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Sample records for arctic seabird colony

  1. An isotopic investigation of mercury accumulation in terrestrial food webs adjacent to an Arctic seabird colony

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choy, Emily S., E-mail: echoy087@uottawa.ca [Program for Chemical and Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Gauthier, Martine, E-mail: mgaut083@uottawa.ca [Program for Chemical and Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Mallory, Mark L., E-mail: mark.mallory@ec.gc.ca [Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Iqaluit, NU, Canada X0A 0H0 (Canada); Smol, John P., E-mail: smolj@queensu.ca [Paleoecological Environmental Assessment and Research Lab (PEARL), Department of Biology, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON, Canada K7L 3N6 (Canada); Douglas, Marianne S.V., E-mail: msdougla@ualberta.ca [Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2E3 (Canada); Lean, David, E-mail: dlean@uottawa.ca [Program for Chemical and Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Blais, Jules M., E-mail: Jules.Blais@uottawa.ca [Program for Chemical and Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    At Cape Vera (Devon Island, Nunavut, Canada), a seabird colony of northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) congregates and releases nutrients through the deposition of guano to the coastal terrestrial environment, thus creating nutrient-fertilized habitats important to insects, birds, and mammals. Here we determined whether mercury was similarly enriched in various terrestrial food web components in this High Arctic coastal ecosystem due to seabird inputs. Stable isotopes ({delta}{sup 15}N, {delta}{sup 13}C) were used to identify trophic linkages and possible routes of contaminant transfer in the food web. Values of {delta}{sup 15}N were significantly higher in lichens and certain plants collected closer to the bird colony, demonstrating a gradient of seabird influence, and were higher at Cape Vera than our reference site at Cape Herschel, on eastern Ellesmere Island, an area relatively unaffected by seabirds. In contrast, {delta}{sup 13}C showed little variation among terrestrial species, suggesting minimal influence by seabirds. Concentrations of total mercury (THg) in primary producers and phyto/zooplankton were not significantly correlated with distance from the seabird colony or {delta}{sup 15}N values, and were similar to other taxa from the High Arctic. Our results provide novel data on THg in several Arctic taxa where concentrations have not been reported previously. Moreover, the analyses indicate that {delta}{sup 15}N is significantly enriched in the adjacent environment by guano fertilization, but our study was unable to show an enrichment of THg and {delta}{sup 13}C in the terrestrial food web near the seabird colony.

  2. Accelerated delivery of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in recent sediments near a large seabird colony in Arctic Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in sediment cores from ponds located near a large seabird colony at Cape Vera, Devon Island, Arctic Canada. Surface sediment PCB concentrations were ∼5x greater in seabird-affected sites relative to a nearby control pond and were correlated with independent indicators of seabird activity including, sedimentary δ15N and lakewater chlorophyll a and cadmium concentrations. PCB fluxes were amongst the highest recorded from the High Arctic, ranging from 290 to 2400 ng m-2 yr-1. Despite a widespread ban of PCBs in the mid-1970s, PCB accumulation rates in our cores increased, with the highest values recorded in the most recent sediments. Possible mechanisms for the recent PCB increases include a vertical flux step driven by seabird-delivered nutrients and/or delayed loading of PCBs from the catchment into the ponds. The high PCB levels recorded in the seabird-affected sites suggest that seabird colonies are exposing coastal ecosystems to elevated levels of contaminants. - Seabird activity accelerates the delivery of PCBs from marine to terrestrial ecosystems.

  3. Accelerated delivery of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in recent sediments near a large seabird colony in Arctic Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelutti, Neal, E-mail: nm37@queensu.c [Paleoecological Environmental Assessment and Research Laboratory (PEARL), Department of Biology, Queen' s University, 116 Barrie St., Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Liu, Huijun [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou (China); Smol, John P. [Paleoecological Environmental Assessment and Research Laboratory (PEARL), Department of Biology, Queen' s University, 116 Barrie St., Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Kimpe, Lynda E. [Program for Chemical and Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Keatley, Bronwyn E. [Paleoecological Environmental Assessment and Research Laboratory (PEARL), Department of Biology, Queen' s University, 116 Barrie St., Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Mallory, Mark [Environment Canada, Iqaluit, NU (Canada); Macdonald, Robie W. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Sidney, BC V8L 4B2 (Canada); Douglas, Marianne S.V. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E3 (Canada); Blais, Jules M. [Program for Chemical and Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2009-10-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in sediment cores from ponds located near a large seabird colony at Cape Vera, Devon Island, Arctic Canada. Surface sediment PCB concentrations were approx5x greater in seabird-affected sites relative to a nearby control pond and were correlated with independent indicators of seabird activity including, sedimentary delta{sup 15}N and lakewater chlorophyll a and cadmium concentrations. PCB fluxes were amongst the highest recorded from the High Arctic, ranging from 290 to 2400 ng m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}. Despite a widespread ban of PCBs in the mid-1970s, PCB accumulation rates in our cores increased, with the highest values recorded in the most recent sediments. Possible mechanisms for the recent PCB increases include a vertical flux step driven by seabird-delivered nutrients and/or delayed loading of PCBs from the catchment into the ponds. The high PCB levels recorded in the seabird-affected sites suggest that seabird colonies are exposing coastal ecosystems to elevated levels of contaminants. - Seabird activity accelerates the delivery of PCBs from marine to terrestrial ecosystems.

  4. Seabird Colonies in Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, D.; Mosbech, A.; Falk, K.;

    eider, Brünnich's guillemot and Arctic tern, while at least great cormorant and great black-backed gull have shown range expansions and probably also population increases in recent years. The most important areas to breeding colonial seabirds are indicated on Fig. 40. Fig. 41 shows coastlines where...... Greenland populations in an international context are the populations of northern fulmar, great cormorant, common eider, Iceland gull, kittiwake, arctic tern, Brünnich's guillemot, black guillemot and little auk. Furthermore, populations of great cormorant and great black-backed gull are probably isolated...... from other North Atlantic populations. The Iceland gull population is referred to an endemic Greenland subspecies. The population of little auks in Avanersuaq probably makes up more than 99 % of the Baffin Bay population and perhaps 80 % of the global population (Nettleship & Evans 1985). Of particular...

  5. Avian cholera, a threat to the viability of an Arctic seabird colony?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Descamps

    Full Text Available Evidence that infectious diseases cause wildlife population extirpation or extinction remains anecdotal and it is unclear whether the impacts of a pathogen at the individual level can scale up to population level so drastically. Here, we quantify the response of a Common eider colony to emerging epidemics of avian cholera, one of the most important infectious diseases affecting wild waterfowl. We show that avian cholera has the potential to drive colony extinction, even over a very short period. Extinction depends on disease severity (the impact of the disease on adult female survival and disease frequency (the number of annual epidemics per decade. In case of epidemics of high severity (i.e., causing >30% mortality of breeding females, more than one outbreak per decade will be unsustainable for the colony and will likely lead to extinction within the next century; more than four outbreaks per decade will drive extinction to within 20 years. Such severity and frequency of avian cholera are already observed, and avian cholera might thus represent a significant threat to viability of breeding populations. However, this will depend on the mechanisms underlying avian cholera transmission, maintenance, and spread, which are currently only poorly known.

  6. Colony Foundation in an Oceanic Seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munilla, Ignacio; Genovart, Meritxell; Paiva, Vitor H.; Velando, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Seabirds are colonial vertebrates that despite their great potential for long-range dispersal and colonization are reluctant to establish in novel locations, often recruiting close to their natal colony. The foundation of colonies is therefore a rare event in most seabird species and little is known about the colonization process in this group. The Cory’s shearwater (Calonectris diomedea) is a pelagic seabird that has recently established three new colonies in Galicia (NE Atlantic) thus expanding its distribution range 500 km northwards. This study aimed to describe the establishment and early progress of the new Galician populations and to determine the genetic and morphometric characteristics of the individuals participating in these foundation events. Using 10 microsatellite loci, we tested the predictions supported by different seabird colonization models. Possibly three groups of non-breeders, adding up to around 200 birds, started visiting the Galician colonies in the mid 2000’s and some of them eventually laid eggs and reproduced, thus establishing new breeding colonies. The Galician populations showed a high genetic diversity and a frequency of private alleles similar to or even higher than some of the large historical populations. Most individuals were assigned to several Atlantic populations and a few (if any) to Mediterranean colonies. Our study suggests that a large and admixed population is settling in Galicia, in agreement with predictions from island metapopulation models of colonization. Multiple source colonies imply that some birds colonizing Galicia were dispersing from very distant colonies (> 1500 km). Long-distance colonizations undertaken by relatively large and admixed groups of colonizers can help to explain the low levels of genetic structure over vast areas that are characteristic of most oceanic seabird species. PMID:26909694

  7. An assessment of seabird influence on Arctic coastal benthic communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmudczyńska-Skarbek, Katarzyna; Balazy, Piotr; Kuklinski, Piotr

    2015-04-01

    It is well recognized that seabirds, particularly those nesting in coastal colonies, can provide significant nutrient enrichment to Arctic terrestrial ecosystems. However, little is known about the fate of bird-derived nutrients that return to the marine environment and potentially concentrate below the colonies. To attempt to assess the influence of this potential nutrient enrichment of the coastal benthic community, samples of macroalgae, sea urchins (mainly algivores), and hermit crabs (scavengers) were collected at two Arctic localities (Spitsbergen), (1) below a mixed colony of guillemots and kittiwakes, and (2) in an adjacent geomorphologically similar location not influenced by the seabird colony. A much higher nitrogen stable isotope ratio (δ15N) and total nitrogen content were found in terrestrial plants sampled below the colony than away from it. In benthic macroalgae, however, there were no δ15N differences. This might result from the timing of an intensive growth period in macroalgae in late winter/early spring, when there is little or no runoff from the land, and/or ornithogenic nutrients being directly incorporated by phytoplankton. Sea urchins showed higher δ15N and total N in the control site comparing to the colony-influenced area, suggesting differential food sources in their diet and a role of scavenging/carnivory on higher trophic levels there. Opportunistically feeding hermit crabs showed δ15N and total N enrichment below the seabird colony, suggesting dependence on detritus derived from food chains originating from pelagic producers. Our results indicate that seabirds in the Arctic may fertilize coastal benthic communities through pelagic-benthic coupling, while having no direct impact on bottom primary production.

  8. Preliminary catalog of seabird colonies and photographic mapping of seabird colonies: Annual report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This preliminary catalog identifies 339 seabird colonies lying along the North Pacific coast of Alaska between Cape Fairweather and Unimak Pass. Information is...

  9. Seabird Nesting Colonies in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, LSU (1997) [seabirds_LSU_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a point dataset for seabird nesting colonies derived from GPS locations in the field. The attributes of the habitat points are based upon visual assessment...

  10. Winter temperature affects the prevalence of ticks in an Arctic seabird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Descamps

    Full Text Available The Arctic is rapidly warming and host-parasite relationships may be modified by such environmental changes. Here, I showed that the average winter temperature in Svalbard, Arctic Norway, explained almost 90% of the average prevalence of ticks in an Arctic seabird, the Brünnich's guillemot Uria lomvia. An increase of 1°C in the average winter temperature at the nesting colony site was associated with a 5% increase in the number of birds infected by these ectoparasites in the subsequent breeding season. Guillemots were generally infested by only a few ticks (≤5 and I found no direct effect of tick presence on their body condition and breeding success. However, the strong effect of average winter temperature described here clearly indicates that tick-seabird relationships in the Arctic may be strongly affected by ongoing climate warming.

  11. Possible impact of decreasing Arctic pack ice on the higher trophic levels: Seabirds and marine mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Joiris, C.R.

    2012-01-01

    Three main aspects of the possible impacts of retreating pack ice and changing ice coverage in the European Arctic on the higher trophic levels are discussed in this chapter: 1. Seabirds are depending on their colonies on land during the breeding season; the main species, e.g. little auk Alle alle, feed in mixed Polar/ Arctic Water in order to bring back food (polar zooplankton) to their chicks on the nest. In case ice coverage is very low, distance between colony and feeding grounds might be...

  12. High connectivity in a long-lived high-Arctic seabird, the ivory gull Pagophila eburnea

    OpenAIRE

    Yannic, Glenn; Yearsley, Jonathan M.; Sermier, Roberto; Dufresnes, Christophe; Gilg, Olivier; Aebischer, Adrian; Gavrilo, Maria V.; Strøm, Hallvard; Mark L. Mallory; Morrison, R I Guy; Gilchrist, H Grant; Broquet, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    International audience Species may cope with rapid habitat changes by distribution shifts or adaptation to new conditions. A common feature of these responses is that they depend on how the process of dispersal connects populations, both demographically and genetically. We analyzed the genetic structure of a near-threatened high-Arctic seabird, the ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea) in order to infer the connectivity among gull colonies. We analyzed 343 individuals sampled from 16 localities a...

  13. Dynamics of Seabird Colonies Vulnerable to Sea-Level Rise at French Frigate Shoals, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Globally, seabirds are vulnerable to anthropogenic threats both at sea and on land. Seabirds typically nest colonially and show strong site fidelity; therefore,...

  14. Impact of climate change on zooplankton communities, seabird populations and arctic terrestrial ecosystem—A scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempniewicz, Lech; Błachowiak-Samołyk, Katarzyna; Węsławski, Jan M.

    2007-11-01

    Many arctic terrestrial ecosystems suffer from a permanent deficiency of nutrients. Marine birds that forage at sea and breed on land can transport organic matter from the sea to land, and thus help to initiate and sustain terrestrial ecosystems. This organic matter initiates the emergence of local tundra communities, increasing primary and secondary production and species diversity. Climate change will influence ocean circulation and the hydrologic regime, which will consequently lead to a restructuring of zooplankton communities between cold arctic waters, with a dominance of large zooplankton species, and Atlantic waters in which small species predominate. The dominance of large zooplankton favours plankton-eating seabirds, such as the little auk ( Alle alle), while the presence of small zooplankton redirects the food chain to plankton-eating fish, up through to fish-eating birds (e.g., guillemots Uria sp.). Thus, in regions where the two water masses compete for dominance, such as in the Barents Sea, plankton-eating birds should dominate the avifauna in cold periods and recess in warmer periods, when fish-eaters should prevail. Therefore under future anthropogenic climate scenarios, there could be serious consequences for the structure and functioning of the terrestrial part of arctic ecosystems, due in part to changes in the arctic marine avifauna. Large colonies of plankton-eating little auks are located on mild mountain slopes, usually a few kilometres from the shore, whereas colonies of fish-eating guillemots are situated on rocky cliffs at the coast. The impact of guillemots on the terrestrial ecosystems is therefore much smaller than for little auks because of the rapid washing-out to sea of the guano deposited on the seabird cliffs. These characteristics of seabird nesting sites dramatically limit the range of occurrence of ornithogenic soils, and the accompanying flora and fauna, to locations where talus-breeding species occur. As a result of climate

  15. Seabird colonies in the Melville Bay, Northwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, David; Huffeldt, Nicholas Per

    black guillemot followed by the glaucous gull. However, one colony is of national significance – Sabine Øer, with high numbers of breeding Arctic terns and Sabine’s gulls. Other noteworthy observations were puffins on Thom Ø and many new Iceland gull colonies that extended the known northern breeding...

  16. The consequences of being colonial: Allee effects in metapopulations of seabirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, P.; Stienen, E.W.M.; Schotman, A.G.M.; Snep, R.P.H.; Slim, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Most seabirds live in large colonies. This fact signifies that there is an advantage in living and breeding together. Four explanations are put fore ward for this colonial behaviour, more birds have: (1) a reduced per capita predation of chicks in colonies, (2) a better anti-predator defence, (3) a

  17. Contamination of an arctic terrestrial food web with marine-derived persistent organic pollutants transported by breeding seabirds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choy, Emily S., E-mail: echoy087@uottawa.c [Program for Chemical and Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Kimpe, Linda E., E-mail: linda.kimpe@uottawa.c [Program for Chemical and Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Mallory, Mark L., E-mail: mark.mallory@ec.gc.c [Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Iqaluit, NU, X0A 0H0 (Canada); Smol, John P., E-mail: smolj@queensu.c [Paleoecological Environmental Assessment and Research Lab (PEARL), Department of Biology, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Blais, Jules M., E-mail: jules.blais@uottawa.c [Program for Chemical and Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    At Cape Vera, Devon Island (Nunavut, Canada), a colony of northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) concentrates and releases contaminants through their guano to the environment. We determined whether persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from seabirds were transferred to coastal food webs. Snow buntings (Plectrophenax nivalis) were the most contaminated species, with {Sigma}PCB and {Sigma}DDT (mean: 168, 106 ng/g ww) concentrations surpassing environmental guidelines for protecting wildlife. When examined collectively, PCB congeners and DDT in jewel lichen (Xanthoria elegans) were lower in samples taken farther from the seabird colony, and increased with increasing {delta}{sup 15}N values. However, only concentrations of p'p-DDE:{Sigma}DDT and PCB-95 were significantly correlated inversely with distance from the seabird cliffs. Linkages between marine-derived POPs and their concentrations in terrestrial mammals were less clear. Our study provides novel contaminant data for these species and supports biovector transport as a source of organic contaminants to certain components of the terrestrial food web. - This study provides evidence of contaminant transport by seabirds to a coastal Arctic food web.

  18. Contamination of an arctic terrestrial food web with marine-derived persistent organic pollutants transported by breeding seabirds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Cape Vera, Devon Island (Nunavut, Canada), a colony of northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) concentrates and releases contaminants through their guano to the environment. We determined whether persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from seabirds were transferred to coastal food webs. Snow buntings (Plectrophenax nivalis) were the most contaminated species, with ΣPCB and ΣDDT (mean: 168, 106 ng/g ww) concentrations surpassing environmental guidelines for protecting wildlife. When examined collectively, PCB congeners and DDT in jewel lichen (Xanthoria elegans) were lower in samples taken farther from the seabird colony, and increased with increasing δ15N values. However, only concentrations of p'p-DDE:ΣDDT and PCB-95 were significantly correlated inversely with distance from the seabird cliffs. Linkages between marine-derived POPs and their concentrations in terrestrial mammals were less clear. Our study provides novel contaminant data for these species and supports biovector transport as a source of organic contaminants to certain components of the terrestrial food web. - This study provides evidence of contaminant transport by seabirds to a coastal Arctic food web.

  19. Importance of Marine-Derived Nutrients Supplied by Planktivorous Seabirds to High Arctic Tundra Plant Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolicki, Adrian; Zmudczyńska-Skarbek, Katarzyna; Richard, Pierre; Stempniewicz, Lech

    2016-01-01

    We studied the relative importance of several environmental factors for tundra plant communities in five locations across Svalbard (High Arctic) that differed in geographical location, oceanographic and climatic influence, and soil characteristics. The amount of marine-derived nitrogen in the soil supplied by seabirds was locally the most important of the studied environmental factors influencing the tundra plant community. We found a strong positive correlation between δ15N isotopic values and total N content in the soil, confirming the fundamental role of marine-derived matter to the generally nutrient-poor Arctic tundra ecosystem. We also recorded a strong correlation between the δ15N values of soil and of the tissues of vascular plants and mosses, but not of lichens. The relationship between soil δ15N values and vascular plant cover was linear. In the case of mosses, the percentage ground cover reached maximum around a soil δ 15N value of 8‰, as did plant community diversity. This soil δ15N value clearly separated the occurrence of plants with low nitrogen tolerance (e.g. Salix polaris) from those predominating on high N content soils (e.g. Cerastium arcticum, Poa alpina). Large colonies of planktivorous little auks have a great influence on Arctic tundra vegetation, either through enhancing plant abundance or in shaping plant community composition at a local scale. PMID:27149113

  20. No evidence of extra-pair paternity in a colonial seabird, the common tern (Sterna hirundo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griggio, M.; Matessi, Giuliano; Marin, G.

    2004-01-01

    The incidence of extra-pair paternity and egg dumping was investigated in a colony of common terns (Sterna hirundo), a colonial seabird, in the Venetian lagoon. Ten families were sampled and multilocus DNA fingerprinting analysis was performed. No indication of extra-pair paternity or egg dumping...

  1. Different tactics, one goal: initial reproductive investments of males and females in a small Arctic seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna; Jakubas, Dariusz; Chastel, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Despite a great number of studies on extra-pair paternity in birds, the actual roles of males and females in extra-pair contacts is poorly understood, as detailed behavioural studies comparing the reproductive performance of the two sexes prior to egg laying are relatively scarce. Here, we investigated mating behaviour (copulations and aggressive interactions), time budget and body condition (size-adjusted body mass and baseline corticosterone level) in the little auk (Alle alle), a monogamous and highly colonial, Arctic seabird. We performed the study in a large breeding colony of the little auk in Hornsund (Spitsbergen). We found that the males frequently attempted extra-pair copulations (EPCs), although these contacts were almost always unsuccessful, mostly because of the females' rejection behaviour. These results clearly indicate that genetic monogamy is maintained through female control. Nevertheless, males tried to protect their paternity by staying in close proximity to their females and aggressively intervening when their mates became involved in EPCs. Compared to females, males also spent more time in the colony guarding nest sites. Despite the apparent sex differences in the time budget and frequency of aggressive interactions, body condition was similar in the two sexes, indicating comparable parental investments during the mating period. PMID:25152560

  2. Impact of seasonality upon the dynamics of a novel pathogen in a seabird colony

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Regan, S M [Department of Applied Mathematics, Aras na Laoi, University College Cork (Ireland)], E-mail: s.m.oregan@student.ucc.ie

    2008-11-01

    A seasonally perturbed variant of the basic Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model in epidemiology is considered in this paper. The effect of seasonality on an IR system of ordinary differential equations describing the dynamics of a novel pathogen, e.g., highly pathogenic avian influenza, in a seabird colony is investigated. The method of Lyapunov functions is used to determine the long-term behaviour of this system. Numerical simulations of the seasonally perturbed IR system indicate that the system exhibits complex dynamics as the amplitude of the seasonal perturbation term is increased. These findings suggest that seasonality may exert a considerable effect on the dynamics of epidemics in a seabird colony.

  3. Impact of seasonality upon the dynamics of a novel pathogen in a seabird colony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A seasonally perturbed variant of the basic Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model in epidemiology is considered in this paper. The effect of seasonality on an IR system of ordinary differential equations describing the dynamics of a novel pathogen, e.g., highly pathogenic avian influenza, in a seabird colony is investigated. The method of Lyapunov functions is used to determine the long-term behaviour of this system. Numerical simulations of the seasonally perturbed IR system indicate that the system exhibits complex dynamics as the amplitude of the seasonal perturbation term is increased. These findings suggest that seasonality may exert a considerable effect on the dynamics of epidemics in a seabird colony.

  4. Modelled drift patterns of fish larvae link coastal morphology to seabird colony distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandvik, Hanno; Barrett, Robert T; Erikstad, Kjell Einar; Myksvoll, Mari S; Vikebø, Frode; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Anker-Nilssen, Tycho; Lorentsen, Svein-Håkon; Reiertsen, Tone K; Skarðhamar, Jofrid; Skern-Mauritzen, Mette; Systad, Geir Helge

    2016-01-01

    Colonial breeding is an evolutionary puzzle, as the benefits of breeding in high densities are still not fully explained. Although the dynamics of existing colonies are increasingly understood, few studies have addressed the initial formation of colonies, and empirical tests are rare. Using a high-resolution larval drift model, we here document that the distribution of seabird colonies along the Norwegian coast can be explained by variations in the availability and predictability of fish larvae. The modelled variability in concentration of fish larvae is, in turn, predicted by the topography of the continental shelf and coastline. The advection of fish larvae along the coast translates small-scale topographic characteristics into a macroecological pattern, viz. the spatial distribution of top-predator breeding sites. Our findings provide empirical corroboration of the hypothesis that seabird colonies are founded in locations that minimize travel distances between breeding and foraging locations, thereby enabling optimal foraging by central-place foragers. PMID:27173005

  5. Modelled drift patterns of fish larvae link coastal morphology to seabird colony distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandvik, Hanno; Barrett, Robert T.; Erikstad, Kjell Einar; Myksvoll, Mari S.; Vikebø, Frode; Yoccoz, Nigel G.; Anker-Nilssen, Tycho; Lorentsen, Svein-Håkon; Reiertsen, Tone K.; Skarðhamar, Jofrid; Skern-Mauritzen, Mette; Systad, Geir Helge

    2016-05-01

    Colonial breeding is an evolutionary puzzle, as the benefits of breeding in high densities are still not fully explained. Although the dynamics of existing colonies are increasingly understood, few studies have addressed the initial formation of colonies, and empirical tests are rare. Using a high-resolution larval drift model, we here document that the distribution of seabird colonies along the Norwegian coast can be explained by variations in the availability and predictability of fish larvae. The modelled variability in concentration of fish larvae is, in turn, predicted by the topography of the continental shelf and coastline. The advection of fish larvae along the coast translates small-scale topographic characteristics into a macroecological pattern, viz. the spatial distribution of top-predator breeding sites. Our findings provide empirical corroboration of the hypothesis that seabird colonies are founded in locations that minimize travel distances between breeding and foraging locations, thereby enabling optimal foraging by central-place foragers.

  6. Qualitative and numerical investigations of the impact of a novel pathogen on a seabird colony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the dynamics of novel pathogens in dense populations is crucial to public and veterinary health as well as wildlife ecology. Seabirds live in crowded colonies numbering several thousands of individuals. The long-term dynamics of avian influenza H5N1 virus in a seabird colony with no existing herd immunity are investigated using sophisticated mathematical techniques. The key characteristics of seabird population biology and the H5N1 virus are incorporated into a Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered (SEIR) model. Using the theory of integral manifolds, the SEIR model is reduced to a simpler system of two differential equations depending on the infected and recovered populations only, termed the IR model. The results of numerical experiments indicate that the IR model and the SEIR model are in close agreement. Using Lyapunov's direct method, the equilibria of the SEIR and the IR models are proven to be globally asymptotically stable in the positive quadrant.

  7. Qualitative and numerical investigations of the impact of a novel pathogen on a seabird colony

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Regan, S M; O' Callaghan, M J A; Pokrovskii, A V [Department of Applied Mathematics, Aras na Laoi, University College Cork (Ireland); Kelly, T C [Department of Zoology, Ecology and Plant Science, Distillery Fields, North Mall, University College Cork (Ireland); Korobeinikov, A [MACSI, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland)], E-mail: s.m.oregan@student.ucc.ie

    2008-11-01

    Understanding the dynamics of novel pathogens in dense populations is crucial to public and veterinary health as well as wildlife ecology. Seabirds live in crowded colonies numbering several thousands of individuals. The long-term dynamics of avian influenza H5N1 virus in a seabird colony with no existing herd immunity are investigated using sophisticated mathematical techniques. The key characteristics of seabird population biology and the H5N1 virus are incorporated into a Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered (SEIR) model. Using the theory of integral manifolds, the SEIR model is reduced to a simpler system of two differential equations depending on the infected and recovered populations only, termed the IR model. The results of numerical experiments indicate that the IR model and the SEIR model are in close agreement. Using Lyapunov's direct method, the equilibria of the SEIR and the IR models are proven to be globally asymptotically stable in the positive quadrant.

  8. Qualitative and numerical investigations of the impact of a novel pathogen on a seabird colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Regan, S. M.; Kelly, T. C.; Korobeinikov, A.; O'Callaghan, M. J. A.; Pokrovskii, A. V.

    2008-11-01

    Understanding the dynamics of novel pathogens in dense populations is crucial to public and veterinary health as well as wildlife ecology. Seabirds live in crowded colonies numbering several thousands of individuals. The long-term dynamics of avian influenza H5N1 virus in a seabird colony with no existing herd immunity are investigated using sophisticated mathematical techniques. The key characteristics of seabird population biology and the H5N1 virus are incorporated into a Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered (SEIR) model. Using the theory of integral manifolds, the SEIR model is reduced to a simpler system of two differential equations depending on the infected and recovered populations only, termed the IR model. The results of numerical experiments indicate that the IR model and the SEIR model are in close agreement. Using Lyapunov's direct method, the equilibria of the SEIR and the IR models are proven to be globally asymptotically stable in the positive quadrant.

  9. Dynamics of seabird colonies vulnerable to sea-level rise at French Frigate Shoals, Hawai`i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Courtot, Karen N.; Krause, Crystal M.; Seavy, Nathaniel E.; Hartzell, Paula; Hatfield, Jeff S.

    2013-01-01

    Globally, seabirds are vulnerable to anthropogenic threats both at sea and on land. Seabirds typically nest colonially and show strong site fidelity; therefore, conservation strategies could benefit from an understanding of the population dynamics and vulnerability of breeding colonies to climate change. More than 350 atolls exist across the Pacific Ocean; while they provide nesting habitat for many seabirds, they are also vulnerable to sea-level rise. We used French Frigate Shoals, the largest atoll in the Hawaiian Archipelago, as a case study to explore seabird colony dynamics and the potential consequences of sea-level rise. We compiled a unique combination of data sets: historical observations of islands and seabirds, a 30-year time series of population abundance, LiDAR- (light detection and ranging) derived elevations, and satellite

  10. Adverse foraging conditions may impact body mass and survival of a high Arctic seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, A.M.A.; Welcker, J.; Steen, H.; Hamer, K.C.; Kitaysky, A.S.; Fort, J.; Talbot, S.L.; Cornick, L.A.; Karnovsky, N.J.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Gremillet, D.

    2011-01-01

    Tradeoffs between current reproduction and future survival are widely recognized, but may only occur when food is limited: when foraging conditions are favorable, parents may be able to reproduce without compromising their own survival. We investigated these tradeoffs in the little auk (Alle alle), a small seabird with a single-egg clutch. During 2005-2007, we examined the relationship between body mass and survival of birds breeding under contrasting foraging conditions at two Arctic colonies. We used corticosterone levels of breeding adults as a physiological indicator of the foraging conditions they encountered during each reproductive season. We found that when foraging conditions were relatively poor (as reflected in elevated levels of corticosterone), parents ended the reproductive season with low body mass and suffered increased post-breeding mortality. A positive relationship between body mass and post-breeding survival was found in one study year; light birds incurred higher survival costs than heavy birds. The results of this study suggest that reproducing under poor foraging conditions may affect the post-breeding survival of long-lived little auks. They also have important demographic implications because even a small change in adult survival may have a large effect on populations of long-lived species. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  11. A multi-scale problem arising in a model of avian flu virus in a seabird colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, C. F.; O'Callaghan, M. J. A.; Kelly, T. C.

    2006-12-01

    Understanding the dynamics of epidemics of novel pathogens such as the H5N1 strain of avian influenza is of crucial importance to public and veterinary health as well as wildlife ecology. We model the effect of a new virus on a seabird colony, where no pre-existing Herd Immunity exists. The seabirds in question are so-called K-strategists, i.e. they have a relatively long life expectancy and very low reproductive output. They live in isolated colonies which typically contain tens of thousands of birds. These densely populated colonies, with so many birds competing for nesting space, would seem to provide perfect conditions for the entry and spread of an infection. Yet there are relatively few reported cases of epidemics among these seabirds. We develop a SEIR model which incorporates some of the unusual features of seabird population biology and examine the effects of introducing a pathogen into the colony.

  12. A multi-scale problem arising in a model of avian flu virus in a seabird colony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the dynamics of epidemics of novel pathogens such as the H5N1 strain of avian influenza is of crucial importance to public and veterinary health as well as wildlife ecology. We model the effect of a new virus on a seabird colony, where no pre-existing Herd Immunity exists. The seabirds in question are so-called K-strategists, i.e. they have a relatively long life expectancy and very low reproductive output. They live in isolated colonies which typically contain tens of thousands of birds. These densely populated colonies, with so many birds competing for nesting space, would seem to provide perfect conditions for the entry and spread of an infection. Yet there are relatively few reported cases of epidemics among these seabirds. We develop a SEIR model which incorporates some of the unusual features of seabird population biology and examine the effects of introducing a pathogen into the colony

  13. Genetic divergence among extant and extirpated colonies of an endangered pelagic seabird, the Hawaiian petrel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, A. J.; Fleischer, R. C.; James, H. F.

    2010-12-01

    It is important to consider both the temporal and spatial dimensions of variability in ecology and evolution. Given the potentially great dispersal capabilities and long generation times of pelagic seabirds, genetic diversity in these species seems likely to be homogeneously distributed and relatively static over time. Investigating temporal and spatial processes involved in the ecology and evolution of seabird populations is important to island ecosystem sustainability, as they play a significant role in transferring marine derived nutrients to terrestrial oceanic ecosystems. Additionally, many seabird species are threatened by extinction due to increasing mortality both at land and at sea. Here we investigate population divergence of the endemic and endangered Hawaiian petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis). We examined four extant colonies on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Lanai and Kauai, and employed ancient DNA techniques to study a prehistorically extirpated colony on Oahu, and a historically large, but likely extirpated, colony on the island of Molokai. Analyses of sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene as well as nuclear microsatellite markers indicate substantial differentiation (global Φst of 0.38, p < 0.0001). Significant divergence was found among each pair of the six islands except between Oahu and Molokai (Φst = 0.10, p = 0.07). However, this could result from low power due to the limited availability of amplifiable samples, especially for the hot, low elevation colony formerly present on Oahu. The largest differentiation occurred between the islands of Lanai and Kauai (Φst = 0.58, p < 0.0001). These results suggest that despite their great dispersal capabilities, spatially proximate colonies of the Hawaiian petrel are not genetically homogenous. Additionally, the extirpation of large colonies, such as those on Oahu and Molokai, could result in loss of a substantial amount of genetic diversity. Future work should further investigate temporal

  14. The little auk population at the North Water Polynya. How palaeohistory, archaeology and anthropology adds new dimensions to the ecology of a high arctic seabird

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Anders; Johansen, Kasper Lambert; Lyngs, Peter;

    The little auk is the most numerous seabird in the north Atlantic and it has its most important breeding area on the eastern shores of the high arctic North Water Polynya in Northwest Greenland. Here an estimated population of 30 mill. pairs breeds in huge colonies. The little auk is a high arctic...... specialist feeding its chicks with large lipid-rich high arctic copepods. With warming of the sea the copepod species assemblage is expected to change to smaller less fatty copepod species with energetic and potentially population consequences for little auks. This presentation takes a broad...... interdisciplinary approach to the analysis of little auk ecology in times of change. Recent and ongoing little auk studies at the North Water Polynya have shown the high densities of little auks (about 2 pairs/m2) breeding under the stones in the vast scree slopes, the highly specialized chick diet (80 % Calanus...

  15. Foraging segregation and genetic divergence between geographically proximate colonies of a highly mobile seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Anne E.; Welch, Andreanna J.; Ostrom, P.H.; James, Helen F.; Stricker, C.A.; Fleischer, R.C.; Gandhi, H.; Adams, J.; Ainley, D.G.; Duvall, F.; Holmes, N.; Hu, D.; Judge, S.; Penniman, J.; Swindle, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    Foraging segregation may play an important role in the maintenance of animal diversity, and is a proposed mechanism for promoting genetic divergence within seabird species. However, little information exists regarding its presence among seabird populations. We investigated genetic and foraging divergence between two colonies of endangered Hawaiian petrels (Pterodroma sandwichensis) nesting on the islands of Hawaii and Kauai using the mitochondrial Cytochrome b gene and carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen isotope values (?? 13C, ?? 15N and ??D, respectively) of feathers. Genetic analyses revealed strong differentiation between colonies on Hawaii and Kauai, with ?? ST = 0. 50 (p segregation during molt. Feather ??D varied from -69 to 53???. This variation cannot be related solely to an isotopically homogeneous ocean water source or evaporative water loss. Instead, we propose the involvement of salt gland excretion. Our data demonstrate the presence of foraging segregation between proximately nesting seabird populations, despite high species mobility. This ecological diversity may facilitate population coexistence, and its preservation should be a focus of conservation strategies. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag (outside the USA).

  16. Summer foraging behaviour of shallow-diving seabirds and distribution of their prey, Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida, in the Canadian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan K. Matley

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Productive areas in the Canadian Arctic seasonally provide top predators with accessible and often predictable sources of energy. Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida aggregate in shallow bays during the summer and are exploited by seabirds and marine mammals. Information concerning how prey is presented to predatory seabirds, and the cues seabirds use to optimize foraging potential, is limited. Hydroacoustic surveys were completed in Allen Bay, Nunavut, to determine the presence, density, abundance, and depth of Arctic cod schools in relation to shallow-diving seabirds. Schools were also documented using standardized protocols to examine the influence of environmental variables, such as wind, ice, tidal states and seabird behaviour. The presence of schools was a significant predictor of the distribution of northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis but not black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla. Glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus associated with northern fulmars are likely optimizing chances of stealing Arctic cod. The density, size and depth of schools did not significantly affect the distribution of the seabirds. We speculate that Arctic cod from demersal schools separate to feed at the surface in satellite schools (groups of dispersed fish, thus reducing competition but increasing the risk of predation.

  17. Spatial heterogeneity as a genetic mixing mechanism in highly philopatric colonial seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofari, Robin; Trucchi, Emiliano; Whittington, Jason D; Vigetta, Stéphanie; Gachot-Neveu, Hélène; Stenseth, Nils Christian; Le Maho, Yvon; Le Bohec, Céline

    2015-01-01

    How genetic diversity is maintained in philopatric colonial systems remains unclear, and understanding the dynamic balance of philopatry and dispersal at all spatial scales is essential to the study of the evolution of coloniality. In the King penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus, return rates of post-fledging chicks to their natal sub-colony are remarkably high. Empirical studies have shown that adults return year after year to their previous breeding territories within a radius of a few meters. Yet, little reliable data are available on intra- and inter-colonial dispersal in this species. Here, we present the first fine-scale study of the genetic structure in a king penguin colony in the Crozet Archipelago. Samples were collected from individual chicks and analysed at 8 microsatellite loci. Precise geolocation data of hatching sites and selective pressures associated with habitat features were recorded for all sampling locations. We found that despite strong natal and breeding site fidelity, king penguins retain a high degree of panmixia and genetic diversity. Yet, genetic structure appears markedly heterogeneous across the colony, with higher-than-expected inbreeding levels, and local inbreeding and relatedness hotspots that overlap predicted higher-quality nesting locations. This points towards heterogeneous population structure at the sub-colony level, in which fine-scale environmental features drive local philopatric behaviour, while lower-quality patches may act as genetic mixing mechanisms at the colony level. These findings show how a lack of global genetic structuring can emerge from small-scale heterogeneity in ecological parameters, as opposed to the classical model of homogeneous dispersal. Our results also emphasize the importance of sampling design for estimation of population parameters in colonial seabirds, as at high spatial resolution, basic genetic features are shown to be location-dependent. Finally, this study stresses the importance of

  18. Spatial heterogeneity as a genetic mixing mechanism in highly philopatric colonial seabirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Cristofari

    Full Text Available How genetic diversity is maintained in philopatric colonial systems remains unclear, and understanding the dynamic balance of philopatry and dispersal at all spatial scales is essential to the study of the evolution of coloniality. In the King penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus, return rates of post-fledging chicks to their natal sub-colony are remarkably high. Empirical studies have shown that adults return year after year to their previous breeding territories within a radius of a few meters. Yet, little reliable data are available on intra- and inter-colonial dispersal in this species. Here, we present the first fine-scale study of the genetic structure in a king penguin colony in the Crozet Archipelago. Samples were collected from individual chicks and analysed at 8 microsatellite loci. Precise geolocation data of hatching sites and selective pressures associated with habitat features were recorded for all sampling locations. We found that despite strong natal and breeding site fidelity, king penguins retain a high degree of panmixia and genetic diversity. Yet, genetic structure appears markedly heterogeneous across the colony, with higher-than-expected inbreeding levels, and local inbreeding and relatedness hotspots that overlap predicted higher-quality nesting locations. This points towards heterogeneous population structure at the sub-colony level, in which fine-scale environmental features drive local philopatric behaviour, while lower-quality patches may act as genetic mixing mechanisms at the colony level. These findings show how a lack of global genetic structuring can emerge from small-scale heterogeneity in ecological parameters, as opposed to the classical model of homogeneous dispersal. Our results also emphasize the importance of sampling design for estimation of population parameters in colonial seabirds, as at high spatial resolution, basic genetic features are shown to be location-dependent. Finally, this study stresses the

  19. Measurement of ammonia emissions from temperate and sub-polar seabird colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, S. N.; Blackall, T. D.; Dragosits, U.; Daunt, F.; Newell, M.; Braban, C. F.; Tang, Y. S.; Schmale, J.; Hill, P. W.; Wanless, S.; Trathan, P.; Sutton, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    The chemical breakdown of marine derived reactive nitrogen transported to the land as seabird guano represents a significant source of ammonia (NH3) in areas far from other NH3 sources. Measurements made at tropical and temperate seabird colonies indicate substantial NH3 emissions, with emission rates larger than many anthropogenic point sources. However, several studies indicate that thermodynamic processes limit the amount of NH3 emitted from guano, suggesting that the percentage of guano volatilizing as NH3 may be considerably lower in colder climates. This study undertook high resolution temporal ammonia measurements in the field and coupled results with modelling to estimate NH3 emissions at a temperate puffin colony and two sub-polar penguin colonies (Signy Island, South Orkney Islands and Bird Island, South Georgia) during the breeding season. These emission rates are then compared with NH3 volatilization rates from other climates. Ammonia emissions were calculated using a Lagrangian atmospheric dispersion model, resulting in mean emissions of 5 μg m-2 s-1 at the Isle of May, 12 μg m-2 s-1 at Signy Island and 9 μg m-2 s-1 at Bird Island. The estimated percentage of total guano nitrogen volatilized was 5% on the Isle of May, 3% on Signy and 2% on Bird Island. These values are much smaller than the percentage of guano nitrogen volatilized in tropical contexts (31-65%). The study confirmed temperature, wind speed and water availability have a significant influence on the magnitude of NH3 emissions, which has implications for reactive nitrogen in both modern remote regions and pre-industrial atmospheric composition and ecosystem interactions.

  20. A reconnaissance of the breeding distribution of colonial nesting of seabirds on the south coast of the Alaska Peninsula, May 30 - June 19, 1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These field notes respond to the need for more knowledge about colonial seabirds, a neglected segment of Alaskas natural resources. Refuges, research and what was...

  1. Coping behaviour as an adaptation to stress: post-disturbance preening in colonial seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Shandelle M; Weldon, Lynelle M; Hayward, James L; Greene, Daniel J; Megna, Libby C; Serem, Maureen C

    2012-01-01

    In humans, coping behaviour is an action taken to soothe oneself during or after a stressful or threatening situation. Some human behaviours with physiological functions also serve as coping behaviours, for example, comfort sucking in infants and comfort eating in adults. In birds, the behaviour of preening, which has important physiological functions, has been postulated to soothe individuals after stressful situations. We combine two existing modelling approaches - logistic regression and Darwinian dynamics - to explore theoretically how a behaviour with crucial physiological function might evolve into a coping behaviour. We apply the method to preening in colonial seabirds to investigate whether and how preening might be co-opted as a coping behaviour in the presence of predators. We conduct an in-depth study of the environmental correlates of preening in a large gull colony in Washington, USA, and we perform an independent field test for comfort preening by computing the change in frequency of preening in gulls that were alerted to a predator, but did not flee. PMID:22873521

  2. Global Seabird Ammonia Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, S. N.; Blackall, T. D.; Dragosits, U.; Daunt, F. H.; Braban, C. F.; Tang, Y. S.; Trathan, P.; Wanless, S.; Sutton, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    Seabird colonies represent a major source of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) in remote coastal and marine systems in temperate, tropical and polar regions. Previous studies have shown that NH3 emissions from Scottish seabird colonies were substantial - of similar magnitude to the most intensive agricultural point source emissions. The UK data were used to model global seabird NH3 emissions and suggested that penguins are a major source of emissions on and around the Antarctic continent. The largest seabird colonies are in the order of millions of seabirds. Due to the isolation of these colonies from anthropogenic nitrogen sources, they may play a major role in the nitrogen cycle within these ecosystems. A global seabird database was constructed and used in conjunction with a species-specific seabird bioenergetics model to map the locations of NH3 emissions from seabird colonies. The accuracy of the modelled emissions was validated with field data of NH3 emissions measured at key seabird colonies in different climatic regions of the world: temperate (Isle of May, Scotland), tropical (Ascension Island) and polar (Signy Island, South Georgia). The field data indicated good agreement between modelled and measured NH3 emissions. The measured NH3 emissions also showed the variability of emission with climate. Climate dependence of seabird NH3 emissions may have further implications under a changing global climate. Seabird colonies represent NH3 emission ‘hotspots’, often far from anthropogenic sources, and are likely to be the major source of nitrogen input to these remote coastal ecosystems. The direct manuring by seabirds at colony locations may strongly influence species richness and biodiversity. The subsequent volatilisation and deposition of NH3 increases the spatial extent of seabird influence on nitrogen cycling in their local ecosystem. As many seabird populations are fluctuating due to changing food supply, climate change or anthropogenic pressures, these factors

  3. Temporal trends of mercury in eggs of five sympatrically breeding seabird species in the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braune, Birgit M; Gaston, Anthony J; Mallory, Mark L

    2016-07-01

    We compared temporal trends of total mercury (Hg) in eggs of five seabird species breeding at Prince Leopold Island in the Canadian high Arctic. As changes in trophic position over time have the potential to influence contaminant temporal trends, Hg concentrations were adjusted for trophic position (measured as δ(15)N). Adjusted Hg concentrations in eggs of thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) and northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) increased from 1975 to the 1990s, followed by a plateauing of levels from the 1990s to 2014. Trends of adjusted Hg concentrations in eggs of murres, fulmars, black guillemots (Cepphus grylle) and black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) had negative slopes between 1993 and 2013. Adjusted Hg concentrations in glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) eggs decreased by 50% from 1993 to 2003 before starting to increase again. Glaucous gull eggs had the highest Hg concentrations followed by black guillemot eggs, and black-legged kittiwake eggs had the lowest concentrations consistently in the five years compared between 1993 and 2013. Based on published toxicological thresholds for Hg in eggs, there is little concern for adverse reproductive effects due to Hg exposure in these birds, although the levels in glaucous gull eggs warrant future scrutiny given the increase in Hg concentrations observed in recent years. There is evidence that the Hg trends observed reflect changing anthropogenic Hg emissions. It remains unclear, however, to what extent exposure to Hg on the overwintering grounds influences the Hg trends observed in the seabird eggs at Prince Leopold Island. Future research should focus on determining the extent to which Hg exposure on the breeding grounds versus the overwintering areas contribute to the trends observed in the eggs. PMID:27074200

  4. Does temporal variation of mercury levels in Arctic seabirds reflect changes in global environmental contamination, or a modification of Arctic marine food web functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Jérôme; Grémillet, David; Traisnel, Gwendoline; Amélineau, Françoise; Bustamante, Paco

    2016-04-01

    Studying long-term trends of contaminants in Arctic biota is essential to better understand impacts of anthropogenic activities and climate change on the exposure of sensitive species and marine ecosystems. We concurrently measured temporal changes (2006-2014) in mercury (Hg) contamination of little auks (Alle alle; the most abundant Arctic seabird) and in their major zooplankton prey species (Calanoid copepods, Themisto libellula, Gammarus spp.). We found an increasing contamination of the food-chain in East Greenland during summer over the last decade. More specifically, bird contamination (determined by body feather analyses) has increased at a rate of 3.4% per year. Conversely, bird exposure to Hg during winter in the northwest Atlantic (determined by head feather analyses) decreased over the study period (at a rate of 1.5% per year), although winter concentrations remained consistently higher than during summer. By combining mercury levels measured in birds and zooplankton to isotopic analyses, our results demonstrate that inter-annual variations of Hg levels in little auks reflect changes in food-chain contamination, rather than a reorganization of the food web and a modification of seabird trophic ecology. They therefore underline the value of little auks, and Arctic seabirds in general, as bio-indicators of long-term changes in environmental contamination. PMID:26798998

  5. Forty years of change: a northern Alaskan seabird's response to a warming Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divoky, G.; Suydam, R.

    2012-12-01

    While recent decadal-scale decreases in the snow and ice habitats of the Arctic are well documented, there are few concurrent long-term biological data sets, especially for species dependent on the cryopelagic ecosystem associated with arctic sea ice. The Black Guillemot (Cepphus grylle mandti), a marine apex predator specializing on prey associated with arctic pack ice has been studied annually since 1975 at a colony on Cooper Island, 35 km east of Point Barrow, Alaska. Over the last four decades critical components of the species' life history have been found to be sensitive to a number of physical and biological effects associated with the region's increasing atmospheric temperatures. Black Guillemots first colonized northern Alaska in the late 1960s and early 1970s as the annual snow-free period increased sufficiently to allow access to nesting cavities for the 80 days required to successfully raise young. At the Cooper Island colony abundance increased during the 1970s and 1980s as summer length continued to increase and wooden nest cavities were provided to increase sample size for monitoring. During this time breeding success was high as summer sea ice remained in the 30-km foraging range of guillemot parents, providing Arctic Cod (Boreogadus saida), the principal forage fish associated with sea ice and the preferred prey of Black Guillemots. Decreasing summer sea ice extent in the 1990s that accelerated in the last decade reduced the guillemots' access to cryopelagic prey during the critical period when parents are provisioning nestlings. Distance from the colony to the pack ice on 15 August averaged 100 km from 2003-2011. This ice retreat had a major affect on Arctic Cod availability, causing parent guillemots to shift to lower quality benthic fish resulting in decreases in nestling quality and breeding success when sea ice had retreated and SST was > 4o C. Increasing loss of summer ice in the last decade also facilitated changes in the distribution of a

  6. Determine disturbance impacts of fireworks at the Coquille Point seabird colony complex near Bandon, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The USFWS conducted a monitoring study at Pirate Cove Rock during 2011 to determine if the Independence Day fireworks display had any adverse effects on seabirds,...

  7. Spatial Heterogeneity as a Genetic Mixing Mechanism in Highly Philopatric Colonial Seabirds

    OpenAIRE

    Cristofari, Robin; Trucchi, Emiliano; Whittington, Jason D; Vigetta, Stéphanie; Gachot-Neveu, Hélène; Stenseth, Nils Christian; Le Maho, Yvon; Le Bohec, Céline

    2015-01-01

    International audience How genetic diversity is maintained in philopatric colonial systems remains unclear, and understanding the dynamic balance of philopatry and dispersal at all spatial scales is essential to the study of the evolution of coloniality. In the King penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus, return rates of post-fledging chicks to their natal sub-colony are remarkably high. Empirical studies have shown that adults return year after year to their previous breeding territories within...

  8. Colonial Seabird Management on Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge and Matinicus Rock Environmental Assessment 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Seal Island puffin colony, once the largest in Maine, was completely destroyed by meat, egg, and feather market and subsistence hunters in the late 1800's....

