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Sample records for arctic springtail megaphorura

  1. Surviving the cold: molecular analyses of insect cryoprotective dehydration in the Arctic springtail Megaphorura arctica (Tullberg

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    Popović Željko D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insects provide tractable models for enhancing our understanding of the physiological and cellular processes that enable survival at extreme low temperatures. They possess three main strategies to survive the cold: freeze tolerance, freeze avoidance or cryoprotective dehydration, of which the latter method is exploited by our model species, the Arctic springtail Megaphorura arctica, formerly Onychiurus arcticus (Tullberg 1876. The physiological mechanisms underlying cryoprotective dehydration have been well characterised in M. arctica and to date this process has been described in only a few other species: the Antarctic nematode Panagrolaimus davidi, an enchytraied worm, the larvae of the Antarctic midge Belgica antarctica and the cocoons of the earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra. There are no in-depth molecular studies on the underlying cold survival mechanisms in any species. Results A cDNA microarray was generated using 6,912 M. arctica clones printed in duplicate. Analysis of clones up-regulated during dehydration procedures (using both cold- and salt-induced dehydration has identified a number of significant cellular processes, namely the production and mobilisation of trehalose, protection of cellular systems via small heat shock proteins and tissue/cellular remodelling during the dehydration process. Energy production, initiation of protein translation and cell division, plus potential tissue repair processes dominate genes identified during recovery. Heat map analysis identified a duplication of the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS gene in M. arctica and also 53 clones co-regulated with TPS, including a number of membrane associated and cell signalling proteins. Q-PCR on selected candidate genes has also contributed to our understanding with glutathione-S-transferase identified as the major antioxdidant enzyme protecting the cells during these stressful procedures, and a number of protein kinase signalling molecules

  2. Surviving the cold: molecular analyses of insect cryoprotective dehydration in the Arctic springtail Megaphorura arctica (Tullberg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melody S; Thorne, Michael AS; Purać, Jelena; Burns, Gavin; Hillyard, Guy; Popović, Željko D; Grubor-Lajšić, Gordana; Worland, M Roger

    2009-01-01

    Background Insects provide tractable models for enhancing our understanding of the physiological and cellular processes that enable survival at extreme low temperatures. They possess three main strategies to survive the cold: freeze tolerance, freeze avoidance or cryoprotective dehydration, of which the latter method is exploited by our model species, the Arctic springtail Megaphorura arctica, formerly Onychiurus arcticus (Tullberg 1876). The physiological mechanisms underlying cryoprotective dehydration have been well characterised in M. arctica and to date this process has been described in only a few other species: the Antarctic nematode Panagrolaimus davidi, an enchytraied worm, the larvae of the Antarctic midge Belgica antarctica and the cocoons of the earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra. There are no in-depth molecular studies on the underlying cold survival mechanisms in any species. Results A cDNA microarray was generated using 6,912 M. arctica clones printed in duplicate. Analysis of clones up-regulated during dehydration procedures (using both cold- and salt-induced dehydration) has identified a number of significant cellular processes, namely the production and mobilisation of trehalose, protection of cellular systems via small heat shock proteins and tissue/cellular remodelling during the dehydration process. Energy production, initiation of protein translation and cell division, plus potential tissue repair processes dominate genes identified during recovery. Heat map analysis identified a duplication of the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) gene in M. arctica and also 53 clones co-regulated with TPS, including a number of membrane associated and cell signalling proteins. Q-PCR on selected candidate genes has also contributed to our understanding with glutathione-S-transferase identified as the major antioxdidant enzyme protecting the cells during these stressful procedures, and a number of protein kinase signalling molecules involved in recovery

  3. Lea protein expression during cold-induced dehydration in the Arctic collembola Megaphorura arctica

    OpenAIRE

    Popović Ž.D.; Purać Jelena; Kojić Danijela; Pamer Elvira L.; Worland M.R.; Blagojević D.P.; Grubor-Lajšić Gordana

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic springtail Megaphorura arctica (Tullberg, 1876) employs a strategy known as cryoprotective dehydration to survive winter temperatures as low as -25°C. During cryoprotective dehydration, water is lost from the animal to ice in its surroundings as a result of the difference in vapour pressure between the animal’s supercooled body fluids and ice (Worland et al., 1998; Holmstrup and Somme, 1998). This mechanism ensures that as the habitat temperature falls, the concentration of s...

  4. Cryoprotective dehydration is widespread in Arctic springtails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Holmstrup, Martin

    2011-08-01

    Cryoprotective dehydration (CPD) is a cold tolerance strategy employed by small invertebrates that readily lose water by evaporation when subjected to sub-zero temperatures in the presence of ice. Until now, relatively few species have been investigated using methods by which CPD can be shown. In the present study we investigated the cold tolerance strategy of seven soil arthropod species from the high Arctic Spitzbergen, and compared water content and water loss, body fluid melting points (MP) and survival under cold and desiccating conditions. We tested the hypothesis that CPD is a commonly occurring cold hardiness strategy among soil arthropods. We found that four springtail species (Hypogastrura viatica, Folsomia quadrioculata, Oligaphorura groenlandica and Megaphorura arctica; Collembola) went through severe dehydration and MP equilibration with ambient temperature, and thus overwinter by employing CPD, whereas a beetle (Atheta graminicola) and one of the springtails (Isotoma anglicana) were typical freeze avoiding species over-wintering by supercooling. Desiccation tolerance of the red velvet mite (Neomolgus littoralis) was also investigated; very low water loss rates of this species indicated that it does not survive winter by use of CPD. All in all, the results of the present study confirm the hypothesis that CPD is an effective over-wintering strategy which is widespread within soil arthropods. PMID:21396373

  5. Lea protein expression during cold-induced dehydration in the Arctic collembola Megaphorura arctica

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    Popović Ž.D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic springtail Megaphorura arctica (Tullberg, 1876 employs a strategy known as cryoprotective dehydration to survive winter temperatures as low as -25°C. During cryoprotective dehydration, water is lost from the animal to ice in its surroundings as a result of the difference in vapour pressure between the animal’s supercooled body fluids and ice (Worland et al., 1998; Holmstrup and Somme, 1998. This mechanism ensures that as the habitat temperature falls, the concentration of solutes remains high enough to prevent freezing (Holmstrup et al., 2002. In M. arctica, accumulation of trehalose, a cryo/anhydro protectant, occurs in parallel with dehydration. Recent studies have identified a number of genes and cellular processes involved in cryoprotective dehydration in M. arctica (Clark et al., 2007; Clark et al., 2009; Purać et al., 2011. One of them includes late embryogenesis abundant (LEA proteins. This study, together with that of Bahrndorff et al. (2008, suggests that LEA proteins may be involved in protective dehydration in this species.

  6. Proteomics of cryoprotective dehydration in Megaphorura arctica Tullberg 1876 (Onychiuridae: Collembola).

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    Thorne, M A S; Worland, M R; Feret, R; Deery, M J; Lilley, K S; Clark, M S

    2011-06-01

    The Arctic springtail, Megaphorura arctica Tullberg 1876 (Onychiuridae: Collembola), is one of the few organisms known to survive the extreme stresses of its environment by using cryoprotective dehydration. We have undertaken a proteomics study comparing M. arctica, acclimated at -2°C, the temperature known to induce the production of the anhydroprotectant trehalose in this species, and -6°C, the temperature at which trehalose expression plateaus, against control animals acclimated at +5°C. Using difference gel electrophoresis, and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we identified three categories of differentially expressed proteins with specific functions, up-regulated in both the -2°C and -6°C animals, that were involved in metabolism, membrane transport and protein folding. Proteins involved in cytoskeleton organisation were only up-regulated in the -6°C animals. PMID:21199019

  7. Hydrogen peroxide and ecdysone in the cryoprotective dehydration strategy of Megaphorura arctica (Onychiuridae: Collembola).

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    Grubor-Lajšić, Gordana; Petri, Edward T; Kojić, Danijela; Purać, Jelena; Popović, Zeljko D; Worland, Roger M; Clark, Melody S; Mojović, Miloš; Blagojević, Duško P

    2013-02-01

    The Arctic springtail, Megaphorura arctica, survives sub-zero temperatures in a dehydrated state via trehalose-dependent cryoprotective dehydration. Regulation of trehalose biosynthesis is complex; based in part on studies in yeast and fungi, its connection with oxidative stress caused by exposure of cells to oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), or dehydration, is well documented. In this respect, we measured the amount of H₂O₂ and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutases: copper, zinc--CuZnSOD and manganese containing--MnSOD, and catalase--CAT), as the regulatory components determining H₂O₂ concentrations, in Arctic springtails incubated at 5 °C (control) versus -2 °C (threshold temperature for trehalose biosynthesis). Because ecdysone also stimulates trehalose production in insects and regulates the expression of genes involved in redox homeostasis and antioxidant protection in Drosophila, we measured the levels of the active physiological form of ecdysone--20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE). Significantly elevated H₂O₂ and 20-HE levels were observed in M. arctica incubated at -2 °C, supporting a link between ecdysone, H₂O₂, and trehalose levels during cryoprotective dehydration. CAT activity was found to be significantly lower in M. arctica incubated at -2 °C versus 5 °C, suggesting reduced H₂O₂ breakdown. Furthermore, measurement of the free radical composition in Arctic springtails incubated at 5 °C (controls) versus -2 °C by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectroscopy revealed melanin-derived free radicals at -2 °C, perhaps an additional source of H₂O₂. Our results suggest that H₂O₂ and ecdysone play important roles in the cryoprotective dehydration process in M. arctica, linked with the regulation of trehalose biosynthesis. PMID:23143920

  8. Surviving extreme polar winters by desiccation: clues from Arctic springtail (Onychiurus arcticus EST libraries

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    Kube Michael

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ice, snow and temperatures of -14°C are conditions which most animals would find difficult, if not impossible, to survive in. However this exactly describes the Arctic winter, and the Arctic springtail Onychiurus arcticus regularly survives these extreme conditions and re-emerges in the spring. It is able to do this by reducing the amount of water in its body to almost zero: a process that is called "protective dehydration". The aim of this project was to generate clones and sequence data in the form of ESTs to provide a platform for the future molecular characterisation of the processes involved in protective dehydration. Results Five normalised libraries were produced from both desiccating and rehydrating populations of O. arcticus from stages that had previously been defined as potentially informative for molecular analyses. A total of 16,379 EST clones were generated and analysed using Blast and GO annotation. 40% of the clones produced significant matches against the Swissprot and trembl databases and these were further analysed using GO annotation. Extraction and analysis of GO annotations proved an extremely effective method for identifying generic processes associated with biochemical pathways, proving more efficient than solely analysing Blast data output. A number of genes were identified, which have previously been shown to be involved in water transport and desiccation such as members of the aquaporin family. Identification of these clones in specific libraries associated with desiccation validates the computational analysis by library rather than producing a global overview of all libraries combined. Conclusion This paper describes for the first time EST data from the arctic springtail (O. arcticus. This significantly enhances the number of Collembolan ESTs in the public databases, providing useful comparative data within this phylum. The use of GO annotation for analysis has facilitated the identification of a

  9. [Strategies and mechanisms of soil springtails in adapting lower temperature environment: research progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Wang, Yun-Biao; Wu, Dong-Hui

    2012-12-01

    Low temperature and drought are the main environmental factors threatening the animals living in arctic area and cold temperate regions. To adapt the severe environment, the animals should adopt appropriate strategies. As a group of arthopods with freeze-avoiding strategy, soil springtails have the similar ecological mechanisms and modes of cold resistance/tolerance as insects, manifesting in the cold acclimation and drought tolerance to decrease the damage of ice crystal formation. During cold acclimation, there are a rapid increase of glycerol, a rapid decrease of fucose and glucose, and the production of anti-freeze proteins (AFP) , and exists the inter-transformation of different kinds of lipids to improve the flow of cell membrane to protect the cell from low temperature injury. In addition, soil springtails have their own specific modes and mechanisms to tolerate low temperature stress, mainly the vertical migration under the protection of snow cover and the excretion of ice nucleator from haemolymph, illustrating that it's of significance to research the cryobiology of soil springtails. This paper summarized the modes and mechanisms of soil springtails in tolerating low temperature environment, reviewed the research progress on the eco-physiology of the springtails, discussed the existing problems of the researches on the low temperature tolerance of the springtails, and prospected the research directions of the springtails low temperature ecology under the background of global change. PMID:23479899

  10. Springtail diversity in South Africa

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    Steven L. Chown

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite their significance in soil ecosystems and their use for investigations of soil ecosystem functioning and in bioindication elsewhere, springtails (Collembola have not been well investigated in South Africa. Early recognition of their role in soil systems and sporadic systematic work has essentially characterised knowledge of the southern African fauna for some time. The situation is now changing as a consequence of systematic and ecological work on springtails. To date this research has focused mostly on the Cape Floristic Region and has revealed a much more diverse springtail fauna than previously known (136 identifiable species and an estimated 300 species for the Cape Floristic Region in total, including radiations in genera such as the isotomid Cryptopygus. Quantitative ecological work has shown that alpha diversity can be estimated readily and that the group may be useful for demonstrating land use impacts on soil biodiversity. Moreover, this ecological work has revealed that some disturbed sites, such as those dominated by Galenia africana, may be dominated by invasive springtail species. Investigation of the soil fauna involved in decomposition in Renosterveld and Fynbos has also revealed that biological decomposition has likely been underestimated in these vegetation types, and that the role of fire as the presumed predominant source of nutrient return to the soil may have to be re-examined. Ongoing research on the springtails will provide the information necessary for understanding and conserving soils: one of southern Africa’s major natural assets.

  11. Smart skin patterns protect springtails.

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    Helbig, Ralf; Nickerl, Julia; Neinhuis, Christoph; Werner, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Springtails, arthropods who live in soil, in decaying material, and on plants, have adapted to demanding conditions by evolving extremely effective and robust anti-adhesive skin patterns. However, details of these unique properties and their structural basis are still unknown. Here we demonstrate that collembolan skin can resist wetting by many organic liquids and at elevated pressures. We show that the combination of bristles and a comb-like hexagonal or rhombic mesh of interconnected nanoscopic granules distinguish the skin of springtails from anti-adhesive plant surfaces. Furthermore, the negative overhang in the profile of the ridges and granules were revealed to be a highly effective, but as yet neglected, design principle of collembolan skin. We suggest an explanation for the non-wetting characteristics of surfaces consisting of such profiles irrespective of the chemical composition. Many valuable opportunities arise from the translation of the described comb-like patterns and overhanging profiles of collembolan skin into man-made surfaces that combine stability against wear and friction with superior non-wetting and anti-adhesive characteristics. PMID:21980383

  12. Smart skin patterns protect springtails.

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    Ralf Helbig

    Full Text Available Springtails, arthropods who live in soil, in decaying material, and on plants, have adapted to demanding conditions by evolving extremely effective and robust anti-adhesive skin patterns. However, details of these unique properties and their structural basis are still unknown. Here we demonstrate that collembolan skin can resist wetting by many organic liquids and at elevated pressures. We show that the combination of bristles and a comb-like hexagonal or rhombic mesh of interconnected nanoscopic granules distinguish the skin of springtails from anti-adhesive plant surfaces. Furthermore, the negative overhang in the profile of the ridges and granules were revealed to be a highly effective, but as yet neglected, design principle of collembolan skin. We suggest an explanation for the non-wetting characteristics of surfaces consisting of such profiles irrespective of the chemical composition. Many valuable opportunities arise from the translation of the described comb-like patterns and overhanging profiles of collembolan skin into man-made surfaces that combine stability against wear and friction with superior non-wetting and anti-adhesive characteristics.

  13. Biogeography of circum-Antarctic springtails.

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    McGaughran, Angela; Stevens, Mark I; Holland, Barbara R

    2010-10-01

    We examine the effects of isolation over both ancient and contemporary timescales on evolutionary diversification and speciation patterns of springtail species in circum-Antarctica, with special focus on members of the genus Cryptopygus (Collembola, Isotomidae). We employ phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA (cox1), and ribosomal DNA (18S and 28S) genes in the programmes MrBayes and RAxML. Our aims are twofold: (1) we evaluate existing taxonomy in light of previous work which found dubious taxonomic classification in several taxa based on cox1 analysis; (2) we evaluate the biogeographic origin of our chosen suite of springtail species based on dispersal/vicariance scenarios, the magnitude of genetic divergence among lineages and the age and accessibility of potential habitat. The dubious taxonomic characterisation of Cryptopygus species highlighted previously is confirmed by our multi-gene phylogenetic analyses. Specifically, according to the current taxonomy, Cryptopygus antarcticus subspecies are not completely monophyletic and neither are Cryptopygus species in general. We show that distribution patterns among species/lineages are both dispersal- and vicariance-driven. Episodes of colonisation appear to have occurred frequently, the routes of which may have followed currents in the Southern Ocean. In several cases, the estimated divergence dates among species correspond well with the timing of terrestrial habitat availability. We conclude that these isotomid springtails have a varied and diverse evolutionary history in the circum-Antarctic that consists of both ancient and recent elements and is reflected in a dynamic contemporary fauna. PMID:20558307

  14. Collembase: a repository for springtail genomics and soil quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, M.J.T.N.; Boer, de M.E.; Nota, B.; Marien, J.; Klein Lankhorst, R.M.; Straalen, van N.M.; Roelofs, D.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental quality assessment is traditionally based on responses of reproduction and survival of indicator organisms. For soil assessment the springtail Folsomia candida (Collembola) is an accepted standard test organism. We argue that environmental quality assessment using gene expression profi

  15. Wetting Properties of Springtail Cuticles: A Quantitative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sandnes, Runar

    2012-01-01

    With the prospect of producing superhydrophobic and mechanically stable biomimetic surfaces, the water repellent properties of springtail cuticles are investigated quantitatively. The analysis is based on apparent contact angle measurements on nine springtail species and SEM and AFM images of their cuticles. It is argued that water exists in a metastable Cassie-Baxter state on the cuticle and that three-phase line tension of the order of 10^-8 J/m contributes to high apparent contact angles. ...

  16. Springtails in the Classroom: Collembola as Model Organisms for Inquiry-based Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John C.; Tripp, Bradley B.; Simpson, Rod T.; Coleman, David C.

    2000-01-01

    Advocates the use of springtails (Collembola) in the K-12 classroom as a model invertebrate that can easily be reared and manipulated to demonstrate key concepts in biology. Describes experimental procedures using springtails. (SAH)

  17. Springtails and Silverfishes (Apterygota. Chapter 13.5

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    Jürg Zettel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The alien fauna of Apterygota is still limited in Europe. Springtails (Collembolla alien to Europe include only three species to which add a cryptogenic one. Two nowadays cosmopolitan species of silverfishes may originate from Central America. The reasons of this limited colonisation of Europe are briefly discussed.

  18. Antifreeze proteins in the Antarctic springtail, Gressittacantha terranova.

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    Hawes, T C; Marshall, C J; Wharton, D A

    2011-08-01

    Antarctic springtails are exemplars of extreme low temperature adaptation in terrestrial arthropods. This paper represents the first examination of such adaptation in the springtail, Gressittacantha terranova. Acclimatization state was measured in field-fresh samples over a 22-day period at the beginning of the austral summer. No evidence of temperature tracking was observed. Mean temperature of crystallization (T(c)) for all samples was -20.67 ± 0.32°C and the lowest T(c) recorded was -32.62°C. Ice affinity purification was used to collect antifreeze proteins (AFPs) from springtail homogenate. The purified ice fraction demonstrated both thermal hysteresis activity and recrystallisation inhibition. Growth-melt observations revealed that ice crystals grow normal to the c-axis (basal plane). Reverse-phased HPLC produce one clearly resolved peak (P1) and one compound peak (P2). Mass spectrometry identified the molecular mass of P1 as 8,599 Da. The P1 protein was also the most prominent in P2, although additional peptides of 6-7 KDa were also prominent. The main AFP of the Antarctic springtail, G. terranova has been isolated, although like other AFP-expressing arthropods, it shows evidence of expressing a family of AFPs. PMID:21399953

  19. The springtail cuticle as a blueprint for omniphobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, René; Neinhuis, Christoph; Werner, Carsten

    2016-01-21

    Omniphobic surfaces found in nature have great potential for enabling novel and emerging products and technologies to facilitate the daily life of human societies. One example is the water and even oil-repellent cuticle of springtails (Collembola). The wingless arthropods evolved a highly textured, hierarchically arranged surface pattern that affords mechanical robustness and wetting resistance even at elevated hydrostatic pressures. Springtail cuticle-derived surfaces therefore promise to overcome limitations of lotus-inspired surfaces (low durability, insufficient repellence of low surface tension liquids). In this review, we report on the liquid-repellent natural surfaces of arthropods living in aqueous or temporarily flooded habitats including water-walking insects or water spiders. In particular, we focus on springtails presenting an overview on the cuticular morphology and chemistry and their biological relevance. Based on the obtained liquid repellence of a variety of liquids with remarkable efficiency, the review provides general design criteria for robust omniphobic surfaces. In particular, the resistance against complete wetting and the mechanical stability strongly both depend on the topographical features of the nano- and micropatterned surface. The current understanding of the underlying principles and approaches to their technological implementation are summarized and discussed. PMID:26239626

  20. Is ornithogenic fertilization important for collembolan communities in Arctic terrestrial ecosystems?

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    Katarzyna Zmudczyńska-Skarbek

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Arctic, areas close to seabird colonies are often characterized by exceptionally rich vegetation communities linked with the high nutrient subsidies transported by seabirds from the marine environment to the land. These areas also support soil invertebrate communities of which springtails (Collembola often represent the most abundant and diverse group. Our study focused on springtail community composition in the vicinity of seabird (little auk, great skua and glaucous gull nesting areas in different parts of Svalbard (Magdalenefjorden, Isfjorden and Bjørnøya, and on their comparison with adjacent areas not impacted by seabirds. Out of a total of 35 springtail species recorded, seven were found only within the ornithogenically influenced sites. Although geographical location was the strongest factor differentiating these springtail communities, ornithogenic influence was also significant regardless of the location. When each location was considered separately, seabirds were responsible for a relatively small but strongly significant proportion (8.6, 5.2 and 3.9%, respectively, for each site of total springtail community variability. Species whose occurrence was positively correlated with seabird presence were Folsomia coeruleogrisea, Friesea quinquespinosa, Lepidocyrtus lignorum and Oligaphorura groenlandica near Magdalenefjorden, Arrhopalites principalis, Folsomia bisetosella and Protaphorura macfadyeni in Isfjorden, and Folsomia quadrioculata on Bjørnøya.

  1. Collembase: a repository for springtail genomics and soil quality assessment

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    Klein-Lankhorst Rene M

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental quality assessment is traditionally based on responses of reproduction and survival of indicator organisms. For soil assessment the springtail Folsomia candida (Collembola is an accepted standard test organism. We argue that environmental quality assessment using gene expression profiles of indicator organisms exposed to test substrates is more sensitive, more toxicant specific and significantly faster than current risk assessment methods. To apply this species as a genomic model for soil quality testing we conducted an EST sequencing project and developed an online database. Description Collembase is a web-accessible database comprising springtail (F. candida genomic data. Presently, the database contains information on 8686 ESTs that are assembled into 5952 unique gene objects. Of those gene objects ~40% showed homology to other protein sequences available in GenBank (blastx analysis; non-redundant (nr database; expect-value -5. Software was applied to infer protein sequences. The putative peptides, which had an average length of 115 amino-acids (ranging between 23 and 440 were annotated with Gene Ontology (GO terms. In total 1025 peptides (~17% of the gene objects were assigned at least one GO term (expect-value -25. Within Collembase searches can be conducted based on BLAST and GO annotation, cluster name or using a BLAST server. The system furthermore enables easy sequence retrieval for functional genomic and Quantitative-PCR experiments. Sequences are submitted to GenBank (Accession numbers: EV473060 – EV481745. Conclusion Collembase http://www.collembase.org is a resource of sequence data on the springtail F. candida. The information within the database will be linked to a custom made microarray, based on the Agilent platform, which can be applied for soil quality testing. In addition, Collembase supplies information that is valuable for related scientific disciplines such as molecular ecology

  2. Environmental correlates of species richness of European springtails (Hexapoda: Collembola)

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    Ulrich, Werner; Fiera, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Our knowledge about environmental correlates of the spatial distribution of animal species stems mostly from the study of well known vertebrate and a few invertebrate taxa. The poor spatial resolution of faunistic data and undersampling prohibit detailed spatial modeling for the vast majority of arthropods. However, many such models are necessary for a comparative approach to the impact of environmental factors on the spatial distribution of species of different taxa. Here we use recent compilations of species richness of 35 European countries and larger islands and linear spatial autocorrelation modeling to infer the influence of area and environmental variables on the number of springtail (Collembola) species in Europe. We show that area, winter length and annual temperature difference are major predictors of species richness. We also detected a significant negative longitudinal gradient in the number of springtail species towards Eastern Europe that might be caused by postglacial colonization. In turn, environmental heterogeneity and vascular plant species richness did not significantly contribute to model performance. Contrary to theoretical expectations, climate and longitude corrected species-area relationships of Collembola did not significantly differ between islands and mainlands.

  3. An annotated checklist of the springtail fauna of Hungary (Hexapoda: Collembola

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    Dányi, L

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of the species of springtails (Hexapoda: Collembola hitherto recorded from Hungary is presented. Each entry is accompanied by complete references, and remarks where appropriate. The present list contains 414 species.

  4. Six New Records of Springtails (Collembola from North Korea

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    Danyi, Laszlo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Six species of springtails (Collembola are reported for the first time from North Korea: Pachyotoma takeshitai (Kinoshita, 1916, Folsomia bisetosa Gisin, 1953 and Agrenia agilis Fjellberg, 1986 of Isotomidae, Entomobrya sibirica Stach, 1963 and Willowsia buski (Lubbock, 1870 of Entomobryidae, and Ptenothrix setosa (Krausbauer, 1898 of Dicyrtomidae. The genus Pachyotoma Bagnall, 1949 is mentioned for the first time from the Korean Peninsula. In order to facilitate the identification of these species, illustrations and short diagnoses are provided and the poorly known P. takeshitai is described in detail. Ptenothrix setosa and E. sibirica link the Korean peninsular fauna with Central Asia, P. takeshitai shows the zoogeographical connection of the Korean Peninsula with the Japanese Islands and A. agilis has a trans-pacific distribution. Folsomia bisetosa is an interesting circumpolar element in the Korean fauna while W. buski is a subcosmopolitan species.

  5. 土壤跳虫适应低温环境的策略与机制研究进展%Strategies and mechanisms of soil springtails in adapting lower temperature environment:Research progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晶; 王云彪; 吴东辉

    2012-01-01

    Low temperature and drought are the main environmental factors threatening the animals living in arctic area and cold temperate regions. To adapt the severe environment, the animals should adopt appropriate strategies. As a group of arthopods with freeze-avoiding strategy, soil springtails have the similar ecological mechanisms and modes of cold resistance/tolerance as insects, manifesting in the cold acclimation and drought tolerance to decrease the damage of ice crystal formation. During cold acclimation, there are a rapid increase of glycerol, a rapid decrease of fucose and glucose, and the production of anti-freeze proteins (AFP) , and exists the inter-transformation of different kinds of lipids to improve the flow of cell membrane to protect the cell from low temperature injury. In addition, soil springtails have their own specific modes and mechanisms to tolerate low temperature stress, mainly the vertical migration under the protection of snow cover and the excretion of ice nucleator from haemolymph, illustrating that it' s of significance to research the cryo-biology of soil springtails. This paper summarized the modes and mechanisms of soil springtails in tolerating low temperature environment, reviewed the research progress on the eco-physiology of the springtails, discussed the existing problems of the researches on the low temperature tolerance of the springtails, and prospected the research directions of the springtails low temperature ecology under the background of global change.%低温和干燥是极地及寒温带地区动物的主要环境胁迫因子.为适应恶劣的环境,此区域的动物必须运用有效的方式来适应其栖息环境.土壤跳虫是典型的以避免体液结冰为主要策略来适应低温环境的动物类群,其抗低温的生态策略和模式与昆虫存在相似之处,表现在其利用冷驯化及与干旱协同作用,降低冰晶形成的伤害.在抗低温过程中,其体内甘油等小分子物质含量

  6. Two new records of springtails (Hexapoda: Collembola for the Romanian Fauna – Maramures county

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut Popa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The author presents data about the collembolan species collected from the Maramureş County. Forty-three species of springtails were identified. Among them, Caprainea bremondi Dallai, 1972 and Sminthurinus reticulatus Cassagnau, 1964 are recorded for the first time for the Romanian fauna.

  7. Genetic diversity among populations of Antarctic springtails (Collembola) within the Mackay Glacier ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beet, Clare R; Hogg, Ian D; Collins, Gemma E; Cowan, Don A; Wall, Diana H; Adams, Byron J

    2016-09-01

    Climate changes are likely to have major influences on the distribution and abundance of Antarctic terrestrial biota. To assess arthropod distribution and diversity within the Ross Sea region, we examined mitochondrial DNA (COI) sequences for three currently recognized species of springtail (Collembola) collected from sites in the vicinity, and to the north of, the Mackay Glacier (77°S). This area acts as a transition between two biogeographic regions (northern and southern Victoria Land). We found populations of highly divergent individuals (5%-11.3% intraspecific sequence divergence) for each of the three putative springtail species, suggesting the possibility of cryptic diversity. Based on molecular clock estimates, these divergent lineages are likely to have been isolated for 3-5 million years. It was during this time that the Western Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) was likely to have completely collapsed, potentially facilitating springtail dispersal via rafting on running waters and open seaways. The reformation of the WAIS would have isolated newly established populations, with subsequent dispersal restricted by glaciers and ice-covered areas. Given the currently limited distributions for these genetically divergent populations, any future changes in species' distributions can be easily tracked through the DNA barcoding of springtails from within the Mackay Glacier ecotone. PMID:27463035

  8. Factors that influence freezing in the sub-Antarctic springtail Tullbergia antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worland, M Roger

    2005-08-01

    Effects of 12 biotic and abiotic factors on the freezing point of the sub-Antarctic springtail, Tullbergia antarctica, were investigated. Repeated cooling of individual springtails five times resulted in very similar freezing points suggesting that ice nucleation in this freeze-susceptible species is likely to be initiated by intrinsic factors rather than being a stochastic event. Mean supercooling point (SCP) was influenced by cooling protocol, showing a linear increase in mean SCP with cooling rates from 8 to 0.1 degrees Cmin(-1). However, the opposite effect (decreasing SCP) was seen with slower cooling. Slower rates may be ecologically realistic and allow time for appropriate physiological and biochemical changes. Feeding and food presence in the gut had no effect on SCP, and there was no correlation between the ice nucleating activity of bacteria isolated from the guts and the whole springtail SCP. Habitat altitude and diurnal light and temperature regimes also had no effect on SCP. There was no correlation between the cryoprotectant concentration of fresh animals and their SCP, but experimental desiccation resulted in increased osmolality and decreased SCP, although with considerable individual variation. The most significant influence on SCP was associated with ecdysis. As springtails cease feeding for a period either side of ecdysis, shedding the entire gut lining, moulting may be an efficient mechanism of clearing the gut of all ice nucleating material. This previously unrecognised relationship between ecdysis, cold tolerance and seasonal survival tactics may play an important role in over-winter survival of some arthropods. PMID:15936029

  9. The use of directional traps for the assessment of short-term phenanthrene effects upon soil springtail communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gass, Frederic [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 5176, 4 Avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France); Gillet, Servane [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 5176, 4 Avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France); Ponge, Jean-Francois [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 5176, 4 Avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France)]. E-mail: jean-francois.ponge@wanadoo.fr

    2006-03-15

    Directional traps, both horizontal and vertical, were used to assess the behavioural impact of phenanthrene application on soil springtail communities. Avoidance was not detected. Rather, a vertical attraction of the dominant species, Folsomia manolachei, was demonstrated, as well as a decrease in horizontal movements of Lepidocyrtus lanuginosus, another important species mainly captured at the soil surface. Ecological consequences of the results are discussed. - Soil springtails may be attracted to phenanthrene in dosing trials.

  10. Accumulation of free amino acids during exposure to drought in three springtail species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmstrup, Martin; Slotsbo, Stine; Rozsypal, Jan; Henriksen, Per G; Bayley, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Springtails are closely related to insects, but they differ from these with respect to water balance, in particular because springtails are small and have high integumental permeability to water. Here we report a series of experiments addressing the dynamics of osmoregulation, water content and accumulation of free amino acids (FAAs) in three springtail species during exposure to a gradually increasing environmental desiccation simulating conditions in drought exposed soil. Folsomia candida and Protaphorura fimata (both living in the deeper soil layers; euedaphic species) were active throughout the 3week exposure, with the developing drought regime ending at -3.56MPa (the soil water activity at the permanent wilting point of plants is -1.5MPa) and remained hyperosmotic (having an body fluid osmolality higher than the corresponding environment) to their surrounding air. Sinella curviseta (living in upper soil/litter layers; hemiedaphic species) also survived this exposure, but remained hypoosmotic throughout (i.e. with lower osmolality than the environment). The body content of most FAAs increased in response to drought in all three species. Alanine, proline and arginine were the most significantly upregulated FAAs. By combining our results with data in the literature, we could account for 82% of the observed osmolality at -3.56MPa in F. candida and 92% in P. fimata. The osmolality of S. curviseta was only slightly increased under drought, but here FAAs were considerably more important as osmolytes than in the two other species. We propose that FAAs probably have general importance in drought tolerance of springtails. PMID:26428866

  11. Decreased biodiversity in soil springtail communities: the importance of dispersal and landuse history in heterogeneous landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    PONGE, Jean-François; Dubs, Florence; Gillet, Servane; Sousa, José Paulo; Lavelle, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    In previously published papers it had been demonstrated that at the local level the species richness of soil springtail communities was negatively influenced by landuse diversity. When the dispersal rate of soil animals was taken into account, quite opposite trends were displayed by species having poor or high dispersal capabilities. At the local level, species with short legs, non functional jumping apparatus and reduction of visual organs were distinguished against by landuse diversity, whi...

  12. Arctic methane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dyupina, E.; Amstel, van A.R.

    2013-01-01

    What are the risks of a runaway greenhouse effect from methane release from hydrates in the Arctic? In January 2013, a dramatic increase of methane concentration up to 2000 ppb has been measured over the Arctic north of Norway in the Barents Sea. The global average being 1750 ppb. It has been sugges

  13. Arctic Newcomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki

    2013-01-01

    Interest in the Arctic region and its economic potential in Japan, South Korea and Singapore was slow to develop but is now rapidly growing. All three countries have in recent years accelerated their engagement with Arctic states, laying the institutional frameworks needed to better understand an...

  14. Arctic Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, John; Baggeroer, Arthur; Mikhalevsky, Peter; Munk, Walter; Sagen, Hanne; Vernon, Frank; Worcester, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The dramatic reduction of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean will increase human activities in the coming years. This will be driven by increased demand for energy and the marine resources of an Arctic Ocean more accessible to ships. Oil and gas exploration, fisheries, mineral extraction, marine transportation, research and development, tourism and search and rescue will increase the pressure on the vulnerable Arctic environment. Synoptic in-situ year-round observational technologies are needed to monitor and forecast changes in the Arctic atmosphere-ice-ocean system at daily, seasonal, annual and decadal scales to inform and enable sustainable development and enforcement of international Arctic agreements and treaties, while protecting this critical environment. This paper will discuss multipurpose acoustic networks, including subsea cable components, in the Arctic. These networks provide communication, power, underwater and under-ice navigation, passive monitoring of ambient sound (ice, seismic, biologic and anthropogenic), and acoustic remote sensing (tomography and thermometry), supporting and complementing data collection from platforms, moorings and autonomous vehicles. This paper supports the development and implementation of regional to basin-wide acoustic networks as an integral component of a multidisciplinary, in situ Arctic Ocean Observatory.

  15. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) as a tool to predict the bioavailability and toxicity of pyrene to the springtail, Folsomia candida, under various soil conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Styrishave, Bjarne; Mortensen, Mads; Krogh, Paul Henning;

    2008-01-01

    ) for the euedaphic springtail, Folsomia candida, under various test conditions. The soil used was a sandy loam soil with natural OM content of 2.6% (Askov soil). It was enriched with increasing organic matter concentrations of 5%, 10%, and 20% and was aged for 0, 56, and 112 days. The EC50 values of the springtails...

  16. Gluing the 'unwettable': soil-dwelling harvestmen use viscoelastic fluids for capturing springtails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jonas O; Schönhofer, Axel L; Schaber, Clemens F; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2014-10-01

    Gluing can be a highly efficient mechanism of prey capture, as it should require less complex sensory-muscular feedback. Whereas it is well known in insects, this mechanism is much less studied in arachnids, except spiders. Soil-dwelling harvestmen (Opiliones, Nemastomatidae) bear drumstick-like glandular hairs (clavate setae) at their pedipalps, which were previously hypothesized to be sticky and used in prey capture. However, clear evidence for this was lacking to date. Using high-speed videography, we found that the harvestman Mitostoma chrysomelas was able to capture fast-moving springtails (Collembola) just by a slight touch of the pedipalp. Adhesion of single clavate setae increased proportionally with pull-off velocity, from 1 μN at 1 μm s(-1) up to 7 μN at 1 mm s(-1), which corresponds to the typical weight of springtails. Stretched glue droplets exhibited characteristics of a viscoelastic fluid forming beads-on-a-string morphology over time, similar to spider capture threads and the sticky tentacles of carnivorous plants. These analogies indicate that viscoelasticity is a highly efficient mechanism for prey capture, as it holds stronger the faster the struggling prey moves. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy of snap-frozen harvestmen with glued springtails revealed that the gluey secretions have a high affinity to wet the microstructured cuticle of collembolans, which was previously reported to be barely wettable for both polar and non-polar liquids. Glue droplets can be contaminated with the detached scaly setae of collembolans, which may represent a counter-adaptation against entrapment by the glue, similar to the scaly surfaces of Lepidoptera and Trichoptera (Insecta) facilitating escape from spider webs. PMID:25274325

  17. Comparing rates of springtail predation by web-building spiders using Bayesian inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Kelton D; Schofield, Matthew R; Chapman, Eric G; Harwood, James D

    2014-08-01

    A major goal of gut-content analysis is to quantify predation rates by predators in the field, which could provide insights into the mechanisms behind ecosystem structure and function, as well as quantification of ecosystem services provided. However, percentage-positive results from molecular assays are strongly influenced by factors other than predation rate, and thus can only be reliably used to quantify predation rates under very restrictive conditions. Here, we develop two statistical approaches, one using a parametric bootstrap and the other in terms of Bayesian inference, to build upon previous techniques that use DNA decay rates to rank predators by their rate of prey consumption, by allowing a statistical assessment of confidence in the inferred ranking. To demonstrate the utility of this technique in evaluating ecological data, we test web-building spiders for predation on a primary prey item, springtails. Using these approaches we found that an orb-weaving spider consumes springtail prey at a higher rate than a syntopic sheet-weaving spider, despite occupying microhabitats where springtails are less frequently encountered. We suggest that spider-web architecture (orb web vs. sheet web) is a primary determinant of prey-consumption rates within this assemblage of predators, which demonstrates the potential influence of predator foraging behaviour on trophic web structure. We also discuss how additional assumptions can be incorporated into the same analysis to allow broader application of the technique beyond the specific example presented. We believe that such modelling techniques can greatly advance the field of molecular gut-content analysis. PMID:24635414

  18. Extreme Glacial Legacies: A Synthesis of the Antarctic Springtail Phylogeographic Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carapelli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We review current phylogeographic knowledge from across the Antarctic terrestrial landscape with a focus on springtail taxa. We describe consistent patterns of high genetic diversity and structure among populations which have persisted in glacial refugia across Antarctica over both short (10 Mya timescales. Despite a general concordance of results among species, we explain why location is important in determining population genetic patterns within bioregions. We complete our review by drawing attention to the main limitations in the field of Antarctic phylogeography, namely that the scope of geographic focus is often lacking within studies, and that large gaps remain in our phylogeographic knowledge for most terrestrial groups.

  19. Extreme Glacial Legacies: A Synthesis of the Antarctic Springtail Phylogeographic Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaughran, Angela; Stevens, Mark I; Hogg, Ian D; Carapelli, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    We review current phylogeographic knowledge from across the Antarctic terrestrial landscape with a focus on springtail taxa. We describe consistent patterns of high genetic diversity and structure among populations which have persisted in glacial refugia across Antarctica over both short (10 Mya) timescales. Despite a general concordance of results among species, we explain why location is important in determining population genetic patterns within bioregions. We complete our review by drawing attention to the main limitations in the field of Antarctic phylogeography, namely that the scope of geographic focus is often lacking within studies, and that large gaps remain in our phylogeographic knowledge for most terrestrial groups. PMID:26467614

  20. Arctic bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleanup of oil and diesel spills on gravel pads in the Arctic has typically been accomplished by utilizing a water flushing technique to remove the gross contamination or excavating the spill area and placing the material into a lined pit, or a combination of both. Enhancing the biological degradation of hydrocarbon (bioremediation) by adding nutrients to the spill area has been demonstrated to be an effective cleanup tool in more temperate locations. However, this technique has never been considered for restoration in the Arctic because the process of microbial degradation of hydrocarbon in this area is very slow. The short growing season and apparent lack of nutrients in the gravel pads were thought to be detrimental to using bioremediation to cleanup Arctic oil spills. This paper discusses the potential to utilize bioremediation as an effective method to clean up hydrocarbon spills in the northern latitudes

  1. Arctic bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleanup of oil and diesel spills on gravel pads in the Arctic has typically been accomplished by utilizing a water flushing technique to remove the gross contamination or excavating the spill area and placing the material into a lined pit, or a combination of both. This paper discusses the potential to utilize bioremediation as an effective method to clean up hydrocarbon spills in the northern latitudes. Discussed are the results of a laboratory bioremediation study which simulated microbial degradation of hydrocarbon under arctic conditions

  2. The spermatogenesis and oogenesis of the springtail Podura aquatica Linné, 1758 (Hexapoda: Collembola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanciulli, Pietro Paolo; Gottardo, Marco; Dallai, Romano

    2013-06-01

    Podura aquatica is a springtail of uncertain systematic position. Our study dealing with the ultrastructure of the spermatogenesis and oogenesis of this species is a contribution to a better knowledge of both the reproduction and the systematics of the taxon. In the male, the spermatogenesis proceeds in a similar way to that of other Collembola. Primary spermatocytes do not show synaptonemal complexes which, instead, are found in primary oocytes. Thus a genomic recombination seems to be present only in females, as it occurs in other springtails. Degeneration of secondary spermatocytes, as reported in some families of the Symphypleona, was not observed in P. aquatica. At the end of spermiogenesis, a rolled up sperm cell provided with an anterior long appendage adhering to the acrosome is produced. In the female, the oogenesis also proceeds in a conventional way with the production of eggs rich in yolk. A branched spermatheca is present at the end of the common oviduct, close to the genital opening. It contains many sperm in its lumen. Contrary to the globular appearance of sperm cells in the male genital ducts, in the spermatheca they are straight, elongated, and lack the long anterior appendage. P. aquatica shows a spermatogenesis, sperm structure, and oogenesis similar to those of other Collembola. In agreement with the results of recent phylogenetic studies, we confirm that P. aquatica is a member of Poduridae, and it does not belong to a group close to the Symphypleona. PMID:23515073

  3. Chronic exposure to chlorpyrifos reveals two modes of action in the springtail Folsomia candida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, Tjalling [Department of Theoretical Biology, Vrije Universiteit, de Boelelaan 1085, NL-1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: tjalling@bio.vu.nl; Crommentuijn, Trudie [Ministry of Spatial Planning, Housing and the Environment (VROM), Rijnstraat 8, P.O. Box 30945, 2500 GX, The Hague (Netherlands); Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van [Department of Animal Ecology, Vrije Universiteit, de Boelelaan 1085, NL-1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kooijman, Sebastiaan A.L.M. [Department of Theoretical Biology, Vrije Universiteit, de Boelelaan 1085, NL-1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-01-15

    Organophosphates are popular insecticides, but relatively little is known about their chronic effects on ecologically relevant endpoints. In this paper, we examine a life-cycle experiment with the springtail Folsomia candida, exposed via food to chlorpyrifos (CPF). The results for all endpoints (survival, growth and reproduction) were analyzed using the DEBtox model. Growth was unaffected by CPF, even at concentrations causing severe effects on survival and reproduction. Model analysis suggests that CPF directly affects the process of egg production. For the short-term response (45 days), this single mode of action accurately agreed with the data. However, the full data set (120 days) revealed a dose-related decrease in reproduction at low concentrations after prolonged exposure, not covered by the same mechanism. It appears that CPF interacts with senescence by increasing oxidative damage. This assumption fits the data well, but has little consequences for the predicted response at the population level. - Exposure to chlorpyrifos in food affects reproduction in springtails according to two distinct toxic mechanisms.

  4. Nontarget effects of ivermectin residues on earthworms and springtails dwelling beneath dung of treated cattle in four countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffczyk, Adam; Floate, Kevin D; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Düring, Rolf-Alexander; Klockner, Andrea; Lahr, Joost; Lumaret, Jean-Pierre; Salamon, Jörg-Alfred; Tixier, Thomas; Wohde, Manuel; Römbke, Jörg

    2016-08-01

    The authorization of veterinary medicinal products requires that they be assessed for nontarget effects in the environment. Numerous field studies have assessed these effects on dung organisms. However, few studies have examined effects on soil-dwelling organisms, which might be exposed to veterinary medicinal product residues released during dung degradation. The authors compared the abundance of earthworms and springtails in soil beneath dung from untreated cattle and from cattle treated 0 d, 3 d, 7 d, 14 d, and 28 d previously with ivermectin. Study sites were located in different ecoregions in Switzerland (Continental), The Netherlands (Atlantic), France (Mediterranean), and Canada (Northern Mixed Grassland). Samples were collected using standard methods from 1 mo to 12 mo after pat deposition. Ivermectin concentrations in soil beneath dung pats ranged from 0.02 mg/kg dry weight (3 mo) to typically springtails were present at all sites. Overall, results showed little effect of residues on either earthworms or springtails. The authors recommend that inclusion of soil organisms in field studies to assess the nontarget effects of veterinary medicinal products be required only if earthworms or springtails exhibit sensitivity to the product in laboratory tests. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1959-1969. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26565894

  5. Protaphorura tricampata, a euedaphic and highly permeable springtail that can sustain activity by osmoregulation during extreme drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmstrup, Martin; Bayley, Mark

    2013-11-01

    We have investigated drought physiology of soil dwelling springtails since water availability is a key environmental factor governing their performance, and predictions of climate change suggest increased frequency and intensity of summer droughts. Here we show in field and laboratory experiments that the typical euedaphic springtail, Protaphorura tricampata, can survive extreme drought and remain active in soils where the water potential is much lower than equivalent to normal osmotic pressure of springtails. Euedaphic springtails (i.e. species living in deeper soil layers) have an extraordinary ability to up-regulate osmotic pressure of body fluids and prevent water loss in soils where the water potential has dropped to well below the permanent wilting percentage of plants. The ability to regulate osmotic pressure of body fluids is based on accumulation of compatible osmolytes such as sugars and free amino acids. Alanine was the most important osmolyte in P. tricampata and accumulated to concentrations of about 300μmolg(-1) dry weight. It is suggested that alanine also serves as a non-toxic storage of ammonia during drought periods where the normal urine production is hampered. The results presented here show, contrary to convention, that high cuticular permeability is not necessarily accompanied by poor drought tolerance, and is not a good predictor of drought susceptibility. PMID:24035747

  6. First Record of a Neozygites species (Zygomycetes:Entomophthorales) Infecting Springtails (Insecta:Collembola)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, T; Eilenberg, J; Bresciani, J.

    1996-01-01

    A fungal pathogen from the Entomophthorales (Zygomycetes) was discovered in populations of the lucerne flea Sminthurus viridis (Collembola) collected from grassland and leguminous crops in Denmark during July to October. The morphology of the fungus was studied in springtails, collected live, whi...... Conidiobolus coronatus. Verticillium lecanii and Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycotina:Hyphomycetes) were also isolated from S. viridis....

  7. [Distribution and diversity of springtails (Hexapoda: Collembola) on the altitudinal gradient of a temperate forest in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Arturo; Castaño-Meneses, Gabriela; Palacios-Vargas, José G

    2011-03-01

    Mountain ecosystems have shown slow mineralization activity due to weather conditions, and to some groups with arthropods with special roles. The Collembola is an important group for litter fragmentation, showing different distribution patterns. The objective of the present study was to determine the diversity of Collembola along a volcano altitudinal gradient. For this, four sampling expeditions evaluated four altitudinal levels (I = 2 753, II = 3 015, III = 3 250 and IV = 3 687 masl) in Iztaccihuatl Volcano, from November 2003, and March, June and August 2004. Shannon diversity (H'), Pielou evenness (J') and Simpson dominance (1/lambda) indices were calculated. The similarity between the associations of springtails between the sampling sites was evaluated by a cluster analysis using the Pearson correlation coefficient, as distance and the unpaired arithmetic averages (UPGMA) as amalgamation method. A total of 24 075 springtails, distributed in 12 families, 46 genera and 86 species was collected. The higher species abundance was found at the altitudinal area II. The lowest diversity value was recorded in IV, while the higher diversity values were found in III. Significant differences between Shannon indices were found between zones II-III (t(0.01, 187) = 4.11, p springtail abundances was not found, but it was observed that, the lower altitude (I) resulted more homogeneous along the studied period, followed by level II and III. There is a particular assemblage of springtails community in each altitudinal area studied; in general, the sites with low slope resulted more diverse in Collembola communities. These results show that there are important factors such as altitude, vegetation type and microhabitat heterogeneity that may affect the distribution of springtails communities along an altitudinal gradient. PMID:21516653

  8. Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the Earth's four major oceans, covering 14x10(exp 6) sq km located entirely within the Arctic Circle (66 deg 33 min N). It is a major player in the climate of the north polar region and has a variable sea ice cover that tends to increase its sensitivity to climate change. Its temperature, salinity, and ice cover have all undergone changes in the past several decades, although it is uncertain whether these predominantly reflect long-term trends, oscillations within the system, or natural variability. Major changes include a warming and expansion of the Atlantic layer, at depths of 200-900 m, a warming of the upper ocean in the Beaufort Sea, a considerable thinning (perhaps as high as 40%) of the sea ice cover, a lesser and uneven retreat of the ice cover (averaging approximately 3% per decade), and a mixed pattern of salinity increases and decreases.

  9. Arctic Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Ørts; Grønsedt, Peter; Lindstrøm Graversen, Christian;

    maritime industries (including shipping, offshore energy, ports, and maritime service and equipment suppliers) as well as addresses topics that cut across maritime industries (regulation and competitiveness). The topics and narrower research questions addressed in the initiative were developed in close......, the latter aiming at developing key concepts and building up a basic industry knowledge base for further development of CBS Maritime research and teaching. This report attempts to map the opportunities and challenges for the maritime industry in an increasingly accessible Arctic Ocean...

  10. A case of an apparent infestation by Proisotoma spp. springtails (Collembola: Isotomidae) in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccati, Massimo; Gallo, Maria G; Chiavassa, Elisa; Peano, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    This case report is presumed to be the first case of infestation of a cat by springtails which are small arthropods closely related to insects. The organisms, found by skin scrapings, were identified as Proisotoma spp. (Collembola: Isotomidae). The cat presented with dermatological lesions (itchy, furfuraceous dermatitis), and we speculate that they were due to this infestation. The pathogenic role of the Collembola was hypothesized because of the large number of organisms, the presence of eggs indicating an active reproduction cycle, the lack of other pathogens (fleas, mites or lice) and the clinical recovery accompanied by the disappearance of Collembola following treatment. The owner seemed to be affected by the infestation, because a few days after having purchased the cat, she developed a pruriginous papular dermatitis on the neck and the arms, which disappeared shortly after treatment of the kitten and a careful washing of all of its toys and other accoutrements. PMID:22049948

  11. Synergistic sub-lethal effects of a biocide mixture on the springtail Folsomia fimetaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnug, Lisbeth; Leinaas, Hans Petter; Jensen, John

    2014-03-01

    The toxicity of three biocides, esfenvalerate, picoxystrobin and triclosan, on adult survival and recruitment of juveniles was studied in the springtail Folsomia fimetaria, both in single and mixture experiments. Recruitment of juveniles was more sensitive to biocide exposure than adult survival. The concepts of concentration addition and independent action returned almost identical toxicity predictions, though both models failed to predict the observed toxicity due to synergistic deviations at high exposure concentrations. A comparison with a similar study on earthworms showed that response-patterns were species-specific. Consequently, there is no single reference concept which is applicable for all species of one ecosystem, which in turn questions the usefulness of such mixture prediction concepts in ecological risk assessment. PMID:24374376

  12. A 9 kDa antifreeze protein from the Antarctic springtail, Gomphiocephalus hodgsoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, T C; Marshall, C J; Wharton, D A

    2014-08-01

    A 9 kDA antifreeze protein (AFP) was isolated and purified from the Antarctic springtail, Gomphiocephalus hodgsoni. By combining selective sampling procedures and a modified ice affinity purification protocol it was possible to directly isolate a single AFP protein without recourse to chromatographic separation techniques. Mass spectrometry identified a single 9 kDa component in the purified ice fraction. Intramolecular disulphide bonding was suggested by the presence of 12 cysteine residues. The specific amino acid composition is unique, particularly with regard to the presence of histidine (11.5%). But it also shows noticeable commonalities with insect AFPs in the abundance of cysteine (13.8%), while simultaneously hinting, through the presence of glycine (11.5%), that the metabolic building blocks of AFPs in Collembola may have a phylogenetically-determined component. PMID:25025820

  13. Population dynamics and diapause response of the springtail pest Sminthurus viridis (Collembola: Sminthuridae) in southeastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, John M K; Umina, Paul A; Hoffmann, Ary A; Weeks, Andrew R

    2011-04-01

    The springtail, Sminthurus viridis (L.) (Collembola: Sminthuridae), is an important agricultural pest across southern Australia. We investigated the seasonal abundance patterns and summer diapause response of S. viridis in southeastern Australia by using field and shadehouse (a greenhouse that offers seedlings shade) experiments. Seasonal activity patterns of S. viridis were largely consistent with previous studies, with the pest active from autumn to spring. In addition, the timing and pattern of the summer-diapausing egg stage was established, with multiple generations probably producing diapause eggs. A strong relationship between soil moisture and temperature with autumn emergence also was observed. These results suggest that S. viridis autumn pest pressure can be predicted and indicate that late-season spraying strategies currently used for a sympatric agricultural pest are unlikely to be as effective against S. viridis. PMID:21510194

  14. Chronic exposure to chlorpyrifos reveals two modes of action in the springtail Folsomia candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Tjalling; Crommentuijn, Trudie; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A L M

    2007-01-01

    Organophosphates are popular insecticides, but relatively little is known about their chronic effects on ecologically relevant endpoints. In this paper, we examine a life-cycle experiment with the springtail Folsomia candida, exposed via food to chlorpyrifos (CPF). The results for all endpoints (survival, growth and reproduction) were analyzed using the DEBtox model. Growth was unaffected by CPF, even at concentrations causing severe effects on survival and reproduction. Model analysis suggests that CPF directly affects the process of egg production. For the short-term response (45 days), this single mode of action accurately agreed with the data. However, the full data set (120 days) revealed a dose-related decrease in reproduction at low concentrations after prolonged exposure, not covered by the same mechanism. It appears that CPF interacts with senescence by increasing oxidative damage. This assumption fits the data well, but has little consequences for the predicted response at the population level. PMID:16762466

  15. Spatial scale and species identity influence the indigenous-alien diversity relationship in springtails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terauds, Aleks; Chown, Steven L; Bergstrom, Dana M

    2011-07-01

    Although theory underlying the invasion paradox, or the change in the relationship between the richness of alien and indigenous species from negative to positive with increasing spatial scale, is well developed and much empirical work on the subject has been undertaken, most of the latter has concerned plants and to a lesser extent marine invertebrates. Here we therefore examine the extent to which the relationships between indigenous and alien species richness change from the local metacommunity to the interaction neighborhood scales, and the influences of abundance, species identity, and environmental favorability thereon, in springtails, a significant component of the soil fauna. Using a suite of modeling techniques, including generalized least squares and geographically weighted regressions to account for spatial autocorrelation or nonstationarity of the data, we show that the abundance and species richness of both indigenous and alien species at the metacommunity scale respond strongly to declining environmental favorability, represented here by altitude. Consequently, alien and indigenous diversity covary positively at this scale. By contrast, relationships are more complex at the interaction neighborhood scale, with the relationship among alien species richness and/or density and the density of indigenous species varying between habitats, being negative in some, but positive in others. Additional analyses demonstrated a strong influence of species identity, with negative relationships identified at the interaction neighborhood scale involving alien hypogastrurid springtails, a group known from elsewhere to have negative effects on indigenous species in areas where they have been introduced. By contrast, diversity relationships were positive with the other alien species. These results are consistent with both theory and previous empirical findings for other taxa, that interactions among indigenous and alien species change substantially with spatial scale and

  16. Arctic Diatoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tammilehto, Anna

    shellfish poisoning (ASP). This thesis showed that three most abundant mesozooplankton species (Calanus finmarchicus, C. glacialis and C. hyperboreus and copepodite stages C3 and C4) in the study area (Disko Bay, western Greenland) feed upon toxic P. seriata and retain the toxin, and may therefore act...... as vectors for DA to higher levels in the arctic marine food web, posing a possible risk also to humans. DA production in P. seriata was, for the first time, found to be induced by chemical cues from C. finmarchicus, C. hyperboreus and copepodite stages C3 and C4, suggesting that DA may be related to defense...

