from Bacillus Cereus point to either two zinc ions in two metal sites (the so-called `3H' and `DCH' sites) or a single Zn(II) ion in the 3H site, where the ion is coordinated by Asp120, Cys221 and His263 residues. However, spectroscopic studies on the B1 enzyme from B. Cereus in the mono-zinc form suggested the presence of the Zn(II) ion also in the DCH site, where it is bound to an aspartate, a cysteine, a histidine and a water molecule. A structural model of this enzyme in its DCH mononuclear form, so far lacking, is therefore required for inhibitor design and mechanistic studies. By using force field based and mixed quantum-classical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the protein in aqueous solution we constructed such structural model. The geometry and the H-bond network at the catalytic site of this model, in the free form and in complex with two common β-lactam drugs, is compared with experimental and theoretical findings of CphA and the recently solved crystal structure of new B2 MβL from Serratia fonticola (Sfh-I). These are MβLs from the B2 subclass, which features an experimentally well established mono-zinc form, in which the Zn(II) is located in the DCH site. From our simulations the ɛɛδ and δɛδ protomers emerge as possible DCH mono-zinc reactive species, giving a novel contribution to the discussion on the MβL reactivity and to the drug design process.

  18. Direct Comparison of Physical Properties of Bacillus subtilis NCIB 3610 and B-1 Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesel, Sara; Grumbein, Stefan; Gümperlein, Ina; Tallawi, Marwa; Marel, Anna-Kristina; Lieleg, Oliver; Opitz, Madeleine

    2016-04-01

    Many bacteria form surface-attached communities known as biofilms. Due to the extreme resistance of these bacterial biofilms to antibiotics and mechanical stresses, biofilms are of growing interest not only in microbiology but also in medicine and industry. Previous studies have determined the extracellular polymeric substances present in the matrix of biofilms formed by Bacillus subtilis NCIB 3610. However, studies on the physical properties of biofilms formed by this strain are just emerging. In particular, quantitative data on the contributions of biofilm matrix biopolymers to these physical properties are lacking. Here, we quantitatively investigated three physical properties of B. subtilis NCIB 3610 biofilms: the surface roughness and stiffness and the bulk viscoelasticity of these biofilms. We show how specific biomolecules constituting the biofilm matrix formed by this strain contribute to those biofilm properties. In particular, we demonstrate that the surface roughness and surface elasticity of 1-day-old NCIB 3610 biofilms are strongly affected by the surface layer protein BslA. For a second strain,B. subtilis B-1, which forms biofilms containing mainly γ-polyglutamate, we found significantly different physical biofilm properties that are also differently affected by the commonly used antibacterial agent ethanol. We show that B-1 biofilms are protected from ethanol-induced changes in the biofilm's stiffness and that this protective effect can be transferred to NCIB 3610 biofilms by the sole addition of γ-polyglutamate to growing NCIB 3610 biofilms. Together, our results demonstrate the importance of specific biofilm matrix components for the distinct physical properties of B. subtilis biofilms.

  19. Double plating in Vancouver type B1 periprosthetic proximal femur fractures: A biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wähnert, Dirk; Grüneweller, Niklas; Gehweiler, Dominic; Brunn, Benjamin; Raschke, Michael J; Stange, Richard

    2017-02-01

    Periprosthetic hip fractures are an increasing problem in modern orthopedic and trauma surgery. Many options for the operative treatment are available to the surgeon ranging from modern variable angular systems to standard plates, screws, and cerclages. However, there is no gold standard and therefore, the aim of this study, was to investigate the biomechanical characteristics of double plating versus a lateral standard plate in a Vancouver B1 fracture model. Ten 4th generation composite femora were used to implant cementless total hip prosthesis and create Vancouver B1 periprosthetic fractures. Afterwards, the osteotomies were fixed using the locking compression plate in combination with the locking attachment plate (LCP, LAP, DePuy Synthes, Solothurn, Switzerland)-group I. Group II additionally achieved a 5-hole 4.5/5.0 mm LCP anteriorly. Each construct was cyclically loaded to failure in axial compression. Axial construct stiffness was 50.87 N/mm (SD 1.61) for group I compared to 738.68 N/mm (SD 94.8) for group II, this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.016). The number of cycles to failure was also significant higher for group II (2,375 vs. 13,000 cycles; p = 0.016). Double plating can significantly increase construct stiffness and stability, and thus, is an option in the treatment of complex periprosthetic fractures, in revision surgery and for patients with the inability to partial weight bear. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:234-239, 2017.

  20. CYP1B1 variants are associated with prostate cancer in non-Hispanic and Hispanic Caucasians

    OpenAIRE

    Beuten, Joke; Gelfond, Jonathan A.L.; Byrne, John J.; Balic, Ivana; Crandall, AnaLisa C.; Johnson-Pais, Teresa L.; Thompson, Ian M.; Price, Douglas K.; Robin J. Leach

    2008-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is involved in the activation of many carcinogens and in the metabolism of steroid hormones. We compared allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies of six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within CYP1B1 among non-Hispanic Caucasians (496 cases and 498 controls) and Hispanic Caucasians (153 cases and 240 controls). In the Hispanic Caucasians, the GG genotype for rs1056836 decreased the risk for prostate cancer (PCa) when compared with the CC genotype [odds rat...