  9. Where to Forage in the Absence of Sea Ice? Bathymetry As a Key Factor for an Arctic Seabird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Amélineau

    Full Text Available The earth is warming at an alarming rate, especially in the Arctic, where a marked decline in sea ice cover may have far-ranging consequences for endemic species. Little auks, endemic Arctic seabirds, are key bioindicators as they forage in the marginal ice zone and feed preferentially on lipid-rich Arctic copepods and ice-associated amphipods sensitive to the consequences of global warming. We tested how little auks cope with an ice-free foraging environment during the breeding season. To this end, we took advantage of natural variation in sea ice concentration along the east coast of Greenland. We compared foraging and diving behaviour, chick diet and growth and adult body condition between two years, in the presence versus nearby absence of sea ice in the vicinity of their breeding site. Moreover, we sampled zooplankton at sea when sea ice was absent to evaluate prey location and little auk dietary preferences. Little auks foraged in the same areas both years, irrespective of sea ice presence/concentration, and targeted the shelf break and the continental shelf. We confirmed that breeding little auks showed a clear preference for larger copepod species to feed their chick, but caught smaller copepods and nearly no ice-associated amphipod when sea ice was absent. Nevertheless, these dietary changes had no impact on chick growth and adult body condition. Our findings demonstrate the importance of bathymetry for profitable little auk foraging, whatever the sea-ice conditions. Our investigations, along with recent studies, also confirm more flexibility than previously predicted for this key species in a warming Arctic.

  10. Where to Forage in the Absence of Sea Ice? Bathymetry As a Key Factor for an Arctic Seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amélineau, Françoise; Grémillet, David; Bonnet, Delphine; Le Bot, Tangi; Fort, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    The earth is warming at an alarming rate, especially in the Arctic, where a marked decline in sea ice cover may have far-ranging consequences for endemic species. Little auks, endemic Arctic seabirds, are key bioindicators as they forage in the marginal ice zone and feed preferentially on lipid-rich Arctic copepods and ice-associated amphipods sensitive to the consequences of global warming. We tested how little auks cope with an ice-free foraging environment during the breeding season. To this end, we took advantage of natural variation in sea ice concentration along the east coast of Greenland. We compared foraging and diving behaviour, chick diet and growth and adult body condition between two years, in the presence versus nearby absence of sea ice in the vicinity of their breeding site. Moreover, we sampled zooplankton at sea when sea ice was absent to evaluate prey location and little auk dietary preferences. Little auks foraged in the same areas both years, irrespective of sea ice presence/concentration, and targeted the shelf break and the continental shelf. We confirmed that breeding little auks showed a clear preference for larger copepod species to feed their chick, but caught smaller copepods and nearly no ice-associated amphipod when sea ice was absent. Nevertheless, these dietary changes had no impact on chick growth and adult body condition. Our findings demonstrate the importance of bathymetry for profitable little auk foraging, whatever the sea-ice conditions. Our investigations, along with recent studies, also confirm more flexibility than previously predicted for this key species in a warming Arctic. PMID:27438790

  11. Energetic consequences of contrasting winter migratory strategies in a sympatric Arctic seabird duet

    OpenAIRE

    Fort, Jérôme; Steen, Harald; Strom, Hallvard; Tremblay, Yann; Grønningsæter, Eirik; Pettex, Emeline; Porter, Warren P; Grémillet, David

    2013-01-01

    International audience At the onset of winter, warm-blooded animals inhabiting seasonal environments may remain resident and face poorer climatic conditions, or migrate towards more favourable habitats. While the origins and evolution of migratory choices have been extensively studied, their consequences on avian energy balance and winter survival are poorly understood, especially in species diffi cult to observe such as seabirds. Using miniaturized geolocators, time-depth recorders and a ...

  12. Bioaccumulation of PCBs in Arctic seabirds: influence of dietary exposure and congener biotransformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four seabird species and their prey (zooplankton or fish) were collected in the Barents Sea to determine how dietary exposure, cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activities and sex influenced their hepatic PCB concentrations and accumulation patterns. Five males and five females from each seabird species (little auk (Alle alle), Bruennich's guillemot (Uria lomvia), black guillemot (Cepphus grylle) and black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla)) were analysed. PCB concentrations could not be explained directly by carbon source (δ13C) or trophic position (δ15N), but by a combination of dietary parameters (δ13C, δ15N, migratory pattern, age) and contaminant metabolism. Contrary to previous studies, the PCB pattern differed among seabirds, with a higher proportion of persistent congeners (% of PCB-153, RPCB-153) in black-legged kittiwake than in auks. The PCB pattern also differed among auks, with little auk as the most efficient biotransformer (highest RPCB-153 values of persistent congeners). Based on high RPCB-153 values, Bruennich's guillemot poorly metabolised ortho-meta-unsubstituted congeners, whereas black guillemot poorly metabolised meta-para unsubstituted congeners. Species-specific differences in PCB biotransformation were confirmed by metabolic indices, where PCB patterns in seabirds were adjusted for PCB pattern in prey. The relative contribution of ortho-meta-unsubstituted congeners to ΣPCBsdecreased with increasing EROD activity. There were no differences in PCB concentrations, PCB patterns or cytochrome P450 enzyme activities between males and females. CYP P450 activities (CYP1A- and CYP2B/3A-like: EROD and testosterone 6β-hydroxylation, respectively) were low and did not correlate with concentrations of non- or mono-ortho Cl-substituted PCBs (NO- and MO-PCBs), or with total toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs) for dioxin-like effects of NO- and MO-PCBs. - Contaminant patterns is linked to phylogeny and species-specific differences in enzyme systems

  13. Bioaccumulation of PCBs in Arctic seabirds: influence of dietary exposure and congener biotransformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borga, Katrine [Norwegian Polar Institute, N-9296 Tromsoe (Norway)]. E-mail: katrine.borga@npolar.no; Wolkers, Hans [Norwegian Polar Institute, N-9296 Tromsoe (Norway); Skaare, Janneche U. [National Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 8156 Dep., N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, P.O. Box 8146 Dep., N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Hop, Haakon [Norwegian Polar Institute, N-9296 Tromsoe (Norway); Muir, Derek C.G. [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Gabrielsen, Geir W. [Norwegian Polar Institute, N-9296 Tromsoe (Norway)

    2005-04-01

    Four seabird species and their prey (zooplankton or fish) were collected in the Barents Sea to determine how dietary exposure, cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activities and sex influenced their hepatic PCB concentrations and accumulation patterns. Five males and five females from each seabird species (little auk (Alle alle), Bruennich's guillemot (Uria lomvia), black guillemot (Cepphus grylle) and black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla)) were analysed. PCB concentrations could not be explained directly by carbon source ({delta}{sup 13}C) or trophic position ({delta}{sup 15}N), but by a combination of dietary parameters ({delta}{sup 13}C, {delta}{sup 15}N, migratory pattern, age) and contaminant metabolism. Contrary to previous studies, the PCB pattern differed among seabirds, with a higher proportion of persistent congeners (% of PCB-153, R{sub PCB-153}) in black-legged kittiwake than in auks. The PCB pattern also differed among auks, with little auk as the most efficient biotransformer (highest R{sub PCB-153} values of persistent congeners). Based on high R{sub PCB-153} values, Bruennich's guillemot poorly metabolised ortho-meta-unsubstituted congeners, whereas black guillemot poorly metabolised meta-para unsubstituted congeners. Species-specific differences in PCB biotransformation were confirmed by metabolic indices, where PCB patterns in seabirds were adjusted for PCB pattern in prey. The relative contribution of ortho-meta-unsubstituted congeners to {sigma}PCBsdecreased with increasing EROD activity. There were no differences in PCB concentrations, PCB patterns or cytochrome P450 enzyme activities between males and females. CYP P450 activities (CYP1A- and CYP2B/3A-like: EROD and testosterone 6{beta}-hydroxylation, respectively) were low and did not correlate with concentrations of non- or mono-ortho Cl-substituted PCBs (NO- and MO-PCBs), or with total toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs) for dioxin-like effects of NO- and MO-PCBs. - Contaminant

  14. Elevated levels of ingested plastic in a high Arctic seabird, the northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis)

    OpenAIRE

    Trevail, A.M.; Gabrielsen, G. W.; Kuhn, S.; Franeker, van, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Plastic pollution is of worldwide concern; however, increases in international commercial activity in the Arctic are occurring without the knowledge of the existing threat posed to the local marine environment by plastic litter. Here, we quantify plastic ingestion by northern fulmars, Fulmarus glacialis, from Svalbard, at the gateway to future shipping routes in the high Arctic. Plastic ingestion by Svalbard fulmars does not follow the established decreasing trend away from human marine impac...

  15. Survival rate and breeding outputs in a high Arctic seabird exposed to legacy persistent organic pollutants and mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic exposure to pollutants may represent a threat for wildlife. We tested whether adult survival rate, breeding probability and breeding success the year of sampling and the following year were affected by blood levels of mercury or persistent organic pollutants in Svalbard black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla, by using capture–mark–recapture models over a five-year period. Survival rate was negatively linked to HCB levels in females, to chlordane mixture and oxychlordane, tended to decrease with increasing PCBs or DDE levels, but was unrelated to mercury. Breeding probability decreased with increasing mercury levels during the sampling year and with increasing CHL or HCB levels during the following year, especially in males observed as breeders. Surprisingly, the probability of raising two chicks increased with increasing HCB levels. Although levels of these legacy pollutants are expected to decline, they represent a potential threat for adult survival rate and breeding probability, possibly affecting kittiwake population dynamics. - Highlights: • We model the effects of pollutants vital rates in Svalbard black-legged kittiwakes. • Adult survival rate was negatively linked to persistent organic pollutants levels. • Breeding probability the following year decreased with increasing HCB and chlordane. • The probability of raising two chicks increased with increasing HCB levels. - Negative effects of pollutants were detected on future breeding probabilities and on adult survival rate in a High Arctic seabird species

  16. Elevated levels of ingested plastic in a high Arctic seabird, the northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trevail, A.M.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Kuhn, S.; Franeker, van J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Plastic pollution is of worldwide concern; however, increases in international commercial activity in the Arctic are occurring without the knowledge of the existing threat posed to the local marine environment by plastic litter. Here, we quantify plastic ingestion by northern fulmars, Fulmarus glaci

  17. Cellular responses induced by environmental stress factors in Arctic Seabird chicks : Responses of the antioxidant defense system and autophagic lysosomal processes related to contaminant exposure and food restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Hegseth, Marit Nøst

    2011-01-01

    The papers of this thesis are not available in Munin: 1. Marit Nøst Hegseth, Lionel Camus, Lisa Bjørnsdatter Helgason, Raffaella Bocchetti, Geir Wing Gabrielsen and Francesco Regoli: 'Hepatic antioxidant responses related to levels of PCBs and metals in chicks of three Arctic seabird species', Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology (2011) 154: 28-35. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2011.02.008 2. Marit Nøst Hegseth, Lionel Camus, Stefania Go...

  18. Regime shifts in the Arctic North Atlantic during the Neoglacial revealed by seabirds and precipitation isotopes on Bjørnøya, Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, William J.; Hormes, Anne; Bakke, Jostein; Nicolaisen, Line

    2016-04-01

    The northeastern North Atlantic Ocean, and the Norwegian and Greenland Seas are subject to large hydrographic changes. These variations can influence oceanic heat transport to the Arctic, meridional overturning circulation, and atmospheric circulation patterns and thereby impact global climate patterns. Marine records suggest that numerous large-scale changes in the hydrography of the northern North Atlantic took place during the middle to late Holocene. We report a record of nitrogen and hydrogen isotope measurements from a lake sediment core from Bjørnøya, Svalbard (74.38°N, 19.02°E) that documents major regime shifts in the climate of the northern North Atlantic during the past 6,000 years. Bjørnøya is the nesting ground for one of the largest seabird populations in the North Atlantic. As top predators in the marine ecosystem, seabirds (and their guano) are enriched in 15N; during spring and summer months they deliver isotopically enriched nitrogen to nesting areas. We developed a record of seabird population changes on Bjørnøya based on the nitrogen isotope composition of sediments in a core collected from lake Ellasjøen. The record reveals multiple multicentennial scale changes in δ15N values (varying between ~8-12‰) that track past changes in the size of seabird populations. From the same sediment core, we also developed a record of δD of precipitation, using δD values of sedimentary n-alkanes. Past intervals with the largest inferred bird populations correspond with the most enriched δD of precipitation, which we interpret to represent a more Atlantic climate. Periods with reduced seabird populations correspond with intervals with more negative δD of precipitation and representing a more Arctic climate. Together, the nitrogen and hydrogen isotope records signify regime shifts in the oceanography, marine ecosystem, and atmospheric circulation of the northern North Atlantic that are related to variations in the strength of the subpolar gyre.

  19. Mind the wind: microclimate effects on incubation effort of an arctic seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høyvik Hilde, Christoffer; Pélabon, Christophe; Guéry, Loreleï; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Descamps, Sébastien

    2016-04-01

    The energetic costs of reproduction in birds strongly depend on the climate experienced during incubation. Climate change and increasing frequency of extreme weather events may severely affect these costs, especially for species incubating in extreme environments. In this 3-year study, we used an experimental approach to investigate the effects of microclimate and nest shelter on the incubation effort of female common eiders (Somateria mollissima) in a wild Arctic population. We added artificial shelters to a random selection of nesting females, and compared incubation effort, measured as body mass loss during incubation, between females with and without shelter. Nonsheltered females had a higher incubation effort than females with artificial shelters. In nonsheltered females, higher wind speeds increased the incubation effort, while artificially sheltered females experienced no effect of wind. Although increasing ambient temperatures tended to decrease incubation effort, this effect was negligible in the absence of wind. Humidity had no marked effect on incubation effort. This study clearly displays the direct effect of a climatic variable on an important aspect of avian life-history. By showing that increasing wind speed counteracts the energetic benefits of a rising ambient temperature, we were able to demonstrate that a climatic variable other than temperature may also affect wild populations and need to be taken into account when predicting the effects of climate change. PMID:27099703

  20. Chlordane components and metabolites in seven species of Arctic seabirds from the Northwater Polynya: relationships with stable isotopes of nitrogen and enantiomeric fractions of chiral components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, A T; Moisey, J; Hobson, K A; Karnovsky, N J; Norstrom, R J

    2001-01-01

    The Northwater Polynya (NOW) is a large area of year-round open water found in the high Arctic between Ellesmere Island and Greenland. NOW has high biological productivity compared with other arctic marine areas, and supports large populations of several seabird species. Seven species of seabirds, dovekie (Alle alle, DOVE), thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia, TBMU), black guillemot (Cepphus grylle, BLGU), black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla, BLKI), ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea, IVGU), glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus, GLGU) and northern fulmar (Fulmaris glacialis, NOFU) were collected in May and June 1998 to determine chlordane concentrations in liver and fat and to examine species differences, relationships with stable isotopes of nitrogen, and enantiomeric fractions (EFs) of chiral components. sigma CHLOR concentrations varied over an order of magnitude among species, from a low of 176 +/- 19 ng/g (lipid corrected) in TMBU liver to a high of 3190 +/- 656 ng/g (lipid corrected) in NOFU liver. Lipid-corrected concentrations of chlordane did not vary between sex for any species or between fat and liver except for the DOVE, that had fat concentrations that were significantly greater than the liver. delta 15N values described a significant percentage of the variability of concentrations for most chlordane components, although less than what has been reported for whole food chains. Slopes of delta 15N versus concentration of chlordane components and sigma CHLOR were similar with the exception of those which were metabolized (trans-chlordane) or formed through biotransformation (oxychlordane). The relative proportions of chlordane components in seabirds were related to phylogeny; the procellariid (NOFU) had the greatest percentage of oxychlordane (> 70%), followed by the larids (BLKI, IVGU and GLGU; 40-50%) and the alcids (DOVE and BLGU; 10-20%). The exception was TBMU, an alcid, where oxychlordane made up > 40% of its chlordane. EFs of chiral components failed to

  1. Input of seabird-derived nitrogen into rice-paddy fields near a breeding/roosting colony of the Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), and its effects on wild grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrestrial ecosystems near breeding/roosting colonies of piscivorous seabirds can receive a large amount of marine-derived N in the form of bird feces. It has been well demonstrated that N input from seabirds strongly affects plant communities in forests or coastal grasslands. The effects of nutrient input on plant communities in agricultural ecosystems near seabird colonies, however, have rarely been evaluated. This relationship was examined in rice-paddy fields irrigated by a pond system located near a colony of the Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo in Aichi, central Japan. In the present study, spatial variations in N content (N %) and N stable isotope composition (δ15N) of soils and wild grass species together with the growth height of plants in paddy fields in early spring (fallow period) were examined. Soils had a higher N % and δ15N values in fields associated with an irrigation pond that had N input from cormorants. The δ15N values tended to be higher around the inlet of irrigation waters, relative to the outlet. These results indicate that cormorant-derived N was input into the paddy fields via the irrigation systems. Plants growing in soil with higher δ15N had higher δ15N in the above-ground part of the plants and had luxurious growth. A positive correlation in plant height and δ15N of NO3–N was observed in soil plough horizons.

  2. Different means to the same end: long-distance migrant seabirds from two colonies differ in behaviour, despite common wintering grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catry, Paulo; Dias, Maria P; Phillips, Richard A; Granadeiro, José P

    2011-01-01

    Although seabirds that are trans-equatorial migrants show apparently broad overlap among populations in the non-breeding season, such large-scale pattern may conceal subtle but nevertheless key differences in migratory behaviour. These specializations could reflect adaptation to different environments during the breeding season, carry-over effects from the breeding to the nonbreeding period, or asymmetries in competitive ability of birds of different origin. We compared the migratory and wintering behaviour of Cory's shearwaters Calonectris diomedea nesting in Berlengas and in the Selvagens, two colonies in contrasting oceanographic environments, separated by ca. 1200 km. Although no differences were found in winter distribution, there was a marked divergence in timing, route and the use of staging areas during the postbreeding (autumn) migration. Birds from Berlengas typically travelled to oceanic waters in the North Atlantic for an extended stopover, whereas those from Selvagens rarely did so. In the South Atlantic, birds from Selvagens spent more time in flight, perhaps because they had higher energy and nutrient requirements for feather replacement compared to birds from Berlengas, which moult more flight feathers during breeding. Stable isotope analyses of feathers suggested that this variation in activity patterns was unrelated to trophic ecology. Differences in migration routes and stopovers may expose populations to distinct threats, and should be taken into consideration when defining units for conservation purposes and developing appropriate management strategies. PMID:22022513

  3. Different means to the same end: long-distance migrant seabirds from two colonies differ in behaviour, despite common wintering grounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Catry

    Full Text Available Although seabirds that are trans-equatorial migrants show apparently broad overlap among populations in the non-breeding season, such large-scale pattern may conceal subtle but nevertheless key differences in migratory behaviour. These specializations could reflect adaptation to different environments during the breeding season, carry-over effects from the breeding to the nonbreeding period, or asymmetries in competitive ability of birds of different origin. We compared the migratory and wintering behaviour of Cory's shearwaters Calonectris diomedea nesting in Berlengas and in the Selvagens, two colonies in contrasting oceanographic environments, separated by ca. 1200 km. Although no differences were found in winter distribution, there was a marked divergence in timing, route and the use of staging areas during the postbreeding (autumn migration. Birds from Berlengas typically travelled to oceanic waters in the North Atlantic for an extended stopover, whereas those from Selvagens rarely did so. In the South Atlantic, birds from Selvagens spent more time in flight, perhaps because they had higher energy and nutrient requirements for feather replacement compared to birds from Berlengas, which moult more flight feathers during breeding. Stable isotope analyses of feathers suggested that this variation in activity patterns was unrelated to trophic ecology. Differences in migration routes and stopovers may expose populations to distinct threats, and should be taken into consideration when defining units for conservation purposes and developing appropriate management strategies.

  4. Monitoring populations of breeding seabirds: Final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — At Cape Thompson, Alaska, the University of Alaska, mapped locations of census plots during his 195961 studies see Swartz 1966 of the seabird colony there. Numbers...

  5. Behavioural and hormonal stress responses during chick rearing do not predict brood desertion by female in a small Arctic seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna; Jakubas, Dariusz; Chastel, Olivier

    2013-08-01

    We examined behavioural and hormonal stress responses in a small seabird (little auk, Alle alle), which exhibits a transition from biparental to male-only care towards the end of the nesting period, in order to understand the mechanisms underlying this parental strategy. We hypothesized that the male staying with the chick should be less sensitive to stressors. As such the male might offer the offspring more efficient protection during the fledging period than the female. We tested this hypothesis by observing male and female behaviour in a neophobia test. We also measured the birds' baseline and stress-induced levels of corticosterone and prolactin using the standardized capture-and-restraint protocol. Both sexes respond rapidly to foreign objects, delaying the entry time to the nest with food, consuming the food load, and/or temporarily abandoning feeding. However, we did not find any differences between the sexes in the frequency of each behaviour or in the time of the first reaction to the experimental treatment. Level of both corticosterone and prolactin increased after the experimental treatment. However, we did not find sex differences in baseline and stress-induced hormone levels. The results indicate that the males are as much sensitive to the stress situation as the females. Thus, the pattern of male and female behavioural and hormonal responses to stress does not predict their behaviour at the final breeding stage. PMID:23880555

  6. Brent goose colonies near snowy owls: Internest distances in relation to breeding arctic fox densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kharitonov, S.P.; Ebbinge, B.S.; Fouw, de J.

    2013-01-01

    It was shown that in the years when the numbers of the Arctic foxes are high, even though the lemming numbers are high as well, Brent geese nest considerably closer to owls' nests than in the years with low Arctic fox numbers. At values of the Arctic fox densities greater than one breeding pair per

  7. Different Means to the Same End: Long-Distance Migrant Seabirds from Two Colonies Differ in Behaviour, Despite Common Wintering Grounds

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Catry; Dias, Maria P.; Phillips, Richard A.; José P Granadeiro

    2011-01-01

    Although seabirds that are trans-equatorial migrants show apparently broad overlap among populations in the non-breeding season, such large-scale pattern may conceal subtle but nevertheless key differences in migratory behaviour. These specializations could reflect adaptation to different environments during the breeding season, carry-over effects from the breeding to the nonbreeding period, or asymmetries in competitive ability of birds of different origin. We compared the migratory and wint...

  8. Seabird modulations of isotopic nitrogen on islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Caut

    Full Text Available The transport of nutrients by migratory animals across ecosystem boundaries can significantly enrich recipient food webs, thereby shaping the ecosystems' structure and function. To illustrate the potential role of islands in enabling the transfer of matter across ecosystem boundaries to be gauged, we investigated the influence of seabirds on nitrogen input on islands. Basing our study on four widely differing islands in terms of their biogeography and ecological characteristics, sampled at different spatial and temporal intervals, we analyzed the nitrogen isotopic values of the main terrestrial ecosystem compartments (vascular plants, arthropods, lizards and rodents and their relationship to seabird values. For each island, the isotopic values of the ecosystem were driven by those of seabirds, which ultimately corresponded to changes in their marine prey. First, terrestrial compartments sampled within seabird colonies were the most enriched in δ(15N compared with those collected at various distances outside colonies. Second, isotopic values of the whole terrestrial ecosystems changed over time, reflecting the values of seabirds and their prey, showing a fast turnover throughout the ecosystems. Our results demonstrate that seabird-derived nutrients not only spread across the terrestrial ecosystems and trophic webs, but also modulate their isotopic values locally and temporally on these islands. The wealth of experimental possibilities in insular ecosystems justifies greater use of these model systems to further our understanding of the modalities of trans-boundary nutrient transfers.

  9. Is ornithogenic fertilization important for collembolan communities in Arctic terrestrial ecosystems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Zmudczyńska-Skarbek

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Arctic, areas close to seabird colonies are often characterized by exceptionally rich vegetation communities linked with the high nutrient subsidies transported by seabirds from the marine environment to the land. These areas also support soil invertebrate communities of which springtails (Collembola often represent the most abundant and diverse group. Our study focused on springtail community composition in the vicinity of seabird (little auk, great skua and glaucous gull nesting areas in different parts of Svalbard (Magdalenefjorden, Isfjorden and Bjørnøya, and on their comparison with adjacent areas not impacted by seabirds. Out of a total of 35 springtail species recorded, seven were found only within the ornithogenically influenced sites. Although geographical location was the strongest factor differentiating these springtail communities, ornithogenic influence was also significant regardless of the location. When each location was considered separately, seabirds were responsible for a relatively small but strongly significant proportion (8.6, 5.2 and 3.9%, respectively, for each site of total springtail community variability. Species whose occurrence was positively correlated with seabird presence were Folsomia coeruleogrisea, Friesea quinquespinosa, Lepidocyrtus lignorum and Oligaphorura groenlandica near Magdalenefjorden, Arrhopalites principalis, Folsomia bisetosella and Protaphorura macfadyeni in Isfjorden, and Folsomia quadrioculata on Bjørnøya.

  10. Assessing regional populations of ground-nesting marine birds in the Canadian High Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Maftei

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Queens Channel region of Nunavut is an ecologically distinct area within the Canadian High Arctic consisting of an extensive archipelago of small, low-lying gravel islands throughout which form several localized but highly productive polynyas. We used aerial survey and colony-monitoring data to assess regional- and colony-level fluctuations in the number of birds in this region between 2002 and 2013. Regional and colony-specific monitoring suggested that common eider (Somateria mollissima numbers are increasing, while numbers of Arctic terns (Sterna paradisaea may be in decline. Based on these data, we suggest that even infrequent comprehensive surveys are more useful than annual monitoring at specific sites in generating an accurate assessment of ground-nesting seabird populations at the regional level, and that dramatic fluctuations at individual colonies probably belie the overall stability of regional populations.

  11. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X.;

    2016-01-01

    It is well known, that in case of oil spill, seabirds are among the groups of animals most vulnerable. Even small amounts of oil can have lethal effects by destroying the waterproofing of their plumage, leading to loss of insulation and buoyancy. In the Arctic these impacts are intensified. To...... protect seabirds, a rapid removal of oil is crucial and in situ burning could be an efficient method. In the present work exposure effects of oil and burn residue in different doses was studied on seabird feathers from legally hunted Common eider (Somateria mollissima) by examining changes in total weight...

  12. Lewis and Clark NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Rice Island Gull Colony Nest Survey Protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The dredging of the lower Columbia River for shipping has created flat sand islands that attract nesting seabirds. These seabird colonies are situated in prime...

  13. Automated visual surveillance of a population of nesting seabirds

    OpenAIRE

    Qing, Chunmei; Dickinson, Patrick; Lawson, Shaun; Freeman, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Seabird populations are a valuable and accessible indicator of marine health: population changes have been linked with fish stock levels, climate change, and pollution. Understanding the development of particular colonies requires detailed data, but manual collection methods are labour intensive and error prone. Our work is concerned with development of computer vision algorithms to support autonomous visual monitoring of cliff-nesting nesting seabirds, and collection of behavioural data on a...

  14. Ammonia in the summertime Arctic marine boundary layer: sources, sinks, and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentworth, Gregory R.; Murphy, Jennifer G.; Croft, Betty; Martin, Randall V.; Pierce, Jeffrey R.; Côté, Jean-Sébastien; Courchesne, Isabelle; Tremblay, Jean-Éric; Gagnon, Jonathan; Thomas, Jennie L.; Sharma, Sangeeta; Toom-Sauntry, Desiree; Chivulescu, Alina; Levasseur, Maurice; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.

    2016-02-01

    Continuous hourly measurements of gas-phase ammonia (NH3(g)) were taken from 13 July to 7 August 2014 on a research cruise throughout Baffin Bay and the eastern Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Concentrations ranged from 30 to 650 ng m-3 (40-870 pptv) with the highest values recorded in Lancaster Sound (74°13' N, 84°00' W). Simultaneous measurements of total ammonium ([NHx]), pH and temperature in the ocean and in melt ponds were used to compute the compensation point (χ), which is the ambient NH3(g) concentration at which surface-air fluxes change direction. Ambient NH3(g) was usually several orders of magnitude larger than both χocean and χMP (transport model was employed to examine the impact of NH3(g) emissions from seabird guano on boundary-layer composition and nss-SO42- neutralization. A GEOS-Chem simulation without seabird emissions underestimated boundary layer NH3(g) by several orders of magnitude and yielded highly acidic aerosol. A simulation that included seabird NH3 emissions was in better agreement with observations for both NH3(g) concentrations and nss-SO42- neutralization. This is strong evidence that seabird colonies are significant sources of NH3 in the summertime Arctic, and are ubiquitous enough to impact atmospheric composition across the entire Baffin Bay region. Large wildfires in the Northwest Territories were likely an important source of NH3, but their influence was probably limited to the Central Canadian Arctic. Implications of seabird-derived N-deposition to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are also discussed.

  15. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X; Brogaard, Nicholas L; Rigét, Frank F; Kristensen, Paneeraq; Jomaas, Grunde; Boertmann, David M; Wegeberg, Susse; Gustavson, Kim

    2016-08-15

    It is well known, that in case of oil spill, seabirds are among the groups of animals most vulnerable. Even small amounts of oil can have lethal effects by destroying the waterproofing of their plumage, leading to loss of insulation and buoyancy. In the Arctic these impacts are intensified. To protect seabirds, a rapid removal of oil is crucial and in situ burning could be an efficient method. In the present work exposure effects of oil and burn residue in different doses was studied on seabird feathers from legally hunted Common eider (Somateria mollissima) by examining changes in total weight of the feather and damages on the microstructure (Amalgamation Index) of the feathers before and after exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that burn residues from in situ burning of an oil spill have similar or larger fouling and damaging effects on seabird feathers, as compared to fresh oil. PMID:27234369

  16. Longer ice-free seasons increase the risk of nest depredation by polar bears for colonial breeding birds in the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Samuel A; Gilchrist, H Grant; Smith, Paul A; Gaston, Anthony J; Forbes, Mark R

    2014-03-22

    Northern polar regions have warmed more than other parts of the globe potentially amplifying the effects of climate change on biological communities. Ice-free seasons are becoming longer in many areas, which has reduced the time available to polar bears (Ursus maritimus) to hunt for seals and hampered bears' ability to meet their energetic demands. In this study, we examined polar bears' use of an ancillary prey resource, eggs of colonial nesting birds, in relation to diminishing sea ice coverage in a low latitude region of the Canadian Arctic. Long-term monitoring reveals that bear incursions onto common eider (Somateria mollissima) and thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia) nesting colonies have increased greater than sevenfold since the 1980s and that there is an inverse correlation between ice season length and bear presence. In surveys encompassing more than 1000 km of coastline during years of record low ice coverage (2010-2012), we encountered bears or bear sign on 34% of eider colonies and estimated greater egg loss as a consequence of depredation by bears than by more customary nest predators, such as foxes and gulls. Our findings demonstrate how changes in abiotic conditions caused by climate change have altered predator-prey dynamics and are leading to cascading ecological impacts in Arctic ecosystems. PMID:24500172

  17. Offshore seabird monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    Offshore petroleum activities have been ongoing since the 1970s in eastern Canada, a zone which supports a rich and diverse assemblage of seabirds. Seabirds are extremely vulnerable to oiling and in November 2004 an important crude oil spill occurred off the shore of Newfoundland. At that time there was no information on seabird abundance to determine the effects of the spill and a study was funded by the Environmental Studies Research Funds (ESRF) to quantify seabird abundance and distribution in areas of offshore petroleum activities in eastern Canada. A novel protocol was used under this project and over 2500 hours of observation were conducted on 50,000 km of ocean transect over a 3.5 year period. The relationship between survey intensity and the precision of density estimates is presented herein and recommendations are made for increasing the precision of the estimates. This paper recommends continued survey efforts in production areas to maintain data precision.

  18. Population Status of Arctic, Common and Roseate Terns in the Gulf of Maine with Observations of five Downeast colonies

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The populations of Arctic Terns, Common Terns and Roseate Terns have declined between 30-40% over the past decade. This report outlines the findings of a tern...

  19. Seabirds as a subsistence and cultural resource in two remote Alaskan communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C. Young

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Small rural Alaskan communities face many challenges surrounding rapid social and ecological change. The role of local subsistence resources may change over time because of changes in social perception, economic need, and cultural patterns of use. We look at the Bering Sea's Pribilof Islands, comprising two very small communities, and investigate the relationship between the local residents and seabirds as a natural resource. Seabirds may strengthen ties to older ways of life and have potential for future economic opportunities, or modernization may direct interest away from seabirds as a cultural and economic resource. We conducted a survey and interviews of residents of the two Pribilof Island communities, St. Paul and St. George, to assess opinions toward seabirds and harvest levels. Seabirds were generally regarded as important both to individuals and the wider community. However, current levels of subsistence harvest are low, and few people continue to actively harvest or visit seabird colonies. Respondents expressed desire for greater knowledge about seabirds and also concerns about the current economy of the islands and a lack of future development prospects. Despite the challenging economic conditions, the villages retain a strong sense of community and place value on their environment and on seabirds. Surveys indicated an interest in developing eco-tourism based around local resources, including seabirds, as a way to improve the economy.

  20. Identifying nitrogen limitations to organic sediments accumulation in various vegetation types of arctic tundra (Hornsund, Svalbard)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypek, G.; Wojtuń, B.; Hua, Q.; Richter, D.; Jakubas, D.; Wojczulanis-Jakubas, K.; Samecka-Cymerman, A.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic and subarctic regions play important roles in the global carbon balance. However, nitrogen (N) deficiency is a major constraint for organic carbon sequestration in the High Arctic. Hence, the identification of the relative contributions from different N-sources is critical for understanding the constraints that limit tundra growth. The stable nitrogen composition of the three main N-sources and numerous plants were analyzed in ten tundra types in the Fuglebekken catchment (Hornsund Fjord, Svalbard, 77°N 15°E). The percentage of the total tundra N-pool provided by seabirds' feces (colonially breeding, planktivorous Alle alle), ranged from 0-21% in Patterned-ground tundra to 100% in Ornithocoprophilous tundra. The total N-pool utilized by tundra plants in the studied catchment was built in 36% by birds, 38% by atmospheric deposition, and 26% by N2-fixation. The results clearly show that N-pool in the tundra is significantly supplemented by nesting seabirds. Thus, if they experienced substantial negative environmental pressure associated with climate change, it would adversely influence the tundra N-budget [1]. The growth rates and the sediment thickness (climatic conditions but also by birds' contribution to the tundra N-pool. [1] Skrzypek G, Wojtuń B, Richter D, Jakubas D, Wojczulanis-Jakubas K, Samecka-Cymerman A, 2015. Diversification of nitrogen sources in various tundra vegetation types in the high Arctic. PLoS ONE (in review).

  1. Seabirds modify El Niño effects on tree growth in a southern Pacific island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Montenegro, Marco A; Torres-Díaz, Cristian; Gallardo-Cerda, Jorge; Leppe, Marcelo; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2013-11-01

    Oceanic island ecosystems are particularly sensitive to El Niño effects due to their dependence on energy and nutrient inputs from marine systems. Seabirds play a key role in transporting resources of marine origin to insular ecosystems. We report tree-growth patterns showing how the effects of El Niño rainy events on tree species in a southern Pacific island depend on the presence of local seabird colonies. We performed manipulative experiments in order to assess the mechanisms underlying these patterns. Tree ring data showed that, in normal years, the growth of all tree species (Aextoxicon punctatum, Cryptocarya alba, and Pinus radiata) was significantly lower in seabird sites compared to adjacent patches without seabirds (control sites). In contrast, in El Niño years, trees formerly hosting seabird colonies grew more than those in control sites. Experiments showed that (1) pine plants on soil from seabird sites grew more than those on soil from control sites, (2) pine individuals with seabird feces on their leaves grew less than those sprayed with an aqueous solution, and (3) soil moisture had little effect on plant growth. The stress produced by massive cormorant nesting on trees, which impairs tree growth and physiological performance, is relieved during El Niño events because of seabird migration due to decreased prey availability and pouring rains that flood nests. Soils enriched by the seabird guano, together with the increased water availability associated with El Niño, foster the growth of trees from seabird sites. We suggest that El Niño may be a key determinant of tree performance in forest communities from island and coastal ecosystems of the Pacific Ocean. PMID:24400493

  2. In situ response of Nostoc commune s.l. colonies to desiccation in Central Svalbard, Norwegian High Arctic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvíderová, Jana; Elster, Josef; Šimek, Miloslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2011), s. 87-97. ISSN 1802-5439 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 934; GA MŠk LA341; GA MŠk LC06066; GA AV ČR IAA600660605 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : desiccation * cyanobacteria * Arctic Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.327, year: 2011

  3. Will the Effects of Sea-Level Rise Create Ecological Traps for Pacific Island Seabirds?

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Courtot, Karen N.; Berkowitz, Paul; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Moore, Janet; Flint, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    More than 18 million seabirds nest on 58 Pacific islands protected within vast U.S. Marine National Monuments (1.9 million km2). However, most of these seabird colonies are on low-elevation islands and sea-level rise (SLR) and accompanying high-water perturbations are predicted to escalate with climate change. To understand how SLR may impact protected islands and insular biodiversity, we modeled inundation and wave-driven flooding of a globally important seabird rookery in the subtropical Pa...

  4. High trophic overlap within the seabird community of Argentinean Patagonia: A multiscale approach

    OpenAIRE

    Manuela G Forero; Gary R. Bortolotti; Keith A Hobson; Donázar, José A.; Bertellotti, Marcelo; Blanco, Guillermo

    2004-01-01

    1. Food web interactions in animal communities can be investigated through the measurement of stable isotopes (e.g. δ15N, δ13C). We used this approach in a community of 14 species of seabirds breeding on the Argentinean Patagonian coast. Tissue samples were collected from nestling and adult seabirds, as well as prey, during three consecutive breeding seasons in 28 breeding colonies. 2. Relative to those in other temperate and polar regions, this seabird community showed a high degree of overl...

  5. Diving dynamics of seabirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunghwan; Chang, Brian; Croson, Matt; Straker, Lorian; Dove, Carla

    2015-03-01

    Diving is the activity of falling from air into water, which is somewhat dangerous due to the impact. Humans dive for entertainments less than 20 meters high, however seabirds dive as a hunting mechanism from more than 20 meters high. Moreover, most birds including seabirds have a slender and long neck compared to many other animals, which can potentially be the weakest part of the body upon axial impact compression. Motivated by the diving dynamics, we investigate the effect of surface and geometric configurations on structures consisting of a beak-like cone and a neck-like elastic beam. A transition from non-buckling to buckling is characterized and understood through physical experiments and an analytical model.

  6. Are seabirds foraging for unpredictable resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimerskirch, Henri

    2007-02-01

    It is generally assumed that the extreme life history traits of pelagic seabirds, such as low fecundity or slow growth of chicks, result from the difficulties obtaining energy at sea from unpredictable and patchily distributed resources. However, little information on seabird prey distribution and availability exists to sustain this widely accepted hypothesis. Using tracking studies of 68 sub-populations of flying seabirds, I examine whether it is possible to gain information on the predictability of their marine resources. Because prey are clustered from fine to large scale in nested unities, from swarms to patches and concentrations of patches, it is important to take into account spatial scale. In temperate and polar regions, at large and meso-scales, seabirds appear to have a good knowledge of the location and concentrations of patches and generally use a commuting type of trip to reach foraging zones. Predictability appears to be high at large and meso-scales, with individuals from each sub-population heading in a particular direction from the colony to reach favoured habitats of known enhanced productivity such as shelf edges, frontal zones, upwellings. Within these mesoscale features, the animals use an area-restricted search behaviour to search for patches and swarms at finer scales. Using information on foraging site fidelity of individual birds, I show that differences in predictability at coarse scales are related to the distance and time spent foraging, and in particular to the specific types of foraging habitat. Some habitats appear to be more predictable than others: birds return consistently to the same coarse-scale sectors on shelf edges, whereas predictability is low in oceanic waters, even in frontal zones. Preliminary results on tropical species suggest that the environment here is less predictable in tropic than in temperate or polar zones. This review highlights that patchiness and predictability of marine resources are complex notions

  7. Seabirds of the Atlantic Frontier, north and west of Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, James B.; Pollock, Claire M.; Mavor, Roddy

    2001-05-01

    The marine environment of the Atlantic Frontier region north and west of Scotland, the focus of recent oil exploration, hosts internationally important concentrations of seabirds. Twenty-three species breed in colonies on the coasts and islands that rise from these waters and a further 25 species use them for feeding at various times of the year. The importance of these populations are set in an international context and their composition and occurrence in the deep waters of the Atlantic Frontier and adjacent continental shelf waters, as revealed by 20 years of at-sea surveys, is described. Deep waters are especially important for procellariiformes whereas shelf waters are important for all species, and overall seabird diversity is greater in shelf waters. The effects of oil pollution on seabirds can be severe, and although the effect of pollution in deep, oceanic waters might be minimal, prevailing currents and winds might result in greater impacts on more westerly, shelf waters. While the perceived threats from oil exploration in the Atlantic Frontier might be small the important seabird assemblage in the region should be considered in future exploitation of hydrocarbons here.

  8. Atlantic Offshore Seabird Dataset Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Several bureaus within the Department of Interior compiled available information from seabird observation datasets from the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf into a...

  9. Stress hormones link food availability and population processes in seabirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Piatt, J.F.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Catastrophic population declines in marine top predators in the northern Pacific have been hypothesized to result from nutritional stress affecting reproduction and survival of individuals. However, empirical evidence for food-related stress in wild animals is frequently lacking or inconclusive. We used a field endocrinology approach to measure stress, identify its causes, and examine a link between stress and population processes in the common murre Uria aalge. We tested the empirical relationship between variations in the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) and food abundance, reproduction, and persistence of individuals at declining and increasing colonies in Cook Inlet, Alaska, from 1996 to 2001. We found that CORT secretion in murres is independent of colony, reproductive stage effects, and gender of individuals, but is directly negatively correlated with abundance of their food. Baseline CORT reflected current food abundance, whereas acute stress-induced CORT reflected food abundance in the previous month. As food supply diminished, increased CORT secretion predicted a decrease in reproductive performance. At a declining colony, increased baseline levels of CORT during reproduction predicted disappearance of individuals from the population. Persistence of individuals in a growing colony was independent of CORT during reproduction. The obtained results support the hypothesis that nutritional stress during reproduction affects reproduction and survival in seabirds. This study provides the first unequivocal evidence for CORT secretion as a mechanistic link between fluctuations in food abundance and population processes in seabirds. ?? Inter-Research 2007.

  10. Cormorants as visitors in the Vorsø colony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Thomas; Vinas, Marta Mas; Gregersen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Like other seabirds Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis are known to prospect in potential breeding colonies during their first years of life before they settle to breed. Based on daily resightings of colour-ringed cormorants in the old Vorsø colony we examined the difference between...

  11. The role of seabirds of the Iles Eparses as reservoirs and disseminators of parasites and pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Karen D.; Dietrich, Muriel; Jaeger, Audrey; Wilkinson, David A.; Bastien, Matthieu; Lagadec, Erwan; Boulinier, Thierry; Pascalis, Hervé; Tortosa, Pablo; Le Corre, Matthieu; Dellagi, Koussay; Lebarbenchon, Camille

    2016-04-01

    The role of birds as reservoirs and disseminators of parasites and pathogens has received much attention over the past several years due to their high vagility. Seabirds are particularly interesting hosts in this respect. In addition to incredible long-distance movements during migration, foraging and prospecting, these birds are long-lived, site faithful and breed in dense aggregations in specific colony locations. These different characteristics can favor both the local maintenance and large-scale dissemination of parasites and pathogens. The Iles Eparses provide breeding and feeding grounds for more than 3 million breeding pairs of seabirds including at least 13 species. Breeding colonies on these islands are relatively undisturbed by human activities and represent natural metapopulations in which seabird population dynamics, movement and dispersal can be studied in relation to that of circulating parasites and pathogens. In this review, we summarize previous knowledge and recently-acquired data on the parasites and pathogens found in association with seabirds of the Iles Eparses. These studies have revealed the presence of a rich diversity of infectious agents (viruses, bacteria and parasites) carried by the birds and/or their local ectoparasites (ticks and louse flies). Many of these agents are widespread and found in other ecosystems confirming a role for seabirds in their large scale dissemination and maintenance. The heterogeneous distribution of parasites and infectious agents among islands and seabird species suggests that relatively independent metacommunities of interacting species may exist within the western Indian Ocean. In this context, we discuss how the patterns and determinants of seabird movements may alter parasite and pathogen circulation. We conclude by outlining key aspects for future research given the baseline data now available and current concerns in eco-epidemiology and biodiversity conservation.

  12. Seabird guano fertilizes Baltic Sea littoral food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Karine; Rothäusler, Eva; Syrjänen, Anneli; Yli-Renko, Maria; Jormalainen, Veijo

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment in coastal marine systems can have profound impacts on trophic networks. In the Baltic Sea, the population of Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) has increased nearly exponentially since the mid-1990 s, and colonies of these seabirds can be important sources of nitrogen enrichment for nearby benthic communities due to guano runoff. In this study we used stable isotope analyses and diet mixing models to determine the extent of nitrogen enrichment from cormorant colonies, as well as to examine any possible changes in herbivore diet preferences due to enrichment. We found significantly higher levels of δ(15)N in samples from colony islands than control islands for producers (the dominant macroalga Fucus vesiculosus, filamentous algae, and periphyton) and herbivores, as well as a positive correlation between enrichment and nest density in colony sites. We also found that enrichment increased over the breeding season of the cormorants, with higher enrichment in late summer than early summer. While the amount of total nitrogen did not differ between colony and control sites, the amount of guano-based nitrogen in algae was >50% in most sites, indicating high nitrogen enrichment from colonies. Herbivores (the isopod Idotea balthica and the gastropod Theodoxus fluviatilis) preferred feeding upon the dominant macroalga Fucus vesiculosus rather than on filamentous algae or periphyton in both control and colony, and there was a significant increase in periphyton consumption near colony sites. Overall, guano from cormorant colonies seems to have effects on both producers and herbivores, as well as the potential to modify algae-herbivore interactions. PMID:23593452

  13. When males are more inclined to stay at home :Insights into the partial migration of a pelagic seabird provided by geolocators and isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, Cristóbal; Granadeiro, José Pedro; Dias, Maria P.; Alonso, Hany Rafael de Drummond Ludovice Garcia; Catry, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Partial migration has never been studied in pelagic seabirds, but investigating old unresolved questions in new contexts can provide useful fresh insights. We used geolocators and stable isotopes to investigate this phenomenon in a migratory pelagic seabird, the Cory’s shearwater (Calonectris diomedea). Although most birds migrated to the southern hemisphere, 8.1% of studied birds (N = 172) remained close to the breeding colony (Selvagem Grande, Madeira, Portugal), foraging within th...

  14. How seabirds adapt to ocean processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, K.D.

    A general review is presented of the adaptations made by seabirds to their environments. Included in the discussion are behavioral, morphological and physiological adaptation to the ocean environment.

  15. Serological evidence for the circulation of flaviviruses in seabird populations of the western Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, A; Lecollinet, S; Beck, C; Bastien, M; Le Corre, M; Dellagi, K; Pascalis, H; Boulinier, T; Lebarbenchon, C

    2016-02-01

    Birds play a central role in the epidemiology of several flaviviruses of concern for public and veterinary health. Seabirds represent the most abundant and widespread avifauna in the western Indian Ocean and may play an important role as host reservoirs and spreaders of arthropod-borne pathogens such as flaviviruses. We report the results of a serological investigation based on blood samples collected from nine seabird species from seven islands in the Indian Ocean. Using a commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay directed against the prototypic West Nile flavivirus, antibodies against flaviviruses were detected in the serum of 47 of the 855 seabirds tested. They were detected in bird samples from three islands and from four bird species. Seroneutralization tests on adults and chicks suggested that great frigatebirds (Fregata minor) from Europa were infected by West Nile virus during their non-breeding period, and that Usutu virus probably circulated within bird colonies on Tromelin and on Juan de Nova. Real-time polymerase chain reactions performed on bird blood samples did not yield positive results precluding the genetic characterization of flavivirus using RNA sequencing. Our findings stress the need to further investigate flavivirus infections in arthropod vectors present in seabird colonies. PMID:26194365

  16. A century of ecosystem change: human and seabird impacts on plant species extirpation and invasion on islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lameris, Thomas K; Bennett, Joseph R; Blight, Louise K; Giesen, Marissa; Janssen, Michael H; Schaminée, Joop J H J; Arcese, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We used 116 years of floral and faunal records from Mandarte Island, British Columbia, Canada, to estimate the indirect effects of humans on plant communities via their effects on the population size of a surface-nesting, colonial seabird, the Glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens). Comparing current to historical records revealed 18 extirpations of native plant species (32% of species historically present), 31 exotic species introductions, and one case of exotic introduction followed by extirpation. Contemporary surveys indicated that native species cover declined dramatically from 1986 to 2006, coincident with the extirpation of 'old-growth' conifers. Because vegetation change co-occurred with an increasing gull population locally and regionally, we tested several predictions from the hypothesis that the presence and activities of seabirds help to explain those changes. Specifically, we predicted that on Mandarte and nearby islands with gull colonies, we should observe higher nutrient loading and exotic plant species richness and cover than on nearby islands without gull colonies, as a consequence of competitive dominance in species adapted to high soil nitrogen and trampling. As predicted, we found that native plant species cover and richness were lower, and exotic species cover and richness higher, on islands with versus without gull colonies. In addition, we found that soil carbon and nitrogen on islands with nesting gulls were positively related to soil depth and exotic species richness and cover across plots and islands. Our results support earlier suggestions that nesting seabirds can drive rapid change in insular plant communities by increasing nutrients and disturbing vegetation, and that human activities that affect seabird abundance may therefore indirectly affect plant community composition on islands with seabird colonies. PMID:27547531

  17. Estimating population size of a nocturnal burrow-nesting seabird using acoustic monitoring and habitat mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Oppel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Population size assessments for nocturnal burrow-nesting seabirds are logistically challenging because these species are active in colonies only during darkness and often nest on remote islands where manual inspections of breeding burrows are not feasible. Many seabird species are highly vocal, and recent technological innovations now make it possible to record and quantify vocal activity in seabird colonies. Here we test the hypothesis that remotely recorded vocal activity in Cory’s shearwater (Calonectris borealis breeding colonies in the North Atlantic increases with nest density, and combined this relationship with cliff habitat mapping to estimate the population size of Cory’s shearwaters on the island of Corvo (Azores. We deployed acoustic recording devices in 9 Cory’s shearwater colonies of known size to establish a relationship between vocal activity and local nest density (slope = 1.07, R2 = 0.86, p < 0.001. We used this relationship to predict the nest density in various cliff habitat types and produced a habitat map of breeding cliffs to extrapolate nest density around the island of Corvo. The mean predicted nest density on Corvo ranged from 6.6 (2.1–16.2 to 27.8 (19.5–36.4 nests/ha. Extrapolation of habitat-specific nest densities across the cliff area of Corvo resulted in an estimate of 6326 Cory’s shearwater nests (95% confidence interval: 3735–10,524. This population size estimate is similar to previous assessments, but is too imprecise to detect moderate changes in population size over time. While estimating absolute population size from acoustic recordings may not be sufficiently precise, the strong positive relationship that we found between local nest density and recorded calling rate indicates that passive acoustic monitoring may be useful to document relative changes in seabird populations over time.