  17. Polarization sensitivity in Collembola: an experimental study of polarotaxis in the water-surface-inhabiting springtail Podura aquatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egri, Ádám; Farkas, Alexandra; Kriska, György; Horváth, Gábor

    2016-08-15

    The ventral eye of the water-surface-inhabiting springtail Podura aquatica has six ommatidia with horizontal and vertical microvilli and perceives light from the ventral, frontal and frontodorsal regions, whereas the dorsal eye possesses two upward-looking ommatidia with vertical microvilli. The ventral eye may detect water by its polarization sensitivity, even if the insect is resting with its head slightly tipped down on a raised surface. The polarization sensitivity and polarotaxis in springtails (Collembola) have not been investigated. Therefore, we performed behavioural choice experiments to study them in P. aquatica We found that the strength of phototaxis in P. aquatica depends on the polarization characteristics of stimulating light. Horizontally and vertically polarized light were the most and least attractive, respectively, while unpolarized stimulus elicited moderate attraction. We show that horizontally polarized light attracts more springtails than unpolarized, even if the polarized stimulus was 10 times dimmer. Thus, besides phototaxis, P. aquatica also performs polarotaxis with the ability to measure or at least estimate the degree of polarization. Our results indicate that the threshold d* of polarization sensitivity in P. aquatica is between 10.1 and 25.5%. PMID:27312471

  18. Experimental studies of ice nucleation in an Antarctic springtail (Collembola, Isotomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, W; Worland, M R

    2001-05-01

    Ice nucleation was studied in field-fresh and acclimated (4 degrees C without food for 11-20 days) samples of the springtail Cryptopygus antarcticus Willem (Collembola, Isotomidae) at Rothera Research Station, Adelaide Island on the Antarctic Peninsula. Ice nucleator activity (INA) was measured by a freezing droplet technique in addition to supercooling point (SCP) profiles and polyol, sugar, and water contents. Field and acclimated samples showed bimodal SCP distributions with a distinct high group (HG; mean SCP -8 to -10 degrees C) and low group (LG: mean SCP -23 to -25 degrees C), which were significantly different. Acclimation at 4 degrees C increased the proportion of individuals in the LG relative to that in the HG without significant effects on the mean SCP of both groups. INA of the HG was significantly greater than that of the LG, and acclimation further reduced the INA of the LG. The number of active ice nucleator agents (INAs) calculated for the HG of field samples increased by 23-100 times over the temperature range -5 to -8 degrees C compared to only 7 times for the LG over the same range. These differences were accentuated in the acclimation experiments. Glucose and galactose were the main carbohydrates in both field and acclimated springtails, with the latter compound occurring in almost twice the concentration in the LG compared with that in the HG. Acclimation reduced the concentration of both compounds (glucose by 77% and galactose by 54%), whereas water content increased significantly. Digestion of food may have continued during acclimation at 4 degrees C, which could reduce the LG INA. Lowering of temperature over time is more likely to elicit a cold hardening response than constant temperature acclimation. INA numbers calculated at the nucleation temperatures for C. antarcticus samples were higher in the LG than in the HG. However, inactivation of INAs may be a key mechanism underlying cold hardening in this species, either by sequestration

  19. Physiological and molecular responses of springtails exposed to phenanthrene and drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmstrup, Martin; Slotsbo, Stine; Schmidt, Stine N; Mayer, Philipp; Damgaard, Christian; Sørensen, Jesper G

    2014-01-01

    Interaction between effects of hazardous chemicals in the environment and adverse climatic conditions is a problem that receives increased attention in the light of climate change. We studied interactive effects of phenanthrene and drought using a test system in which springtails (Folsomia candida Willem) were concurrently exposed to a sublethal phenanthrene level via passive dosing from silicone (chemical activity of 0.010), and sublethal drought from aqueous NaCl solutions (water activity of 0.988). Previous studies have shown that the combined effects of high levels of phenanthrene and drought, respectively, interact synergistically when using lethality as an end-point. Here, we hypothesized that phenanthrene interferes with physiological mechanisms involved in drought tolerance, and that drought influences detoxification of phenanthrene. However, this hypothesis was not supported by data since phenanthrene had no effect on drought-protective accumulation of myo-inositol, and normal water conserving mechanisms of F. candida were functioning despite the near-lethal concentrations of the toxicant. Further, detoxifying induction of cytochrome P450 and glutathione-S-transferase was not impeded by drought. Both phenanthrene and drought induced transcription of heat shock protein (hsp70) and the combined effect of the two stressors on hsp70 transcription was additive, suggesting that the cellular stress and lethality imposed by these levels of phenanthrene and drought were also additive. PMID:24095812

  20. Toxicity of profenofos to the springtail, Folsomia candida, and ammonia-oxidizers in two agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Rong; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; He, Ji-Zheng

    2012-05-01

    Extensive use of organophosphorus insecticide profenofos (PFF) for agricultural and house-hold purposes has led to serious environmental pollution, with potential risk to organisms in the ecosystem. This study examined the toxicity of PFF to the soil springtail Folsomia candida and ammonia-oxidizers through a series of toxicity tests conducted on two agricultural soils. It was found that the survival, reproduction, hsp70 gene expression of F. candida and the soil potential nitrification rate (PNR) were sensitive to the PFF, whereas no apparent change was observed in the abundance of ammonia-oxidizers. The reproduction of F. candida was the most sensitive endpoint (mean 0.10 mg/kg of EC(50) value) for PFF, although the test was more time-consuming. The results of the acute toxicity tests suggested that the survival of F. candida could be considered as the most suitable bioindicator for fast screening of PFF toxicity because of its fast and easy test procedure. In addition, the hsp70 gene expression in F. candida and the PNR could be used as important parameters for assessment of PFF toxicity. The threshold concentration based on the obtained endpoints differed in the two soils, and consequently the soil property should be considered in toxicity assessments of contaminated soils. PMID:22362510

  1. Can cyanobacterial biomass applied to soil affect survival and reproduction of springtail Folsomia candida?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lána, Jan; Hofman, Jakub; Bláha, Luděk

    2011-05-01

    Biomass of cyanobacterial water blooms including cyanobacterial toxins may enter soils, for example, when harvested water bloom is directly applied as an organic fertilizer or when water with massive cyanobacterial biomass is used for irrigation. In spite of this, no information is available about the potential effects on soil arthropods. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the effects of water bloom biomass sampled in five different fresh water lakes on the soil dwelling arthropod, springtail Folsomia candida (Collembola). These samples contained different dominant species of cyanobacteria and varied significantly in microcystin content (21-3662 μg/g dw biomass). No adverse effects on survival or reproduction were observed for any tested sample at concentration up to 4 g dw biomass/kg dw soil. Despite the known hazardous properties of water blooms in aquatic ecosystems, our pilot results suggest that cyanobacterial biomass might have no significant impact on arthropods in soil. It remains a question, if this is due to low bioavailability of cyanobacterial toxins in soil. PMID:21176962

  2. Influence of soil type and organic matter content on the bioavailability, accumulation, and toxicity of alpha-cypermethrin in the springtail Folsomia candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styrishave, Bjarne; Hartnik, Thomas; Christensen, Peter; Andersen, Ole; Jensen, John

    2010-05-01

    The influence of organic matter (OM) content on alpha-cypermethrin porewater concentrations and springtail Folsomia candida accumulation was investigated in two soils with different levels of organic matter, a forest soil with a total organic carbon (TOC) content of 5.0% (OM=11.5%) and an agricultural soil with a TOC content of 1.3% (OM=4.0%). Also, the effects of alpha-cypermethrin concentrations in soil and pore water and the influence of soil aging on springtail reproduction were investigated. Springtail reproduction was severely affected by increasing alpha-cypermethrin in soil with 1.3% TOC; the median effective concentration value (EC50) was estimated to 23.4 mg/kg (dry wt). Reproduction was only marginally affected in the soil with 5.0% TOC, and no EC50 value could be estimated. However, when expressing alpha-cypermethrin accumulation as a function of soil alpha-cypermethrin concentrations, no difference was found between the two soil types, and no additional alpha-cypermethrin uptake was observed at soil concentrations above approximately 200 mg/kg (dry wt). By using solid-phase microextraction (SPME), it could be demonstrated that alpha-cypermethrin porewater concentrations were higher in the soil with low organic matter (LOM) content than in the soil with high organic matter (HOM) content. Furthermore, a clear relationship was found between alpha-cypermethrin concentrations in springtails and porewater. Soil aging was not found to exert any effect on alpha-cypermethrin toxicity toward springtails. The study indicates that the springtail's accumulation of alpha-cypermethrin and reproduction is governed by alpha-cypermethrin porewater concentrations rather than the total alpha-cypermethrin concentration in soil. PMID:20821544

  3. Influence of soil type and organic matter content on the bioavailability, accumulation, and toxicity of alpha-cypermethrin in the springtail Folsomia candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styrishave, Bjarne; Hartnik, Thomas; Christensen, Peter; Andersen, Ole; Jensen, John

    2010-05-01

    The influence of organic matter (OM) content on alpha-cypermethrin porewater concentrations and springtail Folsomia candida accumulation was investigated in two soils with different levels of organic matter, a forest soil with a total organic carbon (TOC) content of 5.0% (OM=11.5%) and an agricultural soil with a TOC content of 1.3% (OM=4.0%). Also, the effects of alpha-cypermethrin concentrations in soil and pore water and the influence of soil aging on springtail reproduction were investigated. Springtail reproduction was severely affected by increasing alpha-cypermethrin in soil with 1.3% TOC; the median effective concentration value (EC50) was estimated to 23.4 mg/kg (dry wt). Reproduction was only marginally affected in the soil with 5.0% TOC, and no EC50 value could be estimated. However, when expressing alpha-cypermethrin accumulation as a function of soil alpha-cypermethrin concentrations, no difference was found between the two soil types, and no additional alpha-cypermethrin uptake was observed at soil concentrations above approximately 200 mg/kg (dry wt). By using solid-phase microextraction (SPME), it could be demonstrated that alpha-cypermethrin porewater concentrations were higher in the soil with low organic matter (LOM) content than in the soil with high organic matter (HOM) content. Furthermore, a clear relationship was found between alpha-cypermethrin concentrations in springtails and porewater. Soil aging was not found to exert any effect on alpha-cypermethrin toxicity toward springtails. The study indicates that the springtail's accumulation of alpha-cypermethrin and reproduction is governed by alpha-cypermethrin porewater concentrations rather than the total alpha-cypermethrin concentration in soil.

  4. The life-history of a springtail Folsomia candida living in soil contaminated with nonylphenol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widarto, T. H.; Krogh, P. H.; Forbes, V.

    ) were applied to 6 replicates of soil containing an individual of 0-1 day old juvenile. During continuous exposure (63 days), we assessed springtail life-history traits such as: survival, growth rate, molting time, time between molting, time to first reproduction, egg production, and viability...... population growth rate (l). Decomposition analysis to investigate the contribution of each of the affected life-history traits to the effects observed on l, and elasticity analysis to examine the relative sensitivity of l to changes in each of the life history traits provided valuable insight...

  5. Uptake and toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in terrestrial springtails--studying bioconcentration kinetics and linking toxicity to chemical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stine Nørgaard; Smith, Kilian Eric Christopher; Holmstrup, Martin; Mayer, Philipp

    2013-02-01

    Passive dosing applies a polymer loaded with test compound(s) to establish and maintain constant exposure in laboratory experiments. Passive dosing with the silicone poly(dimethylsiloxane) was used to control exposure of the terrestrial springtail Folsomia candida to six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bioconcentration and toxicity experiments. Folsomia candida could move freely on the PAH-loaded silicone, resulting in exposure via air and direct contact. The bioconcentration kinetics indicated efficient uptake of naphthalene, anthracene, and pyrene through air and (near) equilibrium partitioning of these PAHs to lipids and possibly the waxy layer of the springtail cuticle. Toxicities of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene were related to chemical activity, which quantifies the energetic level and drives spontaneous processes including diffusive biouptake. Chemical activity-response relationships yielded effective lethal chemical activities (La50s) well within the expected range for baseline toxicity (0.01-0.1). Effective lethal body burdens for naphthalene and pyrene exceeded the expected range of 2 to 8 mmol kg(-1) fresh weight, which again indicated the waxy layer to be a sorbing phase. Finally, chemical activities were converted into equilibrium partitioning concentrations in lipids yielding effective lethal concentrations for naphthalene and phenanthrene in good correspondence with the lethal membrane burden for baseline toxicity (40-160 mmol kg(-1) lipid). Passive dosing was a practical approach for tightly controlling PAH exposure, which in turn provided new experimental possibilities and findings. PMID:23147567

  6. Arctic Climate Tipping Points

    OpenAIRE

    Lenton, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    There is widespread concern that anthropogenic global warming will trigger Arctic climate tipping points. The Arctic has a long history of natural, abrupt climate changes, which together with current observations and model projections, can help us to identify which parts of the Arctic climate system might pass future tipping points. Here the climate tipping points are defined, noting that not all of them involve bifurcations leading to irreversible change. Past abrupt climate changes in the A...

  7. Arctic wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltola, E. [Kemijoki Oy (Finland); Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Tammelin, B. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  8. White Arctic vs. Blue Arctic: Making Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Newton, R.; Schlosser, P.; Pomerance, R.; Tremblay, B.; Murray, M. S.; Gerrard, M.

    2015-12-01

    As the Arctic warms and shifts from icy white to watery blue and resource-rich, tension is arising between the desire to restore and sustain an ice-covered Arctic and stakeholder communities that hope to benefit from an open Arctic Ocean. If emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere continue on their present trend, most of the summer sea ice cover is projected to be gone by mid-century, i.e., by the time that few if any interventions could be in place to restore it. There are many local as well as global reasons for ice restoration, including for example, preserving the Arctic's reflectivity, sustaining critical habitat, and maintaining cultural traditions. However, due to challenges in implementing interventions, it may take decades before summer sea ice would begin to return. This means that future generations would be faced with bringing sea ice back into regions where they have not experienced it before. While there is likely to be interest in taking action to restore ice for the local, regional, and global services it provides, there is also interest in the economic advancement that open access brings. Dealing with these emerging issues and new combinations of stakeholders needs new approaches - yet environmental change in the Arctic is proceeding quickly and will force the issues sooner rather than later. In this contribution we examine challenges, opportunities, and responsibilities related to exploring options for restoring Arctic sea ice and potential pathways for their implementation. Negotiating responses involves international strategic considerations including security and governance, meaning that along with local communities, state decision-makers, and commercial interests, national governments will have to play central roles. While these issues are currently playing out in the Arctic, similar tensions are also emerging in other regions.

  9. Arctic Sea Level Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde

    method.For oceanographic purposes, the altimetric record over the Arctic Ocean is inferiorin quality to that of moderate latitudes, but nonetheless an invaluable set of observations. During this project, newly processed Arctic altimetry from the ERS-1/-2 and Envisat missions has become available......Reconstruction of historical Arctic sea level is very difficult due to the limited coverage and quality of tide gauge and altimetry data in the area. This thesis addresses many of these issues, and discusses strategies to help achieve a stable and plausible reconstruction of Arctic sea level from...... 1950 to today.The primary record of historical sea level, on the order of several decades to a few centuries, is tide gauges. Tide gauge records from around the world are collected in the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) database, and includes data along the Arctic coasts. A reasonable...

  10. Ice-Free Arctic Ocean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The current warming trends in the Arctic may shove the Arctic system into a seasonally ice-free state not seen for more than one million years, according to a new report. The melting is accelerating, and researchers were unable to identify any natural processes that might slow the deicing of the Arctic. "What really makes the Arctic different from…

  11. The Influence of Soil Characteristics on the Toxicity of Oil Refinery Waste for the Springtail Folsomia candida (Collembola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, Adriaan J; van Wyk, Mia; Reinecke, Sophie A

    2016-06-01

    We determined the toxicity of oil refinery waste in three soils using the springtail Folsomia candida (Collembola) in bioassays. Sublethal exposure to a concentration series of API-sludge presented EC50's for reproduction of 210 mg/kg in site soil; 880 mg/kg in LUFA2.2- and 3260 mg/kg in OECD-soil. The sludge was the least toxic in the OECD-soil with the highest clay and organic matter content, the highest maximum water holding capacity, and the least amount of sand. It was the most toxic in the reference site soil with the lowest organic matter content and highest sand content. The results emphasized the important role of soil characteristics such as texture and organic matter content in influencing toxicity, possibly by affecting bioavailability of toxicants. PMID:27048278

  12. Arctic Climate Systems Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivey, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robinson, David G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boslough, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Backus, George A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peterson, Kara J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); van Bloemen Waanders, Bart G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swiler, Laura Painton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Desilets, Darin Maurice [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reinert, Rhonda Karen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This study began with a challenge from program area managers at Sandia National Laboratories to technical staff in the energy, climate, and infrastructure security areas: apply a systems-level perspective to existing science and technology program areas in order to determine technology gaps, identify new technical capabilities at Sandia that could be applied to these areas, and identify opportunities for innovation. The Arctic was selected as one of these areas for systems level analyses, and this report documents the results. In this study, an emphasis was placed on the arctic atmosphere since Sandia has been active in atmospheric research in the Arctic since 1997. This study begins with a discussion of the challenges and benefits of analyzing the Arctic as a system. It goes on to discuss current and future needs of the defense, scientific, energy, and intelligence communities for more comprehensive data products related to the Arctic; assess the current state of atmospheric measurement resources available for the Arctic; and explain how the capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories can be used to address the identified technological, data, and modeling needs of the defense, scientific, energy, and intelligence communities for Arctic support.

  13. Arctic Shipping Emissions in the Changing Climate

    OpenAIRE

    Vihanninjoki, Vesa

    2014-01-01

    Due to the Arctic climate change and the related diminishing of Arctic sea ice cover, the general conditions for Arctic shipping are changing. The retreat of Arctic sea ice opens up new routes for maritime transportation, both trans-Arctic passages and new alternatives within the Arctic region. Hence the amount of Arctic shipping is presumed to increase. Despite the observed development, the sailing conditions in the Arctic waters will remain challenging. Thus particular attention will be ...

  14. Effects of ecological flooding on the temporal and spatial dynamics of carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae and springtails (Collembola in a polder habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Lessel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the scope of the Integrated Rhine Program an ecological flood gate and channel was inserted into the polder “Ingelheim” to enhance animal and plant diversity. In 2008, carabid beetles and springtails were collected, using pitfall traps, to measure the effects of ecological flooding and a strong precipitation event at a flood-disturbed and a dry location in this area. At both localities, xerophilic and mesophilic carabid beetle species were dominant throughout the study period. The total number of individuals of hygrophilic species was comparatively constant, while species number increased, partly due to the changed moisture conditions caused by ecological flooding and strong precipitation. Carabid beetle diversity and evenness decreased marginally when ecological flooding was absent. Springtails represent a less mobile arthropod order, and as such the impact of ecological flooding was stronger. An increase in both numbers of species and individuals of hygrophilic and hygrotolerant species occurred in the flood-disturbed location after ecological flooding. After the sites at both locations had dried, the number of individuals belonging to these species declined rapidly. In contrast to carabid species, the strong precipitation event showed no influence on hygrophilic springtail species. Thus, collembolan diversity and evenness decreased markedly in the absence of flooding. We showed that ecological flooding has an influence on the spatial and temporal dynamics of different arthropod groups that inhabit the polder “Ingelheim”. These findings demonstrate the importance of using different arthropod groups as bioindicators in determining the ecological value of a particular polder design.

  15. Effects of ecological flooding on the temporal and spatial dynamics of carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) and springtails (Collembola) in a polder habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessel, Tanja; Marx, Michael Thomas; Eisenbeis, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Within the scope of the Integrated Rhine Program an ecological flood gate and channel was inserted into the polder "Ingelheim" to enhance animal and plant diversity. In 2008, carabid beetles and springtails were collected, using pitfall traps, to measure the effects of ecological flooding and a strong precipitation event at a flood-disturbed and a dry location in this area. At both localities, xerophilic and mesophilic carabid beetle species were dominant throughout the study period. The total number of individuals of hygrophilic species was comparatively constant, while species number increased, partly due to the changed moisture conditions caused by ecological flooding and strong precipitation. Carabid beetle diversity and evenness decreased marginally when ecological flooding was absent. Springtails represent a less mobile arthropod order, and as such the impact of ecological flooding was stronger. An increase in both numbers of species and individuals of hygrophilic and hygrotolerant species occurred in the flood-disturbed location after ecological flooding. After the sites at both locations had dried, the number of individuals belonging to these species declined rapidly. In contrast to carabid species, the strong precipitation event showed no influence on hygrophilic springtail species. Thus, collembolan diversity and evenness decreased markedly in the absence of flooding. We showed that ecological flooding has an influence on the spatial and temporal dynamics of different arthropod groups that inhabit the polder "Ingelheim". These findings demonstrate the importance of using different arthropod groups as bioindicators in determining the ecological value of a particular polder design. PMID:21738425

  16. Arctic Bathymetry (batharcst)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The digitally compiled map includes geology, oil and gas field centerpoints, and geologic provinces of the Arctic (North Pole area encircled by 640 N Latitude). The...

  17. Arctic_Bathymetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Models project the Arctic Ocean will become undersaturated with respect to carbonate minerals in the next decade. Recent field results indicate parts may already be...

  18. Arctic Geology (geoarcst)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The digitally compiled map includes geology, oil and gas field centerpoints, and geologic provinces of the Arctic (North Pole area encircled by 640 N Latitude). The...

  19. Arctic survey, 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a survey and game patrol conducted to twelve villages in the Arctic from April 24 to May 2 1957. The report covers animals take for income...

  20. Arctic freshwater synthesis: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prowse, T.; Bring, A.; Mârd, J.; Carmack, E.

    2015-11-01

    In response to a joint request from the World Climate Research Program's Climate and Cryosphere Project, the International Arctic Science Committee, and the Arctic Council's Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program, an updated scientific assessment has been conducted of the Arctic Freshwater System (AFS), entitled the Arctic Freshwater Synthesis (AFSΣ). The major reason for joint request was an increasing concern that changes to the AFS have produced, and could produce even greater, changes to biogeophysical and socioeconomic systems of special importance to northern residents and also produce extra-Arctic climatic effects that will have global consequences. Hence, the key objective of the AFSΣ was to produce an updated, comprehensive, and integrated review of the structure and function of the entire AFS. The AFSΣ was organized around six key thematic areas: atmosphere, oceans, terrestrial hydrology, terrestrial ecology, resources and modeling, and the review of each coauthored by an international group of scientists and published as separate manuscripts in this special issue of Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences. This AFSΣ—Introduction reviews the motivations for, and foci of, previous studies of the AFS, discusses criteria used to define the domain of the AFS, and details key characteristics of the definition adopted for the AFSΣ.

  1. Arctic Rabies – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prestrud Pål

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Rabies seems to persist throughout most arctic regions, and the northern parts of Norway, Sweden and Finland, is the only part of the Arctic where rabies has not been diagnosed in recent time. The arctic fox is the main host, and the same arctic virus variant seems to infect the arctic fox throughout the range of this species. The epidemiology of rabies seems to have certain common characteristics in arctic regions, but main questions such as the maintenance and spread of the disease remains largely unknown. The virus has spread and initiated new epidemics also in other species such as the red fox and the racoon dog. Large land areas and cold climate complicate the control of the disease, but experimental oral vaccination of arctic foxes has been successful. This article summarises the current knowledge and the typical characteristics of arctic rabies including its distribution and epidemiology.

  2. More Arctic research needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan

    The desire to achieve a balance between Arctic and Antarctic study was the message of the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, which heard testimony on the need for more Arctic research on April 24. Ted Stevens (R-Alaska) noted that since 1986, study in the area has not increased as the National Science Foundation has claimed, but rather, owing to inflation, has merely kept pace. Robert Correll, assistant director of geosciences at NSF and chair of the Interagency Arctic Oceans Working Group, gave several reasons why the Arctic is an important area for study by the scientific community. Its unique environment, he said, makes it a natural laboratory. And due to its environmental sensitivity, it may provide one of the earliest indicators of global climate change. Also, its geographic location makes it a “window on space,” some of the world's largest mineral and petroleum resources are in the Arctic, and the region has great strategic and military importance.

  3. Simultaneous control of phenanthrene and drought by dual exposure system: the degree of synergistic interactions in springtails was exposure dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stine N; Holmstrup, Martin; Damgaard, Christian; Mayer, Philipp

    2014-08-19

    Organisms in the environment are exposed to multiple stressors. However, for terrestrial invertebrates, it remains difficult to study the effects of combined stressors under well-defined exposure conditions. Thus, the current study develops a new dual exposure system for the simultaneous and independent control of chemical and drought exposure in bioassays with terrestrial organisms: Passive dosing from silicone controlled the chemical activity of phenanthrene (chemical stress), while saline solutions controlled the water activity (drought stress) in the closed exposure system. The dual exposure system was then applied in a full factorial experiment with seven exposure levels (7(2)), which aimed at determining the combined effects of phenanthrene and drought on the survival of the terrestrial springtail Folsomia candida after 7 d exposure. Fitting an "independent action" model to the complete data set revealed statistically significant synergy between phenanthrene and drought (p < 0.0001). However, the degree of synergy was exposure dependent with some synergy at higher and only minor synergy at lower exposure levels. This emphasizes the need for taking exposure levels into account when extrapolating synergy observations from (eco)toxicological studies done at high exposure levels. PMID:24998522

  4. Effects of mercury on reproduction, avoidance, and heat shock protein gene expression of the soil springtail Folsomia candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Rong; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; Zhang, Li-Mei; Luan, Yun-Xia; He, Ji-Zheng

    2010-03-01

    Based on the Cambisols of Beijing (used as agricultural soils), toxicity tests were conducted to investigate the effects of mercury (Hg) on reproduction and avoidance of Folsomia candida (Hexapoda: Collembola), as well as the transcriptional responses of the hsp70 gene, under different Hg concentrations and at different exposure times. Results showed that the hsp70 gene of the springtail was the most sensitive parameter to soil Hg stress, with a half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 0.42 mg/kg. The EC50 values based on reproduction and avoidance tests were 9.29 and 3.88 mg/kg, respectively. The expression level of the hsp70 gene was significantly up-regulated when soil Hg concentration was over 0.25 mg/kg (lowest-observed-effect concentration [LOEC]). In addition, responses of this gene expression were strongly induced after 48 h exposure under 1 mg/kg soil Hg, which probably was due to the fast and sensitive response of the gene transcription to Hg stress. Thus, the results suggested that the responses of the hsp70 gene and individual-level effects (reproduction and avoidance) could be integrated to provide helpful information for environmental monitoring and assessment of contaminated soils. PMID:20821491

  5. Enhanced drought tolerance of a soil-dwelling springtail by pre-acclimation to a mild drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjursen, H; Bayley, M; Holmstrup, M

    2001-09-01

    The springtail Folsomia candida has a highly permeable cuticle, but is able to survive several weeks at 98.2%RH. This corresponds to a water potential deficit of about 17bars between the environment and the normal osmotic pressure of the body fluids of this animal. Recent studies have shown a water vapour absorption mechanism by accumulation of sugars and polyols (SP) in F. candida, which explains how this species can survive dehydrating conditions. In the present study, adult F. candida were pre-acclimated at 98.2%RH to induce the accumulation of SP, and were subsequently exposed for additional desiccating conditions from 98 to 94%RH. Activity level, water content, osmotic pressure of body fluids and SP composition were investigated. After the desiccation period, the animals were rehydrated at 100%RH and survival was assessed. The results showed that F. candida survived a more severe drought stress when it had been pre-acclimated to 98.2%RH before exposure to lower humidity. This species was able to maintain hyperosmosity to the surroundings at 95.5%RH, suggesting that it can absorb water vapour down to this limit. Below this limit, trehalose levels increased while myo-inositol levels decreased. We propose that this is a change of survival strategy where F. candida at mild desiccation levels seek to retain water by colligative means (remain hyperosmotic), but at severe desiccation levels switches to an anhydrobiotic strategy. PMID:11472765

  6. Arctic species resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lars O.; Forchhammer, Mads C.; Jeppesen, Erik

    The peak of biological activities in Arctic ecosystems is characterized by a relative short and intense period between the start of snowmelt until the onset of frost. Recent climate changes have induced larger seasonal variation in both timing of snowmelt as well as changes mean temperatures and ...... and resources. This poster will present the conceptual framework for this project focusing on species resilience......., an extensive monitoring program has been conducted in the North Eastern Greenland National Park, the Zackenberg Basic. The objective of the program is to provide long time series of data on the natural innate oscillations and plasticity of a High Arctic ecosystem. With offset in the data provided through...

  7. Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.;

    The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), the biodiversity working group of the Arctic Council, established the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP) to address the need for coordinated and standardized monitoring of Arctic environments. The CBMP includes an international...... on developing and implementing long-term plans for monitoring the integrity of Arctic biomes: terrestrial, marine, freshwater, and coastal (under development) environments. The CBMP Terrestrial Expert Monitoring Group (CBMP-TEMG) has developed the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan (CBMP......-Terrestrial Plan/the Plan) as the framework for coordinated, long-term Arctic terrestrial biodiversity monitoring. The goal of the CBMP-Terrestrial Plan is to improve the collective ability of Arctic traditional knowledge (TK) holders, northern communities, and scientists to detect, understand and report on long...

  8. The Arctic Circle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Siobhan

    2016-04-01

    My name is Siobhan McDonald. I am a visual artist living and working in Dublin. My studio is based in The School of Science at University College Dublin where I was Artist in Residence 2013-2015. A fascination with time and the changeable nature of landmass has led to ongoing conversations with scientists and research institutions across the interweaving disciplines of botany, biology and geology. I am developing a body of work following a recent research trip to the North Pole where I studied the disappearing landscape of the Arctic. Prompted by my experience of the Arctic shelf receding, this new work addresses issues of the instability of the earth's materiality. The work is grounded in an investigation of material processes, exploring the dynamic forces that transform matter and energy. This project combines art and science in a fascinating exploration of one of the Earth's last relatively untouched wilderness areas - the High Arctic to bring audiences on journeys to both real and artistically re-imagined Arctic spaces. CRYSTALLINE'S pivotal process is collaboration: with The European Space Agency; curator Helen Carey; palaeontologist Prof. Jenny McElwain, UCD; and with composer Irene Buckley. CRYSTALLINE explores our desire to make corporeal contact with geological phenomena in Polar Regions. From January 2016, in my collaboration with Jenny McElwain, I will focus on the study of plants and atmospheres from the Arctic regions as far back as 400 million years ago, to explore the essential 'nature' that, invisible to the eye, acts as imaginary portholes into other times. This work will be informed by my arctic tracings of sounds and images recorded in the glaciers of this disappearing frozen landscape. In doing so, the urgencies around the tipping of natural balances in this fragile region will be revealed. The final work will emerge from my forthcoming residency at the ESA in spring 2016. Here I will conduct a series of workshops in ESA Madrid to work with

  9. Ecotoxicity of two organophosphorus flame retardants to soil springtails%两种有机磷阻燃剂对土壤跳虫的生态毒性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张偲; 乔敏; 徐玉新

    2013-01-01

    Ecotoxicity of two kinds of organophosphorus flame retardants ( OFRs) including ODOPB and SBDP was assessed through survival, reproduction, avoidance tests of springtails ( Folsomia Candida). Results showed that the LC50 values of both ODOPB and SBDP in acute toxicity test were more than 1000 mg·kg-1. The EC50 values in chronic reproduction toxicity test were 25.9 and 50. 8 mg·kg"'for ODOPB and SBDP, respectively. In addition, the EC50 values of ODOPB and SBDP on avoidance behavior of springtails were 1. 8 mg · kg-1 and 1.9 mg·kg-1. Compared with the results of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), both ODOPB and SBDP have little acute toxicity on survival of springtails. Their toxicity on avoidance behavior and reproduction of springtails were also lower than that of BDE-209, indicating ODOPB and SBDP have lower potential ecological risk than BDE-209.%利用土壤模式动物跳虫(Folsomia candida)的生态毒性实验,评价了两种有机磷阻燃剂邻磷杂菲基对苯二酚(ODOPB)与高分子双酚A四苯基双磷酸酯(SBDP)的生态毒性.结果表明,ODOPB与SBDP对跳虫急性毒性的LC50(7 d)均大于1000 mg·kg-1,慢性毒性的EC50 (28 d)分别为25.9和50.8 mg· kg-1,而跳虫对ODOPB与SBDP的回避行为的EC50分别为1.9 mg· kg-1和1.8 mg·kg-1.通过与本实验室十溴联苯醚(Decabromodiphenyl ether,BDE-209)生态毒性的研究结果比较发现,两种有机磷阻燃剂对跳虫的急性毒性作用很小,对跳虫回避行为和繁殖的影响也均小于BDE-209,产生潜在生态风险的可能性小于BDE-209.

  10. Passive dosing of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures to terrestrial springtails: Linking mixture toxicity to chemical activities, equilibrium lipid concentrations, and toxic units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Stine Nørgaard; Holmstrup, Martin; Smith, Kilian E. C.;

    2013-01-01

    treatments, containing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. Springtail lethality was then linked to sum chemical activities (∑a), sum equilibrium lipid concentrations (∑Clipid eq.), and sum toxic units (∑TU). In each case, the effects of all 12 mixture treatments...... could be fitted to one sigmoidal exposure-response relationship. The effective lethal chemical activity (La50) of 0.027 was well within the expected range for baseline toxicity of 0.01-0.1. Linking the effects to the lipid-based exposure parameter yielded an effective lethal concentration (LClipid eq...

  11. Some discussions on Arctic vortex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hai; Sun Lantao; Wu Huiding; Li Xiang

    2006-01-01

    The Arctic vortex is a persistent large-scale cyclonic circulation in the middle and upper troposphere and the stratosphere. Its activity and variation control the semi-permanent active centers of Pan-Arctic and the short-time cyclone activity in the subarctic areas. Its strength variation, which directly relates to the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice and ecosystem of the Arctic, can affect the lower atmospheric circulation, the weather of subarctic area and even the weather of middle latitude areas. The 2003 Chinese Second Arctic Research Expedition experienced the transition of the stratosphereic circulation from a warm anticyclone to a cold cyclone during the ending period of Arctic summertime, a typical establishing process of the polar vortex circulation. The impact of the polar vortex variation on the low-level circulation has been investigated by some scientists through studying the coupling mechanisms of the stratosphere and troposphere. The impact of the Stratospheric Sudden Warming (SFW) events on the polar vortex variation was drawing people's great attention in the fifties of the last century. The Arctic Oscillation (AO) , relating to the variation of the Arctic vortex, has been used to study the impact of the Arctic vortex on climate change. The recent Arctic vortex studies are simply reviewed and some discussions on the Arctic vertex are given in the paper. Some different views and questions are also discussed.

  12. Effects of soil type, prepercolation, and ageing on bioaccumulation and toxicity of zinc for the springtail Folsomia candida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, C.E.; Van Gestel, C.A.M. [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Ecology and Ecotoxicology

    1998-06-01

    Soil properties are a major influence on the bioavailability and toxicity of metals and represent one of the important factors that complicate the extrapolation of results from laboratory tests to field situations. The influence of soil characteristics and way of contamination on the bioaccumulation and toxicity of zinc was investigated for the springtail Folsomia candida, and the applicability of chemical extraction techniques for the prediction of zinc uptake and toxicity was evaluated. Bioaccumulation of zinc in F. candida was related to water-soluble zinc concentrations, and uptake was dependent on the test soil used. Effects of zinc for F. candida could not be fully explained by bioaccumulation. This indicates that the existence of a fixed internal threshold concentration of zinc above which physiological functions are impaired is not likely for F. candida. In freshly contaminated soils, zinc toxicity was related to organic matter and clay content of the soil; however, the use of these soils overestimated the effects of zinc for F. candida by a factor of 5 to 8 compared to a test soil that was subjected to ageing under field conditions for 1.5 years. Equilibration of the zinc contamination by percolating the soils with water before use in the toxicity experiment strongly reduced the difference in zinc toxicity between laboratory-treated and aged soils. Water-soluble concentrations are most appropriate to predict effects of zinc on reproduction of F. candida in soils with unknown contamination histories. For laboratory toxicity tests, it is recommended to percolate soils with water after contamination and to include an equilibration period prior to use to achieve a more realistic exposure situation.

  13. Arctic River organic matter transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Peter; Gustafsson, Orjan; Vonk, Jorien; Spencer, Robert; McClelland, Jim

    2016-04-01

    Arctic Rivers have unique hydrology and biogeochemistry. They also have a large impact on the Arctic Ocean due to the large amount of riverine inflow and small ocean volume. With respect to organic matter, their influence is magnified by the large stores of soil carbon and distinct soil hydrology. Here we present a recap of what is known of Arctic River organic matter transport. We will present a summary of what is known of the ages and sources of Arctic River dissolved and particulate organic matter. We will also discuss the current status of what is known about changes in riverine organic matter export due to global change.

  14. Molecular and biochemical characterizations of a novel arthropod endo-beta-1,3-glucanase from the Antarctic springtail, Cryptopygus antarcticus, horizontally acquired from bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jung Min; Nam, Kiwoong; Sun, Young-Uk; Kang, Mee Hye; Kim, Choong-Gon; Kwon, Suk-Tae; Lee, Jehee; Lee, Youn-Ho

    2010-04-01

    Collembolan species have been known to have beta-1,3-glucanase activity and yet the genes coding such enzymes have not been demonstrated. We report here a novel arthropod endo-beta-1,3-glucanase gene CaLam from the Antarctic springtail, Cryptopygus antarcticus. The open reading frame consists of 813bp encoding 270 amino acids with a putative signal peptide and a typical motif of glycosyl hydrolase family 16 (GHF16), E-I-D-I-T-E. The recombinant protein expressed in E. coli shows the hydrolytic activity toward laminarin (K(m) approximately 9.98mg/mL) with an optimal temperature 50 degrees C and an optimal pH 6.0. CaLam digests laminarin and laminarioligosaccharides except laminaribiose as an endo-beta-1,3-glucanase, releasing glucose, laminaribiose and laminaritriose as the major products. Analyses of molecular phylogeny of CaLam and its protein structure reveal that CaLam is closely related with bacterial beta-1,3-glucanases more than with the eukaryotic homologues. Even so, the genomic structure of the CaLam gene consisting of six exons interspersed with approximately 57 to 63bp introns confirms that it is endogenous in the genome of the Antarctic springtail. These results suggest that CaLam should have been transferred from bacteria to the lineage of the Collembolan species by horizontal gene transfer. PMID:20079869

  15. Passive dosing of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures to terrestrial springtails: linking mixture toxicity to chemical activities, equilibrium lipid concentrations, and toxic units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stine N; Holmstrup, Martin; Smith, Kilian E C; Mayer, Philipp

    2013-07-01

    A 7-day mixture toxicity experiment with the terrestrial springtail Folsomia candida was conducted, and the effects were linked to three different mixture exposure parameters. Passive dosing from silicone was applied to tightly control exposure levels and compositions of 12 mixture treatments, containing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. Springtail lethality was then linked to sum chemical activities (∑a), sum equilibrium lipid concentrations (∑C(lipid eq.)), and sum toxic units (∑TU). In each case, the effects of all 12 mixture treatments could be fitted to one sigmoidal exposure-response relationship. The effective lethal chemical activity (La50) of 0.027 was well within the expected range for baseline toxicity of 0.01-0.1. Linking the effects to the lipid-based exposure parameter yielded an effective lethal concentration (LC(lipid eq 50)) of 133 mmol kg(-1) lipid in good correspondence with the lethal membrane burden for baseline toxicity (40-160 mmol kg(-1) lipid). Finally, the effective lethal toxic unit (LTU50) of 1.20 was rather close to the expected value of 1. Altogether, passive dosing provided tightly controlled mixture exposure in terms of both level and composition, while ∑a, ∑C(lipid eq.), and ∑TU allowed baseline toxicity to be linked to mixture exposure. PMID:23473585

  16. The Arctic Circle Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Colomo, F

    2007-01-01

    The problem of limit shapes in the six-vertex model with domain wall boundary conditions is addressed by considering a specially tailored bulk correlation function, the emptiness formation probability. A closed expression of this correlation function is given, both in terms of certain determinant and multiple integral, which allows for a systematic treatment of the limit shapes of the model for full range of values of vertex weights. Specifically, we show that for vertex weights corresponding to the free-fermion line on the phase diagram, the emptiness formation probability is related to a one-matrix model with a triple logarithmic singularity, or Triple Penner model. The saddle-point analysis of this model leads to the Arctic Circle Theorem, and its generalization to the Arctic Ellipses, known previously from domino tilings.

  17. Summer Arctic sea fog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Synchronous or quasi-synchronous sea-land-air observations were conducted using advanced sea ice, atmospheric and marine instruments during China' s First Arctic Expedition. Based on the Precious data from the expedition, it was found that in the Arctic Ocean, most part of which is covered with ice or is mixed with ice, various kinds of sea fog formed such as advection fog, radiation fog and vapor fog. Each kind has its own characteristic and mechanics of creation. In the southern part of the Arctic Ocean, due to the sufficient warm and wet flow there, it is favorable for advection fog to form,which is dense and lasts a long time. On ice cap or vast floating ice, due to the strong radiation cooling effect, stable radiating fog is likely to form. In floating ice area there forms vapor fog with the appearance of masses of vapor from a boiling pot, which is different from short-lasting land fog. The study indicates that the reason why there are many kinds of sea fog form in the Arctic Ocean is because of the complicated cushion and the consequent sea-air interaction caused by the sea ice distribution and its unique physical characteristics. Sea fog is the atmospheric phenomenon of sea-air heat exchange. Especially, due to the high albedo of ice and snow surface, it is diffcult to absorb great amount of solar radiation during the polar days. Besides, ice is a poor conductor of heat; it blocks the sea-air heat exchange.The sea-air exchange is active in floating ice area where the ice is broken. The sea sends heat to the atmosphere in form of latent heat; vapor fog is a way of sea-air heat exchange influencing the climate and an indicator of the extent of the exchange. The study also indicates that the sea also transports heat to the atmosphere in form of sensible heat when vapor fog occurs.

  18. Disparities in Arctic Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-02-04

    Life at the top of the globe is drastically different. Harsh climate devoid of sunlight part of the year, pockets of extreme poverty, and lack of physical infrastructure interfere with healthcare and public health services. Learn about the challenges of people in the Arctic and how research and the International Polar Year address them.  Created: 2/4/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 2/20/2008.

  19. Mining in the European Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Kim; Scheepstra, Annette; Gille, Johan; Stępień, Adam; Koivurova, Timo

    2014-01-01

    The European Arctic is currently experiencing an upsurge in mining activities, but future developments will be highly sensitive to mineral price fluctuations. The EU is a major consumer and importer of Arctic raw materials. As the EU is concerned about the security of supply, it encourages domestic

  20. AMAP Assessment 2013: Arctic Ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This assessment report presents the results of the 2013 AMAP Assessment of Arctic Ocean Acidification (AOA). This is the first such assessment dealing with AOA from an Arctic-wide perspective, and complements several assessments that AMAP has delivered over the past ten years concerning the effects of climate change on Arctic ecosystems and people. The Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) is a group working under the Arctic Council. The Arctic Council Ministers have requested AMAP to: - produce integrated assessment reports on the status and trends of the conditions of the Arctic ecosystems;

  1. Arctic Submarine Slope Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, D.; Geissler, W.

    2010-12-01

    Submarine landsliding represents aside submarine earthquakes major natural hazard to coastal and sea-floor infrastructure as well as to coastal communities due to their ability to generate large-scale tsunamis with their socio-economic consequences. The investigation of submarine landslides, their conditions and trigger mechanisms, recurrence rates and potential impact remains an important task for the evaluation of risks in coastal management and offshore industrial activities. In the light of a changing globe with warming oceans and rising sea-level accompanied by increasing human population along coasts and enhanced near- and offshore activities, slope stability issues gain more importance than ever before. The Arctic exhibits the most rapid and drastic changes and is predicted to change even faster. Aside rising air temperatures, enhanced inflow of less cooled Atlantic water into the Arctic Ocean reduces sea-ice cover and warms the surroundings. Slope stability is challenged considering large areas of permafrost and hydrates. The Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide (HYM) north of Svalbard is the first and so far only reported large-scale submarine landslide in the Arctic Ocean. The HYM exhibits the highest headwalls that have been found on siliciclastic margins. With more than 10.000 square kilometer areal extent and app. 2.400 cubic kilometer of involved sedimentary material, it is one of the largest exposed submarine slides worldwide. Geometry and age put this slide in a special position in discussing submarine slope stability on glaciated continental margins. The HYM occurred 30 ka ago, when the global sea-level dropped by app. 50 m within less than one millennium due to rapid onset of global glaciation. It probably caused a tsunami with circum-Arctic impact and wave heights exceeding 130 meters. The HYM affected the slope stability field in its neighbourhood by removal of support. Post-megaslide slope instability as expressed in creeping and smaller-scaled slides are

  2. a New Japanese Project for Arctic Climate Change Research - Grene Arctic - (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, H.

    2013-12-01

    A new Arctic Climate Change Research Project 'Rapid Change of the Arctic Climate System and its Global Influences' has started in 2011 for a five years project. GRENE-Arctic project is an initiative of Arctic study by more than 30 Japanese universities and institutes as the flame work of GRENE (Green Network of Excellence) of MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan). The GRENE-Arctic project set four strategic research targets: 1. Understanding the mechanism of warming amplification in the Arctic 2. Understanding the Arctic system for global climate and future change 3. Evaluation of the effects of Arctic change on weather in Japan, marine ecosystems and fisheries 4. Prediction of sea Ice distribution and Arctic sea routes This project aims to realize the strategic research targets by executing following studies: -Improvement of coupled general circulation models based on validations of the Arctic climate reproducibility and on mechanism analyses of the Arctic climate change and variability -The role of Arctic cryosphere in the global change -Change in terrestrial ecosystem of pan-Arctic and its effect on climate -Studies on greenhouse gas cycles in the Arctic and their responses to climate change -Atmospheric studies on Arctic change and its global impacts -Ecosystem studies of the Arctic ocean declining Sea ice -Projection of Arctic Sea ice responding to availability of Arctic sea route (* ** ***) *Changes in the Arctic ocean and mechanisms on catastrophic reduction of Arctic sea ice cover **Coordinated observational and modeling studies on the basic structure and variability of the Arctic sea ice-ocean system ***Sea ice prediction and construction of ice navigation support system for the Arctic sea route. Although GRENE Arctic project aims to product scientific contribution in a concentrated program during 2011-2016, Japanese Arctic research community established Japan Consortium for Arctic Environmental Research (JCAR) in May

  3. Arctic charr farming

    OpenAIRE

    Brännäs, Eva; Larsson, Stefan; Saether, Björn Steinar; Siikavuopio, Sten Ivar; Thorarensen, Helgi; Sigurgeirsson, Ólafur; Jeuthe, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus L.) is a holarctic salmonid fish species with both landlocked and anadromous populations. In Scandinavia it is mainly found in the mountain area, but it also appears in deep and large lake further south, i.e. in the Alps. It is the northernmost freshwater fish and A. charr is generally regarded as the most cold-adapted freshwater fish. A. charr has been commercially farmed since the early 90ths and today, the total production is 3000, 2300 and 700 tonnes/y...

  4. Research with Arctic peoples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, H Sally; Bjerregaard, Peter; Chan, Hing Man;

    2006-01-01

    entitled "Research with Arctic Peoples: Unique Research Opportunities in Heart, Lung, Blood and Sleep Disorders". The meeting was international in scope with investigators from Greenland, Iceland and Russia, as well as Canada and the United States. Multiple health agencies from Canada and the United States...... sent representatives. Also attending were representatives from the International Union for Circumpolar Health (IUCH) and the National Indian Health Board. The working group developed a set of ten recommendations related to research opportunities in heart, lung, blood and sleep disorders; obstacles...

  5. State of the Arctic Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Arctic environment, covering about 21 million km2, is in this connection regarded as the area north of the Arctic Circle. General biological and physical features of the terrestrial and freshwater environments of the Arctic are briefly described, but most effort is put into a description of the marine part which constitutes about two-thirds of the total Arctic environment. General oceanography and morphological characteristics are included; e.g. that the continental shelf surrounding the Arctic deep water basins covers approximately 36% of the surface areas of Arctic waters, but contains only 2% of the total water masses. Blowout accident may release thousands of tons of oil per day and last for months. They occur statistically very seldom, but the magnitude underlines the necessity of an efficient oil spill contingency as well as sound safety and quality assurance procedures. Contingency plans should be coordinated and regularly evaluated through simulated and practical tests of performance. Arctic conditions demand alternative measures compared to those otherwise used for oil spill prevention and clean-up. New concepts or optimization of existing mechanical equipment is necessary. Chemical and thermal methods should be evaluated for efficiency and possible environmental effects. Both due to regular discharges of oil contaminated drilled cuttings and the possibility of a blowout or other spills, drilling operations in biological sensitive areas may be regulated to take place only during the less sensitive parts of the year. 122 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs

  6. Metal immobilization and soil amendment efficiency at a contaminated sediment landfill site: a field study focusing on plants, springtails, and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, Valérie; Lors, Christine; Ponge, Jean-François; Caron, Lucie; Biaz, Asmaa; Dazy, Marc; Masfaraud, Jean-François

    2012-10-01

    Metal immobilization may contribute to the environmental management strategy of dredged sediment landfill sites contaminated by metals. In a field experiment, amendment effects and efficiency were investigated, focusing on plants, springtails and bacteria colonisation, metal extractability and sediment ecotoxicity. Conversely to hydroxylapatite (HA, 3% DW), the addition of Thomas Basic Slag (TBS, 5% DW) to a 5-yr deposited sediment contaminated with Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb and As resulted in a decrease in the 0.01 M Ca(NO(3))(2)-extractable concentrations of Cd and Zn. Shoot Cd and Zn concentration in Calamagrostis epigejos, the dominant plant species, also decreased in the presence of TBS. The addition of TBS and HA reduced sediment ecotoxicity and improved the growth of the total bacterial population. Hydroxylapatite improved plant species richness and diversity and decreased antioxidant enzymes in C. Epigejos and Urtica dïoica. Collembolan communities did not differ in abundance and diversity between the different treatments. PMID:22647548

  7. New species of springtails in the Proisotoma genus complex from Vermont and New York, USA with descriptive notes on Ballistura alpa Christiansen & Bellinger 1980 (Hexapoda, Collembola, Isotomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Adames, Felipe N; Giordano, Rosanna

    2011-01-01

    Three new species of Isotomidae springtails are described from the Lake Champlain Basin (Vermont and New York, USA), Lake Willoughby and Greater Averril Pond in Vermont. Subisotoma joyceisp. n. and Scutisotoma champisp. n. were collected in sandy beaches whereas Ballistura rossisp. n. was found only in a constructed wetland built and managed by the University of Vermont. Scutisotoma champisp. n. was found in Lakes Champlain and Willoughby, and Greater Averril Pond and is probably present in most lakes and large ponds in the area. Subisotoma joyceisp. n. was found only along the southern and eastern coast of South Hero, and the mainland coast facing eastern South Hero. Ballistura alpa is redescribed and transferred to the genus Pachyotoma based on the absence of tibiotarsal seta B4/B5, the presence of secondary cuticular granules, 4 prelabral setae, a full complement of guard setae on labial papilla E and in having a bifurcate outer maxillary lobe with 4 sublobal setae. PMID:22371662

  8. Metal immobilization and soil amendment efficiency at a contaminated sediment landfill site: a field study focusing on plants, springtails, and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, Valérie; Lors, Christine; Ponge, Jean-François; Caron, Lucie; Biaz, Asmaa; Dazy, Marc; Masfaraud, Jean-François

    2012-10-01

    Metal immobilization may contribute to the environmental management strategy of dredged sediment landfill sites contaminated by metals. In a field experiment, amendment effects and efficiency were investigated, focusing on plants, springtails and bacteria colonisation, metal extractability and sediment ecotoxicity. Conversely to hydroxylapatite (HA, 3% DW), the addition of Thomas Basic Slag (TBS, 5% DW) to a 5-yr deposited sediment contaminated with Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb and As resulted in a decrease in the 0.01 M Ca(NO(3))(2)-extractable concentrations of Cd and Zn. Shoot Cd and Zn concentration in Calamagrostis epigejos, the dominant plant species, also decreased in the presence of TBS. The addition of TBS and HA reduced sediment ecotoxicity and improved the growth of the total bacterial population. Hydroxylapatite improved plant species richness and diversity and decreased antioxidant enzymes in C. Epigejos and Urtica dïoica. Collembolan communities did not differ in abundance and diversity between the different treatments.

  9. SCICEX: Submarine Arctic Science Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submarine Arctic Science Program, SCICEX, is a federal interagency collaboration among the operational Navy, research agencies, and the marine research...

  10. Development of arctic wind technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M.; Antikainen, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The climatic conditions of Lapland set special technical requirements for wind power production. The most difficult problem regarding wind power production in arctic regions is the build-up of hard and rime ice on structures of the machine

  11. Acquatorialities of the Arctic Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2013-01-01

    In order to describe the Arctic system I propose using a concept functionally equivalent to territoriality, namely aquatoriality. Whether communicating about territoriality or aquatoriality, concepts and delimitations are both contingent to forms of communication systems. I will distinguish betwe...

  12. Mechanism of seasonal Arctic sea ice evolution and Arctic amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang-Yul; Hamlington, Benjamin D.; Na, Hanna; Kim, Jinju

    2016-09-01

    Sea ice loss is proposed as a primary reason for the Arctic amplification, although the physical mechanism of the Arctic amplification and its connection with sea ice melting is still in debate. In the present study, monthly ERA-Interim reanalysis data are analyzed via cyclostationary empirical orthogonal function analysis to understand the seasonal mechanism of sea ice loss in the Arctic Ocean and the Arctic amplification. While sea ice loss is widespread over much of the perimeter of the Arctic Ocean in summer, sea ice remains thin in winter only in the Barents-Kara seas. Excessive turbulent heat flux through the sea surface exposed to air due to sea ice reduction warms the atmospheric column. Warmer air increases the downward longwave radiation and subsequently surface air temperature, which facilitates sea surface remains to be free of ice. This positive feedback mechanism is not clearly observed in the Laptev, East Siberian, Chukchi, and Beaufort seas, since sea ice refreezes in late fall (November) before excessive turbulent heat flux is available for warming the atmospheric column in winter. A detailed seasonal heat budget is presented in order to understand specific differences between the Barents-Kara seas and Laptev, East Siberian, Chukchi, and Beaufort seas.