  18. GPS tracking for mapping seabird mortality induced by light pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Airam; Rodríguez, Beneharo; Negro, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    Light pollution and its consequences on ecosystems are increasing worldwide. Knowledge on the threshold levels of light pollution at which significant ecological impacts emerge and the size of dark refuges to maintain natural nocturnal processes is crucial to mitigate its negative consequences. Seabird fledglings are attracted by artificial lights when they leave their nest at night, causing high mortality. We used GPS data-loggers to track the flights of Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea fledglings from nest-burrows to ground, and to evaluate the light pollution levels of overflown areas on Tenerife, Canary Islands, using nocturnal, high-resolution satellite imagery. Birds were grounded at locations closer than 16 km from colonies in their maiden flights, and 50% were rescued within a 3 km radius from the nest-site. Most birds left the nests in the first three hours after sunset. Rescue locations showed radiance values greater than colonies, and flight distance was positively related to light pollution levels. Breeding habitat alteration by light pollution was more severe for inland colonies. We provide scientific-based information to manage dark refuges facilitating that fledglings from inland colonies reach the sea successfully. We also offer methodological approaches useful for other critically threatened petrel species grounded by light pollution. PMID:26035530

  19. Personality, foraging and fitness consequences in a long lived seabird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha C Patrick

    Full Text Available While personality differences in animals are defined as consistent behavioural variation between individuals, the widely studied field of foraging specialisation in marine vertebrates has rarely been addressed within this framework. However there is much overlap between the two fields, both aiming to measure the causes and consequences of consistent individual behaviour. Here for the first time we use both a classic measure of personality, the response to a novel object, and an estimate of foraging strategy, derived from GPS data, to examine individual personality differences in black browed albatross and their consequences for fitness. First, we examine the repeatability of personality scores and link these to variation in foraging habitat. Bolder individuals forage nearer the colony, in shallower regions, whereas shyer birds travel further from the colony, and fed in deeper oceanic waters. Interestingly, neither personality score predicted a bird's overlap with fisheries. Second, we show that both personality scores are correlated with fitness consequences, dependent on sex and year quality. Our data suggest that shyer males and bolder females have higher fitness, but the strength of this relationship depends on year quality. Females who forage further from the colony have higher breeding success in poor quality years, whereas males foraging close to the colony always have higher fitness. Together these results highlight the potential importance of personality variation in seabirds and that the fitness consequences of boldness and foraging strategy may be highly sex dependent.

  20. Tufted puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) respond to predation danger during colony approach flights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Addison, B.; Ydenberg, R.C.; Smith, B.D.

    2007-01-01

    In spite of their putative importance in the evolution of certain traits (e.g., nocturnality, coloniality, cliff nesting), the effects of aerial predators on behavior of adult seabirds at colonies have been poorly investigated. We hypothesized that Tufted Puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) respond to dan

  1. Evidence that tufted puffins Fratercula cirrhata use colony overflights to reduce kleptoparasitism risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blackburn, G.S.; Hipfner, J.M.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Predation, foraging and mating costs are critical factors shaping life histories. Among colonial seabirds, colony overflights may enhance foraging or mating success, or diminish the risk of predation and kleptoparasitism. The latter possibility is difficult to test because low predation or kleptopar

  2. Responses to human intruders by birds nesting in colonies: Experimental results and management guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Colonies of nesting wading birds and seabirds were studied at coastal sites in Virginia and North Carolina to determine distances at which birds flushed in response to human intrusion. There were few statistically significant relationships between flushing distances and colony size. Similarly, there were few differences between responses during incubation compared to post-hatching periods.

  3. Will the Effects of Sea-Level Rise Create Ecological Traps for Pacific Island Seabirds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Courtot, Karen N.; Berkowitz, Paul; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Moore, Janet; Flint, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    More than 18 million seabirds nest on 58 Pacific islands protected within vast U.S. Marine National Monuments (1.9 million km2). However, most of these seabird colonies are on low-elevation islands and sea-level rise (SLR) and accompanying high-water perturbations are predicted to escalate with climate change. To understand how SLR may impact protected islands and insular biodiversity, we modeled inundation and wave-driven flooding of a globally important seabird rookery in the subtropical Pacific. We acquired new high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) and used the Delft3D wave model and ArcGIS to model wave heights and inundation for a range of SLR scenarios (+0.5, +1.0, +1.5, and +2.0 m) at Midway Atoll. Next, we classified vegetation to delineate habitat exposure to inundation and identified how breeding phenology, colony synchrony, and life history traits affect species-specific sensitivity. We identified 3 of 13 species as highly vulnerable to SLR in the Hawaiian Islands and quantified their atoll-wide distribution (Laysan albatross, Phoebastria immutabilis; black-footed albatross, P. nigripes; and Bonin petrel, Pterodroma hypoleuca). Our models of wave-driven flooding forecast nest losses up to 10% greater than passive inundation models at +1.0 m SLR. At projections of + 2.0 m SLR, approximately 60% of albatross and 44% of Bonin petrel nests were overwashed displacing more than 616,400 breeding albatrosses and petrels. Habitat loss due to passive SLR may decrease the carrying capacity of some islands to support seabird colonies, while sudden high-water events directly reduce survival and reproduction. This is the first study to simulate wave-driven flooding and the combined impacts of SLR, groundwater rise, and storm waves on seabird colonies. Our results highlight the need for early climate change planning and restoration of higher elevation seabird refugia to prevent low-lying protected islands from becoming ecological traps in the face of rising

  4. Will the Effects of Sea-Level Rise Create Ecological Traps for Pacific Island Seabirds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle H Reynolds

    Full Text Available More than 18 million seabirds nest on 58 Pacific islands protected within vast U.S. Marine National Monuments (1.9 million km2. However, most of these seabird colonies are on low-elevation islands and sea-level rise (SLR and accompanying high-water perturbations are predicted to escalate with climate change. To understand how SLR may impact protected islands and insular biodiversity, we modeled inundation and wave-driven flooding of a globally important seabird rookery in the subtropical Pacific. We acquired new high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs and used the Delft3D wave model and ArcGIS to model wave heights and inundation for a range of SLR scenarios (+0.5, +1.0, +1.5, and +2.0 m at Midway Atoll. Next, we classified vegetation to delineate habitat exposure to inundation and identified how breeding phenology, colony synchrony, and life history traits affect species-specific sensitivity. We identified 3 of 13 species as highly vulnerable to SLR in the Hawaiian Islands and quantified their atoll-wide distribution (Laysan albatross, Phoebastria immutabilis; black-footed albatross, P. nigripes; and Bonin petrel, Pterodroma hypoleuca. Our models of wave-driven flooding forecast nest losses up to 10% greater than passive inundation models at +1.0 m SLR. At projections of + 2.0 m SLR, approximately 60% of albatross and 44% of Bonin petrel nests were overwashed displacing more than 616,400 breeding albatrosses and petrels. Habitat loss due to passive SLR may decrease the carrying capacity of some islands to support seabird colonies, while sudden high-water events directly reduce survival and reproduction. This is the first study to simulate wave-driven flooding and the combined impacts of SLR, groundwater rise, and storm waves on seabird colonies. Our results highlight the need for early climate change planning and restoration of higher elevation seabird refugia to prevent low-lying protected islands from becoming ecological traps in the

  5. Eiders as long distance connectors in Arctic networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Stine; Hindberg, Claus; Olesen, Jens Mogens;

    Seabirds such as the auk (Alle alle) and the northern common eider (Somateriae mollissima borealis) are and have been an important resource and food item for the indigenous people of the Arctic. Due to anthropogenic pressures such as hunting, populations of the auk, the common eider, and the king...

  6. Colonial today

    OpenAIRE

    Agarez, Ricardo; Beeckmans, Luce; Herbelin, Caroline; Lagae, Johan; Lee, Rachel; Matos, Madalena Cunha; Murray, Noëleen; van Roosmalen, Pauline K.M.; Volait, Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    Across the world, colonialism produced a substantial built legacy that in many cases continues to mark post-colonial urban landscapes. This theme issue addresses the ambivalences surrounding the position of colonial architecture as heritage in the present day, questioning the common assumption that architecture produced under colonial rule constitutes, by definition, a “dissonant heritage”. Presenting cases that highlight the myriad ways in which colonial architecture is re-used, re-appropria...

  7. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Bird Nesting Colonies Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_nests_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seabird and wading bird nesting colonies in coastal Louisiana. Vector points in this data set...

  8. Hotspots in cold seas: The composition, distribution, and abundance of marine birds in the North American Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sarah N. P.; Gjerdrum, Carina; Morgan, Ken H.; Mallory, Mark L.

    2014-03-01

    The distribution and thickness of sea ice in the Arctic is changing rapidly, resulting in changes to Arctic marine ecosystems. Seabirds are widely regarded as indicators of marine environmental change, and understanding their distribution patterns can serve as a tool to monitor and elucidate biological changes in the Arctic seas. We examined the at-sea distribution of seabirds in the North American Arctic in July and August, 2007-2012, and marine areas of high density were identified based on bird densities for four foraging guilds. Short-tailed shearwaters (Puffinus tenuirostris) were the most abundant species observed. Northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis), thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia), and dovekies (Alle alle) were also sighted in large numbers. Few birds were sighted between Dolphin and Union Strait and King William Island. Areas of high density over multiple years were found throughout the entire western portion of the study area (Bering Sea, Bering Strait, and Chukchi Sea), Lancaster Sound, Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, and the low Arctic waters off Newfoundland. These waters are characterized by high primary productivity. This study is the first to document the marine distribution of seabirds across the entire North American Arctic within the same time period, providing a critical baseline for monitoring the distribution and abundance of Arctic seabirds in a changing Arctic seascape.

  9. Variation in bird's originating nitrogen availability limits High Arctic tundra development over last 2000 year (Hornsund, Svalbard)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Wojtuń, Bronisław; Hua, Quan; Richter, Dorota; Jakubas, Dariusz; Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra

    2016-04-01

    Arctic and subarctic regions play important roles in the global carbon balance. However, nitrogen (N) deficiency is a major constraint for organic carbon sequestration in the High Arctic. Hence, the identification of the relative contributions from different N-sources is critical for understanding the constraints that limit tundra growth. The stable nitrogen composition of the three main N-sources and numerous plants were analyzed in ten tundra types (including those influenced by seabirds) in the Fuglebekken catchment (Hornsund, Svalbard, 77°N 15°E). The percentage of the total tundra N-pool provided by seabirds' feces (from planktivorous colonially breeding little auks Alle alle), ranged from 0-21% in Patterned-ground tundra to 100% in Ornithocoprophilous tundra. The total N-pool utilized by tundra plants in the studied catchment originated from birds (36%), atmospheric deposition (38%), and N2-fixation (26%). The results clearly show that N-pool in the tundra is significantly supplemented by nesting seabirds. Thus, if they experienced climate change induced substantial negative environmental pressure, it would adversely influence the tundra N-budget (Skrzypek et al. 2015). The growth rates and the sediment thickness (bird-N rich tundra with very diverse ages ranging from 235 to 2300 cal BP and thickness up to 110 cm. The growth rates for this tundra (62 cm core, 18 AMS 14C dates) were high (1.5-3.0 mm/yr) between 1568 and 1804 AD and then substantially declined for the period between 1804 and 1929 AD (0.2 mm/yr). These findings deliver an additional argument, that the organic matter accumulation is driven not only directly by climatic conditions but also by birds' contribution to the tundra N-pool. Skrzypek G, Wojtuń B, Richter D, Jakubas D, Wojczulanis-Jakubas K, Samecka-Cymerman A, 2015. Diversification of nitrogen sources in various tundra vegetation types in the high Arctic. PLoS ONE 10(9): e0136536.

  10. North Pacific Pelagic Seabird Database (NPPSD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The North Pacific Pelagic Seabird Database (NPPSD) was created in 2005 to consolidate data on the oceanic distribution of marine bird species in the North Pacific....

  11. Seabird mortality caused by Japanese gillnet fisheries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The meeting covered three aspects: 1 review of data collected by the Fishery Agency on gillnetting of seabirds, 2 U.S. participation as observers aboard Japanese...

  12. Seabirds and climate: knowledge, pitfalls and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eOro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As a physical driver of ecosystem functioning, it is not surprising that climate influences seabird demography and population dynamics, generally by affecting food availability. However, if we zoom in ecologically, seabirds are in fact very heterogeneous, ranging in size from very small to very large species (with a difference of more than two orders of magnitude in body weight, from planktivorous forms to predators of large fish and squid, from benthic to pelagic, from species with small foraging ranges to species feeding throughout the whole circumpolar region, and from resident species (at a spatial mesoscale to trans-equatorial migrating seabirds that travel large distances across several oceanographic systems. Due to this high variability and the difficulty in obtaining direct reliable estimates of long-term food availability, global climatic indices have been extensively used in studying seabird demography and population dynamics. However, the use made by researchers of these indices has certain conceptual and methodological pitfalls, which I shall address in this review. Other factors, such as anthropogenic impacts (including oil-spills and interaction with fisheries, may further alter or confound the association between climate and seabird demography. These pitfalls and environmental noise, together with the inability to incorporate resilience, may bias our predictions regarding the future impact of global warming on seabirds, many of which have vulnerable populations.

  13. Tufted puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) respond to predation danger during colony approach flights

    OpenAIRE

    Addison, B.; Ydenberg, R.C.; Smith, B. D.

    2007-01-01

    In spite of their putative importance in the evolution of certain traits (e.g., nocturnality, coloniality, cliff nesting), the effects of aerial predators on behavior of adult seabirds at colonies have been poorly investigated. We hypothesized that Tufted Puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) respond to danger posed by aerial predators by modifying their behavior to mitigate danger. We observed Tufted Puffins making repeated colony fly-ins and departures and characterized (1) the timing of this behav...

  14. Population Regulation in Magellanic Penguins: What Determines Changes in Colony Size?

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana M Pozzi; Pablo García Borboroglu; P. Dee Boersma; Miguel A Pascual

    2015-01-01

    Seabirds are often studied at individual colonies, but the confounding effects of emigration and mortality processes in open populations may lead to inappropriate conclusions on the mechanisms underlying population changes. Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) colonies of variable population sizes are distributed along the Argentine coastline. In recent decades, several population and distributional changes have occurred, with some colonies declining and others newly established or in...

  15. Varying foraging patterns in response to competition? A multicolony approach in a generalist seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, Anna-Marie; Mendel, Bettina; Voigt, Christian C; Garthe, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    Reducing resource competition is a crucial requirement for colonial seabirds to ensure adequate self- and chick-provisioning during breeding season. Spatial segregation is a common avoidance strategy among and within species from neighboring breeding colonies. We determined whether the foraging behaviors of incubating lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus) differed between six colonies varying in size and distance to mainland, and whether any differences could be related to the foraging habitats visited. Seventy-nine incubating individuals from six study colonies along the German North Sea coast were equipped with GPS data loggers in multiple years. Dietary information was gained by sampling food pellets, and blood samples were taken for stable isotope analyses. Foraging patterns clearly differed among and within colonies. Foraging range increased with increasing colony size and decreased with increasing colony distance from the mainland, although the latter might be due to the inclusion of the only offshore colony. Gulls from larger colonies with consequently greater density-dependent competition were more likely to forage at land instead of at sea. The diets of the gulls from the colonies furthest from each other differed, while the diets from the other colonies overlapped with each other. The spatial segregation and dietary similarities suggest that lesser black-backed gulls foraged at different sites and utilized two main habitat types, although these were similar across foraging areas for all colonies except the single offshore island. The avoidance of intraspecific competition results in colony-specific foraging patterns, potentially causing more intensive utilization of terrestrial foraging sites, which may offer more predictable and easily available foraging compared with the marine environment. PMID:26941940

  16. Characterizing exposure and potential impacts of contaminants on seabirds nesting at South San Diego Bay Unit of the San Diego National Wildlife Refuge (Salt Works, San Diego Bay)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2005, a two-year USFWS study (1261-1N74) was initiated to characterize contaminant exposure by seabirds that nest in colonies at the South Bay Salt Works, within...

  17. Seabird mortality in the Japanese salmon mothership fishery, summer 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Recent studies have demonstrated a serious conflict between certain kinds of fishing gear, particularly gillnets, and seabirds. A study of seabird mortality in the...

  18. AFSC/REFM: Seabird Necropsy dataset of North Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The seabird necropsy dataset contains information on seabird specimens that were collected under salvage and scientific collection permits primarily by...

  19. Reproductive ecology of seabirds at Hinchinbrook Island and a census of seabirds at selected sites in Prince William Sound, 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the reproductive ecology of seabirds at Hinchinbrook Island and a census of seabirds at selected sites in Prince William Sound during 1977. The...

  20. The impact of seabirds on the content of various forms of phosphorus in organic soils of the Bellsund coast, western Spitsbergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ziółek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In areas isolated from direct human impact, such as Spitsbergen, environmental changes result mainly from natural processes, which include nutrient enrichment caused by seabirds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the degree of nutrient enrichment of organic soils fertilized by seabirds, indicated by the phosphorus content and transformations. This study encompassed two areas on the Bellsund coast. A profile without the influence of seabirds and profiles located at different distances from the colony of birds (0–150 m were analysed. A sequential phosphorus fractionation method was used, and three inorganic P (Pi fractions were obtained as a result: Pi-L (labile P, Pi-FeAl (P associated with Fe and Al and Pi-CaMg (P associated with Ca and Mg; and two fractions of organic P (Po: Po-HuAc (P associated with humic acids and Po-Res (residual P. Polar organic soils not subjected to the direct seabird impact contained amounts of total phosphorus (Pt similar to organic soils in other climate zones. The presence of the seabird colony increased the Pt content and changed the distribution between the ratio of organic and inorganic P fractions. Within the inorganic P fraction, the Pi–CaMg component was dominant and its distribution was modified by the fertilizing effect of bird droppings. The nutrient enrichment of organic soils by birds in the polar zone was therefore very strong.

  1. Olfaction and topography, but not magnetic cues, control navigation in a pelagic seabird: displacements with shearwaters in the Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Enrica Pollonara; Paolo Luschi; Tim Guilford; Martin Wikelski; Francesco Bonadonna; Anna Gagliardo

    2015-01-01

    Pelagic seabirds wander the open oceans then return accurately to their habitual nest-sites. We investigated the effects of sensory manipulation on oceanic navigation in Scopoli's shearwaters (Calonectris diomedea) breeding at Pianosa island (Italy), by displacing them 400 km from their colony and tracking them. A recent experiment on Atlantic shearwaters (Cory's shearwater, Calonectris borealis) breeding in the Azores indicated a crucial role of olfaction over the open ocean, but left open t...

  2. Mapping seabird sensitivity to offshore wind farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Gareth; Trinder, Mark; Furness, Bob; Banks, Alex N; Caldow, Richard W G; Hume, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    We present a Geographic Information System (GIS) tool, SeaMaST (Seabird Mapping and Sensitivity Tool), to provide evidence on the use of sea areas by seabirds and inshore waterbirds in English territorial waters, mapping their relative sensitivity to offshore wind farms. SeaMaST is a freely available evidence source for use by all connected to the offshore wind industry and will assist statutory agencies in assessing potential risks to seabird populations from planned developments. Data were compiled from offshore boat and aerial observer surveys spanning the period 1979-2012. The data were analysed using distance analysis and Density Surface Modelling to produce predicted bird densities across a grid covering English territorial waters at a resolution of 3 km×3 km. Coefficients of Variation were estimated for each grid cell density, as an indication of confidence in predictions. Offshore wind farm sensitivity scores were compiled for seabird species using English territorial waters. The comparative risks to each species of collision with turbines and displacement from operational turbines were reviewed and scored separately, and the scores were multiplied by the bird density estimates to produce relative sensitivity maps. The sensitivity maps reflected well the amassed distributions of the most sensitive species. SeaMaST is an important new tool for assessing potential impacts on seabird populations from offshore development at a time when multiple large areas of development are proposed which overlap with many seabird species' ranges. It will inform marine spatial planning as well as identifying priority areas of sea usage by marine birds. Example SeaMaST outputs are presented. PMID:25210739

  3. Mapping seabird sensitivity to offshore wind farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Bradbury

    Full Text Available We present a Geographic Information System (GIS tool, SeaMaST (Seabird Mapping and Sensitivity Tool, to provide evidence on the use of sea areas by seabirds and inshore waterbirds in English territorial waters, mapping their relative sensitivity to offshore wind farms. SeaMaST is a freely available evidence source for use by all connected to the offshore wind industry and will assist statutory agencies in assessing potential risks to seabird populations from planned developments. Data were compiled from offshore boat and aerial observer surveys spanning the period 1979-2012. The data were analysed using distance analysis and Density Surface Modelling to produce predicted bird densities across a grid covering English territorial waters at a resolution of 3 km×3 km. Coefficients of Variation were estimated for each grid cell density, as an indication of confidence in predictions. Offshore wind farm sensitivity scores were compiled for seabird species using English territorial waters. The comparative risks to each species of collision with turbines and displacement from operational turbines were reviewed and scored separately, and the scores were multiplied by the bird density estimates to produce relative sensitivity maps. The sensitivity maps reflected well the amassed distributions of the most sensitive species. SeaMaST is an important new tool for assessing potential impacts on seabird populations from offshore development at a time when multiple large areas of development are proposed which overlap with many seabird species' ranges. It will inform marine spatial planning as well as identifying priority areas of sea usage by marine birds. Example SeaMaST outputs are presented.

  4. Masterplan Wind - Seabirds Cruise Report February 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Bemmelen, van, R.S.A.; Geelhoed, S.C.V.

    2011-01-01

    This cruise report presents the seabird and marine mammal data collected during the 11th ‘fish egg and fish larvae’ survey on the Dutch Continental Shelf, in a series of 12 monthly surveys from April 2010 till March 2011.

  5. Care of oiled seabirds: A veterinary perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary effects of oil contamination on seabirds include hypothermia, dehydration, gastrointestinal problems, pneumonia, and hemolytic anemia. Other direct effects include skin and corneal irritation as well as an impact on reproductive organs. Secondary problem related to prolonged captive husbandry include various infectious diseases, pododermatitis, joint swellings, and keel lesions. Current methods of prevention and treatment of these effects, including nutritional support, are presented

  6. Masterplan Wind - Seabirds Cruise Report January 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, R.H.; Witte, L.

    2011-01-01

    This cruise report presents the seabird and marine mammal data collected during the 10th ‘fish egg and fish larvae’ survey on the Dutch Continental Shelf, in a series of 12 monthly surveys from April 2010 till March 2011.

  7. Seabirds, gyres and global trends in plastic pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulmars are effective biological indicators of the abundance of floating plastic marine debris. Long-term data reveal high plastic abundance in the southern North Sea, gradually decreasing to the north at increasing distance from population centres, with lowest levels in high-arctic waters. Since the 1980s, pre-production plastic pellets in North Sea fulmars have decreased by ∼75%, while user plastics varied without a strong overall change. Similar trends were found in net-collected floating plastic debris in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre, with a ∼75% decrease in plastic pellets and no obvious trend in user plastic. The decreases in pellets suggest that changes in litter input are rapidly visible in the environment not only close to presumed sources, but also far from land. Floating plastic debris is rapidly “lost” from the ocean surface to other as-yet undetermined sinks in the marine environment. - Highlights: • Seabirds are effective biological monitors of floating plastic marine debris. • Plastics in fulmar stomachs and in the North Atlantic gyre show similar trends. • Pre-production plastic pellets show strong decreases in fulmars and in the gyre. • These data show that floating plastics rapidly disappear from the ocean surface. - Long term studies give evidence that reduced input of plastic debris into the ocean becomes rapidly visible. Floating plastics disappear to as-yet undetermined sinks

  8. A changing distribution of seabirds in South Africa – the possible impact of climate and its consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert James Minchin Crawford

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the southern Benguela ecosystem off South Africa, there were recent shifts to the south and east in the distributions of three forage resources (anchovy, sardine, rock lobster, which probably were influenced by environmental change although fishing too may have played a part. In this study, we review information on trends in distributions and numbers of eight seabirds breeding in South Africa. For five species that feed predominantly on anchovy, sardine or rock lobster, their populations off northwest South Africa decreased markedly. For three of these species, which exhibit behavioural inertia and have restricted foraging ranges when breeding (African penguin, Cape cormorant, bank cormorant, there were large decreases in their overall populations in South Africa. Conversely, for two showing more plasticity and able to range over wide areas or move between breeding localities (Cape gannet, swift tern there were increases. It is thought that movement of forage resources away from the northern islands led to a mismatch in the distributions of breeding localities and prey of dependent seabirds off western South Africa and to attempts by several species to establish colonies on the southern mainland closer to food resources. There also were shifts to the south and east in the distributions of three seabirds that do not compete with fisheries for prey (crowned cormorant, white-breasted cormorant, kelp gull, suggesting some environmental forcing, but decreases of these species off northwest South Africa were less severe and populations in South Africa remained stable or increased in the long term. It is likely, because many fishing plants are located in the northwest, that there was increased competition between seabirds and fisheries for prey as forage resources moved south and east. Potential interventions to mitigate the adverse impacts of distributional changes for seabirds include allocations of allowable catches of shared forage resources at

  9. Seabird modulations of isotopic nitrogen on islands

    OpenAIRE

    Caut, Stéphane; Angulo, Elena; Pisanu, Beinot; Ruffino, Lise; Faulquier, Lucie; Lorvelec, Olivier; Chapuis, Jean-Louis; Pascal, Michel; Vidal, Éric; Courchamp, Franck

    2012-01-01

    The transport of nutrients by migratory animals across ecosystem boundaries can significantly enrich recipient food webs, thereby shaping the ecosystems' structure and function. To illustrate the potential role of islands in enabling the transfer of matter across ecosystem boundaries to be gauged, we investigated the influence of seabirds on nitrogen input on islands. Basing our study on four widely differing islands in terms of their biogeography and ecological characteristics, sampled at di...

  10. Factors affecting the foraging behaviour of the European shag: implications for seabird tracking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soanes, L M; Arnould, J P Y; Dodd, S G; Milligan, G; Green, J A

    2014-01-01

    Seabird tracking has become an ever more popular tool to aid environmental procedures such as the designation of marine protected areas and environmental impact assessments. However, samples used are usually small and little consideration is given to experimental design and sampling protocol. European shags Phalacrocorax aristotelis were tracked using GPS technology over three breeding seasons and the following foraging trip characteristics: trip duration, trip distance, maximum distance travelled from the colony, size of area used and direction travelled from colony were determined for each foraging trip. The effect of sex, year of study, breeding site, number and age of chicks and the timing of tracking on foraging behaviour were investigated using a General Estimation Equation model. A range of sampling scenarios reflecting likely field sampling were also tested to compare how foraging behaviour differed depending on composition of the sample of birds tracked. Trip distance, trip duration, maximum distance travelled and size of area used were all significantly affected by the breeding site, and the number of chicks a tracked adult was raising. The effect of sex was also seen when examining trip distance, trip duration and the maximum distance travelled. The direction travelled on a foraging trip was also significantly affected by breeding site. This study highlights the importance of sampling regime and the influence that year, sex, age, number of chicks and breeding site can have on the foraging trip characteristics for this coastal feeding seabird. Given the logistical and financial constraints in tracking large numbers of individuals, this study identifies the need for researchers to consider the composition of their study sample to ensure any identified foraging areas are as representative as possible of the whole colony's foraging area. PMID:24882884

  11. Arctic Newcomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki

    2013-01-01

    Interest in the Arctic region and its economic potential in Japan, South Korea and Singapore was slow to develop but is now rapidly growing. All three countries have in recent years accelerated their engagement with Arctic states, laying the institutional frameworks needed to better understand an...

  12. Mercury bioaccumulation and biomagnification in a small Arctic polynya ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayden, Meredith G., E-mail: meredith.clayden@gmail.com [Canadian Rivers Institute and Biology Department, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada); Arsenault, Lilianne M. [Canadian Rivers Institute and Biology Department, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada); Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 (Canada); Department of Biology, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 (Canada); Kidd, Karen A. [Canadian Rivers Institute and Biology Department, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada); O' Driscoll, Nelson J. [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 (Canada); Mallory, Mark L. [Department of Biology, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Recurring polynyas are important areas of biological productivity and feeding grounds for seabirds and mammals in the Arctic marine environment. In this study, we examined food web structure (using carbon and nitrogen isotopes, δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N) and mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation and biomagnification in a small recurring polynya ecosystem near Nasaruvaalik Island (Nunavut, Canada). Methyl Hg (MeHg) concentrations increased by more than 50-fold from copepods (Calanus hyperboreus) to Arctic terns (Sterna paradisaea), the abundant predators at this site. The biomagnification of MeHg through members of the food web – using the slope of log MeHg versus δ{sup 15}N – was 0.157 from copepods (C. hyperboreus) to fish. This slope was higher (0.267) when seabird chicks were included in the analyses. Collectively, our results indicate that MeHg biomagnification is occurring in this small polynya and that its trophic transfer is at the lower end of the range of estimates from other Arctic marine ecosystems. In addition, we measured Hg concentrations in some poorly studied members of Arctic marine food webs [e.g. Arctic alligatorfish (Ulcina olrikii) and jellyfish, Medusozoa], and found that MeHg concentrations in jellyfish were lower than expected given their trophic position. Overall, these findings provide fundamental information about food web structure and mercury contamination in a small Arctic polynya, which will inform future research in such ecosystems and provide a baseline against which to assess changes over time resulting from environmental disturbance. - Highlights: • Polynyas are recurring sites of open water in polar marine areas • Mercury (Hg) biomagnification was studied in a small polynya near Nasaruvaalik Island, NU, Canada • Hg biomagnification estimates for invertebrates to fish were low compared to other Arctic systems • Factors underlying this result are unknown but may relate to primary productivity in small polynyas.

  13. Mercury bioaccumulation and biomagnification in a small Arctic polynya ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recurring polynyas are important areas of biological productivity and feeding grounds for seabirds and mammals in the Arctic marine environment. In this study, we examined food web structure (using carbon and nitrogen isotopes, δ13C and δ15N) and mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation and biomagnification in a small recurring polynya ecosystem near Nasaruvaalik Island (Nunavut, Canada). Methyl Hg (MeHg) concentrations increased by more than 50-fold from copepods (Calanus hyperboreus) to Arctic terns (Sterna paradisaea), the abundant predators at this site. The biomagnification of MeHg through members of the food web – using the slope of log MeHg versus δ15N – was 0.157 from copepods (C. hyperboreus) to fish. This slope was higher (0.267) when seabird chicks were included in the analyses. Collectively, our results indicate that MeHg biomagnification is occurring in this small polynya and that its trophic transfer is at the lower end of the range of estimates from other Arctic marine ecosystems. In addition, we measured Hg concentrations in some poorly studied members of Arctic marine food webs [e.g. Arctic alligatorfish (Ulcina olrikii) and jellyfish, Medusozoa], and found that MeHg concentrations in jellyfish were lower than expected given their trophic position. Overall, these findings provide fundamental information about food web structure and mercury contamination in a small Arctic polynya, which will inform future research in such ecosystems and provide a baseline against which to assess changes over time resulting from environmental disturbance. - Highlights: • Polynyas are recurring sites of open water in polar marine areas • Mercury (Hg) biomagnification was studied in a small polynya near Nasaruvaalik Island, NU, Canada • Hg biomagnification estimates for invertebrates to fish were low compared to other Arctic systems • Factors underlying this result are unknown but may relate to primary productivity in small polynyas

  14. Breeding distribution and abundance of seabirds on islands off north-central Chile Distribución reproductiva y abundancia de aves marinas en islas del norte y centro de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    ALEJANDRO SIMEONE; GUILLERMO LARA-JORQUERA; MARIANO BERNAL; STEFAN GARTHE; FELIPE SEPÚLVEDA; ROBERTO VILLABLANCA; URSULA ELLENBERG; MACARENA CONTRERAS; JULIETA MUÑOZ; TAMARA PINCE

    2003-01-01

    Between 1999 and 2003 we collected information on the breeding distribution and abundance of 12 seabird species occurring on nine islands off the coasts of north and central Chile (27°-33°S). The Peruvian booby Sula variegata was the most abundant seabird with a breeding population of ca. 18,000 pairs concentrated in two islands, followed by the Humboldt penguin Spheniscus humboldti with ca. 9,000 pairs, the largest colony being at Chañaral Island with ca. 7,000 pairs. Kelp gulls Larus domini...

  15. Arctic Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, John; Baggeroer, Arthur; Mikhalevsky, Peter; Munk, Walter; Sagen, Hanne; Vernon, Frank; Worcester, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The dramatic reduction of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean will increase human activities in the coming years. This will be driven by increased demand for energy and the marine resources of an Arctic Ocean more accessible to ships. Oil and gas exploration, fisheries, mineral extraction, marine transportation, research and development, tourism and search and rescue will increase the pressure on the vulnerable Arctic environment. Synoptic in-situ year-round observational technologies are needed to monitor and forecast changes in the Arctic atmosphere-ice-ocean system at daily, seasonal, annual and decadal scales to inform and enable sustainable development and enforcement of international Arctic agreements and treaties, while protecting this critical environment. This paper will discuss multipurpose acoustic networks, including subsea cable components, in the Arctic. These networks provide communication, power, underwater and under-ice navigation, passive monitoring of ambient sound (ice, seismic, biologic and anthropogenic), and acoustic remote sensing (tomography and thermometry), supporting and complementing data collection from platforms, moorings and autonomous vehicles. This paper supports the development and implementation of regional to basin-wide acoustic networks as an integral component of a multidisciplinary, in situ Arctic Ocean Observatory.

  16. Spatial variation in age structure among colonies of a marine snake: the influence of ectothermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Xavier; Brischoux, François; Pinaud, David; Michel, Catherine Louise; Clobert, Jean; Shine, Richard; Fauvel, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Several tetrapod lineages that have evolved to exploit marine environments (e.g. seals, seabirds, sea kraits) continue to rely upon land for reproduction and, thus, form dense colonies on suitable islands. In birds and mammals (endotherms), the offspring cannot survive without their parents. Terrestrial colonies contain all age classes. In reptiles (ectotherms), this constraint is relaxed, because offspring are independent from birth. Hence, each age class has the potential to select sites with characteristics that favour them. Our studies of sea snakes (sea kraits) in the lagoon of New Caledonia reveal marked spatial heterogeneity in age structure among colonies. Sea krait colonies exhibit the endothermic 'seal-seabird' pattern (mixed-age classes within populations) only where the lagoon is narrow. Where the lagoon is wide, most snake colonies are comprised primarily of a single age cohort. Nurseries are located near the coast, adult colonies offshore and mixed colonies in-between. We suggest that ectothermy allows individuals to utilize habitats that are best suited to their own ecological requirements, a flexibility not available to endothermic marine taxa with obligate parental care. PMID:25785869

  17. What are the toxicological effects of mercury in Arctic biota?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Basu, Niladri; Braune, Birgit; O'Hara, Todd; Letcher, Robert J; Scheuhammer, Tony; Andersen, Magnus; Andreasen, Claus; Andriashek, Dennis; Asmund, Gert; Aubail, Aurore; Baagøe, Hans; Born, Erik W; Chan, Hing M; Derocher, Andrew E; Grandjean, Philippe; Knott, Katrina; Kirkegaard, Maja; Krey, Anke; Lunn, Nick; Messier, Francoise; Obbard, Marty; Olsen, Morten T; Ostertag, Sonja; Peacock, Elizabeth; Renzoni, Aristeo; Rigét, Frank F; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Stern, Gary; Stirling, Ian; Taylor, Mitch; Wiig, Øystein; Wilson, Simon; Aars, Jon

    2013-01-15

    This review critically evaluates the available mercury (Hg) data in Arctic marine biota and the Inuit population against toxicity threshold values. In particular marine top predators exhibit concentrations of mercury in their tissues and organs that are believed to exceed thresholds for biological effects. Species whose concentrations exceed threshold values include the polar bears (Ursus maritimus), beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), pilot whale (Globicephala melas), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), a few seabird species, and landlocked Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). Toothed whales appear to be one of the most vulnerable groups, with high concentrations of mercury recorded in brain tissue with associated signs of neurochemical effects. Evidence of increasing concentrations in mercury in some biota in Arctic Canada and Greenland is therefore a concern with respect to ecosystem health. PMID:23231888

  18. Mate replacement entails a fitness cost for a socially monogamous seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismar, Stefanie M. H.; Daniel, Claire; Stephenson, Brent M.; Hauber, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Studies of the selective advantages of divorce in socially monogamous bird species have unravelled extensive variation among different lineages with diverse ecologies. We quantified the reproductive correlates of mate retention, mate loss and divorce in a highly philopatric, colonially breeding biparental seabird, the Australasian gannet Morus serrator. Estimates of annual divorce rates varied between 40-43% for M. serrator and were high in comparison with both the closely related Morus bassanus and the range of divorce rates reported across monogamous avian breeding systems. Mate retention across seasons was related to consistently higher reproductive success compared with mate replacement, while divorce per se contributed significantly to lower reproductive output only in one of two breeding seasons. Prior reproductive success was not predictive of mate replacement overall or divorce in particular. These patterns are in accordance with the musical chairs hypothesis of adaptive divorce theory, which operates in systems characterised by asynchronous territorial establishment.

  19. Seabird abundance and behavior on Cape Peirce, Alaska, 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the seabird abundance and behavior on Cape Peirce on Togiak National Wildlife Refuge. Methods and results are discussed. Species covered include...

  20. Mercury levels in seabirds in the Gulf of Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We conducted a pilot study to screen mercury Hg levels in Gulf of Maine seabirds in an effort to determine which species are most at risk, are the most appropriate...

  1. Census of seabirds nesting on the Triplets Islands, June 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Tufted puffins were the most abundant seabirds, estimated at 68,000 breeding birds. Three nocturnal species were identified: Forktailed StormPetrel, Leachs...

  2. Effects of human disturbance on cave-nesting seabirds: the case of the storm petrel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatini, Cecilia; Albores-Barajas, Yuri V.; Tagliavia, Marcello; Massa, Bruno; Fusani, Leonida; Canoine, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    Human disturbance is an important stress factor with potentially strong impact on breeding activity in animals. The consequences can be extinction of the breeding population, because disturbed animals might desert their breeding area and find no suitable substitute area. In this study, we investigated the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on a breeding population of Mediterranean storm petrels. Seabirds are increasingly used as bio-indicators for sea environmental parameters, because they are very sensitive to changing conditions. Burrowing or cave-nesting species may be particularly susceptible to human disturbance because their direct contact with humans is usually minimal or absent. First, we compared two different populations (exposed or not exposed to human disturbance) for their individual stress response to a standardized stressor (handling and keeping in a cloth bag). Second, we compared the two sub-colonies for their population-level stress response. Third, we tested experimentally whether sub-colonies of storm petrels exposed to tourism have physiological adaptations to anthropogenic disturbances. Our results indicate that storm petrels may be habituated to moderate disturbance associated with boat traffic close to the colony. PMID:27293726

  3. Effects of human disturbance on cave-nesting seabirds: the case of the storm petrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatini, Cecilia; Albores-Barajas, Yuri V; Tagliavia, Marcello; Massa, Bruno; Fusani, Leonida; Canoine, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    Human disturbance is an important stress factor with potentially strong impact on breeding activity in animals. The consequences can be extinction of the breeding population, because disturbed animals might desert their breeding area and find no suitable substitute area. In this study, we investigated the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on a breeding population of Mediterranean storm petrels. Seabirds are increasingly used as bio-indicators for sea environmental parameters, because they are very sensitive to changing conditions. Burrowing or cave-nesting species may be particularly susceptible to human disturbance because their direct contact with humans is usually minimal or absent. First, we compared two different populations (exposed or not exposed to human disturbance) for their individual stress response to a standardized stressor (handling and keeping in a cloth bag). Second, we compared the two sub-colonies for their population-level stress response. Third, we tested experimentally whether sub-colonies of storm petrels exposed to tourism have physiological adaptations to anthropogenic disturbances. Our results indicate that storm petrels may be habituated to moderate disturbance associated with boat traffic close to the colony. PMID:27293726

  4. Size- and condition-dependent predation: a seabird disproportionately targets substandard individual juvenile salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Strahan; Hipfner, J Mark; Trudel, Marc

    2016-02-01

    Selection of prey that are small and in poor body condition is a widespread phenomenon in terrestrial predator-prey systems and may benefit prey populations by removing substandard individuals. Similar selection is widely assumed to operate in aquatic systems. Indeed, size-selective predation is a longstanding and central tenet of aquatic food web theory. However, it is not known if aquatic predators select prey based on their condition or state, compared to their size. Surprisingly, no comparable information is available for marine systems because it is exceedingly difficult to make direct observations in this realm. Thus the role of body condition in regulating susceptibility to predation remains a black box in the marine environment. Here we have exploited an ideal model system to evaluate selective predation on pelagic marine fish: comparing characteristics (fork length, mass corrected for fork length) of fresh, whole, intact juvenile Pacific salmon delivered by a seabird to its single nestling with salmon collected concurrently in coastal trawl surveys. Three species of juvenile salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) are consumed by provisioning Rhinoceros Auklets (Cerorhinca nionocerata); an abundant, colonial, pursuit-diving seabird. Samples were collected from multiple colonies and fisheries surveys in coastal British Columbia in two years. As predicted, Auklets preyed on small individuals in poor condition and consistently selected them at levels higher than their relative availability. This is the first study to provide direct evidence for both size- and condition-selective predation on marine fish in the wild. We anticipate that our results will be a starting point in evaluating how selective predation may structure or influence marine fish populations and bridges a fundamental incongruity between ecological theory and application; although "bigger is better" is considered a fundamental tenet of marine food webs, marine predators are often assumed to consume

  5. Diverse inter-continental and host lineage reassortant avian influenza A viruses in pelagic seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanyan; Robertson, Gregory J; Ojkic, Davor; Whitney, Hugh; Lang, Andrew S

    2014-03-01

    Avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) often infect waterfowl, gulls and shorebirds, but other bird groups including pelagic seabirds also serve as hosts. In this study, we analyzed 21 AIVs found in two distant breeding colonies of Common Murre (Uria aalge) in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, during 2011. Phylogenetic analyses and genotype assignments were performed for the 21 Common Murre viruses together with all Common and Thick-billed Murre (Uria lomvia) AIV sequences available in public sequence databases. All fully characterized viruses from the Common Murres in 2011 were H1N2 subtype, but the genome sequences revealed greater diversity and the viruses belonged to four distinct genotypes. The four genotypes shared most segments in common, but reassortment was observed for PB2 and M segments. This provided direct genetic data of AIV diversification through segment reassortment during an outbreak of AIV infection in high-density breeding colonies. Analysis of the total collection of available murre viruses revealed a diverse collection of subtypes and gene lineages with high similarity to those found in viruses from waterfowl and gulls, and there was no indication of murre-specific AIV gene lineages. Overall, the virus gene pool in murres was predominantly made up of AIV lineages associated with waterfowl, but also featured considerable gull lineage genes and inter-continental reassortments. In particular, all but one of the 21 Common Murre viruses from 2011 in Newfoundland contained 1 or 2 Eurasian segments and 16 contained 1 gull lineage segment. This mosaic nature of characterized murre AIV genomes might reflect an under-recognized role of these pelagic seabirds in virus transmission across space and between bird host taxa. PMID:24462905

  6. What determines the distribution of seabirds at sea?

    OpenAIRE

    Erikstad, Kjell Einar; Robert T Barrett; Mehlum, Fridtjof

    1990-01-01

    The rationale behind the Nordic workshop, 'What determines the distribution of seabirds at sea?', held in Skibotn, near Troms, 17-21 October 1988, was the initiation of a new pelagic seabird research programme at Tromsø Museum. We felt a need to gather experts within oceanography, fisheries biology and marine ornithology to discuss how to best organize such research in relation to the available resources. It was attended by 24 students and scientists from 7 countries, including those speciall...

  7. Interspecific variations in the faecal microbiota of Procellariiform seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Meagan L; Arnould, John P Y; Krause, Lutz; Dann, Peter; Smith, Stuart C

    2014-07-01

    Despite the enormous amount of data available on the importance of gut microbiota in vertebrates (especially mammals), there is no information available on the microbiota of seabirds. Procellariiformes are long-lived seabirds that consume a diet high in lipids and are characterised by their ability to produce and store large amount of stomach oils through the partial digestion of prey (with the exception of the Pelecanoididae). Examining the faecal microbiota of three Procellariiform species (short-tailed shearwater, common diving petrel and fairy prion) provided a unique opportunity to not only characterise the gastrointestinal (GI) microbial composition of seabirds but to also examine the influence of stomach oils on the microbial community. The results indicated that Procellariiform seabirds host a highly diverse community of faecal microorganisms, dominated by three phyla (Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes) and that each species has its own species-specific GI microbiota. In addition, significant differences were observed in the microbial communities of oil-producing and non-oil-producing seabirds. This study is the first whole-community examination and classification of the faecal microbiota of Procellariiform seabirds. PMID:24684257

  8. Monitoring of fungal loads in seabird rehabilitation centers with comparisons to natural seabird environments in northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burco, Julia D; Massey, J Gregory; Byrne, Barbara A; Tell, Lisa; Clemons, Karl V; Ziccardi, Michael H

    2014-03-01

    Aspergillosis remains a major cause of mortality in captive and rehabilitated seabirds. To date, there has been poor documentation of fungal (particularly Aspergillus spp.) burdens in natural seabird loafing and roosting sites compared with fungal numbers in rehabilitation or captive settings and the various microenvironments that seabirds are exposed to during the rehabilitation process. This study compares fungal, particularly Aspergillus spp., burdens potentially encountered by seabirds in natural and rehabilitation environments. Differences among the various microenvironments in the rehabilitation facility were evaluated to determine the risk of infection when seabirds are experiencing high stress and poor immune function. Aspergillus spp. counts were quantified in three wildlife rehabilitation centers and five natural seabird loafing and roosting sites in northern California using a handheld impact air sampler and a water filtration system. Wildlife rehabilitation centers demonstrated an increase in numbers of conidia of Aspergillus spp. and Aspergillus fumigatus in air and water samples from select aquatic bird rehabilitation centers compared with natural seabird environments in northern California. Various microenvironments in the rehabilitation facility were identified as having higher numbers of conidia of Aspergillus spp. These results suggest that periodic monitoring of multiple local areas, where the birds spend time in a rehabilitation facility, should be done to identify "high risk" sites, where birds should spend minimal time, or sites that should be cleaned more frequently or have improved air flow to reduce exposure to fungal conidia. Overall, these results suggest that seabirds may be more likely to encounter Aspergillus spp. in various microenvironments in captivity, compared with their native habitats, which could increase their risk of developing disease when in a debilitated state. PMID:24712159

  9. Conspecific food competition explains variability in colony size: A test in Magellanic Penguins

    OpenAIRE

    Forero, Manuela G.; Tella, José Luis; Hobson, Keith A.; Bertellotti, Marcelo; Blanco, Guillermo

    2002-01-01

    Food availability has been proposed as one of the main factors regulating population sizes in birds. Seabirds have provided evidence for the hypothesis that food depletion due to intraspecific competition explains variability in colony size. However, the predictions derived from this hypothesis have not been fully tested due mainly to the difficulties in measuring food availability in marine environments. We measured stable isotopes of nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) in the blood of Magella...

  10. The Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global climate change in the Arctic is a growing concern. Research has already documented pronounced changes, and models predict that increases in temperature from anthropogenic influences could be considerably higher than the global average. The impacts of climate change on Arctic ecosystems are complex and difficult to predict because of the many interactions within ecosystem, and between many concurrently changing environmental variables. Despite the global consequences of change in the Arctic climate the monitoring of basic abiotic as well as biotic parameters are not adequate to assess the impact of global climate change. The uneven geographical location of present monitoring stations in the Arctic limits the ability to understand the climate system. The impact of previous variations and potential future changes to ecosystems is not well understood and need to be addressed. At this point, there is no consensus of scientific opinion on how much of the current changes that are due to anthropogenic influences or to natural variation. Regardless of the cause, there is a need to investigate and assess current observations and their effects to the Arctic. In this chapter examples from both terrestrial and marine ecosystems from ongoing monitoring and research projects are given. (LN)

  11. Water masses, ocean fronts, and the structure of Antarctic seabird communities: Putting the eastern Bellingshausen Sea in perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribic, Christine A.; Ainley, David G.; Glenn Ford, R.; Fraser, William R.; Tynan, Cynthia T.; Woehler, Eric J.

    2011-07-01

    by Adélie penguins, a Low Antarctic group dominated by petrels, and a Subantarctic group dominated by albatross were evident. In eastern Bellingshausen waters during summer, groups were inconsistent. With regard to frontal features, Antarctic-wide in winter, distance to the ice edge was an important explanatory factor for nine of 14 species, distance to the Antarctic Polar Front for six species and distance to the Shelf Break Front for six species; however, these Antarctic-wide models could not successfully predict spatial relationships of winter seabird density (individual species or total) and biomass in the eastern Bellingshausen. Antarctic-wide in summer, distance to land/Antarctic continent was important for 10 of 18 species, not a surprising result for these summer-time Antarctic breeders, as colonies are associated with ice-free areas of coastal land. Distance to the Shelf Break Front was important for 8 and distance to the southern boundary of the ACC was important for 7 species. These summer models were more successful in predicting eastern Bellingshausen species density and species diversity but failed to predict total seabird density or biomass. Antarctic seabirds appear to respond to fronts in a way similar to that observed along the well-studied upwelling front of the California Current. To understand fully the seabird patterns found in this synthesis, multi-disciplinary at-sea investigations, including a quantified prey field, are needed.

  12. Arctic bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleanup of oil and diesel spills on gravel pads in the Arctic has typically been accomplished by utilizing a water flushing technique to remove the gross contamination or excavating the spill area and placing the material into a lined pit, or a combination of both. Enhancing the biological degradation of hydrocarbon (bioremediation) by adding nutrients to the spill area has been demonstrated to be an effective cleanup tool in more temperate locations. However, this technique has never been considered for restoration in the Arctic because the process of microbial degradation of hydrocarbon in this area is very slow. The short growing season and apparent lack of nutrients in the gravel pads were thought to be detrimental to using bioremediation to cleanup Arctic oil spills. This paper discusses the potential to utilize bioremediation as an effective method to clean up hydrocarbon spills in the northern latitudes

  13. AFSC/REFM: Seabird food habits dataset of the North Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The seabird food habits dataset contains information on the stomach contents from seabird specimens that were collected under salvage and scientific collection...

  14. Washington Maritime NWRC: Initial Survey Instructions for Surface-nesting Seabird Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In Region 1, the vast majority of seabirds nest on NWRs. Because seabirds are dependent on the marine environment and surface-nesters are easily observed on...

  15. Mortality of seabirds in the Japanese high seas salmon mothership fishery, 1981-1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Annual mortality of over 160,000 seabirds in the Japanese mothership fishery is apparently not causing significant harm to seabird populations in the North Pacific....

  16. Arctic bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleanup of oil and diesel spills on gravel pads in the Arctic has typically been accomplished by utilizing a water flushing technique to remove the gross contamination or excavating the spill area and placing the material into a lined pit, or a combination of both. This paper discusses the potential to utilize bioremediation as an effective method to clean up hydrocarbon spills in the northern latitudes. Discussed are the results of a laboratory bioremediation study which simulated microbial degradation of hydrocarbon under arctic conditions

  17. Mercury concentrations in seabird tissues from Machias Seal Island, New Brunswick, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Alexander L., E-mail: abond@mun.ca [Atlantic Cooperative Wildlife Ecology Research Network, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada); Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada); Diamond, Antony W. [Atlantic Cooperative Wildlife Ecology Research Network, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada); Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Mercury is a pervasive environmental contaminant, the anthropogenic portion of which is increasing globally, and in northeastern North America in particular. Seabirds frequently are used as indicators of the marine environment, including mercury contamination. We analysed paired samples for total mercury (Hg) concentrations in feathers and blood from adult and chick, albumen, and lipid-free yolk of seven seabirds breeding on Machias Seal Island, New Brunswick, Canada - Arctic Tern (Sterna paradisaea), Atlantic Puffin (Fratercula arctica), Common Eider (Somateria mollissima), Common Murre (Uria aalge), Common Tern (Sterna hirundo), Leach's Storm-petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa), and Razorbill (Alca torda). We also used stable-isotope ratios of carbon ({delta}{sup 13}C), and nitrogen ({delta}{sup 15}N) to evaluate the relationship between carbon source and trophic position and mercury. We found high Hg concentrations across tissue types in Leach's Storm-petrels, and Razorbills, with lower concentrations in other species, the lowest being in Common Eiders. Storm-petrels prey on mesopelagic fish that accumulate mercury, and Razorbills feed on larger, older fish that bioaccumulate heavy metals. Biomagnification of Hg, or the increase in Hg concentration with trophic position as measured by {delta}{sup 15}N, was significant and greater in albumen than other tissues, whereas in other tissues, {delta}{sup 15}N explained little of the overall variation in Hg concentration. Hg concentrations in egg components are higher on Machias Seal Island than other sites globally and in the Gulf of Maine region, but only for some species. Further detailed investigations are required to determine the cause of this trend.

  18. 50 CFR Table 19 to Part 679 - Seabird Avoidance Gear Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seabird Avoidance Gear Codes 19 Table 19... ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 19 Table 19 to Part 679—Seabird Avoidance Gear Codes VESSEL LOGBOOK CODE SEABIRD AVOIDANCE GEAR OR METHOD. 1 Paired Streamer Lines: Used during deployment of hook-and-line gear to...

  19. Ant colony for TSP

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Yinda

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate Ant Colony Algorithm for the traveling salesman problem (TSP). Ants of the artificial colony are able to generate successively shorter feasible tours by using information accumulated in the form of a pheromone trail deposited on the edges of the TSP graph. This paper is based on the ideas of ant colony algorithm and analysis the main parameters of the ant colony algorithm. Experimental results for solving TSP problems with ant colony algorithm show great...

  20. Breeding distribution and abundance of seabirds on islands off north-central Chile Distribución reproductiva y abundancia de aves marinas en islas del norte y centro de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO SIMEONE

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Between 1999 and 2003 we collected information on the breeding distribution and abundance of 12 seabird species occurring on nine islands off the coasts of north and central Chile (27°-33°S. The Peruvian booby Sula variegata was the most abundant seabird with a breeding population of ca. 18,000 pairs concentrated in two islands, followed by the Humboldt penguin Spheniscus humboldti with ca. 9,000 pairs, the largest colony being at Chañaral Island with ca. 7,000 pairs. Kelp gulls Larus dominicanus bred at all the surveyed sites in colonies of variable size, ranging from 40 to 2,000 pairs. Peruvian diving-petrels Pelecanoides garnotii and Peruvian pelicans Pelecanus occidentalis bred at restricted sites, but generally in large colonies. Magellanic penguins Spheniscus magellanicus, wedge-rumped storm-petrels Oceanodroma tethys, Neotropical cormorants Hypoleucos brasiliensis, guanay cormorants Leucocarbo bougainvillii, red-legged cormorants Stictocarbo gairmardi, band-tailed gulls Larus belcheri and Inca terns Larosterna inca nested at few sites forming small colonies (from a few to 150 pairs. Two new breeding sites are reported for the Peruvian diving-petrel and nesting of the wedge-rumped storm-petrel is confirmed on the Chilean coast for the first time. Despite protective status, most of the islands showed human disturbance, derived mainly from guano harvesting, egging and tourism. On at least five of these islands we were able to confirm introduced mammals including rats, rabbits and cats. These factors are likely to be detrimental to seabirds and thus demand detailed assessment. Further comprehensive ornithological surveys in other areas are needed so as to improve the scarce knowledge that we currently have on the seabird populations along the Chilean coast

  1. Rock coasts and seabird breeding sites : a common optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Eveillard-Buchoux

    2014-05-01

    The North-West coasts of Europe support a lot of part of Northern hemisphere breeding seabirds. In that context, Scotland has a preponderant place and Brittany has southernmost limit of these species areas, for most of them. Outside the breeding season these species live mainly on the open sea and when they do visit the land to breed, they nest on a specific sites : almost all the time they breed on the rock coasts, often on seacliffs. This specific habitat are defines by geomorphological characteristics which offer special forms of the coast. The forms of rock coasts are originally and different because of several proprieties of geology, of lithology, of structures. Breeding seabird, occupying these sites, reveals, in a new light, the richness of these forms and the originals geographic location of the coastline : seabirds prefer nest in exposed coastline like rock caps, rocky points or islands. Seabirds and rock coasts are research topics in environmental geography since several years. However, these combination studies is a new approach in this field and enlargement in the heritage field allows supplement scientific approach. For example, it show that in most important touristic sites, environmental protection measures focused on landscape, habitat or bird, but much more rarely on rock coasts for these intrinsic values. Indeed, in Brittany or in Scotland, seabirds are often stars species in lot of coastal nature reserves, where they're considered like greater ecological heritage. We could see it in touristic promotion field : bird is everywhere, cliff is mostly kept in the dark, as well in leaflets as in speech visitor's guides - without, for example, as a part of this landscape. In all cases, combination of these two heritages is extremely rare. Yet, this current research illustrates the interest and the issue of development of this comparative approach seabirds / rock coasts for optimization of nature tourism and geotourism.

  2. Mercury and other trace elements in a pelagic Arctic marine food web (Northwater Polynya, Baffin Bay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total mercury (THg), methylmercury (MeHg) and 22 other trace elements were measured in ice algae, three species of zooplankton, mixed zooplankton samples, Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida), ringed seals (Phoca hispida) and eight species of seabirds to examine the trophodynamics of these metals in an Arctic marine food web. All samples were collected in 1998 in the Northwater Polynya (NOW) located between Ellesmere Island and Greenland in Baffin Bay. THg and MeHg were found to biomagnify through the NOW food web, based on significant positive relationships between log THg and log MeHg concentrations vs. δ 15N muscle and liver . The slope of these relationships for muscle THg and MeHg concentrations (slope = 0.197 and 0.223, respectively) were similar to those reported for other aquatic food webs. The food web behavior of THg and δ 15N appears constant, regardless of trophic state (eutrophic vs. oligotrophic), latitude (Arctic vs. tropical) or salinity (marine vs. freshwater) of the ecosystem. Rb in both liver and muscle tissue and Zn in muscle tissue were also found to biomagnify through this food web, although at a rate that is approximately 25% of that of THg. A number of elements (Cd, Pb and Ni in muscle tissue and Cd and Li in seabird liver tissue) were found to decrease trophically through the food web, as indicated by significantly negative relationships with tissue-specific δ 15N. A diverse group of metals (Ag, Ba, La, Li, Sb, Sr, U and V) were found to have higher concentrations in zooplankton than seabirds or marine mammals due to bioconcentration from seawater. The remaining metals (As, Co, Cu, Ga, Mn, Mo and Se in muscle tissue) showed no relationship with trophic position, as indicated by δ 15N values, although As in liver tissue showed significant biomagnification in the seabird portion of the food web

  3. Seabird feathers as monitors of the levels and persistence of heavy metal pollution after the Prestige oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Rocio, E-mail: rocio@rociomoreno.com [Dept. Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avgda. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jover, Lluis, E-mail: lluis_jover@ub.edu [Dept. Salut Publica, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Casanova 143, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Diez, Carmen, E-mail: karminha13@gmail.com [Dept. Ecoloxia e Bioloxia Animal, Facultade de Ciencias, Universidade de Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Galicia (Spain); Sanpera, Carola, E-mail: csanpera@ub.edu [Dept. Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avgda. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    We measured heavy metal concentrations in yellow-legged gulls (n = 196) and European shags (n = 189) in order to assess the temporal pattern of contaminant exposure following the Prestige oil spill in November 2002. We analysed Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni and V levels in chick feathers sampled at four colonies during seven post-spill years (2003-2009), and compared results with pre-spill levels obtained from feathers of juvenile shag corpses (grown in spring/summer 2002). Following the Prestige wreck, Cu (4.3-10 {mu}g g{sup -1}) and Pb concentrations (1.0-1.4 {mu}g g{sup -1}) were, respectively, between two and five times higher than pre-spill levels (1.5-3.6 and 0.1-0.4 {mu}g g{sup -1}), but returned to previous background concentrations after three years. Our study highlights the suitability of chick feathers of seabirds for assessing the impact of oil spills on heavy metal contamination, and provides the best evidence to date on the persistence of oil pollution after the Prestige incident. - Highlights: > Seabirds as sentinel species of levels and persistence of heavy metal pollution after oil spills. > Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, V in chick feathers of Phalacrocorax aristotelis and Larus michahellis. > Chronic oil pollution in the marine food web for at least three years after the Prestige oil spill. - Monitoring heavy metal in seabird feathers indicated chronic oil pollution in the marine food web for at least three years after the Prestige oil spill.

  4. Seabird feathers as monitors of the levels and persistence of heavy metal pollution after the Prestige oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measured heavy metal concentrations in yellow-legged gulls (n = 196) and European shags (n = 189) in order to assess the temporal pattern of contaminant exposure following the Prestige oil spill in November 2002. We analysed Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni and V levels in chick feathers sampled at four colonies during seven post-spill years (2003-2009), and compared results with pre-spill levels obtained from feathers of juvenile shag corpses (grown in spring/summer 2002). Following the Prestige wreck, Cu (4.3-10 μg g-1) and Pb concentrations (1.0-1.4 μg g-1) were, respectively, between two and five times higher than pre-spill levels (1.5-3.6 and 0.1-0.4 μg g-1), but returned to previous background concentrations after three years. Our study highlights the suitability of chick feathers of seabirds for assessing the impact of oil spills on heavy metal contamination, and provides the best evidence to date on the persistence of oil pollution after the Prestige incident. - Highlights: → Seabirds as sentinel species of levels and persistence of heavy metal pollution after oil spills. → Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, V in chick feathers of Phalacrocorax aristotelis and Larus michahellis. → Chronic oil pollution in the marine food web for at least three years after the Prestige oil spill. - Monitoring heavy metal in seabird feathers indicated chronic oil pollution in the marine food web for at least three years after the Prestige oil spill.

  5. Greenland, Arctic Orientalism and the search for definitions of a contemporary postcolonial geography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    order to identify it as a postcolonial geography. It raises the question whether the concept of an Arctic region is too broad for a postcolonial approach through a more specific focus on Greenland. While Greenland is obviously a part of the Arctic, the island also requires a colonial and postcolonial...

  6. Reprodução das aves marinhas nas ilhas costeiras de Santa Catarina, Brasil Reproduction of the seabirds in Santa Catarina's coastal islands, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Olinto Branco

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies involving the reproduction of seabirds in the Santa Catarina coast are scarce. From 1996 to 2002 a sampling program was implanted with the objectives of identifying the ranches, the species and to study some aspects of their reproductive cycle. Five species: Sula leucogaster Boddaert, 1783; Fregata magnificens Matheus, 1914; Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, 1823; Sterna hirundinacea Lesson, 1831; S. eurygnatha Sauders, 1876, breed in the islands of Santa Catarina, with the largest intensity in the period of May to December. The size of the colonies varied in function of the species and of the reproduction area.

  7. Arctic Wears - Perspectives on Arctic Clothing

    OpenAIRE

    Konola, Sanna; Kähkönen, Päivi

    2015-01-01

    Arctic issues are rising around us on every field at the point of view of environment, sustainability, climate change, indigenous peoples’ rights, design and society, snow and ice building knowledge, challenges and possibilities in Arctic areas. The Arctic is written in Finland’s future strategies, and in 2017 Finland assumes the chairmanship of Arctic Council. In the northernmost university of European Union, University of Lapland, the northern issues have always been written in the DNA ...

  8. Variance in prey abundance influences time budgets of breeding seabirds: Evidence from pigeon guillemots Cepphus columba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzow, M.A.; Piatt, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    We use data on pigeon guillemots Cepphus columba to test the hypothesis that discretionary time in breeding seabirds is correlated with variance in prey abundance. We measured the amount of time that guillemots spent at the colony before delivering fish to chicks ("resting time") in relation to fish abundance as measured by beach seines and bottom trawls. Radio telemetry showed that resting time was inversely correlated with time spent diving for fish during foraging trips (r = -0.95). Pigeon guillemots fed their chicks either Pacific sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus, a schooling midwater fish, which exhibited high interannual variance in abundance (CV = 181%), or a variety of non-schooling demersal fishes, which were less variable in abundance (average CV = 111%). Average resting times were 46% higher at colonies where schooling prey dominated the diet. Individuals at these colonies reduced resting times 32% during years of low food abundance, but did not reduce meal delivery rates. In contrast, individuals feeding on non-schooling fishes did not reduce resting times during low food years, but did reduce meal delivery rates by 27%. Interannual variance in resting times was greater for the schooling group than for the non-schooling group. We conclude from these differences that time allocation in pigeon guillemots is more flexible when variable schooling prey dominate diets. Resting times were also 27% lower for individuals feeding two-chick rather than one-chick broods. The combined effects of diet and brood size on adult time budgets may help to explain higher rates of brood reduction for pigeon guillemot chicks fed non-schooling fishes.

  9. Population regulation in Magellanic penguins: what determines changes in colony size?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana M Pozzi

    Full Text Available Seabirds are often studied at individual colonies, but the confounding effects of emigration and mortality processes in open populations may lead to inappropriate conclusions on the mechanisms underlying population changes. Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus colonies of variable population sizes are distributed along the Argentine coastline. In recent decades, several population and distributional changes have occurred, with some colonies declining and others newly established or increasing. We integrated data of eight colonies scattered along ∼600 km in Northern Patagonia (from 41°26´S, 65°01´W to 45°11´S, 66°30´W, Rio Negro and Chubut provinces and conducted analysis in terms of their growth rates, production of young and of the dependence of those vital rates on colony age, size, and location. We contrasted population trends estimated from abundance data with those derived from population modeling to understand if observed growth rates were attainable under closed population scenarios. Population trends were inversely related to colony size, suggesting a density dependent growth pattern. All colonies located in the north--which were established during the last decades--increased at high rates, with the smallest, recently established colonies growing at the fastest rate. In central-southern Chubut, where colonies are the oldest, the largest breeding aggregations declined, but smaller colonies remained relatively stable. Results provided strong evidence that dispersal played a major role in driving local trends. Breeding success was higher in northern colonies, likely mediated by favorable oceanographic conditions. However, mean foraging distance and body condition of chicks at fledging were influenced by colony size. Recruitment of penguins in the northern area may have been triggered by a combination of density dependence, likely exacerbated by less favorable oceanographic conditions in the southern sector. Our results

  10. Population regulation in Magellanic penguins: what determines changes in colony size?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, Luciana M; García Borboroglu, Pablo; Boersma, P Dee; Pascual, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    Seabirds are often studied at individual colonies, but the confounding effects of emigration and mortality processes in open populations may lead to inappropriate conclusions on the mechanisms underlying population changes. Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) colonies of variable population sizes are distributed along the Argentine coastline. In recent decades, several population and distributional changes have occurred, with some colonies declining and others newly established or increasing. We integrated data of eight colonies scattered along ∼600 km in Northern Patagonia (from 41°26´S, 65°01´W to 45°11´S, 66°30´W, Rio Negro and Chubut provinces) and conducted analysis in terms of their growth rates, production of young and of the dependence of those vital rates on colony age, size, and location. We contrasted population trends estimated from abundance data with those derived from population modeling to understand if observed growth rates were attainable under closed population scenarios. Population trends were inversely related to colony size, suggesting a density dependent growth pattern. All colonies located in the north--which were established during the last decades--increased at high rates, with the smallest, recently established colonies growing at the fastest rate. In central-southern Chubut, where colonies are the oldest, the largest breeding aggregations declined, but smaller colonies remained relatively stable. Results provided strong evidence that dispersal played a major role in driving local trends. Breeding success was higher in northern colonies, likely mediated by favorable oceanographic conditions. However, mean foraging distance and body condition of chicks at fledging were influenced by colony size. Recruitment of penguins in the northern area may have been triggered by a combination of density dependence, likely exacerbated by less favorable oceanographic conditions in the southern sector. Our results reaffirm the idea that

  11. Offshore Seabird Distributions during Summer and Autumn at West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, D.; Mosbech, A.

    species. Seabirds mainly fulmar, kittiwake and more locally great shearwater are numerous and widespread during summer. Concentrations do occur, but rather rarely. Presently the knowledge on the factors governing these concentrations is limited, except that operating shrimp trawlers may play a major role...

  12. Comparative tests of ectoparasite species richness in seabirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Page Roderic DM

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diversity of parasites attacking a host varies substantially among different host species. Understanding the factors that explain these patterns of parasite diversity is critical to identifying the ecological principles underlying biodiversity. Seabirds (Charadriiformes, Pelecaniformes and Procellariiformes and their ectoparasitic lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera are ideal model groups in which to study correlates of parasite species richness. We evaluated the relative importance of morphological (body size, body weight, wingspan, bill length, life-history (longevity, clutch size, ecological (population size, geographical range and behavioural (diving versus non-diving variables as predictors of louse diversity on 413 seabird hosts species. Diversity was measured at the level of louse suborder, genus, and species, and uneven sampling of hosts was controlled for using literature citations as a proxy for sampling effort. Results The only variable consistently correlated with louse diversity was host population size and to a lesser extent geographic range. Other variables such as clutch size, longevity, morphological and behavioural variables including body mass showed inconsistent patterns dependent on the method of analysis. Conclusion The comparative analysis presented herein is (to our knowledge the first to test correlates of parasite species richness in seabirds. We believe that the comparative data and phylogeny provide a valuable framework for testing future evolutionary hypotheses relating to the diversity and distribution of parasites on seabirds.

  13. Food availability affects the maternal transfer of androgens and antibodies into eggs of a colonial seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, J.; Boulinier, T.; Gill, V.A.; Gil, D.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Roulin, A.

    2007-01-01

    Mothers can improve the quality of their offspring by increasing the level of certain components in their eggs. To examine whether or not mothers increase deposition of such components in eggs as a function of food availability, we food-supplemented black-legged kittiwake females (Rissa tridactyla) before and during egg laying and compared deposition of androgens and antibodies into eggs of first and experimentally induced replacement clutches. Food-supplemented females transferred lower amounts of androgens and antibodies into eggs of induced replacement clutches than did non-food-supplemented mothers, whereas first clutches presented no differences between treatments. Our results suggest that when females are in lower condition, they transfer more androgens and antibodies into eggs to facilitate chick development despite potential long-term costs for juveniles. Females in prime condition may avoid these potential long-term costs because they can provide their chicks with more and higher quality resources. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  14. Environmental Assessment Colonial Seabird Management on Two Bush Island and Little Two Bush Island, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an environmental assessment that discussed and analyzes the proposed restoration of historical nesting populations of Common and Roseate terns on Two Bush...

  15. Seabirds and Atlantic Canada's ship-source oil pollution : impacts, trends, and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is estimated that 300,000 seabirds die annually in Atlantic Canada as a result of illegal discharges of oil from ships. Chronic oil pollution along the southeast coast of Newfoundland has not been reduced in the last 20 years. The species most affected is the thick-billed murre which over winters on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and breeds in the Canadian Arctic. Populations of the bird may decline in the next 2 decades if current mortality levels do not decrease. It was argued that fines and enforcement efforts in Atlantic Canada are lax compared to other countries and many ship operators dump their bilges in the coastal areas of Atlantic Canada. The World Wild Life Fund recommends that Canada follow the example of other countries and increase year-round enforcement, impose higher fines, and establish a convenient on-land oil disposal facility. These simple measures could reduce bilge-oil dumping at sea. 78 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  16. Arctic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) conducted a study of contamination of the Arctic Ocean and surrounding areas in order to better understand the severity of the problem and identify possible parallels in the United States. The findings were published in a quarterly report as a part of this technical task plan (TTP). While many radioactive and hazardous material contamination sites in this region have been identified, official Russian statements indicate that contaminant concentrations are within normal limits and are currently confined to specific areas

  17. Differential responses of seabirds to environmental variability over 2 years in the continental shelf and oceanic habitats of southeastern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Kokubun, Nobuo; Kikuchi, Dale M.; Sato, Nobuhiko; Takahashi, Akinori; Will, Alexis P.; Kitaysky, Alexander S.; Watanuki, Yutaka

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal sea-ice cover has been decreasing in the southeastern Bering Sea shelf, which might affect ecosystem dynamics and availability of food resources to marine top predators breeding in the region. In this study, we investigated the foraging responses of two seabird species, surface-foraging red-legged kittiwakes Rissa brevirostris (hereafter, RLKI) and pursuit-diving foraging thick-billed murres Uria lomvia (TBMU) to different marine environmental conditions over 2 years. At-sea distributions of RLKI and TBMU breeding on St. George Island, the largest seabird colony in the region, were recorded using GPS loggers, and blood samples were taken to examine their physiological condition and isotopic foraging niche in a given year. Between the study years, winter ice retreated earlier and summer water temperatures were relatively warmer in 2014 compared to those in 2013. RLKI foraging occurred mostly over the oceanic basin in both years. TBMU, however, foraged mostly over the shelf but showed a relatively higher use of the shelf break and oceanic basin in 2013. The foraging distances from the colony peaked at 250-300 km in 2013 and bimodally at 150-250 and 300-350 km in 2014 for RLKI and tended to be farther in 2013 compared to those in 2014 for TBMU. Plasma levels of corticosterone did not differ between the years in RLKI but differed in TBMU, showing higher levels of physiological stress incurred by murres in 2013, the year of relatively cooler sea surface temperatures with later sea-ice retreat. δ13N (a proxy of trophic level of prey) did not differ between the years in either RLKI or TBMU. These results suggest that the response of ecosystem dynamics to climate variability in the southeastern Bering Sea may differ between the ocean basin and continental shelf regions, which, in turn, may generate differential responses in seabirds relying on those habitats for foraging.

  18. Health status of seabirds and coastal birds found at the German North Sea coast

    OpenAIRE

    Siebert Ursula; Schwemmer Philipp; Guse Nils; Harder Timm; Garthe Stefan; Prenger-Berninghoff Ellen; Wohlsein Peter

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Systematic pathological investigations to assess the health status of seabirds and coastal birds in Germany were performed. The investigation was conducted to obtain data on possible causes of decline in seabird and coastal bird populations. Methods 48 individuals of 11 different species of seabirds and coastal birds were collected by the stranding network along the entire German North Sea coast from 1997 to 2008, including mainly waders such as Eurasian oystercatchers (Ha...

  19. Population Trend of the World’s Monitored Seabirds, 1950-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Paleczny; Edd Hammill; Vasiliki Karpouzi; Daniel Pauly

    2015-01-01

    Seabird population changes are good indicators of long-term and large-scale change in marine ecosystems, and important because of their many impacts on marine ecosystems. We assessed the population trend of the world's monitored seabirds (1950-2010) by compiling a global database of seabird population size records and applying multivariate autoregressive state-space (MARSS) modeling to estimate the overall population trend of the portion of the population with sufficient data (i.e., at least ...

  20. Influences of human activities on seabird populations in the North Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Tasker, M.L.; Becker, P. H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the North Sea's seabird resource, which is of great international importance. It reviews the significance of human activities on seabirds; these are persecution, fishing, eutrophication, chemical pollution, introduction of alien predators, rising sea level, and oil pollution. The paper speculates on future trends. Some suggestions to reduce human pressures, to use seabirds as monitors of the marine environment and to conserve their populations more effectively are made.

  1. Ant Colony Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Zahálka, Jaroslav

    2007-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with Ant Colony algorithms and their usage for solving Travelling Salesman Problems and Vehicle Routing Problems. These algorithms are metaheuristics offering new approach to solving NP-hard problems. Work begins with a description of the forementioned tasks including ways to tackle them. Next chapter analyses Ant Colony metaheuristic and its possible usage and variations. The most important part of the thesis is practical and is represented by application Ant Colony...

  2. Consistency pays: sex differences and fitness consequences of behavioural specialization in a wide-ranging seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Samantha C; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2014-10-01

    Specialists and generalists often coexist within a single population, but the biological drivers of individual strategies are not fully resolved. When sexes differ in their foraging strategy, this can lead them to different environmental conditions and stability across their habitat range. As such, sexual segregation, combined with dominance, may lead to varying levels of specialization between the sexes. Here, we examine spatial and temporal niche width (intraindividual variability in aspects of foraging behaviour) of male and female black-browed albatrosses (Thalassarche melanophrys), and its consequences for fitness. We show that females, where maximum foraging range is under fluctuating selection, exhibit more variable behaviours and appear more generalist than males, who are under directional selection to forage close to the colony. However within each sex, successful birds had a much narrower niche width across most behaviours, suggesting some specialization is adaptive in both sexes. These results demonstrate that while there are sex differences in niche width, the fitness benefit of specialization in spatial distribution is strong in this wide-ranging seabird. PMID:25354918

  3. The Sub-Annual Breeding Cycle of a Tropical Seabird

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, S. James; Martin, Graham R.; Dawson, Alistair; Wearn, Colin P.; Hughes, B. John

    2014-01-01

    Breeding periodicity allows organisms to synchronise breeding attempts with the most favourable ecological conditions under which to raise offspring. For most animal species, ecological conditions vary seasonally and usually impose an annual breeding schedule on their populations; sub-annual breeding schedules will be rare. We use a 16-year dataset of breeding attempts by a tropical seabird, the sooty tern (Onychoprion fuscatus), on Ascension Island to provide new insights about this classica...

  4. Testing olfactory foraging strategies in an Antarctic seabird assemblage

    OpenAIRE

    Nevitt, G A; Reid, K; Trathan, P.

    2004-01-01

    Procellariiform seabirds (petrels, albatrosses and shearwaters) forage over thousands of square kilometres for patchily distributed prey resources. While these birds are known for their large olfactory bulbs and excellent sense of smell, how they use odour cues to locate prey patches in the vast ocean is not well understood. Here, we investigate species-specific responses to 3-methyl pyrazine in a sub-Antarctic species assemblage near South Georgia Island (54degrees00' S, 36degrees00' W). Pyr...

  5. GPS tracking for mapping seabird mortality induced by light pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Airam Rodríguez; Beneharo Rodríguez; Negro, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    Light pollution and its consequences on ecosystems are increasing worldwide. Knowledge on the threshold levels of light pollution at which significant ecological impacts emerge and the size of dark refuges to maintain natural nocturnal processes is crucial to mitigate its negative consequences. Seabird fledglings are attracted by artificial lights when they leave their nest at night, causing high mortality. We used GPS data-loggers to track the flights of Cory’s shearwater Calonectris diomede...

  6. Specters of Colonialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhr, Sara Louise; Azad, Salam

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how an organization in Sweden, a country normally not considered among the former colonial powers, is still haunted by the specters of a western colonial history. Based on in-depth interviews as well as participant observation in the headquarters of a Swedish multinational...

  7. Prevalence of blood parasites in seabirds - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quillfeldt Petra

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction While blood parasites are common in many birds in the wild, some groups seem to be much less affected. Seabirds, in particular, have often been reported free from blood parasites, even in the presence of potential vectors. Results From a literature review of hemosporidian prevalence in seabirds, we collated a dataset of 60 species, in which at least 15 individuals had been examined. These data were included in phylogenetically controlled statistical analyses of hemosporidian prevalence in relation to ecological and life-history parameters. Haemoproteus parasites were common in frigatebirds and gulls, while Hepatozoon occurred in albatrosses and storm petrels, and Plasmodium mainly in penguins. The prevalence of Haemoproteus showed a geographical signal, being lower in species with distribution towards polar environments. Interspecific differences in Plasmodium prevalence were explained by variables that relate to the exposure to parasites, suggesting that prevalence is higher in burrow nesters with long fledgling periods. Measures of Plasmodium, but not Haemoproteus prevalences were influenced by the method, with PCR-based data resulting in higher prevalence estimates. Conclusions Our analyses suggest that, as in other avian taxa, phylogenetic, ecological and life-history parameters determine the prevalence of hemosporidian parasites in seabirds. We discuss how these relationships should be further explored in future studies.

  8. Fish oil disrupts seabird feather microstructure and waterproofing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandin, Lora A; O'Hara, Patrick D

    2014-10-15

    Seabirds and other aquatic avifauna are highly sensitive to exposure to petroleum oils. A small amount of oil is sufficient to break down the feather barrier that is necessary to prevent water penetration and hypothermia. Far less attention has been paid to potential effects on aquatic birds of so called 'edible oils', non-petroleum oils such as vegetable and fish oils. In response to a sardine oil discharge by a vessel off the coast of British Columbia, we conducted an experiment to assess if feather exposure to sheens of sardine oil (ranging from 0.04 to 3 μm in thickness) resulted in measurable oil and water uptake and significant feather microstructure disruption. We designed the experiment based on a previous experiment on effects of petroleum oils on seabird feathers. Feathers exposed to the thinnest fish oil sheens (0.04 μm) resulted in measurable feather weight gain (from oil and water uptake) and significant feather microstructure disruption. Both feather weight gain and microstructure disruption increased with increasing fish oil thickness. Because of the absence of primary research on effects of edible oils on sea birds, we conducted interviews with wildlife rehabilitation professionals with experience rehabilitating sea birds after edible oil exposure. The consensus from interviews and our experiment indicated that physical contact with fish and other 'edible oils' in the marine environment is at least as harmful to seabirds as petroleum oils. PMID:25089687

  9. Surveys of murre colony attendance in the northern Gulf of Alaska following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field surveys were conducted in July and August 1991 on 32 of the 36 murre (Uria spp.) colonies in the northern Gulf of Alaska to assess colony attendance (number of birds present at a colony) two years after the exxon Valdez oil spill. The surveys focused on murre colonies because murres represented 74% of the recovered seabird carcasses and because it had claimed that there was large-scale mortality of murres, leading to 60% to 70% decreases at some large colonies and population recovery periods of 20 to 70 years. Murres were present at all 32 colonies, and colony attendance estimates were generally similar to those from historical (prespill) surveys, particularly for those colonies in the direct path of the spill, i.e., the Barren Islands and Chiswell islands. Colony attendance levels in 1991 do not support the contention that murre colony attendance in the study area was drastically lower than historical levels. When colonies were grouped according to risk of oil exposure, the mean changes in attendance between 1991 and historical murre surveys did not differ significantly among the groups. Factors that could account for the observed similarity of 1991 and historical murre counts despite the high estimated mortality are (1) overestimation of mortality or (2) replacement of lost breeders through either recruitment of formerly nonbreeding individuals into the breeding population at spill-affected colonies or immigration of murres form nonaffected colonies. The findings of this study suggest that impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on murre colony attendance in the northern Gulf of alaska were relatively short-term. 118 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs

  10. Variation in Population Synchrony in a Multi-Species Seabird Community: Response to Changes in Predator Abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail S Robertson

    Full Text Available Ecologically similar sympatric species, subject to typical environmental conditions, may be expected to exhibit synchronous temporal fluctuations in demographic parameters, while populations of dissimilar species might be expected to show less synchrony. Previous studies have tested for synchrony in different populations of single species, and those including data from more than one species have compared fluctuations in only one demographic parameter. We tested for synchrony in inter-annual changes in breeding population abundance and productivity among four tern species on Coquet Island, northeast England. We also examined how manipulation of one independent environmental variable (predator abundance influenced temporal changes in ecologically similar and dissimilar tern species. Changes in breeding abundance and productivity of ecologically similar species (Arctic Sterna paradisaea, Common S. hirundo and Roseate Terns S. dougallii were synchronous with one another over time, but not with a species with different foraging and breeding behaviour (Sandwich Terns Thalasseus sandvicensis. With respect to changes in predator abundance, there was no clear pattern. Roseate Tern abundance was negatively correlated with that of large gulls breeding on the island from 1975 to 2013, while Common Tern abundance was positively correlated with number of large gulls, and no significant correlations were found between large gull and Arctic and Sandwich Tern populations. Large gull abundance was negatively correlated with productivity of Arctic and Common Terns two years later, possibly due to predation risk after fledging, while no correlation with Roseate Tern productivity was found. The varying effect of predator abundance is most likely due to specific differences in the behaviour and ecology of even these closely-related species. Examining synchrony in multi-species assemblages improves our understanding of how whole communities react to long-term changes

  11. Staging the Arctic 1819–1909 and 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Hansson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the long nineteenth century and beyond, outside representations of the Arctic on stage have circulated a stereotypical image of the region. The two most long-standing emblems are ice and indigenous culture, and as commodity, the Arctic is identified as mystical, authentic, natural and pre-modern. These images are circulated in popular, cultural events like theatre performances, panoramic displays, music hall shows, and musical comedy but their presence in a popular cultural context also contributes to destabilise the signifiers. At the best, theatre productions about the Arctic may produce a kind of history from below, including a cautious critique of the colonial project and the ideal of heroic masculinity. Their radical potential should not be overstated, however, since the historical meanings of the stereotypes even when they are being debunked. At least on stage, conventional images of the Arctic continue to dominate.

  12. Zooplankton in the Arctic outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, K. A.; Dritz, A. V.; Nikishina, A. B.

    2009-04-01

    content were measured in dominant species to investigate effect of Chl a concentration and phytoplankton composition on ingestion rate. Egg production experiments were carried out under different food conditions. Rare deep water zooplankton species were also investigated to increase our knowledge in the Arctic biodiversity. Copepods Calanus finmarchicus is known as a marker of the Atlantic water mass, Calanus glacialis and Calanus hyperboreus, vice versa, are the coldwater Arctic species. In our study we investigated three Calanus species distribution and analyzed their ecological status. Changes in zooplankton composition results in the alteration of energy transfer within the pelagic food web ("cold" and "warm" scenarios) with potential consequences for growth and survival of seabirds Little Auk (Alle alle) and Black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla). We discuss the advection effect on the zooplankton community, compare the population development phases with phytoplankton bloom phases (match-mismatch), estimate grazing impact on phytoplankton community and consider different life strategies for the three different Calanus species.

  13. Rickettsia spp. in Seabird Ticks from Western Indian Ocean Islands, 2011–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrich, Muriel; Lebarbenchon, Camille; Jaeger, Audrey; Le Rouzic, Céline; Bastien, Matthieu; Lagadec, Erwan; McCoy, Karen D.; Pascalis, Hervé; Le Corre, Matthieu; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    We found a diversity of Rickettsia spp. in seabird ticks from 6 tropical islands. The bacteria showed strong host specificity and sequence similarity with strains in other regions. Seabird ticks may be key reservoirs for pathogenic Rickettsia spp., and bird hosts may have a role in dispersing ticks and tick-associated infectious agents over large distances.

  14. Identification of an assembly site for migratory and tropical seabirds in the South Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. John Hughes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Seabirds are good indicators of wider biodiversity and where they assemble in large numbers signifies sites important to many marine faunal species. Few such large assemblage sites have been identified and none in pelagic waters has been identified in the tropical Atlantic Ocean despite their importance for resident seabirds and those ‘on passage’ during migration. Here, we identify the likely location of just such an assembly site and provide preliminary information about the distribution of pelagic seabirds around Ascension Island in the tropical South Atlantic Ocean using a combination of trans-equatorial seabird migrant tracking data, records of at-sea surveys and land counts of seabirds returning from foraging trips. We found that waters north–north-west of Ascension Island are used more often by seabirds than those south and east of the island. Three-fifths of the species recorded in the assembly site breed at mid- or high-latitudes and some of these migratory seabirds stopover possibly to wait for favourable winds that facilitate onward flight. Our findings are important because to the best of our knowledge no seabird assembly sites have previously been identified in tropical Atlantic Ocean pelagic waters. We provide evidence to support the aspirations of the Marine Reserves Coalition that waters in the vicinity of Ascension Island should be recognised as a sanctuary for marine wildlife and we highlight an area that is worthy of further targeted investigation.

  15. Interspecies and spatial trends in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Atlantic and Mediterranean pelagic seabirds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roscales, Jose L., E-mail: jlroscales@iqog.csic.es [Research Institute of Biodiversity (IRBio) and department of Animal Biology (Vertebrates), Barcelona University, Av Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Department of Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Organic Chemistry, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Solis, Jacob [Research Institute of Biodiversity (IRBio) and department of Animal Biology (Vertebrates), Barcelona University, Av Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Calabuig, Pascual [Wildlife Fauna Tafira Recuperation Center, Cabildo de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); Jimenez, Begona [Department of Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Organic Chemistry, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    PAHs were analyzed in the liver of 5 species of pelagic seabirds (Procellariiformes) from the northeast Atlantic and the Mediterranean. The main objective was to assess the trophic and geographic trends of PAHs in seabirds to evaluate their suitability as bioindicators of chronic marine pollution by these compounds. Although higher levels of PAHs have been described in the Mediterranean compared to other oceanic regions, we did not find significant spatial patterns and observed only minor effects of the geographic origin on seabird PAHs. However, we found significant higher PAH levels in petrel compared to shearwater species, which could be related to differences in their exploitation of mesopelagic and epipelagic resources, respectively, and the vertical dynamic of PAHs in the water column. Overall, although this study enhances the need of multi-species approaches to show a more comprehensive evaluation of marine pollution, seabirds emerged as poor indicators of pelagic chronic PAH levels. - Highlights: > PAHs in pelagic seabirds show specific inter-species patterns related to trophic ecology. > Geographic origin shows a minor effect over PAH levels in pelagic seabirds. > Pelagic seabirds seem to be poor indicators of chronic PAH levels. - PAH levels in Atlantic and Mediterranean pelagic seabirds show specific inter-species patterns related to trophic ecology but a minor influence of their geographic origin.

  16. Regime shifts in the northern North Atlantic during the past 6,000 years: A record of seabird population size and precipitation isotopes on Bjørnøya, Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, W. J.; Hormes, A.; Bakke, J.; Nicolaisen, L.

    2015-12-01

    The northeastern North Atlantic Ocean, and the Norwegian and Greenland Seas are subject to large hydrographic changes. These variations can influence oceanic heat transport to the Arctic, meridional overturning circulation, and atmospheric circulation patterns and thereby impact global climate patterns. Marine records suggest that numerous large-scale changes in the hydrography of the northern North Atlantic took place during the middle to late Holocene. Here, we report a record of nitrogen and hydrogen isotope measurements from a lake sediment core from Bjørnøya, Svalbard (74.38°N, 19.02°E) that documents major regime shifts in the climate of the northern North Atlantic during the past 6,000 years. Bjørnøya is the nesting ground for one of the largest seabird populations in the North Atlantic. As top predators in the marine ecosystem, seabirds (and their guano) are enriched in 15N; during spring and summer months they deliver this isotopically enriched nitrogen to their nesting area. We developed a record of seabird population changes on Bjørnøya based on the bulk nitrogen isotope composition of sediments in a core collected from lake Ellasjøen. The record reveals multiple multicentennial scale changes in δ15N values (varying between ~8-12‰) that track past changes in the size of seabird populations. From the same sediment core, we also developed a record of δD of precipitation, by measuring δD values of sedimentary n-alkanes. Past intervals with the largest inferred bird populations correspond with the most enriched δD of precipitation, which we interpret to represent a more Atlantic climate. Periods with reduced seabird populations correspond with intervals having more negative δD of precipitation and representing a more Arctic climate. Together, the nitrogen and hydrogen isotope records signify regime shifts in the oceanography, marine ecosystem, and atmospheric circulation of the northern North Atlantic that are related to variations in the

  17. EROD activity and stable isotopes in seabirds to disentangle marine food web contamination after the Prestige oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velando, Alberto, E-mail: avelando@uvigo.e [Departamento de Ecoloxia e Bioloxia Animal, Facultade de Ciencias, Universidade de Vigo, Campus As Lagoas, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Munilla, Ignacio [Departamento de Botanica, Facultade de Farmacia, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Lopez-Alonso, Marta [Departamento de Patoloxia Animal, Facultade de Veterinaria, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Lugo (Spain); Freire, Juan [Grupo de Recursos Marinos y Pesquerias Universidade da Coruna, A Coruna (Spain); Perez, Cristobal [Departamento de Ecoloxia e Bioloxia Animal, Facultade de Ciencias, Universidade de Vigo, Campus As Lagoas, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    In this study, we measured via surgical sampling hepatic EROD activity in yellow-legged gulls from oiled and unoiled colonies, 17 months after the Prestige oil spill. We also analyzed stable isotope composition in feathers of the biopsied gulls, in an attempt to monitor oil incorporation into marine food web. We found that yellow-legged gulls in oiled colonies were being exposed to remnant oil as shown by hepatic EROD activity levels. EROD activity was related to feeding habits of individual gulls with apparent consequences on delayed lethality. Capture-recapture analysis of biopsied gulls suggests that the surgery technique did not affect gull survival, giving support to this technique as a monitoring tool for oil exposure assessment. Our study highlights the combination of different veterinary, toxicological and ecological methodologies as a useful approach for the monitoring of exposure to remnant oil after a large oil spill. - Two years after Prestige oil spill, seabirds were exposed to remnant oil related to their feeding habits with consequences on delayed lethality.

  18. EROD activity and stable isotopes in seabirds to disentangle marine food web contamination after the Prestige oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we measured via surgical sampling hepatic EROD activity in yellow-legged gulls from oiled and unoiled colonies, 17 months after the Prestige oil spill. We also analyzed stable isotope composition in feathers of the biopsied gulls, in an attempt to monitor oil incorporation into marine food web. We found that yellow-legged gulls in oiled colonies were being exposed to remnant oil as shown by hepatic EROD activity levels. EROD activity was related to feeding habits of individual gulls with apparent consequences on delayed lethality. Capture-recapture analysis of biopsied gulls suggests that the surgery technique did not affect gull survival, giving support to this technique as a monitoring tool for oil exposure assessment. Our study highlights the combination of different veterinary, toxicological and ecological methodologies as a useful approach for the monitoring of exposure to remnant oil after a large oil spill. - Two years after Prestige oil spill, seabirds were exposed to remnant oil related to their feeding habits with consequences on delayed lethality.

  19. The Northern Bering Sea: An Arctic Ecosystem in Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebmeier, J. M.; Cooper, L. W.

    2004-12-01

    Arctic systems can be rich and diverse habitats for marine life in spite of the extreme cold environment. Benthic faunal populations and associated biogeochemical cycling processes are influenced by sea-ice extent, seawater hydrography (nutrients, salinity, temperature, currents), and water column production. Benthic organisms on the Arctic shelves and margins are long-term integrators of overlying water column processes. Because these organisms have adapted to living at cold extremes, it is reasonable to expect that these communities will be among the most susceptible to climate warming. Recent observations show that Arctic sea ice in the North American Arctic is melting and retreating northward earlier in the season and the timing of these events can have dramatic impacts on the biological system. Changes in overlying primary production, pelagic-benthic coupling, and benthic production and community structure can have cascading effects to higher trophic levels, particularly benthic feeders such as walruses, gray whales, and diving seaducks. Recent indicators of contemporary Arctic change in the northern Bering Sea include seawater warming and reduction in ice extent that coincide with our time-series studies of benthic clam population declines in the shallow northern Bering shelf in the 1990's. In addition, declines in benthic amphipod populations have also likely influenced the movement of feeding gray whales to areas north of Bering Strait during this same time period. Finally a potential consequence of seawater warming and reduced ice extent in the northern Bering Sea could be the northward movement of bottom feeding fish currently in the southern Bering Sea that prey on benthic fauna. This would increase the feeding pressure on the benthic prey base and enhance competition for this food source for benthic-feeding marine mammals and seabirds. This presentation will outline recent biological changes observed in the northern Bering Sea ecosystem as documented in

  20. FUELING INCUBATION : DIFFERENTIAL USE OF BODY STORES IN ARCTIC-AND TEMPERATE-BREEDING BARNACLE GEESE (BRANTA LEUCOPSIS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eichhorn, Goetz; van der Jeugd, Henk P.; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Drent, Rudolf H.; McWilliams, S.R.

    2010-01-01

    We compared the use of body stores in breeding Barnacle Geese (Branta leucopsis) in traditional Arctic colonies in the Barents Sea with that in recently established temperate-zone breeding colonies in the Baltic Sea and North Sea by studying female body-mass loss and use of fat and protein stores du

  1. Interpreting the mortality of seabirds following the Nestucca oil spill of 1988-1989: Factors affecting seabirds off southwestern British Columbia and northern Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 23 December 1988, the barge Nestucca was damaged off Gray's Harbour, Washington, spilling 875,000 liters of bunker C oil, resulting in high mortality of seabirds. Both the body count (12,535 carcasses) and the estimated overall mortality (56,000 birds) were exceptionally high relative to the amount of oil spilled and in comparison to other spills. This high mortality is explained, through the review of general processes applying to seabirds, the importance of temporal and spatial scales, large ocean processes in the northeast Pacific, meso- and coarse-scale processes on the continental shelf, fine scale ocean processes affecting sea birds, distribution of prey of seabirds, distribution of seabirds, and implications for assessing the Nestucca oil spill impacts. Seabirds have high energy demands, and large populations exist only in productive seas. The upwelling domain in which the spill occurred is among the most productive in the north Pacific, with seabird densities ranking 4th out of 20 in the entire Pacific. Coarse- and fine-scale oceanic processes such as temperature and salinity fronts, Langmuir cells, and tidal upwelling have profound effects on the distribution of zooplankton and small schooling fish. Seabird population is highly clumped off Washington and Vancouver Island in response to physical processes affecting prey distribution. The Nestucca spill passed through dense flocks of birds over the shelf. Small-scale physical processes cause aggregation of drifting debris, epipelagic zooplankton and fish, and probably also concentrate drifting oil. Seabirds attracted to such zones have a greater chance of becoming oiled, and this accounts in part for the high rate of oiling in the Nestucca spill. 68 refs., 10 figs

  2. Colony screening by PCR

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: Matt Lewis ### Notes This is the fastest way to screen bacterial colonies. Our PCR machine takes 24 tubes so I routinely screen 22 colonies + 1 negative + 1 positive control. ### Choosing the primers Ideally you want a primer pair that can only work if the correct construct is present eg. a vector flanking primer and a gene specific primer. However, this may not allow you a positive control (essential) so you might have to use both vector flanking primers instead. If y...

  3. The colonial present

    OpenAIRE

    Bunnell, Tim

    2006-01-01

    cultural geographies 2006 13: 305-312 reviews in brief The colonial present. By Derek Gregory. Malden, MA: Blackwell. 2004. 367 pp. £16.99 paper. ISBN 1577180909. The colonial present extends and deepens our understanding of contemporary geopolitics in ways that speak to the key concerns of this journal. For Derek Gregory as for Edward Said, to whom the book is dedicated, and whose intellectual legacy runs through its pages - issues of cu...

  4. ACO - Ant Colony Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Žumer, Viljem; Brest, Janez; Pešl, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Ant colony optimization is a relatively new approach to solving NP-Hard problems. It is based on the behavior of real ants, which always find the shortest path between their nest and a food source. Such behavior can be transferred into the discrcte world, were real ants are replaced by simple agents. Such simple agents are placed into the environment where different combinatorial problems can be solved In this paper we describe an artificial ant colony capable of solving the travelling salesm...

  5. Arctic Climate Tipping Points

    OpenAIRE

    Lenton, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    There is widespread concern that anthropogenic global warming will trigger Arctic climate tipping points. The Arctic has a long history of natural, abrupt climate changes, which together with current observations and model projections, can help us to identify which parts of the Arctic climate system might pass future tipping points. Here the climate tipping points are defined, noting that not all of them involve bifurcations leading to irreversible change. Past abrupt climate changes in the A...

  6. Circulation of a Meaban-like virus in yellow-legged gulls and seabird ticks in the western Mediterranean basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Arnal

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of zoonotic flaviviruses have emerged worldwide, and wild birds serve as their major reservoirs. Epidemiological surveys of bird populations at various geographical scales can clarify key aspects of the eco-epidemiology of these viruses. In this study, we aimed at exploring the presence of flaviviruses in the western Mediterranean by sampling breeding populations of the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis, a widely distributed, anthropophilic, and abundant seabird species. For 3 years, we sampled eggs from 19 breeding colonies in Spain, France, Algeria, and Tunisia. First, ELISAs were used to determine if the eggs contained antibodies against flaviviruses. Second, neutralization assays were used to identify the specific flaviviruses present. Finally, for colonies in which ELISA-positive eggs had been found, chick serum samples and potential vectors, culicid mosquitoes and soft ticks (Ornithodoros maritimus, were collected and analyzed using serology and PCR, respectively. The prevalence of flavivirus-specific antibodies in eggs was highly spatially heterogeneous. In northeastern Spain, on the Medes Islands and in the nearby village of L'Escala, 56% of eggs had antibodies against the flavivirus envelope protein, but were negative for neutralizing antibodies against three common flaviviruses: West Nile, Usutu, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses. Furthermore, little evidence of past flavivirus exposure was obtained for the other colonies. A subset of the Ornithodoros ticks from Medes screened for flaviviral RNA tested positive for a virus whose NS5 gene was 95% similar to that of Meaban virus, a flavivirus previously isolated from ticks of Larus argentatus in western France. All ELISA-positive samples subsequently tested positive for Meaban virus neutralizing antibodies. This study shows that gulls in the western Mediterranean Basin are exposed to a tick-borne Meaban-like virus, which underscores the need of exploring

  7. Predictive Modelling to Identify Near-Shore, Fine-Scale Seabird Distributions during the Breeding Season.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria C Warwick-Evans

    Full Text Available During the breeding season seabirds are constrained to coastal areas and are restricted in their movements, spending much of their time in near-shore waters either loafing or foraging. However, in using these areas they may be threatened by anthropogenic activities such as fishing, watersports and coastal developments including marine renewable energy installations. Although many studies describe large scale interactions between seabirds and the environment, the drivers behind near-shore, fine-scale distributions are not well understood. For example, Alderney is an important breeding ground for many species of seabird and has a diversity of human uses of the marine environment, thus providing an ideal location to investigate the near-shore fine-scale interactions between seabirds and the environment. We used vantage point observations of seabird distribution, collected during the 2013 breeding season in order to identify and quantify some of the environmental variables affecting the near-shore, fine-scale distribution of seabirds in Alderney's coastal waters. We validate the models with observation data collected in 2014 and show that water depth, distance to the intertidal zone, and distance to the nearest seabird nest are key predictors in the distribution of Alderney's seabirds. AUC values for each species suggest that these models perform well, although the model for shags performed better than those for auks and gulls. While further unexplained underlying localised variation in the environmental conditions will undoubtedly effect the fine-scale distribution of seabirds in near-shore waters we demonstrate the potential of this approach in marine planning and decision making.