  13. Time varying arctic climate change amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chylek, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dubey, Manvendra K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lesins, Glen [DALLHOUSIE U; Wang, Muyin [NOAA/JISAO

    2009-01-01

    During the past 130 years the global mean surface air temperature has risen by about 0.75 K. Due to feedbacks -- including the snow/ice albedo feedback -- the warming in the Arctic is expected to proceed at a faster rate than the global average. Climate model simulations suggest that this Arctic amplification produces warming that is two to three times larger than the global mean. Understanding the Arctic amplification is essential for projections of future Arctic climate including sea ice extent and melting of the Greenland ice sheet. We use the temperature records from the Arctic stations to show that (a) the Arctic amplification is larger at latitudes above 700 N compared to those within 64-70oN belt, and that, surprisingly; (b) the ratio of the Arctic to global rate of temperature change is not constant but varies on the decadal timescale. This time dependence will affect future projections of climate changes in the Arctic.

  14. History of sea ice in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyak, Leonid; Alley, Richard B.; Andrews, John T.;

    2010-01-01

    Arctic sea-ice extent and volume are declining rapidly. Several studies project that the Arctic Ocean may become seasonally ice-free by the year 2040 or even earlier. Putting this into perspective requires information on the history of Arctic sea-ice conditions through the geologic past. This inf......Arctic sea-ice extent and volume are declining rapidly. Several studies project that the Arctic Ocean may become seasonally ice-free by the year 2040 or even earlier. Putting this into perspective requires information on the history of Arctic sea-ice conditions through the geologic past....... This information can be provided by proxy records fromthe Arctic Ocean floor and from the surrounding coasts. Although existing records are far from complete, they indicate that sea ice became a feature of the Arctic by 47 Ma, following a pronounced decline in atmospheric pCO2 after the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal...

  15. The Arctic policy of China and Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki

    2014-01-01

    At the May 2013 Arctic Council Ministerial Meeting, five Asian states, namely China, Japan, India, Singapore and South Korea, were accepted to become new Permanent Observers at the Arctic Council. Nonetheless, little attention has been paid to the Asian states and their interest in the Arctic. Most...... discussions have focused on China and the assessment of China’s interest in the Arctic is divided. This paper attempts to fill this gap by presenting and comparing the various components of the Arctic policies of China and Japan. Referring to Putnam’s model of the “two-level game” and Young’s categorization...... of Arctic stakeholders’ interests, data from policy documents and interviews with relevant stakeholders were analysed. This analysis shows the Chinese and Japanese governments are in the gradual process of consolidating their Arctic policies, but both China and Japan see the Arctic less as a strategically...

  16. In Brief: Arctic Report Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-11-01

    The 2009 annual update of the Arctic Report Card, issued on 22 October, indicates that “warming of the Arctic continues to be widespread, and in some cases dramatic. Linkages between air, land, sea, and biology are evident.” The report, a collaborative effort of 71 national and international scientists initiated in 2006 by the Climate Program Office of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), highlights several concerns, including a change in large-scale wind patterns affected by the loss of summer sea ice; the replacement of multiyear sea ice by first-year sea ice; warmer and fresher water in the upper ocean linked to new ice-free areas; and the effects of the loss of sea ice on Arctic plant, animal, and fish species. “Climate change is happening faster in the Arctic than any other place on Earth-and with wide-ranging consequences,” said NOAA administrator Jane Lubchenco. “This year“s Arctic Report Card underscores the urgency of reducing greenhouse gas pollution and adapting to climate changes already under way.”

  17. Arctic Landscape Within Reach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image, one of the first captured by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander, shows flat ground strewn with tiny pebbles and marked by small-scale polygonal cracking, a pattern seen widely in Martian high latitudes and also observed in permafrost terrains on Earth. The polygonal cracking is believed to have resulted from seasonal contraction and expansion of surface ice. Phoenix touched down on the Red Planet at 4:53 p.m. Pacific Time (7:53 p.m. Eastern Time), May 25, 2008, in an arctic region called Vastitas Borealis, at 68 degrees north latitude, 234 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired at the Phoenix landing site by the Surface Stereo Imager on day 1 of the mission on the surface of Mars, or Sol 0, after the May 25, 2008, landing. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Environmental radioactivity in the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference considered several broad themes: (1) assessment of releases from landbased sources and river transport, (2) assessment of dumping of nuclear waste, (3) arctic radioecology, (4) assessment of impacts of nuclear explosions and accidents, (5) nuclear safety and consequences of nuclear accidents in the arctic, and (6) waste management. The presentations demonstrated that current levels of radioactivity in the Arctic are generally low. The two most important sources are global fallout from the nuclear weapons tests of the 1950's and 1960's, and discharges to the sea from reprocessing plants in Western Europe which are transported northward by prevailing currents. The conference was attended by scientists from 17 countries and served as a forum for collection and dissemination of information on the range of themes and described above. It is hoped that this will serve to increase awareness of areas of uncertainty and act as a stimulus to further research

  19. Circum-Arctic Map Compilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltus, Richard W.; Gaina, Carmen

    2007-05-01

    Second Workshop of the Circum-Arctic Geophysical Maps Project, Trondheim, Norway, 12-13 February 2007 The eyes of the world are increasingly focused on the polar regions. Exploration and assessment of energy and mineral resources for the growing world economy are moving to high-latitude frontier areas. The effects of climatic changes are particularly pronounced at these ends of the Earth and have already attracted worldwide attention and concern. Many recent articles related to the International Polar Year underscore the importance of even basic mapping of the Arctic and Antarctic.

  20. Arctic Glass: Innovative Consumer Technology in Support of Arctic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthkoski, T.

    2015-12-01

    The advancement of cyberinfrastructure on the North Slope of Alaska is drastically limited by location-specific conditions, including: unique geophysical features, remoteness of location, and harsh climate. The associated cost of maintaining this unique cyberinfrastructure also becomes a limiting factor. As a result, field experiments conducted in this region have historically been at a technological disadvantage. The Arctic Glass project explored a variety of scenarios where innovative consumer-grade technology was leveraged as a lightweight, rapidly deployable, sustainable, alternatives to traditional large-scale Arctic cyberinfrastructure installations. Google Glass, cloud computing services, Internet of Things (IoT) microcontrollers, miniature LIDAR, co2 sensors designed for HVAC systems, and portable network kits are several of the components field-tested at the Toolik Field Station as part of this project. Region-specific software was also developed, including a multi featured, voice controlled Google Glass application named "Arctic Glass". Additionally, real-time sensor monitoring and remote control capability was evaluated through the deployment of a small cluster of microcontroller devices. Network robustness was analyzed as the devices delivered streams of abiotic data to a web-based dashboard monitoring service in near real time. The same data was also uploaded synchronously by the devices to Amazon Web Services. A detailed overview of solutions deployed during the 2015 field season, results from experiments utilizing consumer sensors, and potential roles consumer technology could play in support of Arctic science will be discussed.

  1. New species of springtails in the Proisotoma genus complex from Vermont and New York, USA with descriptive notes on Ballistura alpa Christiansen & Bellinger 1980 (Hexapoda, Collembola, Isotomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Soto-Adames

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of isotomid springtails are described from the Lake Champlain Basin (Vermont and New York, USA, Lake Willoughby and Greater Averril Pond in Vermont. Subisotoma joycei sp. n. and Scutisotoma champi sp. n. were collected in sandy beaches whereas Ballistura rossi sp. n. was found only in a constructed wetland built and managed by the University of Vermont. Scutisotoma champi sp. n. was found in Lakes Champlain and Willoughby, and Greater Averril Pond and is probably present in most lakes and large ponds in the area. Subisotoma joycei sp. n. was found only along the southern and eastern coast of South Hero, and the mainland coast facing eastern South Hero. Ballistura alpa Christiansen & Bellinger is redescribed and transferred to the genus Pachyotoma based on the absence of tibiotarsal seta B4/B5, the presence of secondary cuticular granules, 4 prelabral setae, a full complement of guard setae on labial papilla E and ina bifurcate outer maxillary lobe with 4 sublobal setae.

  2. The influence of long-term copper contaminated agricultural soil at different pH levels on microbial communities and springtail transcriptional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Tjalf E; Taş, Neslihan; Braster, Martin; Temminghoff, Erwin J M; Röling, Wilfred F M; Roelofs, Dick

    2012-01-01

    Copper has long been applied for agricultural practises. Like other metals, copper is highly persistent in the environment and biologically active long after its use has ceased. Here we present a unique study on the long-term effects (27 years) of copper and pH on soil microbial communities and on the springtail Folsomia candida an important representative of the soil macrofauna, in an experiment with a full factorial, random block design. Bacterial communities were mostly affected by pH. These effects were prominent in Acidobacteria, while Actinobacteria and Gammaroteobacteria communities were affected by original and bioavailable copper. Reproduction and survival of the collembolan F. candida was not affected by the studied copper concentrations. However, the transcriptomic responses to copper reflected a mechanism of copper transport and detoxification, while pH exerted effects on nucleotide and protein metabolism and (acute) inflammatory response. We conclude that microbial community structure reflected the history of copper contamination, while gene expression analysis of F. candida is associated with the current level of bioavailable copper. The study is a first step in the development of a molecular strategy aiming at a more comprehensive assessment of various aspects of soil quality and ecotoxicology. PMID:21882881

  3. Mining in the European Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Karin; Scheepstra, Adriana; Gille, Johan; Stepien, Adam; Koivurova, Timo; Stepien, Adam; Koivurova, Timo; Kankaanpää, Paula

    2016-01-01

    The European Arctic has been recently experiencing an upsurge in mining activities. This is reflected in an on-going interest from the industry, regulators and the public. However, current and future prospects are highly sensitive to mineral price fluctuations. The EU is a major consumer and importe

  4. Geologic Provinces of the Circum-Arctic, 2008 (north of the Arctic Circle)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile includes arcs and polygons that describe U.S. Geological Survey defined 33 geologic provinces of the Circum-Arctic (north of the Arctic Circle). Each...

  5. Strategic metal deposits of the Arctic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortnikov, N. S.; Lobanov, K. V.; Volkov, A. V.; Galyamov, A. L.; Vikent'ev, I. V.; Tarasov, N. N.; Distler, V. V.; Lalomov, A. V.; Aristov, V. V.; Murashov, K. Yu.; Chizhova, I. A.; Chefranov, R. M.

    2015-11-01

    Mineral commodities rank high in the economies of Arctic countries, and the status of mineral resources and the dynamics of their development are of great importance. The growing tendency to develop strategic metal resources in the Circumarctic Zone is outlined in a global perspective. The Russian Arctic Zone is the leading purveyor of these metals to domestic and foreign markets. The comparative analysis of tendencies in development of strategic metal resources of the Arctic Zone in Russia and other countries is crucial for the elaboration of trends of geological exploration and research engineering. This paper provides insight into the development of Arctic strategic metal resources in global perspective. It is shown that the mineral resource potential of the Arctic circumpolar metallogenic belt is primarily controlled by large and unique deposits of nonferrous, noble, and rare metals. The prospective types of economic strategic metal deposits in the Russian Arctic Zone are shown.

  6. Evolution of the Arctic Calanus complex: an Arctic marine avocado?

    OpenAIRE

    Berge, Jørgen; Gabrielsen, Tove M.; Mark A Moline; Renaud, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Before man hunted the large baleen whales to near extinction by the end of the nineteenth century, Arctic ecosystems were strongly influenced by these large predators. Their main prey were zooplankton, among which the calanoid copepod species of the genus Calanus, long considered key elements of polar marine ecosystems, are particularly abundant. These herbivorous zooplankters display a range of adaptations to the highly seasonal environments of the polar oceans, most notably extensive energy...

  7. Arctic whaling : proceedings of the International Symposium Arctic Whaling February 1983

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacob, H.K. s'; Snoeijing, K

    1984-01-01

    Contents: D.M. Hopkins and Louie Marincovich Jr. Whale Biogeography and the history of the Arctic Basin P.M. Kellt, J.H.W. Karas and L.D. Williams Arctic Climate: Past, Present and Future Torgny E. Vinje On the present state and the future fate of the Arctic sea ice cover P.J.H. van Bree On the biol

  8. Arctic shipping emissions inventories and future scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    J. J. Corbett; D. A. Lack; J. J. Winebrake; Harder, S; J. A. Silberman; Gold, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Arctic is a sensitive region in terms of climate change and a rich natural resource for global economic activity. Arctic shipping is an important contributor to the region's anthropogenic air emissions, including black carbon – a short-lived climate forcing pollutant especially effective in accelerating the melting of ice and snow. These emissions are projected to increase as declining sea ice coverage due to climate change allows for increased shipping activity in the Arctic. To understa...

  9. Arctic cephalopod distributions and their associated predators

    OpenAIRE

    Gardiner, Kathleen; Terry A Dick

    2010-01-01

    Cephalopods are key species of the eastern Arctic marine food web, both as prey and predator. Their presence in the diets of Arctic fish, birds and mammals illustrates their trophic importance. There has been considerable research on cephalopods (primarily Gonatus fabricii) from the north Atlantic and the west side of Greenland, where they are considered a potential fishery and are taken as a by-catch. By contrast, data on the biogeography of Arctic cephalopods are still incomplete. This stud...

  10. Shaping a Sustainability Strategy for the Arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Azcarate, Juan; Balfors, Berit; Destouni, Georgia; Bring, Arvid

    2011-01-01

    The development of the Arctic is shaped by the opportunities and constraints brought by climate change and technological advances. In the Arctic, warmer climate is expected to affect ecosystems, local communities and infrastructure due to a combination of effects like reduced sea ice and glaciers, thawing permafrost and increased frequency of floods. Less ice and new technologies mean openings to exploit natural resources in the Arctic. Fishing, mining, hydrocarbon extraction and vessel trans...

  11. Arctic tides from GPS on sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard Rose, Stine; Skourup, Henriette; Forsberg, René

    The presence of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean plays a significant role in the Arctic climate. Sea ice dampens the ocean tide amplitude with the result that global tidal models which use only astronomical data perform less accurately in the polar regions. This study presents a kinematic processing...... of Global Positioning System (GPS) buoys placed on sea-ice at five different sites north of Greenland for the study of sea level height and tidal analysis to improve tidal models in the Central Arctic. The GPS measurements are compared with the Arctic tidal model AOTIM-5, which assimilates tide...

  12. Rossby Waves in the Arctic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Schmith, Torben

    The Arctic Ocean has a characteristic stable stratification with fresh and cold water occupying the upper few hundred meters and the warm and more saline Atlantic waters underneath. These water masses are separated by the cold halocline. The stability of the cold halocline regulates the upward...... directed turbulent heat flux from the Atlantic water to the Arctic water. This heat flux is a part of the arctic energy budget and is important for large scale sea ice formation and melting. Due to the strong vertical stratification combined with its almost circular boundary, the Arctic Ocean supports...

  13. Plate tectonic history of the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, K.

    1984-01-01

    Tectonic development of the Arctic Ocean is outlined, and geological maps are provided for the Arctic during the mid-Cenozoic, later Cretaceous, late Jurassic, early Cretaceous, early Jurassic and late Devonian. It is concluded that Arctic basin history is moulded by the events of the following intervals: (1) continental collision and immediately subsequent rifting and ocean formation in the Devonian, and continental rifting ocean formation, rapid rotation of microcontinents, and another episode of collision in the latest Jurassic and Cretaceous. It is noted that Cenozoic Arctic basin formation is a smaller scale event superimposed on the late Mesozoic ocean basin.

  14. Arctic Basemaps In Google Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muggah, J.; Mioc, Darka

    2010-01-01

    the advantages of the use of Google Maps, to display the OMG's Arctic data. The map should should load the large Artic dataset in a reasonable time. The bathymetric images were created using software in Linux written by the OMG, and a step-by-step process was used to create images from the multibeam data...... collected by the OMG in the Arctic. The website was also created using Linux operating system. The projection needed to be changed from Lambert Conformal Conic (useful at higher Latitudes) to Mercator (used by Google Maps) and the data needed to have a common colour scheme. After creating and testing...... a prototype website using Google Ground overlay and Tile overlay, it was determined that the high resolution images (10m) were loading very slowly and the ground overlay method would not be useful for displaying the entire dataset. Therefore the Tile overlays were selected to be used within Google Maps. Tile...

  15. Aerosols indirectly warm the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mauritsen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available On average, airborne aerosol particles cool the Earth's surface directly by absorbing and scattering sunlight and indirectly by influencing cloud reflectivity, life time, thickness or extent. Here we show that over the central Arctic Ocean, where there is frequently a lack of aerosol particles upon which clouds may form, a small increase in aerosol loading may enhance cloudiness thereby likely causing a climatologically significant warming at the ice-covered Arctic surface. Under these low concentration conditions cloud droplets grow to drizzle sizes and fall, even in the absence of collisions and coalescence, thereby diminishing cloud water. Evidence from a case study suggests that interactions between aerosol, clouds and precipitation could be responsible for attaining the observed low aerosol concentrations.

  16. Stories from the Arctic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Michelle

    2016-04-01

    I will discuss my experience co-ordinating a range of communication activities for a multi-university research programme called Methane in the Arctic: Measurements and Modelling. The project included ground- and aircraft-based fieldwork in the European Arctic, as well as computer modelling. Our communication activities included: our own field blog (www.arcticmethane.wordpress.com), which was syndicated to the Scientific American Expeditions blog; writing articles for other blogs with a wider audience than our own; use of twitter; and podcasting our field work. The grand finale to our communications work was a live event at a science festival, in which we took the audience along with us on a recreated research flight, complete with a life-size mock up of a section of our research aircraft. I will discuss my experiences of these forms of communication, and give an evaluation of their successes and failures.

  17. The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS): Connecting Arctic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, R. H.; Wiggins, H. V.; Creek, K. R.; Sheffield Guy, L.

    2015-12-01

    This presentation will highlight the recent activities of the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) to connect Arctic research. ARCUS is a nonprofit membership organization of universities and institutions that have a substantial commitment to research in the Arctic. ARCUS was formed in 1988 to serve as a forum for planning, facilitating, coordinating, and implementing interdisciplinary studies of the Arctic; to act as a synthesizer and disseminator of scientific information on arctic research; and to educate scientists and the general public about the needs and opportunities for research in the Arctic. ARCUS, in collaboration with the broader science community, relevant agencies and organizations, and other stakeholders, coordinates science planning and educational activities across disciplinary and organizational boundaries. Examples of ARCUS projects include: Arctic Sea Ice Outlook - an international effort that provides monthly summer reports synthesizing community estimates of the expected sea ice minimum. Sea Ice for Walrus Outlook - a resource for Alaska Native subsistence hunters, coastal communities, and others that provides weekly reports with information on sea ice conditions relevant to walrus in Alaska waters. PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating) - a program whereby K-12 educators and researchers work together in hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctic to advance polar science education. ArcticInfo mailing list, Witness the Arctic newsletter, and the Arctic Calendar - communication tools for the arctic science community to keep apprised of relevant news, meetings, and announcements. Coordination for the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) program, which aims to provide scientific understanding of arctic environmental change to help society understand and respond to a rapidly changing Arctic. More information about these and other ARCUS activities can be found at the ARCUS website at

  18. Building Materials in Arctic Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2005-01-01

    Building in the artic requires special attention on the appropriateness of building materials. The harsh climate makes execution difficult and sets unusual requirements for the pure material properties. In addition, there is a lack of choice of good, natural building materials in the arctic....... This results in high transport costs. The building materials situation in Greenland may potentially be improved by intensifying the reuse of building materials or by promoting the local production of building materials....

  19. Arctic whaling: proceedings of the International Symposium Arctic Whaling February 1983

    OpenAIRE

    H.K. 's Jacob; Snoeijing, K

    1984-01-01

    Contents: D.M. Hopkins and Louie Marincovich Jr. Whale Biogeography and the history of the Arctic Basin P.M. Kellt, J.H.W. Karas and L.D. Williams Arctic Climate: Past, Present and Future Torgny E. Vinje On the present state and the future fate of the Arctic sea ice cover P.J.H. van Bree On the biology of whales Edward Mitchell Ecology of North Atlantic Boreal and Arctic Monodontid and Mysticete Whales Allen P. McCartney History of native whaling in the Arctic and Subarctic Albert A. Dekin Jr...

  20. Colêmbolos (Hexapoda: Collembola como bioindicadores de qualidade do solo em áreas com Araucaria angustifolia Springtails (Hexapoda: Collembola as soil quality bioindicators in areas with Araucaria angustifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilmar Baretta

    2008-12-01

    qualidade do solo.There is no information about the diversity of springtails associated with Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze forests in Brazil. This study was carried out to evaluate the potential of springtail family diversity as a soil quality indicator and to separate different Araucaria areas, using soil chemical and microbiological attributes as explanatory variables. The study was conducted in four areas of: 1. native forest with predominance of Araucaria (NF; 2. Araucaria reforestation (R; 3. Araucaria reforestation burnt by an accidental fire (RF; and 4. native grass pasture with native Araucaria and burnt by an intense accidental fire (NPF. In the capture of the organisms, ten Araucaria trees were randomly selected and pitfall traps were distributed around the selected Araucaria trees, at the same sampling points as for soil chemical and microbiological attributes. The number of springtails of each family extracted per trap (abundance, Shannon's diversity index (H and family richness in the different areas were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA. The abundance of springtails of each family was analyzed by Principal Components Analysis (PCA. Eight springtail families (Brachystomellidae, Entomobryidae, Hypogastruridae, Isotomidae, Katiannidae, Paronellidae, Sminthuridae and Tomoceridae were identified in the four areas. The diversity of springtail families was always higher in the NF and R areas, in comparison with RF and NPF. The soil chemical and microbiological attributes were effective as explanatory variables, and useful in the interpretation of modifications occurring in springtail families. The PCA showed that the identification at the family level for Collembola was sufficient to separate the four studied areas, and also indicated which springtail families were most associated with each area. This variable can therefore be considered an indicator of soil quality and anthropogenic disturbance in these forests.

  1. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Alaska (ARCTIC) research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, W.C.; Eberhardt, L.E.

    1980-03-01

    The current program continues studies of arctic ecosystems begun in 1959 as part of the Cape Thompson Program. Specific ecosystem aspects include studies of the ecology of arctic and red foxes, small mammel and bird population studies, lichen studies, and radiation ecology studies. (ACR)

  2. International Regulation of Central Arctic Ocean Fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Due in particular to the impacts of climate change, the adequacy of the international regulation of Central Arctic Ocean fisheries has come under increasing scrutiny in recent years. As shown in this article, however, international regulation of Central Arctic Ocean fisheries is by no means entirely

  3. Traditional Ecological Knowledge in Arctic EIA's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egede, Parnuna Petrina; Hansen, Anne Merrild

    2016-01-01

    The search for new oil and mineral reserves in the Arctic is increasing. This has called for both local and international concerns and opposition to the activities based on environmental apprehensions. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA’s) have been implemented in legislations by the Arctic...

  4. Arctic freshwater export: Status, mechanisms, and prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haine, T.W.N.; Curry, B.; Gerdes, R.; Hansen, E.; Karcher, M.; Lee, C.; Rudels, B.; Spreen, G.; de Steur, L.; Stewart, K.D.; Woodgate, R.

    2015-01-01

    Large freshwater anomalies clearly exist in the Arctic Ocean. For example, liquid freshwater has accumulated in the Beaufort Gyre in the decade of the 2000s compared to 1980–2000, with an extra ˜ 5000 km3 — about 25% — being stored. The sources of freshwater to the Arctic from precipitation and runo

  5. Linking Arctic amplification and local feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-11-01

    Climate simulations show that as the Earth warms, the Arctic warms more than the average global warming. However, models differ on how much more the Arctic warms, and although scientists have proposed a variety of mechanisms to explain the Arctic warming amplification, there is no consensus on the main reasons for it. To shed light on this issue, Hwang et al. investigated the relationship between Arctic amplification and poleward energy transport and local Arctic feedbacks, such as changes in cloud cover or ice loss, across a group of models. The researchers noted that differences in atmospheric energy transport did not explain the ranges of polar amplification; rather, models with more amplification showed less energy transport into high latitudes. The authors found that decreasing energy transport is due to a coupled relationship between Arctic amplification and energy transport: Arctic amplification reduces the equator-to-pole temperature gradient, which strongly decreases energy transport. They suggest that this coupled relationship should be taken into account in studies of Arctic amplification. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL048546, 2011)

  6. Health in the Arctic and climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Sloth Pedersen, Henning

    2007-01-01

    The Arctic environment is like a magnifying glass. Many of the hazards stemming from industrial activity in the South tend to concentrate in the North. This is true for DDT, PCB, heavy metals and many other substances that may endanger human health. Climate change is yet another example of how the negative impact of industrial activity may be magnified in the Arctic region.

  7. CHARACTERISTICS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION IN ARCTIC CIRCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Lež

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of large quantities of hydrocarbons is supposed within the Arctic Circle. Assumed quantities are 25% of the total undiscovered hydrocarbon reserves on Earth, mostly natural gas. Over 500 major and minor gas accumulations within the Arctic Circle were discovered so far, but apart from Snøhvit gas field, there is no commercial exploitation of natural gas from these fields. Arctic gas projects are complicated, technically hard to accomplish, and pose a great threat to the return of investment, safety of people and equipment and for the ecosystem. Russia is a country that is closest to the realization of the Arctic gas projects that are based on the giant gas fields. The most extreme weather conditions in the seas around Greenland are the reason why this Arctic region is the least explored and furthest from the realization of any gas project (the paper is published in Croatian .

  8. Arctic ecosystem responses to a warming climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lars O.

    The Arctic embraces one of the simplest terrestrial ecosystems in the world and yet it covers roughly 11% of the world’s surface. Summer temperatures rarely exceed 10°C and most of the limited precipitation falls as snow. The landmasses are predominantly polar tundra, while the Arctic Ocean...... is frozen solid for the main part of the year. However, in recent decades, arctic temperatures have in-creased between two and three times that of the global averages, which have had a substantial impact on the physical environment of the arctic ecosystem, such as deglaciation of the Greenland inland ice...... sheet, loss of multiannual sea-ice and significant advances in snowmelt days. The biotic components of the arctic ecosystem have also been affected by the rapid changes in climate, for instance resulting in the collapse of the collared lemming cycle, advances in spring flowering and changes in the intra...

  9. Marine Arctic science capability making big strides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Leonard; Brass, Garrett

    The profound influence of the Arctic Ocean on global environment, the rapid variability of Arctic processes, and the unresolved geology of the ocean floor have led to growing scientific interest in this region. Ongoing studies are investigating recent historical processes and modern processes such as changes in ocean circulation and ice cover patterns. Sediments beneath the Arctic Ocean record long- and short-term waxing and waning of the cryosphere in the Northern Hemisphere and its linkages to bottom water renewal and faunal adaptation. Underlying basement rocks reflect the tectonic history of the ocean basin, including its ridges and plateaus, which are unsampled and of unknown composition and origin. The vulnerability of Arctic populations to environmental problems makes the need to understand the region even more compelling (see, for example, Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme, 1997; also see Web site http://www.grida.no/amap).

  10. Establishing Shared Knowledge about Globalization in Asia and the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Graczyk, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the role of knowledge in relations between Arctic communities and Asia (the Arctic Council observer states: China, India, Japan, Singapore, South Korea). We argue that mutual and shared knowledge between Arctic communities and Asia is necessary for local benefits and comprehensively...... sustainable development for Arctic communities under globalization....

  11. Marine Transportation Implications of the Last Arctic Sea Ice Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, L. W.

    2010-12-01

    Marine access is increasing throughout the Arctic Ocean and the 'Last Arctic Sea Ice Refuge' may have implications for governance and marine use in the region. Arctic marine transportation is increasing due to natural resource developemnt, increasing Arctic marine tourism, expanded Arctic marine research, and a general linkage of the Arctic to the gloabl economy. The Arctic Council recognized these changes with the release of the Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment of 2009. This key study (AMSA)can be viewed as a baseline assessment (using the 2004 AMSA database), a strategic guide for a host of stakeholders and actors, and as a policy document of the Arctic Council. The outcomes of AMSA of direct relevance to the Ice Refuge are within AMSA's 17 recommendations provided under three themes: Enhancing Arctic Marine Safety, Protecting Arctic People and the Environment, and Building the Arctic Marine Infrastructure. Selected recommendations of importance to the Ice Refuge include: a mandatory polar navigation code; identifying areas of heightened ecological and cultural significance; potential designation of special Arctic marine areas; enhancing the tracking and monitoring of Arctic marine traffic; improving circumpolar environmental response capacity; developing an Arctic search and rescue agreement; and, assessing the effects of marine transportation on marine mammals. A review will be made of the AMSA outcomes and how they can influence the governance, marine use, and future protection of this unique Arctic marine environment.

  12. Arctic Visiting Speakers Series (AVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, S. E.; Griswold, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic Visiting Speakers (AVS) Series funds researchers and other arctic experts to travel and share their knowledge in communities where they might not otherwise connect. Speakers cover a wide range of arctic research topics and can address a variety of audiences including K-12 students, graduate and undergraduate students, and the general public. Host applications are accepted on an on-going basis, depending on funding availability. Applications need to be submitted at least 1 month prior to the expected tour dates. Interested hosts can choose speakers from an online Speakers Bureau or invite a speaker of their choice. Preference is given to individuals and organizations to host speakers that reach a broad audience and the general public. AVS tours are encouraged to span several days, allowing ample time for interactions with faculty, students, local media, and community members. Applications for both domestic and international visits will be considered. Applications for international visits should involve participation of more than one host organization and must include either a US-based speaker or a US-based organization. This is a small but important program that educates the public about Arctic issues. There have been 27 tours since 2007 that have impacted communities across the globe including: Gatineau, Quebec Canada; St. Petersburg, Russia; Piscataway, New Jersey; Cordova, Alaska; Nuuk, Greenland; Elizabethtown, Pennsylvania; Oslo, Norway; Inari, Finland; Borgarnes, Iceland; San Francisco, California and Wolcott, Vermont to name a few. Tours have included lectures to K-12 schools, college and university students, tribal organizations, Boy Scout troops, science center and museum patrons, and the general public. There are approximately 300 attendees enjoying each AVS tour, roughly 4100 people have been reached since 2007. The expectations for each tour are extremely manageable. Hosts must submit a schedule of events and a tour summary to be posted online

  13. THE ARCTIC: AN INDICATOR OF THE PLANET"S HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Callaghan, Terry

    2012-01-01

    The Arctic is a critically important component of the earth system and the Arctic is subject to dramatic change due to global warming in particular. To build capacity for better environmental monitoring and research in the Arctic, the EU has funded the SCANNET-INTERACT Consortium, which consists of partners from all the Arctic countries and 33 research infrastructures located throughout the large environmental envelope of the Arctic and a further 8 research facilities have joined as "observer...

  14. Arctic Energy Resources: Security and Environmental Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Johnston

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available n recent years, there has been considerable interest in the Arctic as a source for resources, as a potential zone for commercial shipping, and as a region that might experience conflict due to its strategic importance. With regards to energy resources, some studies suggest that the region contains upwards of 13 percent of global undiscovered oil, 30 percent of undiscovered gas, and multiples more of gas hydrates. The decreasing amount and duration of Arctic ice cover suggests that extraction of these resources will be increasingly commercially viable. Arctic and non-arctic states wish to benefit from the region's resources and the potential circum-polar navigation possibilities. This has led to concerns about the environmental risks of these operations as well as the fear that competition between states for resources might result in conflict. Unresolved offshore boundaries between the Arctic states exacerbate these fears. Yet, the risk of conflict seems overstated considering the bilateral and multilateral steps undertaken by the Arctic states to resolve contentious issues. This article will examine the potential impact of Arctic energy resources on global security as well as the regional environment and examine the actions of concerned states to promote their interests in the region.

  15. Survival strategies in arctic ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. C. Tyler

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Arctic ungulates usually neither freeze nor starve to death despite the rigours of winter. Physiological adaptations enable them to survive and reproduce despite long periods of intense cold and potential undernutrition. Heat conservation is achieved by excellent insulation combined with nasal heat exchange. Seasonal variation in fasting metabolic rate has been reported in several temperate and sub-arctic species of ungulates and seems to occur in muskoxen. Surprisingly, there is no evidence for this in reindeer. Both reindeer and caribou normally maintain low levels of locomotor activity in winter. Light foot loads are important for reducing energy expenditure while walking over snow. The significance and control of selective cooling of the brain during hard exercise (e.g. escape from predators is discussed. Like other cervids, reindeer and caribou display a pronounced seasonal cycle of appetite and growth which seems to have an intrinsic basis. This has two consequences. First, the animals evidently survive perfectly well despite enduring negative energy balance for long periods. Second, loss of weight in winter is not necessarily evidence of undernutrition. The main role of fat reserves, especially in males, may be to enhance reproductive success. The principal role of fat reserves in winter appears to be to provide a supplement to, rather than a substitute for, poor quality winter forage. Fat also provides an insurance against death during periods of acute starvation.

  16. Environmental marine geology of the Arctic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Arctic Ocean and its ice cover are major regulators of Northern Hemisphere climate, ocean circulation and marine productivity. The Arctic is also very sensitive to changes in the global environment because sea ice magnifies small changes in temperature, and because polar regions are sinks for air pollutants. Marine geology studies are being carried out to determine the nature and rate of these environmental changes by study of modern ice and sea bed environments, and by interpretation of geological records imprinted in the sea floor sediments. Sea ice camps, an ice island, and polar icebreakers have been used to study both western and eastern Arctic Ocean basins. Possible early warning signals of environmental changes in the Canadian Arctic are die-back in Arctic sponge reefs, outbreaks of toxic dinoflagellates, and pesticides in the marine food chain. Eastern Arctic ice and surface waters are contaminated by freon and radioactive fallout from Chernobyl. At present, different sedimentary processes operate in the pack ice-covered Canadian polar margin than in summer open waters off Alaska and Eurasia. The geological records, however, suggest that a temperature increase of 1-4C would result in summer open water throughout the Arctic, with major changes in ocean circulation and productivity of waters off Eastern North America, and more widespread transport of pollutants from eastern to western Arctic basins. More studies of longer sediment cores are needed to confirm these interpretations, but it is now clear that the Arctic Ocean has been the pacemaker of climate change during the past 1 million years

  17. Environmental marine geology of the Arctic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Arctic Ocean and its ice cover are major regulators of Northern Hemisphere climate, ocean circulation and marine productivity. The Arctic is also very sensitive to changes in the global environment because sea ice magnifies small changes in temperature, and because polar regions are sinks for air pollutants. Marine geology studies are being carried out to determine the nature and rate of these environmental changes by study of modem ice and sea-bed environments, and by interpretation of geological records imprinted in the sea-floor sediments. Sea ice camps, an ice island, and polar icebreakers have been used to study both western and eastern Arctic Ocean basins. Possible early warning signals of environmental changes in the Canadian Arctic are die-back in Arctic sponge reefs, outbreaks of toxic dinoflagellates, and pesticides in the marine food chain. Eastern Arctic ice and surface waters are contaminated by freon and radioactive fallout from Chernobyl. At present, different sedimentary processes operate in the pack ice-covered Canadian polar margin than in summer open waters off Alaska and Eurasia. The geological records, however, suggest that a temperature increase of 1-4 degree C would result in summer open water throughout the Arctic, with major changes in ocean circulation and productivity of waters off Eastern North America, and more widespread transport of pollutants from eastern to western Arctic basins. More studies of longer sediment cores are needed to confirm these interpretations, but is is now clear that the Arctic Ocean has been the pacemaker of climate change during the past 1 million years

  18. Introduction: World Routes in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Leete

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is associated in popular perception with a vast frozen snow covered empty place. Everybody who has been in the Arctic, whether in the Eurasian or North American part, knows that this stereotype is correct. Indeed, the Arctic is a place with lots of space that determines the lifestyle of the people in this area. All human activities – whether livelihood or mastering of the territory– are and always have been connected with substantial movement. Hunting, fishing, trading, the establishment of settlements and keeping them alive, all this needs the movement of goods and human resources.

  19. Arctic Landfast Sea Ice 1953-1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The files in this data set contain landfast sea ice data (monthly means) gathered from both Russian Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) and Canadian Ice...

  20. Arctic Marine Transportation Program 1979-1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this program was to collect data relevant to developing year-round transportation capabilities in the Arctic Ocean. The US Maritime Administration...

  1. Acoustic Resonance Reaction Control Thruster (ARCTIC) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop and demonstrate the innovative Acoustic Resonance Reaction Control Thruster (ARCTIC) to provide rapid and reliable in-space impulse...

  2. Arctic and Southern Ocean Sea Ice Concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly sea ice concentration for Arctic (1901 to 1995) and Southern oceans (1973 to 1990) were digitized on a standard 1-degree grid (cylindrical projection) to...

  3. Arctic parasitology: why should we care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Rebecca; Simard, Manon; Kutz, Susan J; Kapel, Christian M O; Hamnes, Inger S; Robertson, Lucy J

    2011-06-01

    The significant impact on human and animal health from parasitic infections in tropical regions is well known, but parasites of medical and veterinary importance are also found in the Arctic. Subsistence hunting and inadequate food inspection can expose people of the Arctic to foodborne parasites. Parasitic infections can influence the health of wildlife populations and thereby food security. The low ecological diversity that characterizes the Arctic imparts vulnerability. In addition, parasitic invasions and altered transmission of endemic parasites are evident and anticipated to continue under current climate changes, manifesting as pathogen range expansion, host switching, and/or disease emergence or reduction. However, Arctic ecosystems can provide useful models for understanding climate-induced shifts in host-parasite ecology in other regions.

  4. Geologic Provinces of the Arctic, 2000 (prvarcst)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons and polygon labels that describe Arctic portion of the U.S. Geological Survey defined geologic provinces of the World in 2000.

  5. Arctic climate change: Greenhouse warming unleashed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritsen, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Human activity alters the atmospheric composition, which leads to global warming. Model simulations suggest that reductions in emission of sulfur dioxide from Europe since the 1970s could have unveiled rapid Arctic greenhouse gas warming.

  6. Methane from the East Siberian Arctic shelf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrenko...[], Vasilii V.; Etheridge, David M.

    2010-01-01

    In their Report “Extensive methane venting to the atmosphere from sediments of the East Siberian Arctic Shelf” (5 March, p. 1246), N. Shakhova et al. write that methane (CH4) release resulting from thawing Arctic permafrost “is a likely positive feedback to climate warming.” They add that the rel......In their Report “Extensive methane venting to the atmosphere from sediments of the East Siberian Arctic Shelf” (5 March, p. 1246), N. Shakhova et al. write that methane (CH4) release resulting from thawing Arctic permafrost “is a likely positive feedback to climate warming.” They add...... we conducted, suggests that a very large (~50%) increase in atmospheric CH4 concentration associated with an abrupt warming event ~11,600 years ago was driven mainly by wetlands, without distinguishing between high and low latitudes. Their reference 9 (3) was published in 1993 and is not relevant...

  7. Boundary survey, Arctic National Wildlife Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is on the geology of the Arctic National Wildlife Range western boundary. The Canning River region and Southern Brooks range are both analyzed,...

  8. Atmospheric dynamics: Arctic winds of change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notz, Dirk

    2016-09-01

    The Earth's climate evolves in response to both externally forced changes and internal variability. Now research suggests that both drivers combine to set the pace of Arctic warming caused by large-scale sea-ice loss.

  9. Revegetation techniques in arctic and subarctic environments

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the revegetation techniques in the arctic and subarctic environments. Background on the subject, as well as a literature reviews concerning...

  10. Politics of sustainability in the Arctic (POSUSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram; Jakobsen, Uffe; Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    The concept of sustainability is of central importance in Arctic politics. However, for different actors (governments, indigenious peoples, NGOs) the concept implies different sets of precautions and opportunities. Sustainability, therefore, is much more a fundamental concept to be further elabor...

  11. Arctic and Aleutian terns, Amchitka Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Baird (1980) has recently reported on the ecology of Arctic terns (Sterna paradisaea) and Aleutian terns (Sterna aleutica) from 4 areas of mainland Alaska. However,...

  12. Arctic shipping emissions inventories and future scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    J. J. Corbett; D. A. Lack; J. J. Winebrake; Harder, S; J. A. Silberman; Gold, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents 5 km×5 km Arctic emissions inventories of important greenhouse gases, black carbon and other pollutants under existing and future (2050) scenarios that account for growth of shipping in the region, potential diversion traffic through emerging routes, and possible emissions control measures. These high-resolution, geospatial emissions inventories for shipping can be used to evaluate Arctic climate sensitivity to black carbon (a short-lived climate forcing pollutant especial...

  13. Isotopes in the Arctic atmospheric water cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Bonne, Jean-Louis; Werner, Martin; Meyer, Hanno; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Rabe, Benjamin; Behrens, Melanie; Schönicke, Lutz; Steen-Larsen, Hans Christian; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    The ISO-ARC project aims at documenting the Arctic atmospheric hydrological cycle, by assessing the imprint of the marine boundary conditions (e.g. temperature variations, circulation changes, or meltwater input) to the isotopic composition of the atmospheric water cycle (H218O and HDO) with a focus on North Atlantic and Arctic oceans. For this purpose, two continuous monitoring water vapour stable isotopes cavity ring-down spectrometers have been installed in July 2015: on-boar...

  14. Studying ocean acidification in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) partnership with the U.S. Coast Guard Ice Breaker Healey and its United Nations Convention Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) cruises has produced new synoptic data from samples collected in the Arctic Ocean and insights into the patterns and extent of ocean acidification. This framework of foundational geochemical information will help inform our understanding of potential risks to Arctic resources due to ocean acidification.

  15. The Anatomy of an Arctic Knowledge Debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejersen, Frank

    2005-01-01

    Within the last decades, the Arctic research community and the Inuit communities have focused on the question of knowledge to such an extent that we may in fact speak of a knowledge cult.......Within the last decades, the Arctic research community and the Inuit communities have focused on the question of knowledge to such an extent that we may in fact speak of a knowledge cult....

  16. Land-Based Marine Pollution in Arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Haile, Fitsum Gebreselassie

    2014-01-01

    Land-based pollution represents the single most important cause of marine pollution. The threat of land-based pollution to the marine environment is a serious one since it mainly affects coastal waters, which are sites of high biological productivity. The occurrence of high concentrations of pollutants in the Arctic environment has been a concern for many years.. Regional and international actions over the past two decades attempting to manage pollutants in the Arctic environment from land- b...

  17. Arctic Ocean data in CARINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jutterström

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the steps taken for quality controlling chosen parameters within the Arctic Ocean data included in the CARINA data set and checking for offsets between the individual cruises. The evaluated parameters are the inorganic carbon parameters (total dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity and pH, oxygen and nutrients: nitrate, phosphate and silicate. More parameters can be found in the CARINA data product, but were not subject to a secondary quality control. The main method in determining offsets between cruises was regional multi-linear regression, after a first rough basin-wide deep-water estimate of each parameter. Lastly, the results of the secondary quality control are discussed as well as applied adjustments.

  18. Arctic Ocean data in CARINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jutterström

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the steps taken for quality controlling chosen parameters within the Arctic Ocean data included in the CARINA data set and checking for offsets between the individual cruises. The evaluated parameters are the inorganic carbon parameters (total dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity and pH, oxygen and nutrients: nitrate, phosphate and silicate. More parameters can be found in the CARINA data product, but were not subject to a secondary quality control. The main method in determining offsets between cruises was regional multi-linear regression, after a first rough basin-wide deep-water estimate of each parameter. Lastly, the results of the secondary quality control are discussed as well as suggested adjustments.

  19. Zooplankton in the Arctic outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, K. A.; Dritz, A. V.; Nikishina, A. B.

    2009-04-01

    Climate changes in the Arctic cause the changes in the current system that may have cascading effect on the structure of plankton community and consequently on the interlinked and delicately balanced food web. Zooplankton species are by definition incapable to perform horizontal moving. Their transport is connected with flowing water. There are zooplankton species specific for the definite water masses and they can be used as markers for the different currents. That allows us to consider zooplankton community composition as a result of water mixing in the studied area. Little is known however about the mechanisms by which spatial and temporal variability in advection affect dynamics of local populations. Ice conditions are also very important in the function of pelagic communities. Melting time is the trigger to all "plankton blooming" processes, and the duration of ice-free conditions determines the food web development in the future. Fram Strait is one of the key regions for the Arctic: the cold water outflow comes through it with the East Greenland Current and meets warm Atlantic water, the West Spitsbergen Current, producing complicated hydrological situation. During 2007 and 2008 we investigated the structure functional characteristics of zooplankton community in the Fram Strait region onboard KV "Svalbard" (April 2007, April and May 2008) and RV "Jan Mayen" (May 2007, August 2008). This study was conducted in frame of iAOOS Norway project "Closing the loop", which, in turn, was a part of IPY. During this cruises multidisciplinary investigations were performed, including sea-ice observations, CTD and ADCP profiling, carbon flux, nutrients and primary production measurements, phytoplankton sampling. Zooplankton was collected with the Hydro-Bios WP2 net and MultiNet Zooplankton Sampler, (mouth area 0.25 m2, mesh size 180 um).Samples were taken from the depth strata of 2000-1500, 1500-1000, 1000-500,500-200, 200-100, 100-60, 60-30, 30-0 m. Gut fluorescence

  20. Structure-based investigation into the functional roles of the extended loop and substrate-recognition sites in an endo-β-1,4-D-mannanase from the Antarctic springtail, Cryptopygus antarcticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Kyu; An, Young Jun; Song, Jung Min; Jeong, Chang-Sook; Kang, Mee Hye; Kwon, Kae Kyoung; Lee, Youn-Ho; Cha, Sun-Shin

    2014-11-01

    Endo-β-1,4-D-mannanase from the Antarctic springtail, Cryptopygus antarcticus (CaMan), is a cold-adapted β-mannanase that has the lowest optimum temperature (30°C) of all known β-mannanases. Here, we report the apo- and mannopentaose (M5) complex structures of CaMan. Structural comparison of CaMan with other β-mannanases from the multicellular animals reveals that CaMan has an extended loop that alters topography of the active site. Structural and mutational analyses suggest that this extended loop is linked to the cold-adapted enzymatic activity. From the CaMan-M5 complex structure, we defined the mannose-recognition subsites and observed unreported M5 binding site on the surface of CaMan. PMID:25082572

  1. Arctic response strategy: Canadian Coast Guard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The revision of the Canadian Coast Guard's Arctic response strategy was described with particular focus on the consultative method used to ensure that all perspectives were taken into consideration. Some tankers used to re-supply fuel to remote Arctic communities carry more than 30,000 tonnes of product, putting them at risk for major spills. The Arctic response strategy was revised to emphasize recommendations for prevention, preparedness and response. Prevention was recognized as the most effective solution to oil spills in the Arctic. The leadership and coordination roles of the Canadian Coast Guard were demonstrated in relation to ship-source oil pollution. The new strategy also outlined the equipment requirements needed to respond to a large spill in the Arctic. Categorization of spill sizes as tier 1 to 4 was determined by examining southern regimes as was the characterization of corresponding equipment. Implementation of the new recommendations of the revised Arctic response strategy will take place over the next 2 years. The prevention aspect will include some legislative changes or stricter guidelines

  2. Trace element concentrations and gastrointestinal parasites of Arctic terns breeding in the Canadian High Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, J F; Braune, B M; Gilchrist, H G; Forbes, M R; Mallory, M L

    2014-04-01

    Baseline data on trace element concentrations are lacking for many species of Arctic marine birds. We measured essential and non-essential element concentrations in Arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea) liver tissue and brain tissue (mercury only) from Canada's High Arctic, and recorded the presence/absence of gastrointestinal parasites during four different phases of the breeding season. Arctic terns from northern Canada had similar trace element concentrations to other seabird species feeding at the same trophic level in the same region. Concentrations of bismuth, selenium, lead and mercury in Arctic terns were high compared to published threshold values for birds. Selenium and mercury concentrations were also higher in Arctic terns from northern Canada than bird species sampled in other Arctic areas. Selenium, mercury and arsenic concentrations varied across the time periods examined, suggesting potential regional differences in the exposure of biota to these elements. For unknown reasons, selenium concentrations were significantly higher in birds with gastrointestinal parasites as compared to those without parasites, while bismuth concentrations were higher in Arctic terns not infected with gastrointestinal parasites.

  3. Arctic summer school onboard an icebreaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, Vladimir A.; Repina, Irina A.

    2014-05-01

    The International Arctic Research Center (IARC) of the University of Alaska Fairbanks conducted a summer school for PhD students, post-docs and early career scientists in August-September 2013, jointly with an arctic expedition as a part of NABOS project (Nansen and Amundsen Basin Observational System) onboard the Russian research vessel "Akademik Fedorov". Both the summer school and NABOS expedition were funded by the National Science Foundation. The one-month long summer school brought together graduate students and young scientists with specialists in arctic oceanography and climate to convey to a new generation of scientists the opportunities and challenges of arctic climate observations and modeling. Young scientists gained hands-on experience during the field campaign and learned about key issues in arctic climate from observational, diagnostic, and modeling perspectives. The summer school consisted of background lectures, participation in fieldwork and mini-projects. The mini-projects were performed in collaboration with summer school instructors and members of the expedition. Key topics covered in the lectures included: - arctic climate: key characteristics and processes; - physical processes in the Arctic Ocean; - sea ice and the Arctic Ocean; - trace gases, aerosols, and chemistry: importance for climate changes; - feedbacks in the arctic system (e.g., surface albedo, clouds, water vapor, circulation); - arctic climate variations: past, ongoing, and projected; - global climate models: an overview. An outreach specialist from the Miami Science Museum was writing a blog from the icebreaker with some very impressive statistics (results as of January 1, 2014): Total number of blog posts: 176 Blog posts written/contributed by scientists: 42 Blog views: 22,684 Comments: 1,215 Number of countries who viewed the blog: 89 (on 6 continents) The 33-day long NABOS expedition started on August 22, 2013 from Kirkenes, Norway. The vessel ("Akademik Fedorov") returned to

  4. ArcticDEM; A Publically Available, High Resolution Elevation Model of the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Paul; Porter, Claire; Cloutier, Michael; Howat, Ian; Noh, Myoung-Jong; Willis, Michael; Bates, Brian; Willamson, Cathleen; Peterman, Kennith

    2016-04-01

    A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the Arctic is needed for a large number of reasons, including: measuring and understanding rapid, ongoing changes to the Arctic landscape resulting from climate change and human use and mitigation and adaptation planning for Arctic communities. The topography of the Arctic is more poorly mapped than most other regions of Earth due to logistical costs and the limits of satellite missions with low-latitude inclinations. A convergence of civilian, high-quality sub-meter stereo imagery; petascale computing and open source photogrammetry software has made it possible to produce a complete, very high resolution (2 to 8-meter posting), elevation model of the Arctic. A partnership between the US National Geospatial-intelligence Agency and a team led by the US National Science Foundation funded Polar Geospatial Center is using stereo imagery from DigitalGlobe's Worldview-1, 2 and 3 satellites and the Ohio State University's Surface Extraction with TIN-based Search-space Minimization (SETSM) software running on the University of Illinois's Blue Water supercomputer to address this challenge. The final product will be a seemless, 2-m posting digital surface model mosaic of the entire Arctic above 60 North including all of Alaska, Greenland and Kamchatka. We will also make available the more than 300,000 individual time-stamped DSM strip pairs that were used to assemble the mosaic. The Arctic DEM will have a vertical precision of better than 0.5m and can be used to examine changes in land surfaces such as those caused by permafrost degradation or the evolution of arctic rivers and floodplains. The data set can also be used to highlight changing geomorphology due to Earth surface mass transport processes occurring in active volcanic and glacial environments. When complete the ArcticDEM will catapult the Arctic from the worst to among the best mapped regions on Earth.

  5. The Arctic Grand Challenge: Abrupt Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkniss, P. E.

    2003-12-01

    Trouble in polar paradise (Science, 08/30/02), significant changes in the Arctic environment are scientifically documented (R.E. Moritz et al. ibid.). More trouble, lots more, "abrupt climate change," (R. B. Alley, et al. Science 03/28/03). R. Corell, Arctic Climate Impact Assessment team (ACIA), "If you want to see what will happen in the rest of the world 25 years from now just look what's happening in the Arctic," (Arctic Council meeting, Iceland, 08/03). What to do? Make abrupt Arctic climate change a grand challenge for the IPY-4 and beyond! Scientifically:Describe the "state" of the Arctic climate system as succinctly as possible and accept it as the point of departure.Develop a hypothesis and criteria what constitutes "abrupt climate change," in the Arctic that can be tested with observations. Observations: Bring to bear existing observations and coordinate new investments in observations through an IPY-4 scientific management committee. Make the new Barrow, Alaska, Global Climate Change Research Facility a major U.S. contribution and focal point for the IPY-4 in the U.S Arctic. Arctic populations, Native peoples: The people of the North are living already, daily, with wrenching change, encroaching on their habitats and cultures. For them "the earth is faster now," (I. Krupnik and D. Jolly, ARCUS, 2002). From a political, economic, social and entirely realistic perspective, an Arctic grand challenge without the total integration of the Native peoples in this effort cannot succeed. Therefore: Communications must be established, and the respective Native entities must be approached with the determination to create well founded, well functioning, enduring partnerships. In the U.S. Arctic, Barrow with its long history of involvement and active support of science and with the new global climate change research facility should be the focal point of choice Private industry: Resource extraction in the Arctic followed by oil and gas consumption, return the combustion

  6. Hydrochemical Atlas of the Arctic Ocean (NODC Accession 0044630)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The present Hydrochemical Atlas of the Arctic Ocean is a description of hydrochemical conditions in the Arctic Ocean on the basis of a greater body of hydrochemical...

  7. A quantitative assessment of Arctic shipping in 2010–2014

    KAUST Repository

    Eguíluz, Victor M.

    2016-08-01

    Rapid loss of sea ice is opening up the Arctic Ocean to shipping, a practice that is forecasted to increase rapidly by 2050 when many models predict that the Arctic Ocean will largely be free of ice toward the end of summer. These forecasts carry considerable uncertainty because Arctic shipping was previously considered too sparse to allow for adequate validation. Here, we provide quantitative evidence that the extent of Arctic shipping in the period 2011–2014 is already significant and that it is concentrated (i) in the Norwegian and Barents Seas, and (ii) predominantly accessed via the Northeast and Northwest Passages. Thick ice along the forecasted direct trans-Arctic route was still present in 2014, preventing transit. Although Arctic shipping remains constrained by the extent of ice coverage, during every September, this coverage is at a minimum, allowing the highest levels of shipping activity. Access to Arctic resources, particularly fisheries, is the most important driver of Arctic shipping thus far.

  8. Arctic shipping emissions inventories and future scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Corbett

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is a sensitive region in terms of climate change and a rich natural resource for global economic activity. Arctic shipping is an important contributor to the region's anthropogenic air emissions, including black carbon – a short-lived climate forcing pollutant especially effective in accelerating the melting of ice and snow. These emissions are projected to increase as declining sea ice coverage due to climate change allows for increased shipping activity in the Arctic. To understand the impacts of these increased emissions, scientists and modelers require high-resolution, geospatial emissions inventories that can be used for regional assessment modeling. This paper presents 5 km×5 km Arctic emissions inventories of important greenhouse gases, black carbon and other pollutants under existing and future (2050 scenarios that account for growth of shipping in the region, potential diversion traffic through emerging routes, and possible emissions control measures. Short-lived forcing of ~4.5 gigagrams of black carbon from Arctic shipping may increase climate forcing; a first-order calculation of global warming potential due to 2030 emissions in the high-growth scenario suggests that short-lived forcing of ~4.5 gigagrams of black carbon from Arctic shipping may increase climate forcing due to Arctic ships by at least 17% compared to warming from these vessels' CO2 emissions (~42 000 gigagrams. The paper also presents maximum feasible reduction scenarios for black carbon in particular. These emissions reduction scenarios will enable scientists and policymakers to evaluate the efficacy and benefits of technological controls for black carbon, and other pollutants from ships.