  8. Predictive Modelling to Identify Near-Shore, Fine-Scale Seabird Distributions during the Breeding Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick-Evans, Victoria C; Atkinson, Philip W; Robinson, Leonie A; Green, Jonathan A

    2016-01-01

    During the breeding season seabirds are constrained to coastal areas and are restricted in their movements, spending much of their time in near-shore waters either loafing or foraging. However, in using these areas they may be threatened by anthropogenic activities such as fishing, watersports and coastal developments including marine renewable energy installations. Although many studies describe large scale interactions between seabirds and the environment, the drivers behind near-shore, fine-scale distributions are not well understood. For example, Alderney is an important breeding ground for many species of seabird and has a diversity of human uses of the marine environment, thus providing an ideal location to investigate the near-shore fine-scale interactions between seabirds and the environment. We used vantage point observations of seabird distribution, collected during the 2013 breeding season in order to identify and quantify some of the environmental variables affecting the near-shore, fine-scale distribution of seabirds in Alderney's coastal waters. We validate the models with observation data collected in 2014 and show that water depth, distance to the intertidal zone, and distance to the nearest seabird nest are key predictors in the distribution of Alderney's seabirds. AUC values for each species suggest that these models perform well, although the model for shags performed better than those for auks and gulls. While further unexplained underlying localised variation in the environmental conditions will undoubtedly effect the fine-scale distribution of seabirds in near-shore waters we demonstrate the potential of this approach in marine planning and decision making. PMID:27031616

  9. Predictive Modelling to Identify Near-Shore, Fine-Scale Seabird Distributions during the Breeding Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick-Evans, Victoria C.; Atkinson, Philip W.; Robinson, Leonie A.; Green, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    During the breeding season seabirds are constrained to coastal areas and are restricted in their movements, spending much of their time in near-shore waters either loafing or foraging. However, in using these areas they may be threatened by anthropogenic activities such as fishing, watersports and coastal developments including marine renewable energy installations. Although many studies describe large scale interactions between seabirds and the environment, the drivers behind near-shore, fine-scale distributions are not well understood. For example, Alderney is an important breeding ground for many species of seabird and has a diversity of human uses of the marine environment, thus providing an ideal location to investigate the near-shore fine-scale interactions between seabirds and the environment. We used vantage point observations of seabird distribution, collected during the 2013 breeding season in order to identify and quantify some of the environmental variables affecting the near-shore, fine-scale distribution of seabirds in Alderney’s coastal waters. We validate the models with observation data collected in 2014 and show that water depth, distance to the intertidal zone, and distance to the nearest seabird nest are key predictors in the distribution of Alderney’s seabirds. AUC values for each species suggest that these models perform well, although the model for shags performed better than those for auks and gulls. While further unexplained underlying localised variation in the environmental conditions will undoubtedly effect the fine-scale distribution of seabirds in near-shore waters we demonstrate the potential of this approach in marine planning and decision making. PMID:27031616

  10. Arctic wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltola, E. [Kemijoki Oy (Finland); Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Tammelin, B. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  11. Arctic wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  12. Development of Sensor Network for Ecology Observation of Seabirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Uchiyama, Shohei; Yamamoto, Maki; Nakamura, Katsuichi; Yamazaki, Katsuyuki

    It becomes so important to observe a wild life for obtaining not only knowledge of its biological behaviors but also interactions with human beings in terms of geoenvironmental investigation and assessment. A sensor network is considered to be a suitable and powerful tool to monitor and observe a wild life in fields. In order to monitor/observe seabirds, a sensor network is deployed in Awashima island, Japan. A sensor platform is useful for early and quick deployment in fields. Atlas, a server-client type sensor platform, is used with several sensors, i.e., infrared sensors, thermometers within a nest and a sound sensor. The experimental results and the first outcome of observation have been reported. Particularly emphasized is that an infrared sensor has detected a leaving and returning of seabirds, and has identified that a leaving and returning is affected by sunrises and sunsets. An infrared sensed data has also shown a chick's practice before flying to the south. These facts and knowledge have not been clearly obtained by observation of human beings, so have demonstrated the usefulness of sensor networking for ecology observations.

  13. White Arctic vs. Blue Arctic: Making Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Newton, R.; Schlosser, P.; Pomerance, R.; Tremblay, B.; Murray, M. S.; Gerrard, M.

    2015-12-01

    As the Arctic warms and shifts from icy white to watery blue and resource-rich, tension is arising between the desire to restore and sustain an ice-covered Arctic and stakeholder communities that hope to benefit from an open Arctic Ocean. If emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere continue on their present trend, most of the summer sea ice cover is projected to be gone by mid-century, i.e., by the time that few if any interventions could be in place to restore it. There are many local as well as global reasons for ice restoration, including for example, preserving the Arctic's reflectivity, sustaining critical habitat, and maintaining cultural traditions. However, due to challenges in implementing interventions, it may take decades before summer sea ice would begin to return. This means that future generations would be faced with bringing sea ice back into regions where they have not experienced it before. While there is likely to be interest in taking action to restore ice for the local, regional, and global services it provides, there is also interest in the economic advancement that open access brings. Dealing with these emerging issues and new combinations of stakeholders needs new approaches - yet environmental change in the Arctic is proceeding quickly and will force the issues sooner rather than later. In this contribution we examine challenges, opportunities, and responsibilities related to exploring options for restoring Arctic sea ice and potential pathways for their implementation. Negotiating responses involves international strategic considerations including security and governance, meaning that along with local communities, state decision-makers, and commercial interests, national governments will have to play central roles. While these issues are currently playing out in the Arctic, similar tensions are also emerging in other regions.

  14. Fluorinated organic compounds in an eastern Arctic marine food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomy, Gregg T; Budakowski, Wes; Halldorson, Thor; Helm, Paul A; Stern, Gary A; Friesen, Ken; Pepper, Karen; Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Fisk, Aaron T

    2004-12-15

    An eastern Arctic marine food web was analyzed for perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS, C8F17SO3-), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, C7F15COO-), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA, C8F17SO2NH2), and N-ethylperfluorooctane sulfonamide (N-EtPFOSA, C8F17SO2NHCH2CH3) to examine the extent of bioaccumulation. PFOS was detected in all species analyzed, and mean concentrations ranged from 0.28 +/- 0.09 ng/g (arithmetic mean +/- 1 standard error, wet wt, whole body) in clams (Mya truncata) to 20.2 +/- 3.9 ng/g (wet wt, liver) in glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). PFOA was detected in approximately 40% of the samples analyzed at concentrations generally smaller than those found for PFOS; the greatest concentrations were observed in zooplankton (2.6 +/- 0.3 ng/g, wet wt). N-EtPFOSA was detected in all species except redfish with mean concentrations ranging from 0.39 +/- 0.07 ng/g (wet wt) in mixed zooplankton to 92.8 +/- 41.9 ng/g (wet wt) in Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida). This is the first report of N-EtPFOSA in Arctic biota. PFOSA was only detected in livers of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) (20.9 +/- 7.9 ng/g, wet wt) and narwhal (Monodon monoceros) (6.2 +/- 2.3 ng/g, wet wt), suggesting that N-EtPFOSA and other PFOSA-type precursors are likely present but are being biotransformed to PFOSA. A positive linear relationship was found between PFOS concentrations (wet wt) and trophic level (TL), based on delta15N values, (r2 = 0.51, p 1, suggesting potential for these compounds to biomagnify. The presence of perfluorinated compounds in seabirds and mammals provides evidence that trophic transfer is an important exposure route of these chemicals to Arctic biota. PMID:15669302

  15. Marine wind farms and seabirds. Updated national screening of potential conflict areas; Offshore vindenergianlegg og sjoefugl. Oppdatert screening av potensielle konfliktomraader paa nasjonal skala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Signe; Lorentsen, Svein-Haakon; Hanssen, Frank; Systad, Geir Helge

    2011-07-01

    10’th factor in this analysis; the regional proportions of the national populations of each species involved. Combined with a measure of density or relative proportion of the relevant species in an area, a wind farm sensitivity index (WSI) is created. The WSI can be summed for all species found in the area at different times of the year to give a total WSI for seabirds. The existing data for seabirds in winter and in the breeding season was of sufficient quality to be used for this method. While working with the update of the screening on a National scale we realized that the scope were much more challenging than anticipated. The Norwegian coastline, spanning 13 degrees of latitude, is extremely variable with respect to sea temperatures, sea currents, topography, seabird habitats and the distribution of seabird species (e.g. Barrett et al. 2006; Forsgren et al. 2009). The Barents Sea is known for its large numbers of especially auks, whereas the seabird fauna in the south is dominated by smaller colonies of gulls (Barrett et al. 2006). In order to avoid that the large numbers of seabirds in north completely masked the smaller numbers in south we decided to perform a regional analysis of seabird vulnerability, with the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea as the regions analyzed. The results are presented in maps, where the WSI is given for 10x10 km squares. The results demonstrate a clear difference in vulnerability between the regions and the seasons (overwintering, breeding). Compared with the previous analysis (Christensen-Dalsgaard et al. 2010) the present, regional assessment, caused more areas to be defined as vulnerable. Among the areas that were defined as vulnerable in the current analysis many were breeding areas along the Helgeland coast that were defined as important in earlier work (e. g. Systad et al. 2007, Christensen-Dalsgaard et al. 2008). In the North Sea more areas were identified as vulnerable in the wintering season indicating that

  16. Colonial American Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Donald K.

    2007-12-01

    While a foundation of German scientific methods enabled the rapid growth of North American Astronomy in the nineteenth century, during the seventeenth and most of the eighteenth centuries, the colonial men of science looked only to the English mother country for scientific patronage and guidance. An essay on fundamental astronomy appeared in one of the annual colonial almanacs as early as 1656, telescopic observations were made about 1660 and the first original colonial astronomical work was published by Thomas Danforth on the comet of 1664. By 1671 the Copernican ideas were so espoused at Harvard College that a physics class refused to read a Ptolemaic textbook when it was assigned to them by a senior instructor. At least in the Cambridge-Boston area, contemporary colonialist had access to the most recent scientific publications from the mother country. Observations of the great comet of 1680 by the Almanac maker, John Foster, reached Isaac Newton and were used and gratefully acknowledged in his Principia. During the seventeenth century the colonial interest in astronomy was more intense than it was for other sciences but colonists still occupied a position in the scientific backwater when compared with contemporary European scientists. Nevertheless, the science of astronomy was successfully transplanted from England to North America in the seventeenth century.

  17. Breeding seabirds at Gull Island and Sixty-foot Rock during 1987-88

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a series of breeding seabird surveys taken on Gull Island and Sixty-foot Rock during 1987 and 1988. A description of the study...

  18. Litter and seabirds found across a longitudinal gradient in the South Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Urbina, Diego; Thiel, Martin; Luna-Jorquera, Guillermo

    2015-07-15

    Abundances and composition of marine litter and seabirds were estimated in the central South Pacific (SP) Ocean between the Chilean continental coast and the Easter Island Ecoregion. Litter was dominated by plastics throughout the study area, but the proportion of plastics was higher at sea and on the oceanic islands than in coastal waters and on continental beaches. Litter densities were higher close to the center of the SP subtropical gyre compared to the continental coast. The seabird assemblage was diverse (28 species), and several endemic species were recorded. Seabird abundances were higher in the coastal waters and around Juan Fernández Islands off the continental coast than in the Oceanic and Polynesian sectors. Endangered species breeding on Salas & Gómez Island were observed in the Polynesian sector, which suggests a high potential for negative interactions between seabirds and floating litter, both occurring in high densities in this sector. PMID:25998727

  19. Distribution and abundance of breeding seabirds in Chiniak and southern Marmot Bays, Kodiak Island, Alaska, 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A census survey of breeding seabirds was conducted by boat and airplane in Chiniak and southern Marmot Bays, Kodiak Island, Alaska, from 15 June to 14 August 1975....

  20. Results of the 1986 seabird monitoring program at Cape Lisburne, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the results of the 1986 seabird monitoring program at Cape Lisburne, Alaska. Objectives of this reports includes determining reproductive...

  1. Distribution and abundance of seabirds over marine waters of the eastern Aleutian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Like the Pribilof Islands, the eastern Aleutian islands are located rather strategically in an area where seabirds have short flying time access to a variety of...

  2. Seabird diversity hotspot linked to ocean productivity in the Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecian, W James; Witt, Matthew J; Attrill, Martin J; Bearhop, Stuart; Becker, Peter H; Egevang, Carsten; Furness, Robert W; Godley, Brendan J; González-Solís, Jacob; Grémillet, David; Kopp, Matthias; Lescroël, Amélie; Matthiopoulos, Jason; Patrick, Samantha C; Peter, Hans-Ulrich; Phillips, Richard A; Stenhouse, Iain J; Votier, Stephen C

    2016-08-01

    Upwelling regions are highly productive habitats targeted by wide-ranging marine predators and industrial fisheries. In this study, we track the migratory movements of eight seabird species from across the Atlantic; quantify overlap with the Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME) and determine the habitat characteristics that drive this association. Our results indicate the CCLME is a biodiversity hotspot for migratory seabirds; all tracked species and more than 70% of individuals used this upwelling region. Relative species richness peaked in areas where sea surface temperature averaged between 15 and 20°C, and correlated positively with chlorophyll a, revealing the optimum conditions driving bottom-up trophic effects for seabirds. Marine vertebrates are not confined by international boundaries, making conservation challenging. However, by linking diversity to ocean productivity, our research reveals the significance of the CCLME for seabird populations from across the Atlantic, making it a priority for conservation action. PMID:27531154

  3. The historical status of nesting seabirds of the northern and western Gulf of Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The coming of the tanker terminal at Valdez and the pending development of oil and gas resources on the outer continental shelf threaten massive change for seabirds...

  4. Widespread mortality of adult seabirds in Alaska, August-September 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A widespread die-off of adult seabirds, affecting primarily the black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), and short-tailed shearwater (Puffinus tenuirostris),...

  5. Investigation of the distribution of seabirds at sea: First annual report, November 1979 to November 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Many species of seabird which occur in Britain spend a large proportion of their lives at sea away from the nest sites. A research program was established, to...

  6. An effort to trap mink in Maine to protect nesting Seabirds 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mink were trapped off the seabird nesting islands south east of Vinalhaven, Maine outer Penobscot Bay during the late 1990s, and the local Black Guillemot...

  7. Arctic Environmental Data Directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Arctic Environmental Data Directory (AEDD) is being developed in cooperation with the US Global Change Research Plan. The AEDD Working Group, with members from US and Canadian agencies and academia, have described more than 300 Arctic data sets in a subset of an online data directory maintained by the US Geological Survey (USGS), ESDD (the Earth Science Data Directory). Through various links known as the Inter-operable Directory, the contents of AEDD are made available to scientists who use the NASA, NOAA, NSF and USGS data directories. Thus, scientists studying global change have access to Arctic data, and scientists studying the Arctic have access to global change data. The AEDD Working Group has sponsored development of a prototype Compact Disc Read Only Memory (CDROM) containing the indexed contents of the AEDD. Named Arctic Data Interactive (ADI), the disc was developed for use on Apple Macintosh and IBM PC-compatible computers, and uses a graphical and intuitive hypermedia user interface. The disc also contains portions of an Arctic Bibliography prepared in concert with the Polar Library Colloquy, sample full-text articles with illustrations, and selected data sets, including tabular data, text, and imagery. The ADI prototype is prepared as a model for organizing, presenting and distributing large quantities of Arctic and global change data and information to the science community. It is intended to be the first series of CDROMs with a consistent graphic design and user interface to place Arctic data and information on the desktop. The data are packaged with a powerful set of intuitive tools to navigate through and preview data sets from many disciplines and institutions. AEDD and ADI are sponsored by the Inter-agency Arctic Research Policy Committee and the Inter-agency Working Group on Data Management for Global Change, with guidance from the US Arctic Research Commission

  8. Patterns and mechanisms of seabird-environment interactions in southern Africa : population and individual studies

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The interactions between seabirds and their environment, notably their prey, include complex spatial patterns and mechanisms that span over different scales of processes (e.g. physiology, behaviour, population). To understand large-scale patterns in seabird populations it is necessary to develop insight in the respective fields of study of physiology, behaviour and population ecology, and to reconcile these levels. Working along this line of research, I propose in this thesis to appreciate se...

  9. Contrasted structuring effects of mesoscale features on the seabird community in the Mozambique Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Jaquemet, Sébastien; Ternon, Jean-François; Kaehler, S; Thiebot, J. B.; Dyer, B.; Bemanaja, E.; Marteau, C.; Le Corre, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Mozambique Channel (western Indian Ocean) is a dynamic environment characterised by strong mesoscale features, which influence all biological components of the pelagic ecosystem. We investigated the distribution, abundance and feeding behaviour of seabirds in the Mozambique Channel in relation to physical and biological environmental variables, with a specific interest in mesoscale features. Seabird censuses were conducted in summer and winter during 7 cruises in the southern and northern...

  10. Sex-specific foraging behavior in response to fishing activities in a threatened seabird

    OpenAIRE

    García-Tarrasón, Manuel; Bécares, Juan; Bateman, Santiago; Arcos, José Manuel; Jover, Lluís; Sanpera, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Some seabird species have learnt to efficiently exploit fishing discards from trawling activities. However, a discard ban has been proposed as necessary in Europe to ensure the sustainability of the seas. It is of crucial importance for the management and conservation purposes to study the potential consequences of a discard ban on the foraging ecology of threatened seabirds. We assessed the influence of fishing activities on the feeding habits of 22 male and 15 female Audouin's gulls (Larus ...

  11. Predictive Modelling to Identify Near-Shore, Fine-Scale Seabird Distributions during the Breeding Season

    OpenAIRE

    Warwick-Evans, Victoria C.; Atkinson, Philip W.; Robinson, Leonie A.; Green, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    During the breeding season seabirds are constrained to coastal areas and are restricted in their movements, spending much of their time in near-shore waters either loafing or foraging. However, in using these areas they may be threatened by anthropogenic activities such as fishing, watersports and coastal developments including marine renewable energy installations. Although many studies describe large scale interactions between seabirds and the environment, the drivers behind near-shore, fin...

  12. Threat of plastic pollution to seabirds is global, pervasive, and increasing

    OpenAIRE

    Wilcox, Chris; van Sebille, Erik; Hardesty, Britta Denise

    2015-01-01

    Plastic pollution in the ocean is a rapidly emerging global environmental concern, with high concentrations (up to 580,000 pieces per km2) and a global distribution, driven by exponentially increasing production. Seabirds are particularly vulnerable to this type of pollution and are widely observed to ingest floating plastic. We used a mixture of literature surveys, oceanographic modeling, and ecological models to predict the risk of plastic ingestion to 186 seabird species globally. Impacts ...

  13. An assessment of the toxicological significance of anthropogenic contaminants in Canadian arctic wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, Aaron T; de Wit, Cynthia A; Wayland, Mark; Kuzyk, Zou Zou; Burgess, Neil; Letcher, Robert; Braune, Birgit; Norstrom, Ross; Blum, Susan Polischuk; Sandau, Courtney; Lie, Elisabeth; Larsen, Hans Jørgen S; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Muir, Derek C G

    2005-12-01

    Anthropogenic contaminants have been a concern in the Canadian arctic for over 30 years due to relatively high concentrations of bioaccumulating and biomagnifying organochlorine contaminants (OCs) and toxic metals found in some arctic biota and humans. However, few studies have addressed the potential effects of these contaminants in Canadian arctic wildlife. Prior to 1997, biological effects data were minimal and insufficient at any level of biological organization. The present review summarizes recent studies on biological effects related to contaminant exposure, and compares new tissue concentration data to threshold effects levels. Weak relationships between cadmium, mercury and selenium burdens and health biomarkers in common eider ducks (Somateria mollissima borealis) in Nunavut were found but it was concluded that metals were not influencing the health of these birds. Black guillemots (Cepphus grylle) examined near PCB-contaminated Saglek Bay, Labrador, had enlarged livers, elevated EROD and liver lipid levels and reduced retinol (vitamin A) and retinyl palmitate levels, which correlated to PCB levels in the birds. Circulating levels of thyroid hormones in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were correlated to PCB and HO-PCB plasma concentrations, but the impact at the population level is unknown. High PCB and organochlorine pesticide concentrations were found to be strongly associated with impaired humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in polar bears, implying an increased infection risk that could impact the population. In beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), cytochromes P450 (phase I) and conjugating (phase II) enzymes have been extensively profiled (immunochemically and catalytically) in liver, demonstrating the importance of contaminants in relation to enzyme induction, metabolism and potential contaminant bioactivation and fate. Concentrations of OCs and metals in arctic terrestrial wildlife, fish and seabirds are generally below effects thresholds

  14. An assessment of the toxicological significance of anthropogenic contaminants in Canadian arctic wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthropogenic contaminants have been a concern in the Canadian arctic for over 30 years due to relatively high concentrations of bioaccumulating and biomagnifying organochlorine contaminants (OCs) and toxic metals found in some arctic biota and humans. However, few studies have addressed the potential effects of these contaminants in Canadian arctic wildlife. Prior to 1997, biological effects data were minimal and insufficient at any level of biological organization. The present review summarizes recent studies on biological effects related to contaminant exposure, and compares new tissue concentration data to threshold effects levels. Weak relationships between cadmium, mercury and selenium burdens and health biomarkers in common eider ducks (Somateria mollissima borealis) in Nunavut were found but it was concluded that metals were not influencing the health of these birds. Black guillemots (Cepphus grylle) examined near PCB-contaminated Saglek Bay, Labrador, had enlarged livers, elevated EROD and liver lipid levels and reduced retinol (vitamin A) and retinyl palmitate levels, which correlated to PCB levels in the birds. Circulating levels of thyroid hormones in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were correlated to PCB and HO-PCB plasma concentrations, but the impact at the population level is unknown. High PCB and organochlorine pesticide concentrations were found to be strongly associated with impaired humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in polar bears, implying an increased infection risk that could impact the population. In beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), cytochromes P450 (phase I) and conjugating (phase II) enzymes have been extensively profiled (immunochemically and catalytically) in liver, demonstrating the importance of contaminants in relation to enzyme induction, metabolism and potential contaminant bioactivation and fate. Concentrations of OCs and metals in arctic terrestrial wildlife, fish and seabirds are generally below effects thresholds

  15. An assessment of the toxicological significance of anthropogenic contaminants in Canadian arctic wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, Aaron T. [Warnell School of Forest Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2152 (United States)]. E-mail: afisk@forestry.uga.edu; Wit, Cynthia A. de [Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Wayland, Mark [Prairie and Northern Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, 115 Perimeter Rd., Saskatoon, SK, S7N 0X4 (Canada); Kuzyk, Zou Zou [Environmental Sciences Group, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada); Burgess, Neil [Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, 6 Bruce St. Mt. Pearl, NL, A1N4T3 (Canada); Letcher, Robert [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Braune, Birgit [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Norstrom, Ross [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Blum, Susan Polischuk [Office of Research Services, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 4J8 (Canada); Sandau, Courtney [Jacques Whitford Limited, Calgary, AB, T2R 0E4 (Canada); Lie, Elisabeth [National Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 8156, Dep 0033, Oslo (Norway); Larsen, Hans Jorgen S. [Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, P.O. Box 8146, Dep 0033, Oslo (Norway); Skaare, Janneche Utne [National Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 8156, Dep 0033, Oslo (Norway); Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, P.O. Box 8146, Dep 0033, Oslo (Norway); Muir, Derek C.G. [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2005-12-01

    Anthropogenic contaminants have been a concern in the Canadian arctic for over 30 years due to relatively high concentrations of bioaccumulating and biomagnifying organochlorine contaminants (OCs) and toxic metals found in some arctic biota and humans. However, few studies have addressed the potential effects of these contaminants in Canadian arctic wildlife. Prior to 1997, biological effects data were minimal and insufficient at any level of biological organization. The present review summarizes recent studies on biological effects related to contaminant exposure, and compares new tissue concentration data to threshold effects levels. Weak relationships between cadmium, mercury and selenium burdens and health biomarkers in common eider ducks (Somateria mollissima borealis) in Nunavut were found but it was concluded that metals were not influencing the health of these birds. Black guillemots (Cepphus grylle) examined near PCB-contaminated Saglek Bay, Labrador, had enlarged livers, elevated EROD and liver lipid levels and reduced retinol (vitamin A) and retinyl palmitate levels, which correlated to PCB levels in the birds. Circulating levels of thyroid hormones in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were correlated to PCB and HO-PCB plasma concentrations, but the impact at the population level is unknown. High PCB and organochlorine pesticide concentrations were found to be strongly associated with impaired humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in polar bears, implying an increased infection risk that could impact the population. In beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), cytochromes P450 (phase I) and conjugating (phase II) enzymes have been extensively profiled (immunochemically and catalytically) in liver, demonstrating the importance of contaminants in relation to enzyme induction, metabolism and potential contaminant bioactivation and fate. Concentrations of OCs and metals in arctic terrestrial wildlife, fish and seabirds are generally below effects thresholds

  16. Dutch colonial anthropology in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Buskens, L.P.H.M.; Kommers, J.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Attempts to assess the results of colonial anthropology in Indonesia faced some problems, which, until recently, have not been dealt with properly. Therefore, in a newly published comprehensive history of anthropology in the Netherlands, several studies focused on the character, rather than on the substance of colonial anthropology. In the case of Dutch colonial representations of Indonesia, 'colonial anthropology' appears to be an assemblage of various disciplines that constituted a fragment...

  17. Differential responses of seabirds to inter-annual environmental change in the continental shelf and oceanic habitats of southeastern Bering Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yamamoto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal sea-ice cover has been decreasing in the southeastern Bering Sea shelf, which might affect ecosystem dynamics and availability of food resources to marine top predators breeding in the region. In this study, we investigated the foraging responses of two seabird species, surface-foraging red-legged kittiwakes Rissa brevirostris (hereafter, RLKI and pursuit-diving foraging thick-billed murres Uria lomvia (TBMU to the inter-annual change in environmental conditions. Between the study years, winter ice retreated earlier and summer water temperatures were warmer in 2014 compared to those in 2013. At-sea distributions of RLKI and TBMU breeding on St. George Island, the largest seabird colony in the region, were recorded using GPS loggers, and blood samples were taken to examine their physiological condition and isotopic foraging niche in a given year. RLKI foraging occurred mostly over the oceanic basin in both years. TBMU, however, foraged mostly over the shelf, but showed a relatively higher use of the shelf break and oceanic basin in the colder year, 2013. The foraging distances from the colony peaked at 250–300 km in 2013 and, bimodally, at 150–250 and 300–350 km in 2014 for RLKI, and tended to be farther in 2013 compared to those in 2014 for TBMU. Plasma levels of corticosterone did not differ between years in RLKI, but differed in TBMU, showing higher levels of physiological stress incurred by murres during the colder year, 2013. δ13N (a proxy of trophic level of prey did not differ between the years in either RLKI or TBMU, while δ13C (a proxy of prey origin were lower in 2014 than in 2013 in both species, suggesting possible differences in influx of oceanic prey items into foraging areas. These results suggest that the response of ecosystem dynamics to climate variability in the southeast Bering Sea may differ between the ocean basin and continental shelf regions, which, in turn, may generate differential responses in seabirds

  18. Seabird mortality from longline fishing in the Mediterranean Sea and Macaronesian waters: a review and a way forward

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, John; Baccetti, Nicola; Belda, Eduardo Jorge; Borg, John J.; Oro, Daniel; PAPACONSTANTINOU, Costas; Sánchez, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    [EN] A country-by-country review of seabird mortality from longline fishing in the Mediterranean Sea and in Macaronesian waters shows a paucity of data. Of 12 Mediterranean countries known to undertake longlining, seabird mortality is only reported for six: France, Greece, Italy, Malta, Spain and Tunisia. Seabird mortality from longlining has been reported from the Azores (Portugal) but not from the other Macaronesian Islands. Only for one country, Spain, is information on the levels of morta...

  19. A traditional and a less-invasive robust design: choices in optimizing effort allocation for seabird population studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, S.J.; Kendall, W.L.; Doherty, P.F., Jr.; Naughton, M.B.; Hines, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    For many animal populations, one or more life stages are not accessible to sampling, and therefore an unobservable state is created. For colonially-breeding populations, this unobservable state could represent the subset of adult breeders that have foregone breeding in a given year. This situation applies to many seabird populations, notably albatrosses, where skipped breeders are either absent from the colony, or are present but difficult to capture or correctly assign to breeding state. Kendall et al. have proposed design strategies for investigations of seabird demography where such temporary emigration occurs, suggesting the use of the robust design to permit the estimation of time-dependent parameters and to increase the precision of estimates from multi-state models. A traditional robust design, where animals are subject to capture multiple times in a sampling season, is feasible in many cases. However, due to concerns that multiple captures per season could cause undue disturbance to animals, Kendall et al. developed a less-invasive robust design (LIRD), where initial captures are followed by an assessment of the ratio of marked-to-unmarked birds in the population or sampled plot. This approach has recently been applied in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands to populations of Laysan (Phoebastria immutabilis) and black-footed (P. nigripes) albatrosses. In this paper, we outline the LIRD and its application to seabird population studies. We then describe an approach to determining optimal allocation of sampling effort in which we consider a non-robust design option (nRD), and variations of both the traditional robust design (RD), and the LIRD. Variations we considered included the number of secondary sampling occasions for the RD and the amount of total effort allocated to the marked-to-unmarked ratio assessment for the LIRD. We used simulations, informed by early data from the Hawaiian study, to address optimal study design for our example cases. We found that

  20. Arctic Climate Systems Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivey, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robinson, David G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boslough, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Backus, George A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peterson, Kara J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); van Bloemen Waanders, Bart G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swiler, Laura Painton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Desilets, Darin Maurice [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reinert, Rhonda Karen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This study began with a challenge from program area managers at Sandia National Laboratories to technical staff in the energy, climate, and infrastructure security areas: apply a systems-level perspective to existing science and technology program areas in order to determine technology gaps, identify new technical capabilities at Sandia that could be applied to these areas, and identify opportunities for innovation. The Arctic was selected as one of these areas for systems level analyses, and this report documents the results. In this study, an emphasis was placed on the arctic atmosphere since Sandia has been active in atmospheric research in the Arctic since 1997. This study begins with a discussion of the challenges and benefits of analyzing the Arctic as a system. It goes on to discuss current and future needs of the defense, scientific, energy, and intelligence communities for more comprehensive data products related to the Arctic; assess the current state of atmospheric measurement resources available for the Arctic; and explain how the capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories can be used to address the identified technological, data, and modeling needs of the defense, scientific, energy, and intelligence communities for Arctic support.

  1. Distribution and at-sea activity of a nocturnal seabird, the Bulwer's petrel Bulweria bulwerii, during the incubation period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maria P.; Romero, Joana; Granadeiro, José Pedro; Catry, Teresa; Pollet, Ingrid L.; Catry, Paulo

    2016-07-01

    Bulwer's petrels are nocturnal seabirds that mostly prey on mesopelagic fauna. As aerial foragers and shallow divers, their feeding opportunities are limited by near-surface availability of their prey, which is highly variable both temporally (reflecting diurnal and lunar cycles) and spatially. Here we studied how Bulwer's petrels cope with these constraints by analysing their at-sea distribution and activity during the incubation period. We tracked the movements of 20 birds from Selvagem Grande (NE Atlantic) during a complete lunar cycle, and recorded 30 foraging trips that lasted 11 days on average. Birds were both distributed around the colony and in waters close to the Azorean archipelago (mid-Atlantic) located 1700 km away, and were significantly more active at night (especially just after sunset and before sunrise), when mesopelagic fauna is also closer to the sea surface due to their diel vertical migrations. Bulwer's petrels spent significantly more time flying during moonlight, although the effect of the moon was relatively weak (ca. 10-15% difference between moonlit and dark periods of the night), and not obvious when birds were foraging in mid-Atlantic waters, which were also targeted more often during full-moon. These results reveal key adaptations of the Bulwer's petrel to the highly dynamic ecology of its mesopelagic prey.

  2. Information use in colonial living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Julian C; Votier, Stephen C; Dall, Sasha R X

    2016-08-01

    Despite the fact that many animals live in groups, there is still no clear consensus about the ecological or evolutionary mechanisms underlying colonial living. Recently, research has suggested that colonies may be important as sources of social information. The ready availability of information from conspecifics allows animals to make better decisions about avoiding predators, reducing brood parasitism, migratory phenology, mate choice, habitat choice and foraging. These choices can play a large part in the development and maintenance of colonies. Here we review the types of information provided by colonial animals and examine the different ways in which decision-making in colonies can be enhanced by social information. We discuss what roles information might take in the evolution, formation and maintenance of colonies. In the process, we illustrate that information use permeates all aspects of colonial living. PMID:25882618

  3. Seabirds, gyres and global trends in plastic pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franeker, van J.A.; Law, K.L.

    2015-01-01

    Fulmars are effective biological indicators of the abundance of floating plastic marine debris. Long-term data reveal high plastic abundance in the southern North Sea, gradually decreasing to the north at increasing distance from population centres, with lowest levels in high-arctic waters. Since th

  4. Buying years to extinction: is compensatory mitigation for marine bycatch a sufficient conservation measure for long-lived seabirds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Igual

    Full Text Available Along the lines of the 'polluter pays principle', it has recently been proposed that the local long-line fishing industry should fund eradication of terrestrial predators at seabird breeding colonies, as a compensatory measure for the bycatch caused by the fishing activity. The measure is economically sound, but a quantitative and reliable test of its biological efficacy has never been conducted. Here, we investigated the demographic consequences of predator eradication for Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea, breeding in the Mediterranean, using a population model that integrates demographic rates estimated from individual life-history information with experimental measures of predation and habitat structure. We found that similar values of population growth rate can be obtained by different combinations of habitat characteristics, predator abundance and adult mortality, which explains the persistence of shearwater colonies in islands with introduced predators. Even so, given the empirically obtained values of survival, all combinations of predator abundance and habitat characteristics projected a decline in shearwater numbers. Perturbation analyses indicated that the value and the sensitivity of shearwater population growth rates were affected by all covariates considered and their interactions. A decrease in rat abundance delivered only a small increase in the population growth rate, whereas a change in adult survival (a parameter independent of rat abundance had the strongest impact on population dynamics. When adult survival is low, rat eradication would allow us to "buy" years before extinction but does not reverse the process. Rat eradication can therefore be seen as an emergency measure if threats on adult survival are eliminated in the medium-term period. For species with low fecundity and long life expectancy, our results suggest that rat control campaigns are not a sufficient, self-standing measure to compensate the biological toll

  5. Arctic Shipping Emissions in the Changing Climate

    OpenAIRE

    Vihanninjoki, Vesa

    2014-01-01

    Due to the Arctic climate change and the related diminishing of Arctic sea ice cover, the general conditions for Arctic shipping are changing. The retreat of Arctic sea ice opens up new routes for maritime transportation, both trans-Arctic passages and new alternatives within the Arctic region. Hence the amount of Arctic shipping is presumed to increase. Despite the observed development, the sailing conditions in the Arctic waters will remain challenging. Thus particular attention will be ...

  6. Arctic Bathymetry (batharcst)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The digitally compiled map includes geology, oil and gas field centerpoints, and geologic provinces of the Arctic (North Pole area encircled by 640 N Latitude). The...

  7. Live from the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, W. K.; Haines-Stiles, G.; Warburton, J.; Sunwood, K.

    2003-12-01

    For reasons of geography and geophysics, the poles of our planet, the Arctic and Antarctica, are places where climate change appears first: they are global canaries in the mine shaft. But while Antarctica (its penguins and ozone hole, for example) has been relatively well-documented in recent books, TV programs and journalism, the far North has received somewhat less attention. This project builds on and advances what has been done to date to share the people, places, and stories of the North with all Americans through multiple media, over several years. In a collaborative project between the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) and PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE, Live from the Arctic will bring the Arctic environment to the public through a series of primetime broadcasts, live and taped programming, interactive virtual field trips, and webcasts. The five-year project will culminate during the 2007-2008 International Polar Year (IPY). Live from the Arctic will: A. Promote global understanding about the value and world -wide significance of the Arctic, B. Bring cutting-edge research to both non-formal and formal education communities, C. Provide opportunities for collaboration between arctic scientists, arctic communities, and the general public. Content will focus on the following four themes. 1. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts on Land (i.e. snow cover; permafrost; glaciers; hydrology; species composition, distribution, and abundance; subsistence harvesting) 2. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts in the Sea (i.e. salinity, temperature, currents, nutrients, sea ice, marine ecosystems (including people, marine mammals and fisheries) 3. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts in the Atmosphere (i.e. precipitation and evaporation; effects on humans and their communities) 4. Global Perspectives (i.e. effects on humans and communities, impacts to rest of the world) In The Earth is Faster Now, a recent collection of comments by members of indigenous arctic peoples, arctic

  8. Arctic_Bathymetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Models project the Arctic Ocean will become undersaturated with respect to carbonate minerals in the next decade. Recent field results indicate parts may already be...

  9. Arctic survey, 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a survey and game patrol conducted to twelve villages in the Arctic from April 24 to May 2 1957. The report covers animals take for income...

  10. Arctic Geology (geoarcst)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The digitally compiled map includes geology, oil and gas field centerpoints, and geologic provinces of the Arctic (North Pole area encircled by 640 N Latitude). The...

  11. Correlating seabird movements with ocean winds: linking satellite telemetry with ocean scatterometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Josh; Flora, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Satellite telemetry studies of the movements of seabirds are now common and have revealed impressive flight capabilities and extensive distributions among individuals and species at sea. Linking seabird movements with environmental conditions over vast expanses of the world's open ocean, however, remains difficult. Seabirds of the order Procellariiformes (e.g., petrels, albatrosses, and shearwaters) depend largely on wind and wave energy for efficient flight. We present a new method for quantifying the movements of far-ranging seabirds in relation to ocean winds measured by the SeaWinds scatterometer onboard the QuikSCAT satellite. We apply vector correlation (as defined by Crosby et al. in J Atm Ocean Tech 10:355-367, 1993) to evaluate how the trajectories (ground speed and direction) for five procellariiform seabirds outfitted with satellite transmitters are related to ocean winds. Individual seabirds (Sooty Shearwater, Pink-footed Shearwater, Hawaiian Petrel, Grey-faced Petrel, and Black-footed Albatross) all traveled predominantly with oblique, isotropic crossing to quartering tail-winds (i.e., 105-165 degrees in relation to birds' trajectory). For all five seabirds, entire track line trajectories were significantly correlated with co-located winds. Greatest correlations along 8-day path segments were related to wind patterns during birds' directed, long-range migration (Sooty Shearwater) as well as movements associated with mega-scale meteorological phenomena, including Pacific Basin anticyclones (Hawaiian Petrel, Grey-faced Petrel) and eastward-propagating north Pacific cyclones (Black-footed Albatross). Wind strength and direction are important factors related to the overall movements that delineate the distribution of petrels at sea. We suggest that vector correlation can be used to quantify movements for any marine vertebrate when tracking and environmental data (winds or currents) are of sufficient quality and sample size. Vector correlation coefficients

  12. Arctic Tourism: Realities & Possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Pashkevich, Albina

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses human capital in the Arctic in relation to tourism. More specifically, with an ever-increasing number oftourists recognizing the attractiveness of the Arctic, tour companies are increasingly recognizing the opportunities. The media(typically southern media) sells the image, either before or after the tourists arrive, and communities are often left to deal with therepercussions – whether those are social, economic, environmental, or the like. Many of the repercussions are ...

  13. Arctic freshwater synthesis: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prowse, T.; Bring, A.; Mârd, J.; Carmack, E.

    2015-11-01

    In response to a joint request from the World Climate Research Program's Climate and Cryosphere Project, the International Arctic Science Committee, and the Arctic Council's Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program, an updated scientific assessment has been conducted of the Arctic Freshwater System (AFS), entitled the Arctic Freshwater Synthesis (AFSΣ). The major reason for joint request was an increasing concern that changes to the AFS have produced, and could produce even greater, changes to biogeophysical and socioeconomic systems of special importance to northern residents and also produce extra-Arctic climatic effects that will have global consequences. Hence, the key objective of the AFSΣ was to produce an updated, comprehensive, and integrated review of the structure and function of the entire AFS. The AFSΣ was organized around six key thematic areas: atmosphere, oceans, terrestrial hydrology, terrestrial ecology, resources and modeling, and the review of each coauthored by an international group of scientists and published as separate manuscripts in this special issue of Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences. This AFSΣ—Introduction reviews the motivations for, and foci of, previous studies of the AFS, discusses criteria used to define the domain of the AFS, and details key characteristics of the definition adopted for the AFSΣ.

  14. The Arctic Visiting Speakers Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Fahnestock, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic Visiting Speakers Program (AVS) is a program of the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS) and funded by the National Science Foundation. AVS provides small grants to researchers and other Arctic experts to travel and share their knowledge in communities where they might not otherwise connect. The program aims to: initiate and encourage arctic science education in communities with little exposure to arctic research; increase collaboration among the arctic research community; nurture communication between arctic researchers and community residents; and foster arctic science education at the local level. Individuals, community organizations, and academic organizations can apply to host a speaker. Speakers cover a wide range of arctic topics and can address a variety of audiences including K-12 students, graduate and undergraduate students, and the general public. Preference is given to tours that reach broad and varied audiences, especially those targeted to underserved populations. Between October 2000 and July 2013, AVS supported 114 tours spanning 9 different countries, including tours in 23 U.S. states. Tours over the past three and a half years have connected Arctic experts with over 6,600 audience members. Post-tour evaluations show that AVS consistently rates high for broadening interest and understanding of arctic issues. AVS provides a case study for how face-to-face interactions between arctic scientists and general audiences can produce high-impact results. Further information can be found at: http://www.arcus.org/arctic-visiting-speakers.

  15. Food and Coloniality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Albán Achinte

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The author tackles the alimentary dimension of life, as something that goes beyond the simple act of ingesting food to acquire nutrients, to concentrate on the cultural implications of eating. To eat is more than to feed oneself, for eating is never by itself a wholly innocent act; that is, eating is never completely stripped from the social relationships of those gathered around a table.From this perspective, the article examines coloniality in all its forms (of power, of knowledge and of being, and shows their function as mechanisms of both alimentary enunciation and classification, that are responsible of the gastronomic supplantation of produce and food from the New World with the goods and customs that were so dear to European settlers (not forgetting that the influx of products and seasonings went also in the other direction. The colonizing project included thus, besides its religious, political and administrative pretenses, a gastronomical element, to be found in the eagerness of the colonizers to reproduce the alimentary imprint of their homeland in the new found territories, at least as far as the circumstances and the climate allowed it. Among all the facets the production of knowledge can acquire, gastronomy has been poorly studied —not to say completely silenced— in its role as a token of cultural divides, in which a coloniality of flavors and palates has been carried out.

  16. Health status of seabirds and coastal birds found at the German North Sea coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siebert Ursula

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic pathological investigations to assess the health status of seabirds and coastal birds in Germany were performed. The investigation was conducted to obtain data on possible causes of decline in seabird and coastal bird populations. Methods 48 individuals of 11 different species of seabirds and coastal birds were collected by the stranding network along the entire German North Sea coast from 1997 to 2008, including mainly waders such as Eurasian oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus and red knots (Calidris canutus as well as seabirds such as northern fulmars (Fulmaris glacialis and common scoters (Melanitta nigra. For most birds (n = 31 found dead along the shore no obvious cause of death was evident, while 17 individuals were killed by collisions with lighthouses. Results Overall, the nutritional status of the investigated birds was very poor, and the body mass in most cases was significantly lower compared to masses of living birds caught during the same periods of the year. This is partly linked to chronic parasitic or bacterial infections in different organs or to septicaemia. In some cases infections with zoonotic tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium spp. were found. Avian influenza was not found in any of the collected birds. Conclusion The presented data contribute to the evaluation of the health status of birds in the German North Sea. Moreover, they present an important tool for the assessment of potential pathogens with an impact on the health status of seabirds and coastal birds.

  17. Assessing incidental bycatch of seabirds in Norwegian coastal commercial fisheries: Empirical and methodological lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin Fangel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With diminishing seabird populations and little knowledge on incidental bycatch in fisheries in the Northeast Atlantic, this study aimed to screen seabird bycatch in Norwegian coastal fisheries in 2009. The purpose was to 1 quantify magnitude of seabird bycatch rates and estimate total bycatch from the entire fleet by different estimators 2 evaluate data from an access point survey against monitoring data from a reference fleet as methods for collecting data on bycatch mortality of seabirds and 3 give advice on further bycatch studies. The study focused on three small-vessel fisheries (11 000 birds estimated caught. The black guillemot Cepphus gryllealso stood out as a numerous victim, constituting almost two thirds of the >3000 birds estimated to have drowned in lumpfish gillnets. The two methods were both considered to hold merit and yielded approximately similar estimates of the bycatch in the coastal cod fisheries, however BPUE differs. Further studies are recommended especially on the lumpfish gillnet and Greenland halibut longline fisheries and on temporal and spatial variations in bycatch. More studies are also needed to model effects on seabirds at the population level.

  18. Dutch Colonial Nostalgia Across Decolonisation

    OpenAIRE

    Bijl, P.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that nostalgia for colonialism in the Netherlands, the so called tempo doeloe culture, is not a specifically postcolonial phenomenon caused by the collapse of the Dutch empire in Asia. In fact, nostalgia for the Dutch East Indies can be traced back to the nineteenth century, when the colony was still being formed, and its current form can productively be described as a nostalgia for nostalgia. On a more general level, colonial nostalgia, which is often too easily dismissed...

  19. Arctic Rabies – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prestrud Pål

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Rabies seems to persist throughout most arctic regions, and the northern parts of Norway, Sweden and Finland, is the only part of the Arctic where rabies has not been diagnosed in recent time. The arctic fox is the main host, and the same arctic virus variant seems to infect the arctic fox throughout the range of this species. The epidemiology of rabies seems to have certain common characteristics in arctic regions, but main questions such as the maintenance and spread of the disease remains largely unknown. The virus has spread and initiated new epidemics also in other species such as the red fox and the racoon dog. Large land areas and cold climate complicate the control of the disease, but experimental oral vaccination of arctic foxes has been successful. This article summarises the current knowledge and the typical characteristics of arctic rabies including its distribution and epidemiology.

  20. An evaluation of oil spill responses for offshore oil production projects in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada: Implications for seabird conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Gail S; Racine, Vincent

    2016-06-15

    Seabirds are vulnerable to oil pollution, particularly in cold-water regions. We investigated the response of small spills (environmental assessments for oil production operations Environment Canada requested monitoring and mitigation of small spills potentially impacting seabird populations; suggestions supported by two independent reviews. An industry spill response plan states that operators would collect systematic observations on spills and deploy countermeasures where possible. Operators' spill reports were obtained under an Access to Information request. There were 220 daytime spills with sheens (out of 381 spills; 1997-2010). Of these, six reported time to oil dispersion and eleven the presence or absence of seabirds. Industry self-reporting has not permitted an evaluation of the impact of chronic oil spills on seabirds. We recommend that independent observers be placed on platforms to systematically collect data on spills and seabirds. PMID:27131965

  1. Modelling seabird collision risk with off-shore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateos, Maria; Arroyo, Gonzalo Munoz; Rosario, Jose Juan Alonso del

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Recent concern about the adverse effects of collision mortality of avian migrants at wind farms has highlighted the need to understand bird-wind turbine interactions. Here, a stochastic collision model, based on data of seabird behaviour collected on- site, is presented, as a flexible and easy to take tool to assess the collisions probabilities of off-shore wind farms in a pre-construction phase. The collision prediction model considering the wind farm area as a risk window has been constructed as a stochastic model for avian migrants, based on Monte Carlo simulation. The model calculates the probable number of birds collided per time unit. Migration volume, wind farm dimensions, vertical and horizontal distribution of the migratory passage, flight direction and avoidance rates, between other variables, are taken into account in different steps of the model as the input variables. In order to assess the weighted importance of these factors on collision probability predictions, collision probabilities obtained from the set of scenarios resulting from the different combinations of the input variables were modelled by using Generalised Additive Models. The application of this model to a hypothetical project for erecting a wind farm at the Strait of Gibraltar showed that collision probability, and consequently mortality rates, strongly depend on the values of the avoidance rates taken into account, and the distribution of birds into the different altitude layers. These parameters should be considered as priorities to be addressed in post-construction studies. (Author)

  2. Comparative phylogeography of brown (Sula leucogaster) and red-footed boobies (S. sula): the influence of physical barriers and habitat preference on gene flow in pelagic seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris-Pocock, J A; Steeves, T E; Estela, F A; Anderson, D J; Friesen, V L

    2010-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that both physical and ecological barriers to gene flow drive population differentiation in tropical seabirds, we surveyed mitochondrial control region variation in 242 brown boobies (Sula leucogaster), which prefer inshore habitat, and 271 red-footed boobies (S. sula), which prefer pelagic habitat. To determine the relative influence of isolation and gene flow on population structure, we used both traditional methods and a recently developed statistical method based on coalescent theory and Bayesian inference (Isolation with Migration). We found that global population genetic structure was high in both species, and that female-mediated gene flow among ocean basins apparently has been restricted by major physical barriers including the Isthmus of Panama, and the periodic emergence of the Sunda and Sahul Shelves in Southeast Asia. In contrast, the evolutionary history of populations within ocean basins differed markedly between the two species. In brown boobies, we found high levels of population genetic differentiation and limited gene flow among colonies, even at spatial scales as small as 500km. Although red-footed booby colonies were also genetically differentiated within ocean basins, coalescent analyses indicated that populations have either diverged in the face of ongoing gene flow, or diverged without gene flow but recently made secondary contact. Regardless, gene flow among red-footed booby populations was higher than among brown booby populations. We suggest that these contrasting patterns of gene flow within ocean basins may be explained by the different habitat preferences of brown and red-footed boobies. PMID:19931624

  3. Behavioural mapping of a pelagic seabird: combining multiple sensors and a hidden Markov model reveals the distribution of at-sea behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Ben

    2013-01-01

    The use of miniature data loggers is rapidly increasing our understanding of the movements and habitat preferences of pelagic seabirds. However, objectively interpreting behavioural information from the large volumes of highly detailed data collected by such devices can be challenging. We combined three biologging technologies—global positioning system (GPS), saltwater immersion and time–depth recorders—to build a detailed picture of the at-sea behaviour of the Manx shearwater (Puffinus puffinus) during the breeding season. We used a hidden Markov model to explore discrete states within the combined GPS and immersion data, and found that behaviour could be organized into three principal activities representing (i) sustained direct flight, (ii) sitting on the sea surface, and (iii) foraging, comprising tortuous flight interspersed with periods of immersion. The additional logger data verified that the foraging activity corresponded well to the occurrence of diving. Applying this approach to a large tracking dataset revealed that birds from two different colonies foraged in local waters that were exclusive, but overlapped in one key area: the Irish Sea Front (ISF). We show that the allocation of time to each activity differed between colonies, with birds breeding furthest from the ISF spending the greatest proportion of time engaged in direct flight and the smallest proportion of time engaged in foraging activity. This type of analysis has considerable potential for application in future biologging studies and in other taxa. PMID:23034356

  4. Seabird data collected by the Grand Banks offshore hydrocarbon industry 1999-2002 : results, limitations and suggestions for improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baillie, S.M.; Robertson, G.J. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Mount Pearl, NL (Canada); Wiese, F.K. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences; Williams, U.P. [Petro-Canada, East Coast Operations, St. John' s, NL (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Offshore oil operations attract and concentrate migratory seabirds through an artificially enhanced food supply and lights. In order to understand the vulnerability of seabirds near offshore oil facilities, the degree of association of seabirds with these sites must be determined. Offshore oil and gas exploration on Newfoundland's Grand Banks began in the early 1980s, with first oil produced in 1997 at the Hibernia fixed platform. Additional production followed in 2002 from the Terra Nova Floating Production Storage and Offloading Vessel. As the Grand Banks oil industry grows, seismic surveys continue to be conducted and an estimated 30,000 litres of crude oil and synthetic based drilling fluids have been spilled from exploration drilling, development drilling and production oil operations between 1997 and 2002. Most of the spills occurred in winter when the number of seabirds on the Grand Banks are highest and most vulnerable to oil pollution. This report presents an evaluation of the current Grand Banks offshore oil and gas development seabird monitoring programs. It focuses mostly on seabird monitoring on fixed platforms. The objective was to assess the scientific quality of seabird-related industry programs by compiling and summarizing all available spatial and temporal seabird abundance data and deck stranded birds associated with Grand Banks offshore oil platforms from 1997 to 2002. Data on seabird distributions at sea and stranded bird encounters was collected from 8 offshore hydrocarbon sites on the northeastern Grand Banks. It was recommended that a standardized seabird monitoring and observer training program for the offshore operations in the Grand Banks region be implemented. 43 refs., 5 tabs., 16 figs., 3 appendices.