  9. Brain organization in Collembola (springtails).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmann, Martin; Huetteroth, Wolf; Schachtner, Joachim

    2011-07-01

    Arthropoda is comprised of four major taxa: Hexapoda, Crustacea, Myriapoda and Chelicerata. Although this classification is widely accepted, there is still some debate about the internal relationships of these groups. In particular, the phylogenetic position of Collembola remains enigmatic. Some molecular studies place Collembola into a close relationship to Protura and Diplura within the monophyletic Hexapoda, but this placement is not universally accepted, as Collembola is also regarded as either the sister group to Branchiopoda (a crustacean taxon) or to Pancrustacea (crustaceans + hexapods). To contribute to the current debate on the phylogenetic position of Collembola, we examined the brains in three collembolan species: Folsomia candida, Protaphorura armata and Tetrodontophora bielanensis, using antennal backfills, series of semi-thin sections, and immunostaining technique with several antisera, in conjunction with confocal laser scanning microscopy and three-dimensional reconstructions. We identified several neuroanatomical structures in the collembolan brain, including a fan-shaped central body showing a columnar organization, a protocerebral bridge, one pair of antennal lobes with 20-30 spheroidal glomeruli each, and a structure, which we interpret as a simply organized mushroom body. The results of our neuroanatomical study are consistent with the phylogenetic position of Collembola within the Hexapoda and do not contradict the hypothesis of a close relationship of Collembola, Protura and Diplura. PMID:21420507

  10. Changing geo-political realities in the Arctic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Camilla T. N.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes and discusses how Denmark seeks to manage the changing geopolitical realities in the Arctic region specifically focusing on how Denmark seeks to manage its relations with China in the Arctic region.......This article analyzes and discusses how Denmark seeks to manage the changing geopolitical realities in the Arctic region specifically focusing on how Denmark seeks to manage its relations with China in the Arctic region....

  11. Arctic shipping and China : Governance structure and future developments

    OpenAIRE

    Hjalti Þór Hreinsson 1984

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to study China’s shipping ambitions in the Arctic and the pertinent governing instruments. Arctic shipping poses significant challenges for Arctic governance with increased access to its oceans for shipping companies. Arctic transit is driven by demanding world markets in the West and the rising economic powers of the East, looking for the most cost-efficient routes. Rapid ice melt leads to better access for vessels, but other obstacles await those interested in Arc...

  12. A quantitative assessment of Arctic shipping in 2010–2014

    OpenAIRE

    Victor M Eguíluz; Fernández-Gracia, Juan; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid loss of sea ice is opening up the Arctic Ocean to shipping, a practice that is forecasted to increase rapidly by 2050 when many models predict that the Arctic Ocean will largely be free of ice toward the end of summer. These forecasts carry considerable uncertainty because Arctic shipping was previously considered too sparse to allow for adequate validation. Here, we provide quantitative evidence that the extent of Arctic shipping in the period 2011–2014 is already significant and that ...

  13. Tundra Rehabilitation in Alaska's Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    Oil exploration in Alaska's Arctic has been conducted for more than 40 years, resulting in over 3,640 ha of gravel fill placed for roads, pads, and airstrips to support the industry. Likewise, tundra disturbance from burying power lines and by tundra vehicle travel are also common. Rehabilitation of disturbed sites began around 2002, with well over 150 ha that has been previously treated or is currently being rehabilitated. Two primary goals of rehabilitation efforts have been 1) revegetation by indigenous species, and 2) limiting thermokarst. Early efforts were concerned that removing gravel and having exposed bare ground would lead to extensive subsidence and eolian erosion. Native grass cultivars (e.g. Poa glauca, Arctagrostis latifolia, and Festuca rubra) were seeded to create vegetation cover quickly with the expectation that these grasses would survive only temporarily. The root masses and leaf litter were also expected to trap indigenous seed to enhance natural recolonization by indigenous plants. Due to the remote location of these sites, many of which are only accessible by helicopter, most are visited only two to three times following cultivation treatments, providing a limited data pool. At many sites, the total live seeded grass cover declined about 15% over the first 5¬-6 years (from around 30% to 15% cover), while total live indigenous vascular cover increased from no or trace cover to an average of 10% cover in that time. Cover of indigenous vascular plants at sites that were not seeded with native grass cultivars averaged just less than 10% after 10 years, showing no appreciable difference between the two approaches. Final surface elevations at the sites affect local hydrology and soil moisture. Other factors that influence the success of vegetation cover are proximity to the Arctic coast (salt effects), depth of remaining gravel, and changes in characteristics of the near-surface soil. Further development of rehabilitation techniques and the

  14. Arctic River Mobility: A Baseline Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, J. C.; Wilson, C. J.; Brumby, S. P.; Pope, P. A.

    2009-12-01

    In many arctic river systems, permafrost and the presence of frozen floodplain materials provides a significant source of bank cohesion. Due to this cohesion, permafrost may play an important control of arctic river mobility and meandering dynamics. Whether changes in the rates of permafrost thawing has had or will have as significant a geomorphic impact on arctic river meandering as has already been observed for arctic coastline retreat, lake size and distribution, and hillslope stability is at present an unanswered question. The potential impact of climate driven changes in arctic river meandering has important implications for river planform morphology, floodplain dynamics, river ecology, and the export of carbon and nutrients to coastal oceans. We present results of remote sensing analysis of river mobility for the Yukon River in Alaska and sections of the Siberian Rivers including the Lena, the Kolyma and the Indigirka Rivers. Comparisons of river location at successive intervals in time were conducted using Landsat imagery archives and higher resolution aerial photographs and satellite imagery. Extraction of river channel locations was accomplished using the GeniePro automated feature extraction software. Over the period of Landsat coverage (mid-1980s to present) arctic rivers show limited to no movement at the resolution of the Landsat data (30 m per pixel). On the Yukon Flats regions of the Yukon River, the most mobile sections of the river have migration rates comparable to reach-average values reported for temperate rivers; given that large portions of the Yukon display no detectable movement, reach-averaged values are far less than observed in temperate systems. Field inspection of areas of high erosion along the Yukon River indicate that erosional processes associated with the thermal degradation of permafrost play a dominant role in many of these areas. Thermal niching and large scale bank collapse due to undercutting play a large role in bank erosion

  15. Leading By Example: Canada and its Arctic Stewardship Role

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Danita Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The notion that Canada is the steward of the fragile Arctic environment is a part of the fabric of the Canadian narrative about the country’s relationship with the Arctic region. In light of political, legal and environmental changes impacting Arctic politics, this paper argues that it is importa...

  16. Arctic Ocean freshwater: How robust are model simulations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahn, A.; Aksenov, Y.; de Cuevas, B.A.; de Steur, L.; Häkkinen, S.; Hansen, E.; Herbaut, C.; Houssais, M.N.; Karcher, M.; Kauker, F.; Lique, C.; Nguyen, A.; Pemberton, P.; Worthen, D.; Zhang, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Arctic freshwater (FW) has been the focus of many modeling studies, due to the potential impact of Arctic FW on the deep water formation in the North Atlantic. A comparison of the hindcasts from ten ocean-sea ice models shows that the simulation of the Arctic FW budget is quite different in the

  17. 2nd International Arctic Ungulate Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anonymous

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2nd International Arctic Ungulate Conference was held 13-17 August 1995 on the University of Alaska Fairbanks campus. The Institute of Arctic Biology and the Alaska Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit were responsible for organizing the conference with assistance from biologists with state and federal agencies and commercial organizations. David R. Klein was chair of the conference organizing committee. Over 200 people attended the conference, coming from 10 different countries. The United States, Canada, and Norway had the largest representation. The conference included invited lectures; panel discussions, and about 125 contributed papers. There were five technical sessions on Physiology and Body Condition; Habitat Relationships; Population Dynamics and Management; Behavior, Genetics and Evolution; and Reindeer and Muskox Husbandry. Three panel sessions discussed Comparative caribou management strategies; Management of introduced, reestablished, and expanding muskox populations; and Health risks in translocation of arctic ungulates. Invited lectures focused on the physiology and population dynamics of arctic ungulates; contaminants in food chains of arctic ungulates and lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident; and ecosystem level relationships of the Porcupine Caribou Herd.

  18. Arctic shipping emissions inventories and future scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Corbett

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents 5 km×5 km Arctic emissions inventories of important greenhouse gases, black carbon and other pollutants under existing and future (2050 scenarios that account for growth of shipping in the region, potential diversion traffic through emerging routes, and possible emissions control measures. These high-resolution, geospatial emissions inventories for shipping can be used to evaluate Arctic climate sensitivity to black carbon (a short-lived climate forcing pollutant especially effective in accelerating the melting of ice and snow, aerosols, and gaseous emissions including carbon dioxide. We quantify ship emissions scenarios which are expected to increase as declining sea ice coverage due to climate change allows for increased shipping activity in the Arctic. A first-order calculation of global warming potential due to 2030 emissions in the high-growth scenario suggests that short-lived forcing of ~4.5 gigagrams of black carbon from Arctic shipping may increase global warming potential due to Arctic ships' CO2 emissions (~42 000 gigagrams by some 17% to 78%. The paper also presents maximum feasible reduction scenarios for black carbon in particular. These emissions reduction scenarios will enable scientists and policymakers to evaluate the efficacy and benefits of technological controls for black carbon, and other pollutants from ships.

  19. VLF propagation measurements in the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauber, Wilfred R.; Bertrand, Jean M.

    1993-05-01

    For the past three years, during a period of high sun spot numbers, propagation measurements were made on the reception of VLF signals in the Canadian Arctic. Between Aug. and Dec. 1989, the received signal strengths were measured on the Canadian Coast Guard icebreaker, John A. MacDonald in the Eastern Canadian Arctic. Between Jul. 1991 and Jun. 1992, the received signal strengths were measured at Nanisivik, Baffin Island. The purposes of this work were to check the accuracy and estimate variances of the Naval Ocean Systems Center's (NOSC) Long Wave Propagation Capability (LWPC) predictions in the Canadian Arctic and to gather ionospheric storm data. In addition, the NOSC data taken at Fort Smith and our data at Nanisivik were used to test the newly developed Longwave Noise Prediction (LNP) program and the CCIR noise predictions, at 21.4 and 24.0 kHz. The results of the work presented and discussed in this paper show that in general the LWPC predicts accurate values of received signal strength in the Canadian Arctic with standard deviations of 1 to 2 dB over several months. Ionospheric storms can gauge the received signal strengths to decrease some 10 dB for a period of several hours or days. However, the effects of these storms are highly dependent on the propagation path. Finally the new LNP atmospheric noise model predicts lower values of noise in the Arctic than the CCIR model and our limited measurements tend to support these lower values.

  20. Arctic Ocean Scientific Drilling: The Next Frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruediger Stein

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The modern Arctic Ocean appears to be changing faster than any other region on Earth. To understand the potential extent of high latitude climate change, it is necessary to sample the history stored in the sediments filling the basins and covering the ridges of the Arctic Ocean. These sediments have been imaged with seismic reflection data, but except for the superficial record, which has been piston cored, they have been sampled only on the Lomonosov Ridge in 2004 during the Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX-IODP Leg 302; Backman et al., 2006 and in 1993 in the ice-free waters in the Fram Strait/Yermak Plateau area (ODP Leg 151; Thiede et al., 1996.Although major progress in Arctic Ocean research has been made during the last few decades, the short- and long-term paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic history as well as its plate-tectonic evolution are poorly known compared to the other oceans. Despite the importance of the Arctic in the climate system, the database we have from this area is still very weak. Large segments of geologic time have not been sampled in sedimentary sections. The question of regional variations cannot be addressed.

  1. AROME-Arctic: New operational NWP model for the Arctic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süld, Jakob; Dale, Knut S.; Myrland, Espen; Batrak, Yurii; Homleid, Mariken; Valkonen, Teresa; Seierstad, Ivar A.; Randriamampianina, Roger

    2016-04-01

    In the frame of the EU-funded project ACCESS (Arctic Climate Change, Economy and Society), MET Norway aimed 1) to describe the present monitoring and forecasting capabilities in the Arctic; and 2) to identify the key factors limiting the forecasting capabilities and to give recommendations on key areas to improve the forecasting capabilities in the Arctic. We have observed that the NWP forecast quality is lower in the Arctic than in the regions further south. Earlier research indicated that one of the factors behind this is the composition of the observing system in the Arctic, in particular the scarceness of conventional observations. To further assess possible strategies for alleviating the situation and propose scenarios for a future Arctic observing system, we have performed a set of experiments to gain a more detailed insight in the contribution of the components of the present observing system in a regional state-of-the-art non-hydrostatic NWP model using the AROME physics (Seity et al, 2011) at 2.5 km horizontal resolution - AROME-Arctic. Our observing system experiment studies showed that conventional observations (Synop, Buoys) can play an important role in correcting the surface state of the model, but prove that the present upper-air conventional (Radiosondes, Aircraft) observations in the area are too scarce to have a significant effect on forecasts. We demonstrate that satellite sounding data play an important role in improving forecast quality. This is the case with satellite temperature sounding data (AMSU-A, IASI), as well as with the satellite moisture sounding data (AMSU-B/MHS, IASI). With these sets of observations, the AROME-Arctic clearly performs better in forecasting extreme events, like for example polar lows. For more details see presentation by Randriamampianina et al. in this session. The encouraging performance of AROME-Arctic lead us to implement it with more observations and improved settings into daily runs with the objective to

  2. Chytrids dominate arctic marine fungal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, B T; Gradinger, R

    2016-06-01

    Climate change is altering Arctic ecosystem structure by changing weather patterns and reducing sea ice coverage. These changes are increasing light penetration into the Arctic Ocean that are forecasted to increase primary production; however, increased light can also induce photoinhibition and cause physiological stress in algae and phytoplankton that can favour disease development. Fungi are voracious parasites in many ecosystems that can modulate the flow of carbon through food webs, yet are poorly characterized in the marine environment. We provide the first data from any marine ecosystem in which fungi in the Chytridiomycota dominate fungal communities and are linked in their occurrence to light intensities and algal stress. Increased light penetration stresses ice algae and elevates disease incidence under reduced snow cover. Our results show that chytrids dominate Arctic marine fungal communities and have the potential to rapidly change primary production patterns with increased light penetration. PMID:26754171

  3. Fate of mercury in the Arctic (FOMA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, H.; Christensen, J.; Asmund, G.;

    This report is the final reporting of the project FONA, funded by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency with means from the MIKA/DANCEA funds for Environmental Support to the Arctic Region. The aim of the project is to study the intercompartment mercury transport chain in the arctic area. From...... atmospheric deposition of mercury on sea surfaces to uptake in marine organisms, bio-accumulation, and finally mercury levels in mammals. The studies in the project are focused on the behaviour of mercury during the spring period where special phenomena lead to an enhanced deposition of mercury in the Arctic...... environment, at a time where the marine ecosystem is particularly active. The studies also include a comprehensive time trend study of mercury in top carnivore species. Each of these studies contributes towards establishing the knowledge necessary to develop a general model for transport and uptake of mercury...

  4. Methan Dynamics in an Arctic Wetland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Cecilie Skov

    Rising temperatures in the Arctic have the potential to increase methane (CH4) emissions from arctic wetlands due to increased decomposition, changes in vegetation cover, and increased substrate input from vegetation and thawing permafrost. The effects of warming and changes in vegetation cover on...... be used to oxidize CH4. The over all effect of the presence of sedges on the CH4 budget is unknown for most arctic species. Here the effects of warming and changes in plant cover on CH4 dynamics and emissions in a wetland in Blæsedalen, Disko Island, W. Greenland were investigated. The importance of...... CH4 oxidation in the rhizosphere of Carex aquatilis ssp. stans and Eriophorum angustifolium was quantified using a 13CH4 tracer. The results showed that rhizospheric CH4 oxidation mediated less than 2% of ecosystem CH4 emissions. No significant effects of warming or shrub removal on ecosystem CH4...

  5. Mean Dynamic Topography of the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Sinead Louise; Mcadoo, David C.; Laxon, Seymour W.; Zwally, H. Jay; Yi, Donghui; Ridout, Andy; Giles, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    ICESat and Envisat altimetry data provide measurements of the instantaneous sea surface height (SSH) across the Arctic Ocean, using lead and open water elevation within the sea ice pack. First, these data were used to derive two independent mean sea surface (MSS) models by stacking and averaging along-track SSH profiles gathered between 2003 and 2009. The ICESat and Envisat MSS data were combined to construct the high-resolution ICEn MSS. Second, we estimate the 5.5-year mean dynamic topography (MDT) of the Arctic Ocean by differencing the ICEn MSS with the new GOCO02S geoid model, derived from GRACE and GOCE gravity. Using these satellite-only data we map the major features of Arctic Ocean dynamical height that are consistent with in situ observations, including the topographical highs and lows of the Beaufort and Greenland Gyres, respectively. Smaller-scale MDT structures remain largely unresolved due to uncertainties in the geoid at short wavelengths.

  6. Predictability of the Arctic sea ice edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goessling, H. F.; Tietsche, S.; Day, J. J.; Hawkins, E.; Jung, T.

    2016-02-01

    Skillful sea ice forecasts from days to years ahead are becoming increasingly important for the operation and planning of human activities in the Arctic. Here we analyze the potential predictability of the Arctic sea ice edge in six climate models. We introduce the integrated ice-edge error (IIEE), a user-relevant verification metric defined as the area where the forecast and the "truth" disagree on the ice concentration being above or below 15%. The IIEE lends itself to decomposition into an absolute extent error, corresponding to the common sea ice extent error, and a misplacement error. We find that the often-neglected misplacement error makes up more than half of the climatological IIEE. In idealized forecast ensembles initialized on 1 July, the IIEE grows faster than the absolute extent error. This means that the Arctic sea ice edge is less predictable than sea ice extent, particularly in September, with implications for the potential skill of end-user relevant forecasts.

  7. Arctic Ozone Depletion from UARS MLS Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manney, G. L.

    1995-01-01

    Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) measurements of ozone during four Arctic winters are compared. The evolution of ozone in the lower stratosphere is related to temperature, chlorine monoxide (also measured by MLS), and the evolution of the polar vortex. Lagrangian transport calculations using winds from the United Kingdom Meteorological Office's Stratosphere-Troposphere Data Assimilation system are used to estimate to what extent the evolution of lower stratospheric ozone is controlled by dynamics. Observations, along with calculations of the expected dynamical behavior, show evidence for chemical ozone depletion throughout most of the Arctic lower stratospheric vortex during the 1992-93 middle and late winter, and during all of the 1994-95 winter that was observed by MLS. Both of these winters were unusually cold and had unusually cold and had unusually strong Arctic polar vortices compared to meteorological data over the past 17 years.

  8. Projections and predictability of Arctic shipping accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, Nathanael; Haines, Keith; Hawkins, Ed

    2016-04-01

    The observed reduction in Arctic sea ice opens up the potential for shorter shipping routes across the Arctic Ocean, leading to potentially significant global economic savings. We demonstrate, using bias-corrected global climate models, that the projected sea ice melt through the 21st century increases opportunities for ships to sail through the Arctic between North Atlantic and East Asian ports. Transit potential for Open Water vessels doubles from early to mid-century and coincides with the opening of the trans-polar sea route. Although seasonal, routes become more reliable with an overall increased shipping season length, but with considerable variability from year-to-year. We also demonstrate that there is potential predictability for whether a particular season will be relatively open or closed to shipping access from a few months ahead.

  9. Bioaccumulation of radiocaesium in Arctic seals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, JoLynn; Wolkers, Hans; Andersen, Magnus; Rissanen, Kristina

    2002-12-01

    Seals are high trophic level feeders that bioaccumulate many contaminants to a greater degree than most lower trophic level organisms. Their trophic status in the marine food web and wide-spread distribution make seals useful sentinels of arctic environmental change. The purpose of this investigation is to document the levels and bioaccumulation potential of radiocaesium in high latitude seal species for which data have not previously been available. The study was carried out on harp, ringed, and bearded seals caught north of the island archipelago of Svalbard (82 deg. N) in 1999. The results are then compared with previous studies in order to elucidate factors responsible for bioaccumulation in Arctic seals. Concentrations of {sup 137}Cs were determined in muscle, liver and kidney samples from a total of 10 juvenile and one adult seal. The mean concentration in muscle samples for all animals was 0.23{+-}0.045 Bq/kg f.w. {sup 137}Cs concentrations in both liver and kidney samples were near detection limits ({approx}0.2 Bq/kg f.w.). The results are consistent with previous studies indicating low levels of radiocaesium in Arctic seals in response to a long term trend of decreasing levels of {sup 137}Cs in the Barents Sea region. Bioconcentration factors (BCFs) estimated for seals from NE Svalbard are low, ranging from 34 to 130. Comparing these values with reported BCFs for Greenland seals from other sectors of the European Arctic, we suggest that the combination of physiological and ecological factors on radiocaesium bioaccumulation is comparable among different Arctic seal populations. The application of this work to Arctic monitoring and assessment programs is discussed.

  10. Arctic Warming as News - Perils and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revkin, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    A science journalist in his 30th year covering human-driven climate change, including on three Arctic reporting trips, reflects on successes and setbacks as news media, environmentalists and Arctic communities have tried to convey the significance of polar change to a public for which the ends of the Earth will always largely be a place of the imagination.Novel challenges are arising in the 24/7 online media environment, as when a paper by a veteran climate scientist proposing a mechanism for abrupt sea-level rise became a big news story before it was accepted by the open-review journal to which it had been submitted. New science is digging in on possible connections between changing Arctic sea ice and snow conditions and disruptive winter weather in more temperate northern latitudes, offering a potential link between this distant region and the lives of ordinary citizens. As cutting-edge research, such work gets substantial media attention. But, as with all new areas of inquiry, uncertainty dominates - creating the potential for distracting the public and policymakers from the many aspects of anthropogenic climate change that are firmly established - but, in a way, boring because of that.With the challenges, there are unprecedented opportunities for conveying Arctic science. In some cases, researchers on expeditions are partnering with media, offering both scientists and news outlets fresh ways to convey the story of Arctic change in an era of resource constraints.Innovative uses of crittercams, webcams, and satellite observations offer educators and interested citizens a way to track and appreciate Arctic change. But more can be done to engage the public directly without the news media as an intermediary, particularly if polar scientists or their institutions test some of the established practices honed by more experienced communicators at NASA.

  11. Role of Greenland meltwater in the changing Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukhovskoy, Dmitry; Proshutinsky, Andrey; Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Myers, Paul; Platov, Gennady; Bamber, Jonathan; Curry, Beth; Somavilla, Raquel

    2016-04-01

    Observational data show that the Arctic ocean-ice-atmosphere system has been changing over the last two decades. Arctic change is manifest in the atypical behavior of the climate indices in the 21st century. Before the 2000s, these indices characterized the quasi-decadal variability of the Arctic climate related to different circulation regimes. Between 1948 and 1996, the Arctic atmospheric circulation alternated between anticyclonic circulation regimes and cyclonic circulation regimes with a period of 10-15 years. Since 1997, however, the Arctic has been dominated by an anticyclonic regime. Previous studies indicate that in the 20th century, freshwater and heat exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the sub-Arctic seas were self-regulated and their interactions were realized via quasi-decadal climate oscillations. What physical processes in the Arctic Ocean - sub-Arctic ocean-ice-atmosphere system are responsible for the observed changes in Arctic climate variability? The presented work is motivated by our hypothesis that in the 21st century, these quasi-decadal oscillations have been interrupted as a result of an additional freshwater source associated with Greenland Ice Sheet melt. Accelerating since the early 1990s, the Greenland Ice Sheet mass loss exerts a significant impact on thermohaline processes in the sub-Arctic seas. Surplus Greenland freshwater, the amount of which is about a third of the freshwater volume fluxed into the region during the 1970s Great Salinity Anomaly event, can spread and accumulate in the sub-Arctic seas influencing convective processes there. It is not clear, however, whether Greenland freshwater can propagate into the interior convective regions in the Labrador Sea and the Nordic Seas. In order to investigate the fate and pathways of Greenland freshwater in the sub-Arctic seas and to determine how and at what rate Greenland freshwater propagates into the convective regions, several numerical experiments using a passive tracer to

  12. Biodiversity of Arctic marine ecosystems and responses to climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, C.; Bluhm, B.; Gallucci, V.;

    2012-01-01

    . These changes have important impacts on the chemical and biological processes that are at the root of marine food webs, influencing their structure, function and biodiversity. Here we summarise current knowledge on the biodiversity of Arctic marine ecosystems and provide an overview of fundamental factors...... that structure ecosystem biodiversity in the Arctic Ocean. We also discuss climateassociated effects on the biodiversity of Arctic marine ecosystems and discuss implications for the functioning of Arctic marine food webs. Based on the complexity and regional character of Arctic ecosystem reponses...

  13. Do Arctic waders use adaptive wind drift?

    OpenAIRE

    Green, M.; Alerstam, T; Gudmundsson, GA; Hedenstrom, A; Piersma, T; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur A.; Hedenström, Anders

    2004-01-01

    We analysed five data sets of night directions of migrating arctic waders ill relation to,winds, recorded by tracking radar and optical range finder, in order to find out if these birds compensate for wind drift, or allow themselves to be drifted by winds. Our purpose was to investigate whether arctic waders use adaptive wind drift strategies or not. The data sets were collected in Siberia (two sets) and Canada during post-breeding (autumn) migration, and in Mauritania and South Sweden during...

  14. Unmanned Platforms Monitor the Arctic Atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Boer, Gijs; Ivey, Mark D.; Schmid, Beat; McFarlane, Sally A.; Petty, Rickey C.

    2016-02-22

    In the Arctic, drones and tethered balloons can make crucial atmospheric measurement to provide a unique perspective on an environment particularly vulnerable to climate change. Climate is rapidly changing all over the globe, but nowhere is that change faster than in the Arctic. The evidence from recent years is clear: Reductions in sea ice (Kwok and Unstersteiner, 2011) and permafrost (Romanovsky et al., 2002), in addition to modification of the terriestrial ecosystem through melting permafrost and shifting vegetation zones (burek et al., 2008; Sturm, et al., 2001), all point to a rapidly evolving.

  15. Temperature and precipitation history of the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, G.H.; Alley, R.B.; Anderson, L.;

    2010-01-01

    its present extent. With the loss of land ice, sea level was about 5 m higher than present, with the extra melt coming from both Greenland and Antarctica as well as small glaciers. The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) peaked w21 ka ago, when mean annual temperatures over parts of the Arctic were as much...... limits were substantially smaller than their 20th century average, and the flow of Atlantic water into the Arctic Ocean was substantially greater. As summer solar energy decreased in the second half of the Holocene, glaciers reestablished or advanced, sea ice expanded, and the flow of warm Atlantic water...

  16. The role of the Arctic in future global petroleum supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholt, Lars; Glomsroed, Solveig

    2011-07-01

    The Arctic has a substantial share of global petroleum resources, but at higher costs than in most other petroleum provinces. Arctic states and petroleum companies are carefully considering the potential for future extraction in the Arctic. This paper studies the oil and gas supply from 6 arctic regions during 2010-2050 along with global economic growth and different assumptions regarding petroleum prices and resource endowments. Supply is calculated based on a global model of oil and gas markets. The data on undiscovered resources for the Arctic is based on the estimates by USGS. Sensitivity studies are carried out for two alternative price scenarios and for a 50 per cent reduction of arctic undiscovered resources compared with the USGS 2008 resource estimate. Although a major part of the undiscovered arctic petroleum resources is natural gas, our results show that the relative importance of the Arctic as a world gas supplier will decline, while its importance as a global oil producer may be maintained. We also show that less than full access to undiscovered oil resources will have minor effect on total arctic oil production and a marginal effect on arctic gas extraction. The reason is that Arctic Russia is an important petroleum producer with a sufficiently large stock of already discovered resources to support their petroleum production before 2050. (Author)

  17. Climate Change, Globalization and Geopolitics in the New Maritime Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, L. W.

    2011-12-01

    Early in the 21st century a confluence of climate change, globalization and geopolitics is shaping the future of the maritime Arctic. This nexus is also fostering greater linkage of the Arctic to the rest of the planet. Arctic sea ice is undergoing a historic transformation of thinning, extent reduction in all seasons, and reduction in the area of multiyear ice in the central Arctic Ocean. Global Climate Model simulations of Arctic sea ice indicate multiyear ice could disappear by 2030 for a short period of time each summer. These physical changes invite greater marine access, longer seasons of navigation, and potential, summer trans-Arctic voyages. As a result, enhanced marine safety, environmental protection, and maritime security measures are under development. Coupled with climate change as a key driver of regional change is the current and future integration of the Arctic's natural wealth with global markets (oil, gas and hard minerals). Abundant freshwater in the Arctic could also be a future commodity of value. Recent events such as drilling for hydrocarbons off Greenland's west coast and the summer marine transport of natural resources from the Russian Arctic to China across the top of Eurasia are indicators of greater global economic ties to the Arctic. Plausible Arctic futures indicate continued integration with global issues and increased complexity of a range of regional economic, security and environmental challenges.

  18. Arctic security in an age of climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraska, James (ed.)

    2013-03-01

    Publisher review: This book examines Arctic defense policy and military security from the perspective of all eight Arctic states. In light of climate change and melting ice in the Arctic Ocean, Canada, Russia, Denmark (Greenland), Norway and the United States, as well as Iceland, Sweden and Finland, are grappling with an emerging Arctic security paradigm. This volume brings together the world's most seasoned Arctic political-military experts from Europe and North America to analyze how Arctic nations are adapting their security postures to accommodate increased shipping, expanding naval presence, and energy and mineral development in the polar region. The book analyzes the ascent of Russia as the first 'Arctic superpower', the growing importance of polar security for NATO and the Nordic states, and the increasing role of Canada and the United States in the region.(Author)

  19. Arctic Energy Technology Development Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Charles Chamberlin; Robert Chaney; Gang Chen; Godwin Chukwu; James Clough; Steve Colt; Anthony Covescek; Robert Crosby; Abhijit Dandekar; Paul Decker; Brandon Galloway; Rajive Ganguli; Catherine Hanks; Rich Haut; Kristie Hilton; Larry Hinzman; Gwen Holdman; Kristie Holland; Robert Hunter; Ron Johnson; Thomas Johnson; Doug Kame; Mikhail Kaneveskly; Tristan Kenny; Santanu Khataniar; Abhijeet Kulkami; Peter Lehman; Mary Beth Leigh; Jenn-Tai Liang; Michael Lilly; Chuen-Sen Lin; Paul Martin; Pete McGrail; Dan Miller; Debasmita Misra; Nagendra Nagabhushana; David Ogbe; Amanda Osborne; Antoinette Owen; Sharish Patil; Rocky Reifenstuhl; Doug Reynolds; Eric Robertson; Todd Schaef; Jack Schmid; Yuri Shur; Arion Tussing; Jack Walker; Katey Walter; Shannon Watson; Daniel White; Gregory White; Mark White; Richard Wies; Tom Williams; Dennis Witmer; Craig Wollard; Tao Zhu

    2008-12-31

    The Arctic Energy Technology Development Laboratory was created by the University of Alaska Fairbanks in response to a congressionally mandated funding opportunity through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), specifically to encourage research partnerships between the university, the Alaskan energy industry, and the DOE. The enabling legislation permitted research in a broad variety of topics particularly of interest to Alaska, including providing more efficient and economical electrical power generation in rural villages, as well as research in coal, oil, and gas. The contract was managed as a cooperative research agreement, with active project monitoring and management from the DOE. In the eight years of this partnership, approximately 30 projects were funded and completed. These projects, which were selected using an industry panel of Alaskan energy industry engineers and managers, cover a wide range of topics, such as diesel engine efficiency, fuel cells, coal combustion, methane gas hydrates, heavy oil recovery, and water issues associated with ice road construction in the oil fields of the North Slope. Each project was managed as a separate DOE contract, and the final technical report for each completed project is included with this final report. The intent of this process was to address the energy research needs of Alaska and to develop research capability at the university. As such, the intent from the beginning of this process was to encourage development of partnerships and skills that would permit a transition to direct competitive funding opportunities managed from funding sources. This project has succeeded at both the individual project level and at the institutional development level, as many of the researchers at the university are currently submitting proposals to funding agencies, with some success.

  20. Chapter 3: Circum-Arctic mapping project: New magnetic and gravity anomaly maps of the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaina, C.; Werner, S.C.; Saltus, R.; Maus, S.; Aaro, S.; Damaske, D.; Forsberg, R.; Glebovsky, V.; Johnson, K.; Jonberger, J.; Koren, T.; Korhonen, J.; Litvinova, T.; Oakey, G.; Olesen, O.; Petrov, O.; Pilkington, M.; Rasmussen, T.; Schreckenberger, B.; Smelror, M.

    2011-01-01

    New Circum-Arctic maps of magnetic and gravity anomalies have been produced by merging regional gridded data. Satellite magnetic and gravity data were used for quality control of the long wavelengths of the new compilations. The new Circum-Arctic digital compilations of magnetic, gravity and some of their derivatives have been analyzed together with other freely available regional and global data and models in order to provide a consistent view of the tectonically complex Arctic basins and surrounding continents. Sharp, linear contrasts between deeply buried basement blocks with different magnetic properties and densities that can be identified on these maps can be used, together with other geological and geophysical information, to refine the tectonic boundaries of the Arctic domain. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  1. Arctic Health Research Center report no. 101: Combating mosquitoes in arctic Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers combating mosquitoes in Arctic Alaska. The physiology and biology of mosquitoes is discussed, followed by techniques to combated mosquitoes.

  2. The Useless Arctic: Exploiting Nature in the Arctic in the 1870s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Spring

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available What is the discursive genealogy of an ecological approach to the Arctic? Building on distinctions suggested by Francis Spufford and Gísli Pálsson, this article examines a specific juncture in the history of European–Arctic interaction – the reception of the Austro-Hungarian Arctic Expedition in 1874 – and traces the potential for ecological and relational understandings in what seems to be an orientalist and exploitative material. Examining the medial reception in Austria and in Norway, along with certain key texts in which Arctic wildlife is described, we find that the Norwegian reception of the expedition emphasizes practical issues connected with resource exploitation in the Arctic, while the Austrian reception mostly sees the Arctic as a symbolic resource with which to negotiate issues of identity and modernity. The Austrian discourse revolves around a set of paradoxical contradictions, the most central being those between materialism and idealism and emptiness and fullness; we argue it is the instability of such ambiguities which produces the possibility of a future ecological discourse.

  3. Oribatid mites and springtails from a coffee plantation in Sierra Sur, Oaxaca, Mexico Ácaros oribatídeos e colêmbolos de uma plantação de café em Sierra Sur, Oaxaca, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Bernal Rojas

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare the oribatid mite and springtail communities in three plots with different soil use - Coffee (CP, secondary vegetation or fallow fields (acahual, A and a cloud mountain forest (CMF - within a coffee plantation located in Santa Maria Huatulco, Oaxaca State, Mexico. In each plot 20 samples (10 of soil, 10 of litter were taken and processed in Berlese funnels. The extracted fauna was preserved in 70% ethanol. A total of 3,031 oribatid mites belonging to 33 species, and 1,177 specimens of springtails belonging to 43 species, were collected. The number of species recorded was: 27 at CP (14 oribatids; 13 springtails, 44 at A (19 oribatids; 25 springtails and 62 at CMF (32 for each group. A total of 26 oribatid and 27 springtail species was found in the soil, and 25 oribatid and 32 springtail species were found in the litter. The most abundant species were the oribatids Rostroztes foveolatus (Haplozetidae, Tectocepheus sp. (Tecocepheidae, Karenella sp. (Oppidae, Atropacarus (Hoplophorella cf. fonseciai (Phthiracaridae, Epilohmannia pallida americana (Epilohmannidae, and the springtails Ceratophysella cf. gibbosa (Hypogastruridae, Mesaphorura sp. (Tullbergidae and Proisotoma cf. minuta (Isotomidae. Fourteen families and 18 species of Oribatida species and 5 families and 34 species of Collembola were recorded for the first time for the State.O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar as comunidades de ácaros oribatídeos e de colêmbolos em três parcelas com uso diferente do solo - plantação de café (CP, a vegetação secundária ou pousio (acahual, A e a floresta nublada de montanha (CMF - em uma plantação de café situada na municipalidade de Santa María Huatulco, estado de Oaxaca, México. Vinte amostras foram tomadas em cada lote (dez do solo, dez de serapilheira e processadas em funis de Berlese. A fauna extraída foi preservada em álcool 70%. Um total de 3.031 ácaros oribatídeos pertencentes a 33 esp

  4. Contrasting Arctic and Antarctic sea ice temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancoppenolle, Martin; Raphael, Marilyn; Rousset, Clément; Vivier, Frédéric; Moreau, Sébastien; Delille, Bruno; Tison, Jean-Louis

    2016-04-01

    Sea ice temperature affects the sea ice growth rate, heat content, permeability and habitability for ice algae. Large-scale simulations with NEMO-LIM suggest large ice temperature contrasts between the Arctic and the Antarctic sea ice. First, Antarctic sea ice proves generally warmer than in the Arctic, in particular during winter, where differences reach up to ~10°C. Second, the seasonality of temperature is different among the two hemispheres: Antarctic ice temperatures are 2-3°C higher in spring than they are in fall, whereas the opposite is true in the Arctic. These two key differences are supported by the available ice core and mass balance buoys temperature observations, and can be attributed to differences in air temperature and snow depth. As a result, the ice is found to be habitable and permeable over much larger areas and much earlier in late spring in the Antarctic as compared with the Arctic, which consequences on biogeochemical exchanges in the sea ice zone remain to be evaluated.

  5. Ocean acidification in the Western Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, W.; Chen, B.; Chen, L.

    2011-12-01

    We report carbonate chemistry and ocean acidification status in the western Arctic Ocean from 65-88οN based on data collected in summer 2008 and 2010. In the marginal seas, surface waters have high pH and high carbonate saturation state (Ω) due to intensive biological uptake of CO2. In the southern Canada Basin, surface waters have low pH and low Ω due to the uptake of atmospheric CO2 and sea-ice melt. In the northern Arctic Ocean basin, there is no serious ocean acidification in surface water due to heavy ice-coverage but pH and Ω in the subsurface waters at the oxygen minimum and nutrient maximum zone (at 100-150 m) are low due mostly to respiration-derived CO2 and an increased biological production and export in surface waters. Such multitude responses of ocean carbonate chemistry (northern vs. southern basin, basins vs. margins, and surface vs. subsurface) to climate changes are unique to the Arctic Ocean system. We will explore biogeochemical control mechanisms on carbonate chemistry and ocean acidification in the Arctic Ocean environments in the context of recent warming and sea-ice retreat.

  6. The Arctic Ocean Perennial Ice Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, R.; Cunningham, G. F.; Yueh, S.

    1998-01-01

    This study shows that: 1) the NSCAT backscatter fields provide an estimate of the PIZ coverage of the Arctic Ocean; and, 2) the decrease in PIZ area over the winter gives an indication of the PIZ area exported through Fram Strait.

  7. Recent Arctic Sea Level Variations from Satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Piccioni, Gaia

    2016-01-01

    Sea level monitoring in the Arctic region has always been an extreme challenge for remote sensing, and in particular for satellite altimetry. Despite more than two decades of observations, altimetry is still limited in the inner Arctic Ocean. We have developed an updated version of the Danish...... Technical University's (DTU) Arctic Ocean altimetric sea level timeseries starting in 1993 and now extended up to 2015 with CryoSat-2 data. The time-series covers a total of 23 years, which allows higher accuracy in sea level trend determination. The record shows a sea level trend of 2.2 ± 1.1 mm....../y for the region between 66°N and 82°N. In particular, a local increase of 15 mm/y is found in correspondence to the Beaufort Gyre. An early estimate of the mean sea level trend budget closure in the Arctic for the period 2005–2015 was derived by using the Equivalent Water Heights obtained from GRACE Tellus...

  8. Life Found Lurking under Arctic Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarah Graham; 刘晓

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Arctic tundra② would not appear a welcoming environment for life. But a paper published today in the journal Nature suggests that polar deserts may house photosynthetic③ organisms in a very unlikely place--under rocks. The discovery of the photosynthetic cyanobacteria④ could potentially double estimates of the carbon sequestration⑤ potential in these extreme environments.

  9. Water temperature controls in low arctic rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Tyler V.; Neilson, Bethany T.; Overbeck, Levi D.; Kane, Douglas L.

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the dynamics of heat transfer mechanisms is critical for forecasting the effects of climate change on arctic river temperatures. Climate influences on arctic river temperatures can be particularly important due to corresponding effects on nutrient dynamics and ecological responses. It was hypothesized that the same heat and mass fluxes affect arctic and temperate rivers, but that relative importance and variability over time and space differ. Through data collection and application of a river temperature model that accounts for the primary heat fluxes relevant in temperate climates, heat fluxes were estimated for a large arctic basin over wide ranges of hydrologic conditions. Heat flux influences similar to temperate systems included dominant shortwave radiation, shifts from positive to negative sensible heat flux with distance downstream, and greater influences of lateral inflows in the headwater region. Heat fluxes that differed from many temperate systems included consistently negative net longwave radiation and small average latent heat fluxes. Radiative heat fluxes comprised 88% of total absolute heat flux while all other heat fluxes contributed less than 5% on average. Periodic significance was seen for lateral inflows (up to 26%) and latent heat flux (up to 18%) in the lower and higher stream order portions of the watershed, respectively. Evenly distributed lateral inflows from large scale flow differencing and temperatures from representative tributaries provided a data efficient method for estimating the associated heat loads. Poor model performance under low flows demonstrated need for further testing and data collection to support the inclusion of additional heat fluxes.

  10. Carbon dioxide in Arctic and subarctic regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosink, T. A.; Kelley, J. J.

    1981-03-01

    A three year research project was presented that would define the role of the Arctic ocean, sea ice, tundra, taiga, high latitude ponds and lakes and polar anthropogenic activity on the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere. Due to the large physical and geographical differences between the two polar regions, a comparison of CO/sub 2/ source and sink strengths of the two areas was proposed. Research opportunities during the first year, particularly those aboard the Swedish icebreaker, YMER, provided additional confirmatory data about the natural source and sink strengths for carbon dioxide in the Arctic regions. As a result, the hypothesis that these natural sources and sinks are strong enough to significantly affect global atmospheric carbon dioxide levels is considerably strengthened. Based on the available data we calculate that the whole Arctic region is a net annual sink for about 1.1 x 10/sup 15/ g of CO/sub 2/, or the equivalent of about 5% of the annual anthropogenic input into the atmosphere. For the second year of this research effort, research on the seasonal sources and sinks of CO/sub 2/ in the Arctic will be continued. Particular attention will be paid to the seasonal sea ice zones during the freeze and thaw periods, and the tundra-taiga regions, also during the freeze and thaw periods.

  11. Conflict Resolution Practices of Arctic Aboriginal Peoples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gendron; C. Hille

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the conflict resolution practices of indigenous populations in the Arctic. Among the aboriginal groups discussed are the Inuit, the Aleut, and the Saami. Having presented the conflict resolution methods, the authors discuss the types of conflicts that are current

  12. Settlements in an Arctic Resource Frontier Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hacquebord, L.; Avango, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this article we use a core-periphery model in order to understand the general trends in the history of natural resource exploitation in the polar regions. The study focuses on whaling, hunting, and coal mining activities on the European High Arctic archipelago of Spitsbergen, from the seventeenth

  13. Do Arctic waders use adaptive wind drift?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, M; Alerstam, T; Gudmundsson, GA; Hedenstrom, A; Piersma, T; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur A.; Hedenström, Anders

    2004-01-01

    We analysed five data sets of night directions of migrating arctic waders ill relation to,winds, recorded by tracking radar and optical range finder, in order to find out if these birds compensate for wind drift, or allow themselves to be drifted by winds. Our purpose was to investigate whether arct

  14. From Cold War to Arctic Battle?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Boris Brorman

    2012-01-01

    Greenland and the whole Arctic region is becoming a geopolitical hot spot. The opening of new potential sail routes to Asia and the possible exploitation of oil, gas and other natural resources like rare earth minerals are creating a window of opportunity for Greenland. What are the risks and who...

  15. EU Engagement in the Arctic: Do the Policy Responses from the Arctic States Recognise the EU as a Legitimate Stakeholder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamrul Hossain

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic states are bound in an institutional relationship by means of their actions through the Arctic Council (AC—an organisation created by the eight Arctic states. Although a number of its European Union (EU states are both members and observers in the AC, the EU is not, despite its clear stake in the Arctic, for of a number of reasons. The AC twice postponed the application of the EU in 2013; however, it granted the EU the right to observe the AC meetings as an “observer in principle.” In addition to the significant resource and commercial interests of the EU in the Arctic, it assumes a stewardship role in the Arctic. As the leader in combating global climate change, for example, the EU is committed to assuming responsibility for protecting the Arctic environment given that climate change does have a devastating impact in the Arctic. Moreover, the EU is also concerned about its and continental Europe's only indigenous people, the Sámi, a significant proportion of whom live in its Arctic member states of Finland and Sweden. Thus, in recent years, the EU has endorsed a series of policy documents concerning the Arctic. Against the background of this development, this article examines whether the policy responses of the Arctic states with regard to the EU's increased ambition to engage in Arctic matters make it a legitimate actor or stakeholder. The article concludes that even though the Arctic states, as the primary actors, determine the region's governance approach, they see also a general partnership role for the EU with regard to the common goals of knowledge-based responsible governance and sustainable development of the Arctic.

  16. The Arctic Report Card: Communicating the State of the Rapidly Changing Arctic to a Diverse Audience via the Worldwide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, M. O.; Richter-Menge, J.; Overland, J. E.; Soreide, N. N.

    2013-12-01

    Rapid change is occurring throughout the Arctic environmental system. The goal of the Arctic Report Card is to communicate the nature of the many changes to a diverse audience via the Worldwide Web. First published in 2006, the Arctic Report Card is a peer-reviewed publication containing clear, reliable and concise scientific information on the current state of the Arctic environment relative to observational records. Available only online, it is intended to be an authoritative source for scientists, teachers, students, decision-makers, policy-makers and the general public interested in the Arctic environment and science. The Arctic Report Card is organized into five sections: Atmosphere; Sea Ice & Ocean; Marine Ecosystem; Terrestrial Ecosystem; Terrestrial Cryosphere. Arctic Report Card 2012, the sixth annual update, comprised 20 essays on physical and biological topics prepared by an international team of 141 scientists from 15 different countries. For those who want a quick summary, the Arctic Report Card home page provides highlights of key events and findings, and a short video that is also available on YouTube. The release of the Report Card each autumn is preceded by a NOAA press release followed by a press conference, when the Web site is made public. The release of Arctic Report Card 2012 at an AGU Fall Meeting press conference on 5 December 2012 was subsequently reported by leading media organizations. The NOAA Arctic Web site, of which the Report Card is a part, is consistently at the top of Google search results for the keyword 'arctic', and the Arctic Report Card Web site tops search results for keyword "arctic report" - pragmatic indications of a Web site's importance and popularity. As another indication of the Web site's impact, in December 2012, the month when the 2012 update was released, the Arctic Report Card Web site was accessed by 19,851 unique sites in 105 countries, and 4765 Web site URLs referred to the Arctic Report Card. The 2012 Arctic

  17. Global View of the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    NASA researchers have new insights into the mysteries of Arctic sea ice, thanks to the unique abilities of Canada's Radarsat satellite. The Arctic is the smallest of the world's four oceans, but it may play a large role in helping scientists monitor Earth's climate shifts.Using Radarsat's special sensors to take images at night and to peer through clouds, NASA researchers can now see the complete ice cover of the Arctic. This allows tracking of any shifts and changes, in unprecedented detail, over the course of an entire winter. The radar-generated, high-resolution images are up to 100 times better than those taken by previous satellites.Using this new information, scientists at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, Calif., can generate comprehensive maps of Arctic sea ice thickness for the first time. 'Before we knew only the extent of the ice cover,' said Dr. Ronald Kwok, JPL principal investigator of a project called Sea Ice Thickness Derived From High Resolution Radar Imagery. 'We also knew that the sea ice extent had decreased over the last 20 years, but we knew very little about ice thickness.''Since sea ice is very thin, about 3 meters (10 feet) or less,'Kwok explained, 'it is very sensitive to climate change.'Until now, observations of polar sea ice thickness have been available for specific areas, but not for the entire polar region.The new radar mapping technique has also given scientists a close look at how the sea ice cover grows and contorts over time. 'Using this new data set, we have the first estimates of how much ice has been produced and where it formed during the winter. We have never been able to do this before, ' said Kwok. 'Through our radar maps of the Arctic Ocean, we can actually see ice breaking apart and thin ice growth in the new openings. 'RADARSAT gives researchers a piece of the overall puzzle every three days by creating a complete image of the Arctic. NASA scientists then put those puzzle pieces together to create a time

  18. The Greening of the Arctic IPY Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D. A.; Bhatt, U. S.; Epstein, H. E.

    2008-12-01

    In 2007, Arctic sea ice extent declined to the lowest level in recorded history, 24 percent lower than the previous record in 2005. If the Arctic continues to warm over the next few decades as predicted by most arctic scientists, large changes in vegetation biomass will occur and will have important consequences to many components of the Arctic system including status of the permafrost, hydrological cycles, wildlife, and human occupation. There will also be important feedbacks to climate through changes in albedo and carbon fluxes. Changes in biomass are already happening. In Arctic Alaska from 1981 to 2001, the greenness of the landscapes as measured by satellite-derived values of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) increased by 17 percent. It is uncertain what this remarkable change in greenness means with respect to plant biomass, but current NDVI-biomass relationships suggest that an average of over 100 g m-2 have been added to the tundra of northern Alaska within the past twenty years. Other studies have shown a major increase of shrub cover across northern Alaska during the past 50 years. If the Arctic Ocean becomes ice- free during the summer, some of the largest percentage increases could occur in the coldest parts of the Arctic. The three major objectives of this project are: (1) establish baseline ground observations along two transects in North American and Eurasia that traverse the entire Arctic bioclimate gradient; (2) use remote sensing and climate change analysis to determine how changes in sea ice concentrations affect land-surface temperature and the NDVI, (3) use vegetation-change models to predict how vegetation will change in the future. Strong correlations exist between sea-ice concentrations, land-surface temperatures, and the maximum and integrated NDVI). The changes in greening have been strongest in the Beaufort Sea region. Between 1982 and 2007, sea ice in the 50-km coastal strip of Beaufort Sea area during the period 18 June

  19. Modeling the summertime Arctic cloudy boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, J.A.; Pinto, J.O. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); McInnes, K.L. [CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Mordialloc (Australia)

    1996-04-01

    Global climate models have particular difficulty in simulating the low-level clouds during the Arctic summer. Model problems are exacerbated in the polar regions by the complicated vertical structure of the Arctic boundary layer. The presence of multiple cloud layers, a humidity inversion above cloud top, and vertical fluxes in the cloud that are decoupled from the surface fluxes, identified in Curry et al. (1988), suggest that models containing sophisticated physical parameterizations would be required to accurately model this region. Accurate modeling of the vertical structure of multiple cloud layers in climate models is important for determination of the surface radiative fluxes. This study focuses on the problem of modeling the layered structure of the Arctic summertime boundary-layer clouds and in particular, the representation of the more complex boundary layer type consisting of a stable foggy surface layer surmounted by a cloud-topped mixed layer. A hierarchical modeling/diagnosis approach is used. A case study from the summertime Arctic Stratus Experiment is examined. A high-resolution, one-dimensional model of turbulence and radiation is tested against the observations and is then used in sensitivity studies to infer the optimal conditions for maintaining two separate layers in the Arctic summertime boundary layer. A three-dimensional mesoscale atmospheric model is then used to simulate the interaction of this cloud deck with the large-scale atmospheric dynamics. An assessment of the improvements needed to the parameterizations of the boundary layer, cloud microphysics, and radiation in the 3-D model is made.

  20. The Arctic Ocean and climate: A Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, K.; Carmack, E. C.

    The most likely effects of the Arctic Ocean on global climate are through the surface heat balance and the thermohaline circulation. The former is intimately related to the stratification of the Arctic Ocean, while the latter may be significantly controlled by outflow from the Arctic Ocean into the major convective regions to the south. Evaluating these issues adequately requires detailed knowledge of the density structure and circulation of the Arctic Ocean and of their variability. New long time series of temperature and salinity (T/S) from the Canadian Basin show a grainy T/S structure, probably on a horizontal scale of a few tens of kilometers. The temperature field is particularly inhomogeneous, since for cold water it is not greatly constrained by buoyancy forces. The simultaneous velocity time series show that the grainy T/S structure results from a complex eddy field, often with vertically or horizontally paired counter-rotating eddies drifting with a slow larger-scale flow. The ocean is therefore not well mixed on these scales. Finally, we note that the ventilation of the interior Arctic Ocean from the adjacent shelves appears to be highly variable on an interannual basis, and indeed may not be robust on longer time scales. In particular we note the absence, or near-absence, of deep ventilation of the Canadian Basin during the last 500 years. Based on the 14C model of Macdonald et al. [1993], however, we hypothesize that these same waters were ventilated prior to that time and that the deep convective shutdown about 500 years ago coincided with the end of the whale-hunting Thule culture. We further suggest that the two events had a common cause, viz., the increase of sea ice over the continental shelves during summer.

  1. Atmospheric Aspects of Recent Arctic Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serreze, M. C.

    2002-12-01

    Evidence assembled over the past several decades shows the Arctic system as in the midst of significant environmental change. This includes pronounced warming over most land areas, reductions in sea ice extent, alterations in precipitation, river discharge and sea ice circulation, and warming and increased areal extent of the Arctic Ocean's Atlantic layer. The accepted paradigm is that these changes relate to general dominance of the positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The AO is defined as the leading mode of Northern Hemisphere sea level pressure variability. It can be considered as an index of the strength of the circumpolar vortex. Circulation variability associated with the AO is most pronounced over the Atlantic sector, such that its index is strongly correlated with that of the NAO, which describes mutual strengthening and weakening of the Icelandic Low and Azores High. Whether the AO is a more fundamental mode than the NAO is acontinuing issue of debate. In the broadest sense, environmental changes associated with the dominant positive phase of the AO/NAO are responses to alterations in surface wind regimes and transports of heat and moisture. However, linkages with some variables, such as winter discharge from the Siberian rivers, appear to be indirect. Furthermore, while the AO/NAO is best expressed in winter, many Arctic changes, such as reduced sea ice extent, are most apparent during summer. Variability in other key variables, such as precipitation over the Eurasian Arctic watersheds, exhibit only weak links. The AO/NAO are natural modes of variability which operate on a spectrum of time scales. There is ample evidence that multidecadal variability in the AO/NAO relates to variability in sea surface temperatures. However, growing evidence suggests that the recent positive tendency may contain an anthropogenic component. A leading contender is stratospheric ozone loss. In this framework, the atmospheric

  2. Pan-Arctic observations in GRENE Arctic Climate Change Research Project and its successor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    We started a Japanese initiative - "Arctic Climate Change Research Project" - within the framework of the Green Network of Excellence (GRENE) Program, funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (MEXT), in 2011. This Project targeted understanding and forecasting "Rapid Change of the Arctic Climate System and its Global Influences." Four strategic research targets are set by the Ministry: 1. Understanding the mechanism of warming amplification in the Arctic; 2. Understanding the Arctic climate system for global climate and future change; 3. Evaluation of the impacts of Arctic change on the weather and climate in Japan, marine ecosystems and fisheries; 4. Projection of sea ice distribution and Arctic sea routes. Through a network of universities and institutions in Japan, this 5-year Project involves more than 300 scientists from 39 institutions and universities. The National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR) works as the core institute and The Japan Agency for Marine- Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) joins as the supporting institute. There are 7 bottom up research themes approved: the atmosphere, terrestrial ecosystems, cryosphere, greenhouse gases, marine ecology and fisheries, sea ice and Arctic sea routes and climate modeling, among 22 applications. The Project will realize multi-disciplinal study of the Arctic region and connect to the projection of future Arctic and global climatic change by modeling. The project has been running since the beginning of 2011 and in those 5 years pan-Arctic observations have been carried out in many locations, such as Svalbard, Russian Siberia, Alaska, Canada, Greenland and the Arctic Ocean. In particular, 95 GHz cloud profiling radar in high precision was established at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, and intensive atmospheric observations were carried out in 2014 and 2015. In addition, the Arctic Ocean cruises by R/V "Mirai" (belonging to JAMSTEC) and other icebreakers belonging to other

  3. Arctic Precipitation Analysis from the Arctic System Reanalysis (ASR): 2000-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, T.; Stroeve, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Recent Arctic Amplification (AA), (e.g. the warming trend in the Arctic that is larger than for the Northern Hemisphere or the global average), is strongly linked to declining sea ice extent (SIE) [Serreze and Barry, 2011]. Precipitation over the Arctic Ocean is projected to increase thorough the twenty-first century, in part linked to AA and SIE decline [Kattsov et al., 2007; Bintanja and Selten, 2014]. Since mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) is a key element in sea level rise through the end of this century, it is important to understand how precipitation may change in the future and impact the GrIS mass balance. As the first step, we need to better understand how current ice loss may be impacting precipitation over the ice sheet. Towards this end, monthly precipitation data from the Arctic System Reanalysis (ASR) is compared with gauge observations over Greenland. ASR is a high-resolution regional assimilation of model output developed as a resource for the detection and diagnosis of change in the coupled Arctic climate system [Bromwich et al., 2015]. In order to explore linkages between precipitation over Greenland and the surrounding SIE, ASR forecast precipitation data and SIE data from the NASA Team Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager data set [Cavalieri et al., 1999] are statistically analyzed from 2000 to 2012. As a case study, spatial distributions of precipitation and pressure at the surface and in the middle troposphere over the Arctic are analyzed during the great Arctic cyclone of August 2012 [Simmonds and Rudeva, 2012; Parkinson and Comiso, 2013; Zhang et al., 2013].