  5. Seasonal Variation in the Abundance of Seabirds in Areas of Mariculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branco Joaquim Olinto

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Mariculture has emerged as a complementary income for small fishermen along the coast of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, causing significant alterations in the coastal landscape and creating a new substratum seabirds. From March 1998 to February 1999, 48 censuses were carried out at four sample times, registering an average annual occurrence of 4448.7 birds, distributed among five seabird species. Laridae dominated in diversity and abundance, contributing with 98.1% of the birds recorded. The number of birds per float varied depending on the time of day and season of the year, showing an average of 2.09/1. Seabirds use the mariculture area as a place to rest, to clean their feathers and to overnight.

  6. Effects of changes in sandeel availability on the reproductive output of seabirds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Wanless, S.; Harris, M.P.

    2000-01-01

    lower when availability peaked early. We speculate that these effects are linked to annual variations in sandeel Life history events and, in particular, to the onset of burying behaviour of 1+ group fish and the arrival of 0 group sandeels on the seabirds' feeding grounds. Although the timing of these......The lesser sandeel Ammodytes marinus is a key prey species for many marine birds in the North Sea. This fish is currently the target of the largest single species fishery in the area, and this has led to concern about the potential impact of the fishery on seabirds. There are 2 critical issues......: does the breeding success of seabirds depend on sandeel availability and does the fishery reduce sandeel availability to a level at which avian reproductive output is affected? This paper investigates the first question in detail and briefly touches on the second by testing for correlations between...

  7. Using seabird habitat modeling to inform marine spatial planning in central California's National Marine Sanctuaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer McGowan

    Full Text Available Understanding seabird habitat preferences is critical to future wildlife conservation and threat mitigation in California. The objective of this study was to investigate drivers of seabird habitat selection within the Gulf of the Farallones and Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuaries to identify areas for targeted conservation planning. We used seabird abundance data collected by the Applied California Current Ecosystem Studies Program (ACCESS from 2004-2011. We used zero-inflated negative binomial regression to model species abundance and distribution as a function of near surface ocean water properties, distances to geographic features and oceanographic climate indices to identify patterns in foraging habitat selection. We evaluated seasonal, inter-annual and species-specific variability of at-sea distributions for the five most abundant seabirds nesting on the Farallon Islands: western gull (Larus occidentalis, common murre (Uria aalge, Cassin's auklet (Ptychorampus aleuticus, rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata and Brandt's cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus. The waters in the vicinity of Cordell Bank and the continental shelf east of the Farallon Islands emerged as persistent and highly selected foraging areas across all species. Further, we conducted a spatial prioritization exercise to optimize seabird conservation areas with and without considering impacts of current human activities. We explored three conservation scenarios where 10, 30 and 50 percent of highly selected, species-specific foraging areas would be conserved. We compared and contrasted results in relation to existing marine protected areas (MPAs and the future alternative energy footprint identified by the California Ocean Uses Atlas. Our results show that the majority of highly selected seabird habitat lies outside of state MPAs where threats from shipping, oil spills, and offshore energy development remain. This analysis accentuates the need for innovative marine

  8. Colony Variation in Staphylococcus lugdunensis

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Michael J.; Nuttall, Nichalas; Pryce, Todd M.; Coombs, Geoffrey W; Pearman, John W.

    1998-01-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is being increasingly reported as a pathogen with an outcome resembling that of S. aureus rather than coagulase-negative staphylococci. Recent local isolates exhibited colonial variation that delayed identification and interpretation of clinical significance. Until now previous descriptions have not emphasized colonial variation as an important identifying characteristic of S. lugdunensis.

  9. Student Discipline in Colonial America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, John R.

    The basis for the severe discipline imposed on school children in colonial America, especially in the Puritan colonies, was the belief in original sin. The child was regarded as being born in sin and thus depraved and prone to sin. The purpose of education was to enable children to read the Bible and thus change the behavior which otherwise would…

  10. High levels of mercury and low levels of persistent organic pollutants in a tropical seabird in French Guiana, the Magnificent frigatebird, Fregata magnificens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiano, Manrico; Bustamante, Paco; Costantini, David; Eulaers, Igor; Malarvannan, Govindan; Mendez-Fernandez, Paula; Churlaud, Carine; Blévin, Pierre; Hauselmann, Antoine; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Covaci, Adrian; Eens, Marcel; Chastel, Olivier

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, trace elements and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were quantified from Magnificent frigatebirds (Fregata magnificens) breeding at a southern Atlantic island. Stable isotope ratio of carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) were also measured to infer the role of foraging habitat on the contamination. For another group from the same colony, GPS tracks were recorded to identify potential foraging areas where the birds may get contaminated. Fourteen trace elements were targeted as well as a total of 40 individual POPs, including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The concentration of Hg in the blood was up to 6 times higher in adults (5.81 ± 1.27 μg g(-1) dw.) than in nestlings (0.99 ± 0.23 μg g(-1) dw.). A similar pattern was found for POPs. ∑PCBs was the prevalent group both in adults (median 673, range 336-2801 pg g(-1) ww.) and nestlings (median 41, range 19-232 pg g(-1) ww.), followed by the sum of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes and metabolites (∑DDTs), showing a median value of 220 (range 75-2342 pg g(-1) ww.) in adults and 25 (range 13-206 pg g(-1) ww.) in nestlings. The isotope data suggested that the accumulation of trace elements and POPs between adults and nestlings could be due to parental foraging in two different areas during incubation and chick rearing, respectively, or due to a shift in the feeding strategies along the breeding season. In conclusion, our work showed high Hg concentration in frigatebirds compared to non-contaminated seabird populations, while other trace elements showed lower values within the expected range in other seabird species. Finally, POP exposure was found generally lower than that previously measured in other seabird species. PMID:27108042

  11. Monitoring Seabirds and Marine Mammals by Georeferenced Aerial Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, G.; Weidauer, A.; Coppack, T.

    2016-06-01

    The assessment of anthropogenic impacts on the marine environment is challenged by the accessibility, accuracy and validity of biogeographical information. Offshore wind farm projects require large-scale ecological surveys before, during and after construction, in order to assess potential effects on the distribution and abundance of protected species. The robustness of site-specific population estimates depends largely on the extent and design of spatial coverage and the accuracy of the applied census technique. Standard environmental assessment studies in Germany have so far included aerial visual surveys to evaluate potential impacts of offshore wind farms on seabirds and marine mammals. However, low flight altitudes, necessary for the visual classification of species, disturb sensitive bird species and also hold significant safety risks for the observers. Thus, aerial surveys based on high-resolution digital imagery, which can be carried out at higher (safer) flight altitudes (beyond the rotor-swept zone of the wind turbines) have become a mandatory requirement, technically solving the problem of distant-related observation bias. A purpose-assembled imagery system including medium-format cameras in conjunction with a dedicated geo-positioning platform delivers series of orthogonal digital images that meet the current technical requirements of authorities for surveying marine wildlife at a comparatively low cost. At a flight altitude of 425 m, a focal length of 110 mm, implemented forward motion compensation (FMC) and exposure times ranging between 1/1600 and 1/1000 s, the twin-camera system generates high quality 16 bit RGB images with a ground sampling distance (GSD) of 2 cm and an image footprint of 155 x 410 m. The image files are readily transferrable to a GIS environment for further editing, taking overlapping image areas and areas affected by glare into account. The imagery can be routinely screened by the human eye guided by purpose-programmed software

  12. Essential and non-essential element concentrations in two sleeper shark species collected in arctic waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMeans, Bailey C. [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Avenue, Windsor, ON, N9B 3P4 (Canada); Borga, Katrine [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, P.O. Box 173, Kjelsas, N-0411 Oslo (Norway); Bechtol, William R. [Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Commercial Fisheries, Anchorage, AK 99518-1599 (United States); Higginbotham, David [Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2152 (United States); Fisk, Aaron T. [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Avenue, Windsor, ON, N9B 3P4 (Canada)]. E-mail: afisk@uwindsor.ca

    2007-07-15

    A number of elements/metals have increased in arctic biota and are of concern due to their potential toxicity. Most studies on elements in the Arctic have focused on marine mammals and seabirds, but concentrations in the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) and Pacific sleeper shark (Somniosus pacificus), the only two shark species known to regularly inhabit arctic waters, have never been reported. To address this data gap, concentrations and patterns of 25 elements were analyzed in liver of Greenland sharks collected about Cumberland Sound (n = 24) and Pacific sleeper sharks collected about Prince William Sound (n = 14). Several non-essential elements differed between species/locations, which could suggest geographical exposure differences or ecological (e.g., diet) differences between the species. Certain essential elements also differed between the two sleeper sharks, which may indicate different physiological requirements between these closely related shark species, although information on such relationships are lacking for sharks and fish. - Patterns of essential and non-essential elements provide insight into sleeper shark biology and physiology.

  13. Communicating Arctic Change (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serreze, M.

    2009-12-01

    Nowhere on the planet are emerging signals of climate change more visible than in the Arctic. Rapid warming, a quickly shrinking summer sea ice cover, and thawing permafrost, will have impacts that extend beyond the Arctic and may reverberate around the globe. The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) of the University of Colorado has taken a leading role in trying to effectively communicate the science and importance of Arctic change. Our popular “Sea Ice News and Analysis” web site tracks the Arctic’s shrinking ice cover and provides scientific analysis with language that is accurate yet accessible to a wide audience. Our Education Center provides accessible information on all components of the Earth’s cryosphere, the changes being seen, and how scientists conduct research. A challenge faced by NSIDC is countering the increasing level of confusion and misinformation regarding Arctic and global change, a complex problem that reflects the low level of scientific literacy by much of the public, the difficulties many scientists face in communicating their findings in accurate but understandable terms, and efforts by some groups to deliberately misrepresent and distort climate change science. This talk will outline through examples ways in which NSIDC has been successful in science communication and education, as well as lessons learned from failures.

  14. Contest for Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warming of Earth surface access the defrosting north extensiveness of economic activities. The Russian Federation (RF) has delegated two bathyscaphs in order to put capsule with Russian flag on the bottom under North Pole. In this paper the territorial pretensions of the RF on the Arctic region are discussed

  15. The Arctic Circle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Siobhan

    2016-04-01

    My name is Siobhan McDonald. I am a visual artist living and working in Dublin. My studio is based in The School of Science at University College Dublin where I was Artist in Residence 2013-2015. A fascination with time and the changeable nature of landmass has led to ongoing conversations with scientists and research institutions across the interweaving disciplines of botany, biology and geology. I am developing a body of work following a recent research trip to the North Pole where I studied the disappearing landscape of the Arctic. Prompted by my experience of the Arctic shelf receding, this new work addresses issues of the instability of the earth's materiality. The work is grounded in an investigation of material processes, exploring the dynamic forces that transform matter and energy. This project combines art and science in a fascinating exploration of one of the Earth's last relatively untouched wilderness areas - the High Arctic to bring audiences on journeys to both real and artistically re-imagined Arctic spaces. CRYSTALLINE'S pivotal process is collaboration: with The European Space Agency; curator Helen Carey; palaeontologist Prof. Jenny McElwain, UCD; and with composer Irene Buckley. CRYSTALLINE explores our desire to make corporeal contact with geological phenomena in Polar Regions. From January 2016, in my collaboration with Jenny McElwain, I will focus on the study of plants and atmospheres from the Arctic regions as far back as 400 million years ago, to explore the essential 'nature' that, invisible to the eye, acts as imaginary portholes into other times. This work will be informed by my arctic tracings of sounds and images recorded in the glaciers of this disappearing frozen landscape. In doing so, the urgencies around the tipping of natural balances in this fragile region will be revealed. The final work will emerge from my forthcoming residency at the ESA in spring 2016. Here I will conduct a series of workshops in ESA Madrid to work with

  16. Genetic diversity affects colony survivorship in commercial honey bee colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpy, David R.; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Pettis, Jeffrey S.

    2013-08-01

    Honey bee ( Apis mellifera) queens mate with unusually high numbers of males (average of approximately 12 drones), although there is much variation among queens. One main consequence of such extreme polyandry is an increased diversity of worker genotypes within a colony, which has been shown empirically to confer significant adaptive advantages that result in higher colony productivity and survival. Moreover, honey bees are the primary insect pollinators used in modern commercial production agriculture, and their populations have been in decline worldwide. Here, we compare the mating frequencies of queens, and therefore, intracolony genetic diversity, in three commercial beekeeping operations to determine how they correlate with various measures of colony health and productivity, particularly the likelihood of queen supersedure and colony survival in functional, intensively managed beehives. We found the average effective paternity frequency ( m e ) of this population of honey bee queens to be 13.6 ± 6.76, which was not significantly different between colonies that superseded their queen and those that did not. However, colonies that were less genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e ≤ 7.0) were 2.86 times more likely to die by the end of the study when compared to colonies that were more genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e > 7.0). The stark contrast in colony survival based on increased genetic diversity suggests that there are important tangible benefits of increased queen mating number in managed honey bees, although the exact mechanism(s) that govern these benefits have not been fully elucidated.

  17. Regular habitat switch as an important feeding strategy of an opportunistic seabird species at the interface between land and sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwemmer, Philipp; Garthe, Stefan

    2008-03-01

    During deteriorated prey availability, purely pelagic, specialised seabird species have to alter their feeding strategy by extending foraging radii and/or time spent at sea or reducing feeding intervals of chicks. In contrast, more generalised species such as the opportunistic black-headed gull ( Larus ridibundus) breeding at the German North Sea coast, can be assumed to react on prey shortages by switching foraging habitats. The coastal zone of the German North Sea provides a rich habitat mosaic consisting of the offshore zone, tidal flats and terrestrial habitats. Thus, we expected distinct temporal and spatial patterns of habitat switch in accordance with prey availability and environmental constraints. We carried out ship-based and aerial surveys as well as dietary analyses and observations on flight activity. We found a significant switch from terrestrial to marine feeding sites both on a daily basis (related to tidal cycle) and over the whole breeding season. Most likely, the latter switch is the result of lower prey availability in the terrestrial habitats and an increasing quality (in terms of prey abundance and energy intake) of the marine area. While there was only moderate variability in habitat use among different years, we revealed significant differences in the diet of birds from different colonies. The high dietary plasticity and flexible feeding strategy, switching between terrestrial and marine prey is certainly of major importance for the success of an opportunistic avian top predator in a complex coastal zone. It is suggested that - compared to situations elsewhere - the number of breeding pairs of black-headed gulls in the German North Sea coast are still stable due to the switch of foraging habitats performed by individuals in this region.

  18. Stable isotopes reveal individual variation in migration strategies and habitat preferences in a suite of seabirds during the nonbreeding period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Richard A; Bearhop, Stuart; McGill, Rona A R; Dawson, Deborah A

    2009-07-01

    Information on predator and prey distributions is integral to our understanding of migratory connectivity, food web dynamics and ecosystem structure. In marine systems, although large animals that return to land can be fitted with tracking devices, minimum instrument sizes preclude deployments on small seabirds that may nevertheless be highly abundant and hence major consumers. An increasingly popular approach is to use N and C stable isotope analysis of feathers sampled at colonies to provide information on distribution and trophic level for the preceding, and generally little-known, nonbreeding period. Despite the burgeoning of this research, there have been few attempts to verify such relationships. In this study, we demonstrate a clear correspondence between isotope ratios of feathers and nonbreeding distributions of seven species from South Georgia tracked using loggers. This generated a rudimentary isoscape that was used to infer the habitat preferences of eight other species ranging in size from storm petrels to albatrosses, and which could be applied, with caveats, in other studies. Differences in inferred distribution within and between species had major implications for relative exposure to anthropogenic threats, including climate change and fisheries. Although there were no differences in isotope values between sexes in any of the smaller petrels, mean stable C (delta(13)C), but not stable N isotope ratios (delta(15)N), tended to be greater in females than males of the larger, and more sexually size-dimorphic species. This indicates a difference in C source (distribution), rather than trophic level, and a correspondence between the degree of sexual size dimorphism in Procellariiformes and the level of between-sex niche segregation. PMID:19377898

  19. Seabird aggregative patterns: a new tool for offshore wind energy risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christel, Isadora; Certain, Grégoire; Cama, Albert; Vieites, David R; Ferrer, Xavier

    2013-01-15

    The emerging development of offshore wind energy has raised public concern over its impact on seabird communities. There is a need for an adequate methodology to determine its potential impacts on seabirds. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) are mostly relying on a succession of plain density maps without integrated interpretation of seabird spatio-temporal variability. Using Taylor's power law coupled with mixed effect models, the spatio-temporal variability of species' distributions can be synthesized in a measure of the aggregation levels of individuals over time and space. Applying the method to a seabird aerial survey in the Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean Sea, we were able to make an explicit distinction between transitional and feeding areas to define and map the potential impacts of an offshore wind farm project. We use the Ebro Delta study case to discuss the advantages of potential impacts maps over density maps, as well as to illustrate how these potential impact maps can be applied to inform on concern levels, optimal EIA design and monitoring in the assessment of local offshore wind energy projects. PMID:23212000

  20. Biodiversity offsets: a cost-effective interim solution to seabird bycatch in fisheries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Pascoe

    Full Text Available The concept of biodiversity offsets is well established as an approach to environmental management. The concept has been suggested for environmental management in fisheries, particularly in relation to the substantial numbers of non-target species--seabirds in particular--caught and killed as incidental bycatch during fishing activities. Substantial areas of fisheries are being closed to protect these species at great cost to the fishing industry. However, other actions may be taken to offset the impact of fishing on these populations at lower cost to the fishing industry. This idea, however, has attracted severe criticism largely as it does not address the underlying externality problems created by the fishing sector, namely seabird fishing mortality. In this paper, we re-examine the potential role of compensatory mitigation as a fisheries management tool, although from the perspective of being an interim management measure while more long-lasting solutions to the problem are found. We re-model an example previously examined by both proponents and opponents of the approach, namely the cost effectiveness of rodent control relative to fishery area closures for the conservation of a seabird population adversely affected by an Australian tuna fishery. We find that, in the example being examined, invasive rodent eradication is at least 10 times more cost effective than area closures. We conclude that, while this does not solve the actual bycatch problem, it may provide breathing space for both the seabird species and the industry to find longer term means of reducing bycatch.

  1. Ship-based seabird and marine mammal survey pff Mauritania, 4 - 14 september 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camphuysen, C.J.; Spanje, van T.M.; Verdaat, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the first results obtained during the ship-based seabird and marine mammal surveys conducted between 4 and 14 September 2015 and must be seen as a preliminary analysis of the data and a further step in data collection. This cruise was part of the longer-term research project fin

  2. Using citizen-science data to identify local hotspots of seabird occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Ward

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seabirds have been identified and used as indicators of ecosystem processes such as climate change and human activity in nearshore ecosystems around the globe. Temporal and spatial trends have been documented at large spatial scales, but few studies have examined more localized patterns of spatiotemporal variation, by species or functional group. In this paper, we apply spatial occupancy models to assess the spatial patchiness and interannual trends of 18 seabird species in the Puget Sound region (Washington State, USA. Our dataset, the Puget Sound Seabird Survey of the Seattle Audubon Society, is unique in that it represents a seven-year study, collected with a focus on winter months (October–April. Despite historic declines of seabirds in the region over the last 50 years, results from our study are optimistic, suggesting increases in probabilities of occurrence for 14 of the 18 species included. We found support for declines in occurrence for white-winged scoters, brants, and 2 species of grebes. The decline of Western grebes in particular is troubling, but in agreement with other recent studies that have shown support for a range shift south in recent years, to the southern end of California Current.

  3. Colonial Figures: Memories of Street Traders in the Colonial and Early Post-colonial Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri Lynn Gibbings

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores post-colonial memories about street traders among individuals who lived in the former colony of the Dutch East Indies. It argues that these narratives romanticize the relationship between Europeans and indigenous peoples. Street vendors are also used to differentiate between periods within colonial and post-colonial history. The nostalgic representation of interracial contact between Europeans and traders is contrasted with representations of other figures such as the Japanese and the nationalist. A recurring feature of these representations is the ability of Europeans to speak with street traders and imagine what they wanted and needed. The traders are remembered as a social type that transgressed politics and represented the neutrality of the economic sphere as a place for shared communication. The article concludes that the figure of the street vendor contributes to the nostalgic reinvention of the colony but is also used in narratives to differentiate between and mark changes across the colonial and post-colonial periods.

  4. Indians and Southern Colonial Statutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Yasuhide

    1974-01-01

    Southern statutes, with their dual nature of uniformity and diversity, were doubtlessly an essential source of law for the examination of complex legal relations between American Indians and Anglo Americans in the colonial South. (FF)

  5. Predicting cetacean and seabird habitats across a productivity gradient in the South Pacific gyre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannocci, Laura; Catalogna, Maxime; Dorémus, Ghislain; Laran, Sophie; Lehodey, Patrick; Massart, Wendy; Monestiez, Pascal; Van Canneyt, Olivier; Watremez, Pierre; Ridoux, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Oligotrophic regions are expected to host low densities of top predators. Nevertheless, top predators with contrasting energetic costs might respond differently to the productivity of their habitats. Predators with high energetic demands might be constrained to select the most productive habitats to meet their high energetic requirements, whereas less active predators would be able to satisfy their needs by exploiting either high or low productivity habitats. Although situated in the core of the South Pacific oligotrophic gyre, French Polynesia is characterized by a fairly marked productivity gradient from the extremely oligotrophic Australs area to the more productive Marquesas area. The aim of this study was to investigate cetacean and seabird habitats in French Polynesia in light of their general energetic constraints. We collected cetacean and seabird sightings from an aerial survey across French Polynesian waters during the austral summer 2011. We classified cetaceans and seabirds into energetic guilds according to the literature. For each guild, we built generalized additive models along with static covariates and oceanographic covariates at the seasonal and climatological resolutions. We provided regional habitat predictions for Delphininae, Globicephalinae, sperm and beaked whales, tropicbirds, grey terns, noddies, white terns, boobies, petrels and shearwaters, sooty terns and frigatebirds. Explained deviances ranged from 5% to 30% for cetaceans and from 14% to 29% for seabirds. Cetaceans clearly responded to the productivity gradient, with the highest predicted densities around the productive waters of the Marquesas. However, Delphininae and Globicephalinae, characterized by higher energetic demands, depended more strongly on productivity, showing a ratio of 1-26 and 1-31 between their lowest and highest density areas respectively, compared to the less active sperm and beaked whales (showing only a ratio of 1-3.5 in predicted densities). In contrast

  6. Advection, pelagic food webs and the biogeography of seabirds in Beringia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatt, J.F.; Springer, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Despite its great distance from productive shelf-edge habitat, the inner shelf area of the Bering Sea, from St. Lawrence Island to the Bering Strait, supports a surprisingly large number (>5 million) of seabirds during summer, mostly small plantivorous auklets (65%) and large piscivorous murres (19%) and kittiwakes (5%). This paradox of seabird biogeography is explained by the Anadyr "Green Belt" - a current that advects nutrients and plankton over 1200 km from the outer Bering Sea shelf-edge to the central Chukchi Sea. Turbulent upwelling of this nutrient-rich water at Anadyr and Bering straits further enhances high levels of primary production:(360 gC m-2y-1) and helps sustain the enormous biomass of zooplankton entrained in the Anadyr Current. Primary production in adjacent waters of the Chukchi Sea (420 gC m-2y-1) exceeds that observed below Bering Strait, and zooplankton are equally abundant. Auklets account for 49% of total food consumption below Bering Strait (411 mt d-1), whereas piscivores dominate (88% of 179 mt d-1) in the Chukchi Sea. Of 2 million seabirds in the Chukchi region, auklets (6%) are supplanted by planktivorous phalaropes (25%), and piscivorous murres (38%) and kittiwakes (15%). Average carbon flux to seabirds (0.65 mgC m -2d-1) over the whole region is more typical of upwelling than shelf ecosystems. The pelagic distribution of seabirds in the region appears to be a function of advection, productivity and water column stability. Planktivores flourish in areas with high zooplankton concentrations on the edge of productive upwelling and frontal zones along the "Green Belt", whereas piscivores avoid turbulent, mixed waters and forage in stable, stratified waters along the coast and in the central Chukchi Sea.

  7. Thermodynamic modelling predicts energetic bottleneck for seabirds wintering in the northwest Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Jérôme; Porter, Warren P; Grémillet, David

    2009-08-01

    Studying the energetics of marine top predators such as seabirds is essential to understand processes underlying adult winter survival and its impact on population dynamics. Winter survival is believed to be the single most important life-history trait in long-lived species but its determinants are largely unknown. Seabirds are inaccessible during this season, so conventional metabolic studies are extremely challenging and new approaches are needed. This paper describes and uses a state-of-the-art mechanistic model, Niche Mapper, to predict energy expenditure and food requirements of the two main seabird species wintering in the northwest Atlantic. We found that energy demand increased throughout the winter phase in both species. Across this period, mean estimated daily energy requirements were 1306 kJ day(-1) for Brünnich's guillemots (Uria lomvia) and 430 kJ day(-1) for little auks (Alle alle) wintering off Greenland and Newfoundland. Mean estimated daily food requirements were 547 g wet food day(-1) for Brünnich's guillemots, and 289 g wet food day(-1) for little auks. For both species and both wintering sites, our model predicts a sharp increase in energy expenditure between November and December, primarily driven by climatic factors such as air temperature and wind speed. These findings strongly suggest the existence of an energetic bottleneck for North Atlantic seabirds towards the end of the year, a challenging energetic phase which might explain recurrent events of winter mass-mortality, so called 'seabird winter wrecks'. Our study therefore emphasizes the relevance of thermodynamics/biophysical modelling for investigating the energy balance of wintering marine top predators and its interplay with survival and population dynamics in the context of global change. PMID:19617442

  8. Demonstration projects : learning by experience : the Seabird Island demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2009-10-15

    This article described the Seabird Island sustainable community housing demonstration project near Agassiz, British Columbia. The project provides a sustainable, affordable place for 7 families and demonstrates a new way to build and design communities using renewable energy technologies to provide residents with better quality, energy efficient housing while reducing costs and minimizing environmental impacts. The design integrates renewable energy sources such as wind, solar and geothermal energy to save on heating and lighting costs. This article noted some of the dubious design features that could have been screened out at the design stage if careful analysis had been carried out. It described features such as the solar orientation; climatic factors that influenced the form and details of the building; the high-efficiency, condensing, natural gas water heater for space heating combined with a forced-air and radiant-floor heating system; solariums that provided solar preheating of domestic hot water; ventilation air preheating; the solar roof; an earth-tube ventilation system; and 3 wind turbines to generate electricity to offset conventional electricity sources. Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation has monitored several of the systems in order to evaluate the extent to which these features have influenced the performance of the dwelling units. The energy use in all 7 units was documented along with indoor air quality. An energy performance rating of EnerGuide 80 was achieved, which is comparable to R-2000. The monitoring study revealed that wind energy at this location was not sufficient to justify the installation of the wind turbines. The solar steel roof/solarium energy system did not perform as expected. In addition, the earth-tube ventilation system provided little heat and its overall contribution to ventilation was uncertain. Other deficiencies were also noted, such as leaky ductwork, non-operational dampers and poorly integrated control systems. The

  9. Acquatorialities of the Arctic Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2013-01-01

    In order to describe the Arctic system I propose using a concept functionally equivalent to territoriality, namely aquatoriality. Whether communicating about territoriality or aquatoriality, concepts and delimitations are both contingent to forms of communication systems. I will distinguish between...... six communications systems that differentiated from each other could become involved in the new deals emerging around the Arctic. Apart of an economic communication code about the Arctic, a legal code, ecological communication codes, and tourist communication codes, I will cope with the military...

  10. Seabirds, gyres and global trends in plastic pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Franeker, Jan A; Law, Kara Lavender

    2015-08-01

    Fulmars are effective biological indicators of the abundance of floating plastic marine debris. Long-term data reveal high plastic abundance in the southern North Sea, gradually decreasing to the north at increasing distance from population centres, with lowest levels in high-arctic waters. Since the 1980s, pre-production plastic pellets in North Sea fulmars have decreased by ∼75%, while user plastics varied without a strong overall change. Similar trends were found in net-collected floating plastic debris in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre, with a ∼75% decrease in plastic pellets and no obvious trend in user plastic. The decreases in pellets suggest that changes in litter input are rapidly visible in the environment not only close to presumed sources, but also far from land. Floating plastic debris is rapidly "lost" from the ocean surface to other as-yet undetermined sinks in the marine environment. PMID:25863885

  11. Observations on the mortality of seabirds in Japanese salmon gillnets made from the Oshoro Maru and Hokusei Maru, summer 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the observations on the mortality of seabirds in Japanese salmon gillnets from the Onshore Maru and Hokuseu Maru during the summer of 1978. This...

  12. The status of ledge-nesting seabirds in the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, 1976-1986: An executive summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a brief summary of our findings in 1966 on six species of seabirds northern fulmar, redfaced cormorant, black and redlegged kittiwakes, and common...

  13. The status of ledge-nesting seabirds at monitoring sites in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska in summer 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Seabird monitoring in the Aleutian Islands durin9 summer 1989 focused on a guild of ledgenesting species including northern fulmar Fulmarus glacialis, cormorants...

  14. Seabird investigations on Middleton Island during the summer 1976 with notes on the other island avifauna : Draft report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The results of seabird investigations on Middleton Island, Alaska, during the summer of 1976 are reported here. The purpose of this study was to gather baseline...

  15. Disparities in Arctic Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-02-04

    Life at the top of the globe is drastically different. Harsh climate devoid of sunlight part of the year, pockets of extreme poverty, and lack of physical infrastructure interfere with healthcare and public health services. Learn about the challenges of people in the Arctic and how research and the International Polar Year address them.  Created: 2/4/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 2/20/2008.

  16. Summer Arctic sea fog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Synchronous or quasi-synchronous sea-land-air observations were conducted using advanced sea ice, atmospheric and marine instruments during China' s First Arctic Expedition. Based on the Precious data from the expedition, it was found that in the Arctic Ocean, most part of which is covered with ice or is mixed with ice, various kinds of sea fog formed such as advection fog, radiation fog and vapor fog. Each kind has its own characteristic and mechanics of creation. In the southern part of the Arctic Ocean, due to the sufficient warm and wet flow there, it is favorable for advection fog to form,which is dense and lasts a long time. On ice cap or vast floating ice, due to the strong radiation cooling effect, stable radiating fog is likely to form. In floating ice area there forms vapor fog with the appearance of masses of vapor from a boiling pot, which is different from short-lasting land fog. The study indicates that the reason why there are many kinds of sea fog form in the Arctic Ocean is because of the complicated cushion and the consequent sea-air interaction caused by the sea ice distribution and its unique physical characteristics. Sea fog is the atmospheric phenomenon of sea-air heat exchange. Especially, due to the high albedo of ice and snow surface, it is diffcult to absorb great amount of solar radiation during the polar days. Besides, ice is a poor conductor of heat; it blocks the sea-air heat exchange.The sea-air exchange is active in floating ice area where the ice is broken. The sea sends heat to the atmosphere in form of latent heat; vapor fog is a way of sea-air heat exchange influencing the climate and an indicator of the extent of the exchange. The study also indicates that the sea also transports heat to the atmosphere in form of sensible heat when vapor fog occurs.

  17. Population structure in a highly pelagic seabird, the Cory's shearwater (Calonectris diomedea): an examination of genetics, morphology and ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Díaz, Elena; González-Solís, Jacob; Peinado Morales, Miguel Á. (Miguel Ángel)

    2009-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests oceanic traits may play a key role in the genetic structuring of marine organisms. Whereas genetic breaks in the open ocean are well known in fishes and marine invertebrates, the importance of marine habitat characteristics in seabirds remains less certain. We investigated the role of oceanic transitions versus population genetic processes in driving population differentiation in a highly vagile seabird, the Cory"s shearwater, combining molecular, morphological an...

  18. The utility of relative environmental suitability (RES) modelling for predicting distributions of seabirds in the North Atlantic

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Hannah; Hiddink, Jan G.; Hobbs, Matthew J.; Brereton, Tom M.; Tetley, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding spatial and temporal variability in the distribution of seabirds is fundamental for the conservation and management of marine ecosystems. In the absence of large-scale systematic survey data, the application of standard habitat modelling techniques to predict the at-sea distributions of seabirds at large spatial scales has been limited. In this study, we examine the utility of relative environmental suitability (RES) modelling to predict large-scale distributions and habitat sui...

  19. Pathogen Webs in Collapsing Honey Bee Colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Cornman, R Scott; Tarpy, David R.; Chen, Yanping; Jeffreys, Lacey; Lopez, Dawn; Pettis, Jeffery S.; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Jay D. Evans

    2012-01-01

    Recent losses in honey bee colonies are unusual in their severity, geographical distribution, and, in some cases, failure to present recognized characteristics of known disease. Domesticated honey bees face numerous pests and pathogens, tempting hypotheses that colony collapses arise from exposure to new or resurgent pathogens. Here we explore the incidence and abundance of currently known honey bee pathogens in colonies suffering from Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), otherwise weak colonies, ...

  20. Ant Colony Optimization: A Review and Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Sundus Shaukat; Riaz Ahmed Bhatti; Khalid Ibrahim Qureshi; Shafqat Ali Shad

    2014-01-01

    Many optmization algorithms are developed over period of time, among these most famous and widely used is Ant Colony systems (ACA). Ant Colony Systems (ACS) are the collection of different ant colony optimization algorithms. Different algorithms are used for solve the Travelling salesmen Problem (TCP) but ant colony algorithm is more preferred to solve the travelling salesmen problem. In ant colony best solution is found with the help of cooperating agents called ants. Ants cooperate with eac...

  1. Worldwide distribution and diversity of seabird ticks: implications for the ecology and epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Muriel; Gómez-Díaz, Elena; McCoy, Karen D

    2011-05-01

    The ubiquity of ticks and their importance in the transmission of pathogens involved in human and livestock diseases are reflected by the growing number of studies focusing on tick ecology and the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens. Likewise, the involvement of wild birds in dispersing pathogens and their role as reservoir hosts are now well established. However, studies on tick-bird systems have mainly focused on land birds, and the role of seabirds in the ecology and epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens is rarely considered. Seabirds typically have large population sizes, wide geographic distributions, and high mobility, which make them significant potential players in the maintenance and dispersal of disease agents at large spatial scales. They are parasitized by at least 29 tick species found across all biogeographical regions of the world. We know that these seabird-tick systems can harbor a large diversity of pathogens, although detailed studies of this diversity remain scarce. In this article, we review current knowledge on the diversity and global distribution of ticks and tick-borne pathogens associated with seabirds. We discuss the relationship between seabirds, ticks, and their pathogens and examine the interesting characteristics of these relationships from ecological and epidemiological points of view. We also highlight some future research directions required to better understand the evolution of these systems and to assess the potential role of seabirds in the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens. PMID:20874222

  2. Seabird and louse coevolution: complex histories revealed by 12S rRNA sequences and reconciliation analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, A M; Wallis, G P; Wallis, L J; Gray, R D

    2000-09-01

    We investigated the coevolutionary history of seabirds (orders Procellariiformes and Sphenisciformes) and their lice (order Phthiraptera). Independent trees were produced for the seabirds (tree derived from 12S ribosomal RNA, isoenzyme, and behavioral data) and their lice (trees derived from 12S rRNA data). Brook's parsimony analysis (BPA) supported a general history of cospeciation (consistency index = 0.84, retention index = 0.81). We inferred that the homoplasy in the BPA was caused by one intrahost speciation, one potential host-switching, and eight or nine sorting events. Using reconciliation analysis, we quantified the cost of fitting the louse tree onto the seabird tree. The reconciled trees postulated one host-switching, nine cospeciation, three or four intrahost speciation, and 11 to 14 sorting events. The number of cospeciation events was significantly more than would be expected from chance alone (P seabirds and lice. Neither data set displayed significant rate heterogeneity. An examination of the codivergent nodes revealed that seabirds and lice have cospeciated synchronously and that lice have evolved at approximately 5.5 times the rate of seabirds. The degree of sequence divergence supported some of the postulated intrahost speciation events (e.g., Halipeurus predated the evolution of their present hosts). The sequence data also supported some of the postulated host-switching events. These results demonstrate the value of sequence data and reconciliation analyses in unraveling complex histories between hosts and their parasites. PMID:12116418

  3. Contrasted structuring effects of mesoscale features on the seabird community in the Mozambique Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquemet, S.; Ternon, J. F.; Kaehler, S.; Thiebot, J. B.; Dyer, B.; Bemanaja, E.; Marteau, C.; Le Corre, M.

    2014-02-01

    The Mozambique Channel (western Indian Ocean) is a dynamic environment characterised by strong mesoscale features, which influence all biological components of the pelagic ecosystem. We investigated the distribution, abundance and feeding behaviour of seabirds in the Mozambique Channel in relation to physical and biological environmental variables, with a specific interest in mesoscale features. Seabird censuses were conducted in summer and winter during 7 cruises in the southern and northern Mozambique Channel. Tropical species accounted for 49% of the 37 species identified and 97% of the individuals, and species from the sub-Antarctic region constituted 30% of the identifications. The typically tropical sooty tern (Onychoprion fuscata) was the dominant species during all cruises, and overall accounted for 74% of the species observations and 85% of counted birds. Outputs of Generalised Linear Models at the scale of the Mozambique Channel suggested that higher densities of flying and feeding birds occurred in areas with lower sea surface temperatures and lower surface chlorophyll a concentrations. Most of the flocks of feeding birds did not associate with surface schools of fish or marine mammals, but when they did, these flocks were larger, especially when associated with tuna. While tropical species seemed to favour cyclonic eddies, frontal and divergence zones, non-tropical species were more frequently recorded over shelf waters. Sooty terns foraged preferentially in cyclonic eddies where zooplankton, micronekton and tuna schools were abundant. Among other major tropical species, frigatebirds (Fregata spp.) predominated in frontal zones between eddies, where tuna schools also frequently occurred and where geostrophic currents were the strongest. Red-footed boobies (Sula sula) concentrated in divergence zones characterised by low sea level anomalies, low geostrophic currents, and high zooplankton biomass close to the surface. Our results highlight the importance

  4. Periodic growth of bacterial colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yoshihiro; Ikeda, Takemasa; Shimada, Hirotoshi; Hiramatsu, Fumiko; Kobayashi, Naoki; Wakita, Jun-ichi; Itoh, Hiroto; Kurosu, Sayuri; Nakatsuchi, Michio; Matsuyama, Tohey; Matsushita, Mitsugu

    2005-06-01

    The formation of concentric ring colonies by bacterial species Bacillus subtilis and Proteus mirabilis has been investigated experimentally, focusing our attention on the dependence of local cell density upon the bacterial motility. It has been confirmed that these concentric ring colonies reflect the periodic change of the bacterial motility between motile cell state and immotile cell state. We conclude that this periodic change is macroscopically determined neither by biological factors (i.e., biological clock) nor by chemical factors (chemotaxis as inhibitor). And our experimental results strongly suggest that the essential factor for the change of the bacterial motility during concentric ring formation is the local cell density.

  5. Genetic diversity affects colony survivorship in commercial honey bee colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens mate with unusually high numbers of males (average of approximately 12 drones), although there is much variation among queens. One main consequence of such extreme polyandry is an increased diversity of worker genotypes within a colony, which has been shown empirica...

  6. Contemporary and historical separation of transequatorial migration between genetically distinct seabird populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Matt J; Hauber, Mark E; Steeves, Tammy E; Lawrence, Hayley A; Thompson, David R; Sagar, Paul M; Bury, Sarah J; Landers, Todd J; Phillips, Richard A; Ranjard, Louis; Shaffer, Scott A

    2011-01-01

    Pelagic seabirds are highly mobile, reducing the likelihood of allopatric speciation where disruption of gene flow between populations is caused by physically insurmountable, extrinsic barriers. Spatial segregation during the non-breeding season appears to provide an intrinsic barrier to gene flow among seabird populations that otherwise occupy nearby or overlapping regions during breeding, but how this is achieved remains unclear. Here we show that the two genetically distinct populations of Cook's petrel (Pterodroma cookii) exhibit transequatorial separation of non-breeding ranges at contemporary (ca. 2-3 yrs) and historical (ca. 100 yrs) time scales. Segregation during the non-breeding season per se appears as an unlikely barrier to gene flow. Instead we provide evidence that habitat specialization during the non-breeding season is associated with breeding asynchrony which, in conjunction with philopatry, restricts gene flow. Habitat specialization during breeding and non-breeding likely promotes evolutionary divergence between these two populations via local adaptation. PMID:21629265

  7. AMAP Assessment 2013: Arctic Ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This assessment report presents the results of the 2013 AMAP Assessment of Arctic Ocean Acidification (AOA). This is the first such assessment dealing with AOA from an Arctic-wide perspective, and complements several assessments that AMAP has delivered over the past ten years concerning the effects of climate change on Arctic ecosystems and people. The Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) is a group working under the Arctic Council. The Arctic Council Ministers have requested AMAP to: - produce integrated assessment reports on the status and trends of the conditions of the Arctic ecosystems;

  8. Arctic Submarine Slope Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, D.; Geissler, W.

    2010-12-01

    Submarine landsliding represents aside submarine earthquakes major natural hazard to coastal and sea-floor infrastructure as well as to coastal communities due to their ability to generate large-scale tsunamis with their socio-economic consequences. The investigation of submarine landslides, their conditions and trigger mechanisms, recurrence rates and potential impact remains an important task for the evaluation of risks in coastal management and offshore industrial activities. In the light of a changing globe with warming oceans and rising sea-level accompanied by increasing human population along coasts and enhanced near- and offshore activities, slope stability issues gain more importance than ever before. The Arctic exhibits the most rapid and drastic changes and is predicted to change even faster. Aside rising air temperatures, enhanced inflow of less cooled Atlantic water into the Arctic Ocean reduces sea-ice cover and warms the surroundings. Slope stability is challenged considering large areas of permafrost and hydrates. The Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide (HYM) north of Svalbard is the first and so far only reported large-scale submarine landslide in the Arctic Ocean. The HYM exhibits the highest headwalls that have been found on siliciclastic margins. With more than 10.000 square kilometer areal extent and app. 2.400 cubic kilometer of involved sedimentary material, it is one of the largest exposed submarine slides worldwide. Geometry and age put this slide in a special position in discussing submarine slope stability on glaciated continental margins. The HYM occurred 30 ka ago, when the global sea-level dropped by app. 50 m within less than one millennium due to rapid onset of global glaciation. It probably caused a tsunami with circum-Arctic impact and wave heights exceeding 130 meters. The HYM affected the slope stability field in its neighbourhood by removal of support. Post-megaslide slope instability as expressed in creeping and smaller-scaled slides are

  9. A cross-shelf gradient in δ15N stable isotope values of krill and pollock indicates seabird foraging patterns in the Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nathan M.; Hoover, Brian A.; Heppell, Scott A.; Kuletz, Kathy J.

    2014-11-01

    Concurrent measurements of predator and prey δ15N isotope values demonstrated that a cross-shelf isotopic gradient can propagate through a marine food web from forage species to top-tier predators and indicate foraging areas at a scale of tens of kilometers. We measured δ13C and δ15N in muscle tissues of thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) and black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), and in whole body tissues of walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) and krill (Thysanoessa spp), sampled across the continental shelf break in the Bering Sea in 2008 and in 2009. We found significant basin-shelf differences at fine scales (trophic signal and spatial structure of a basin-shelf δ15Nitrogen gradient in the central and southern Bering Sea, and used it to contrast foraging patterns of thick-billed murres and kittiwakes on the open ocean. Seabird muscle δ15N values were compared to baselines created from measurements in krill and pollock tissues sampled concurrently throughout the study area. Krill, pollock, and murre tissues from northern, shallow, shelf habitat (200 m) to the south and west. Krill δ15N baseline values predicted 35-42% of the variability in murre tissue values. Patterns between kittiwakes and prey were less coherent. The persistence of strong spatial autocorrelation among sample values, and a congruence of geospatial patterns in δ15N among murre and prey tissues, suggest that murres forage repeatedly in specific areas. Murre isotope values showed distinct geospatial stratification, coincident with the spatial distribution of three colonies: St. Paul, St. George, and Bogoslof. This suggests some degree of foraging habitat partitioning among colonies.

  10. a New Japanese Project for Arctic Climate Change Research - Grene Arctic - (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, H.

    2013-12-01

    A new Arctic Climate Change Research Project 'Rapid Change of the Arctic Climate System and its Global Influences' has started in 2011 for a five years project. GRENE-Arctic project is an initiative of Arctic study by more than 30 Japanese universities and institutes as the flame work of GRENE (Green Network of Excellence) of MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan). The GRENE-Arctic project set four strategic research targets: 1. Understanding the mechanism of warming amplification in the Arctic 2. Understanding the Arctic system for global climate and future change 3. Evaluation of the effects of Arctic change on weather in Japan, marine ecosystems and fisheries 4. Prediction of sea Ice distribution and Arctic sea routes This project aims to realize the strategic research targets by executing following studies: -Improvement of coupled general circulation models based on validations of the Arctic climate reproducibility and on mechanism analyses of the Arctic climate change and variability -The role of Arctic cryosphere in the global change -Change in terrestrial ecosystem of pan-Arctic and its effect on climate -Studies on greenhouse gas cycles in the Arctic and their responses to climate change -Atmospheric studies on Arctic change and its global impacts -Ecosystem studies of the Arctic ocean declining Sea ice -Projection of Arctic Sea ice responding to availability of Arctic sea route (* ** ***) *Changes in the Arctic ocean and mechanisms on catastrophic reduction of Arctic sea ice cover **Coordinated observational and modeling studies on the basic structure and variability of the Arctic sea ice-ocean system ***Sea ice prediction and construction of ice navigation support system for the Arctic sea route. Although GRENE Arctic project aims to product scientific contribution in a concentrated program during 2011-2016, Japanese Arctic research community established Japan Consortium for Arctic Environmental Research (JCAR) in May

  11. Biodiversity Offsets: A Cost-Effective Interim Solution to Seabird Bycatch in Fisheries?

    OpenAIRE

    Sean Pascoe; Chris Wilcox; C Josh Donlan

    2011-01-01

    The concept of biodiversity offsets is well established as an approach to environmental management. The concept has been suggested for environmental management in fisheries, particularly in relation to the substantial numbers of non-target species--seabirds in particular--caught and killed as incidental bycatch during fishing activities. Substantial areas of fisheries are being closed to protect these species at great cost to the fishing industry. However, other actions may be taken to offset...

  12. Leapfrog migration and habitat preferences of a small oceanic seabird, Bulwer's petrel (Bulweria bulwerii)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Raül; Sanz, Víctor; Militão, Teresa; Bried, Joël; Neves, Verónica C.; Biscoito, Manuel; Phillips, Richard A.; Zino, Francis; González-Solís, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Aim Our current understanding of migratory strategies and the reasons for their high variability along the phylogenetic tree remains relatively poor. Most of the hypotheses relating to migration have been formulated for terrestrial taxa; classically, oceanic migrations were considered as merely dispersive because of the scarcity of observations in the open ocean. We describe for the first time, the migration strategy of a small seabird, the Bulwer's petrel (Bulweria bulwerii), and provid...

  13. The evolution of seabirds in the Humboldt Current: new clues from the Pliocene of Central Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Chávez Hoffmeister

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During the last decade, new Neogene fossil assemblages from South America have revealed important clues about the evolution of seabird faunas in one of the major upwelling systems of the world: the Humboldt Current. However, most of this record comes from arid Northern Chile and Southern Peru and, in consequence, our knowledge of the evolutionary history of seabirds in the temperate transitional zone is negligible. A new Late Pliocene assemblage of fossil birds from the coastal locality of Horcon in Central Chile offers a unique opportunity to fill this gap. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Isolated bones of a medium-sized penguin are the most abundant bird remains. Morphological and cladistic analyses reveal that these specimens represent a new species of crested penguin, Eudyptes calauina sp. nov. Eudyptes is a penguin genus that inhabit temperate and subantarctic regions and currently absent in central Chile. Additionally, a partial skeleton of a small species of cormorant and a partial tarsometatarsus of a sooty shearwater have been identified. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The Horcon fossils suggest the existence of a mixed avifauna in central Chile during the Pliocene in concordance with the latitudinal thermal gradient. This resembles the current assemblages from the transitional zone, with the presence of species shared with Northern Chile and Southern Peru and a previously unrecorded penguin currently absent from the Humboldt System but present in the Magellanic region. Comparison of Pliocene seabird diversity across the Pacific coast of South America shows that the Horcon avifauna represents a distinctive assemblage linking the living faunas with the Late Miocene ones. A comparison with the fossil record near the Benguela Current (west coast of southern Africa suggests that the thermic gradient could play an important role in the preservation of a higher diversity of cold/temperate seabirds in the Humboldt Current.

  14. Breeding phenology and winter activity predict subsequent breeding success in a trans-global migratory seabird

    OpenAIRE

    Shoji, A.; Aris-Brosou, S.; Culina, A.; Fayet, A.; H. Kirk; Padget, O.; Juarez-Martinez, I.; Boyle, D.; Nakata, T; Perrins, C. M.; Guilford, T

    2015-01-01

    Inter-seasonal events are believed to connect and affect reproductive performance (RP) in animals. However, much remains unknown about such carry-over effects (COEs), in particular how behaviour patterns during highly mobile life-history stages, such as migration, affect RP. To address this question, we measured at-sea behaviour in a long-lived migratory seabird, the Manx shearwater (Puffinus puffinus) and obtained data for individual migration cycles over 5 years, by tracking with geolocator...

  15. Investigating a seabird hotspot : factors influencing the distribution of birds in the southern Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Sonntag, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    The southern Baltic Sea in northeastern Europe has been described as one of the most important areas for seabirds in the Western Palaearctic, based on extraordinary high numbers of birds occurring in the area particularly during the winter half-year. Most studies, however, only comprise information about the distribution of birds, while the factors and mechanisms causing the observed distribution patterns are only seldom addressed. Prey distribution and abundance and foraging strategies are c...