  4. Seasonality of Global and Arctic Black Carbon Processes in the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmood, R.; Von Salzen, Knut; Flanner, M. G.; Sand, M.; Langner, J.; Wang, Hailong; Huang, L.

    2016-06-22

    This study quantifies black carbon (BC) processes in three global climate models and one chemistry transport model, with focus on the seasonality of BC transport, emissions, wet and dry deposition in the Arctic. In the models, transport of BC to the Arctic from lower latitudes is the major BC source for this region while Arctic emissions are very small. All models simulated a similar annual cycle of BC transport from lower latitudes to the Arctic, with maximum transport occurring in July. Substantial differences were found in simulated BC burdens and vertical distributions, with CanAM (NorESM) producing the strongest (weakest) seasonal cycle. CanAM also has the shortest annual mean residence time for BC in the Arctic followed by SMHI-MATCH, CESM and NorESM. The relative contribution of wet and dry deposition rates in removing BC varies seasonally and is one of the major factors causing seasonal variations in BC burdens in the Arctic. Overall, considerable differences in wet deposition efficiencies in the models exist and are a leading cause of differences in simulated BC burdens. Results from model sensitivity experiments indicate that scavenging of BC in convective clouds acts to substantially increase the overall efficiency of BC wet deposition in the Arctic, which leads to low BC burdens and a more pronounced seasonal cycle compared to simulations without convective BC scavenging. In contrast, the simulated seasonality of BC concentrations in the upper troposphere is only weakly influenced by wet deposition in stratiform (layer) clouds whereas lower tropospheric concentrations are highly sensitive.

  5. 中国水生跳虫新种及新记录种记述(弹尾目)%New records and new species of fresh water springtails from China (Collembola)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳巧云; 傅荣恕

    2000-01-01

    Five species including one new species of the fresh water springtails collected from a pond in Shanghai Botanical Garden have been described: Podura aquatica,Hypogastrura yinae sp.nov,Isotomurus palustris,Sminthurides aquaticus and Pseudobourletiella spinata.Sminthurides aquaticus and Pseudobourletiella spinata are recorded from China for the first time.All the specimens examined are deposited in the Museum of Shanghai Institute of Entomology,the Chinese Academy of Sciences.%自Uchida(1948)从山西东冶县发现中国第1种水生Podura aquatica Lsinnaeus,1785以来,中国弹尾目水生种类再未见报道.该文记述了采自上海植物园水塘静水表面的弹尾目5新种,水生原Podura aquatica,尹氏球角Hypogastrura yinae sp. Nov.,沼生陷等Isotomurus palustris,水生握角圆Sminthurides aquaticus 及刺拟勃氏圆Pseudobourletiella spinata. 其中水生握角圆和刺拟勃氏圆为中国新记录种,尹氏球角为新种.新种的模式标本及观察的其它种的标本存放在中国科学院上海昆虫研究所标本馆.

  6. Research of legal status and navigation regime of arctic shipping lanes

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yue

    2016-01-01

    As the thawing of the sea ice within the Arctic Ocean, the Arctic is facing tremendous changes, including environment, economy, industry, culture and many other areas. As the sea ice decreasing, the Arctic region is becoming a “new world” opening its gate to the whole world. The most obvious aspect is about Arctic shipping issues. The Arctic Ocean is locating on special geographical point which closely connecting the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean. Furthermore, the Arctic Ocean has shorter ...

  7. Future-Proofing Japan’s Interests in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki

    2014-01-01

    In May 2013 the Arctic states convened in Kiruna, Sweden, in part to decide on whether six new states should be admitted as observers to the Arctic Council. Japan’s application was accepted along with those of China,India, Italy, Singapore, and South Korea. At a glance, one might ask what...... credentials Japan has to be involved in the leading Arctic forum. However, a closer look at its engagement in the Arctic indicates that Japan has genuine interests in political, economic, and environmental developments there. This essay examines Japan’s interests in the Arctic, its new role as an observer...... to the Arctic Council, and the international relationships that will affect Japan’s engagement in the region....

  8. Spatial Distribution of Methanesulphonic Acid in the Arctic Aerosol Collected during the Chinese Arctic Research Expedition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peipei Ye

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Methanesulphonic acid (MSA, mainly derived from marine biogenic emissions has been frequently used to estimate the marine biogenic contribution. However, there are few reports on MSA over the Arctic Ocean, especially the central Arctic Ocean. Here, we analyzed MSA in aerosol samples collected over the ocean and seas during the Chinese Arctic Research Expedition (CHINARE 2012 using ion chromatography. The aerosol MSA concentrations over the Arctic Ocean varied considerably and ranged from non-detectable (ND to 229 ng/m3, with an average of 27 ± 54 ng/m3 (median: 10 ng/m3. We found the distribution of aerosol MSA exhibited an obvious regional variation, which was affected by biotic and abiotic factors. High values were generally observed in the Norwegian Sea; this phenomenon was attributed to high rates of phytoplankton primary productivity and dimethylsulfide (DMS fluxes in this region. Concentrations over the pack ice region in the central Arctic Ocean were generally lower than over the open waters at the ice edge in the Chukchi Sea. This difference was the mainly caused by sea ice. In addition, we found that higher MSA concentrations were associated with warmer sea surface temperature (SST.

  9. Letter. Late cretaceous seasonal ocean variability from the arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Andrew; Kemp, Alan E.S.; Pike, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The modern Arctic Ocean is regarded as barometer of global change and amplifier of global warming1 and therefore records of past Arctic change are of a premium for palaeoclimate reconstruction. Little is known of the state of the Arctic Ocean in the greenhouse period of the late Cretaceous, yet records from such times may yield important clues to its future behaviour given current global warming trends. Here we present the first seasonally resolved sedimentary record from the Cretaceous from...

  10. Past Arctic aliens have passed away, current ones may stay

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Increased human activity and climate change are expected to increase the numbers and impact of alien species in the Arctic, but knowledge of alien species is poor in most Arctic regions. Through field investigations over the last 10 years, and review of alien vascular plant records for the high Arctic Archipelago Svalbard over the past 130 years, we explored long term trends in persistence and phenology. In total, 448 observations of 105 taxa have been recorded from 28 sites. Recent surveys a...

  11. Arctic glacier movement monitoring with GPS method on 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai Songtao; E Dongchen; Yan Ming; Ren Jiawen

    2006-01-01

    During the 2005 Arctic Yellow River Station expedition, the research on monitoring the movement and mass balance of two glaciers around Ny-Alesund,Station expedition were conducted. This paper analyzes the feasibility and advantage in using GPS method to monitor the Arctic glaciers'movement, estimates the precision of first time measured GPS data and discusses the relevant problems in surveying on the Arctic Glaciers with GPS.

  12. Observed impact of aerosols on Arctic cloud emissivity

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    IPCC results indicate that the main bulk of uncertainties on global warming is within aerosol-cloud interactions. Based on observations this thesis aims to measure how anthropogenic aerosol from mid-latitudes increase emissivity of clouds in the Arctic, thus increasing Arctic surface temperatures. Until recently this effect have been thought insignificant, but recent studies indicate that in the Arctic, many clouds may be susceptible to changes in emissivity. This is due to the few CCN an...

  13. Arctic air pollution: Challenges and opportunities for the next decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Arnold

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Arctic is a sentinel of global change. This region is influenced by multiple physical and socio-economic drivers and feedbacks, impacting both the natural and human environment. Air pollution is one such driver that impacts Arctic climate change, ecosystems and health but significant uncertainties still surround quantification of these effects. Arctic air pollution includes harmful trace gases (e.g. tropospheric ozone and particles (e.g. black carbon, sulphate and toxic substances (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that can be transported to the Arctic from emission sources located far outside the region, or emitted within the Arctic from activities including shipping, power production, and other industrial activities. This paper qualitatively summarizes the complex science issues motivating the creation of a new international initiative, PACES (air Pollution in the Arctic: Climate, Environment and Societies. Approaches for coordinated, international and interdisciplinary research on this topic are described with the goal to improve predictive capability via new understanding about sources, processes, feedbacks and impacts of Arctic air pollution. Overarching research actions are outlined, in which we describe our recommendations for 1 the development of trans-disciplinary approaches combining social and economic research with investigation of the chemical and physical aspects of Arctic air pollution; 2 increasing the quality and quantity of observations in the Arctic using long-term monitoring and intensive field studies, both at the surface and throughout the troposphere; and 3 developing improved predictive capability across a range of spatial and temporal scales.

  14. Exploring Arctic Transpolar Drift During Dramatic Sea Ice Retreat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gascard, J.C.; Festy, J.; le Goff, H.;

    2008-01-01

    The Arctic is undergoing significant environmental changes due to climate warming. The most evident signal of this warming is the shrinking and thinning of the ice cover of the Arctic Ocean. If the warming continues, as global climate models predict, the Arctic Ocean will change from a perennially...... ice-covered to a seasonally ice-free ocean. Estimates as to when this will occur vary from the 2030s to the end of this century. One reason for this huge uncertainty is the lack of systematic observations describing the state, variability, and changes in the Arctic Ocean....

  15. Arctic Research of the United States, Spring 1990, volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jerry; Bowen, Stephen

    This is a journal for national and international audiences of government officials, scientists, engineers, educators, Arctic residents, and other people interested in Arctic-related topics. Reports cover a broad spectrum of life in the Arctic including such topics as fish, game, health, social services, science, engineering, environment, oceanography, international activities, international cooperation, global change, conferences, polar libraries, data, policies, research, and history. The emphasis in this issue is on the importance of the Arctic Ocean and its marginal seas to U.S. national interests, including fisheries, the oil and gas industries, and global climate change processes.

  16. PMEL EcoFOCI Early Arctic Data, 1986-1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) Fisheries-Oceanography Cooperative Investigations (FOCI) Early Arctic Data, 1987 - 1991

  17. [Horse, cow and reindeer were converted into arctic domestic animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantanen, Juha

    2016-01-01

    Domestic animal production in the arctic region is often thought to be based exclusively on reindeer herding. There are, however, regions in Northern Europe and Siberia having a long tradition in rearing breeds of cattle and horse adapted to the northers conditions also. The development of these arctic animal breeds has been largely founded on old tradition rather than on the programs of breeding organizations. As a result of the selection carried out by nature and man, the domestic animals of arctic regions express characteristics that are metabolic, structural, associated with reproductive physiology and conducive to the adaptation to arctic conditions. PMID:27522831

  18. Identifying Priorities for International Arctic Research and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachold, V.; Hik, D.; Barr, S.

    2015-12-01

    The International Arctic Science Committee (IASC) is a non-governmental, international scientific organization, founded in 1990 by representatives of national scientific organizations of the eight Arctic countries - Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia (at that time Union of Soviet Socialist Republics), Sweden and the United States of America. Over the past 25 years, IASC has evolved into the leading international science organization of the North and its membership today includes 23 countries involved in all aspects of Arctic research, including 15 non-Arctic countries (Austria, China, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland and the UK). The Founding Articles committed IASC to pursue a mission of encouraging and facilitating cooperation in all aspects of Arctic research, in all countries engaged in Arctic research and in all areas of the Arctic region. IASC promotes and supports leading-edge multi-disciplinary research in order to foster a greater scientific understanding of the Arctic region and its role in the Earth system. IASC has organized three forward-looking conferences focused on international and interdisciplinary perspectives for advancing Arctic research cooperation and applications of Arctic knowledge. Indeed, the IASC Founding Articles call for IASC to host these conferences periodically in order to "review the status of Arctic science, provide scientific and technical advice, and promote cooperation and links with other national and international organizations." Through its members, including national science organizations and funding agencies from all countries engaged in Arctic research, IASC is uniquely placed to undertake this task. As an accredited observer on the Arctic Council, IASC is also in the position to introduce the outcome of its science planning efforts into the Arctićs main political body and to liaise with the Arctic Council Permanent

  19. Methane and Root Dynamics in Arctic Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Imperio, Ludovica

    , West Greenland, and CH4 and root dynamics were assessed in response to experimentally increased winter snow precipitation, summer warming and their interaction to better understand their contribution to the C balance of the Arctic. Our results indicate that both the dry heath and barren soils have......, length and maximum growth positively responded to experimental air warming, especially in the deeper soil layers; possibly due to an indirect effect of increased canopy temperature on the above-ground biomass. These initial below-ground responses to changes in climatic regimes suggest that future summer...... warming could potentially increase below-ground C allocation. Though, long-term observations will be necessary to address the effects that shifts in plant community composition and roots depth will have on the net C balance of the Arctic....

  20. Eurasian Arctic abyssal waters are warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Ursula; von Appen, Wilken-Jon; Somavilla Cabrillo, Raquel; Behrendt, Axel; Rabe, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    In the past decades, not only the upper water layers, but also the deepest layers of the Arctic Ocean have been warming. Observations show that the rate of warming varies markedly in the different basins with the fastest warming in the deep Greenland Sea (ca. 0.11°C per decade) and the Eurasian Basin featuring an average rate of ca. 0.01°C per decade. While the warming in the Greenland Sea is attributed to ongoing export of relatively warmer deep waters from the Arctic Ocean in combination with the halt of deep convection, the reason of Eurasian Basin deep warming is less clear. We discuss possible causes such as changes in the abyssal ventilation through slope convection, advection from other basins and/or geothermal heating through various sources.

  1. Influence of mountains on Arctic tropospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabrook, Jeffrey; Whiteway, James

    2016-02-01

    Tropospheric ozone was measured above Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic during spring of 2008 using a differential absorption lidar. The observations were carried out at Eureka Weather Station, which is located between various mountain ranges. Analysis of the observations revealed that mountains had a significant effect on the vertical distribution of ozone. Ozone depletion events were observed when air that had spent significant time near to the frozen surface of the Arctic Ocean reached Eureka. This air arrived at Eureka by flowing over the surrounding mountains. Surface level ozone depletions were not observed during periods when mountains blocked the flow of air from over the sea ice. In the case of blocking there was an enhancement in the amount of ozone near the surface as air from the midtroposphere descended in the lee of the mountains. Three case studies from spring of 2008 are described.

  2. Air cushion vehicles for arctic operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleser, J.; Lavis, D. R.

    1986-09-01

    Attention is given to the results of the NAVSEA FY85 Surface Ship Concept Formulation Design Study for an initial operational capability year-2000 air cushion vehicle (ACV) suitable for logistics and general search/rescue duties in the Arctic. Two designs were developed during the study; the first utilized an ACV design synthesis math model while the second evolved as a derivative of an existing U.S. production craft. Both are regarded as feasible from an engineering and naval architectural standpoint. Results of performance and cost trade-off studies suggest that, for an Arctic ACV, gas turbines are the preferred power plant choice and an aluminum alloy is the preferred hull structural material choice. The most appropriate skirt height is approximately 12 ft.

  3. Arctic smoke ? record high air pollution levels in the European Arctic due to agricultural fires in Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    A. Stohl; T. Berg; Burkhart, J. F.; A. M. Fjæraa; Forster, C.; Herber, A.; Hov, Ø.; Lunder, C.; McMillan, W. W.; Oltmans, S.; Shiobara, M.; Simpson, D; S. Solberg; K. Stebel; StrÖm, J.

    2006-01-01

    International audience In spring 2006, the European Arctic was abnormally warm, setting new historical temperature records. During this warm period, smoke from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe intruded into the European Arctic and caused the most severe air pollution episodes ever recorded there. This paper confirms that biomass burning (BB) was indeed the source of the observed air pollution, studies the transport of the smoke into the Arctic, and presents an overview of the observati...

  4. Evaluation of arctic broadband surface radiation measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Matsui, N.; C. N. Long; J. Augustine; Halliwell, D.; T. Uttal; Longenecker, D.; O. Nievergall; Wendell, J.; Albee, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure the total, direct and diffuse components of incoming and outgoing broadband shortwave (SW) and broadband thermal infrared, or longwave (LW) radiation. Enhancements can include various sensors for measuring irradiance in various narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are...

  5. Evaluation of Arctic broadband surface radiation measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Matsui, N.; C. N. Long; J. Augustine; Halliwell, D.; T. Uttal; Longenecker, D.; Niebergall, O.; Wendell, J.; Albee, R.

    2012-01-01

    The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ surface radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure incoming and outgoing shortwave (SW) and thermal infrared, or longwave (LW), radiation. Enhancements may include various sensors for measuring irradiance in narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers) that ...

  6. Climate-derived tensions in Arctic security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Strickland, James Hassler

    2008-09-01

    Globally, there is no lack of security threats. Many of them demand priority engagement and there can never be adequate resources to address all threats. In this context, climate is just another aspect of global security and the Arctic just another region. In light of physical and budgetary constraints, new security needs must be integrated and prioritized with existing ones. This discussion approaches the security impacts of climate from that perspective, starting with the broad security picture and establishing how climate may affect it. This method provides a different view from one that starts with climate and projects it, in isolation, as the source of a hypothetical security burden. That said, the Arctic does appear to present high-priority security challenges. Uncertainty in the timing of an ice-free Arctic affects how quickly it will become a security priority. Uncertainty in the emergent extreme and variable weather conditions will determine the difficulty (cost) of maintaining adequate security (order) in the area. The resolution of sovereignty boundaries affects the ability to enforce security measures, and the U.S. will most probably need a military presence to back-up negotiated sovereignty agreements. Without additional global warming, technology already allows the Arctic to become a strategic link in the global supply chain, possibly with northern Russia as its main hub. Additionally, the multinational corporations reaping the economic bounty may affect security tensions more than nation-states themselves. Countries will depend ever more heavily on the global supply chains. China has particular needs to protect its trade flows. In matters of security, nation-state and multinational-corporate interests will become heavily intertwined.

  7. Water Temperature Controls in Arctic Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, B. T.; King, T.; Schmadel, N. M.; Heavilin, J.; Overbeck, L. D.; Kane, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the dynamics of heat transfer mechanisms in arctic rivers is critical for forecasting the effects of climate change on river temperatures. Building on the collection of key data and a dynamic river temperature model that accounts for heat fluxes found important in temperate climates, we were able to identify portions of an arctic basin and hydrologic conditions for which heat flux dynamics differ from those found in temperate systems. During the open water season, similarities in heat flux influences include dominant shortwave radiation, greater surface exchanges than bed exchanges and greater influences of lateral inflows in the lower order portions of the basin. Differing from temperate systems, the heat flux contribution of net longwave radiation is consistently negative and both latent heat and bed friction are negligible. Despite these differences, accounting for the bulk lateral inflows from the basin resulted in accurate predictions during higher flows. Under lower flow conditions, however, lateral inflows were limited and resulting temperature predictions were poor. Work in a temperate system demonstrated that spatial variability in hydraulics influencing stream residence times are necessary for accurate river temperature predictions. Because heat fluxes at the air-water interface become increasingly dominant at low flows and these fluxes are sensitive to parameters representing the water surface area to volume ratio, similar to temperate systems, we expect that high-resolution representations of stream geometry and hydraulics are important both for accurate flux and residence time estimates. Furthermore, given the highly dynamic nature of flows in arctic basins, we anticipate that detailed information regarding spatially variable hydraulic characteristics (e.g., channel width, depth, and velocity) is critical for accurate predictions in low arctic rivers through a large range of flow conditions. Upon identifying key processes controlling

  8. Canada : oil, gas, and the new Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebert, R. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Political Science; Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Centre for Military and Strategic Studies

    2010-07-01

    This presentation provided a broad overview of the geopolitical issues affecting the massive transformation of the Arctic resulting from resource development, globalization, and climate change. Two Arctics are emerging, notably one European and one North American. Oil and gas companies are investing heavily in the North, and there is continued debate over pipelines and projects, but the viability of projects can shift abruptly from technological and political change. Recent examples include the emergence of shale gas, the possibility of the United States becoming a gas exporter, and the Deepwater Horizon disaster. In terms of Maritime jurisdictions and boundaries, a comparison was presented regarding the Canadian and Russian claims to the continental shelf. International cooperation and a commitment to peaceful means can be seen in the Ilulissat Declaration, the acceptance of the United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea as rules, the scientific cooperation of Canada, the United States, and Denmark, and the recent boundary agreement between Russia and Norway. The positions of the main players in the new geopolitics of the North were outlined, particularly with respect to Russia, the United States, Norway, Denmark, and Canada. Their recent policy statements and developing arctic force capabilities were summarized. Canada's more assertive Arctic policy was outlined in more detail along with the country's base locations and recent security actions in the North. The main issues facing nations with interests in the North will be maritime and aerospace; understanding the new players on the scene; and new technological developments. 10 figs., 5 refs.

  9. Invited Editorial: Vulnerable populations in the Arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Evengard, Birgitta; McMichael, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Earth’s average surface temperature is rising unusually fast. This global warming process is deemed by international scientific assessment to be predominantly due to human economic activities. Recent research indicates that, globally, the rate of emission of greenhouse gases is increasing, as is the rise in sea level and the loss of summer Arctic sea ice. Currently, the warming trend is ‘tracking’ at the top of the range of the previously modelled forecasts. Meanwhile, concerns are growing th...

  10. Quantifying transport into the Arctic lowermost stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Werner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In-situ measurements of the long-lived trace gases N2O, CFC-11 (CCl3F, H-1211 (CBrClF2, CH4, O3 and H2O performed in the Arctic winter 2003 on board the high-altitude aircraft M55 Geophysica are presented and used to study transport into the lowermost stratosphere (LMS. Fractions of air in the LMS originating in i the troposphere, ii the extra-vortex stratosphere above 400 K and iii the Arctic vortex above 400 K are determined using a simple mass balance calculation. The analysis exhibits a strong tropospheric influence of 50% or more in the lowest 20 K of the high-latitude LMS. Above this region the LMS is dominated by air masses having descended from above 400 K. Below the Arctic vortex region at potential temperatures above 360 K, air in the LMS is a mixture of extra-vortex stratospheric and vortex air masses. The vortex fraction increases from about 40% at 360 K to 100% at 400 K for equivalent latitudes >70° N. This influence of air masses descending through the bottom of the polar vortex increases over the course of the winter. By the end of winter a significant fraction of 30% vortex air in the LMS is found even at an equivalent latitude of 40° N. Since the chemical and dynamical history of vortex air is distinct from that of mid-latitude stratospheric air masses, this study implies that the composition of the mid- to high-latitude LMS during late winter and spring is significantly influenced by the Arctic vortex.

  11. Dipole anomaly in the Arctic atmosphere and winter Arctic sea ice motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Bingyi; ZHANG; Renhe

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates a previously-ignored atmospheric circulation anomaly-di- pole structure anomaly in the arctic atmosphere, and its relationship with the winter sea ice motion, based on analyses of the International Arctic Buoy Programme Data (1979-1998) and datasets from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) for the period of 1960-2002. The dipole structure anomaly is the second-leading mode of EOF of monthly mean SLP north of 70(N during the winter season (Oct.-Mar.), which accounts for 13% of the variance. One of its two anomaly centers is over the Canadian Archipelago; the other is situated over northern Eurasia and the Siberian marginal seas. Due to the dipole structure anomaly's strong meridionality, it becomes an important mechanism to drive both anomalous sea ice export out of the Arctic Basin and cold air outbreaks into the Barents Sea, the Nordic Seas and northern Europe.

  12. Chemical pollution in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic marine ecosystems: an overview of current knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savinova, T.N.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Falk-Petersen, S.

    1995-02-01

    This report is part of a research project in the framework of the Norwegian-Russian Environmental Cooperation, which was initiated in 1991 to elucidate the present status of environmental contaminants in the highly sensitive Arctic aquatic ecosystem, with special focus on sea birds. Although these ecosystems are the least polluted areas in the world, they are contaminated. The main pathways of contamination into Arctic and sub-Arctic marine ecosystems are atmospheric transport, ocean currents and rivers and in some areas, dumping and ship accidents. A literature survey reveals: (1) there is a lack of data from several trophic levels, (2) previous data are difficult to compare with recent data because of increased quality requirement, (3) not much has been done to investigate the effects of contaminants on the cellular level, at individual or population levels. 389 refs., 7 figs., 32 tabs.

  13. Radioactivity in the Arctic Seas. Report for the International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides comprehensive information on environmental conditions in the Arctic Seas as required for the study of possible radiological consequences from dumped high level radioactive wastes in the Kara Sea. The report describes the oceanography of the regions, with emphasis on the Kara and Barents Seas, including the East Novaya Zemlya Fjords. The ecological description concentrates on biological production, marine food-weds and fisheries in the Arctic Seas. The report presents data on radionuclide concentrations in the Kara and Barents Seas and uses these data to estimate the inventories of radionuclides currently in the marine environment of the Kara and Barents Seas

  14. Development of Exhibit on Arctic Climate Change Called The Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely Exhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, Barbara W.

    2006-04-01

    The exhibition, The Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely, was developed at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of Natural History (NMNH) as a part of the museum’s Forces of Change exhibit series on global change. It opened to the public in Spring 2006, in conjunction with another Forces of Change exhibit on the Earth’s atmosphere called Change Is in the Air. The exhibit was a 2000 square-foot presentation that explored the forces and consequences of the changing Arctic as documented by scientists and native residents alike. Native peoples of the Arctic have always lived with year-to-year fluctuations in weather and ice conditions. In recent decades, they have witnessed that the climate has become unpredictable, the land and sea unfamiliar. An elder in Arctic Canada recently described the weather as uggianaqtuq —an Inuit word that can suggest strange, unexpected behavior, sometimes described as that of “a friend acting strangely.” Scientists too have been documenting dramatic changes in the Arctic. Air temperatures have warmed over most—though not all—of the Arctic since the 1950s; Arctic precipitation may have increased by as much as 8%; seasonal melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet has increased on average by 16% since 1979; polar-orbiting satellites have measured a 15¬–20% decline in sea ice extent since the 1970s; aircraft reconnaissance and ship observations show a steady decrease in sea ice since the 1950s. In response to this warming, plant distributions have begun to shift and animals are changing their migration routes. Some of these changes may have beneficial effects while others may bring hardship or have costly implications. And, many scientists consider arctic change to be a ‘bell-weather’ for large-scale changes in other regions of the world. The exhibition included text, photos artifacts, hands-on interactives and other exhibitry that illustrated the changes being documented by indigenous people and scientists alike.

  15. Evaluating Arctic warming mechanisms in CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzke, Christian L. E.; Lee, Sukyoung; Feldstein, Steven B.

    2016-07-01

    Arctic warming is one of the most striking signals of global warming. The Arctic is one of the fastest warming regions on Earth and constitutes, thus, a good test bed to evaluate the ability of climate models to reproduce the physics and dynamics involved in Arctic warming. Different physical and dynamical mechanisms have been proposed to explain Arctic amplification. These mechanisms include the surface albedo feedback and poleward sensible and latent heat transport processes. During the winter season when Arctic amplification is most pronounced, the first mechanism relies on an enhancement in upward surface heat flux, while the second mechanism does not. In these mechanisms, it has been proposed that downward infrared radiation (IR) plays a role to a varying degree. Here, we show that the current generation of CMIP5 climate models all reproduce Arctic warming and there are high pattern correlations—typically greater than 0.9—between the surface air temperature (SAT) trend and the downward IR trend. However, we find that there are two groups of CMIP5 models: one with small pattern correlations between the Arctic SAT trend and the surface vertical heat flux trend (Group 1), and the other with large correlations (Group 2) between the same two variables. The Group 1 models exhibit higher pattern correlations between Arctic SAT and 500 hPa geopotential height trends, than do the Group 2 models. These findings suggest that Arctic warming in Group 1 models is more closely related to changes in the large-scale atmospheric circulation, whereas in Group 2, the albedo feedback effect plays a more important role. Interestingly, while Group 1 models have a warm or weak bias in their Arctic SAT, Group 2 models show large cold biases. This stark difference in model bias leads us to hypothesize that for a given model, the dominant Arctic warming mechanism and trend may be dependent on the bias of the model mean state.

  16. Arctic-COLORS (Coastal Land Ocean Interactions in the Arctic) - a NASA field campaign scoping study to examine land-ocean interactions in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernes, P.; Tzortziou, M.; Salisbury, J.; Mannino, A.; Matrai, P.; Friedrichs, M. A.; Del Castillo, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic region is warming faster than anywhere else on the planet, triggering rapid social and economic changes and impacting both terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Yet our understanding of critical processes and interactions along the Arctic land-ocean interface is limited. Arctic-COLORS is a Field Campaign Scoping Study funded by NASA's Ocean Biology and Biogeochemistry Program that aims to improve understanding and prediction of land-ocean interactions in a rapidly changing Arctic coastal zone, and assess vulnerability, response, feedbacks and resilience of coastal ecosystems, communities and natural resources to current and future pressures. Specific science objectives include: - Quantify lateral fluxes to the arctic inner shelf from (i) rivers and (ii) the outer shelf/basin that affect biology, biodiversity, biogeochemistry (i.e. organic matter, nutrients, suspended sediment), and the processing rates of these constituents in coastal waters. - Evaluate the impact of the thawing of Arctic permafrost within the river basins on coastal biology, biodiversity and biogeochemistry, including various rates of community production and the role these may play in the health of regional economies. - Assess the impact of changing Arctic landfast ice and coastal sea ice dynamics. - Establish a baseline for comparison to future change, and use state-of-the-art models to assess impacts of environmental change on coastal biology, biodiversity and biogeochemistry. A key component of Arctic-COLORS will be the integration of satellite and field observations with coupled physical-biogeochemical models for predicting impacts of future pressures on Arctic, coastal ocean, biological processes and biogeochemical cycles. Through interagency and international collaborations, and through the organization of dedicated workshops, town hall meetings and presentations at international conferences, the scoping study engages the broader scientific community and invites participation of

  17. The Arctic Climate Modeling Program: Professional Development for Rural Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Kathryn Berry

    2010-01-01

    The Arctic Climate Modeling Program (ACMP) offered yearlong science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) professional development to teachers in rural Alaska. Teacher training focused on introducing youth to workforce technologies used in Arctic research. Due to challenges in making professional development accessible to rural teachers, ACMP…

  18. Fresh Water Content Variability in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa; Proshutinsky, Andrey

    2003-01-01

    Arctic Ocean model simulations have revealed that the Arctic Ocean has a basin wide oscillation with cyclonic and anticyclonic circulation anomalies (Arctic Ocean Oscillation; AOO) which has a prominent decadal variability. This study explores how the simulated AOO affects the Arctic Ocean stratification and its relationship to the sea ice cover variations. The simulation uses the Princeton Ocean Model coupled to sea ice. The surface forcing is based on NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis and its climatology, of which the latter is used to force the model spin-up phase. Our focus is to investigate the competition between ocean dynamics and ice formation/melt on the Arctic basin-wide fresh water balance. We find that changes in the Atlantic water inflow can explain almost all of the simulated fresh water anomalies in the main Arctic basin. The Atlantic water inflow anomalies are an essential part of AOO, which is the wind driven barotropic response to the Arctic Oscillation (AO). The baroclinic response to AO, such as Ekman pumping in the Beaufort Gyre, and ice meldfreeze anomalies in response to AO are less significant considering the whole Arctic fresh water balance.

  19. Deep Arctic Ocean warming during the last glacial cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G.S.; Farmer, J.; Bauch, H.A.; Spielhagen, R.F.; Jakobsson, M.; Nilsson, J.; Briggs, W.M.; Stepanova, A.

    2012-01-01

    In the Arctic Ocean, the cold and relatively fresh water beneath the sea ice is separated from the underlying warmer and saltier Atlantic Layer by a halocline. Ongoing sea ice loss and warming in the Arctic Ocean have demonstrated the instability of the halocline, with implications for further sea ice loss. The stability of the halocline through past climate variations is unclear. Here we estimate intermediate water temperatures over the past 50,000 years from the Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca values of ostracods from 31 Arctic sediment cores. From about 50 to 11 kyr ago, the central Arctic Basin from 1,000 to 2,500 m was occupied by a water mass we call Glacial Arctic Intermediate Water. This water mass was 1–2 °C warmer than modern Arctic Intermediate Water, with temperatures peaking during or just before millennial-scale Heinrich cold events and the Younger Dryas cold interval. We use numerical modelling to show that the intermediate depth warming could result from the expected decrease in the flux of fresh water to the Arctic Ocean during glacial conditions, which would cause the halocline to deepen and push the warm Atlantic Layer into intermediate depths. Although not modelled, the reduced formation of cold, deep waters due to the exposure of the Arctic continental shelf could also contribute to the intermediate depth warming.

  20. What Should Children Know about the Arctic Ocean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockard, James W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Lists essential information about the Arctic Ocean which should be taught in elementary social studies courses, and which teacher training programs should cover. Discusses popular misconceptions regarding the Arctic Ocean and factors, such as the coloration on maps and globes, which lead to these misconceptions. (LS)

  1. Atopic sensitization among children in an arctic environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause, T G; Koch, A; Poulsen, Lars K.;

    2002-01-01

    Asthma has been reported to be rare among Inuits, but so far total and specific IgE levels have never been determined in arctic populations.......Asthma has been reported to be rare among Inuits, but so far total and specific IgE levels have never been determined in arctic populations....

  2. Benthic primary production and mineralization in a High Arctic fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attard, Karl; Hancke, Kasper; Sejr, Mikael K.;

    2016-01-01

    Coastal and shelf systems likely exert major influence on Arctic Ocean functioning, yet key ecosystem processes remain poorly quantified. We employed the aquatic eddy covariance (AEC) oxygen (O2) flux method to estimate benthic primary production and mineralization in a High Arctic Greenland fjord...

  3. The early twentieth century warming and winter Arctic sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Semenov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic has featured the strongest surface warming over the globe during the recent decades, and the temperature increase has been accompanied by a rapid decline in sea ice extent. However, little is known about Arctic sea ice change during the early twentieth century warming (ETCW during 1920–1940, also a period of a strong surface warming, both globally and in the Arctic. Here, we investigate the sensitivity of Arctic winter surface air temperature (SAT to sea ice during 1875–2008 by means of simulations with an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM forced by estimates of the observed sea surface temperature (SST and sea ice concentration. The Arctic warming trend since the 1960s is very well reproduced by the model. In contrast, ETCW in the Arctic is hardly captured. This is consistent with the fact that the sea ice extent in the forcing data does not strongly vary during ETCW. AGCM simulations with observed SST but fixed sea ice reveal a strong dependence of winter SAT on sea ice extent. In particular, the warming during the recent decades is strongly underestimated by the model, if the sea ice extent does not decline and varies only seasonally. This suggests that a significant reduction of winter Arctic sea ice extent may have also accompanied the early twentieth century warming, pointing toward an important link between anomalous sea ice extent and Arctic surface temperature variability.

  4. The early twentieth century warming and winter Arctic sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Semenov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic featured the strongest surface warming over the globe during the recent decades, and the temperature increase was accompanied by a rapid decline in sea ice extent. However, little is known about Arctic sea ice change during the Early Twentieth Century Warming (ETCW during 1920–1940, also a period of a strong surface warming, both globally and in the Arctic. Here, we investigate the sensitivity of Arctic winter surface air temperature (SAT to sea ice during 1875–2008 by means of simulations with an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM forced by estimates of the observed sea surface temperature (SST and sea ice concentration. The Arctic warming trend since the 1960s is very well reproduced by the model. In contrast, ETCW in the Arctic is hardly captured. This is consistent with the fact that the sea ice extent in the forcing data does not strongly vary during ETCW. AGCM simulations with observed SST but fixed sea ice reveal a strong dependence of winter SAT on sea ice extent. In particular, the warming during the recent decades is strongly underestimated by the model, if the sea ice extent does not decline and varies only seasonally. This suggests that a significant reduction of Arctic sea ice extent may have also accompanied the Early Twentieth Century Warming, pointing toward an important link between anomalous sea ice extent and Arctic surface temperature variability.

  5. The genetic prehistory of the New World Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavan, Maanasa; DeGiorgio, Michael; Albrechtsen, Anders;

    2014-01-01

    The New World Arctic, the last region of the Americas to be populated by humans, has a relatively well-researched archaeology, but an understanding of its genetic history is lacking. We present genome-wide sequence data from ancient and present-day humans from Greenland, Arctic Canada, Alaska...

  6. Large ancient organic matter contributions to Arctic marine sediments (Svalbard)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, J.-H.; Peterse, F.; Willmott, V.; Klitgaard Kristensen, D.; Baas, M.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Soils, fine-grained ice-rafted detritus (IRD), coals, and marine surface sediments in the Arctic realm (Svalbard) were collected in 2007 and 2008 to characterize organic matter (OM) sources in Arctic marine sediments. Bulk geochemical (C : N ratio and stable carbon isotopic composition) parameters s

  7. Large ancient organic matter contributions to Arctic marine sediments (Svalbard)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, J.-H.; Peterse, F.; Willmott, V.; Klitgaard Kristensen, D.; Baas, M.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Soils, fine-grained ice-rafted detritus (IRD), coals, and marine surface sediments in the Arctic realm (Svalbard)were collected in 2007 and 2008 to characterize organic matter (OM) sources in Arctic marine sediments. Bulkgeochemical (C : N ratio and stable carbon isotopic composition) parameters sug

  8. The progress in the study of Arctic pack ice ecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何剑锋; 王桂忠; 蔡明红; 李少菁

    2004-01-01

    The sea ice community plays an important role in the Arctic marine ecosystem. Because of the predicted environmental changes in the Arctic environment and specifically related to sea ice, the Arctic pack ice biota has received more attention in recent years using modern ice-breaking research vessels. Studies show that the Arctic pack ice contains a diverse biota and besides ice algae, the bacterial and protozoan biomasses can be high. Surprisingly high primary production values were observed in the pack ice of the central Arctic Ocean. Occasionally biomass maximum were discovered in the interior of the ice floes, a habitat that had been ignored in most Arctic studies. Many scientific questions, which deserve special attention, remained unsolved due to logistic limitations and the sea ice characteristics. Little is know about the pack ice community in the central Arctic Ocean. Almost no data exists from the pack ice zone for the winter season. Concerning the abundance of bacteria and protozoa, more studies are needed to understand the microbial network within the ice and its role in material and energy flows. The response of the sea ice biota to global change will impact the entire Arctic marine ecosystem and a long-term monitoring program is needed. The techniques, that are applied to study the sea ice biota and the sea ice ecology, should be improved.

  9. Adapting Governance and Regulation of the Marine Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The Arctic is currently undergoing change at a pace many would not have considered possible just a decade or so ago. It is therefore reasonable to argue that while the international law and policy regime for the governance and regulation of the marine Arctic may have been adequate for an ice-dominat

  10. Climate change and the ecology and evolution of Arctic vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilg, Olivier; Kovacs, Kit M.; Aars, J.;

    2012-01-01

    , and ocean acidification will also affect Arctic ecosystems in the future. Adaptation via natural selection is problematic in such a rapidly changing environment. Adjustment via phenotypic plasticity is therefore likely to dominate Arctic vertebrate responses in the short term, and many such adjustments have...

  11. International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere (IASOA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ingeborg Elbæk; Skov, Henrik; Massling, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    , Norway, Finland, and Greenland, to create synthesis science that leads to an understanding of why, and not just how the Arctic atmosphere is evolving. The IASOA premise is that there are limitations with Arctic modeling and satellite observations that can only be addressed with boots-on-the-ground, in...

  12. Towards Arctic Resource Governance of Marine Invasive Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kourantidou, Melina; Kaiser, Brooks; Fernandez, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Scientific and policy-oriented publications highlighting the magnitude of uncertainty in the changing Arctic and the possibilities for effective regional governance are proliferating, yet it remains a challenging task to examine Arctic marine biodiversity. Limited scientific data are currently av...

  13. A quantitative assessment of Arctic shipping in 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguíluz, Victor M; Fernández-Gracia, Juan; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M

    2016-01-01

    Rapid loss of sea ice is opening up the Arctic Ocean to shipping, a practice that is forecasted to increase rapidly by 2050 when many models predict that the Arctic Ocean will largely be free of ice toward the end of summer. These forecasts carry considerable uncertainty because Arctic shipping was previously considered too sparse to allow for adequate validation. Here, we provide quantitative evidence that the extent of Arctic shipping in the period 2011-2014 is already significant and that it is concentrated (i) in the Norwegian and Barents Seas, and (ii) predominantly accessed via the Northeast and Northwest Passages. Thick ice along the forecasted direct trans-Arctic route was still present in 2014, preventing transit. Although Arctic shipping remains constrained by the extent of ice coverage, during every September, this coverage is at a minimum, allowing the highest levels of shipping activity. Access to Arctic resources, particularly fisheries, is the most important driver of Arctic shipping thus far. PMID:27477878

  14. Sea ice in the Canadian Arctic in the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate warming will occur first and most intensely in Arctic regions, according to the numerical simulations of future climate performed with different Global Climate Models (GCMs). It includes the simulations performed by the Meteorological Service of Canada. The observations gathered in the Arctic indicate that the present warming has no precedent over the past four hundred years. Since the 1970s, data acquired mainly by satellite indicates that the extent of Arctic sea ice decreased at a rate of approximately three per cent per decade. Over the period 1969-2000, a similar rate of decrease has been observed within Canadian Arctic waters. Over the past forty years, estimates of the thickness of ice in the Arctic, based on submarine measurements, show a 40 per cent decrease. By 2050, if all the conditions remain as they are, the Arctic Ocean could be ice free. The most widely held scientific opinion seems to be that in the future there will be less ice in the Arctic than what was observed in the past, an opinion that is still being debated by scientists. The development of local natural resources and trans-shipment between Europe and Asia could increase dramatically in a future with less ice. Marine transportation in the Canadian Arctic would be expanded. Climatological analysis results of Canadian ice information is presented by the authors, and they have chosen to discuss various probable scenarios related to ice conditions during this century. 13 refs., 8 figs

  15. High-Arctic butterflies become smaller with rising temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowden, Joseph James; Eskildsen, Anne; Hansen, Rikke Reisner;

    2015-01-01

    size but long growing seasons could also increase body size as was recently shown in an Arctic spider species. Here, we present the longest known time series on body size variation in two High-Arctic butterfly species: Boloria chariclea and Colias hecla. We measured wing length of nearly 4500...

  16. Expansion of vegetated coastal ecosystems in the future Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorte eKrause-Jensen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Warming occurs particularly fast in the Arctic and exerts profound effects on arctic ecosystems. Sea ice-associated ecosystems are projected to decline but reduced arctic sea ice cover also increases the solar radiation reaching the coastal seafloors with the potential for expansion of vegetated habitats, i.e. kelp forests and seagrass meadows. These habitats support key ecosystem functions, some of which may mitigate effects of climate change. Therefore, the likely expansion of vegetated coastal habitats in the Arctic will generate new productive ecosystems, offer habitat for a number of invertebrate and vertebrate species, including provision of refugia for calcifiers from possible threats from ocean acidification, contribute to enhance CO2 sequestration and protect the shoreline from erosion. The development of models allowing quantitative forecasts of the future of vegetated arctic ecosystems requires that key hypotheses underlying such forecasts be tested. Here we propose a set of three key testable hypotheses along with a research agenda for testing them using a broad diversity of approaches, including analyses of paleo-records, space for-time substitutions and experimental studies. The research agenda proposed would provide a solid underpinning to guide forecasts on the spread of marine macrophytes onto the Arctic with climate change and contribute to balance our understanding of climate change impacts on the arctic ecosystem through a focus on the role of engineering species. Anticipating these changes in ecosystem structure and function is key to develop managerial strategies to maximize these ecosystem services in a future warmer Arctic.

  17. Arctic methane sources: Isotopic evidence for atmospheric inputs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fisher, R.E.; Sriskantharajah, S.; Lowry, D.; Lanoisellé, M.; Fowler, C.M.R.; James, R.H.; Hermansen, O.; Lund Myhre, C.; Stohl, A.; Greinert, J.; Nisbet-Jones, P.B.R.; Mienert, J.; Nisbet, E.G.

    2011-01-01

    By comparison of the methane mixing ratio and the carbon isotope ratio (delta C-13(CH4)) in Arctic air with regional background, the incremental input of CH4 in an air parcel and the source delta C-13(CH4) signature can be determined. Using this technique the bulk Arctic CH4 source signature of air

  18. Dominant patterns of winter Arctic surface wind variability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Bingyi; John Walsh; LIU Jiping; ZHANG Xiangdong

    2014-01-01

    Dominant statistical patterns of winter Arctic surface wind (WASW) variability and their impacts on Arctic sea ice motion are investigated using the complex vector empirical orthogonal function (CVEOF) method. The results indicate that the leading CVEOF of Arctic surface wind variability, which accounts for 33% of the covariance, is characterized by two different and alternating spatial patterns (WASWP1 and WASWP2). Both WASWP1 and WASWP2 show strong interannual and decadal variations, superposed on their declining trends over past decades. Atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with WASWP1 and WASWP2 exhibit, respectively, equivalent barotropic and some baroclinic characteristics, differing from the Arctic dipole anomaly and the seesaw structure anomaly between the Barents Sea and the Beaufort Sea. On decadal time scales, the decline trend of WASWP2 can be attributed to persistent warming of sea surface temperature in the Greenland—Barents—Kara seas from autumn to winter, relfecting the effect of the Arctic warming. The second CVEOF, which accounts for 18% of the covariance, also contains two different spatial patterns (WASWP3 and WASWP4). Their time evolutions are signiifcantly correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index and the central Arctic Pattern, respectively, measured by the leading EOF of winter sea level pressure (SLP) north of 70°N. Thus, winter anomalous surface wind pattern associated with the NAO is not the most important surface wind pattern. WASWP3 and WASWP4 primarily relfect natural variability of winter surface wind and neither exhibits an apparent trend that differs from WASWP1 or WASWP2. These dominant surface wind patterns strongly inlfuence Arctic sea ice motion and sea ice exchange between the western and eastern Arctic. Furthermore, the Fram Strait sea ice volume lfux is only signiifcantly correlated with WASWP3. The results demonstrate that surface and geostrophic winds are not interchangeable in terms of

  19. Beyond Thin Ice: Co-Communicating the Many Arctics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckenmiller, M. L.; Francis, J. A.; Huntington, H.

    2015-12-01

    Science communication, typically defined as informing non-expert communities of societally relevant science, is persuaded by the magnitude and pace of scientific discoveries, as well as the urgency of societal issues wherein science may inform decisions. Perhaps nowhere is the connection between these facets stronger than in the marine and coastal Arctic where environmental change is driving advancements in our understanding of natural and socio-ecological systems while paving the way for a new assortment of arctic stakeholders, who generally lack adequate operational knowledge. As such, the Arctic provides opportunity to advance the role of science communication into a collaborative process of engagement and co-communication. To date, the communication of arctic change falls within four primary genres, each with particular audiences in mind. The New Arctic communicates an arctic of new stakeholders scampering to take advantage of unprecedented access. The Global Arctic conveys the Arctic's importance to the rest of the world, primarily as a regulator of lower-latitude climate and weather. The Intra-connected Arctic emphasizes the increasing awareness of the interplay between system components, such as between sea ice loss and marine food webs. The Transforming Arctic communicates the region's trajectory relative to the historical Arctic, acknowledging the impacts on indigenous peoples. The broad societal consensus on climate change in the Arctic as compared to other regions in the world underscores the opportunity for co-communication. Seizing this opportunity requires the science community's engagement with stakeholders and indigenous peoples to construct environmental change narratives that are meaningful to climate responses relative to non-ecological priorities (e.g., infrastructure, food availability, employment, or language). Co-communication fosters opportunities for new methods of and audiences for communication, the co-production of new interdisciplinary

  20. Strategic Assessment for Arctic Observing, and the New Arctic Observing Viewer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassin, A.; Cody, R. P.; Manley, W. F.; Gaylord, A. G.; Dover, M.; Score, R.; Lin, D. H.; Villarreal, S.; Quezada, A.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    Although a great deal of progress has been made with various Arctic Observing efforts, it can be difficult to assess that progress. What data collection efforts are established or under way? Where? By whom? To help meet the strategic needs of SEARCH-AON, SAON, and related initiatives, a new resource has been released: the Arctic Observing Viewer (AOV; http://ArcticObservingViewer.org). This web mapping application covers the 'who', 'what', 'where', and 'when' of data collection sites - wherever marine or terrestrial data are collected. Hundreds of sites are displayed, providing an overview as well as details. Users can visualize, navigate, select, search, draw, print, and more. This application currently showcases a subset of observational activities and will become more comprehensive with time. The AOV is founded on principles of interoperability, with an emerging metadata standard and compatible web service formats, such that participating agencies and organizations can use the AOV tools and services for their own purposes. In this way, the AOV will complement other cyber-resources, and will help science planners, funding agencies, PI's, and others to: assess status, identify overlap, fill gaps, assure sampling design, refine network performance, clarify directions, access data, coordinate logistics, collaborate, and more to meet Arctic Observing goals.

  1. Evaluation of Arctic Sea Ice Thickness Simulated by Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark; Proshuntinsky, Andrew; Aksenov, Yevgeny; Nguyen, An T.; Lindsay, Ron; Haas, Christian; Zhang, Jinlun; Diansky, Nikolay; Kwok, Ron; Maslowski, Wieslaw; Hakkinen, Sirpa; Ashik, Igor; De Cuevas, Beverly

    2012-01-01

    Six Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project model simulations are compared with estimates of sea ice thickness derived from pan-Arctic satellite freeboard measurements (2004-2008); airborne electromagnetic measurements (2001-2009); ice draft data from moored instruments in Fram Strait, the Greenland Sea, and the Beaufort Sea (1992-2008) and from submarines (1975-2000); and drill hole data from the Arctic basin, Laptev, and East Siberian marginal seas (1982-1986) and coastal stations (1998-2009). Despite an assessment of six models that differ in numerical methods, resolution, domain, forcing, and boundary conditions, the models generally overestimate the thickness of measured ice thinner than approximately 2 mand underestimate the thickness of ice measured thicker than about approximately 2m. In the regions of flat immobile landfast ice (shallow Siberian Seas with depths less than 25-30 m), the models generally overestimate both the total observed sea ice thickness and rates of September and October ice growth from observations by more than 4 times and more than one standard deviation, respectively. The models do not reproduce conditions of fast ice formation and growth. Instead, the modeled fast ice is replaced with pack ice which drifts, generating ridges of increasing ice thickness, in addition to thermodynamic ice growth. Considering all observational data sets, the better correlations and smaller differences from observations are from the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean, Phase II and Pan-Arctic Ice Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System models.

  2. The Arctic Coastal Dynamics Database : A New Classification Scheme and Statistics on Arctic Permafrost Coastlines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lantuit, Hugues; Overduin, Pier Paul; Couture, Nicole; Wetterich, Sebastian; Are, Felix; Atkinson, David; Brown, Jerry; Cherkashov, Georgy; Drozdov, Dmitry; Forbes, Donald Lawrence; Graves-Gaylord, Allison; Grigoriev, Mikhail; Hubberten, Hans-Wolfgang; Jordan, James; Jorgenson, Torre; Odegard, Rune Strand; Ogorodov, Stanislav; Pollard, Wayne H.; Rachold, Volker; Sedenko, Sergey; Solomon, Steve; Steenhuisen, Frits; Streletskaya, Irina; Vasiliev, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Arctic permafrost coasts are sensitive to changing climate. The lengthening open water season and the increasing open water area are likely to induce greater erosion and threaten community and industry infrastructure as well as dramatically change nutrient pathways in the near-shore zone. The shallo

  3. Carbon, Climate and Cameras: Showcasing Arctic research through multimedia storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachihara, B. L.; Linder, C. A.; Holmes, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    In July 2011, Tachihara spent three weeks in the Siberian Arctic documenting The Polaris Project, an NSF-funded effort that brings together an international group of undergraduate students and research scientists to study Arctic systems. Using a combination of photography, video and interviews gathered during the field course, we produced a six-minute film focusing on the researchers' quest to track carbon as it moves from terrestrial upland areas into lakes, streams, rivers and eventually into the Arctic Ocean. The overall goal was to communicate the significance of Arctic science in the face of changing climate. Using a selection of clips from the 2011 video, we will discuss the advantages and challenges specific to using multimedia presentations to represent Arctic research, as well as science in general. The full video can be viewed on the Polaris website: http://www.thepolarisproject.org.

  4. Arctic autumn sea ice decline and Asian winter temperature anomaly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Na; LIN Lina; WANG Yingjie; KONG Bin; ZHANG Zhanhai; CHEN Hongxia

    2016-01-01

    Associations between the autumn Arctic sea ice concentration (SIC) and Asian winter temperature are discussed using the singular value decomposition analysis. Results show that in recent 33 years reduced autumn Arctic sea ice is accompanied by Asian winter temperature decrease except in the Tibetan plateau and the Arctic Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean coast. The autumn SIC reduction excites two geopotential height centers in Eurasia and the north Arctic Ocean, which are persistent from autumn to winter. The negative center is in Barents Sea/Kara Sea. The positive center is located in Mongolia. The anomalous winds are associated with geopotential height centers, providing favorable clod air for the Asian winter temperature decreasing in recent 33 years. This relationship indicates a potential long-term outlook for the Asian winter temperature decrease as the decline of the autumn sea ice in the Arctic Ocean is expected to continue as climate warms.

  5. Little Italy: Seeking a Niche in International Arctic Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Lorna Johnstone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In December 2015, The Italian Ministry for Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation published Verso una strategia italiana per l‘artico (Towards an Italian Strategy for the Arctic. In this article, the authors explain and evaluate the document in light of Italy’s connections to and interests in the Arctic, the Kiruna rules for observers at the Arctic Council, and the Arctic policies of other observers. They conclude that the intended audience for Verso una strategia is the Arctic States. Therefore, the document emphasises relevant Italian scientific efforts and promotes Italy’s oil and gas industry while downplaying the rights of indigenous peoples and avoiding issues of controversy. Publication of the document as a work in progress indicates the ministry’s willingness to listen to feedback and adapt its approaches as it develops a more comprehensive and nuanced strategy.

  6. 75 FR 25843 - Notice of Public Review and Comment Period on NOAA's Arctic Vision and Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... NOAA's Arctic Vision and Strategy AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. ACTION.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: To view the document, go to http://www.arctic.noaa.gov/ . I. Summary of the Strategy... accountable for achieving the Arctic goals. The Arctic Action Plan will also include an engagement...

  7. Little Fish, Big Pond: Icelandic Interests and Influence in Arctic Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael L. Johnstone

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the Arctic Council and Iceland’s role within it before turning to issues that are governed outside of the Arctic Council system, in particular, Arctic fisheries and maritime boundaries. The paper explains Iceland’s approach to Arctic cooperation in light of its published policy documents and explore the tools available to Iceland to defend its interests.

  8. The Contribution to Arctic Climate Change from Countries in the Arctic Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, T.; MacCracken, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    The conventional accounting frameworks for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions used today, established under the Kyoto Protocol 25 years ago, exclude short lived climate pollutants (SLCPs), and do not include regional effects on the climate. However, advances in climate science now suggest that mitigation of SLCPs can reduce up to 50% of global warming by 2050. It has also become apparent that regions such as the Arctic have experienced a much greater degree of anthropogenic warming than the globe as a whole, and that efforts to slow this warming could benefit the larger effort to slow climate change around the globe. A draft standard for life cycle assessment (LCA), LEO-SCS-002, being developed under the American National Standards Institute process, has integrated the most recent climate science into a unified framework to account for emissions of all radiatively significant GHGs and SLCPs. This framework recognizes four distinct impacts to the oceans and climate caused by GHGs and SLCPs: Global Climate Change; Arctic Climate Change; Ocean Acidification; and Ocean Warming. The accounting for Arctic Climate Change, the subject of this poster, is based upon the Absolute Regional Temperature Potential, which considers the incremental change to the Arctic surface temperature resulting from an emission of a GHG or SLCP. Results are evaluated using units of mass of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e), which can be used by a broad array of stakeholders, including scientists, consumers, policy makers, and NGOs. This poster considers the contribution to Arctic Climate Change from emissions of GHGs and SLCPs from the eight member countries of the Arctic Council; the United States, Canada, Russia, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Of this group of countries, the United States was the largest contributor to Arctic Climate Change in 2011, emitting 9600 MMT CO2e. This includes a gross warming of 11200 MMT CO2e (caused by GHGs, black and brown carbon, and warming effects

  9. Climate Change: Science and Policy in the Arctic Climate Change: Science and Policy in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigras, S. C.

    2009-12-01

    It is an accepted fact that the Earth’s climate is warming. Recent research has demonstrated the direct links between the Arctic regions and the rest of the planet. We have become more aware that these regions are feeling the effects of global climate change more intensely than anywhere else on Earth -- and that they are fast becoming the new frontiers for resources and political disputes. This paper examines some of the potential climate change impacts in the Arctic and how the science of climate change can be used to develop policies that will help mitigate some of these impacts. Despite the growing body of research we do not yet completely understand the potential consequences of climate change in the Arctic. Climate models predict significant changes and impacts on the northern physical environment and renewable resources, and on the communities and societies that depend on them. Policies developed and implemented as a result of the research findings will be designed to help mitigate some of the more serious consequences. Given the importance of cost in making policy decisions, the financial implications of different scenarios will need to be considered. The Arctic Ocean Basin is a complex and diverse environment shared by five Arctic states. Cooperation among the states surrounding the Arctic Ocean is often difficult, as each country has its own political and social agenda. Northerners and indigenous peoples should be engaged and able to influence the direction of northern adaptation policies. Along with climate change, the Arctic environment and Arctic residents face many other challenges, among them safe resource development. Resource development in the Arctic has always been a controversial issue, seen by some as a solution to high unemployment and by others as an unacceptably disruptive and destructive force. Its inherent risks need to be considered: there are needs for adaptation, for management frameworks, for addressing cumulative effects, and for

  10. Servicing the Arctic. Report 1: Design requirements and operational profile of an Arctic Offshore Support Vessel: Literature Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R.W.; Huisman, T.J.; Obers, M.P.W.; Schaap, T.; Van der Zalm, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Dutch maritime industry has only limited knowledge about Arctic engineering, in spite of a growing market and interest by the oil and gas industry. This literature survey is the first in a series of three reports to develop a concept design of an Arctic Offshore Support Vessel (AOSV)

  11. Seeing the risks of multiple Arctic amplifying feedbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, P.

    2014-12-01

    There are several potentially very large sources of Arctic amplifying feedbacks that have been identified. They present a great risk to the future as they could become self and inter-reinforcing with uncontrollable knock-on, or cascading risks. This has been called a domino effect risk by Carlos Duarte. Because of already committed global warming and the millennial duration of global warming, these are highly policy relevant. These Arctic feedback processes are now all operant with emissions of carbon dioxide methane and nitrous oxide detected. The extent of the risks from these feedback sources are not obvious or easy to understand by policy makers and the public. They are recorded in the IPCC AR5 as potential tipping points, as is the irreversibility of permafrost thaw. Some of them are not accounted for in the IPCC AR5 global warming projections because of quantitative uncertainty. UNEP issued a 2012 report (Policy Implications of Thawing Permafrost) advising that by omitting carbon feedback emissions from permafrost, carbon budget calculations by err on the low side. There is the other unassessed issue of a global warming safety limit for preventing uncontrollable increasing Arctic feedback emissions. Along with our paper, we provide illustrations of the Arctic feedback sources and processes from satellite imagery and flow charts that allows for their qualitative consideration. We rely on the IPCC assessments, the 2012 paper Possible role of wetlands permafrost can methane hydrates in the methane cycle under future climate change; a review, by Fiona M. O'Connor et al., and build on the WWF 2009 Arctic Climate Feedbacks: Global Implications. The potential sources of Arctic feedback processes identified include: Arctic and Far North snow albedo decline, Arctic summer sea ice albedo decline, Greenland summer ice surface melting albedo loss, albedo decline by replacement of Arctic tundra with forest, tundra fires, Boreal forest fires, Boreal forest die

  12. Atmospheric heat transfer to the Arctic under main synoptic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurova, Alla; Gnatiuk, Natalia; Bobylev, Leonid; Zhu, Yali

    2016-04-01

    Arctic - mid-latitude teleconnections are operating in both ways and behind them are potentially some causes of the enhanced Arctic warming (e.g., through heat transfer from lower to higher latitudes) and the feedbacks from the Arctic climate to the mid-latitude weather patterns. In order to explain the variability of the surface air temperature in the Arctic, we aim to analyse the typical synoptic situations that, we hypothesize, are characterized by a specific patterns of heat exchange between the Arctic and mid-latitudes. According to classification of synoptic processes in the Arctic developed at the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) in St. Petersburg major typical groups of synoptic situations in the Arctic are few (six). They correspond to position and intensity of low- and high-pressure centres. Therefore, the whole data sample for the winter period for the entire period of instrumental observations (archive exists back to 1939) can be split into six groups that sub-sample each of six groups/types of synoptic situations. Then heat transfer to the Arctic can be estimated as the divergence of the horizontal (advective) heat flux (the product of wind speed and temperature gradient) within each vertical atmospheric layer, which is calculated based on the ERA Interim Reanalysis data for the winter season (1979-now). Mapping heat divergence fields will reveal the main mid-latitude sources of heat transported to the Arctic, average for the whole data sample and for each of the six main groups of synoptic situations. This work was supported by RFBR grants 16-55-53031

  13. The future of Arctic benthos: Expansion, invasion, and biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Paul E.; Sejr, Mikael K.; Bluhm, Bodil A.; Sirenko, Boris; Ellingsen, Ingrid H.

    2015-12-01

    One of the logical predictions for a future Arctic characterized by warmer waters and reduced sea-ice is that new taxa will expand or invade Arctic seafloor habitats. Specific predictions regarding where this will occur and which taxa are most likely to become established or excluded are lacking, however. We synthesize recent studies and conduct new analyses in the context of climate forecasts and a paleontological perspective to make concrete predictions as to relevant mechanisms, regions, and functional traits contributing to future biodiversity changes. Historically, a warmer Arctic is more readily invaded or transited by boreal taxa than it is during cold periods. Oceanography of an ice-free Arctic Ocean, combined with life-history traits of invading taxa and availability of suitable habitat, determine expansion success. It is difficult to generalize as to which taxonomic groups or locations are likely to experience expansion, however, since species-specific, and perhaps population-specific autecologies, will determine success or failure. Several examples of expansion into the Arctic have been noted, and along with the results from the relatively few Arctic biological time-series suggest inflow shelves (Barents and Chukchi Seas), as well as West Greenland and the western Kara Sea, are most likely locations for expansion. Apparent temperature thresholds were identified for characteristic Arctic and boreal benthic fauna suggesting strong potential for range constrictions of Arctic, and expansions of boreal, fauna in the near future. Increasing human activities in the region could speed introductions of boreal fauna and reduce the value of a planktonic dispersal stage. Finally, shelf regions are likely to experience a greater impact, and also one with greater potential consequences, than the deep Arctic basin. Future research strategies should focus on monitoring as well as compiling basic physiological and life-history information of Arctic and boreal taxa, and

  14. FRAM - FRontiers in Arctic marine Monitoring: Permanent Observations in a Gateway to the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltwedel, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Our ability to understand the complex interactions of biological, chemical, physical, and geological processes in the ocean is still limited by the lack of integrative and interdisciplinary observation infrastructures. The main purpose of the open-ocean infrastructure FRAM (FRontiers in Arctic marine Monitoring) is permanent presence at sea, from surface to depth, for the provision of near real-time data on climate variability and ecosystem change in an Arctic marine environment. The Alfred-Wegener-Institut I Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung (AWI), together with partner institutes in Germany and Europe, aims at providing such infrastructure for the polar ocean as a major contribution to international efforts towards comprehensive Global Earth Observation. The FRAM Ocean Observing System targets the gateway between the North Atlantic and the Central Arctic, representing a highly climate-sensitive and rapidly changing region of the Earth system. It will serve national and international tasks towards a better understanding of the effects of change in ocean circulation, water mass properties and sea-ice retreat on Arctic marine ecosystems and their main functions and services. FRAM integrates and develops already existing observatories, i.e. the oceanographic mooring array HAFOS (Hybrid Arctic/Antarctic Float Observing System) and the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site HAUSGARTEN. It will implement existing and next-generation sensors and observatory platforms, allowing synchronous observation of relevant ocean variables, as well as the study of physical, chemical and biological processes in the water column and at the seafloor. Experimental and event-triggered platforms will complement observational platforms. Products of the infrastructure are continuous long-term data with appropriate resolution in space and time, as well as ground-truthing information for ocean models and remote sensing.

  15. Will Arctic ground squirrels impede or accelerate climate-induced vegetation changes to the Arctic tundra?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, J.; Flower, C. E.; Brown, J.; Gonzalez-Meler, M. A.; Whelan, C.

    2014-12-01

    Considerable attention has been given to the climate feedbacks associated with predicted vegetation shifts in the Arctic tundra in response to global environmental change. However, little is known regarding the extent to which consumers can facilitate or respond to shrub expansion. Arctic ground squirrels, the largest and most northern ground squirrel, are abundant and widespread throughout the North American tundra. Their broad diet of seeds, flowers, herbage, bird's eggs and meat speaks to the need to breed, feed, and fatten in a span of some 12-16 weeks that separate their 8-9 month bouts of hibernation with the potential consequence to impact ecosystem dynamics. Therefore Arctic ground squirrels are a good candidate to evaluate whether consumers are mere responders (bottom-up effects) or drivers (top-down) of the observed and predicted vegetation changes. As a start towards this question, we measured the foraging intensity (giving-up densities) of Arctic ground squirrels in experimental food patches within which the squirrels experience diminishing returns as they seek the raisins and peanuts that we provided at the Toolik Lake field station in northern Alaska. If the squirrels show their highest feeding intensity in the shrubs, they may impede vegetation shifts by slowing the establishment and expansion of shrubs in the tundra. Conversely, if they show their lowest feeding intensity within shrub dominated areas, they may accelerate vegetation shifts. We found neither. Feeding intensity varied most among transects and times of day, and least along a tundra-to-shrub vegetation gradient. This suggests that the impacts of squirrels will be heterogeneous - in places responders and in others drivers. We should not be surprised then to see patches of accelerated and impeded vegetation changes in the tundra ecosystem. Some of these patterns may be predictable from the foraging behavior of Arctic ground squirrels.

  16. SEARCH: Study of Environmental Arctic Change--A System-scale, Cross-disciplinary Arctic Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnoro, R. S.; Eicken, H.; Francis, J. A.; Scambos, T. A.; Schuur, E. A.; Straneo, F.; Wiggins, H. V.

    2013-12-01

    SEARCH is an interdisciplinary, interagency program that works with academic and government agency scientists and stakeholders to plan, conduct, and synthesize studies of Arctic change. Over the past three years, SEARCH has developed a new vision and mission, a set of prioritized cross-disciplinary 5-year goals, an integrated set of activities, and an organizational structure. The vision of SEARCH is to provide scientific understanding of arctic environmental change to help society understand and respond to a rapidly changing Arctic. SEARCH's 5-year science goals include: 1. Improve understanding, advance prediction, and explore consequences of changing Arctic sea ice. 2. Document and understand how degradation of near-surface permafrost will affect Arctic and global systems. 3. Improve predictions of future land-ice loss and impacts on sea level. 4. Analyze societal and policy implications of Arctic environmental change. Action Teams organized around each of the 5-year goals will serve as standing groups responsible for implementing specific goal activities. Members will be drawn from academia, different agencies and stakeholders, with a range of disciplinary backgrounds and perspectives. 'Arctic Futures 2050' scenarios tasks will describe plausible future states of the arctic system based on recent trajectories and projected changes. These scenarios will combine a range of data including climate model output, paleo-data, results from data synthesis and systems modeling, as well as expert scientific and traditional knowledge. Current activities include: - Arctic Observing Network (AON) - coordinating a system of atmospheric, land- and ocean-based environmental monitoring capabilities that will significantly advance our observations of arctic environmental conditions. - Arctic Sea Ice Outlook - an international effort that provides monthly summer reports synthesizing community estimates of the expected sea ice minimum. A newly-launched Sea Ice Prediction Network

  17. Crustal types of the Circumpolar Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashubin, Sergey; Pavlenkova, Ninel; Petrov, Oleg; Milshtein, Evgenia; Shokalsky, Sergey; Erinchek, Yuri

    2016-04-01

    Deep seismic studies revealed unusual crustal structure in the Arctic Ocean. The thin (about 10 km) oceanic crust with seismic velocities Vp= 6.8-7.2 km/s is observed only in the narrow mid-oceanic ridge zone (the Gakkel ridge). The thick (25-35 km) continental crust covers the whole continental margins and the central part of the ocean. The continental type of the magnetic field with large local anomalies of different signs and irregular shapes is also observed in this area. However, the crust of the central Arctic (the Lomonosov, Mendeleev and Alpha ridges) differ from the crust of the Eurasia by the lower thickness of the upper granite-gneiss layer (velocities Vp=6.0-6.6 km/s): it is only 5-7 km in comparison with 15-20 km in the continent. The origin of such crust may be explained in two ways. Most frequently it is accounted for by the destruction and transformation of the continental crust by the basification that implies the enrichment of the crust by the rocks of basic composition from the mantle and the metamorphization of the continental rocks at the higher temperature and pressure. But in the central part of the Arctic Ocean the crust looks as an original one. The regular form of the large ridges and the continental type magnetic field were not destroyed by the basification processes which are usually irregular and most intensive in some local zones. The basification origin may be proposed for the Canadian and the South-Barents deep sedimentary basins with "suboceanic" crust (10-15 km of sediments and 10-15 km of the lower crust with Vp= 6.8-7.2 km/s). The other basins which stretch along fault zones outlined the central deep water part of the Arctic Ocean have the ''subcontinental' crust: the thickness of the granite-gneiss layer decreases in these basins and sometimes the high velocity intrusions are observed in the lower parts. The different crustal types are observed in the North Atlantic where the oceanic crust with linear magnetic anomalies is

  18. Review of arctic Norwegian bioremediation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional oil spill onshore clean up in arctic and sub-arctic parts of Norway involves methods that are both time-consuming, and labor intensive. The applicability of the methods depends both on the environmental constraints of the area, and the availability of man-power. If oil exploration is successful this will mean that the exploitation of oil moves north into the arctic regions of Norway. This area is remote, both in terms of accessability and lack of inhabitants. The threat to natural resources that always accompanies oil activities, will move into areas that are considered vulnerable, and which are also highly valued in terms of natural resources. Contingency measures must be adapted both to be feasible and to meet the framework in which they must operate. This situation has increased the focus on alternative methods for oil spill clean-ups, especially on shorelines. SINTEF (The Foundation for Scientific and Industrial Research at the Norwegian Institute of Technology) Applied Chemistry has evaluated the application of fertilizers as a practical measure in oil spill treatment for years. Several fertilizers have been assessed, in different environments. The effect of these products is difficult to establish categorically since their efficiency seems to be greatly dependent on the environment in which the test is conducted, as well as the design of the test. The aim of this paper is to summarize and evaluate a series of tests conducted with INIPOL EAP22, an oil soluble fertilizer developed by Elf Aquitaine, and water soluble fertilizers. The paper will emphasize treatment failure and success, and point out some necessary prerequisites that must be met for fertilizers to work. 14 refs., 3 figs

  19. Oceanographic Aspects of Recent Changes in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morison, J. H.

    2002-12-01

    In the Arctic recent decadal-scale changes have marked the atmosphere, ocean, and land. Connections between the oceanographic changes and large-scale atmospheric circulation changes are emerging. Surface atmospheric pressure has shown a declining trend over the Arctic. In the 1990s, the Arctic Ocean circulation took on a more cyclonic character, and the front separating Atlantic-derived waters of the Eurasian Basin and the Pacific-derived waters of the Canadian Basin shifted counterclockwise. The temperature of Atlantic water in the Arctic Ocean reached record levels. The cold halocline, which isolates the surface from the warm Atlantic water, grew thinner disappearing entirely from the Amundsen Basin at one point [Steele and Boyd, 1998]. Arctic sea ice extent has decreased 3% per decade since the 1970s [Parkinson et al., 1999]. Sea ice thickness over much of the Arctic decreased 43% between 1958-1976 and 1993-1997 [Rothrock et al., 1999]. Arctic ecosystems have responded to these changes. Sea ice studies in the late 1990s indicate that the sea ice algal species composition changed from decades before, with the species recently being characterized by more brackish and freshwater forms. Barents Sea fisheries have shifted north following reductions in ice extent. Pacific salmon species have been found entering rivers in the Arctic. There is evidence that this complex of pan-Arctic changes is connected with the rising trend in the Arctic Oscillation (AO) or Northern Hemisphere atmospheric polar vortex in the 1990s. Theoretical evidence that a positive trend in the AO index might be indicative of greenhouse warming raises the possibility that the recent complex of changes is an Arctic characteristic of global climate change. Also, the changes in ice cover manifest a connection between the complex of change and global climate through ice-albedo feedback, by which reductions in ice cover reduce the amount of sunlight reflected from the earth's surface. Another important

  20. Trichinella in arctic, subarctic and temperate regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, C. M O

    1997-01-01

    The transmission and occurrence of Trichinella spp according to the zoogeography of different climatic conditions, socioeconomy and human activity are discussed. Comparing arctic, subarctic and temperate regions, it appears that the species of Trichinella present, the composition of the fauna...... and the human activity are all very important interacting factors affecting epidemiology. In Greenland, where only sylvatic trichinellosis is present, the high prevalence in wildlife appears closely connected with polar bear hunting. In the Scandinavian countries, the prevalence of both sylvatic and domestic...... populations may have epidemiological importance in relation to the recent changes in production and infrastructure in these former Soviet states....

  1. Airborne organochlorines in the Canadian High Arctic

    OpenAIRE

    PATTON, G. W.; HINCKLEY, D. A.; Walla, M D; T. F. Bidleman; HARGRAVE, B. T.

    2011-01-01

    In 1984, the Canadian Polar Continental Shelf Project established a research camp on a floating ice island in the Beaufort Sea. The 7 × 4 km island is presently located about 50 km off Ellesmere Island at about 81°N, 100°W. Air samples of 1400–3000 m3 were collected on the island in August-September 1986 and June 1987, using a filter-solid adsorbent train. Organochlorines in melted snow and Arctic Ocean surface water were preconcentrated using solid adsorbent cartridges. Samples were analyzed...

  2. Carbon cycle uncertainty in the Alaskan Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Fisher

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is leading to a disproportionately large warming in the high northern latitudes, but the magnitude and sign of the future carbon balance of the Arctic are highly uncertain. Using 40 terrestrial biosphere models for Alaska, we provide a baseline of terrestrial carbon cycle structural and parametric uncertainty, defined as the multi-model standard deviation (σ against the mean (x for each quantity. Mean annual uncertainty (σ/x was largest for net ecosystem exchange (NEE (−0.01± 0.19 kg C m−2 yr−1, then net primary production (NPP (0.14 ± 0.33 kg C m−2 yr−1, autotrophic respiration (Ra (0.09 ± 0.20 kg C m−2 yr−1, gross primary production (GPP (0.22 ± 0.50 kg C m−2 yr−1, ecosystem respiration (Re (0.23 ± 0.38 kg C m−2 yr−1, CH4 flux (2.52 ± 4.02 g CH4 m−2 yr−1, heterotrophic respiration (Rh (0.14 ± 0.20 kg C m−2 yr−1, and soil carbon (14.0± 9.2 kg C m−2. The spatial patterns in regional carbon stocks and fluxes varied widely with some models showing NEE for Alaska as a strong carbon sink, others as a strong carbon source, while still others as carbon neutral. Additionally, a feedback (i.e., sensitivity analysis was conducted of 20th century NEE to CO2 fertilization (β and climate (γ, which showed that uncertainty in γ was 2x larger than that of β, with neither indicating that the Alaskan Arctic is shifting towards a certain net carbon sink or source. Finally, AmeriFlux data are used at two sites in the Alaskan Arctic to evaluate the regional patterns; observed seasonal NEE was captured within multi-model uncertainty. This assessment of carbon cycle uncertainties may be used as a baseline for the improvement of experimental and modeling activities, as well as a reference for future trajectories in carbon cycling with climate change in the Alaskan Arctic.

  3. Impact of future Arctic shipping on high-latitude black carbon deposition

    OpenAIRE

    J. Browse; Carslaw, KS; Schmidt, A.; Corbett, JJ

    2013-01-01

    The retreat of Arctic sea ice has led to renewed calls to exploit Arctic shipping routes. The diversion of ship traffic through the Arctic will shorten shipping routes and possibly reduce global shipping emissions. However, deposition of black carbon (BC) aerosol emitted by additional Arctic ships could cause a reduction in the albedo of snow and ice, accelerating snowmelt and sea ice loss. Here we use recently compiled Arctic shipping emission inventories for 2004 and 2050 together with a gl...

  4. Episodic fresh surface waters in the Eocene Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkhuis, Henk; Schouten, Stefan; Collinson, Margaret E.; Sluijs, Appy; Damsté, Jaap S. Sinninghe; Dickens, Gerald R.; Huber, Matthew; Cronin, Thomas M.; Onodera, Jonaotaro; Takahashi, Kozo; Bujak, Jonathan P.; Stein, Ruediger; van der Burgh, Johan; Eldrett, James S.; Harding, Ian C.; Lotter, André F.; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Cittert, Han Van Konijnenburg-Van; de Leeuw, Jan W.; Matthiessen, Jens; Backman, Jan; Moran, Kathryn; Expedition 302 Scientists

    2006-06-01

    It has been suggested, on the basis of modern hydrology and fully coupled palaeoclimate simulations, that the warm greenhouse conditions that characterized the early Palaeogene period (55-45Myr ago) probably induced an intensified hydrological cycle with precipitation exceeding evaporation at high latitudes. Little field evidence, however, has been available to constrain oceanic conditions in the Arctic during this period. Here we analyse Palaeogene sediments obtained during the Arctic Coring Expedition, showing that large quantities of the free-floating fern Azolla grew and reproduced in the Arctic Ocean by the onset of the middle Eocene epoch (~50Myr ago). The Azolla and accompanying abundant freshwater organic and siliceous microfossils indicate an episodic freshening of Arctic surface waters during an ~800,000-year interval. The abundant remains of Azolla that characterize basal middle Eocene marine deposits of all Nordic seas probably represent transported assemblages resulting from freshwater spills from the Arctic Ocean that reached as far south as the North Sea. The termination of the Azolla phase in the Arctic coincides with a local sea surface temperature rise from ~10°C to 13°C, pointing to simultaneous increases in salt and heat supply owing to the influx of waters from adjacent oceans. We suggest that onset and termination of the Azolla phase depended on the degree of oceanic exchange between Arctic Ocean and adjacent seas.

  5. Changing seasonality of Arctic hydrology disrupts key biotic linkages in Arctic aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, L.; MacKenzie, C.; Peterson, B. J.; Fishscape Project

    2011-12-01

    Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) is an important circumpolar species that provide a model system for understanding the impacts of changing seasonality on arctic ecosystem function. Grayling serve as food for other biota, including lake trout, birds and humans, and act as top-down controls in stream ecosystems. In Arctic tundra streams, grayling spend their summers in streams but are obligated to move back into deep overwintering lakes in the fall. Climatic change that affects the seasonality of river hydrology could have a significant impact on grayling populations: grayling may leave overwintering lakes sooner in the spring and return later in the fall due to a longer open water season, but the migration could be disrupted by drought due to increased variability in discharge. In turn, a shorter overwintering season may impact lake trout dynamics in the lakes, which may rely on the seasonal inputs of stream nutrients in the form of migrating grayling into these oligotrophic lakes. To assess how shifting seasonality of Arctic river hydrology may disrupt key trophic linkages within and between lake and stream components of watersheds on the North Slope of the Brooks Mountain Range, Alaska, we have undertaken new work on grayling and lake trout population and food web dynamics. We use Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags coupled with stream-width antenna units to monitor grayling movement across Arctic tundra watersheds during the summer, and into overwintering habitat in the fall. Results indicate that day length may prime grayling migration readiness, but that flooding events are likely the cue grayling use to initiate migration in to overwintering lakes. Many fish used high discharge events in the stream as an opportunity to move into lakes. Stream and lake derived stable isotopes also indicate that lake trout rely on these seasonally transported inputs of stream nutrients for growth. Thus, changes in the seasonality of river hydrology may have broader

  6. The Arctic Observing Viewer: A Web-mapping Application for U.S. Arctic Observing Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, R. P.; Manley, W. F.; Gaylord, A. G.; Kassin, A.; Villarreal, S.; Barba, M.; Dover, M.; Escarzaga, S. M.; Habermann, T.; Kozimor, J.; Score, R.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Although a great deal of progress has been made with various arctic observing efforts, it can be difficult to assess such progress when so many agencies, organizations, research groups and others are making such rapid progress over such a large expanse of the Arctic. To help meet the strategic needs of the U.S. SEARCH-AON program and facilitate the development of SAON and other related initiatives, the Arctic Observing Viewer (AOV; http://ArcticObservingViewer.org) has been developed. This web mapping application compiles detailed information pertaining to U.S. Arctic Observing efforts. Contributing partners include the U.S. NSF, USGS, ACADIS, ADIwg, AOOS, a2dc, AON, ARMAP, BAID, IASOA, INTERACT, and others. Over 7700 observation sites are currently in the AOV database and the application allows users to visualize, navigate, select, advance search, draw, print, and more. During 2015, the web mapping application has been enhanced by the addition of a query builder that allows users to create rich and complex queries. AOV is founded on principles of software and data interoperability and includes an emerging "Project" metadata standard, which uses ISO 19115-1 and compatible web services. Substantial efforts have focused on maintaining and centralizing all database information. In order to keep up with emerging technologies, the AOV data set has been structured and centralized within a relational database and the application front-end has been ported to HTML5 to enable mobile access. Other application enhancements include an embedded Apache Solr search platform which provides users with the capability to perform advance searches and an administration web based data management system that allows administrators to add, update, and delete information in real time. We encourage all collaborators to use AOV tools and services for their own purposes and to help us extend the impact of our efforts and ensure AOV complements other cyber-resources. Reinforcing dispersed but

  7. Arctic Clouds Infrared Imaging Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, J. A. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Infrared Cloud Imager (ICI), a passive thermal imaging system, was deployed at the North Slope of Alaska site in Barrow, Alaska, from July 2012 to July 2014 for measuring spatial-temporal cloud statistics. Thermal imaging of the sky from the ground provides high radiometric contrast during night and polar winter when visible sensors and downward-viewing thermal sensors experience low contrast. In addition to demonstrating successful operation in the Arctic for an extended period and providing data for Arctic cloud studies, a primary objective of this deployment was to validate novel instrument calibration algorithms that will allow more compact ICI instruments to be deployed without the added expense, weight, size, and operational difficulty of a large-aperture onboard blackbody calibration source. This objective was successfully completed with a comparison of the two-year data set calibrated with and without the onboard blackbody. The two different calibration methods produced daily-average cloud amount data sets with correlation coefficient = 0.99, mean difference = 0.0029 (i.e., 0.29% cloudiness), and a difference standard deviation = 0.054. Finally, the ICI instrument generally detected more thin clouds than reported by other ARM cloud products available as of late 2015.

  8. Using a nuclear submarine for Arctic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keigwin, Lloyd D.; Johnson, G. Leonard

    Oceanographers have been accused of not thinking big enough. Where is our Hubble Space Telescope? Where is our Superconducting Super Collider? Where is our project to map the human genome? An example of a highly successful “big” project in the marine sciences is the Ocean Drilling Program, currently funded at about $42 million per year. That effort is small by comparison to big projects in astronomy and in highenergy physics.Ocean-ice-atmosphere interactions in polar regions play a major role in driving deep ocean circulation and in regulating Earth's climate, and Arctic regions in particular are expected to be the first to respond to the predicted global warming. Despite the fundamental importance of polar regions to the habitability of planet Earth, most oceanographers have used only the most inefficient methods for exploring the ocean beneath the ice: drifting on floating ice camps and bashing through the ice with ice breakers. Neither of these methods is an effective way to explore a feature as large and as physiographically varied as the Arctic basin.

  9. A conceptual model of an Arctic sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Laurent, P.; Straneo, F.; Barber, D. G.

    2012-06-01

    We propose a conceptual model for an Arctic sea that is driven by river runoff, atmospheric fluxes, sea ice melt/growth, and winds. The model domain is divided into two areas, the interior and boundary regions, that are coupled through Ekman and eddy fluxes of buoyancy. The model is applied to Hudson and James Bays (HJB, a large inland basin in northeastern Canada) for the period 1979-2007. Several yearlong records from instruments moored within HJB show that the model results are consistent with the real system. The model notably reproduces the seasonal migration of the halocline, the baroclinic boundary current, spatial variability of freshwater content, and the fall maximum in freshwater export. The simulations clarify the important differences in the freshwater balance of the western and eastern sides of HJB. The significant role played by the boundary current in the freshwater budget of the system, and its sensitivity to the wind-forcing, are also highlighted by the simulations and new data analyses. We conclude that the model proposed is useful for the interpretation of observed data from Arctic seas and model outputs from more complex coupled/climate models.

  10. Diurnal tides in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalik, Z.; Proshutinsky, A. Y.

    1993-01-01

    A 2D numerical model with a space grid of about 14 km is applied to calculate diurnal tidal constituents K(1) and O(1) in the Arctic Ocean. Calculated corange and cotidal charts show that along the continental slope, local regions of increased sea level amplitude, highly variable phase and enhanced currents occur. It is shown that in these local regions, shelf waves (topographic waves) of tidal origin are generated. In the Arctic Ocean and Northern Atlantic Ocean more than 30 regions of enhanced currents are identified. To prove the near-resonant interaction of the diurnal tides with the local bottom topography, the natural periods of oscillations for all regions have been calculated. The flux of energy averaged over the tidal period depicts the gyres of semitrapped energy, suggesting that the shelf waves are partially trapped over the irregularities of the bottom topography. It is shown that the occurrence of near-resonance phenomenon changes the energy flow in the tidal waves. First, the flux of energy from the astronomical sources is amplified in the shelf wave regions, and afterwards the tidal energy is strongly dissipated in the same regions.

  11. Introduction: Drinking and Fun in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Leete

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We initiated the Arctic workshops at the University of Tartu, Estonia, in 2010. The first three meetings concentrated on discussing the problems of movement in the North.1 The fourth workshop, Drinking and Driving Is So Much Fun, was held from May 31 to June 1, 2013.2 The progression from one theme to another does not make much sense at first glance. In general, the Arctic region remained in the focus of our forum and the title of the workshop suggests movement, but actually, what is the connection? The title served as an academic provocation and also indicated how the participants perceived it. We adopted the idea for our workshop title from the song Drinking and Driving, which was recorded by a British punk band, The Business, in the late 1970s, and became an instant hit among beer-loving punks. The song associated drinking with fun and collective action (to put it mildly, demonstrating that beer-drinking can be evaluated as a process involving positive social meaning. At the same time, the organisers also attempted to initiate discussion about the integration of ambivalent alcohol experiences and narratives into anthropological research.

  12. The Last Arctic Sea Ice Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Tremblay, B.; Newton, R.; Fowler, C.

    2010-12-01

    Summer sea ice may persist along the northern flank of Canada and Greenland for decades longer than the rest of the Arctic, raising the possibility of a naturally formed refugium for ice-associated species. Observations and models indicate that some ice in this region forms locally, while some is transported to the area by winds and ocean currents. Depending on future changes in melt patterns and sea ice transport rates, both the central Arctic and Siberian shelf seas may be sources of ice to the region. An international system of monitoring and management of the sea ice refuge, along with the ice source regions, has the potential to maintain viable habitat for ice-associated species, including polar bears, for decades into the future. Issues to consider in developing a strategy include: + the likely duration and extent of summer sea ice in this region based on observations, models and paleoenvironmental information + the extent and characteristics of the “ice shed” contributing sea ice to the refuge, including its dynamics, physical and biological characteristics as well as potential for contamination from local or long-range sources + likely assemblages of ice-associated species and their habitats + potential stressors such as transportation, tourism, resource extraction, contamination + policy, governance, and development issues including management strategies that could maintain the viability of the refuge.

  13. Arctic West and North of Svalbard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundvor, E.; Austegard, A. (Bergen Univ. (Norway)) Myhre, A.M.; Eldholm, O. (Oslo Univ., (Norway) Dept. of Geology)

    1982-01-01

    Recent multichannel seismic data have revealed that the Svalbard passive margin has undergone a complex geological history which largely reflects the plate tectonic evolution of the Greenland Sea and the Arctic Ocean. On the western margin the continent-ocean boundary is located at or close to the Hornsund Fault Zone. In the late Paleocene/Early Eocene, the region between Svalbard and Northeast Greenland was subjected to regional shear movements associated with a transform system between the young Lofoten-Greenland Basin and the Arctic Ocean. Approximately 50My ago the spreading axis migrated northeastwards forming the passive margin between Bear Island and 76.5degN. At the time of the main reorganization of the plate motion the northern margin evolved and a continental fragment was possibly cut off from the Svalbard margin, appearing, today, as the submarine ridge associated with the Hovgaard Fracture Zone. The northern Svalbard margin is of a rifted type, though the seismic results indicate two structurally different regions: The Yermak Plateau and the Hinlopen Margin. A major problem in understanding the geology and evolution of the Yermak Plateau is the nature of the opaque acoustic basement. 12 drawings.

  14. Rabies in the arctic fox population, Svalbard, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørk, Torill; Bohlin, Jon; Fuglei, Eva; Åsbakk, Kjetil; Tryland, Morten

    2011-10-01

    Arctic foxes, 620 that were trapped and 22 found dead on Svalbard, Norway (1996-2004), as well as 10 foxes trapped in Nenets, North-West Russia (1999), were tested for rabies virus antigen in brain tissue by standard direct fluorescent antibody test. Rabies antigen was found in two foxes from Svalbard and in three from Russia. Blood samples from 515 of the fox carcasses were screened for rabies antibodies with negative result. Our results, together with a previous screening (1980-1989, n=817) indicate that the prevalence of rabies in Svalbard has remained low or that the virus has not been enzootic in the arctic fox population since the first reported outbreak in 1980. Brain tissues from four arctic foxes (one from Svalbard, three from Russia) in which rabies virus antigen was detected were further analyzed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction direct amplicon sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Sequences were compared to corresponding sequences from rabies virus isolates from other arctic regions. The Svalbard isolate and two of the Russian isolates were identical (310 nucleotides), whereas the third Russian isolate differed in six nucleotide positions. However, when translated into amino acid sequences, none of these substitutions produced changes in the amino acid sequence. These findings suggest that the spread of rabies virus to Svalbard was likely due to migration of arctic foxes over sea ice from Russia to Svalbard. Furthermore, when compared to other Arctic rabies virus isolates, a high degree of homology was found, suggesting a high contact rate between arctic fox populations from different arctic regions. The high degree of homology also indicates that other, and more variable, regions of the genome than this part of the nucleoprotein gene should be used to distinguish Arctic rabies virus isolates for epidemiologic purposes.

  15. Fundamental differences between Arctic and Antarctic ozone depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Susan; Haskins, Jessica; Ivy, Diane J; Min, Flora

    2014-04-29

    Antarctic ozone depletion is associated with enhanced chlorine from anthropogenic chlorofluorocarbons and heterogeneous chemistry under cold conditions. The deep Antarctic "hole" contrasts with the generally weaker depletions observed in the warmer Arctic. An unusually cold Arctic stratospheric season occurred in 2011, raising the question of how the Arctic ozone chemistry in that year compares with others. We show that the averaged depletions near 20 km across the cold part of each pole are deeper in Antarctica than in the Arctic for all years, although 2011 Arctic values do rival those seen in less-depleted years in Antarctica. We focus not only on averages but also on extremes, to address whether or not Arctic ozone depletion can be as extreme as that observed in the Antarctic. This information provides unique insights into the contrasts between Arctic and Antarctic ozone chemistry. We show that extreme Antarctic ozone minima fall to or below 0.1 parts per million by volume (ppmv) at 18 and 20 km (about 70 and 50 mbar) whereas the lowest Arctic ozone values are about 0.5 ppmv at these altitudes. At a higher altitude of 24 km (30-mbar level), no Arctic data below about 2 ppmv have been observed, including in 2011, in contrast to values more than an order of magnitude lower in Antarctica. The data show that the lowest ozone values are associated with temperatures below -80 °C to -85 °C depending upon altitude, and are closely associated with reduced gaseous nitric acid concentrations due to uptake and/or sedimentation in polar stratospheric cloud particles. PMID:24733920

  16. Military aspects of Russia's Arctic policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zysk, Katarzyna

    2013-03-01

    Russia's Arctic policies have a strong bearing on the regional strategic environment for a number of factors. One obvious reason is the geography and the fact that Russia's Arctic shoreline covers nearly half of the latitudinal circle, which gives the country a unique potential to influence future Arctic activities. Second, despite radical changes in the regional security environment after the end of the Cold War, the Arctic and the High North (the European Arctic), in particular has maintained its central role in Russian strategic thinking and defense policy. Russia still has a strong military presence in the region, with a variety of activities and interests, despite weaknesses and problems facing the Russian armed forces. Third, and finally, Russia has enormous petroleum and other natural riches in the Arctic, and the leadership is laying on ambitious plans for development of commercial activities in the region. Understanding Russia's approaches to security is thus clearly important to surrounding Arctic nations and other stakeholders. Russian military activity in the Arctic has tangibly increased in recent years, adding perhaps the most controversial topic in debates on the region's future security. Combined with political assertiveness and rhetorical hostility toward the West, which was a particular feature of Vladimir Putin's second presidential term (2004#En Dash#2008), the intensified presence of the Russian naval and air forces operating in the region has drawn much of the international attention and contributed to the image of Russia as the wild card in the Arctic strategic equation.(Author)

  17. Ocean surface waves in an ice-free Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Guo

    2016-08-01

    The retreat of the Arctic ice edge implies that global ocean surface wave models have to be extended at high latitudes or even to cover the North Pole in the future. The obstacles for conventional latitude-longitude grid wave models to cover the whole Arctic are the polar problems associated with their Eulerian advection schemes, including the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) restriction on diminishing grid length towards the Pole, the singularity at the Pole and the invalid scalar assumption for vector components defined relative to the local east direction. A spherical multiple-cell (SMC) grid is designed to solve these problems. It relaxes the CFL restriction by merging the longitudinal cells towards the Poles. A round polar cell is used to remove the singularity of the differential equation at the Pole. A fixed reference direction is introduced to define vector components within a limited Arctic part in mitigation of the scalar assumption errors at high latitudes. The SMC grid has been implemented in the WAVEWATCH III model and validated with altimeter and buoy observations, except for the Arctic part, which could not be fully tested due to a lack of observations as the polar region is still covered by sea ice. Here, an idealised ice-free Arctic case is used to test the Arctic part and it is compared with a reference case with real ice coverage. The comparison indicates that swell wave energy will increase near the ice-free Arctic coastlines due to increased fetch. An expanded Arctic part is used for comparisons of the Arctic part with available satellite measurements. It also provides a direct model comparison between the two reference systems in their overlapping zone.

  18. Isotopes in the Arctic atmospheric water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonne, Jean-Louis; Werner, Martin; Meyer, Hanno; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Rabe, Benjamin; Behrens, Melanie; Schönicke, Lutz; Steen Larsen, Hans Christian; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie

    2016-04-01

    The ISO-ARC project aims at documenting the Arctic atmospheric hydrological cycle, by assessing the imprint of the marine boundary conditions (e.g. temperature variations, circulation changes, or meltwater input) to the isotopic composition of the atmospheric water cycle (H218O and HDO) with a focus on North Atlantic and Arctic oceans. For this purpose, two continuous monitoring water vapour stable isotopes cavity ring-down spectrometers have been installed in July 2015: on-board the Polarstern research vessel and in the Siberian Lena delta Samoylov research station (N 72° 22', E 126° 29'). The Polarstern measurements cover the summer 2015 Arctic campaign from July to mid-October, including six weeks in the Fram Strait region in July- August, followed by a campaign reaching the North Pole and a transect from the Norwegian Sea to the North Sea. These vapour observations are completed by water isotopic measurements in samples from the surface ocean water for Polarstern and from precipitation in Samoylov and Tiksi (120 km south-east of the station). A custom-made designed automatic calibration system has been implemented in a comparable manner for both vapour instruments, based on the injection of different liquid water standards, which are completely vaporised in dry air at high temperature. Subsequent humidity level can be adjusted from 2000 to at least 30000 ppm. For a better resilience, an independent calibration system has been added on the Samoylov instrument, allowing measurements of one standard at humidity levels ranging from 2000 to 15000 ppm: dry air is introduced in a tank containing a large amount of liquid water standard, undergoing evaporation under a controlled environment. The measurement protocol includes an automatic calibration every 25 hours. First instrument characterisation experiments depict a significant isotope-humidity effect at low humidity, dependant on the isotopic composition of the standard. For ambient air, our first isotope

  19. Experimentally determined temperature thresholds for Arctic plankton community metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Holding, J. M.; Duarte, C. M.; J. M. Arrieta; R. Vaquer-Sunyer; Coello-Camba, A.; P. Wassmann; Agustí, S.

    2013-01-01

    Climate warming is especially severe in the Arctic, where the average temperature is increasing 0.4 C per decade, two to three times higher than the global average rate. Furthermore, the Arctic has lost more than half of its summer ice extent since 1980 and predictions suggest that the Arctic will be ice free in the summer as early as 2050, which could increase the rate of warming. Predictions based on the metabolic theory of ecology assume that temperature increase will enhance metabolic rat...

  20. The emergence of surface-based Arctic amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Serreze

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Rises in surface and lower troposphere air temperatures through the 21st century are projected to be especially pronounced over the Arctic Ocean during the cold season. This Arctic amplification is largely driven by loss of the sea ice cover, allowing for strong heat transfers from the ocean to the atmosphere. Consistent with observed reductions in sea ice extent, fields from both the NCEP/NCAR and JRA-25 reanalyses point to emergence of surface-based Arctic amplification in the last decade.

  1. Methane emissions from a high arctic valley: findings and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mastepanov, Mikhail; Sigsgaard, Charlotte; Ström, Lena;

    2008-01-01

    Wet tundra ecosystems are well-known to be a significant source of atmospheric methane. With the predicted stronger effect of global climate change on arctic terrestrial ecosystems compared to lower-latitudes, there is a special obligation to study the natural diversity and the range of possible...... feedback effects on global climate that could arise from Arctic tundra ecosystems. One of the prime candidates for such a feedback mechanism is a potential change in the emissions of methane. Long-term datasets on methane emissions from high arctic sites are almost non-existing but badly needed...

  2. Development of wind power production in arctic climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltola, E.; Kaas, J.; Aarnio, E. [Kemijoki Oy (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The project Development of wind power production in arctic climate is a direct continuation of Arctic wind energy research project, which started in 1989. The main topics in 1996-97 have been production development and commercialising the blade heating systems, development of operation and maintenance practices of arctic wind power plants, preparations for new wind farms and various network connection and energy system studies. Practical operations have taken place in Pyhaetunturi test power plant and in Paljasselkae and Lammashovi power plants, which are in commercial operation

  3. ARCTIC LEGAL SYSTEM: A N EW SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    KUMAR SAHU MANJEET

    2016-01-01

    Historically, the term ‘Arctic’ was used synonymously with the term ‘ice’, but climate change and Arctic hydrocarbon grabbed the attention of the world community as an opportunity to make the Arctic an ‘Energy Hub’. Exploration of oil and gas over the past six decades in the Arctic has made the region as places in the world. All major players in the market have endeavored to approach this new energy basket to utilize its maximum benefit. Commercial exploitation of natural resources has made t...

  4. Climate change and zoonotic infections in the Russian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Revich

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change in the Russian Arctic is more pronounced than in any other part of the country. Between 1955 and 2000, the annual average air temperature in the Russian North increased by 1.2°C. During the same period, the mean temperature of upper layer of permafrost increased by 3°C. Climate change in Russian Arctic increases the risks of the emergence of zoonotic infectious diseases. This review presents data on morbidity rates among people, domestic animals and wildlife in the Russian Arctic, focusing on the potential climate related emergence of such diseases as tick-borne encephalitis, tularemia, brucellosis, leptospirosis, rabies, and anthrax.

  5. Arctic Research of the United States, Fall 1991, volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jerry; Bowen, Stephen

    This is a journal for national and international audiences of government officials, scientists, engineers, educators, Arctic residents, and other people interested in Arctic-related topics. Reports cover a broad spectrum of life in the Arctic including such topics as fish, game, health, social services, science, engineering, environment, oceanography, international activities, international cooperation, global change, conferences, polar libraries, data, policies, research, and history. The emphasis in this issue is on international activities, including the environment, research ships, and the Bering Sea region's history and resources.

  6. State of the Arctic Coast 2010: Scientific Review and Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachold, V.; Forbes, D. L.; Kremer, H.; Lantuit, H.

    2010-12-01

    The coast is a key interface in the Arctic environment. It is a locus of human activity, a rich band of biodiversity, critical habitat, and high productivity, and among the most dynamic components of the circumpolar landscape. The Arctic coastal interface is a sensitive and important zone of interaction between land and sea, a region that provides essential ecosystem services and supports indigenous human lifestyles; a zone of expanding infrastructure investment and growing security concerns; and an area in which climate warming is expected to trigger landscape instability, rapid responses to change, and increased hazard exposure. Starting with a collaborative workshop in October 2007, the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC), the Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ) Project and the International Permafrost Association (IPA) decided to jointly initiate an assessment of the state of the Arctic coast. The goal of this report is to draw on initial findings regarding climate change and human dimensions for the Arctic as a whole provided by the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) and Arctic Human Development Report (AHDR) to develop a comprehensive picture of status and current and anticipated change in the most sensitive Arctic coastal areas. Underlying is the concept of a social ecological system perspective that explores the implications of change for the interaction of humans with nature. The report is aimed to be a first step towards a continuously updated coastal assessment and to identify key issues seeking future scientific concern in an international Earth system research agenda. The report titled “State of the Arctic Coast 2010: Scientific Review and Outlook” is the outcome of this collaborative effort. It is organized in three parts: the first provides an assessment of the state of Arctic coastal systems under three broad disciplinary themes - physical systems, ecological systems, and human concerns in the coastal zone; the

  7. Volatile organic compound emission profiles of four common arctic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Petersen, Ida; Schollert, Michelle; Nymand, Josephine;

    2015-01-01

    The biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from plants impact atmosphere and climate. The species-specific emissions, and thereby the atmospheric impact, of many plant species are still unknown. Knowledge of BVOC emission from arctic plants is particularly limited. The vast area...... and relatively high leaf temperature give the Arctic potential for emissions that cannot be neglected. This field study aimed to elucidate the BVOC emission profiles for four common arctic plant species in their natural environment during the growing season. BVOCs were sampled from aboveground parts of Empetrum...

  8. Changing Arctic ecosystems--research to understand and project changes in marine and terrestrial ecosystems of the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiselman, Joy; DeGange, Anthony R.; Oakley, Karen; Derksen, Dirk; Whalen, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystems and their wildlife communities are not static; they change and evolve over time due to numerous intrinsic and extrinsic factors. A period of rapid change is occurring in the Arctic for which our current understanding of potential ecosystem and wildlife responses is limited. Changes to the physical environment include warming temperatures, diminishing sea ice, increasing coastal erosion, deteriorating permafrost, and changing water regimes. These changes influence biological communities and the ways in which human communities interact with them. Through the new initiative Changing Arctic Ecosystems (CAE) the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) strives to (1) understand the potential suite of wildlife population responses to these physical changes to inform key resource management decisions such as those related to the Endangered Species Act, and (2) provide unique insights into how Arctic ecosystems are responding under new stressors. Our studies examine how and why changes in the ice-dominated ecosystems of the Arctic are affecting wildlife and will provide a better foundation for understanding the degree and manner in which wildlife species respond and adapt to rapid environmental change. Changes to Arctic ecosystems will be felt broadly because the Arctic is a production zone for hundreds of species that migrate south for the winter. The CAE initiative includes three major research themes that span Arctic ice-dominated ecosystems and that are structured to identify and understand the linkages between physical processes, ecosystems, and wildlife populations. The USGS is applying knowledge-based modeling structures such as Bayesian Networks to integrate the work.

  9. Arctic Sea Ice Changes, Interactions, and Feedbacks on the Arctic Climate during the Satellite Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Key, J. R.; Liu, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Of all the components of the Earth climate system, the cryosphere is arguably the least understood even though it is a very important indicator and an effective modulator of regional and global climate change. Changes in sea ice will significantly affect exchanges of momentum, heat, and mass between the ocean and the atmosphere, and have profound socio-economic impacts on transportation, fisheries, hunting, polar animal habitat and more. In the last three decades, the Arctic underwent significant changes in sea ice as part of the accelerated global climate change. With the recently developed One-dimensional Thermodynamic Ice Model (OTIM), sea and lake ice thickness and trends can be reasonably estimated. The OTIM has been extensively validated against submarine and moored upward-looking sonar measurements, meteorological station measurements, and comprehensive numerical model simulations. The Extended AVHRR Polar Pathfinder (APP-x) dataset has 25 climate parameters covering surface, cloud, and sea ice properties as well as surface and top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes for the period 1982 - 2004 over the Arctic and Antarctic at 25 km resolution. The OTIM has been used with APP-x dataset for Arctic sea ice thickness and volume estimation. Statistical analysis of spatial and temporal distributions and trends in sea ice extent, thickness, and volume over the satellite period has been performed, along with the temporal analysis of first year and multiple year sea ice extent changes. Preliminary results show clear evidence that Arctic sea ice has been experiencing significant changes over the last two decades of the 20th century. The Arctic sea ice has been shrinking unexpectedly fast with the declines in sea ice extent, thickness, and volume, most apparent in the fall season. Moreover, satellites provide an unprecedented opportunity to observe Arctic sea ice and its changes with high spatial and temporal coverage that is making it an ideal data source for mitigating

  10. Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in sub-Arctic and Arctic marine mammals, 1986–2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A selection of PCN congeners was analyzed in pooled blubber samples of pilot whale (Globicephala melas), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) and Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), covering a time period of more than 20 years (1986–2009). A large geographical area of the North Atlantic and Arctic areas was covered. PCN congeners 48, 52, 53, 66 and 69 were found in the blubber samples between 0.03 and 5.9 ng/g lw. Also PCBs were analyzed in minke whales and fin whales from Iceland and the total PCN content accounted for 0.2% or less of the total non-planar PCB content. No statistically significant trend in contaminant levels could be established for the studied areas. However, in all species except minke whales caught off Norway the lowest ∑PCN concentrations were found in samples from the latest sampling period. - Highlights: ► PCN concentrations are described in a wide variety of marine mammal species. ► A large geographical area of the North Atlantic and Arctic areas is covered. ► Pooled blubber samples covering a time period of 23 years are evaluated. ► Species- and geographic-dependent PCN congener distribution is seen. ► A decrease in the PCN load is indicated in the studied areas in recent years. - Analysis of PCNs in seven marine mammal species sampled over a 23 year period indicates a decline in the PCN load in sub-Arctic and Arctic areas in recent years.

  11. Arctic Research Mapping Application (ARMAP): 2D Maps and 3D Globes Support Arctic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G.; Gaylord, A. G.; Brady, J. J.; Cody, R. P.; Aguilar, J. A.; Dover, M.; Garcia-Lavigne, D.; Manley, W.; Score, R.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2007-12-01

    The Arctic Research Mapping Application (ARMAP) is a suite of online services to provide support of Arctic science. These services include: a text based online search utility, 2D Internet Map Server (IMS); 3D globes and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Services (WMS). With ARMAP's 2D maps and 3D globes, users can navigate to areas of interest, view a variety of map layers, and explore U.S. Federally funded research projects. Projects can be queried by location, year, funding program, discipline, and keyword. Links take you to specific information and other web sites associated with a particular research project. The Arctic Research Logistics Support Service (ARLSS) database is the foundation of ARMAP including US research funded by the National Science Foundation, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the United States Geological Survey. Avoiding a duplication of effort has been a primary objective of the ARMAP project which incorporates best practices (e.g. Spatial Data Infrastructure and OGC standard web services and metadata) and off the shelf technologies where appropriate. The ARMAP suite provides tools for users of various levels of technical ability to interact with the data by importing the web services directly into their own GIS applications and virtual globes; performing advanced GIS queries; simply printing maps from a set of predefined images in the map gallery; browsing the layers in an IMS; or by choosing to "fly to" sites using a 3D globe. With special emphasis on the International Polar Year (IPY), ARMAP has targeted science planners, scientists, educators, and the general public. In sum, ARMAP goes beyond a simple map display to enable analysis, synthesis, and coordination of Arctic research. ARMAP may be accessed via the gateway web site at http://www.armap.org.

  12. Games in the Arctic: applying game theory insights to Arctic challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Cole

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We illustrate the benefits of game theoretic analysis for assisting decision-makers in resolving conflicts and other challenges in a rapidly evolving region. We review a series of salient Arctic issues with global implications—managing open-access fisheries, opening Arctic areas for resource extraction and ensuring effective environmental regulation for natural resource extraction—and provide insights to help reach socially preferred outcomes. We provide an overview of game theoretic analysis in layman's terms, explaining how game theory can help researchers and decision-makers to better understand conflicts, and how to identify the need for, and improve the design of, policy interventions. We believe that game theoretic tools are particularly useful in a region with a diverse set of players ranging from countries to firms to individuals. We argue that the Arctic Council should take a more active governing role in the region by, for example, dispersing information to “players” in order to alleviate conflicts regarding the management of common-pool resources such as open-access fisheries and natural resource extraction. We also identify side payments—that is, monetary or in-kind compensation from one party of a conflict to another—as a key mechanism for reaching a more biologically, culturally and economically sustainable Arctic future. By emphasizing the practical insights generated from an academic discipline, we present game theory as an influential tool in shaping the future of the Arctic—for individual researchers, for inter-disciplinary research and for policy-makers themselves.