  16. The Evolution of Seabirds in the Humboldt Current: New Clues from the Pliocene of Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez Hoffmeister, Martín; Carrillo Briceño, Jorge D.; Nielsen, Sven N.

    2014-01-01

    Background During the last decade, new Neogene fossil assemblages from South America have revealed important clues about the evolution of seabird faunas in one of the major upwelling systems of the world: the Humboldt Current. However, most of this record comes from arid Northern Chile and Southern Peru and, in consequence, our knowledge of the evolutionary history of seabirds in the temperate transitional zone is negligible. A new Late Pliocene assemblage of fossil birds from the coastal locality of Horcon in Central Chile offers a unique opportunity to fill this gap. Principal Findings Isolated bones of a medium-sized penguin are the most abundant bird remains. Morphological and cladistic analyses reveal that these specimens represent a new species of crested penguin, Eudyptes calauina sp. nov. Eudyptes is a penguin genus that inhabit temperate and subantarctic regions and currently absent in central Chile. Additionally, a partial skeleton of a small species of cormorant and a partial tarsometatarsus of a sooty shearwater have been identified. Conclusion/Significance The Horcon fossils suggest the existence of a mixed avifauna in central Chile during the Pliocene in concordance with the latitudinal thermal gradient. This resembles the current assemblages from the transitional zone, with the presence of species shared with Northern Chile and Southern Peru and a previously unrecorded penguin currently absent from the Humboldt System but present in the Magellanic region. Comparison of Pliocene seabird diversity across the Pacific coast of South America shows that the Horcon avifauna represents a distinctive assemblage linking the living faunas with the Late Miocene ones. A comparison with the fossil record near the Benguela Current (west coast of southern Africa) suggests that the thermic gradient could play an important role in the preservation of a higher diversity of cold/temperate seabirds in the Humboldt Current. PMID:24621560

  17. Habitat use of the coastal zone of the German North Sea by surface-feeding seabirds

    OpenAIRE

    Schwemmer, Philipp

    2007-01-01

    In contrast to diving species, foraging skills of surface-feeding seabirds (such as gulls and terns) are limited, as this group is only able to exploit the uppermost zone of the water column. On the other hand, the coastal zone of the German North Sea coast provides a rich habitat mosaic for opportunistic species. A combination of analysis of distribution patterns, behaviour and diet choice revealed that species adjusted their distribution and behaviour to match the temporally varying food ab...

  18. Diving seabirds share foraging space and time within and among species

    OpenAIRE

    Masello, J.; Mundry, R.; Poisbleau, M.; Demongin, L.; Voigt, C.; Wikelski, M.; Quillfeldt, P.

    2010-01-01

    Ecological theory predicts that animals with similar foraging strategies should not be able to coexist without segregating either in space, time or diet. In communities, intra-specific competition is thought to be more intense than the competition among species, because of the lack of niche partitioning between conspecifics. Hence, while different seabird species can overlap in their foraging distribution, intra-specific competition can drive the neighboring populations of the same species to...

  19. Effects of human disturbance on cave-nesting seabirds: the case of the storm petrel

    OpenAIRE

    Soldatini, Cecilia; Albores-Barajas, Yuri V.; Tagliavia, Marcello; Massa, Bruno; Fusani, Leonida; Canoine, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    Human disturbance is an important stress factor with potentially strong impact on breeding activity in animals. The consequences can be extinction of the breeding population, because disturbed animals might desert their breeding area and find no suitable substitute area. In this study, we investigated the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on a breeding population of Mediterranean storm petrels. Seabirds are increasingly used as bio-indicators for sea environmental parameters, because they ...

  20. Foraging movements and habitat niche of two closely related seabirds breeding in sympatry

    OpenAIRE

    Afán, Isabel; Navarro, Joan; Cardador, Laura; Ramírez, Francisco; Kato, Akiko; Rodríguez, Beneharo; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Forero, Manuela G.

    2014-01-01

    As central-place foragers, pelagic seabirds are constrained by spatiotemporal heterogeneity to find productive marine areas and compete for prey. We analysed 97 foraging trips to study the movement and oceanographic characteristics of foraging habitats of two different—yet closely related—species of shearwaters (Scopoli’s shearwater Calonectris diomedea and Cory’s shearwater C. borealis) breeding in sympatry in the Mediterranean. We combined various methodological approaches (GPS-tracking, sp...

  1. Arctic charr farming

    OpenAIRE

    Brännäs, Eva; Larsson, Stefan; Saether, Björn Steinar; Siikavuopio, Sten Ivar; Thorarensen, Helgi; Sigurgeirsson, Ólafur; Jeuthe, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus L.) is a holarctic salmonid fish species with both landlocked and anadromous populations. In Scandinavia it is mainly found in the mountain area, but it also appears in deep and large lake further south, i.e. in the Alps. It is the northernmost freshwater fish and A. charr is generally regarded as the most cold-adapted freshwater fish. A. charr has been commercially farmed since the early 90ths and today, the total production is 3000, 2300 and 700 tonnes/y...

  2. Research with Arctic peoples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, H Sally; Bjerregaard, Peter; Chan, Hing Man;

    2006-01-01

    entitled "Research with Arctic Peoples: Unique Research Opportunities in Heart, Lung, Blood and Sleep Disorders". The meeting was international in scope with investigators from Greenland, Iceland and Russia, as well as Canada and the United States. Multiple health agencies from Canada and the United States...... sent representatives. Also attending were representatives from the International Union for Circumpolar Health (IUCH) and the National Indian Health Board. The working group developed a set of ten recommendations related to research opportunities in heart, lung, blood and sleep disorders; obstacles and...

  3. Arctic species resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lars O.; Forchhammer, Mads C.; Jeppesen, Erik

    , an extensive monitoring program has been conducted in the North Eastern Greenland National Park, the Zackenberg Basic. The objective of the program is to provide long time series of data on the natural innate oscillations and plasticity of a High Arctic ecosystem. With offset in the data provided through...... and precipitation. Concurrently, phenological change has been recorded in a wide range of plants and animals, with climate change seemingly being the primary driver of these changes. A major concern is whether species and biological systems embrace the plasticity in their phenological responses needed for tracking...

  4. Fractal Growth of Bacterial Colonies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, Marek; Fridrich, Miroslav; Burkhard, M.

    London : Chapman&Hall, 1995 - (Novak, M.M.), s. 179-191 ISBN 0-412-71020-X. [Fractal Reviews in the Natural and Applied Sciences. Marseille (FI), 07.02.1995-10.02.1995] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : fractal * bacteria l colony * growth pattern Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  5. Ant Colony Optimization for Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ast, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The very basis of this thesis is the collective behavior of ants in colonies. Ants are an excellent example of how rather simple behavior on a local level can lead to complex behavior on a global level that is beneficial for the individuals. The key in the self-organization of ants is communication

  6. The jellyfish buffet: jellyfish enhance seabird foraging opportunities by concentrating prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nobuhiko N; Kokubun, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Takashi; Watanuki, Yutaka; Kitaysky, Alexander S; Takahashi, Akinori

    2015-08-01

    High levels of jellyfish biomass have been reported in marine ecosystems around the world, but understanding of their ecological role remains in its infancy. Jellyfish are generally thought to have indirect negative impacts on higher trophic-level predators, through changes in lower trophic pathways. However, high densities of jellyfish in the water column may affect the foraging behaviour of marine predators more directly, and the effects may not always be negative. Here, we present novel observations of a diving seabird, the thick-billed murre, feeding on fish aggregating among the long tentacles of large jellyfish, by using small video loggers attached to the birds. We show that the birds encountered large jellyfish, Chrysaora melanaster, during most of their dives, commonly fed on fish associated with jellyfish, and appeared to specifically target jellyfish with a high number of fish aggregating in their tentacles, suggesting the use of jellyfish may provide significant energetic benefits to foraging murres. We conclude that jellyfish provide feeding opportunities for diving seabirds by concentrating forage fish, and that the impacts of jellyfish on marine ecosystems are more complex than previously anticipated and may be beneficial to seabirds. PMID:26311157

  7. Concerted evolution of duplicated mitochondrial control regions in three related seabird species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birt Tim P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many population genetic and phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA assume that mitochondrial genomes do not undergo recombination. Recently, concerted evolution of duplicated mitochondrial control regions has been documented in a range of taxa. Although the molecular mechanism that facilitates concerted evolution is unknown, all proposed mechanisms involve mtDNA recombination. Results Here, we document a duplication of a large region (cytochrome b, tRNAThr, tRNAPro, ND6, tRNAGlu and the control region in the mitochondrial genome of three related seabird species. To investigate the evolution of duplicate control regions, we sequenced both control region copies (CR1 and CR2 from 21 brown (Sula leucogaster, 21 red-footed (S. sula and 21 blue-footed boobies (S. nebouxii. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the duplicated control regions are predominantly evolving in concert; however, approximately 51 base pairs at the 5' end of CR1 and CR2 exhibited a discordant phylogenetic signal and appeared to be evolving independently. Conclusions Both the structure of the duplicated region and the conflicting phylogenetic signals are remarkably similar to a pattern found in Thalassarche albatrosses, which are united with boobies in a large clade that includes all procellariiform and most pelecaniform seabirds. Therefore we suggest that concerted evolution of duplicated control regions either is taxonomically widespread within seabirds, or that it has evolved many times.

  8. Oceanographic drivers and mistiming processes shape breeding success in a seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Francisco; Afán, Isabel; Tavecchia, Giacomo; Catalán, Ignacio A; Oro, Daniel; Sanz-Aguilar, Ana

    2016-03-16

    Understanding the processes driving seabirds' reproductive performance through trophic interactions requires the identification of seasonal pulses in marine productivity. We investigated the sequence of environmental and biological processes driving the reproductive phenology and performance of the storm petrel (Hydrobates pelagicus) in the Western Mediterranean. The enhanced light and nutrient availability at the onset of water stratification (late winter/early spring) resulted in annual consecutive peaks in relative abundance of phytoplankton, zooplankton and ichthyoplankton. The high energy-demanding period of egg production and chick rearing coincided with these successive pulses in food availability, pointing to a phenological adjustment to such seasonal patterns with important fitness consequences. Indeed, delayed reproduction with respect to the onset of water stratification resulted in both hatching and breeding failure. This pattern was observed at the population level, but also when confounding factors such as individuals' age or experience were also accounted for. We provide the first evidence of oceanographic drivers leading to the optimal time-window for reproduction in an inshore seabird at southern European latitudes, along with a suitable framework for assessing the impact of environmentally driven changes in marine productivity patterns in seabird performance. PMID:26962134

  9. Abundance and breeding distribution of seabirds in the northern part of the Danco Coast, Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana A. Juáres

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Seabird abundances and breeding distribution have the potential to serve as ecological indicators. The western Antarctic Peninsula is one of the three sites in the world with the greatest increases in local temperature during the last 50 years. The aim of this study was to monitor the distribution and abundance of breeding populations of seabirds in the northern sector of the Danco Coast, north-west of the Antarctic Peninsula, during the breeding season 2010/11. The birds were the Wilson′s storm petrel (Oceanites oceanicus, South Polar skua (Stercorarius maccormicki, kelp gull (Larus dominicanus, Antarctic tern (Sterna vittata, snowy sheathbill (Chionis alba, chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica, southern giant petrel (Macronectes giganteus, gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua, Cape petrel (Daption capense and Antarctic shag (Phalacrocorax bransfieldensis. Annual breeding population growth increased in pygoscelids, southern giant petrel and sheathbill, and for the remaining species, breeding population trends were stable. Given that seabird populations can provide valuable information on the conditions of their feeding and nesting environments, this study highlights the need to maintain basics monitoring studies.

  10. State of the Arctic Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Arctic environment, covering about 21 million km2, is in this connection regarded as the area north of the Arctic Circle. General biological and physical features of the terrestrial and freshwater environments of the Arctic are briefly described, but most effort is put into a description of the marine part which constitutes about two-thirds of the total Arctic environment. General oceanography and morphological characteristics are included; e.g. that the continental shelf surrounding the Arctic deep water basins covers approximately 36% of the surface areas of Arctic waters, but contains only 2% of the total water masses. Blowout accident may release thousands of tons of oil per day and last for months. They occur statistically very seldom, but the magnitude underlines the necessity of an efficient oil spill contingency as well as sound safety and quality assurance procedures. Contingency plans should be coordinated and regularly evaluated through simulated and practical tests of performance. Arctic conditions demand alternative measures compared to those otherwise used for oil spill prevention and clean-up. New concepts or optimization of existing mechanical equipment is necessary. Chemical and thermal methods should be evaluated for efficiency and possible environmental effects. Both due to regular discharges of oil contaminated drilled cuttings and the possibility of a blowout or other spills, drilling operations in biological sensitive areas may be regulated to take place only during the less sensitive parts of the year. 122 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs

  11. Maternal transfer of organohalogen contaminants and metabolites to eggs of Arctic-breeding glaucous gulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggs of seabirds have routinely been used as indicators of environmental pollution in the Arctic. However, the variability in organohalogen concentration and composition associated with the laying sequence, have not been defined. We examined a suite of PCBs, organochlorine (OC) pesticides and by-products, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and methylsulfonyl- (MeSO2) PCBs in complete 3-egg clutches of glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus), and plasma samples of the laying females collected from the Norwegian Arctic. ΣPCB, ΣOC and ΣPBDE, but not ΣMeSO2-PCB, concentrations in eggs were positively associated, with increasing magnitude and significance from the first through the last-laid egg, with concentrations in female plasma. However, the concentrations of these organohalogen classes fluctuated irrespective of the laying order in the clutch. In general, maternal transfer favored low K ow and/or less persistent compounds, whereas the recalcitrant and/or higher-halogenated compounds were less readily transferred, and consequently more selectively retained in the mother. - Concentrations of organohalogen contaminants and metabolites in eggs of glaucous gulls do not fluctuate with the laying order in a three-egg clutch

  12. Nuanced Perceptions and Arctic Disputes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Danita Catherine

    -depth consideration and analysis. As such, this thesis explores the complexities and evolution of the Canadian-Arctic relationship through two central research questions: how have the dominant cultural attitudes about the Canadian Arctic emerged and evolved within Canadian society and how have these cultural ideas...... interests and disputes in the Canadian Arctic region at the regional and international levels are affects by domestic cultural and political factors. The thesis was submitted in May 2015 and successfully defended in September 2015. The external examiner was Professor Philip Steinberg (Professor in the...

  13. Population Change in a Marine Bird Colony is Driven By Changes in Recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Gaston

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The population dynamics of long-lived birds are thought to be very sensitive to changes in adult survival. However, where natal philopatry is low, recruitment from the larger metapopulation may have the strongest effect on population growth rate even in long-lived species. Here, we illustrate such a situation where changes in a seabird colony size appeared to be the consequence of changes in recruitment. We studied the population dynamics of a declining colony of Ancient Murrelets (Synthliboramphus antiquus at East Limestone Island, British Columbia. During 1990-2010, Ancient Murrelet chicks were trapped at East Limestone Island while departing to sea, using a standard trapping method carried on throughout the departure period. Adult murrelets were trapped while departing from the colony during 1990-2003. Numbers of chicks trapped declined during 1990-1995, probably because of raccoon predation, increased slightly from 1995-2000 and subsequently declined again. Reproductive success was 30% lower during 2000-2003 than in earlier years, mainly because of an increase in desertions. The proportion of nonbreeders among adult birds trapped at night also declined over the study period. Mortality of adult birds, thought to be mainly prebreeders, from predators more than doubled over the same period. Apparent adult survival of breeders remained constant during 1991-2002 once the first year after banding was excluded, but the apparent survival rates in the first year after banding fell and the survival of birds banded as chicks to age three halved over the same period. A matrix model of population dynamics suggested that even during the early part of the study immigration from other breeding areas must have been substantial, supporting earlier observations that natal philopatry in this species is low. The general colony decline after 2000 probably was related to diminished recruitment, as evidenced by the lower proportion of nonbreeders in the trapped

  14. Recruitment Strategies and Colony Size in Ants

    OpenAIRE

    Planqué, Robert; van den Berg, Jan Bouwe; Franks, Nigel R

    2010-01-01

    Ants use a great variety of recruitment methods to forage for food or find new nests, including tandem running, group recruitment and scent trails. It has been known for some time that there is a loose correlation across many taxa between species-specific mature colony size and recruitment method. Very small colonies tend to use solitary foraging; small to medium sized colonies use tandem running or group recruitment whereas larger colonies use pheromone recruitment trails. Until now, explana...

  15. Ant colony optimization in continuous problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ling; LIU Kang; LI Kaishi

    2007-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the basic ant colony optimization and optimum problem in a continuous space,an ant colony optimization (ACO) for continuous problem is constructed and discussed. The algorithm is efficient and beneficial to the study of the ant colony optimization in a continuous space.

  16. Impacts of a Warming Arctic. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Arctic is warming much more rapidly than previously known, at nearly twice the rate as the rest of the globe, and increasing greenhouse gases from human activities are projected to make it warmer still, according to an unprecedented four-year scientific study of the region conducted by an international team of 300 scientists. At least half the summer sea ice in the Arctic is projected to melt by the end of this century, along with a significant portion of the Greenland Ice Sheet, as the region is projected to warm an additional 4-7C by the year 2100. These changes will have major global impacts, such as contributing to global sea-level rise and intensifying global warming, according to the final report of the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA). The assessment was commissioned by the Arctic Council (a ministerial intergovernmental forum comprised of the eight Arctic countries and six Indigenous Peoples organizations) and the International Arctic Science Committee (an international scientific organization appointed by 18 national academies of science). The assessment's projections are based on a moderate estimate of future emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, and incorporate results from five major global climate models used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

  17. Persistent halogenated organic contaminants and mercury in northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) from the Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braune, Birgit M., E-mail: birgit.braune@ec.gc.c [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Raven Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Mallory, Mark L. [Environment Canada, Box 1714, Iqaluit, Nunavut, X0A 0H0 (Canada); Butt, Craig M.; Mabury, Scott A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3H6 (Canada); Muir, Derek C.G. [Environment Canada, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, Ontario, L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    Northern fulmars from two breeding colonies in the Canadian Arctic, Cape Vera and Prince Leopold Island, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and total mercury (Hg). Hepatic concentrations of organochlorines and Hg were highest in the male fulmars from Cape Vera. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentrations did not vary significantly between sexes or colonies. However, concentrations of the perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) were higher in fulmars from Cape Vera than Prince Leopold Island. The C{sub 11}-C{sub 15} PFCAs averaged 90% of the PFCA profile at both colonies. Polychorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and non-ortho PCBs (NO-PCBs) were measured only in birds from Prince Leopold Island. Concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, NO-PCBs and Toxic Equivalents (TEQs) did not differ significantly between sexes. {Sigma}TEQ was comprised mainly of {Sigma}TEQ{sub PCDF}. Concentrations of Hg and the persistent halogenated compounds reported in this study were below published toxicological threshold values for wild birds. - Northern fulmars in the Canadian Arctic demonstrate sex-specific, colony-specific, and regional differences in contaminant profiles.

  18. Persistent halogenated organic contaminants and mercury in northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) from the Canadian Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northern fulmars from two breeding colonies in the Canadian Arctic, Cape Vera and Prince Leopold Island, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and total mercury (Hg). Hepatic concentrations of organochlorines and Hg were highest in the male fulmars from Cape Vera. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentrations did not vary significantly between sexes or colonies. However, concentrations of the perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) were higher in fulmars from Cape Vera than Prince Leopold Island. The C11-C15 PFCAs averaged 90% of the PFCA profile at both colonies. Polychorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and non-ortho PCBs (NO-PCBs) were measured only in birds from Prince Leopold Island. Concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, NO-PCBs and Toxic Equivalents (TEQs) did not differ significantly between sexes. ΣTEQ was comprised mainly of ΣTEQPCDF. Concentrations of Hg and the persistent halogenated compounds reported in this study were below published toxicological threshold values for wild birds. - Northern fulmars in the Canadian Arctic demonstrate sex-specific, colony-specific, and regional differences in contaminant profiles.

  19. One Kilogram Interstellar Colony Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mole, A.

    Small interstellar colony probes based on nanotechnology will become possible long before giant multi-generation ships become affordable. A beam generator and magnetic sail can accelerate a one kg probe to .1 c, braking via the interstellar field can decelerate it, and the field in a distant solar system can allow it to maneuver to an extrasolar planet. A heat shield is used for landing and nanobots emerge to build ever-larger robots and construct colony infrastructure. Humans can then be generated from genomes stored as data in computer memory. Technology is evolving towards these capabilities and should reach the required level in fifty years. The plan appears to be affordable, with the principal cost being the beam generator, estimated at $17 billion.

  20. Nest- and colony-mate recognition in polydomous colonies of meat ants ( Iridomyrmex purpureus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wilgenburg, E.; Ryan, D.; Morrison, P.; Marriott, P. J.; Elgar, M. A.

    2006-07-01

    Workers of polydomous colonies of social insects must recognize not only colony-mates residing in the same nest but also those living in other nests. We investigated the impact of a decentralized colony structure on colony- and nestmate recognition in the polydomous Australian meat ant ( Iridomyrmex purpureus). Field experiments showed that ants of colonies with many nests were less aggressive toward alien conspecifics than those of colonies with few nests. In addition, while meat ants were almost never aggressive toward nestmates, they were frequently aggressive when confronted with an individual from a different nest within the same colony. Our chemical analysis of the cuticular hydrocarbons of workers using a novel comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography technique that increases the number of quantifiable compounds revealed both colony- and nest-specific patterns. Combined, these data indicate an incomplete transfer of colony odor between the nests of polydomous meat ant colonies.

  1. SCICEX: Submarine Arctic Science Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submarine Arctic Science Program, SCICEX, is a federal interagency collaboration among the operational Navy, research agencies, and the marine research...

  2. Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.;

    -Terrestrial Plan/the Plan) as the framework for coordinated, long-term Arctic terrestrial biodiversity monitoring. The goal of the CBMP-Terrestrial Plan is to improve the collective ability of Arctic traditional knowledge (TK) holders, northern communities, and scientists to detect, understand and report on long......-term change in Arctic terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity. The CBMP-Terrestrial Plan aims to address these priority management questions: 1. What are the status, distribution, and conditions of terrestrial focal species, populations, communities, and landscapes/ecosystems and key processes...... network of scientists, conservation organizations, government agencies, Permanent Participants Arctic community experts and leaders. Using an ecosystem-based monitoring approach which includes species, ecological functions, ecosystems, their interactions, and potential drivers, the CBMP focuses on...

  3. Development of arctic wind technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M.; Antikainen, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The climatic conditions of Lapland set special technical requirements for wind power production. The most difficult problem regarding wind power production in arctic regions is the build-up of hard and rime ice on structures of the machine

  4. Colonial adventures in tropical agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Buelens, Frans; Frankema, Ewout

    2015-01-01

    How profitable were foreign investments in plantation agriculture in the Netherlands Indies during the late colonial era? We use a new dataset of monthly quoted stock prices and dividends of international companies at the Brussels stock exchange to estimate the returns to investment in tropical agriculture (1919–1938). We adopt the Dimson–March–Staunton method to compute real geometric annual average rates of return and assess our estimates in an international comparative perspective. We find...

  5. Changing Views on Colonial Heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Roosmalen, P.K.M. van

    2003-01-01

    Within the context of a rational study and in order to arrive at a balanced appreciation of nineteenth and twentieth century heritage worldwide, architecture and town planning realized under colonial rule requires special attention. This paper describes the strengths and need for a revised vision of this particular heritage and the considerations and criteria that should be taken into account for evaluation of the objects. The Dutch East Indies are used as a stepping stone.

  6. Examination of the bioaccumulation of halogenated dimethyl bipyrroles in an Arctic marine food web using stable nitrogen isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Fisk, Aaron T; Hobson, Keith A; Norstrom, Ross J

    2002-01-01

    Concentrations of four possibly naturally produced organohalogens--1,1'-dimethyl-3,3',4-tribromo-4,5,5'-trichloro-2,2'-bipyrrole (DBP-Br3Cl3), 1,1'-dimethyl-3,3',4,4'-tetrabromo-5,5'-dichloro-2,2'-bipyrrole (DBP-Br4Cl2), 1,1'-dimethyl-3,3',4,4',5-pentabromo-5'-chloro-2,2'-bipyrrole (DBP-Br5Cl) and 1,1'-dimethyl-3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexabromo-2,2'-bipyrrole (DBP-Br6)--were quantitated and the extent of their magnification through an entire Arctic marine food web [measured as integrated trophic magnification factors (TMFs)] were calculated. The food web consisted of three zooplankton species (Calanus hyperboreus, Mysis oculata, and Sagitta sp.), one fish species [Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida)], four seabird species [dovekie (Alle alle), black guillemot (Cepphus grylle), black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), and glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus)], and one marine mammal species [ringed seal (Phoca hispida)]. Trophic levels in the food web were calculated from ratios of stable isotopes of nitrogen (15N/14N). All halogenated dimethyl bipyrrole (HDBP) congeners were found to significantly (Ptrophic level in the invertebrate--fish--seabird food web. DBP-Br4Cl2 (TMF= 14.6) was found to biomagnify to a greater extent than DBP-Br3Cl3 (TMF = 5.2), DBP-Br5Cl (TMF = 6.9), or DBP-Br6 (TMF = 7.0), even though the Kow of DBP-Br4CI2 was predicted to be lower than those of DBP-Br5Cl and DBP-Br6. None of the four HDBP congeners in ringed seals followed the general trend of increasing concentration with trophic level, which was possibly due to an ability of the seals to metabolize HDBPs. PMID:11808557

  7. Honeybee immunity and colony losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nazzi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The decline of honeybee colonies and their eventual collapse is a widespread phenomenon in the Northern hemisphere of the globe, which severely limits the beekeeping industry. This dramatic event is associated with an enhanced impact of parasites and pathogens on honeybees, which is indicative of reduced immunocompetence. The parasitic mite Varroa destructor and the vectored viral pathogens appear to play a key-role in the induction of this complex syndrome. In particular, the Deformed Wing Virus (DWV is widespread and is now considered, along with Varroa, one of the major causes of bee colony losses. Several lines of evidence indicate that this mite/DWV association severely affects the immune system of honeybees and makes them more sensitive to the action of other stress factors. The molecular mechanisms underpinning these complex interactions are currently being investigated and the emerging information has allowed the development of a new functional model, describing how different stress factors may synergistically concur in the induction of bee immune alteration and health decline. This provides a new logical framework in which to interpret the proposed multifactorial origin of bee colony losses and sets the stage for a more comprehensive and integrated analysis of the effect that multiple stress agents may have on honeybees.

  8. Exploration adjustment by ant colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Carolina; Stumpe, Martin C; Sendova-Franks, Ana; Franks, Nigel R

    2016-01-01

    How do animals in groups organize their work? Division of labour, i.e. the process by which individuals within a group choose which tasks to perform, has been extensively studied in social insects. Variability among individuals within a colony seems to underpin both the decision over which tasks to perform and the amount of effort to invest in a task. Studies have focused mainly on discrete tasks, i.e. tasks with a recognizable end. Here, we study the distribution of effort in nest seeking, in the absence of new nest sites. Hence, this task is open-ended and individuals have to decide when to stop searching, even though the task has not been completed. We show that collective search effort declines when colonies inhabit better homes, as a consequence of a reduction in the number of bouts (exploratory events). Furthermore, we show an increase in bout exploration time and a decrease in bout instantaneous speed for colonies inhabiting better homes. The effect of treatment on bout effort is very small; however, we suggest that the organization of work performed within nest searching is achieved both by a process of self-selection of the most hard-working ants and individual effort adjustment. PMID:26909180

  9. Deadly competition between sibling bacterial colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Be'Er, Avraham

    2011-03-01

    As a result of stress due to nutrient limitation or antibiotics, competing individual bacteria within a single colony may lyse sibling cells to release nutrients (cannibalism) or DNA (fratricide). However, we have recently shown that competition is not limited to individuals, but can occur at the colony level [A. Be'er et al., PNAS 106, 428 (2009); A. Be'er et al., PNAS 107, 6258 (2010).] In response to the presence of an encroaching sibling colony, Paenibacillus dendritiformis bacteria secrete a lethal protein, lysing cells at the interface between the colonies. Analysis of the proteins secreted by these competing sibling colonies, combined with a mathematical model, shows how colonies maintain their growth by self-regulating the secretion of two proteins: subtilisin (a well-known growth promoter), and Slf (a previously unknown protein, which is lethal). The results also explain why a single colony is not inhibited by its own secretions.

  10. Highest PBDE levels (max 63 ppm) yet found in biota measured in seabird eggs from San Francisco Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    She, J.; Holden, A.; Tanner, M.; Sharp, M.; Hooper, K. [Department of Toxic Substances Control, Berkeley, CA (United States). Hazardous Materials Lab.; Adelsbach, T. [Environmental Contaminants Division, Sacramento Fish and Wildlife Office, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    High levels of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) have been found in humans and wildlife from the San Francisco Bay Area, with levels in women among the highest in the world, and levels in piscivorous seabird eggs at the ppm level. Seabirds are useful for monitoring and assessing ecosystem health at various times and places because they occupy a high trophic level in the marine food web, are long-lived, and are generally localized near their breeding and non-breeding sites. In collaboration with the US Fish and Wildlife Services (USFWS), we are carrying out a three-year investigation of dioxin, PCB and PBDE levels in eggs from fish-eating seabirds. Year 1 (2002) PBDE measurements from 73 bird eggs were reported at Dioxin2003. Year 2 (2003) PBDE measurements from 45 samples are presented in this report. The highest PBDE level measured in eggs was 63 ppm, lipid, which is the highest PBDE level, yet reported in biota.

  11. Heavy metal and arsenic content in seabirds affected by the Prestige oil spill on the Galician coast (NW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabirds are top consumers in marine foodchains which offer opportunities to detect and assess the toxicological effects of different inorganic elements on the marine ecosystem. In order to provide baseline data concerning trace element levels in seabird species from NW Spain, zinc, copper, arsenic, chromium, lead, cadmium and mercury concentrations were analyzed in liver of three different seabird species (common guillemot, Atlantic puffin and razorbill) affected by the Prestige oil spill in September 2002 on the Galician coast. In general, with the exception of mercury, levels of all the analyzed elements were similar or lower in comparison with those reported for the same species in other Atlantic areas, and did not exceed levels indicative of increased environmental exposure

  12. Diversification of Nitrogen Sources in Various Tundra Vegetation Types in the High Arctic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Skrzypek

    Full Text Available Low nitrogen availability in the high Arctic represents a major constraint for plant growth, which limits the tundra capacity for carbon retention and determines tundra vegetation types. The limited terrestrial nitrogen (N pool in the tundra is augmented significantly by nesting seabirds, such as the planktivorous Little Auk (Alle alle. Therefore, N delivered by these birds may significantly influence the N cycling in the tundra locally and the carbon budget more globally. Moreover, should these birds experience substantial negative environmental pressure associated with climate change, this will adversely influence the tundra N-budget. Hence, assessment of bird-originated N-input to the tundra is important for understanding biological cycles in polar regions. This study analyzed the stable nitrogen composition of the three main N-sources in the High Arctic and in numerous plants that access different N-pools in ten tundra vegetation types in an experimental catchment in Hornsund (Svalbard. The percentage of the total tundra N-pool provided by birds, ranged from 0-21% in Patterned-ground tundra to 100% in Ornithocoprophilous tundra. The total N-pool utilized by tundra plants in the studied catchment was built in 36% by birds, 38% by atmospheric deposition, and 26% by atmospheric N2-fixation. The stable nitrogen isotope mixing mass balance, in contrast to direct methods that measure actual deposition, indicates the ratio between the actual N-loads acquired by plants from different N-sources. Our results enhance our understanding of the importance of different N-sources in the Arctic tundra and the used methodological approach can be applied elsewhere.

  13. Diversification of Nitrogen Sources in Various Tundra Vegetation Types in the High Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Wojtuń, Bronisław; Richter, Dorota; Jakubas, Dariusz; Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Low nitrogen availability in the high Arctic represents a major constraint for plant growth, which limits the tundra capacity for carbon retention and determines tundra vegetation types. The limited terrestrial nitrogen (N) pool in the tundra is augmented significantly by nesting seabirds, such as the planktivorous Little Auk (Alle alle). Therefore, N delivered by these birds may significantly influence the N cycling in the tundra locally and the carbon budget more globally. Moreover, should these birds experience substantial negative environmental pressure associated with climate change, this will adversely influence the tundra N-budget. Hence, assessment of bird-originated N-input to the tundra is important for understanding biological cycles in polar regions. This study analyzed the stable nitrogen composition of the three main N-sources in the High Arctic and in numerous plants that access different N-pools in ten tundra vegetation types in an experimental catchment in Hornsund (Svalbard). The percentage of the total tundra N-pool provided by birds, ranged from 0-21% in Patterned-ground tundra to 100% in Ornithocoprophilous tundra. The total N-pool utilized by tundra plants in the studied catchment was built in 36% by birds, 38% by atmospheric deposition, and 26% by atmospheric N2-fixation. The stable nitrogen isotope mixing mass balance, in contrast to direct methods that measure actual deposition, indicates the ratio between the actual N-loads acquired by plants from different N-sources. Our results enhance our understanding of the importance of different N-sources in the Arctic tundra and the used methodological approach can be applied elsewhere. PMID:26376204

  14. 77 FR 31677 - Request for Public Comment on Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC) Arctic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... TECHNOLOGY POLICY Request for Public Comment on Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC) Arctic Research Plan: FY2013-2017 May 22, 2012. ACTION: Request for public comment. SUMMARY: The Arctic Research and Policy Act of 1984 (ARPA), Public Law 98-373, established the Interagency Arctic Research...

  15. Summer distribution and ecological role of seabirds and marine mammals in the Norwegian and Greenland seas (June 1988)

    OpenAIRE

    Joiris, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    During the ARK V/2 expedition of RV Polarstern in the Norwegian and Greenland seas in June 1988, 380 half hour counts for marine vertebrates (seabirds, pinnipeds and cetaceans) were carried out. Results are presented as total numbers encountered and then converted into density and food intake. Mean food intake was 2.2 kg fresh weight per km2 per day for seabirds, with a higher value in Atlantic water (2.5) lower values in polar water and the pack ice (1.7 and 1.9), and an intermediate value a...

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and corticosterone levels in seven polar seabird species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on exposure-related endocrine effects has been poorly investigated in wild birds. This is the case for stress hormones including corticosterone (CORT). Some studies have suggested that environmental exposure to PCBs and altered CORT secretion might be associated. Here we investigated the relationships between blood PCB concentrations and circulating CORT levels in seven free-ranging polar seabird species occupying different trophic positions, and hence covering a wide range of PCB exposure. Blood ∑7PCB concentrations (range: 61–115,632 ng/g lw) were positively associated to baseline or stress-induced CORT levels in three species and negatively associated to stress-induced CORT levels in one species. Global analysis suggests that in males, baseline CORT levels generally increase with increasing blood ∑7PCB concentrations, whereas stress-induced CORT levels decrease when reaching high blood ∑7PCB concentrations. This study suggests that the nature of the PCB-CORT relationships may depend on the level of PCB exposure. - Highlights: • Relationships between PCBs and stress hormones (CORT) are not well known in birds. • We measured blood PCBs, baseline and stress-induced CORT in seven seabird species. • ∑PCB was positively associated to baseline or stress-induced CORT in three species. • ∑PCBs was negatively linked to stress-induced CORT in the most contaminated species. • The nature of the PCB-CORT relationships may depend on the level of PCB exposure. - In polar seabird species, the relationship between PCB and CORT concentrations may be related to the levels of contamination

  17. Sex-specific foraging behavior in response to fishing activities in a threatened seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Tarrasón, Manuel; Bécares, Juan; Bateman, Santiago; Arcos, José Manuel; Jover, Lluís; Sanpera, Carolina

    2015-06-01

    Some seabird species have learnt to efficiently exploit fishing discards from trawling activities. However, a discard ban has been proposed as necessary in Europe to ensure the sustainability of the seas. It is of crucial importance for the management and conservation purposes to study the potential consequences of a discard ban on the foraging ecology of threatened seabirds. We assessed the influence of fishing activities on the feeding habits of 22 male and 15 female Audouin's gulls (Larus audouinii) from the Ebro Delta (Mediterranean Sea) during the breeding period using GPS loggers together with Stable Isotope Analysis (SIA), which provided new insights into their foraging behavior and trophic ecology, respectively. GPS data revealed different sex-specific foraging patterns between workdays and weekends. Females were highly consistent in that they foraged at sea throughout the week even though discarding stops at weekends. In contrast, males switched from foraging at sea during the week (when discards are produced) to an increased use of rice field habitats at weekends (when fishermen do not work). This sex-specific foraging behavior could be related to specific nutritional requirements associated with previous egg production, an energetically demanding period for females. However, on a broader time scale integrated by the SIA, both sexes showed a high degree of individual specialization in their trophic ecology. The need to obtain detailed information on the dependence and response of seabirds to fishing activities is crucial in conservation sciences. In this regard, sex-specific foraging behavior in relation to fisheries has been overlooked, despite the ecological and conservation implications. For instance, this situation may lead to sex differentiation in bycatch mortality in longlines when trawlers do not operate. Moreover, any new fisheries policy will need to be implemented gradually to facilitate the adaptation of a specialized species to a discard ban

  18. The Arctic policy of China and Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki

    2014-01-01

    At the May 2013 Arctic Council Ministerial Meeting, five Asian states, namely China, Japan, India, Singapore and South Korea, were accepted to become new Permanent Observers at the Arctic Council. Nonetheless, little attention has been paid to the Asian states and their interest in the Arctic. Most...... discussions have focused on China and the assessment of China’s interest in the Arctic is divided. This paper attempts to fill this gap by presenting and comparing the various components of the Arctic policies of China and Japan. Referring to Putnam’s model of the “two-level game” and Young’s categorization...... of Arctic stakeholders’ interests, data from policy documents and interviews with relevant stakeholders were analysed. This analysis shows the Chinese and Japanese governments are in the gradual process of consolidating their Arctic policies, but both China and Japan see the Arctic less as a...

  19. Status of Breeding Seabirds in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden represent a complex and unique tropical marine ecosystem. The Red Sea was formed by the northerly extension of the African rift valley system and is about 2,000 km long. The Gulf of Aden is a branch of the Indian Ocean and has a length of 1,400 km. The region has a remarkably high biological diversity and a high degree of endemism, particularly for fish and corals. Information available on seabirds for the region is limited, wi...

  20. Differential effects of a local industrial sand lance fishery on seabird breeding performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, M.; Jensen, Henrik; Daunt, F.;

    2008-01-01

    Fisheries management across the world is moving toward an ecosystem-based approach, implying that fishery effects on nontarget species should be taken into account. However, such effects are often not well understood, partly because they can be difficult to distinguish from impacts of environmental...... fluctuations. We evaluated the effects of an industrial sand lance (Ammodytes marinus) fishery off the North Sea coast of the United Kingdom, which has been opened and closed in a quasi-experimental fashion, on sand-lance-dependent breeding seabirds. Controlling for environmental variation ( sea surface...... tool for future ecosystem-based fisheries management....

  1. Up the shit creek:new sampling method reveals trophic interactions of a specialised seabird

    OpenAIRE

    Courtens, Wouter; Verstraete, Hilbran; de Walle, Marc Van; Vanermen, Nicolas; Stienen,Eric

    2015-01-01

    Because of difficulties to sample the diet of adult seabirds, only few studies have simultaneously examined the diets of adults and chicks. For some species, such as most terns, it is0often assumed that chicks and adults feed on the same forage species, although central-place foraging theory predicts that single-prey loaders should bring more energy rich prey to their chicks than they feed on themselves. Here we report on a new and easy sampling technique we used to assess the diet compositio...

  2. The logic of hypersocial colonies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jes Søe

    2012-01-01

    It is no wonder that we are transfixed with fascination when we stand in the midst of an ocean of flowing ants within a single extensive society of one of the invasive species. Normal terms do not fit anymore: this is not just a colony, but a “supercolony.” The iconic supercolonial species is the...... Argentine ant, infamous as a pest and now very well studied, all the way from having its genome sequenced to its global distribution mapped. As the Argentine ant can be the key to understanding other supercolonial and/or invasive ants, it is very timely that Moffett's review (2012) focuses on how we...

  3. An Authomated approach for Bacterial Colony Counter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Nagpal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Counting of bacterial colonies is complex task for microbiologist. To a large extent, accurate colony counting depends on the ability to see colonies distinctly, whether viewed by the naked eye or by an automated instrument. An increased area of focus in Microbiology is the automation of counting methods.. Further in an Industry thousands of such samples are formed per day and colonies on each sample are counted manually, then this becomes a time consuming hectic and error prone job.We proposed a method to count these colonies to save time with accurate results and fast delivery to customers. This proposed research work will count the colonies after 6 to 8 hours priori, saving a lot more time and this work will more efficient because market range for this is about 10,000 only as compare to prior systems.

  4. Arctic Landscape Within Reach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image, one of the first captured by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander, shows flat ground strewn with tiny pebbles and marked by small-scale polygonal cracking, a pattern seen widely in Martian high latitudes and also observed in permafrost terrains on Earth. The polygonal cracking is believed to have resulted from seasonal contraction and expansion of surface ice. Phoenix touched down on the Red Planet at 4:53 p.m. Pacific Time (7:53 p.m. Eastern Time), May 25, 2008, in an arctic region called Vastitas Borealis, at 68 degrees north latitude, 234 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired at the Phoenix landing site by the Surface Stereo Imager on day 1 of the mission on the surface of Mars, or Sol 0, after the May 25, 2008, landing. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Alternative Modernities for Colonial Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sunyoung Park. The Proletarian Wave: Literature and Leftist Culture in Colonial Korea, 1910–1945. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015. 348 pp. $50 (cloth. Vladimir Tikhonov. Modern Korea and Its Others: Perceptions of the Neighbouring Countries and Korean Modernity. London: Routledge, 2016. 218 pp. $160 (cloth. It has become a global scholarly undertaking: how to rethink modernity so as to decouple it from Westernization (Chakrabarty 2000. Strategies have included foregrounding the plurality of history to disrupt linear progress; positing non-Western centers of modernity in, say, Moscow or Shanghai; and tracing anticolonial circuits connecting Asia to Africa to Latin America. The two recent books under review here add colonial-era Korea to such far-reaching discussions by situating the country across national boundaries. Interestingly, one connecting thread here is the alternative world system provided by the interwar, Soviet-oriented Left. The result is an unsettling of binaries that subsequently became entrenched during the Cold War: for example, north-south, socialist-nationalist, and, for literature, realist-modernist. But more broadly, pervading both books is the sense that history could have turned out differently—that revisiting northeast Asia’s porous borders in the early twentieth century reveals the Korean peninsula’s lost, internationalist potential...

  6. Growth and form of melanoma cell colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Baraldi, Massimiliano Maria; Alemi, Alexander A.; Sethna, James P.; Caracciolo, Sergio; La Porta, Caterina A. M.; Zapperi, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    We study the statistical properties of melanoma cell colonies grown in vitro by analyzing the results of crystal violet assays at different concentrations of initial plated cells and for di?erent growth times. The distribution of colony sizes is described well by a continuous time branching process. To characterize the shape fluctuations of the colonies, we compute the distribution of eccentricities. The experimental results are compared with numerical results for models of random division of...

  7. CULTURAL DIVERSITY AND ORIENTALISTSIN THE COLONIAL INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Rohini

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses to what extent colonial India was responsive to cultural diversity? It shows the orientalist policies of British rulers to find out how much it was favorable to the various ways of life prevailing in India during colonial times? In the colonial period we find out, how the colonizers in India insisted on their distinctness instead of accepting the path of assimilation. The Orientalist administrators and scholars presented India as having a long living civil...

  8. Towards a multilevel ant colony optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Lian, Thomas Andreé; Llave, Marilex Rea

    2014-01-01

    Ant colony optimization is a metaheuristic approach for solving combinatorial optimization problems which belongs to swarm intelligence techniques. Ant colony optimization algorithms are one of the most successful strands of swarm intelligence which has already shown very good performance in many combinatorial problems and for some real applications. This thesis introduces a new multilevel approach for ant colony optimization to solve the NP-hard problems shortest path and traveling salesman....

  9. GRID SCHEDULING USING ENHANCED ANT COLONY ALGORITHM

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. P.Mathiyalagan; U.R. Dhepthie; S.N. Sivanandam

    2010-01-01

    Grid computing is a high performance computing used to solve larger scale computational demands. Task scheduling is a major issue in grid computing systems. Scheduling of tasks is the NP hard problem. The heuristic approach provides optimal solution for NP hard problems .The ant colony algorithm provides optimal solution. The existing ant colony algorithm takes more time to schedule the tasks. In this paper ant colony algorithm improved by enhancing pheromone updating rule such that it schedu...

  10. Evaluation of the effectiveness of light streamer tori-lines and characteristics of bait attacks by seabirds in the western North Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyosi Sato

    Full Text Available To improve the effectiveness of tori-lines it is necessary to evaluate the ability of tori-lines to mitigate seabird bycatch and determine what kind of seabird species gather during line settings, attack the bait and are incidentally caught. We conducted two experiments in the western North Pacific and examined the effectiveness for seabird mitigation of light streamer tori-lines which have no long streamers but many light (short streamers and are mainly used in the North Pacific area. Firstly, the effectiveness of two different types of tori-line (light streamer (1 m and long streamer (up to 7 m tori-line and of two different colors (yellow and red of light streamers for seabird bycatch avoidance was evaluated using 567 sets based on data from 20 offshore surface commercial longliners. No significant difference in the bycatch number between the different tori-line types and streamer colors was found. Secondly, we investigated the characteristics of the seabird bycatch in the North Pacific and the effectiveness of three different types of streamers (light, hybrid and modified light types by detailed observations of seabird attacks using a chartered longline vessel. Although the appearance rate of albatrosses and shearwaters were 40.9% and 27.7%, Laysan albatross was the main seabird species that followed the vessel but shearwaters seldom followed the vessel and did not aggregate during line setting. In all attacks on bait observed during line settings, 81% and 7% were by albatrosses and shearwaters, respectively. In the number of primary attacks by Laysan albatrosses which attacked most aggressively of all seabirds, there were no significant differences among the tori-line types. No individuals of shearwater were caught. The results of both experiments indicated that light streamer tori-lines were as effective as tori-lines with long streamers for mitigating seabird bycatch in the North Pacific.

  11. GRID SCHEDULING USING ENHANCED ANT COLONY ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mathiyalagan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Grid computing is a high performance computing used to solve larger scale computational demands. Task scheduling is a major issue in grid computing systems. Scheduling of tasks is the NP hard problem. The heuristic approach provides optimal solution for NP hard problems .The ant colony algorithm provides optimal solution. The existing ant colony algorithm takes more time to schedule the tasks. In this paper ant colony algorithm improved by enhancing pheromone updating rule such that it schedules the tasks efficiently and better resource utilization. The simulation results prove that proposed method reduces the execution time of tasks compared to existing ant colony algorithm.

  12. Who has the right - An investigation into the representations of whaling in the Faroe Islands and the Arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Batty, Roxanne; Lang Olsen, Mads; Aabling-Thomsen, Signe; Ibsen, Søren Møllnitz

    2015-01-01

    This paper sets out to investigate the way in which two documentaries represent whaling. One documentary is by Russia Today, that focuses on the Faroese Pilot Whale Hunt, and another made by the British Broadcasting Corporation, with a focus the Arctic and Inuit whaling. Working on the question of representation on whaling, the paper explores the role colonial history plays in this representation, how the representation of whaling has developed and what role it plays in the documentaries, and...

  13. Environmental radioactivity in the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference considered several broad themes: (1) assessment of releases from landbased sources and river transport, (2) assessment of dumping of nuclear waste, (3) arctic radioecology, (4) assessment of impacts of nuclear explosions and accidents, (5) nuclear safety and consequences of nuclear accidents in the arctic, and (6) waste management. The presentations demonstrated that current levels of radioactivity in the Arctic are generally low. The two most important sources are global fallout from the nuclear weapons tests of the 1950's and 1960's, and discharges to the sea from reprocessing plants in Western Europe which are transported northward by prevailing currents. The conference was attended by scientists from 17 countries and served as a forum for collection and dissemination of information on the range of themes and described above. It is hoped that this will serve to increase awareness of areas of uncertainty and act as a stimulus to further research

  14. Sitting in the sun: Nest microhabitat affects incubation temperatures in seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Lorinda A; Downs, Colleen T; Brown, Mark

    2016-08-01

    During incubation parent birds are committed to a nest site and endure a range of ambient conditions while regulating egg temperatures. Using artificial eggs containing temperature loggers alongside ambient temperature (Ta) controls, incubation profiles were determined for four tropical seabird species at different nest site locations. Camera traps were used for ad-hoc behavioural incubation observations. Eggs experienced a range of temperatures during incubation and varied significantly between species and in some cases between different microhabitats within a species. Such variation has important consequences in the phenotypic expression of both physical and physiological traits of chicks, and ultimately species fitness. Exposed nest sites were more strongly correlated to Tas. Camera traps highlighted different incubation strategies employed by these species that could be related to trade-offs in predator defence, feeding habits, and temperature regulation of eggs. This study provides evidence that species with similar breeding habits could be affected by environmental stressors in similar ways and that the differences shown in nest site selection could negate some of these effects. We propose that habitats providing suitable nest microclimates will become increasingly important for the successful breeding of seabird species, particularly under predicted climate change scenarios. PMID:27503727

  15. Mercury accumulation in sediments and seabird feathers from the Antarctic Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We assessed mercury bioaccumulation in seabirds in the Antarctic Peninsula. • Levels of Hg were higher in gentoo penguins & brown skuas than chinstrap penguins. • Mercury BMF in the brown skua/penguins relationship was higher than 1. • Long-range environmental transport is the likely mercury route in Antarctic. - Abstract: In an effort to assess the impact of mercury in the Antarctic Peninsula, we conducted ecotoxicological research in this region during the summer of 2012 and 2013. The objectives were to assess: (a) mercury levels in sediment samples; (b) mercury accumulation in Antarctic seabird feathers: Catharacta lonnbergi (brown skua), Pygoscelis papua (gentoo penguin) and Pygoscelis antarctica (chinstrap penguin); and (c) biomagnification (BMF predator/prey) and biota sediment accumulation (BSAF skuas/sediment) factors. Mercury concentrations in sediment were relatively low. Mercury concentrations were significantly higher in brown skuas and gentoo penguins than in chinstrap penguins (2012), and significantly higher in brown skuas than in both penguins (2013). BMF indicated 2–7.5 times greater mercury levels in brown skuas than in penguins. BSAF values suggested an apparent temporal decrease of 18.2% of this ratio from 2012 to 2013. Long-range environmental transport is the likely route of entry of mercury into the Antarctic Peninsula

  16. Levels and pattern of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in eggs of Antarctic seabirds: Endemic versus migratory species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinstrap and gentoo penguins are endemic species that live year round south of the Antarctic Convergence. South polar skua is a migratory seabird that can be observed in Antarctica during the breeding season (i.e., austral summer). This study compares concentration and pattern of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in eggs of seabirds breeding at King George Island, Antarctic Peninsula. PBDEs in south polar skua eggs are approximately 20 times higher than in penguin eggs suggesting that skuas are more exposed to contaminants during the non-breeding season when they migrate to waters of the northern hemisphere. The pattern of PBDE congeners also differs between south polar skua and penguin eggs. The latter exhibited a pattern similar to that found in the local biota. In contrast, the congener pattern in south polar skua eggs suggests that birds breeding at King George Island may winter in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. - Skua and penguin eggs collected at King George Island have different concentration and pattern of PBDEs

  17. Seabird databases and the new paradigm for scientific publication and attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    For more than 300 years, the peer-reviewed journal article has been the principal medium for packaging and delivering scientific data. With new tools for managing digital data, a new paradigm is emerging—one that demands open and direct access to data and that enables and rewards a broad-based approach to scientific questions. Ground-breaking papers in the future will increasingly be those that creatively mine and synthesize vast stores of data available on the Internet. This is especially true for conservation science, in which essential data can be readily captured in standard record formats. For seabird professionals, a number of globally shared databases are in the offing, or should be. These databases will capture the salient results of inventories and monitoring, pelagic surveys, diet studies, and telemetry. A number of real or perceived barriers to data sharing exist, but none is insurmountable. Our discipline should take an important stride now by adopting a specially designed markup language for annotating and sharing seabird data.