  13. Stratospheric Impacts on Arctic Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichler, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Long-term circulation change in the stratosphere can have substantial effects on the oceans and their circulation. In this study we investigate whether and how sea ice at the ocean surface responds to intraseasonal stratospheric variability. Our main question is whether the surface impact of stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs) is strong and long enough to affect sea ice. A related question is whether the increased frequency of SSWs during the 2000s contributed to the rapid decrease in Arctic sea ice during this time. To this end we analyze observations of sea ice, NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, and a long control integration with a stratospherically-enhanced version of the GFDL CM2.1 climate model. From both observations and the model we find that stratospheric extreme events have a demonstrable impact on the distribution of Arctic sea ice. The areas most affected are near the edge of the climatological ice line over the North Atlantic, North Pacific, and the Arctic Ocean. The absolute changes in sea ice coverage amount to +/-10 %. Areas and magnitudes of increase and decrease are about the same. It is thus unlikely that the increased SSW frequency during the 2000s contributed to the decline of sea ice during that period. The sea ice changes are consistent with the impacts of a negative NAO at the surface and can be understood in terms of (1) dynamical change due to altered surface wind stress and (2) thermodynamical change due to altered temperature advection. Both dynamical and thermodynamical change positively reinforce each other in producing sea change. A simple advection model is used to demonstrate that most of the sea ice change can be explained from the sea ice drift due to the anomalous surface wind stress. Changes in the production or melt of sea ice by thermodynamical effects are less important. Overall, this study adds to an increasing body of evidence that the stratosphere not only impacts weather and climate of the atmosphere but also the surface and

  14. Contaminant and Water Quality Baseline Data for the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, 1988 - 1989. Volume 2, Raw Data.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Metal, hydrocarbon, or nutrient data have not been recorded for the Arctic coastal plain 1002 area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (Arctic Refuge) in areas...

  15. Arctic cisco stomach content data, Prudhoe Bay, August 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set documents the stomach contents of age-0 Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) captured in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska in August 2009. The analysis of this data...

  16. Arctic cisco stable isotope data, Prudhoe Bay, August 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set documents the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of age-0 Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) captured in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska in August 2009....

  17. What are the toxicological effects of mercury in Arctic biota?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Basu, Niladri;

    2013-01-01

    effects. Species whose concentrations exceed threshold values include the polar bears (Ursus maritimus), beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), pilot whale (Globicephala melas), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), a few seabird species, and landlocked Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). Toothed whales appear...

  18. Arctic Ocean Regional Climatology Online Atlas (NODC Accession 0115771)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Arctic Ocean, NODC developed a new set of high-resolution...

  19. A History of Coastal Research in the Arctic (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, H. J.; McGraw, M.

    2009-12-01

    The arctic shoreline is, according to the CIA World Factbook, 45,389 km long. However, a more realistic length from the standpoint of detailed research is the 200,000 km proposed at the 1999 Arctic Coastal Dynamics Workshop. Highly varied in form and material it is dominated by a variety of processes, is relatively remote, is ice-bound much of the year, and has generally been neglected by the scientific community. Before the 20th century, most of the information about its geology, hydrology, geomorphology, and biology was recorded in ship's logs or in explorer's books and was for the most part incidental to the narrative being related. The paucity of specific research is indicated by the relatively few relevant papers included in the more than 100,000 annotated entries published in the 15 volumes of the Arctic Bibliography (1953-1971) and in the nearly as extensive 27 volume bibliography prepared by the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) between 1952 and 1973. Nonetheless, there were some distinctive research endeavors during the early part of the 20th century; e.g., Leffingwell's 1919 Alaskan Arctic Coast observations, Nansen's 1921 strandflat studies, and Zenkovich's 1937 Murmansk research. During that period some organizations devoted to polar research, especially the USSR's Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute and the Scott Polar Research Institute (both in 1920) were established, although the amount of their research that could be considered coastal and arctic was limited. Specific research of the arctic's shoreline was mainly academic until after World War II when military, economic, industrial, and archaeological interests began demanding reliable, contemporary data. At the time numerous organizations with a primary focus on the Arctic were formed. Included are the Arctic Institute of North America (1945), the Snow, Ice, and Permafrost Research Establishment (latter to become CRREL) and the Office of Naval Research's Arctic Research

  20. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1994 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  1. USGS Arctic Ocean Carbon Cruise 2011: Discrete Underway data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Models project the Arctic Ocean will become undersaturated with respect to carbonate minerals in the next decade. Recent field results indicate parts may already be...

  2. USGS Arctic Ocean Carbon Cruise 2010: Discrete Lab data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Models project the Arctic Ocean will become undersaturated with respect to carbonate minerals in the next decade. Recent field results indicate parts may already be...

  3. USGS Arctic Ocean Carbon Cruise 2011: Discrete Lab data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Models project the Arctic Ocean will become undersaturated with respect to carbonate minerals in the next decade. Recent field results indicate parts may already be...

  4. Notes on village economies and wildlife utilization in arctic Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Visits were made to 12 Eskimo villages in Arctic Alaska during the spring of 1954. At each settlement information was collected regarding the economy and the...

  5. Climate Prediction Center Monthly(CPC)Arctic Oscillation Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Arctic Oscillation (AO) is a leading teleconnection pattern in the Northern Hemisphere circulation. It is calculated as the first Empirical Orthogonal Function...

  6. USGS Arctic Ocean Carbon Cruise 2012: Discrete Underway Laboratory data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Models project the Arctic Ocean will become undersaturated with respect to carbonate minerals in the next decade. Recent field results indicate parts may already be...

  7. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1996 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  8. Salt Marshes of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this study was to map all salt marshes along the coastline of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, from the Canning River to the Canadian border....

  9. Skill improvement of dynamical seasonal Arctic sea ice forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikken, Folmer; Schmeits, Maurice; Vlot, Willem; Guemas, Virginie; Hazeleger, Wilco

    2016-05-01

    We explore the error and improve the skill of the outcome from dynamical seasonal Arctic sea ice reforecasts using different bias correction and ensemble calibration methods. These reforecasts consist of a five-member ensemble from 1979 to 2012 using the general circulation model EC-Earth. The raw model reforecasts show large biases in Arctic sea ice area, mainly due to a differently simulated seasonal cycle and long term trend compared to observations. This translates very quickly (1-3 months) into large biases. We find that (heteroscedastic) extended logistic regressions are viable ensemble calibration methods, as the forecast skill is improved compared to standard bias correction methods. Analysis of regional skill of Arctic sea ice shows that the Northeast Passage and the Kara and Barents Sea are most predictable. These results show the importance of reducing model error and the potential for ensemble calibration in improving skill of seasonal forecasts of Arctic sea ice.

  10. Botanical studies in the Arctic National Wildlife Range: Field report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a botanical study in the Arctic National Wildlife Range during 1970. Cooperative studies on flora and fauna were done on selected sites. Sites...

  11. Genetics differentiation between Arctic and Antarctic monothalamous foraminiferans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Jan; Majewski, Wojciech; Longet, David;

    2008-01-01

    Monothalamous (single-chambered) foraminifers are a major component of the benthic meiofauna in high latitude regions. Several morphologically similar species are common in the Arctic and Antarctic. However, it is uncertain whether these morphospecies are genetically identical, or whether...... their accurate identification is compromised by a lack of distinctive morphological features. To determine the relationship between Arctic and Antarctic species, we have compared SSU rDNA sequences of specimens belonging to four morphotaxa: Micrometula, Psammophaga, Gloiogullmia, and one morphospecies...... Hippocrepinella hirudinea from western Svalbard (Arctic) and McMurdo Sound (Antarctic). Wherever possible, we include in our analyses representatives of these taxa from the deep Arctic and Southern Oceans, as well as from Northern European fjords. We found that in all cases, the bipolar populations were clearly...

  12. Arctic National Wildlife Range : Narrative 1971-72

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971-1972 calendar years. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  13. SEDNA: Sea ice Experiment - Dynamic Nature of the Arctic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sea Ice Experiment - Dynamic Nature of the Arctic (SEDNA) is an international collaborative effort to improve the understanding of the interaction between sea...

  14. Arctic tern survey on Adak Island, Alaska, 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is on an Arctic Tern survey on Adak Island in Alaska during 1987. Study area, methods and results are discussed. Pictures and data are also included.

  15. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1986 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  16. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1985 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  17. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1987 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  18. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1988 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  19. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1993 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  20. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  1. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  2. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  3. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1997 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  4. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  5. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1984 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  6. Climate penalty for shifting shipping to the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglestvedt, Jan S; Dalsøren, Stig Bjørløw; Samset, Bjørn Hallvard; Berntsen, Terje; Myhre, Gunnar; Hodnebrog, Øivind; Eide, Magnus Strandmyr; Bergh, Trond Flisnes

    2014-11-18

    The changing climate in the Arctic opens new shipping routes. A shift to shorter Arctic transit will, however, incur a climate penalty over the first one and a half centuries. We investigate the net climate effect of diverting a segment of Europe-Asia container traffic from the Suez to an Arctic transit route. We find an initial net warming for the first one-and-a-half centuries, which gradually declines and transitions to net cooling as the effects of CO2 reductions become dominant, resulting in climate mitigation only in the long term. Thus, the possibilities for shifting shipping to the Arctic confront policymakers with the question of how to weigh a century-scale warming with large uncertainties versus a long-term climate benefit from CO2 reductions. PMID:25347302

  7. Aerial Images of Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain; 1974-1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is comprised of 10 aerial images of three different study areas on Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain flown by NASA in 1974, 1977, 1979 and obtained from...

  8. Climate Prediction Center(CPC)Daily Arctic Oscillation Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Arctic Oscillation (AO) is a leading teleconnection pattern in the Northern Hemisphere circulation. It is calculated as the first Empirical Orthogonal Function...

  9. Characterization of humic-like substances in Arctic aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Quynh T.; Kristensen, Thomas Bjerring; Hansen, Anne Maria K.;

    2014-01-01

    , WSOC, HULIS, selected HULIS functional groups (carboxylic acids, aromatic carboxylic acids, and organosulfates) and levoglucosan overlapped with the typical Arctic haze pattern with elevated concentrations during winter to early spring. The aromatic carboxylic acid portion accounted for a larger share...

  10. An energy efficient building for the Arctic climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vladyková, Petra

    of a super energy efficient house in which the normal hydronic heating system can be omitted. The savings in investment for a traditional hydronic heating system are spent on energy conserving components such as increased insulation in a super airtight building shell, super efficient windows to produce...... usage of an extreme energy efficient building in the Arctic. The purpose of this Ph.D. study is to determine the optimal use of an energy efficient house in the Arctic derived from the fundamental definition of a passive house, investigations of building parameters including the building envelope...... in the Arctic needs to take into account also different socioeconomic conditions, building traditions and use of buildings, survival issue, sustainability and power supply, among others. In the Arctic, the energy efficient house based on a passive house concept offers a sustainable solution to the operation...

  11. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  12. Biological control of Aleutian Island arctic fox: Final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Empirical and literature data on the resource utilization patterns of arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) are evaluated to assess the potential...

  13. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1979 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the Refuge and...

  14. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1978 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the Refuge and...

  15. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1983 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  16. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1980 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the Refuge and...

  17. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1977 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the Refuge and...

  18. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1976

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1976 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the Refuge and...

  19. 75 FR 17763 - Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Fairbanks, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... ecological studies and management of this herd and the Western Arctic caribou herd), polar bears, grizzly bears, muskox, Dall sheep, wolves, wolverines, snow geese, peregrine falcons and other migratory...

  20. The swans and geese of Alaska's arctic slope

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A mid-summer aerial search was made on the 23,000 square miles of waterfowl habitat on Alaska's Arctic slope. Observations included 159 whistling swan (Olor...

  1. Arctic Tern Homing Experiment Petit Manan Island, Maine 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose the author’s work and trip to this island was to conduct homing experiments with Arctic Terns, to determine if this is a suitable species for...

  2. Arctic Tides from GPS on sea-ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard Rose, Stine; Skourup, Henriette; Forsberg, René

    2013-01-01

    The presence of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean plays a significant role in the Arctic climate. Sea-ice dampens the ocean tide amplitude with the result that global tidal models perform less accurately in the polar regions. This paper presents, a kinematic processing of global positioning system (GPS......) placed on sea-ice, at six different sites north of Greenland for the preliminary study of sea surface height (SSH), and tidal analysis to improve tide models in the Central Arctic. The GPS measurements are compared with the Arctic tide model AOTIM-5, which assimilates tide-gauges and altimetry data....... The results show coherence between the GPS buoy measurements, and the tide model. Furthermore, we have proved that the reference ellipsoid of WGS84, can be interpolated to the tidal defined zero level by applying geophysical corrections to the GPS data....

  3. Arctic National Wildlife Range, 1962: Summer field work report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of the summer field work outlined in this report was to determine the feasibility of hiking and back-packing as a recreational use of Arctic National...

  4. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1981 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  5. Staging the Arctic 1819–1909 and 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Hansson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the long nineteenth century and beyond, outside representations of the Arctic on stage have circulated a stereotypical image of the region. The two most long-standing emblems are ice and indigenous culture, and as commodity, the Arctic is identified as mystical, authentic, natural and pre-modern. These images are circulated in popular, cultural events like theatre performances, panoramic displays, music hall shows, and musical comedy but their presence in a popular cultural context also contributes to destabilise the signifiers. At the best, theatre productions about the Arctic may produce a kind of history from below, including a cautious critique of the colonial project and the ideal of heroic masculinity. Their radical potential should not be overstated, however, since the historical meanings of the stereotypes even when they are being debunked. At least on stage, conventional images of the Arctic continue to dominate.

  6. Oceanic heat advection to the Arctic in the last Millennium

    OpenAIRE

    Spielhagen, Robert F.; Werner, Kirstin; Aagaard-Sørensen, Steffen; Zamelczyk, Katarzyna; Kandiano, Evguenia; Budeus, Gereon; Husum, Katrine; Marchitto, Thomas M.; Hald, Morten

    2011-01-01

    EGU2011-8738 At present, the Arctic is responding faster to global warming than most other areas on earth, as indicated by rising air temperatures, melting glaciers and ice sheets and a decline of the sea ice cover. As part of the meridional overturning circulation which connects all ocean basins and influences global climate, northward flowing Atlantic Water is the major means of heat and salt advection towards the Arctic where it strongly affects the sea ice distribution. Records of its ...

  7. Influence analysis of Arctic tide gauges using leverages

    OpenAIRE

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2014-01-01

    Reconstructions of historical sea level in the Arctic Ocean are fraught with difficulties related to lack of data, uneven distribution of tide gauges and seasonal ice cover. Considering the period from 1950 to the present, we attempt to identify conspicuous tide gauges in an automated way, using the statistical leverage of each individual gauge. This may be of help in determining appropriate procedures for data preprocessing, of particular importance for the Arctic area as the GIA is hard to ...

  8. Antimicrobial natural products from Arctic and sub-Arcticmarine invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Tadesse, Margey

    2010-01-01

    Infectious diseases are a leading cause of death world-wide and there is a growing need for new anti-infective agents to combat multi-resistant strains of bacteria and fungi. Marine natural products are promising sources of novel antimicrobial compounds. In the present thesis, an investigation into the antimicrobial metabolites of Arctic and sub-Arctic marine invertebrate species is presented. Extracts of seven ascidian species, six sponge species, a soft-alcyonid coral and a bryozoan species...

  9. One Health - a strategy for resilience in a changing arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Ruscio, Bruce A.; Brubaker, Michael; Glasser, Joshua; Hueston, Will; Hennessy, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    The circumpolar north is uniquely vulnerable to the health impacts of climate change. While international Arctic collaboration on health has enhanced partnerships and advanced the health of inhabitants, significant challenges lie ahead. One Health is an approach that considers the connections between the environment, plant, animal and human health. Understanding this is increasingly critical in assessing the impact of global climate change on the health of Arctic inhabitants. The effects of c...

  10. Ecological diversity in the polymorphic fish Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus)

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, Pamela J., 1979-

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus is extremely diverse and its differentiation may indicate ecological speciation. This dissertation aims to compare trends in ecological diversity across broad geographical regions and place it within an ecosystem context by comparing study systems in Iceland and Alaska. In the first chapter, gut contents of Arctic charr across ~50 lakes in Iceland were analyzed to form 6 habitat-associated prey categories. Consumption of zooplankton was related to high sili...

  11. A temperature inversion in "Chinese Arctic Research Expedition 1999"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇; 周立波; 邹捍

    2002-01-01

    Using the boundary layer observation data collected by "Arctic Upper Air Observation 1999" in Chinese Arctic Research Expedition 1999, a strong temperature inversion in summer is studied. It shows that the intensity (6.3℃/(100 m)) is much stronger than the climatology average value in summer and winter. The temperature inversion took on a remarkable diurnal variation. The intensity of inversion gradually weakened from night to daytime.

  12. Multiyear Arctic Ice Classification Using ASCAT and SSMIS

    OpenAIRE

    David B. Lindell; Long, David G.

    2016-01-01

    The concentration, type, and extent of sea ice in the Arctic can be estimated based on measurements from satellite active microwave sensors, passive microwave sensors, or both. Here, data from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) are employed to broadly classify Arctic sea ice type as first-year (FY) or multiyear (MY). Combining data from both active and passive sensors can improve the performance of MY and FY ice classification. The class...

  13. Toolkit to estimate the organizational structure of Arctic industrial complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Tarasova, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Severe climatic conditions, low population density, lack of infrastructure leave as the only possible nodular economic development of Arctic territories of the Russian Federation. In this case, a natural question arises: how to define points of growth, how to delineate those "patches of economic activity"? In today's economic conditions, growth points for Arctic territories will be resource projects. Analysis of the mineral complex projects in terms of minerals markets, as well as alternative...

  14. Bioluminescence in the high Arctic during the polar night

    OpenAIRE

    Berge, Jørgen; Båtnes, Anna Solvang; Johnsen, Geir; Blackwell, Susan; Moline, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the composition and activity of the planktonic community during the polar night in the high Arctic Kongsfjord, Svalbard. Our results are the first published evidence of bioluminescence among zooplankton during the Arctic polar night. The observations were collected by a bathyphotometer detecting bioluminescence, integrated into an autonomous underwater vehicle, to determine the concentration and intensity of bioluminescent flashes as a function of time of day and depth. To...

  15. Climate change and sexual size dimorphism in an Arctic spider

    OpenAIRE

    Høye, Toke Thomas; Hammel, Jörg U; Fuchs, Thomas; Toft, Søren

    2009-01-01

    Climate change is advancing the onset of the growing season and this is happening at a particularly fast rate in the High Arctic. However, in most species the relative fitness implications for males and females remain elusive. Here, we present data on 10 successive cohorts of the wolf spider Pardosa glacialis from Zackenberg in High-Arctic, northeast Greenland. We found marked inter-annual variation in adult body size (carapace width) and this variation was greater in females than in males. E...

  16. Transition in the fractal geometry of Arctic melt ponds

    OpenAIRE

    C. Hohenegger; B. Alali; Steffen, K. R.; D. K. Perovich; Golden, K. M.

    2012-01-01

    During the Arctic melt season, the sea ice surface undergoes a remarkable transformation from vast expanses of snow covered ice to complex mosaics of ice and melt ponds. Sea ice albedo, a key parameter in climate modeling, is determined by the complex evolution of melt pond configurations. In fact, ice–albedo feedback has played a major role in the recent declines of the summer Arctic sea ice pack. However, understanding melt pond evolution remains a significant challenge to improving climate...

  17. Transition in the fractal geometry of Arctic melt ponds

    OpenAIRE

    C. Hohenegger; B. Alali; Steffen, K. R.; D. K. Perovich; Golden, K. M.

    2012-01-01

    During the Arctic melt season, the sea ice surface undergoes a remarkable transformation from vast expanses of snow covered ice to complex mosaics of ice and melt ponds. Sea ice albedo, a key parameter in climate modeling, is determined by the complex evolution of melt pond configurations. In fact, ice-albedo feedback has played a major role in the recent declines of the summer Arctic sea ice pack. However, understanding melt pond evolution remains a significant challenge to improving climate...

  18. Global warming triggers the loss of a key Arctic refugium

    OpenAIRE

    K. M. Rühland; Paterson, A. M.; Keller, W; Michelutti, N.; Smol, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    We document the rapid transformation of one of the Earth's last remaining Arctic refugia, a change that is being driven by global warming. In stark contrast to the amplified warming observed throughout much of the Arctic, the Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL) of subarctic Canada has maintained cool temperatures, largely due to the counteracting effects of persistent sea ice. However, since the mid-1990s, climate of the HBL has passed a tipping point, the pace and magnitude of which is exceptional eve...

  19. Arctic Ecologies: The Politics and Poetics of Northern Literary Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Athens, Allison Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Allison K. Athens"Arctic Ecologies: The Politics and Poetics of Northern Literary Environments" This dissertation examines the lives of humans and animals in the North American Arctic and the types of narrative modes used to describe them. My project seeks to elucidate the poetics of place, or how language creates and shapes the specificity of social and ecological environments in the north. This poetics is not neutral, however, as language, chiefly the language of writing but also that of fi...

  20. Evaluation of the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) - Process-resolving Arctic Climate Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslowski, Wieslaw

    2016-04-01

    The Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) has been developed to better understand the past and present operation of Arctic System at process scale and to predict its change at time scales from days to decades, in support of the US environmental assessment and prediction needs. RASM is a limited-area, fully coupled ice-ocean-atmosphere-land model that uses the Community Earth System Model (CESM) framework. It includes the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, the LANL Parallel Ocean Program (POP) and Community Ice Model (CICE) and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land hydrology model. The ocean and sea ice models used in RASM are regionally configured versions of those used in CESM, while WRF replaces the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM). In addition, a streamflow routing (RVIC) model was recently implemented in RASM to transport the freshwater flux from the land surface to the Arctic Ocean. The model domain is configured at an eddy-permitting resolution of 1/12° (or ~9km) for the ice-ocean and 50 km for the atmosphere-land model components. It covers the entire Northern Hemisphere marine cryosphere, terrestrial drainage to the Arctic Ocean and its major inflow and outflow pathways, with optimal extension into the North Pacific / Atlantic to model the passage of cyclones into the Arctic. In addition, a 1/48° (or ~2.4km) grid for the ice-ocean model components has been recently configured. All RASM components are coupled at high frequency (currently at 20-minute intervals) to allow realistic representation of inertial interactions among the model components. In addition to an overview of RASM technical details, model results are presented from both fully coupled and subsets of RASM, where the atmospheric and land components are replaced with prescribed realistic atmospheric reanalysis data to evaluate model skill in representing seasonal climatology as well as interannual and multidecadal climate variability. Selected physical processes and resulting

  1. The Arctic Observing Viewer: A Web-mapping Application for U.S. Arctic Observing Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassin, A.; Gaylord, A. G.; Manley, W. F.; Villarreal, S.; Tweedie, C. E.; Cody, R. P.; Copenhaver, W.; Dover, M.; Score, R.; Habermann, T.

    2014-12-01

    Although a great deal of progress has been made with various arctic observing efforts, it can be difficult to assess such progress when so many agencies, organizations, research groups and others are making such rapid progress. To help meet the strategic needs of the U.S. SEARCH-AON program and facilitate the development of SAON and related initiatives, the Arctic Observing Viewer (AOV; http://ArcticObservingViewer.org) has been developed. This web mapping application compiles detailed information pertaining to U.S. Arctic Observing efforts. Contributing partners include the U.S. NSF, USGS, ACADIS, ADIwg, AOOS, a2dc, AON, ARMAP, BAID, IASOA, INTERACT, and others. Over 6100 sites are currently in the AOV database and the application allows users to visualize, navigate, select, advance search, draw, print, and more. AOV is founded on principles of software and data interoperability and includes an emerging "Project" metadata standard, which uses ISO 19115-1 and compatible web services. In the last year, substantial efforts have focused on maintaining and centralizing all database information. In order to keep up with emerging technologies and demand for the application, the AOV data set has been structured and centralized within a relational database; furthermore, the application front-end has been ported to HTML5. Porting the application to HTML5 will now provide access to mobile users utilizing tablets and cell phone devices. Other application enhancements include an embedded Apache Solr search platform which provides users with the capability to perform advance searches throughout the AOV dataset, and an administration web based data management system which allows the administrators to add, update, and delete data in real time. We encourage all collaborators to use AOV tools and services for their own purposes and to help us extend the impact of our efforts and ensure AOV complements other cyber-resources. Reinforcing dispersed but interoperable resources in this

  2. Alaska Arctic marine fish ecology catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinson, Lyman K.; Love, Milton S.

    2016-08-08

    The marine fishes in waters of the United States north of the Bering Strait have received new and increased scientific attention over the past decade (2005–15) in conjunction with frontier qualities of the region and societal concerns about the effects of Arctic climate change. Commercial fisheries are negligible in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, but many marine species have important traditional and cultural values to Alaska Native residents. Although baseline conditions are rapidly changing, effective decisions about research and monitoring investments must be based on reliable information and plausible future scenarios. For the first time, this synthesis presents a comprehensive evaluation of the marine fish fauna from both seas in a single reference. Although many unknowns and uncertainties remain in the scientific understanding, information presented here is foundational with respect to understanding marine ecosystems and addressing dual missions of the U.S. Department of the Interior for energy development and resource conservation. 

  3. Alaska Arctic marine fish ecology catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The marine fishes in waters of the United States north of the Bering Strait have received new and increased scientific attention over the past decade (2005–15) in conjunction with frontier qualities of the region and societal concerns about the effects of Arctic climate change. Commercial fisheries are negligible in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, but many marine species have important traditional and cultural values to Alaska Native residents. Although baseline conditions are rapidly changing, effective decisions about research and monitoring investments must be based on reliable information and plausible future scenarios. For the first time, this synthesis presents a comprehensive evaluation of the marine fish fauna from both seas in a single reference. Although many unknowns and uncertainties remain in the scientific understanding, information presented here is foundational with respect to understanding marine ecosystems and addressing dual missions of the U.S. Department of the Interior for energy development and resource conservation. 

  4. Penicillium mycobiota in Arctic subglacial ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonjak, S.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Gunde-Cimerman, N.

    2006-01-01

    to be inhabited exclusively by heterotrophic bacteria. In this study we report on the very high occurrence (up to 9000 CFU L-1) and diversity of filamentous Penicillium spp. in the sediment-rich subglacial ice of three different polythermal Arctic glaciers (Svalbard, Norway). The dominant species was P. crustosum......, representing on the average half of all isolated strains from all three glaciers. The other most frequently isolated species were P. bialowiezense, P. chrysogenum, P. thomii, P. solitum, P. palitans, P. echinulatum, P. polonicum, P. commune, P. discolor, P. expansum, and new Penicillium species (sp. 1). Twelve...... more Penicillium species were occasionally isolated. The fungi isolated produced consistent profiles of secondary metabolites, not different from the same Penicillium species from other habitats. This is the first report on the presence of large populations of Penicillium spp. in subglacial sediment...

  5. Arctic Shield 2015 Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stafford, Robert A [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ivey, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-05-01

    During the week of July 13, 2015, the U.S. Coast Guard’s (USCG) Research and Development Center partnered with Conoco Phillips through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement to conduct a Search and Rescue (SAR) exercise off of Oliktok Point, Alaska. The Coast Guard was interested in exploring how unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) can be used to enhance capabilities for its SAR mission and gain a better understanding of how it could work jointly with private industry for response operations in remote regions. Participants in the exercise included Coast Guard Pacific Area Command, Coast Guard Cutter Healy, Coast Guard District Seventeen, Coast Guard Air Station Kodiak, and Conoco Phillips. Joining Conoco Phillips were their partners Insitu (a Boeing company), Era Helicopter, and Era Helicopter’s partner Priority One. Other government agencies supporting the exercise were the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Federal Aviation Administration, and the North Slope Borough of the state of Alaska. The exercise scenario involved a simulated small aircraft crash offshore where the survivors took refuge in a 6-man life raft. The aircraft’s last known position and asset availability required the Coast Guard to coordinate the response with Conoco Phillips. This included the use of an Insitu-operated ScanEagle UAS, flown from DOE-ARM’s Sandia National Laboratory-operated facility at Oliktok Point, and manned aircraft provided by both the Coast Guard’s Forward Operating Location in Deadhorse and Era Helicopter. Lessons learned from this exercise will help the Coast Guard understand how to best collaborate with private industry on the North Slope during response operations and develop requirements for UAS performing Coast Guard missions in the Arctic environment. For the ARM facility, the exercise demonstrated some of the opportunities and

  6. Experimentally determined temperature thresholds for Arctic plankton community metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Holding

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate warming is especially severe in the Arctic, where the average temperature is increasing 0.4 °C per decade, two to three times higher than the global average rate. Furthermore, the Arctic has lost more than half of its summer ice extent since 1980 and predictions suggest that the Arctic will be ice free in the summer as early as 2050, which could increase the rate of warming. Predictions based on the metabolic theory of ecology assume that temperature increase will enhance metabolic rates and thus both the rate of primary production and respiration will increase. However, these predictions do not consider the specific metabolic balance of the communities. We tested, experimentally, the response of Arctic plankton communities to seawater temperature spanning from 1 °C to 10 °C. Two types of communities were tested, open-ocean Arctic communities from water collected in the Barents Sea and Atlantic influenced fjord communities from water collected in the Svalbard fjord system. Metabolic rates did indeed increase as suggested by metabolic theory, however these results suggest an experimental temperature threshold of 5 °C, beyond which the metabolism of plankton communities shifts from autotrophic to heterotrophic. This threshold is also validated by field measurements across a range of temperatures which suggested a temperature 5.4 °C beyond which Arctic plankton communities switch to heterotrophy. Barents Sea communities showed a much clearer threshold response to temperature manipulations than fjord communities.

  7. Arctic Freshwater Synthesis: Summary of key emerging issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prowse, T.; Bring, A.; Mârd, J.; Carmack, E.; Holland, M.; Instanes, A.; Vihma, T.; Wrona, F. J.

    2015-10-01

    In response to a joint request from the World Climate Research Program's Climate and Cryosphere Project, the International Arctic Science Committee, and the Arctic Council's Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program an updated scientific assessment has been conducted of the Arctic Freshwater System (AFS), entitled the Arctic Freshwater Synthesis (AFSΣ). The major reason behind the joint request was an increasing concern that changes to the AFS have produced, and could produce even greater, changes to biogeophysical and socioeconomic systems of special importance to northern residents and also produce extra-Arctic climatic effects that will have global consequences. The AFSΣ was structured around six key thematic areas: atmosphere, oceans, terrestrial hydrology, terrestrial ecology, resources, and modeling, the review of each coauthored by an international group of scientists and published as separate manuscripts in this special issue of Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences. This AFSΣ summary manuscript reviews key issues that emerged during the conduct of the synthesis, especially those that are cross-thematic in nature, and identifies future research required to address such issues.

  8. Problems encountered when defining Arctic amplification as a ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hind, Alistair; Zhang, Qiong; Brattström, Gudrun

    2016-07-01

    In climate change science the term ‘Arctic amplification’ has become synonymous with an estimation of the ratio of a change in Arctic temperatures compared with a broader reference change under the same period, usually in global temperatures. Here, it is shown that this definition of Arctic amplification comes with a suite of difficulties related to the statistical properties of the ratio estimator itself. Most problematic is the complexity of categorizing uncertainty in Arctic amplification when the global, or reference, change in temperature is close to 0 over a period of interest, in which case it may be impossible to set bounds on this uncertainty. An important conceptual distinction is made between the ‘Ratio of Means’ and ‘Mean Ratio’ approaches to defining a ratio estimate of Arctic amplification, as they do not only possess different uncertainty properties regarding the amplification factor, but are also demonstrated to ask different scientific questions. Uncertainty in the estimated range of the Arctic amplification factor using the latest global climate models and climate forcing scenarios is expanded upon and shown to be greater than previously demonstrated for future climate projections, particularly using forcing scenarios with lower concentrations of greenhouse gases.

  9. Atmospheric lifetime of levoglucosan during transport in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheesley, Rebecca; Usenko, Sascha; Barrett, Tate

    2015-04-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols are a major driver of climate change, especially in the Arctic. Over the last century, the Arctic has undergone warming at a rate almost twice the global mean, triggering sea ice reduction which enables intensified Arctic oil exploration and commercial shipping. Thorough characterization of these changing aerosol sources, composition and processing will improve aerosol parameterization in Arctic climate models. Atmospheric processing, specifically reaction and oxidation of aerosol components during transport, is difficult to assess. In this study, calculated half-lives for levoglucosan measured at Barrow, AK, USA are used to characterize relative levels of atmospheric processing during wintertime in the Arctic. In the current study, the 14C-based apportioned BC was combined with reported ratios for levoglucosan/BC to calculate τ1/2 for levoglucosan. This enabled examination of relative atmospheric processing over the Arctic winter; processing will likely increase aerosol hygroscopicity. Ambient measurements during the field campaign reveal that the atmospheric half-lives of levoglucosan were inconsistent in mid to late winter, suggesting variability in atmospheric processing during transport.

  10. The Arctic DP Research Project: Effective Stationkeeping in Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Skjetne

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Stress on the environment from a potentially growing energy use is set to rise. Without doubt the energy resources in Arctic regions will be developed. An important goal will be to exploit the resources offered by for instance the Barents Sea as a new European energy province, and to do this in accordance with the principles of sustainable development that have successfully been used e.g. in the North Sea. The special edition of MIC on Arctic DP presents a set of articles that summarize to an extent the activities of the research project Arctic DP: Safe and green dynamic positioning operations of offshore vessels in an Arctic environment. This project was awarded in 2010 by the Research Council of Norway (RCN as a competence-building project (KMB project to NTNU and its partners Kongsberg Maritime, DNV GL, and Statoil. The objective was to target some of the challenges related to safe Arctic offshore operations by dynamic positioning. In this first article of the Arctic DP special edition we discuss the background for and establishment of the project, its planning and execution, and project closure. An overview is given for the scientific and engineering research performed in the project, with an account of what we have considered as Effective stationkeeping in ice by dynamic positioning. The corresponding research activities conducted under this main theme is summarized.

  11. Legal Instruments for Marine Sanctuary in the High Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Morris

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In response to heightened threat to Arctic marine biodiversity due to polar ice melt, the following paper seeks to use qualitative secondary research to analyze existing anthropogenic threat to Arctic marine life and to evaluate current efforts on the part of the Arctic Council to protect biodiversity through a network of state-created marine protected areas (MPAs. We conclude that the current method for MPA creation fails to offer adequate pathways for creation of MPAs in Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (ABNJ, the high seas which fall beyond individual countries’ exclusive economic zones (EEZs. Thus, our central research question is to determine what legal basis and mechanisms exist for the creation of MPAs in ABNJs, with particular focus on the Arctic marine environment. In keeping with The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity’s (UNCBD precautionary approach, along with specific rules embodied within The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS, we find a basis for creation of MPAs in the ABNJ. The text evaluates findings from the Boulogne-sur-Mer international conference of 2011 to suggest that such MPA creation in ABNJ could be approached via four pathways: regional agreement, UNCLOS implementing agreement, UNCBD additional protocol, or an Arctic Sanctuary modeled on the Antarctic Treaty. While we explore all four options, we argue that, due to geopolitical constraints, a comprehensive regional agreement offers the best path to High Arctic MPA creation.

  12. Modern benthic foraminifer distribution in the Amerasian Basin, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishman, S.E.; Foley, K.M.

    1996-01-01

    A total of 38 box cores were collected from the Amerasian Basin, Arctic Ocean during the U.S. Geological Survey 1992 (PI92-AR) and 1993 (PI93-AR) Arctic Cruises aboard the U.S. Coast Guard Icebreaker Polar Star. In addition, the cruises collected geophysical data, piston cores and hydrographic data to address the geologic and oceanographic history of the western Arctic Ocean. This paper reports the results of the quantitative analyses of benthic foraminifer distribution data of the total (live + dead) assemblages derived from 22 box core-top samples. The results show that a distinct depth distribution of three dominant benthic foraminifer assemblages, the Textularia spp. - Spiroplectammina biformis, Cassidulina teretis and Oridorsalis tener - Eponides tumidulus Biofacies are strongly controlled by the dominant water masses within the Canada Basin: the Arctic Surface Water, Arctic Intermediate Water and Canada Basin Deep Water. The faunal distributions and their oceanographic associations in the Canada Basin are consistent with observations of benthic foraminifer distributions from other regions within the Arctic Ocean.

  13. Changes to freshwater systems affecting Arctic infrastructure and natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instanes, Arne; Kokorev, Vasily; Janowicz, Richard; Bruland, Oddbjørn; Sand, Knut; Prowse, Terry

    2016-03-01

    The resources component of the Arctic Freshwater Synthesis focuses on the potential impact of future climate and change on water resources in the Arctic and how Arctic infrastructure and exploration and production of natural resources are affected. Freshwater availability may increase in the Arctic in the future in response to an increase in middle- and high-latitude annual precipitation. Changes in type of precipitation, its seasonal distribution, timing, and rate of snowmelt represent a challenge to municipalities and transportation networks subjected to flooding and droughts and to current industries and future industrial development. A reliable well-distributed water source is essential for all infrastructures, industrial development, and other sectorial uses in the Arctic. Fluctuations in water supply and seasonal precipitation and temperature may represent not only opportunities but also threats to water quantity and quality for Arctic communities and industrial use. The impact of future climate change is varying depending on the geographical area and the current state of infrastructure and industrial development. This paper provides a summary of our current knowledge related to the system function and key physical processes affecting northern water resources, industry, and other sectorial infrastructure.

  14. The expedition ARCTIC `96 of RV `Polarstern` (ARK XII) with the Arctic Climate System Study (ACSYS). Cruise report; Die Expedition ARCTIC `96 des FS `Polarstern` (ARK XII) mit der Arctic Climate System Study (ACSYS). Fahrtbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augstein, E.

    1997-11-01

    The multinational expedition ARCTIC `96 was carried out jointly by two ships, the German RV POLARSTERN and the Swedish RV ODEN. The research programme was developed by scientists from British, Canadian, Finish, German, Irish, Norwegian, Russian, Swedish and US American research institutions and universities. The physical programme on POLARSTERN was primarily designed to foster the Arctic Climte System Study (ACSYS) in the framework of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP). Investigations during the recent years have provided substantial evidence that the Arctic Ocean and the adjacent shelf seas play a significant role in the thermohaline oceanic circulation and may therefore have a distinct influence on global climate. Consequently the main ACSYS goals are concerned with studies of the governing oceanic, atmospheric and hydrological processes in the entire Arctic region. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Expedition ARCTIC `96 wurde von zwei Forschungsschiffen, der deutschen POLARSTERN und der schwedischen ODEN unter Beteiligung von Wissenschaftlern und Technikern aus Deutschland, Finnland, Grossbritannien, Irland, Kanada, Norwegen, Russland, Schweden und den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika durchgefuehrt. Die physikalischen Projekte auf der POLARSTERN dienten ueberwiegend der Unterstuetzung der Arctic Climate System Study (ACSYS) des Weltklimaforschungsprogramms, die auf die Erforschung der vorherrschenden ozeanischen, atmosphaerischen, kryosphaerischen und hydrologischen Prozesse der Arktisregion ausgerichtet ist. (orig.)

  15. Problems encountered when defining Arctic amplification as a ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hind, Alistair; Zhang, Qiong; Brattström, Gudrun

    2016-01-01

    In climate change science the term 'Arctic amplification' has become synonymous with an estimation of the ratio of a change in Arctic temperatures compared with a broader reference change under the same period, usually in global temperatures. Here, it is shown that this definition of Arctic amplification comes with a suite of difficulties related to the statistical properties of the ratio estimator itself. Most problematic is the complexity of categorizing uncertainty in Arctic amplification when the global, or reference, change in temperature is close to 0 over a period of interest, in which case it may be impossible to set bounds on this uncertainty. An important conceptual distinction is made between the 'Ratio of Means' and 'Mean Ratio' approaches to defining a ratio estimate of Arctic amplification, as they do not only possess different uncertainty properties regarding the amplification factor, but are also demonstrated to ask different scientific questions. Uncertainty in the estimated range of the Arctic amplification factor using the latest global climate models and climate forcing scenarios is expanded upon and shown to be greater than previously demonstrated for future climate projections, particularly using forcing scenarios with lower concentrations of greenhouse gases. PMID:27461918

  16. Bioremediation treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated Arctic soils: influencing parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Masoud; Barabadi, Abbas; Barabady, Javad

    2014-10-01

    The Arctic environment is very vulnerable and sensitive to hydrocarbon pollutants. Soil bioremediation is attracting interest as a promising and cost-effective clean-up and soil decontamination technology in the Arctic regions. However, remoteness, lack of appropriate infrastructure, the harsh climatic conditions in the Arctic and some physical and chemical properties of Arctic soils may reduce the performance and limit the application of this technology. Therefore, understanding the weaknesses and bottlenecks in the treatment plans, identifying their associated hazards, and providing precautionary measures are essential to improve the overall efficiency and performance of a bioremediation strategy. The aim of this paper is to review the bioremediation techniques and strategies using microorganisms for treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated Arctic soils. It takes account of Arctic operational conditions and discusses the factors influencing the performance of a bioremediation treatment plan. Preliminary hazard analysis is used as a technique to identify and assess the hazards that threaten the reliability and maintainability of a bioremediation treatment technology. Some key parameters with regard to the feasibility of the suggested preventive/corrective measures are described as well.

  17. Mapping the future expansion of Arctic open water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, Katherine R.; Miller, Christopher R.; Overeem, Irina; Kay, Jennifer E.

    2016-03-01

    Sea ice impacts most of the Arctic environment, from ocean circulation and marine ecosystems to animal migration and marine transportation. Sea ice has thinned and decreased in age over the observational record. Ice extent has decreased. Reduced ice cover has warmed the surface ocean, accelerated coastal erosion and impacted biological productivity. Declines in Arctic sea-ice extent cannot be explained by internal climate variability alone and can be attributed to anthropogenic effects. However, extent is a poor measure of ice decline at specific locations as it integrates over the entire Arctic basin and thus contains no spatial information. The open water season, in contrast, is a metric that represents the duration of open water over a year at an individual location. Here we present maps of the open water season over the period 1920-2100 using daily output from a 30-member initial-condition ensemble of business-as-usual climate simulations that characterize the expansion of Arctic open water, determine when the open water season will move away from pre-industrial conditions (`shift’ time) and identify when human forcing will take the Arctic sea-ice system outside its normal bounds (`emergence’ time). The majority of the Arctic nearshore regions began shifting in 1990 and will begin leaving the range of internal variability in 2040. Models suggest that ice will cover coastal regions for only half of the year by 2070.

  18. Tourism and Arctic Observation Systems: exploring the relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne de la Barre

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is affected by global environmental change and also by diverse interests from many economic sectors and industries. Over the last decade, various actors have attempted to explore the options for setting up integrated and comprehensive trans-boundary systems for monitoring and observing these impacts. These Arctic Observation Systems (AOS contribute to the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of environmental change and responsible social and economic development in the Arctic. The aim of this article is to identify the two-way relationship between AOS and tourism. On the one hand, tourism activities account for diverse changes across a broad spectrum of impact fields. On the other hand, due to its multiple and diverse agents and far-reaching activities, tourism is also well-positioned to collect observational data and participate as an actor in monitoring activities. To accomplish our goals, we provide an inventory of tourism-embedded issues and concerns of interest to AOS from a range of destinations in the circumpolar Arctic region, including Alaska, Arctic Canada, Iceland, Svalbard, the mainland European Arctic and Russia. The article also draws comparisons with the situation in Antarctica. On the basis of a collective analysis provided by members of the International Polar Tourism Research Network from across the polar regions, we conclude that the potential role for tourism in the development and implementation of AOS is significant and has been overlooked.

  19. China in the Arctic: interests, actions and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njord Wegge

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of China’s interest in and approach to the Arctic region. The following questions are raised: 1.Why is China getting involved in the Arctic, 2. How is China’s engagement in the Arctic playing out? 3, What are the most important issues that need to be solved in order for China to increase its relevance and importance as a political actor and partner in the Arctic. In applying a rationalist approach when answering the research questions, I identify how China in the last few years increasingly has been accepted as a legitimate stakeholder in the Arctic, with important stakes and activities in areas such as shipping, resource utilization and environmental science.  The article concludes with pointing out some issues that remain to be solved including Chinas role in issues of global politics, the role of observers in the Arctic Council as well as pointing out how China itself needs to decide important aspects of their future role in the region.

  20. The Arctic Ocean: opportunities of a new maritime boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Valle Machado da Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change due to global warming will not only have negative effects. In the case of maritime trade, the risk arising from the increase in the average temperature of the planet has some opportunities already being analyzed by various states. One such opportunity relates to the potential use of sea routes through the Arctic, linking the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The purpose of this article is to analyze the implications for maritime trade, resulting from the reduction of the ice cover in the Arctic Ocean and to show which states are shaping the institutions and rules for use of this new opportunity. To achieve this goal, the text was divided into three sections. The first introduces the reader to the projections accessibility to navigation in the Arctic Ocean and the potential shipping routes that are revealed for the maritime trade. The second section of the paper examines how states with territory in the Arctic, as well as those with direct interests in the region, are articulating institutions for this purpose, notably the Arctic Council. The third and final section examines "how" and "why" China, a State exogenous to the Arctic, has managed to implement successful strategies in defense of their interests in the region.

  1. External forcing of the early 20th century Arctic warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Suo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The observed Arctic warming during the early 20th century was comparable to present-day warming in terms of magnitude. The causes and mechanisms for the early 20th century Arctic warming are less clear and need to be better understood when considering projections of future climate change in the Arctic. The simulations using the Bergen Climate Model (BCM can reproduce the surface air temperature (SAT fluctuations in the Arctic during the 20th century reasonably well. The results presented here, based on the model simulations and observations, indicate that intensified solar radiation and a lull in volcanic activity during the 1920s–1950s can explain much of the early 20th century Arctic warming. The anthropogenic forcing could play a role in getting the timing of the peak warming correct. According to the model the local solar irradiation changes play a crucial role in driving the Arctic early 20th century warming. The SAT co-varied closely with local solar irradiation changes when natural external forcings are included in the model either alone or in combination with anthropogenic external forcings. The increased Barents Sea warm inflow and the anomalous atmosphere circulation patterns in the northern Europe and north Atlantic can also contribute to the warming. In summary, the early 20th century warming was largely externally forced.

  2. Arctic Observing Network (AON): Enhancing Observing, Data Archiving and Data Discovery Capabilities as Arctic Environmental System Change Continues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, M. O.

    2008-12-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, under the auspices of the U.S. Inter-Agency Arctic Research Policy Committee, are leading the development of the Arctic Observing Network (AON) as part of the implementation of the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) and as a legacy of International Polar Year (IPY). As the Observing Change component of SEARCH, AON complements the Understanding Change and Responding to Change components. AON addresses the need to enhance observing capabilities in a data-sparse region where environmental system changes are among the most rapid on Earth. AON data will contribute to research into understanding the causes and consequences of Arctic environmental system change and its global connections, and to improving predictive skill. AON is also a contribution to the development of a multi-nation, pan-Arctic observing network that is being discussed at the IPY 'Sustaining Arctic Observing Networks' (SAON) workshops. Enhancing Arctic observing capabilities faces many challenges, including coordination and integration of disparate observing elements and data systems that operate according to diverse policies and practices. There is wide agreement that data systems that provide archiving and discovery services are essential and integral to AON. In recognition of this, NSF is supporting the development of CADIS (Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service) as an AON portal for data discovery, a repository for data storage, and a platform for data analysis. NSF is also supporting ELOKA (Exchange for Local Observations and Knowledge in the Arctic), a pilot project for a data management and networking service for community- based observing that keeps control of data in the hands of data providers while still allowing for broad searches and sharing of information. CADIS and ELOKA represent the application of cyberinfrastructure to meet AON data system needs that might also

  3. New views on changing Arctic vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Robert E.

    2012-03-01

    As climate changes, how will terrestrial vegetation respond? Because the fates of many biogeochemical, hydrological and economic cycles depend on vegetation, this question is fundamental to climate change science but extremely challenging to address. This is particularly true in the Arctic, where temperature change has been most acute globally (IPCC 2007) and where potential feedbacks to carbon, energy and hydrological cycles have important implications for the rest of the Earth system (Chapin et al 2000). It is well known that vegetation is tightly coupled to precipitation and temperature (Whittaker 1975), but predicting the response of vegetation to changes in climate involves much more than invoking the limitations of climate envelopes (Thuiller et al 2008). Models must also consider efficacy of dispersal, soil constraints, ecological interactions, possible CO2 fertilization impacts and the changing impact of other, more proximal anthropogenic effects such as pollution, disturbance, etc (Coops and Waring 2011, Lenihan et al 2008, Scheller and Mladenoff 2005). Given this complexity, a key test will be whether models can match empirical observations of changes that have already occurred. The challenge is finding empirical observations of change that are appropriate to test hypothesized impacts of climate change. As climate gradually changes across broad bioclimatic gradients, vegetation condition may change gradually as well. To capture these gradual trends, observations need at least three characteristics: (1) they must quantify a vegetation attribute that is expected to change, (2) they must measure that attribute in exactly the same way over long periods of time, and (3) they must sample diverse communities at geographic scales commensurate with the scale of expected climatic shifts. Observation networks meeting all three criteria are rare anywhere on the globe, but particularly so in remote areas. For this reason, satellite images have long been used as a

  4. A Possible Feedback Mechanism Involving the Arctic Freshwater,the Arctic Sea Ice, and the North Atlantic Drift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Odd Helge OTTER(A); Helge DRANGE

    2004-01-01

    Model studies point to enhanced warming and to increased freshwater fluxes to high northern latitudes in response to global warming. In order to address possible feedbacks in the ice-ocean system in response to such changes, the combined effect of increased freshwater input to the Arctic Ocean and Arctic warming--the latter manifested as a gradual melting of the Arctic sea ice--is examined using a 3-D isopycnic coordinate ocean general circulation model. A suite of three idealized experiments is carried out: one control integration, one integration with a doubling of the modern Arctic river runoff, and a third more extreme case, where the river runoff is five times the modern value. In the two freshwater cases, the sea ice thickness is reduced by 1.5-2 m in the central Arctic Ocean over a 50-year period. The modelled ocean response is qualitatively the same for both perturbation experiments: freshwater propagates into the Atlantic Ocean and the Nordic Seas, leading to an initial weakening of the North Atlantic Drift.Furthermore, changes in the geostrophic currents in the central Arctic and melting of the Arctic sea ice lead to an intensified Beaufort Gyre, which in turn increases the southward volume transport through the Canadian Archipelago. To compensate for this southward transport of mass, more warm and saline Atlantic water is carried northward with the North Atlantic Drift. It is found that the increased transport of salt into the northern North Atlantic and the Nordic Seas tends to counteract the impact of the increased freshwater originating from the Arctic, leading to a stabilization of the North Atlantic Drift.

  5. Arctic Browning: vegetation damage and implications for carbon balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treharne, Rachael; Bjerke, Jarle; Emberson, Lisa; Tømmervik, Hans; Phoenix, Gareth

    2016-04-01

    'Arctic browning' is the loss of biomass and canopy in Arctic ecosystems. This process is often driven by climatic and biological extreme events - notably extreme winter warm periods, winter frost-drought and severe outbreaks of defoliating insects. Evidence suggests that browning is becoming increasingly frequent and severe at the pan-arctic scale, a view supported by observations from more intensely observed regions, with major and unprecedented vegetation damage reported at landscape (>1000km2) and regional (Nordic Arctic Region) scales in recent years. Critically, the damage caused by these extreme events is in direct opposition to 'Arctic greening', the well-established increase in productivity and shrub abundance observed at high latitudes in response to long-term warming. This opposition creates uncertainty as to future anticipated vegetation change in the Arctic, with implications for Arctic carbon balance. As high latitude ecosystems store around twice as much carbon as the atmosphere, and vegetation impacts are key to determining rates of loss or gain of ecosystem carbon stocks, Arctic browning has the potential to influence the role of these ecosystems in global climate. There is therefore a clear need for a quantitative understanding of the impacts of browning events on key ecosystem carbon fluxes. To address this, field sites were chosen in central and northern Norway and in Svalbard, in areas known to have been affected by either climatic extremes or insect outbreak and subsequent browning in the past four years. Sites were chosen along a latitudinal gradient to capture both conditions already causing vegetation browning throughout the Norwegian Arctic, and conditions currently common at lower latitudes which are likely to become more damaging further North as climate change progresses. At each site the response of Net Ecosystem CO2 Exchange to light was measured using a LiCor LI6400 Portable Photosynthesis system and a custom vegetation chamber with

  6. Sea Ice Edge Location and Extent in the Russian Arctic, 1933-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sea Ice Edge Location and Extent in the Russian Arctic, 1933-2006 data are derived from sea ice charts from the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI),...

  7. Seasonal and Intra-annual Controls on CO2 Flux in Arctic Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oechel, Walter [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States); Kalhori, Aram [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    In order to advance the understanding of the patterns and controls on the carbon budget in the Arctic region, San Diego State University has maintained eddy covariance flux towers at three sites in Arctic Alaska, starting in 1997.

  8. Population dynamics and distribution of muskoxen in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the population dynamics and distribution of muskoxen in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. Numbers of muskoxen in the Arctic National...

  9. PAST Gateways (Palaeo-Arctic Spatial and Temporal Gateways): Introduction and overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ó Cofaigh, Colm; Briner, Jason P.; Kirchner, Nina; Lucchi, Renata G.; Meyer, Hanno; Kaufman, Darrell S.

    2016-09-01

    This special issue relates to the Second International Conference of the PAST Gateways (Palaeo-Arctic Spatial and Temporal Gateways) network which was held in Trieste, Italy in 2014. Twenty five papers are included and they address topics under four main themes: (1) The growth and decay of Arctic ice sheets; (2) Arctic sea ice and palaeoceanography; (3) Terrestrial Arctic environments and permafrost change; and (4) Holocene Arctic environmental change. Geographically the focus is circum-Arctic; the special issue includes detailed regional studies from Greenland, Scandinavia, Russia, and Arctic North America and the adjoining seas, as well as a series of synthesis-type, review papers on Fennoscandian Ice Sheet deglaciation and Holocene Arctic palaeo-climate change. The methodologies employed are diverse and include marine sediment core and geophysical investigations, terrestrial glacial geology and geomorphology, isotopic analysis of ground ice, palaeo-ecological analysis of lacustrine and terrestrial sedimentary archives, geochronology and numerical ice sheet modeling.

  10. Technological and economic factors in the future development and utilization of Arctic natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of Arctic gas reserves will be accelerated during the next two decades in response to higher oil prices, environmental and safety advantages of gas, and the potentially low costs of tapping giant reservoirs. Total Arctic gas reserves are estimated at over 63 trillion m3. Due to low population and industrial activity in the Arctic, only limited markets for Arctic gas exist in the Arctic itself. The main part of Arctic gas must therefore be transported over long distances. Giant Arctic gas fields will provide a basis for different production alternatives including both pipeline gas, liquefied gas, and converted gas products. Transportation systems are the most critical part of Arctic natural gas development and the sector requiring the greatest investment. Major investment decisions will depend on accurate estimates of gas transport technology and economics, as well as on perceived energy market share growth and geopolitical stability. 27 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Mercury bioaccumulation and biomagnification in a small Arctic polynya ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayden, Meredith G., E-mail: meredith.clayden@gmail.com [Canadian Rivers Institute and Biology Department, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada); Arsenault, Lilianne M. [Canadian Rivers Institute and Biology Department, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada); Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 (Canada); Department of Biology, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 (Canada); Kidd, Karen A. [Canadian Rivers Institute and Biology Department, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada); O' Driscoll, Nelson J. [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 (Canada); Mallory, Mark L. [Department of Biology, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Recurring polynyas are important areas of biological productivity and feeding grounds for seabirds and mammals in the Arctic marine environment. In this study, we examined food web structure (using carbon and nitrogen isotopes, δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N) and mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation and biomagnification in a small recurring polynya ecosystem near Nasaruvaalik Island (Nunavut, Canada). Methyl Hg (MeHg) concentrations increased by more than 50-fold from copepods (Calanus hyperboreus) to Arctic terns (Sterna paradisaea), the abundant predators at this site. The biomagnification of MeHg through members of the food web – using the slope of log MeHg versus δ{sup 15}N – was 0.157 from copepods (C. hyperboreus) to fish. This slope was higher (0.267) when seabird chicks were included in the analyses. Collectively, our results indicate that MeHg biomagnification is occurring in this small polynya and that its trophic transfer is at the lower end of the range of estimates from other Arctic marine ecosystems. In addition, we measured Hg concentrations in some poorly studied members of Arctic marine food webs [e.g. Arctic alligatorfish (Ulcina olrikii) and jellyfish, Medusozoa], and found that MeHg concentrations in jellyfish were lower than expected given their trophic position. Overall, these findings provide fundamental information about food web structure and mercury contamination in a small Arctic polynya, which will inform future research in such ecosystems and provide a baseline against which to assess changes over time resulting from environmental disturbance. - Highlights: • Polynyas are recurring sites of open water in polar marine areas • Mercury (Hg) biomagnification was studied in a small polynya near Nasaruvaalik Island, NU, Canada • Hg biomagnification estimates for invertebrates to fish were low compared to other Arctic systems • Factors underlying this result are unknown but may relate to primary productivity in small polynyas.

  12. Arctic Legal System: a New Sustainable Development Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sahu Manjeet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, the term ‘Arctic’ was used synonymously with the term ‘ice’, but climate change and Arctic hydrocarbon grabbed the attention of the world community as an opportunity to make the Arctic an ‘Energy Hub’. Exploration of oil and gas over the past six decades in the Arctic has made the region as places in the world. All major players in the market have endeavored to approach this new energy basket to utilize its maximum benefit. Commercial exploitation of natural resources has made this place a center for the regulation of oil and gas activities. However, petroleum exploration and its operation have had significant local detrimental impacts on the atmosphere, inhabitants and marine environment. Geologists have always believed in the huge reserves of oil and gas in the Arctic Region. However, the exploration of oil and gas started as recently as the mid-1950s. An increase in the demand of oil and gas in the international market, as well as its growing scarcity, compelled the world to locate oil and gas reserves in various regions. It is significant to note that the Arctic states are strategically going to control the excessive exploitation of Arctic hydrocarbon with much profitability. However, it is still a far sighted question ‘whether Arctic will provide direct competition to the Middle East’ and become another hub in the energy market.

  13. Future emissions from shipping and petroleum activities in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Peters

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic sea-ice is retreating faster than predicted by climate models and could become ice free during summer this century. The reduced sea-ice extent may effectively "unlock" the Arctic Ocean to increased human activities such as transit shipping and expanded oil and gas production. Travel time between Europe and the north Pacific Region can be reduced by up to 50 % with low sea-ice levels and the use of this route could increase substantially as the sea-ice retreats. Oil and gas activities already occur in the Arctic region and given the large undiscovered petroleum resources increased activity could be expected with reduced sea-ice. We use a bottom-up shipping model and a detailed global energy market model to construct emission inventories of Arctic shipping and petroleum activities in 2030 and 2050 given estimated sea-ice extents. The emission inventories are on a 1×1 degree grid and cover both short-lived components (SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, BC, OC and the long-lived greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O. We find rapid growth in transit shipping due to increased profitability with the shorter transit times compensating for increased costs in traversing areas of sea-ice. Oil and gas production remains relatively stable leading to reduced emissions from emission factor improvements. The location of oil and gas production moves into locations requiring more ship transport relative to pipeline transport, leading to rapid emissions growth from oil and gas transport via ship. Our emission inventories for the Arctic region will be used as input into chemical transport, radiative transfer, and climate models to quantify the role of Arctic activities in climate change compared to similar emissions occurring outside of the Arctic region.

  14. Improved Projections of 21st Century Trans-Arctic Shipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, N.; Haines, K.; Hawkins, E.

    2015-12-01

    Climate models unanimously project a decline in the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice as the climate warms, but at differing rates. Projecting the timing of an ice-free Arctic is a topic that has received considerable scientific and public attention. An ice-free Arctic opens up the potential for shorter global trade routes through the Arctic Ocean and there has already been a sharp increase in the number of transits along Russia's Northern Sea Route with escorts from nuclear powered icebreakers.Here we present results on the future of trans-Arctic shipping using bias corrected sea ice thickness projections, utilising the CMIP5 multi-model ensemble and considering multiple emission scenarios. We find that for 'Open Water' vessels (normal ocean going vessels that possess no specific ice strengthening), unaided trans-Arctic shipping is likely to become feasible in the next couple of decades. We find that the North West Passage will open approximately a decade later than the Northern Sea Route. Initially however, both routes exhibit marked inter-annual variability in accessibility which we quantify. The hypothesised trans-polar sea route through international waters via the North Pole will start to become navigable by 2050. Towards the latter period of the 21st century, normal ocean going vessels will be able to transit their choice of any of these routes for at least six months of any given year under the RCP 8.5 high future emissions scenario and four months for the lower RCP 4.5 emissions scenario. These findings suggest that further increases in global temperature could transform the Arctic into a global transport hub.

  15. Arctic climate change in an ensemble of regional CORDEX simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben Koenigk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fifth phase Climate Model Intercomparison Project historical and scenario simulations from four global climate models (GCMs using the Representative Concentration Pathways greenhouse gas concentration trajectories RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 are downscaled over the Arctic with the regional Rossby Centre Atmosphere model (RCA. The regional model simulations largely reflect the circulation bias patterns of the driving global models in the historical period, indicating the importance of lateral and lower boundary conditions. However, local differences occur as a reduced winter 2-m air temperature bias over the Arctic Ocean and increased cold biases over land areas in RCA. The projected changes are dominated by a strong warming in the Arctic, exceeding 15°K in autumn and winter over the Arctic Ocean in RCP8.5, strongly increased precipitation and reduced sea-level pressure. Near-surface temperature and precipitation are linearly related in the Arctic. The wintertime inversion strength is reduced, leading to a less stable stratification of the Arctic atmosphere. The diurnal temperature range is reduced in all seasons. The large-scale change patterns are dominated by the surface and lateral boundary conditions so future response is similar in RCA and the driving global models. However, the warming over the Arctic Ocean is smaller in RCA; the warming over land is larger in winter and spring but smaller in summer. The future response of winter cloud cover is opposite in RCA and the GCMs. Precipitation changes in RCA are much larger during summer than in the global models and more small-scale change patterns occur.

  16. Bromine measurements in ozone depleted air over the Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Neuman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In situ measurements of ozone, photochemically active bromine compounds, and other trace gases over the Arctic Ocean in April 2008 are used to examine the chemistry and geographical extent of ozone depletion in the arctic marine boundary layer (MBL. Data were obtained from the NOAA WP-3D aircraft during the Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC study and the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS study. Fast (1 s and sensitive (detection limits at the low pptv level measurements of BrCl and BrO were obtained from three different chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS instruments, and soluble bromide was measured with a mist chamber. The CIMS instruments also detected Br2. Subsequent laboratory studies showed that HOBr rapidly converts to Br2 on the Teflon instrument inlets. This detected Br2 is identified as active bromine and represents a lower limit of the sum HOBr + Br2. The measured active bromine is shown to likely be HOBr during daytime flights in the arctic. In the MBL over the Arctic Ocean, soluble bromide and active bromine were consistently elevated and ozone was depleted. Ozone depletion and active bromine enhancement were confined to the MBL that was capped by a temperature inversion at 200–500 m altitude. In ozone-depleted air, BrO rarely exceeded 10 pptv and was always substantially lower than soluble bromide that was as high as 40 pptv. BrCl was rarely enhanced above the 2 pptv detection limit, either in the MBL, over Alaska, or in the arctic free troposphere.

  17. Mercury bioaccumulation and biomagnification in a small Arctic polynya ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recurring polynyas are important areas of biological productivity and feeding grounds for seabirds and mammals in the Arctic marine environment. In this study, we examined food web structure (using carbon and nitrogen isotopes, δ13C and δ15N) and mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation and biomagnification in a small recurring polynya ecosystem near Nasaruvaalik Island (Nunavut, Canada). Methyl Hg (MeHg) concentrations increased by more than 50-fold from copepods (Calanus hyperboreus) to Arctic terns (Sterna paradisaea), the abundant predators at this site. The biomagnification of MeHg through members of the food web – using the slope of log MeHg versus δ15N – was 0.157 from copepods (C. hyperboreus) to fish. This slope was higher (0.267) when seabird chicks were included in the analyses. Collectively, our results indicate that MeHg biomagnification is occurring in this small polynya and that its trophic transfer is at the lower end of the range of estimates from other Arctic marine ecosystems. In addition, we measured Hg concentrations in some poorly studied members of Arctic marine food webs [e.g. Arctic alligatorfish (Ulcina olrikii) and jellyfish, Medusozoa], and found that MeHg concentrations in jellyfish were lower than expected given their trophic position. Overall, these findings provide fundamental information about food web structure and mercury contamination in a small Arctic polynya, which will inform future research in such ecosystems and provide a baseline against which to assess changes over time resulting from environmental disturbance. - Highlights: • Polynyas are recurring sites of open water in polar marine areas • Mercury (Hg) biomagnification was studied in a small polynya near Nasaruvaalik Island, NU, Canada • Hg biomagnification estimates for invertebrates to fish were low compared to other Arctic systems • Factors underlying this result are unknown but may relate to primary productivity in small polynyas

  18. International Arctic Research Collaborations: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintisch, E. S.

    2015-12-01

    International cooperation on Arctic research has a long and storied history, predating even the first International Polar Year in 1881. But scientists want to improve and expand current efforts to conduct international Arctic research, despite politcal and legal barriers that can hamper it. A review of the past and present aspects of such research can inform that effort. As part of a six month fellowship at the Center for Science Diplomacy at the American Association for the Advancement of Science I studied the history and current status of international cooperation in the Arctic. I will report on my findings, which include the fact that some of the first substantial international environmental research and regulatory cooperation began in the far North. My session will identify the elements that make international research collaborations successful, for example more than a century of cooperative work by Russian and Norwegian fishery scientists to monitor and regulate the cod trade in the Barents Sea. And it will explore the challenges that can threaten such collaborations. These can include rules that stymie data collection, block the import of certain analytical equipment across national boundaries, and bar the export of soil or water samples. I will mention specific complications to recent international arctic research projects. These include the SWERUS cruise, a joint effort between Sweden, Russia and the US, an effort to study carbon fluxes over the East Siberian Arctic Shelf in 2014. The session will also review progress towards a new international agreeement, first proposed by the US, on improving arctic research cooperation. That deal is focused on removing the bureacratic and legal barriers to scientists seeking to conduct arctic research on foreign waters and land.

  19. Exposing the structure of an Arctic food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirta, Helena K; Vesterinen, Eero J; Hambäck, Peter A; Weingartner, Elisabeth; Rasmussen, Claus; Reneerkens, Jeroen; Schmidt, Niels M; Gilg, Olivier; Roslin, Tomas

    2015-09-01

    How food webs are structured has major implications for their stability and dynamics. While poorly studied to date, arctic food webs are commonly assumed to be simple in structure, with few links per species. If this is the case, then different parts of the web may be weakly connected to each other, with populations and species united by only a low number of links. We provide the first highly resolved description of trophic link structure for a large part of a high-arctic food web. For this purpose, we apply a combination of recent techniques to describing the links between three predator guilds (insectivorous birds, spiders, and lepidopteran parasitoids) and their two dominant prey orders (Diptera and Lepidoptera). The resultant web shows a dense link structure and no compartmentalization or modularity across the three predator guilds. Thus, both individual predators and predator guilds tap heavily into the prey community of each other, offering versatile scope for indirect interactions across different parts of the web. The current description of a first but single arctic web may serve as a benchmark toward which to gauge future webs resolved by similar techniques. Targeting an unusual breadth of predator guilds, and relying on techniques with a high resolution, it suggests that species in this web are closely connected. Thus, our findings call for similar explorations of link structure across multiple guilds in both arctic and other webs. From an applied perspective, our description of an arctic web suggests new avenues for understanding how arctic food webs are built and function and of how they respond to current climate change. It suggests that to comprehend the community-level consequences of rapid arctic warming, we should turn from analyses of populations, population pairs, and isolated predator-prey interactions to considering the full set of interacting species. PMID:26380710

  20. SEARCH: Study of Environmental Arctic Change--A System-scale, Cross-disciplinary, Long-term Arctic Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Schlosser, P.; Loring, A. J.; Warnick, W. K.; Committee, S. S.

    2008-12-01

    The Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) is a multi-agency effort to observe, understand, and guide responses to changes in the arctic system. Interrelated environmental changes in the Arctic are affecting ecosystems and living resources and are impacting local and global communities and economic activities. Under the SEARCH program, guided by the Science Steering Committee (SSC), the Interagency Program Management Committee (IPMC), and the Observing, Understanding, and Responding to Change panels, scientists with a variety of expertise--atmosphere, ocean and sea ice, hydrology and cryosphere, terrestrial ecosystems, human dimensions, and paleoclimatology--work together to achieve goals of the program. Over 150 projects and activities contribute to SEARCH implementation. The Observing Change component is underway through National Science Foundation's (NSF) Arctic Observing Network (AON), NOAA-sponsored atmospheric and sea ice observations, and other relevant national and international efforts, including the EU- sponsored Developing Arctic Modelling and Observing Capabilities for Long-term Environmental Studies (DAMOCLES) Program. The Understanding Change component of SEARCH consists of modeling and analysis efforts, with strong linkages to relevant programs such as NSF's Arctic System Synthesis (ARCSS) Program. The Responding to Change element is driven by stakeholder research and applications addressing social and economic concerns. As a national program under the International Study of Arctic Change (ISAC), SEARCH is also working to expand international connections in an effort to better understand the global arctic system. SEARCH is sponsored by eight (8) U.S. agencies, including: the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Department of Defense (DOD), the Department of Energy (DOE), the Department of the Interior (DOI), the Smithsonian

  1. Arctic region: new model of geodynamic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikishin, Anatoly; Kazmin, Yuriy; Malyshev, Nikolay; Morozov, Andrey; Petrov, Eugene

    2014-05-01

    Basement of the Arctic shelf areas is characterizes with a complex structure. Age of the defined domains is early Pre-Cambrian, Neoproterozoic to Cambrian (Timanian and Baykalian), early-middle Paleozoic (Caledonian) and late Paleozoic (Uralian, Taimyrian and Ellesmerian). Mesozoic deformations affected Novaya Zemlya, Southern Taimyr and southern parts of the Laptev Sea, the East Siberian Sea, and the Chukchi Sea regions. There are several Paleozoic rift-postrift basins. The North Kara Basin and the Timan-Pechora Basin was formed during the early Ordovician time as subduction-related back-arc rift systems. The East-Barents Basin has the same origin but the age of its formation is late Devonian. Carboniferous rifting took place in the Norwegian part of the Barents Sea, the Chukchi Sea (Hanna Trough Basin) and the Sverdrup Basin. There are also rift-postrift basins of the Mesozoic age. Late Permian to Early Triassic rifting took place in the South Kara Basin; it was connected with both collapse of the Uralian Orogen and activity of the Siberian mantle plume. Aptian to Albian rifting was affected with really big area in the Laptev Sea, the East Siberian Sea and the Chukchi Sea right after the De-Long plume-related magmatic event. Paleogene (mainly Eocene) rifting was also widely spread in these areas. The Arctic Ocean consists of three main domains: the Canada Basin, Alpha-Mendeleev-Podvodnikov-Makarov domain, and the Eurasia Basin. The Canada Basin is a typical oceanic one. There are many uncertainties in the definition of spreading age, but in accordance with the prevalent point of view, it should be early Cretaceous, Neocomian. Alpha-Mendeleev-Podvodnikov-Makarov domain is an enigmatic region. We propose the following scenario for the formation of this domain: Aptian to Cenomanian plume-related large-scale intraplate basalt magmatism was followed by Albian to late Cretaceous rifting. Few axes of rifting were nearly orthogonal to the pre-existing one in the Canada

  2. Review of technology for Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackinger, W. M.

    1980-06-06

    This volume contains appendices of the following: US Geological Survey Arctic operating orders, 1979; Det Noske Vertas', rules for the design, construction and inspection of offshore technology, 1977; Alaska Oil and Gas Association, industry research projects, March 1980; Arctic Petroleum Operator's Association, industry research projects, January 1980; selected additional Arctic offshore bibliography on sea ice, icebreakers, Arctic seafloor conditions, ice-structures, frost heave and structure icing.

  3. The Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A): July–August 1988

    OpenAIRE

    Harriss, R. C.; Wofsy, Steven Charles; Bartlett, D. S.; Shipham, M. C.; Jacob, Daniel James; Hoell, J. M.; Bendura, R. J.; Drewry, J. W.; McNeal, R. J.; Navarro, R. L.; Gidge, R. N.; Rabine, V. E.

    1992-01-01

    The Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A) used measurements from ground, aircraft, and satellite platforms to characterize the chemistry and dynamics of the lower atmosphere over Arctic and sub-Arctic regions of North America during July and August 1988. The primary objectives of ABLE 3A were to investigate the magnitude and variability of methane emissions from the tundra ecosystem, and to elucidate factors controlling ozone production and destruction in the Arctic atmosphere. This pape...

  4. Review of Arctic fox. Life at the top of the world, by Gary Hamilton

    OpenAIRE

    Ims, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    The Arctic fox is the only truly Arctic species among the terrestrial carnivorous mammals of the world. It is distributed across the circumpolar Arctic region. Like polar bears, Arctic foxes regularly traverse the pack ice of the polar basin, a fact that astonished Fridtjof Nansen during his attempt to reach the North Pole more than 100 years ago. However, despite its unique lifestyle, which in some respects is more fascinating than that of the polar bear, there has been no popular book (exce...

  5. Beaded streams of Arctic permafrost landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Arp

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Beaded streams are widespread in permafrost regions and are considered a common thermokarst landform. However, little is known about their distribution, how and under what conditions they form, and how their intriguing morphology translates to ecosystem functions and habitat. Here we report on a Circum-Arctic inventory of beaded streams and a watershed-scale analysis in northern Alaska using remote sensing and field studies. We mapped over 400 channel networks with beaded morphology throughout the continuous permafrost zone of northern Alaska, Canada, and Russia and found the highest abundance associated with medium- to high-ice content permafrost in moderately sloping terrain. In the Fish Creek watershed, beaded streams accounted for half of the drainage density, occurring primarily as low-order channels initiating from lakes and drained lake basins. Beaded streams predictably transition to alluvial channels with increasing drainage area and decreasing channel slope, although this transition is modified by local controls on water and sediment delivery. Comparison of one beaded channel using repeat photography between 1948 and 2013 indicate relatively stable form and 14C dating of basal sediments suggest channel formation may be as early as the Pleistocene–Holocene transition. Contemporary processes, such as deep snow accumulation in stream gulches effectively insulates river ice and allows for perennial liquid water below most beaded stream pools. Because of this, mean annual temperatures in pool beds are greater than 2 °C, leading to the development of perennial thaw bulbs or taliks underlying these thermokarst features. In the summer, some pools stratify thermally, which reduces permafrost thaw and maintains coldwater habitats. Snowmelt generated peak-flows decrease rapidly by two or more orders of magnitude to summer low flows with slow reach-scale velocity distributions ranging from 0.1 to 0.01 m s−1, yet channel runs still move water

  6. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the Arctic Ocean. Distribution and pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josefsson, Dan

    1998-05-01

    Anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations have been determined in seawater and sediment samples collected in 1991, 1994 and 1996 in the Eurasian Arctic shelf and interior. Global fallout, releases from European reprocessing plants and the Chernobyl accident are identified as the three main sources. From measurements in the Eurasian shelf seas it is concluded that the total input of {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr from these sources has been decreasing during the 1990`s, while {sup 129}I has increased. The main fraction of the reprocessing and Chernobyl activity found in Arctic Ocean surface layer is transported from the Barents Sea east along the Eurasian Arctic shelf seas to the Laptev Sea before entering the Nansen Basin. This inflow results in highest {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I and {sup 90}Sr concentrations in the Arctic Ocean surface layers, and continuously decreasing concentrations with depth. Chernobyl-derived {sup 137}Cs appeared in the central parts of the Arctic Ocean around 1991, and in the mid 1990`s the fraction to total {sup 137}Cs was approximately 30% in the entire Eurasian Arctic region. The transfer times for releases from Sellafield are estimated to be 5-7 years to the SE Barents Sea, 7-9 years to the Kara Sea, 10-11 years to the Laptev Sea and 12-14 years to the central Arctic Ocean. Global fallout is the primary source of plutonium with highest concentrations found in the Atlantic layer of the Arctic Ocean. When transported over the shallow shelf seas, particle reactive transuranic elements experience an intense scavenging. A rough estimate shows that approximately 75% of the plutonium entering the Kara and Laptev Seas are removed to the sediment. High seasonal riverine input of {sup 239}, {sup 240}Pu is observed near the mouths of the large Russian rivers. Sediment inventories show much higher concentrations on the shelf compared to the deep Arctic Ocean. This is primarily due to the low particle flux in the open ocean

  7. Preliminary Geospatial Analysis of Arctic Ocean Hydrocarbon Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Philip E.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Sullivan, E. C.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Bradley, Donald J.

    2008-10-01

    Ice coverage of the Arctic Ocean is predicted to become thinner and to cover less area with time. The combination of more ice-free waters for exploration and navigation, along with increasing demand for hydrocarbons and improvements in technologies for the discovery and exploitation of new hydrocarbon resources have focused attention on the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Basin and its margins. The purpose of this document is to 1) summarize results of a review of published hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic, including both conventional oil and gas and methane hydrates and 2) develop a set of digital maps of the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Ocean. These maps can be combined with predictions of ice-free areas to enable estimates of the likely regions and sequence of hydrocarbon production development in the Arctic. In this report, conventional oil and gas resources are explicitly linked with potential gas hydrate resources. This has not been attempted previously and is particularly powerful as the likelihood of gas production from marine gas hydrates increases. Available or planned infrastructure, such as pipelines, combined with the geospatial distribution of hydrocarbons is a very strong determinant of the temporal-spatial development of Arctic hydrocarbon resources. Significant unknowns decrease the certainty of predictions for development of hydrocarbon resources. These include: 1) Areas in the Russian Arctic that are poorly mapped, 2) Disputed ownership: primarily the Lomonosov Ridge, 3) Lack of detailed information on gas hydrate distribution, and 4) Technical risk associated with the ability to extract methane gas from gas hydrates. Logistics may control areas of exploration more than hydrocarbon potential. Accessibility, established ownership, and leasing of exploration blocks may trump quality of source rock, reservoir, and size of target. With this in mind, the main areas that are likely to be explored first are the Bering Strait and Chukchi

  8. PCBs in the Arctic atmosphere: determining important driving forces using a global atmospheric transport model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Friedman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a spatially and temporally resolved global atmospheric PCB model, driven by meteorological data, that is skilled at simulating mean atmospheric PCB concentrations and seasonal cycles in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and mean Arctic concentrations. However, the model does not capture the observed Arctic summer maximum in atmospheric PCBs. We use the model to estimate global budgets for the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea 7 PCBs, and demonstrate that congeners that deposit more readily show lower potential for long-range transport, consistent with a recently-described "differential removal hypothesis" regarding the hemispheric transport of PCBs. Using sensitivity simulations to assess processes within, outside, or transport to the Arctic, we examine the influence of climate- and emissions-driven processes on Arctic concentrations and their effect on improving the simulated Arctic seasonal cycle. We find evidence that processes occurring outside the Arctic have a greater influence on Arctic atmospheric PCB levels than processes that occur within the Arctic. Our simulations suggest that re-emissions from sea ice melting or from the Arctic Ocean during summer would have to be unrealistically high in order to capture observed temporal trends of PCBs in the Arctic atmosphere. We conclude that mid-latitude processes are likely to have a greater effect on the Arctic under global change scenarios than re-emissions within the Arctic.

  9. Technical Report 14-11 Overview of Danish Contributions to Monitoring of SLCPs in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Ulrik Smith; Krogh Andersen, Katrine; Christensen, Tina;

    2014-01-01

    in anthropogenic sources of SLCPs warrant action within and outside of the Arctic region effects of such actions need to be monitored in the Arctic as to measure the effectiveness of mitigation at lower latitudes and as to support the development of our understanding of the role that the SLCPs play in Arctic...

  10. The Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS) : Overview and experimental design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjernström, M.; Leck, C.; Birch, C.E.; Bottenheim, J.W.; Brooks, B.J.; Brooks, I.M.; Bäcklin, L.; Chang, R.Y.W.; Leeuw, G. de; Liberto, L. di; Rosa, S. de la; Granath, E.; Graus, M.; Hansel, A.; Heintzenberg, J.; Held, A.; Hind, A.; Johnston, P.; Knulst, J.; Martin, M.; Matrai, P.A.; Mauritsen, T.; Müller, M.; Norris, S.J.; Orellana, M.V.; Orsini, D.A.; Paatero, J.; Persson, P.O.G.; Gao, Q.; Rauschenberg, C.; Ristovski, Z.; Sedlar, J.; Shupe, M.D.; Sierau, B.; Sirevaag, A.; Sjogren, S.; Stetzer, O.; Swietlicki, E.; Szczodrak, M.; Vaattovaara, P.; Wahlberg, N.; Westberg, M.; Wheeler, C.R.

    2014-01-01

    The climate in the Arctic is changing faster than anywhere else on earth. Poorly understood feedback processes relating to Arctic clouds and aerosol-cloud interactions contribute to a poor understanding of the present changes in the Arctic climate system, and also to a large spread in projections of

  11. Dissolved iron in the Arctic Ocean: Important role of hydrothermal sources, shelf input and scavenging removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klunder, M.B.; Laan, P.; Middag, R.; de Baar, H.J.W.; Bakker, K.

    2012-01-01

    Arctic Ocean waters exchange with the North Atlantic, and thus dissolved iron (DFe) in the Arctic has implications for the global Fe cycle. We present deep water (>250 m) DFe concentrations of the Central Arctic Ocean (Nansen, Amundsen and Makarov Basins). The DFe concentration in the deep waters va

  12. Dissolved iron in the Arctic Ocean : Important role of hydrothermal sources, shelf input and scavenging removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klunder, M. B.; Laan, P.; Middag, R.; de Baar, H. J. W.; Bakker, K.

    2012-01-01

    Arctic Ocean waters exchange with the North Atlantic, and thus dissolved iron (DFe) in the Arctic has implications for the global Fe cycle. We present deep water (>250 m) DFe concentrations of the Central Arctic Ocean (Nansen, Amundsen and Makarov Basins). The DFe concentration in the deep waters va

  13. Status and trends in the structure of Arctic benthic food webs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kędra, M.; Moritz, C.; Choy, E.S.; David, C.; Degen, R.; Duerksen, S.; Ellingsen, I.; Górska, B.; Grebmeier, J.M.; Kirievskaya, D.; van Oevelen, D.; Piwosz, K.; Samuelsen, A.; We? slawski, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing climate warming is causing a dramatic loss of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean, and it is projected that the Arctic Ocean will become seasonally ice-free by 2040. Many studies of local Arctic food webs now exist, and with this review paper we aim to synthesize these into a large-scale assessment

  14. 50 CFR 216.108 - Requirements for monitoring and reporting under incidental harassment authorizations for Arctic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... under incidental harassment authorizations for Arctic waters. 216.108 Section 216.108 Wildlife and... for monitoring and reporting under incidental harassment authorizations for Arctic waters. (a) Holders of an incidental harassment authorization in Arctic waters and their employees, agents, and...

  15. Why cumulative impacts assessments of hydrocarbon activities in the Arctic fail to meet their purpose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkfeldt, Trine Skovgaard; Hansen, Anne Merrild; Olsen, Pernille;

    2016-01-01

    The Arctic Region is characterised by vulnerable ecosystems and residing indigenous people, dependent on nature for fishing and hunting. The Arctic also contains a wealth of non-living natural resources such as minerals and hydrocarbons. Synergies between increased access and growing global demand...... of methodology for assessment of cumulative impacts, knowledge gap of Arctic ecosystems and other....

  16. Arctic winter warming amplified by the thermal inversion and consequent low infrared cooling to space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bintanja, R.; Graversen, R.G.; Hazeleger, W.

    2011-01-01

    Pronounced warming in the Arctic region, coined Arctic amplification, is an important feature of observed and modelled climate change1, 2. Arctic amplification is generally attributed to the retreat of sea-ice3 and snow, and the associated surface-albedo feedback4, in conjunction with other processe

  17. Brent goose colonies near snowy owls: Internest distances in relation to breeding arctic fox densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kharitonov, S.P.; Ebbinge, B.S.; Fouw, de J.

    2013-01-01

    It was shown that in the years when the numbers of the Arctic foxes are high, even though the lemming numbers are high as well, Brent geese nest considerably closer to owls' nests than in the years with low Arctic fox numbers. At values of the Arctic fox densities greater than one breeding pair per

  18. Arctic Ocean Gravity Field Derived From ERS-1 Satellite Altimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxon, S; McAdoo, D

    1994-07-29

    The derivation of a marine gravity field from satellite altimetry over permanently ice-covered regions of the Arctic Ocean provides much new geophysical information about the structure and development of the Arctic sea floor. The Arctic Ocean, because of its remote location and perpetual ice cover, remains from a tectonic point of view the most poorly understood ocean basin on Earth. A gravity field has been derived with data from the ERS-1 radar altimeter, including permanently ice-covered regions. The gravity field described here clearly delineates sections of the Arctic Basin margin along with the tips of the Lomonosov and Arctic mid-ocean ridges. Several important tectonic features of the Amerasia Basin are clearly expressed in this gravity field. These include the Mendeleev Ridge; the Northwind Ridge; details of the Chukchi Borderland; and a north-south trending, linear feature in the middle of the Canada Basin that apparently represents an extinct spreading center that "died" in the Mesozoic. Some tectonic models of the Canada Basin have proposed such a failed spreading center, but its actual existence and location were heretofore unknown. PMID:17752757

  19. Assimilation impacts on Arctic Ocean circulation, heat and freshwater budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Hao; Mugford, Ruth I.; Haines, Keith; Smith, Gregory C.

    We investigate the Arctic basin circulation, freshwater content (FWC) and heat budget by using a high-resolution global coupled ice-ocean model implemented with a state-of-the-art data assimilation scheme. We demonstrate that, despite a very sparse dataset, by assimilating hydrographic data in and near the Arctic basin, the initial warm bias and drift in the control run is successfully corrected, reproducing a much more realistic vertical and horizontal structure to the cyclonic boundary current carrying the Atlantic Water (AW) along the Siberian shelves in the reanalysis run. The Beaufort Gyre structure and FWC and variability are also more accurately reproduced. Small but important changes in the strait exchange flows are found which lead to more balanced budgets in the reanalysis run. Assimilation fluxes dominate the basin budgets over the first 10 years (P1: 1987-1996) of the reanalysis for both heat and FWC, after which the drifting Arctic upper water properties have been restored to realistic values. For the later period (P2: 1997-2004), the Arctic heat budget is almost balanced without assimilation contributions, while the freshwater budget shows reduced assimilation contributions compensating largely for surface salinity damping, which was extremely strong in this run. A downward trend in freshwater export at the Canadian Straits and Fram Strait is found in period P2, associated with Beaufort Gyre recharge. A detailed comparison with observations and previous model studies at the individual Arctic straits is also included.

  20. Temperature thresholds for Arctic plankton community metabolism: an experimental assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Holding

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate warming is especially severe in the Arctic, where the average temperature is increasing 0.4 °C per decade, two to three times higher than the global average rate. Furthermore, the Arctic has lost more than half its summer ice extent since 1980 and predictions suggest that the Arctic will be ice free in the summer as early as 2050, which could increase rate of warming. Predictions based on the metabolic theory of ecology assume that temperature increase will enhance metabolic rates and thus both the rate of primary production and respiration will increase. However, these predictions do not consider the specific metabolic balance of the communities. We tested experimentally the response of Arctic plankton communities to seawater temperature spanning from 1 °C to 10 °C. Two types of communities were tested, open-ocean Arctic communities from water collected in the Barents Sea and Atlantic influenced fjord communities from water collected in the Svalbard fjord system. Metabolic rates did indeed increase as suggested by metabolic theory, however these results suggest a temperature threshold of 5 °C, beyond which the metabolism of plankton communities shifts from autotrophic to heterotrophic. Barents Sea communities showed a much clearer threshold response to temperature manipulations than fjord communities.

  1. Arctic Solutions The Frozen (Thawing) Relations of the High North

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It's cold, inhospitable and deadly. The image of the Arctic in years past is one of bewilderment, ignorance and awe. How the image of the Arctic has changed in recent years can be directly linked to our recognition that the Arctic has a great deal to offer in meeting the basic needs of future generations. Although we are still in awe of the Arctic's cruel beauty, new technologies are making it easier to explore the once unmanageable environment. The Arctic has moved into the mainstream with a host of suitors jockeying for position in the race to possess the Arctic and all that it contains. To highlight this increased interest, Russia's 'National Security Until 2020' initiative, has upgraded the High North to one of Russia's main priorities and identifies the Arctic as liable to produce military conflict in the future linked to competition for the Arctic's abundant raw materials.1 Even Canada, a peaceful and respectful country, has stepped outside the box of traditional Canadian rhetoric by giving Canada's Northern Strategy a tag line: 'Our North, our heritage, our future'. The Arctic is increasingly viewed as central to meeting the challenges of an ever changing world where climate change and economic benefit drive international agreements and policies. However Canada and Russia are not the only actors here. The other Arctic Five states: Denmark, Norway, and the United States of America all lay claims to some area or activity within the Arctic region. The Arctic is a unique part of this world, one that has been left largely untouched by human hands, and one that is on the brink of being changed forever. To fully understand Arctic issues, resource figures must be taken into account. Every nation involved in the Arctic debate has considered and based its policies on its set of numbers and resource estimates. A U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2009 put Arctic resource figures in the range of thirty percent of the remaining world reserves of natural gas and ten percent

  2. Calcareous microfossil-based orbital cyclostratigraphy in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzen, Rachel E.; DeNinno, Lauren H.; Cronin, Thomas M.

    2016-10-01

    Microfaunal and geochemical proxies from marine sediment records from central Arctic Ocean (CAO) submarine ridges suggest a close relationship over the last 550 thousand years (kyr) between orbital-scale climatic oscillations, sea-ice cover, marine biological productivity and other parameters. Multiple paleoclimate proxies record glacial to interglacial cycles. To understand the climate-cryosphere-productivity relationship, we examined the cyclostratigraphy of calcareous microfossils and constructed a composite Arctic Paleoclimate Index (API) "stack" from benthic foraminiferal and ostracode density from 14 sediment cores. Following the hypothesis that API is driven mainly by changes in sea-ice related productivity, the API stack shows the Arctic experienced a series of highly productive interglacials and interstadials every ∼20 kyr. These periods signify minimal ice shelf and sea-ice cover and maximum marine productivity. Rapid transitions in productivity are seen during shifts from interglacial to glacial climate states. Discrepancies between the Arctic API curves and various global climatic, sea-level and ice-volume curves suggest abrupt growth and decay of Arctic ice shelves related to climatic and sea level oscillations.

  3. Seismicity, structure and tectonics in the Arctic region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masaki Kanao; Vladimir D. Suvorov; Shigeru Toda; Seiji Tsuboi

    2015-01-01

    The“Arctic”region, where the North Pole occupies the center of the Arctic Ocean, has been affecting the environmental variation of the Earth from geological time to the present. However, the seismic activities in the area are not adequately monitored. Therefore, by conducting long term monitoring of seismic phenomenon as sustainable parameters, our understanding of both the tectonic evolution of the Earth and the dynamic interaction between the cryosphere and geosphere in surface layers of the Earth will increase. In this paper, the association of the seismicity and structure of the Arctic region, particularly focused on Eurasian continent and surrounding oceans, and its relationship with regional evolution during the Earth’s history is studied. The target areas cover representative tectonic provinces in the Eurasian Arctic, such as the wide area of Siberia, Baikal Rift Zone, Far East Russia, Arctic Ocean together with Greenland and Northern Canada. Based on discussion including characteristics of seismicity, het-erogeneous structure of the crust and upper mantle, tectonic history and recent dynamic features of the Earth’s surface in the Arctic are summarized.

  4. Arctic Climate Variability and Trends from Satellite Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanji Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arctic climate has been changing rapidly since the 1980s. This work shows distinctly different patterns of change in winter, spring, and summer for cloud fraction and surface temperature. Satellite observations over 1982–2004 have shown that the Arctic has warmed up and become cloudier in spring and summer, but cooled down and become less cloudy in winter. The annual mean surface temperature has increased at a rate of 0.34°C per decade. The decadal rates of cloud fraction trends are −3.4%, 2.3%, and 0.5% in winter, spring, and summer, respectively. Correspondingly, annually averaged surface albedo has decreased at a decadal rate of −3.2%. On the annual average, the trend of cloud forcing at the surface is −2.11 W/m2 per decade, indicating a damping effect on the surface warming by clouds. The decreasing sea ice albedo and surface warming tend to modulate cloud radiative cooling effect in spring and summer. Arctic sea ice has also declined substantially with decadal rates of −8%, −5%, and −15% in sea ice extent, thickness, and volume, respectively. Significant correlations between surface temperature anomalies and climate indices, especially the Arctic Oscillation (AO index, exist over some areas, implying linkages between global climate change and Arctic climate change.

  5. New Trans-Arctic shipping routes navigable by midcentury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laurence C; Stephenson, Scott R

    2013-03-26

    Recent historic observed lows in Arctic sea ice extent, together with climate model projections of additional ice reductions in the future, have fueled speculations of potential new trans-Arctic shipping routes linking the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. However, numerical studies of how projected geophysical changes in sea ice will realistically impact ship navigation are lacking. To address this deficiency, we analyze seven climate model projections of sea ice properties, assuming two different climate change scenarios [representative concentration pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5] and two vessel classes, to assess future changes in peak season (September) Arctic shipping potential. By midcentury, changing sea ice conditions enable expanded September navigability for common open-water ships crossing the Arctic along the Northern Sea Route over the Russian Federation, robust new routes for moderately ice-strengthened (Polar Class 6) ships over the North Pole, and new routes through the Northwest Passage for both vessel classes. Although numerous other nonclimatic factors also limit Arctic shipping potential, these findings have important economic, strategic, environmental, and governance implications for the region. PMID:23487747

  6. A Scientific Synthesis and Assessment of the Arctic Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Daniel J.; Guo, Laodong; McGuire, A. David

    2007-06-01

    The Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), along with the Climate and Cryosphere (CliC) Project and the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC), sponsored the Arctic Carbon Cycle Assessment Workshop, at the Red Lion Hotel in Seattle, Wash., between 27 February and 1 March 2007. The workshop was held in a general effort toward the scientific synthesis and assessment of the Arctic system carbon cycle, as well as to generate feedback on the working draft of an assessment document. The initial assessment was prepared by the Arctic carbon cycle assessment writing team, which is led by A. David McGuire (University of Alaska Fairbanks) and includes Leif Anderson (Goteborg University, Sweden), Torben Christensen (Lund University, Sweden), Scott Dallimore (Natural Resources Canada), Laodong Guo (University of Southern Mississippi), Martin Heimann (Max Planck Institute, Germany), Robie MacDonald (Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Canada), and Nigel Roulet (McGill University, Canada). The workshop brought together leading researchers in the fields of terrestrial, marine, and atmospheric science to report on and discuss the current state of knowledge on contemporary carbon stocks and fluxes in the Artie and their potential responses to a changing climate. The workshop was attended by 35 scientists representing institutions from 10 countries in addition to two representatives of the sponsor agencies (John Calder for AMAP and Diane Verseghy for CliC).

  7. Inhomogeneous field theory inside the arctic circle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra, Nicolas; Dubail, Jérôme; Stéphan, Jean-Marie; Viti, Jacopo

    2016-05-01

    Motivated by quantum quenches in spin chains, a one-dimensional toy-model of fermionic particles evolving in imaginary-time from a domain-wall initial state is solved. The main interest of this toy-model is that it exhibits the arctic circle phenomenon, namely a spatial phase separation between a critically fluctuating region and a frozen region. Large-scale correlations inside the critical region are expressed in terms of correlators in a (euclidean) two-dimensional massless Dirac field theory. It is observed that this theory is inhomogenous: the metric is position-dependent, so it is in fact a Dirac theory in curved space. The technique used to solve the toy-model is then extended to deal with the transfer matrices of other models: dimers on the honeycomb and square lattice, and the six-vertex model at the free fermion point (Δ =0 ). In all cases, explicit expressions are given for the long-range correlations in the critical region, as well as for the underlying Dirac action. Although the setup developed here is heavily based on fermionic observables, the results can be translated into the language of height configurations and of the gaussian free field, via bosonization. Correlations close to the phase boundary and the generic appearance of Airy processes in all these models are also briefly revisited in the appendix.

  8. Color characterization of Arctic Biological Soil Crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Giacono; Gargiulo, Laura; Ventura, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Global climate change makes large areas lacking the vegetation coverage continuously available to primary colonization by biological soil crusts (BSCs). This happens in many different environments, included high mountains and Polar Regions where new areas can become available due to glaciers retreat. Presence of BSCs leads to the stabilization of the substrate and to a possible development of protosoil, with an increase of fertility and resilience against erosion. Polar BSCs can exhibit many different proportions of cyanobacteria, algae, microfungi, lichens, and bryophytes which induce a large variability of the crust morphology and specific ecosystem functions. An effective and easy way for identifying the BSCs in the field would be very useful to rapidly recognize their development stage and help in understanding the overall impact of climate change in the delicate polar environments. Color analysis has long been applied as an easily measurable physical attribute of soil closely correlated with pedogenic processes and some soil functions. In this preliminary work we used RGB and CIE-L*a*b* color models in order to physically characterize fourteen different BSCs identified in Spitsbergen island of Svalbard archipelago in Arctic Ocean at 79° north latitude. We found that the "redness parameter "a*" of CIE-L*a*b* model was well correlated to the succession process of some BSCs at given geomorphology condition. Most of color parameters showed, moreover, a great potential to be correlated to photosynthetic activity and other ecosystem functions of BSCs.

  9. Submarine Landslides in Arctic Sedimentation: Canada Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Lebedova-Ivanova, N; Chapman, C.

    2016-01-01

    Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin in the World. Marine seismic field programs were conducted over the past 6 years using Canadian and American icebreakers. These expeditions acquired more than 14,000 line-km of multibeam bathymetric and multi-channel seismic reflection data over abyssal plain, continental rise and slope regions of Canada Basin; areas where little or no seismic reflection data existed previously. Canada Basin is a turbidite-filled basin with flat-lying reflections correlateable over 100s of km. For the upper half of the sedimentary succession, evidence of sedimentary processes other than turbidity current deposition is rare. The Canadian Archipelago and Beaufort Sea margins host stacked mass transport deposits from which many of these turbidites appear to derive. The stratigraphic succession of the MacKenzie River fan is dominated by mass transport deposits; one such complex is in excess of 132,000 km2 in area and underlies much of the southern abyssal plain. The modern seafloor is also scarred with escarpments and mass failure deposits; evidence that submarine landsliding is an ongoing process. In its latest phase of development, Canada Basin is geomorphologically confined with stable oceanographic structure, resulting in restricted depositional/reworking processes. The sedimentary record, therefore, underscores the significance of mass-transport processes in providing sediments to oceanic abyssal plains as few other basins are able to do.

  10. Arctic-HYCOS: a Large Sample observing system for estimating freshwater fluxes in the drainage basin of the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietroniro, Al; Korhonen, Johanna; Looser, Ulrich; Hardardóttir, Jórunn; Johnsrud, Morten; Vuglinsky, Valery; Gustafsson, David; Lins, Harry F.; Conaway, Jeffrey S.; Lammers, Richard; Stewart, Bruce; Abrate, Tommaso; Pilon, Paul; Sighomnou, Daniel; Arheimer, Berit

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic region is an important regulating component of the global climate system, and is also experiencing a considerable change during recent decades. More than 10% of world's river-runoff flows to the Arctic Ocean and there is evidence of changes in its fresh-water balance. However, about 30% of the Arctic basin is still ungauged, with differing monitoring practices and data availability from the countries in the region. A consistent system for monitoring and sharing of hydrological information throughout the Arctic region is thus of highest interest for further studies and monitoring of the freshwater flux to the Arctic Ocean. The purpose of the Arctic-HYCOS project is to allow for collection and sharing of hydrological data. Preliminary 616 stations were identified with long-term daily discharge data available, and around 250 of these already provide online available data in near real time. This large sample will be used in the following scientific analysis: 1) to evaluate freshwater flux to the Arctic Ocean and Seas, 2) to monitor changes and enhance understanding of the hydrological regime and 3) to estimate flows in ungauged regions and develop models for enhanced hydrological prediction in the Arctic region. The project is intended as a component of the WMO (World Meteorological Organization) WHYCOS (World Hydrological Cycle Observing System) initiative, covering the area of the expansive transnational Arctic basin with participation from Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russian Federation, Sweden and United States of America. The overall objective is to regularly collect, manage and share high quality data from a defined basic network of hydrological stations in the Arctic basin. The project focus on collecting data on discharge and possibly sediment transport and temperature. Data should be provisional in near-real time if available, whereas time-series of historical data should be provided once quality assurance has been completed. The

  11. High Methylmercury in Arctic and Subarctic Ponds is Related to Nutrient Levels in the Warming Eastern Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Gwyneth A; Girard, Catherine; Chételat, John; Laurion, Isabelle; Amyot, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Permafrost thaw ponds are ubiquitous in the eastern Canadian Arctic, yet little information exists on their potential as sources of methylmercury (MeHg) to freshwaters. They are microbially active and conducive to methylation of inorganic mercury, and are also affected by Arctic warming. This multiyear study investigated thaw ponds in a discontinuous permafrost region in the Subarctic taiga (Kuujjuarapik-Whapmagoostui, QC) and a continuous permafrost region in the Arctic tundra (Bylot Island, NU). MeHg concentrations in thaw ponds were well above levels measured in most freshwater ecosystems in the Canadian Arctic (>0.1 ng L(-1)). On Bylot, ice-wedge trough ponds showed significantly higher MeHg (0.3-2.2 ng L(-1)) than polygonal ponds (0.1-0.3 ng L(-1)) or lakes (waters of Subarctic thaw ponds near Kuujjuarapik (0.1-3.1 ng L(-1)). High water MeHg concentrations in thaw ponds were strongly correlated with variables associated with high inputs of organic matter (DOC, a320, Fe), nutrients (TP, TN), and microbial activity (dissolved CO2 and CH4). Thawing permafrost due to Arctic warming will continue to release nutrients and organic carbon into these systems and increase ponding in some regions, likely stimulating higher water concentrations of MeHg. Greater hydrological connectivity from permafrost thawing may potentially increase transport of MeHg from thaw ponds to neighboring aquatic ecosystems.

  12. Enabling Use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Arctic Environmental Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storvold, Rune; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Mulac, Brenda;

    , satellites and manned aircraft are the traditional platforms on which scientists gather data of the atmosphere, sea ice, glaciers, fauna and vegetation. However, significant data gaps still exist over much of the Arctic because there are few research stations, satellites are often hindered by cloud cover......, poor resolution, and the complicated surface of snow and ice. Measurements made from manned aircraft are also limited because of range and endurance, as well as the danger and costs presented by operating manned aircraft in harsh and remote environments like the Arctic. Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS......, technical and logistical challenges facing scientists intending to use UAS in their arctic work. Future planned campaigns and science goals under the Coordinated Investigation of Climate-Cryosphere Interactions (CICCI) umbrella will be outlined. A new AMAP report on conducting safe UAS operations...

  13. A Comparative Study of Antarctic Arctic and Himalayan Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Pathak

    1989-07-01

    Full Text Available Arctic, Antarctic and inaccessible lofty regions of Himalayas,which are geographically diverse areas and have been a constant source of inspiration, envisages a challenging field of study 'by early adventurers and scientists of the world. Characteristics of ice obtained at Arctic and Antarctic do not possess similar properties. Even thesalient properties of snow and ice of western and central Himalayas vary due to its differing free water content. A study has been carriedout based on recent Antarctic Expedition by Indian scientists and the data gathered along litha-tectonic regions of Himalayas and their characteristics have been compared, wkich brings out stratigraphic and metamorphic characteristics of the ice and snow. In the present paper,an analysis of the ice and snow properties of Arctic, Antarctic and Himalayan regions has been presented.

  14. Empirical and modeled synoptic cloud climatology of the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, R. G.; Newell, J. P.; Schweiger, A.; Crane, R. G.

    1986-01-01

    A set of cloud cover data were developed for the Arctic during the climatically important spring/early summer transition months. Parallel with the determination of mean monthly cloud conditions, data for different synoptic pressure patterns were also composited as a means of evaluating the role of synoptic variability on Arctic cloud regimes. In order to carry out this analysis, a synoptic classification scheme was developed for the Arctic using an objective typing procedure. A second major objective was to analyze model output of pressure fields and cloud parameters from a control run of the Goddard Institue for Space Studies climate model for the same area and to intercompare the synoptic climatatology of the model with that based on the observational data.

  15. High-Arctic Plant-Herbivore Interactions under Climate Influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Thomas B.; Schmidt, Niels M.; Høye, Toke Thomas;

    2008-01-01

    This chapter focuses on a 10-year data series from Zackenberg on the trophic interactions between two characteristic arctic plant species, arctic willow Salix arctica and mountain avens Dryas octopetala, and three herbivore species covering the very scale of size present at Zackenberg, namely...... by influencing their access to forage in winter. During winter, musk oxen prefer areas with a thin snow-cover, where food is most easily accessible. In contrast, lemmings seek areas with thick snow-cover, which provide protection from the cold and some predators. Therefore, lemmings may be affected directly...... by both the timing of onset and the duration of winter snow-cover. Musk oxen significantly reduced the productivity of arctic willow, while high densities of collared lemmings during winter reduced the production of mountain averts flowers in the following summer. Under a deep snow-layer scenario, climate...

  16. Performance of municipal waste stabilization ponds in the Canadian Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ragush, Colin M.; Schmidt, Jordan J.; Krkosek, Wendy H.;

    2015-01-01

    implemented in Canada, but not yet applied to Canada’s Arctic due to uncertainty related to the performance of current wastewater treatment systems. Waste stabilization pond (WSP) treatment performance is impacted by community water use, pond design, and climate. The greatest challenge arctic communities......The majority of small remote communities in the Canadian arctic territory of Nunavut utilize waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) for municipal wastewater treatment because of their relatively low capital and operational costs, and minimal complexity. New national effluent quality regulations have been...... experience when using passive wastewater treatment technologies is the constraints imposed by the extreme climate, which is characterized as having long cold winters with short cool summers that can be solar intense. The removal of carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD5), total suspended solids (TSS...

  17. High-Arctic butterflies become smaller with rising temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Joseph J; Eskildsen, Anne; Hansen, Rikke R; Olsen, Kent; Kurle, Carolyn M; Høye, Toke T

    2015-10-01

    The response of body size to increasing temperature constitutes a universal response to climate change that could strongly affect terrestrial ectotherms, but the magnitude and direction of such responses remain unknown in most species. The metabolic cost of increased temperature could reduce body size but long growing seasons could also increase body size as was recently shown in an Arctic spider species. Here, we present the longest known time series on body size variation in two High-Arctic butterfly species: Boloria chariclea and Colias hecla. We measured wing length of nearly 4500 individuals collected annually between 1996 and 2013 from Zackenberg, Greenland and found that wing length significantly decreased at a similar rate in both species in response to warmer summers. Body size is strongly related to dispersal capacity and fecundity and our results suggest that these Arctic species could face severe challenges in response to ongoing rapid climate change. PMID:26445981

  18. Geological Structure and History of the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Oleg; Morozov, Andrey; Shokalsky, Sergey; Sobolev, Nikolay; Kashubin, Sergey; Pospelov, Igor; Tolmacheva, Tatiana; Petrov, Eugeny

    2016-04-01

    New data on geological structure of the deep-water part of the Arctic Basin have been integrated in the joint project of Arctic states - the Atlas of maps of the Circumpolar Arctic. Geological (CGS, 2009) and potential field (NGS, 2009) maps were published as part of the Atlas; tectonic (Russia) and mineral resources (Norway) maps are being completed. The Arctic basement map is one of supplements to the tectonic map. It shows the Eurasian basin with oceanic crust and submerged margins of adjacent continents: the Barents-Kara, Amerasian ("Amerasian basin") and the Canada-Greenland. These margins are characterized by strained and thinned crust with the upper crust layer, almost extinct in places (South Barents and Makarov basins). In the Central Arctic elevations, seismic studies and investigation of seabed rock samples resulted in the identification of a craton with the Early Precambrian crust (near-polar part of the Lomonosov Ridge - Alpha-Mendeleev Rise). Its basement presumably consists of gneiss granite (2.6-2.2 Ga), and the cover is composed of Proterozoic quartzite sandstone and dolomite overlain with unconformity and break in sedimentation by Devonian-Triassic limestone with fauna and terrigenous rocks. The old crust is surrounded by accretion belts of Timanides and Grenvillides. Folded belts with the Late Precambrian crust are reworked by Caledonian-Ellesmerian and the Late Mesozoic movements. Structures of the South Anuy - Angayucham ophiolite suture reworked in the Early Cretaceous are separated from Mesozoides proper of the Pacific - Verkhoyansk-Kolyma and Koryak-Kamchatka belts. The complicated modern ensemble of structures of the basement and the continental frame of the Arctic Ocean was formed as a result of the conjugate evolution and interaction of the three major oceans of the Earth: Paleoasian, Paleoatlantic and Paleopacific.

  19. Climate sensitivity to Arctic seaway restriction during the early Paleogene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Christopher D.; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Tripati, Aradhna K.

    2009-09-01

    The opening and closing of ocean gateways affects the global distribution of heat, salt, and moisture, potentially driving climatic change on regional to global scales. Between 65 and 45 million years ago (Ma), during the early Paleogene, exchange between the Arctic and global oceans occurred through two narrow and shallow seaways, the Greenland-Norway seaway and the Turgai Strait. Sediments from the Arctic Ocean suggest that, during this interval, the surface ocean was warm, brackish, and episodically enabled the freshwater fern Azolla to bloom. The precise mechanisms responsible for the development of these conditions in the Paleogene Arctic remain uncertain. Here we show results from an isotope-enabled, atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, which indicate that Northern Hemisphere climate would have been very sensitive to the degree of oceanic exchange through the Arctic seaways. We also present modelled estimates of seawater and calcite δ18O for the Paleogene. By restricting these seaways, we simulate freshening of the surface Arctic Ocean to ~ 6 psu and warming of sea-surface temperatures by 2 °C in the North Atlantic and 5-10 °C in the Labrador Sea. Our results may help explain the occurrence of low-salinity tolerant taxa in the Arctic Ocean during the Eocene and provide a mechanism for enhanced warmth in the north western Atlantic. We propose that the formation of a volcanic land-bridge between Greenland and Europe could have caused increased ocean convection and warming of intermediate waters in the Atlantic. If true, this result is consistent with the theory that bathymetry changes may have caused thermal destabilisation of methane clathrates and supports a tectonic trigger hypothesis for the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM).

  20. Arctic Ocean Freshwater: How Robust are Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, A.; Aksenov, Y.; deCuevas, B. A.; deSteur, L.; Haekkinen, S.; Hansen, E.; Herbaut, C.; Houssais, M.-N.; Karcher, M.; Kauker, F.; Lique, C.; Nguyen, A.; Pemberton, P.; Worthen, D.; Zhang, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Arctic freshwater (FW) has been the focus of many modeling studies, due to the potential impact of Arctic FW on the deep water formation in the North Atlantic. A comparison of the hindcasts from ten ocean-sea ice models shows that the simulation of the Arctic FW budget is quite different in the investigated models. While they agree on the general sink and source terms of the Arctic FW budget, the long-term means as well as the variability of the FW export vary among models. The best model-to-model agreement is found for the interannual and seasonal variability of the solid FW export and the solid FW storage, which also agree well with observations. For the interannual and seasonal variability of the liquid FW export, the agreement among models is better for the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) than for Fram Strait. The reason for this is that models are more consistent in simulating volume flux anomalies than salinity anomalies and volume-flux anomalies dominate the liquid FW export variability in the CAA but not in Fram Strait. The seasonal cycle of the liquid FW export generally shows a better agreement among models than the interannual variability, and compared to observations the models capture the seasonality of the liquid FW export rather well. In order to improve future simulations of the Arctic FW budget, the simulation of the salinity field needs to be improved, so that model results on the variability of the liquid FW export and storage become more robust.