  18. The influence of developmental environment on the evolution of olfactory foraging behaviour in procellariiform seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buskirk, R W; Nevitt, G A

    2008-01-01

    The evolutionary origins of foraging behaviour by procellariiform seabirds (petrels, albatrosses and shearwaters) are poorly understood. Moreover, proximate factors affecting foraging ecology, such as the influence of environment on the development of sensory systems, have yet to be addressed. Here, we apply comparative methods based on current procellariiform phylogenies to identify associations between sensory modalities and the developmental environment that may underlie the evolution of complex foraging behaviour. We postulate that, for burrow-nesting species, smell is likely to dominate the sensory world of the developing chick. Alternatively, for ground-nesting species, chicks receive exposure to a range of visual, auditory and olfactory cues. We employ maximum likelihood to test models of correlated trait evolution between nesting habit and olfactory foraging style and to reconstruct the ancestral states of these characters when coded as binary states. Our results suggest that nesting behaviour has evolved in conjunction with foraging style. Based on this analysis, we propose that nesting on the surface was a life-history innovation that opened up a new developmental environment with profound effects on the foraging ecology of procellariiform seabirds. PMID:18021198

  19. Moving polewards in winter: a recent change in the migratory strategy of a pelagic seabird?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Mark

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the non-breeding period, many birds migrate to milder areas, found closer to the equator than their breeding sites. Opposite movements are very rare. In the Southern Ocean, the abundance of 13C declines markedly with more southern latitude, providing a characteristic 13C isoscape. This can be used as a tracer for the movement of seabirds between breeding and inter-breeding areas, by comparing stable isotope ratios of feathers grown at different times of the year. Results We studied seasonal movements of Thin-billed prions (Aves, Procellariiformes, breeding at the Subantarctic Falkland/Malvinas Islands, compared with those of Wilson's storm-petrels breeding in the Antarctic South Shetland Islands. The two species showed opposite migratory movements. While Wilson's storm-petrels moved to warmer waters north of the Drake Passage in winter, Thin-billed prions showed a reversed movement towards more polar waters. Carbon stable isotope ratios in recent and historical feathers indicated that poleward winter movements of Thin-billed prions were less common historically (45% in 1913-1915, and have only recently become dominant (92% in 2003-2005, apparently in response to warming sea temperatures. Conclusions This study shows that pelagic seabirds can rapidly change migration strategies within populations, including migration towards more poleward waters in winter.

  20. Levels and pattern of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in eggs of Antarctic seabirds: Endemic versus migratory species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yogui, G.T. [Geochemical and Environmental Research Group, College of Geosciences, Texas A and M University, 833 Graham Road, College Station, TX 77845 (United States)], E-mail: gtyogui@ocean.tamu.edu; Sericano, J.L. [Geochemical and Environmental Research Group, College of Geosciences, Texas A and M University, 833 Graham Road, College Station, TX 77845 (United States)], E-mail: jsericano@gerg.tamu.edu

    2009-03-15

    Chinstrap and gentoo penguins are endemic species that live year round south of the Antarctic Convergence. South polar skua is a migratory seabird that can be observed in Antarctica during the breeding season (i.e., austral summer). This study compares concentration and pattern of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in eggs of seabirds breeding at King George Island, Antarctic Peninsula. PBDEs in south polar skua eggs are approximately 20 times higher than in penguin eggs suggesting that skuas are more exposed to contaminants during the non-breeding season when they migrate to waters of the northern hemisphere. The pattern of PBDE congeners also differs between south polar skua and penguin eggs. The latter exhibited a pattern similar to that found in the local biota. In contrast, the congener pattern in south polar skua eggs suggests that birds breeding at King George Island may winter in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. - Skua and penguin eggs collected at King George Island have different concentration and pattern of PBDEs.

  1. New records, distribution and status of six seabird species in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Antunes Dias

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Distribution records of poorly-known species are currently the most explored theme in the Brazilian seabird literature. If properly evaluated, this kind of information can improve our knowledge on distribution, migration and status of occurrence of these species. In this note we present new records for six species of poorly-known seabirds in the Brazilian coast, reviewing distribution records and defining their status of occurrence in the country. We consider Chionis albus (Gmelin, 1789 a pseudo-vagrant in Brazil and define its status as a scarce seasonal visitor from southern South America. We present the first records of Leucophaeus atricilla (Linnaeus, 1758 for Trindade Island, and of Leucophaeus pipixcan (Wagler, 1831 for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, and determined that the former is a vagrant in eastern Brazil and the latter a vagrant across the country. Anous stolidus (Linnaeus, 1758 is a vagrant in southernmost Brazil. We were unable to determine if records of Chlidonias niger (Linnaeus, 1758 for Brazil and southern South America refer to vagrancy or pseudo-vagrancy. Additionally, we verified the occurrence of breeding individuals of Anous minutus Boie, 1844 on Martin Vaz Island and confirmed that there is no evidence of breeding on neighboring Trindade Island.

  2. Arctic Energy Resources: Energy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryc, George

    1984-04-01

    Arctic Energy Resources is a volume of 26 papers recording the proceedings of the Comite' Arctique International Conference, held at the Veritas Centre, Oslo, Norway, September 22-24, 1982. This was the fourth of a series of meetings on the Arctic organized by the Comite', an organization established in the Principality of Monaco with the active support of H.S.H. Prince Rainer III. The fourth Conference was opened by H.R.H. Crown Prins Harald of Norway, a noble beginning for a noble objective.The North Polar Region has drawn world attention recently because of several large hydrocarbon and other mineral discoveries and because of major political and environmental actions in the North American Arctic. Since 1923 when Naval Petroleum Reserve number 4 (NPR-4) was established, northern Alaska has been considered a major petroleum province. It was first explored systematically with modern techniques from 1943 to 1953. In 1958, Alaska became a state, and both federal and state lands in northern Alaska were available for private exploration. Building on the knowledge base provided by the Pet-4 program and its spinoff research laboratory at Barrow, industry explored the area east of NPR-4 and discovered the largest hydrocarbon accumulation (9.6 bbl crude oil and 26 Tcf (trillion cubic feet) gas) in North America at Prudhoe Bay. Concerns for environmental impacts, including oil spills, led to the passing of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1969. In 1970, over 9 million acres were set aside, now known as the Arctic National Wildlife Range, and in 1971 the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act was passed by the U.S. Congress. The Arab oil embargo of 1973 heightened the energy crisis and changed the economic basis for further exploration in the Arctic. The convergence of these events dramatically changed the balance of power and the pace of activity in the North American Arctic.

  3. Seabird bycatch in Portuguese mainland coastal fisheries: An assessment through on-board observations and fishermen interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Competition with fisheries and incidental capture in fishing gear are the major current threats for seabirds at sea. Fishing is a traditional activity in Portugal and is mainly composed of a great number of small vessels. Given the lack of knowledge on effects of the Portuguese fishing fleet on seabird populations, bycatch was assessed in mainland coastal waters for 2010–2012. Interviews and on-board data were divided into 5 strata, according to fishing gear: Bottom trawling, Bottom longline, Purse seine, Beach seine, Polyvalent (≥12  m and Polyvalent (<12 m. Polyvalent included Setnets, Traps and Demersal longlines. Overall, 68 birds were recorded to be bycaught. The average catch per unit effort (CPUE was 0.05 birds per fishing event. Polyvalent (<12 m, Polyvalent (≥12  m and Purse seiners had the biggest seabird bycatch rates, with 0.5 (CPUE=0.1, 0.11 (CPUE=0.05 and 0.2 (CPUE=0.11 birds per trip, respectively. Within Polyvalent gear, Setnets captured the largest diversity of seabird species (CPUE=0.06, while Demersal longline had the highest CPUE (0.86. Northern gannet was the most common bycaught species. Although more observation effort is required, our results suggest that substantial numbers of Balearic shearwater might be bycaught annually, mainly in Purse seine and Setnets.

  4. Influenza A virus on oceanic islands: host and viral diversity in seabirds in the Western Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebarbenchon, Camille; Jaeger, Audrey; Feare, Chris; Bastien, Matthieu; Dietrich, Muriel; Larose, Christine; Lagadec, Erwan; Rocamora, Gérard; Shah, Nirmal; Pascalis, Hervé; Boulinier, Thierry; Le Corre, Matthieu; Stallknecht, David E; Dellagi, Koussay

    2015-05-01

    Ducks and seabirds are natural hosts for influenza A viruses (IAV). On oceanic islands, the ecology of IAV could be affected by the relative diversity, abundance and density of seabirds and ducks. Seabirds are the most abundant and widespread avifauna in the Western Indian Ocean and, in this region, oceanic islands represent major breeding sites for a large diversity of potential IAV host species. Based on serological assays, we assessed the host range of IAV and the virus subtype diversity in terns of the islands of the Western Indian Ocean. We further investigated the spatial variation in virus transmission patterns between islands and identified the origin of circulating viruses using a molecular approach. Our findings indicate that terns represent a major host for IAV on oceanic islands, not only for seabird-related virus subtypes such as H16, but also for those commonly isolated in wild and domestic ducks (H3, H6, H9, H12 subtypes). We also identified strong species-associated variation in virus exposure that may be associated to differences in the ecology and behaviour of terns. We discuss the role of tern migrations in the spread of viruses to and between oceanic islands, in particular for the H2 and H9 IAV subtypes. PMID:25996394

  5. Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for Continuous Domains Based on Position Distribution Model of Ant Colony Foraging

    OpenAIRE

    Liqiang Liu; Yuntao Dai; Jinyu Gao

    2014-01-01

    Ant colony optimization algorithm for continuous domains is a major research direction for ant colony optimization algorithm. In this paper, we propose a distribution model of ant colony foraging, through analysis of the relationship between the position distribution and food source in the process of ant colony foraging. We design a continuous domain optimization algorithm based on the model and give the form of solution for the algorithm, the distribution model of pheromone, the update rules...

  6. Recruitment strategies and colony size in ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Planqué

    Full Text Available Ants use a great variety of recruitment methods to forage for food or find new nests, including tandem running, group recruitment and scent trails. It has been known for some time that there is a loose correlation across many taxa between species-specific mature colony size and recruitment method. Very small colonies tend to use solitary foraging; small to medium sized colonies use tandem running or group recruitment whereas larger colonies use pheromone recruitment trails. Until now, explanations for this correlation have focused on the ants' ecology, such as food resource distribution. However, many species have colonies with a single queen and workforces that grow over several orders of magnitude, and little is known about how a colony's organization, including recruitment methods, may change during its growth. After all, recruitment involves interactions between ants, and hence the size of the colony itself may influence which recruitment method is used--even if the ants' behavioural repertoire remains unchanged. Here we show using mathematical models that the observed correlation can also be explained by recognizing that failure rates in recruitment depend differently on colony size in various recruitment strategies. Our models focus on the build up of recruiter numbers inside colonies and are not based on optimality arguments, such as maximizing food yield. We predict that ant colonies of a certain size should use only one recruitment method (and always the same one rather than a mix of two or more. These results highlight the importance of the organization of recruitment and how it is affected by colony size. Hence these results should also expand our understanding of ant ecology.

  7. U.S. Arctic Research Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    “North to the Future” is a well-known slogan in Alaska. This slogan also expresses the spirit with which the U.S. Arctic Research Commission (ARC) has begun its work.The commission was established as a result of Sen. Murkowski's (R-Alaska) Arctic Research and Policy Act of 1984, and its members were appointed by President Reagan last February (Eos, February 26, 1985, p. 91). The ARC has been directed to develop and recommend an integrated Arctic research policy and to work with the concomitantly established Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee in the formulation of a comprehensive 5-year Arctic research plan (see Figure 1). The Arctic Research and Policy Act designates the National Science Foundation as the lead agency responsible for implementing the policy with other federal agencies; it further requires the preparation of a single, integrated multiagency budget request for Arctic research.

  8. Arctic Glass: Innovative Consumer Technology in Support of Arctic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthkoski, T.

    2015-12-01

    The advancement of cyberinfrastructure on the North Slope of Alaska is drastically limited by location-specific conditions, including: unique geophysical features, remoteness of location, and harsh climate. The associated cost of maintaining this unique cyberinfrastructure also becomes a limiting factor. As a result, field experiments conducted in this region have historically been at a technological disadvantage. The Arctic Glass project explored a variety of scenarios where innovative consumer-grade technology was leveraged as a lightweight, rapidly deployable, sustainable, alternatives to traditional large-scale Arctic cyberinfrastructure installations. Google Glass, cloud computing services, Internet of Things (IoT) microcontrollers, miniature LIDAR, co2 sensors designed for HVAC systems, and portable network kits are several of the components field-tested at the Toolik Field Station as part of this project. Region-specific software was also developed, including a multi featured, voice controlled Google Glass application named "Arctic Glass". Additionally, real-time sensor monitoring and remote control capability was evaluated through the deployment of a small cluster of microcontroller devices. Network robustness was analyzed as the devices delivered streams of abiotic data to a web-based dashboard monitoring service in near real time. The same data was also uploaded synchronously by the devices to Amazon Web Services. A detailed overview of solutions deployed during the 2015 field season, results from experiments utilizing consumer sensors, and potential roles consumer technology could play in support of Arctic science will be discussed.

  9. [Notes about other epidemics in Colonial Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laval, Enrique

    2015-10-01

    In chronicles or in the historiography of the Colony in Chile there are few references about epidemics different to smallpox; like typhus, typhoid fever, dysentery, etc. Almost all, fast spreading in the country and some with high lethality, which led to overflowing the capacity of hospitals in the Chilean colonial period. PMID:26633117

  10. Formation and dissolution of bacterial colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Christoph A.; Lin, Yen Ting; Biais, Nicolas; Zaburdaev, Vasily

    2015-09-01

    Many organisms form colonies for a transient period of time to withstand environmental pressure. Bacterial biofilms are a prototypical example of such behavior. Despite significant interest across disciplines, physical mechanisms governing the formation and dissolution of bacterial colonies are still poorly understood. Starting from a kinetic description of motile and interacting cells we derive a hydrodynamic equation for their density on a surface, where most of the kinetic coefficients are estimated from experimental data for N. gonorrhoeae bacteria. We use it to describe the formation of multiple colonies with sizes consistent with experimental observations. Finally, we show how the changes in the cell-to-cell interactions lead to the dissolution of the bacterial colonies. The successful application of kinetic theory to a complex far from equilibrium system such as formation and dissolution of living bacterial colonies potentially paves the way for the physical quantification of the initial stages of biofilm formation.

  11. Hydrodynamics of bacterial colonies: A model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lega, J.; Passot, T.

    2003-03-01

    We propose a hydrodynamic model for the evolution of bacterial colonies growing on soft agar plates. This model consists of reaction-diffusion equations for the concentrations of nutrients, water, and bacteria, coupled to a single hydrodynamic equation for the velocity field of the bacteria-water mixture. It captures the dynamics inside the colony as well as on its boundary and allows us to identify a mechanism for collective motion towards fresh nutrients, which, in its modeling aspects, is similar to classical chemotaxis. As shown in numerical simulations, our model reproduces both usual colony shapes and typical hydrodynamic motions, such as the whirls and jets recently observed in wet colonies of Bacillus subtilis. The approach presented here could be extended to different experimental situations and provides a general framework for the use of advection-reaction-diffusion equations in modeling bacterial colonies.

  12. Predictive markers of honey bee colony collapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Dainat

    Full Text Available Across the Northern hemisphere, managed honey bee colonies, Apis mellifera, are currently affected by abrupt depopulation during winter and many factors are suspected to be involved, either alone or in combination. Parasites and pathogens are considered as principal actors, in particular the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, associated viruses and the microsporidian Nosema ceranae. Here we used long term monitoring of colonies and screening for eleven disease agents and genes involved in bee immunity and physiology to identify predictive markers of honeybee colony losses during winter. The data show that DWV, Nosema ceranae, Varroa destructor and Vitellogenin can be predictive markers for winter colony losses, but their predictive power strongly depends on the season. In particular, the data support that V. destructor is a key player for losses, arguably in line with its specific impact on the health of individual bees and colonies.

  13. NOAA ESRI Grid - predictions of relative seabird abundance in the New York offshore planning area made by the NOAA Biogeography Branch

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset represents relative seabird abundance predictions from spatial models developed for the New York offshore spatial planning area. This raster was...

  14. Atlantic Offshore Seabird Dataset Catalog, Atlantic Coast and Outer Continental Shelf, from 1938-01-01 to 2013-12-31 (NODC Accession 0115356)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Several bureaus within the Department of Interior compiled available information from seabird observation datasets from the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf into a...

  15. Modeled prevalance of seabirds and relative abundance of cetaceans in NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) from 1980-04-01 to 1988-10-01 (NCEI Accession 0130025)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is a compilation of modeled seabird prevalence predictions for a selection of species including Razorbill (Alca torda), Greater Shearwater (Puffinus...

  16. NCCOS Assessment: Predictive Mapping of Seabirds, Pinnipeds and Cetaceans off the Pacific Coast of Washington from 1995-07-21 to 2015-12-08 (NCEI Accession 0148762)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data collection comprises seasonal distribution maps and model outputs of selected seabird, pinniped and cetacean species off the Pacific coast of Washington....

  17. NOAA ESRI Grid - predictions of relative uncertainty for seabird diversity metrics in the New York offshore planning area by NOAA Biogeography Branch

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset represents relative seabird abundance predictions from spatial models developed for the New York offshore spatial planning area. This raster was...

  18. Interact - Access to the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, M.; Callaghan, T. V.

    2013-12-01

    INTERACT is currently a network of 50 terrestrial research stations from all Arctic countries, but is still growing. The network was inaugurated in January 2011 when it received an EU 7th Framework award. INTERACT's main objective is to build capacity for identifying, understanding, predicting and responding to diverse environmental changes throughout the wide environmental and land-use envelopes of the Arctic. Implicit in this objective is the task to build capacity for monitoring, research, education and outreach. INTERACT is increasing access to the Arctic: 20 INTERACT research stations in Europe and Russia are offering Transnational Access and so far, 5600 person-days of access have been granted from the total of 10,000 offered. An INTERACT Station Managers' Forum facilitates a dialogue among station managers on subjects such as best practice in station management and standardised monitoring. The Station Managers' Forum has produced a unique 'one-stop-shop' for information from 45 research stations in an informative and attractive Station Catalogue that is available in hard copy and on the INTERACT web site (www.eu-interact.org). INTERACT also includes three joint research activities that are improving monitoring in remote, harsh environments and are making data capture and dissemination more efficient. Already, new equipment for measuring feedbacks from the land surface to the climate system has been installed at several locations, while best practices for sensor networking have been established. INTERACT networks with most of the high-level Arctic organisations: it includes AMAP and WWF as partners, is endorsed by IASC and CBMP, has signed MoUs with ISAC and the University of the Arctic, is a task within SAON, and contributes to the Cold Region community within GEO/GEOSS. INTERACT welcomes other interactions.

  19. Shortlist masterplan wind. Ship-based monitoring of seabirds and cetaceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Bemmelen, R.; Geelhoed, S.; Leopold, M. [Institute for Marine Resources and Ecosystem Studies IMARES, Wageningen UR, IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    2011-02-15

    During April 2010 - February 2011, monthly surveys of seabirds and marine mammals were conducted aboard ships engaged in plankton surveys. After many years of little or no effort in far offshore areas of the DCS (Dutch Continental Shelf), this series of surveys provided the first recent ship-based data on seabirds, covering a large area (the entire DCS, including some Belgian and British waters) almost year round. Due to changes in the design of the survey grid, the use of several ships, spells of bad weather conditions and seasonal differences in the number of daylight hours, the resulting coverage is not evenly spread in space and time. Still, both in terms of areas covered and detailed data gathered, this series of surveys complement the aerial surveys carried out under the same programme Shortlist Masterplan Wind. By surveying beyond the designated areas for round II offshore wind farms on the DCS, areas that might be targeted for round III, such as the shallow Dogger Bank area, got a first boost in T-zero survey effort. From April 2010 till February 2011 11 surveys, totalling to 48 at-sea days, 4610 5-minute counts were conducted over a distance of 9021 km. At a counting strip width of mostly 300 m (200 m over a very small percentage of the counts), this amounts to a total surveyed area of 2706 km{sup 2}. The surveys have provided rough data on seabird distribution in far offshore areas. In total, 54,593 individuals of 90 bird species were recorded, from which 15,003 individuals of 36 species were recorded within the counting strip. Marine mammals were represented by 616 individuals of seven species, of which 389 individuals of six species were seen within the counting strip. Flying heights were noted for 5044 clusters of individuals, covering 75 species. Behaviour was noted for 1790 (clusters of) individuals. Apart from birds and marine mammals, 352 balloons were counted (of which 164 were within the counting strip) and proved omnipresent in periods of

  20. The Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO)-A Change Detection Array in the Pacific Arctic Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebmeier, J. M.; Moore, S. E.; Cooper, L. W.; Frey, K. E.; Pickart, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    latitudinal gradient. Hydrographic transects occupied from spring to fall in 2010 and 2011 at two pilot sites in the SE Chukchi Sea and Barrow Canyon provide repeat collections of water parameters over the seasons that are unavailable from single cruises. This sampling indicates freshening and warming as Pacific seawater transits northward over the spring to fall seasons, with impacts on both plankton and benthic prey bases for larger marine mammals and seabirds. The intent of the DBO is to serve as a change detection array for the identification and consistent monitoring of biophysical responses. This network of spatially explicit DBOs is being organized through the Pacific Arctic Group (PAG), a collaborative network endorsed by the International Arctic Science Committee. Our presentation will provide new information to evaluate the status and developing trends of the marine biological system as it responds to the rapid environmental change.

  1. Biomarker responses associated with halogenated organic contaminants in northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) breeding in the Canadian Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined relationships between hepatic concentrations of halogenated organic contaminants and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity and retinoid (vitamin A) concentrations in livers, as well as retinol and thyroid hormone (TT3, TT4) levels in blood plasma, of northern fulmars at two breeding colonies in the Canadian High Arctic. Biomarker levels or responses did not differ significantly between males and females at either colony, nor was there any significant difference between colonies. No significant relationships were found between thyroid hormone or hepatic retinoid concentrations and any of the dioxin-like compounds or their Toxic Equivalents (TEQs) although significant positive correlations were found with plasma retinol (p < 0.03). EROD activity was significantly correlated with hepatic dioxin-like compounds and their TEQs (p < 0.001) as well as total PCBs (p < 0.01), which suggests that EROD induction occurs in northern fulmars at environmentally-relevant concentrations. - Highlights: → EROD induction occurs in northern fulmars at environmentally-relevant concentrations. → No relationships between hepatic retinoid or plasma thyroid hormone levels and dioxin-like compounds or TEQs. → Biomarker responses did not differ between males and females or between colonies. - EROD induction occurs in northern fulmars in the Canadian Arctic at environmentally-relevant concentrations.

  2. Biomarker responses associated with halogenated organic contaminants in northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) breeding in the Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braune, Birgit M., E-mail: birgit.braune@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Raven Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Trudeau, Suzanne [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Raven Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Jeffrey, Deborah A. [Bancroft, Ontario, K0L 1C0 (Canada); Mallory, Mark L. [Environment Canada, Box 1714, Iqaluit, Nunavut, X0A 0H0 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    We examined relationships between hepatic concentrations of halogenated organic contaminants and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity and retinoid (vitamin A) concentrations in livers, as well as retinol and thyroid hormone (TT{sub 3}, TT{sub 4}) levels in blood plasma, of northern fulmars at two breeding colonies in the Canadian High Arctic. Biomarker levels or responses did not differ significantly between males and females at either colony, nor was there any significant difference between colonies. No significant relationships were found between thyroid hormone or hepatic retinoid concentrations and any of the dioxin-like compounds or their Toxic Equivalents (TEQs) although significant positive correlations were found with plasma retinol (p < 0.03). EROD activity was significantly correlated with hepatic dioxin-like compounds and their TEQs (p < 0.001) as well as total PCBs (p < 0.01), which suggests that EROD induction occurs in northern fulmars at environmentally-relevant concentrations. - Highlights: > EROD induction occurs in northern fulmars at environmentally-relevant concentrations. > No relationships between hepatic retinoid or plasma thyroid hormone levels and dioxin-like compounds or TEQs. > Biomarker responses did not differ between males and females or between colonies. - EROD induction occurs in northern fulmars in the Canadian Arctic at environmentally-relevant concentrations.

  3. Population Trends of a Mixed-Species Colony of Humboldt and Magellanic Penguins in Southern Chile after Establishing a Protected Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronnie Reyes-Arriagada

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide marine protected areas (MPAs have been designated to protect marine resources, including top predators such as seabirds. There is no conclusive information on whether protected areas can improve population trends of seabirds when these are further exploited as tourist attractions, an activity that has increased in past decades. Humboldt Penguins (Spheniscus humboldti and Magellanic Penguins (S. magellanicus breed sympatrically on Puñihuil Islets, two small coastal islands off the west coast of Chiloé Island (41° S in southern Chile that are subject to exploitation for tourism. Our goal was to compare the population size of the mixed colony of Humboldt and Magellanic Penguins before and after protection from unregulated tourism and freely roaming goats in 1997. For this purpose, two censuses were conducted in 2004 and 2008, and the numbers compared with those obtained in 1997 by other authors. The proportion of occupied, unoccupied, and collapsed/flooded burrows changed between years; there were 68% and 34% fewer collapsed burrows in 2004 and 2008, respectively, than in 1997. For the total number of burrows of both species, we counted 48% and 63% more burrows in 2004 and 2008, respectively, than in 1997. We counted 13% more burrows of Humboldt Penguins in 2008 than in 1997, and for Magellanic Penguins, we estimated a 64% increase in burrows in 2008. Presumably, this was as a result of habitat improvement attributable to the exclusion of tourists and the removal of goats from the islets. Although tourist visits to the islets are prohibited, tourism activities around the colonies are prevalent and need to be taken into account to promote appropriate management.

  4. Geologic Provinces of the Circum-Arctic, 2008 (north of the Arctic Circle)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile includes arcs and polygons that describe U.S. Geological Survey defined 33 geologic provinces of the Circum-Arctic (north of the Arctic Circle). Each...

  5. Weights, hematology and serum chemistry of seven species of free-ranging tropical pelagic seabirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T.M.

    1996-01-01

    I established reference values for weight, hematology, and serum chemistry for seven species of free-ranging Hawaiian tropical pelagic seabirds comprising three orders (Procellariiformes, Pelecaniformes, Charadriiformes) and six families (Procellariidae, Phaethontidae, Diomedeidae, Sulidae, Fregatidae, and Laridae). Species examined included 84 Hawaiian darkrumped petrels (Pterodoma phaeopygia), 90 wedge-tailed shearwaters (Puffinus pacificus), 151 Laysan albatrosses (Diomedea immutabilis), 69 red-footed boobies (Sula sula), 154 red-tailed tropicbirds (Phaeton rubricauda), 90 great frigatebirds (Fregata minor), and 72 sooty terns (Sterna fuscata). Hematocrit, total plasma solids, total and differential white cell counts, serum glucose, calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, total protein, albumin, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase and creatinine phosphokinase were analyzed. Among and within species, hematology and chemistry values varied with age, sex, season, and island of collection. Despite this variation, order-wide trends were observed.

  6. Phylogeny of "Philoceanus complex" seabird lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera) inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Roderic D M; Cruickshank, Robert H; Dickens, Megan; Furness, Robert W; Kennedy, Martyn; Palma, Ricardo L; Smith, Vincent S

    2004-03-01

    The Philoceanus complex is a large assemblage of lice that parasitise procellariiform seabirds (petrels, albatrosses, and their relatives). We obtained mitochondrial 12S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase I DNA sequences from 39 species from diverse hosts and localities. Resolution of deeper relationships between genera was limited, however there is evidence for two major clades, one hosted by albatrosses, the other by petrels. Based on our results, the genera hosted by albatrosses are excellent candidates for detailed analysis of cospeciation. Our results also suggest that a previous estimate of a 5-fold difference in the relative rate of sequence evolution in lice and their avian hosts is an artefact of limited taxonomic sampling. PMID:15012944

  7. New at-sea records of pelagic seabirds in the South Atlantic Ocean and Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Orgeira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available During ship-based seabird surveys in the south Atlantic and Antarctica in the austral summers of 1994/95, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012, we documented at-sea distributions of Buller's albatross (Thalassarche bulleri, Atlantic petrel (Pterodroma incerta, soft-plumaged petrel (Pterodroma mollis, Kerguelen petrel (Lugensa brevirostris and great-winged petrel (Pterodroma macroptera. In some cases, sightings were considered as extralimital, but for other species updating their distributions in the literature seems warranted. Atlantic petrel, for example, has been regularly observed in the Drake Passage and north of the Antarctic Peninsula for about 30 years, but the distribution of this species has not been updated in the literature. The observations reported here will contribute to update the at-sea distributions of these species and to changes in their distributions.

  8. The Arctic Voice at the UN Climate Negotiations: Interplay Between Arctic & Climate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Duyck, Sébastien, 1983-

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, the Arctic has progressively gained the status of a “global barometer” of the implications of climate change. As governments finalize in 2015 the negotiations towards a new climate change agreement and as the priorities of the Arctic Council are shifting towards a stronger focus on climate change, the current year offers a timely opportunity to review the interplay between Arctic policies and the international climate change regime. Indeed, several of the Arctic st...

  9. Archaeological Excursion into Proximal Colony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Palavestra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia-Herzegovina by the end of the 19th century, presided by Benjamin Kallay, the Empire’s Minister of Finance and governor of Bosnia and Herzegovina, strived to gain wider international justification for its years’ long project of “civilizing” Bosnia and Herzegovina, or particular “historizing” of this proximal colony. In the summer of 1894 the Austro-Hungarian government in Bosnia and Herzegovina organized the Congress of Archaeologists and Anthropologists in the Landesmuseum in Sarajevo. The aim of the Congress was to inform archaeologists and anthropologists about the results of archaeological investigations in the country, and to seek their advice in directing further work. The wider ideological, political, as well as theoretical context of this congress, however, was much more complex and layered, with the aim to present the constructed image of Bosnia and Herzegovina as a country of tamed and civilized European Orient of rich past and luxurious folklore. The participants of the Congress discussed the archaeological and anthropological data presented to them by the hosts, including the specially organized excavations at Butmir and Glasinac. It is interesting to analyze, from the point of view of the history of archaeological ideas, the endeavours of the participants to adapt the archaeological finds before them to the wishes of the hosts, and, on the other hand, to their favoured archaeological paradigms dominant at the time.

  10. COLONIALISM, HAN & ECO-THEOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Ji-Sun Kim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, nations exhibit imperial behaviour but not like the ancient agriculture driven landed empires or the 18-19th century mercantile empires. The land and trade divisions are not as clearly segregated as in the earlier ones, but Imperial nations do exist and do control other nations. Imperialism and colonialism has devastating effects on our world. It has nurtured self-worth through the accumulation of worldly goods for the purposes of serving their own interests and exploiting others for the sole purpose of self-gain. This is devastating not only to human beings but to the whole ecology of the planet. Consumerism drives trade, but consumer buying is now like an unchained beast with tooth and claw causing han for the exploited as well as the resources of the planet. Eco-theologians and feminist theologians examine the devastating effects to help ensure that we are seriously determined to preserve the planet. We will examine ways of rethinking and reimagining our errors and how we can work towards the right direction for a safer, sustainable planet. doi: 10.7833/111-1-15

  11. Recent dynamics of arctic and sub-arctic vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a focus issue of Environmental Research Letters on the ‘Recent dynamics of arctic and sub-arctic vegetation’. The focus issue includes three perspective articles (Verbyla 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 041003, Williams et al 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 041004, Loranty and Goetz 2012 Environ. Res. Lett. 7 011005) and 22 research articles. The focus issue arose as a result of heightened interest in the response of high-latitude vegetation to natural and anthropogenic changes in climate and disturbance regimes, and the consequences that these vegetation changes might have for northern ecosystems. A special session at the December 2010 American Geophysical Union Meeting on the ‘Greening of the Arctic’ spurred the call for papers. Many of the resulting articles stem from intensive research efforts stimulated by International Polar Year projects and the growing acknowledgment of ongoing climate change impacts in northern terrestrial ecosystems. (synthesis and review)

  12. Arctic tipping points: governance in turbulent times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Oran R

    2012-02-01

    Interacting forces of climate change and globalization are transforming the Arctic. Triggered by a non-linear shift in sea ice, this transformation has unleashed mounting interest in opportunities to exploit the region's natural resources as well as growing concern about environmental, economic, and political issues associated with such efforts. This article addresses the implications of this transformation for governance, identifies limitations of existing arrangements, and explores changes needed to meet new demands. It advocates the development of an Arctic regime complex featuring flexibility across issues and adaptability over time along with an enhanced role for the Arctic Council both in conducting policy-relevant assessments and in promoting synergy in interactions among the elements of the emerging Arctic regime complex. The emphasis throughout is on maximizing the fit between the socioecological features of the Arctic and the character of the governance arrangements needed to steer the Arctic toward a sustainable future. PMID:22270707

  13. Strategic metal deposits of the Arctic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortnikov, N. S.; Lobanov, K. V.; Volkov, A. V.; Galyamov, A. L.; Vikent'ev, I. V.; Tarasov, N. N.; Distler, V. V.; Lalomov, A. V.; Aristov, V. V.; Murashov, K. Yu.; Chizhova, I. A.; Chefranov, R. M.

    2015-11-01

    Mineral commodities rank high in the economies of Arctic countries, and the status of mineral resources and the dynamics of their development are of great importance. The growing tendency to develop strategic metal resources in the Circumarctic Zone is outlined in a global perspective. The Russian Arctic Zone is the leading purveyor of these metals to domestic and foreign markets. The comparative analysis of tendencies in development of strategic metal resources of the Arctic Zone in Russia and other countries is crucial for the elaboration of trends of geological exploration and research engineering. This paper provides insight into the development of Arctic strategic metal resources in global perspective. It is shown that the mineral resource potential of the Arctic circumpolar metallogenic belt is primarily controlled by large and unique deposits of nonferrous, noble, and rare metals. The prospective types of economic strategic metal deposits in the Russian Arctic Zone are shown.

  14. Latitudinal distribution of the recent Arctic warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chylek, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lesins, Glen K [DALLHOUSIE UNIV.; Wang, Muyin [UNIV OF WASHINGTON

    2010-12-08

    Increasing Arctic temperature, disappearance of Arctic sea ice, melting of the Greenland ice sheet, sea level rise, increasing strength of Atlantic hurricanes are these impending climate catastrophes supported by observations? Are the recent data really unprecedented during the observational records? Our analysis of Arctic temperature records shows that the Arctic and temperatures in the 1930s and 1940s were almost as high as they are today. We argue that the current warming of the Arctic region is affected more by the multi-decadal climate variability than by an increasing concentration of carbon dioxide. Unfortunately, none of the existing coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models used in the IPCC 2007 cIimate change assessment is able to reproduce neither the observed 20th century Arctic cIimate variability nor the latitudinal distribution of the warming.

  15. Evaluating the statistical power of detecting changes in the abundance of seabirds at sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, Niall; Maclean, Ilya; Rehfisch, Mark; Skov, Henrik; Thaxter, Chris

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Offshore wind farms may potentially affect bird populations through the displacement of birds due to the disturbance associated with developments, the barrier they present for migrating birds and birds commuting between breeding and feeding areas, habitat change/loss and collision mortality. In current impact assessments it is often assumed that all birds that use the area of a proposed offshore wind farm would be displaced following construction, with some birds also displaced from a surrounding buffer zone. However, the extent to which current monitoring schemes are capable of detecting changes in abundance and options for improving survey protocols have received little attention. We investigated the likelihood of detecting changes in seabird numbers in UK offshore waters. Using aerial survey data, we simulated 50%, 25% and 10% declines and conducted power analyses to determine the probability that such changes could be detected. Additionally, increases in the duration and frequency of surveying were simulated and the influence of spatial scale and variability in bird numbers were also investigated. Current monitoring schemes do not provide adequate means of detecting changes in numbers even when declines are in excess of 50% and assumptions regarding certainty are relaxed to less than 80%. Extending the duration and frequency of surveys would increase the probability of detecting changes, but not to a desirable level. The primary reason why there is a low probability of being able to detect consistent changes is because seabirds are inherently prone to fluctuations in numbers. Explaining some of the variability in bird numbers using environmental and hydro-dynamic co variates would increase the power of detecting changes. (Author)

  16. Performance of Bee Colonies Headed by Queens Instrumentally Inseminated with Semen of Drones Who Come from a Single Colony or Many Colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Gerula Dariusz; Węgrzynowicz Paweł; Panasiuk Beata; Bieńkowska Małgorzata; Skowronek Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of honey bee worker diversity within the colony on: development, honey productivity, and wintering. Two different levels of diversity within the colony were tested. The appropriate levels of diversity within the colony were obtained by selecting drones for inseminating the queens. Lower genetic diversity was obtained in the colonies headed by a queen inseminated with semen collected from drones originating from a single colony. Higher genetic d...

  17. Understanding colonial chieftaincy from its final phase

    OpenAIRE

    Keese, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    With the transfers of power in still-colonial sub-Saharan Africa, the epoch of ‘traditional chieftaincy’ seemed to be finally over. The chiefs, frequently regarded by historians and social scientists as a product of the colonial state, appeared to lose all of their authority. Or so it seemed. Fifty years later, we are puzzled by the resilience of chieftaincy in many parts of the African continent. A more profound analysis of chieftaincy in several West African territories under colonial rule...

  18. Evolution of the Arctic Calanus complex: an Arctic marine avocado?

    OpenAIRE

    Berge, Jørgen; Gabrielsen, Tove M.; Mark A Moline; Renaud, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Before man hunted the large baleen whales to near extinction by the end of the nineteenth century, Arctic ecosystems were strongly influenced by these large predators. Their main prey were zooplankton, among which the calanoid copepod species of the genus Calanus, long considered key elements of polar marine ecosystems, are particularly abundant. These herbivorous zooplankters display a range of adaptations to the highly seasonal environments of the polar oceans, most notably extensive energy...

  19. Arctic whaling : proceedings of the International Symposium Arctic Whaling February 1983

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacob, H.K. s'; Snoeijing, K

    1984-01-01

    Contents: D.M. Hopkins and Louie Marincovich Jr. Whale Biogeography and the history of the Arctic Basin P.M. Kellt, J.H.W. Karas and L.D. Williams Arctic Climate: Past, Present and Future Torgny E. Vinje On the present state and the future fate of the Arctic sea ice cover P.J.H. van Bree On the biol

  20. Arctic shipping emissions inventories and future scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    J. J. Corbett; D. A. Lack; J. J. Winebrake; Harder, S; J. A. Silberman; Gold, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Arctic is a sensitive region in terms of climate change and a rich natural resource for global economic activity. Arctic shipping is an important contributor to the region's anthropogenic air emissions, including black carbon – a short-lived climate forcing pollutant especially effective in accelerating the melting of ice and snow. These emissions are projected to increase as declining sea ice coverage due to climate change allows for increased shipping activity in the Arctic. To understa...

  1. Identifying uncertainties in Arctic climate change projections

    OpenAIRE

    Hodson, Daniel L. R.; Keeley, Sarah P. E.; West, Alex; Ridley, Jeff; Hawkins, Ed; Hewitt, Helene T.

    2013-01-01

    Wide ranging climate changes are expected in the Arctic by the end of the 21st century, but projections of the size of these changes vary widely across current global climate models. This variation represents a large source of uncertainty in our understanding of the evolution of Arctic climate. Here we systematically quantify and assess the model uncertainty in Arctic climate changes in two CO2 doubling experiments: a multimodel ensemble (CMIP3) and an ensemble constructed using a single mode...

  2. Arctic cephalopod distributions and their associated predators

    OpenAIRE

    Gardiner, Kathleen; Terry A Dick

    2010-01-01

    Cephalopods are key species of the eastern Arctic marine food web, both as prey and predator. Their presence in the diets of Arctic fish, birds and mammals illustrates their trophic importance. There has been considerable research on cephalopods (primarily Gonatus fabricii) from the north Atlantic and the west side of Greenland, where they are considered a potential fishery and are taken as a by-catch. By contrast, data on the biogeography of Arctic cephalopods are still incomplete. This stud...

  3. Shaping a Sustainability Strategy for the Arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Azcarate, Juan; Balfors, Berit; Destouni, Georgia; Bring, Arvid

    2011-01-01

    The development of the Arctic is shaped by the opportunities and constraints brought by climate change and technological advances. In the Arctic, warmer climate is expected to affect ecosystems, local communities and infrastructure due to a combination of effects like reduced sea ice and glaciers, thawing permafrost and increased frequency of floods. Less ice and new technologies mean openings to exploit natural resources in the Arctic. Fishing, mining, hydrocarbon extraction and vessel trans...

  4. Population status, reproductive ecology and trophic relationships of seabirds in northwestern Alaska: Final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Numbers of murres at two major breeding colonies in northern Alaska are declining and annual variability is high in a variety of elements of murre and kittiwake...

  5. Reproductive ecology of seabirds at Middleton Island, Alaska, 15-24 June 1983: Trip report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Middleton Island harbors the largest colony of Pelagic Cormorants and Blacklegged Kittiwakes in the Gulf of Alaska. Goals of the study were to assess the current...

  6. Exposure to oxychlordane is associated with shorter telomeres in arctic breeding kittiwakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blévin, Pierre; Angelier, Frédéric; Tartu, Sabrina; Ruault, Stéphanie; Bustamante, Paco; Herzke, Dorte; Moe, Børge; Bech, Claus; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Chastel, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Telomeres are DNA-protein complexes located at the end of chromosomes, which play an important role in maintaining the genomic integrity. Telomeres shorten at each cell division and previous studies have shown that telomere length is related to health and lifespan and can be affected by a wide range of environmental factors. Among them, some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have the potential to damage DNA. However, the effect of POPs on telomeres is poorly known for wildlife. Here, we investigated the relationships between some legacy POPs (organochlorine pesticides and polychlorobiphenyls) and telomere length in breeding adult black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), an arctic seabird species. Our results show that among legacy POPs, only blood concentration of oxychlordane, the major metabolite of chlordane mixture, is associated with shorter telomere length in females but not in males. This suggests that female kittiwakes could be more sensitive to oxychlordane, potentially explaining the previously reported lower survival rate in most oxychlordane-contaminated kittiwakes from the same population. This study is the first to report a significant and negative relationship between POPs and telomere length in a free-living bird and highlights sex-related susceptibility to banned pesticides. PMID:27135574

  7. Plate tectonic history of the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, K.

    1984-01-01

    Tectonic development of the Arctic Ocean is outlined, and geological maps are provided for the Arctic during the mid-Cenozoic, later Cretaceous, late Jurassic, early Cretaceous, early Jurassic and late Devonian. It is concluded that Arctic basin history is moulded by the events of the following intervals: (1) continental collision and immediately subsequent rifting and ocean formation in the Devonian, and continental rifting ocean formation, rapid rotation of microcontinents, and another episode of collision in the latest Jurassic and Cretaceous. It is noted that Cenozoic Arctic basin formation is a smaller scale event superimposed on the late Mesozoic ocean basin.

  8. Arctic tides from GPS on sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard Rose, Stine; Skourup, Henriette; Forsberg, René

    The presence of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean plays a significant role in the Arctic climate. Sea ice dampens the ocean tide amplitude with the result that global tidal models which use only astronomical data perform less accurately in the polar regions. This study presents a kinematic processing of...... Global Positioning System (GPS) buoys placed on sea-ice at five different sites north of Greenland for the study of sea level height and tidal analysis to improve tidal models in the Central Arctic. The GPS measurements are compared with the Arctic tidal model AOTIM-5, which assimilates tide-gauges and...

  9. Aerosols indirectly warm the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mauritsen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available On average, airborne aerosol particles cool the Earth's surface directly by absorbing and scattering sunlight and indirectly by influencing cloud reflectivity, life time, thickness or extent. Here we show that over the central Arctic Ocean, where there is frequently a lack of aerosol particles upon which clouds may form, a small increase in aerosol loading may enhance cloudiness thereby likely causing a climatologically significant warming at the ice-covered Arctic surface. Under these low concentration conditions cloud droplets grow to drizzle sizes and fall, even in the absence of collisions and coalescence, thereby diminishing cloud water. Evidence from a case study suggests that interactions between aerosol, clouds and precipitation could be responsible for attaining the observed low aerosol concentrations.

  10. Arctic Basemaps In Google Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muggah, J.; Mioc, Darka

    2010-01-01

    the advantages of the use of Google Maps, to display the OMG's Arctic data. The map should should load the large Artic dataset in a reasonable time. The bathymetric images were created using software in Linux written by the OMG, and a step-by-step process was used to create images from the multibeam data...... collected by the OMG in the Arctic. The website was also created using Linux operating system. The projection needed to be changed from Lambert Conformal Conic (useful at higher Latitudes) to Mercator (used by Google Maps) and the data needed to have a common colour scheme. After creating and testing...... a prototype website using Google Ground overlay and Tile overlay, it was determined that the high resolution images (10m) were loading very slowly and the ground overlay method would not be useful for displaying the entire dataset. Therefore the Tile overlays were selected to be used within Google Maps. Tile...

  11. Optical image acquisition system for colony analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weixing; Jin, Wenbiao

    2006-02-01

    For counting of both colonies and plaques, there is a large number of applications including food, dairy, beverages, hygiene, environmental monitoring, water, toxicology, sterility testing, AMES testing, pharmaceuticals, paints, sterile fluids and fungal contamination. Recently, many researchers and developers have made efforts for this kind of systems. By investigation, some existing systems have some problems since they belong to a new technology product. One of the main problems is image acquisition. In order to acquire colony images with good quality, an illumination box was constructed as: the box includes front lightning and back lightning, which can be selected by users based on properties of colony dishes. With the illumination box, lightning can be uniform; colony dish can be put in the same place every time, which make image processing easy. A digital camera in the top of the box connected to a PC computer with a USB cable, all the camera functions are controlled by the computer.

  12. Growth and form of melanoma cell colonies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the statistical properties of melanoma cell colonies grown in vitro by analyzing the results of crystal violet assays at different concentrations of initial plated cells and for different growth times. The distribution of colony sizes is described well by a continuous time branching process. To characterize the shape fluctuations of the colonies, we compute the distribution of eccentricities. The experimental results are compared with numerical results for models of random division of elastic cells, showing that experimental results are best reproduced by restricting cell division to the outer rim of the colony. Our results serve to illustrate the wealth of information that can be extracted by a standard experimental method such as the crystal violet assay. (paper)

  13. Bacterial colony counting by Convolutional Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Alessandro; Lombardi, Stefano; Signoroni, Alberto

    2015-08-01

    Counting bacterial colonies on microbiological culture plates is a time-consuming, error-prone, nevertheless fundamental task in microbiology. Computer vision based approaches can increase the efficiency and the reliability of the process, but accurate counting is challenging, due to the high degree of variability of agglomerated colonies. In this paper, we propose a solution which adopts Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) for counting the number of colonies contained in confluent agglomerates, that scored an overall accuracy of the 92.8% on a large challenging dataset. The proposed CNN-based technique for estimating the cardinality of colony aggregates outperforms traditional image processing approaches, becoming a promising approach to many related applications. PMID:26738016

  14. The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS): Connecting Arctic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, R. H.; Wiggins, H. V.; Creek, K. R.; Sheffield Guy, L.

    2015-12-01

    This presentation will highlight the recent activities of the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) to connect Arctic research. ARCUS is a nonprofit membership organization of universities and institutions that have a substantial commitment to research in the Arctic. ARCUS was formed in 1988 to serve as a forum for planning, facilitating, coordinating, and implementing interdisciplinary studies of the Arctic; to act as a synthesizer and disseminator of scientific information on arctic research; and to educate scientists and the general public about the needs and opportunities for research in the Arctic. ARCUS, in collaboration with the broader science community, relevant agencies and organizations, and other stakeholders, coordinates science planning and educational activities across disciplinary and organizational boundaries. Examples of ARCUS projects include: Arctic Sea Ice Outlook - an international effort that provides monthly summer reports synthesizing community estimates of the expected sea ice minimum. Sea Ice for Walrus Outlook - a resource for Alaska Native subsistence hunters, coastal communities, and others that provides weekly reports with information on sea ice conditions relevant to walrus in Alaska waters. PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating) - a program whereby K-12 educators and researchers work together in hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctic to advance polar science education. ArcticInfo mailing list, Witness the Arctic newsletter, and the Arctic Calendar - communication tools for the arctic science community to keep apprised of relevant news, meetings, and announcements. Coordination for the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) program, which aims to provide scientific understanding of arctic environmental change to help society understand and respond to a rapidly changing Arctic. More information about these and other ARCUS activities can be found at the ARCUS website at

  15. Towards an ice free Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article surveys the rate of ice melting in Arctic and forecasts that the region will be free of ice during this century. Observations of the atmospheric and sea climate, total ice areas for the period 1978 to 1998 and predictions for the areas from 1990 to 2040 by using two different models are presented. Possible reasons for the changes are discussed and some views on the consequences for the Norwegian climate presented

  16. Building Materials in Arctic Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2005-01-01

    Building in the artic requires special attention on the appropriateness of building materials. The harsh climate makes execution difficult and sets unusual requirements for the pure material properties. In addition, there is a lack of choice of good, natural building materials in the arctic. This...... results in high transport costs. The building materials situation in Greenland may potentially be improved by intensifying the reuse of building materials or by promoting the local production of building materials....

  17. Extrapolating future Arctic ozone losses

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, B. M.; Harris, N. R. P.; S. B. Andersen; Christiansen, B.; N. Larsen; Rex, M.; B. Naujokat

    2004-01-01

    Future increases in the concentration of greenhouse gases and water vapour may cool the stratosphere further and increase the amount of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). Future Arctic PSC areas have been extrapolated from the highly significant trends 1958-2001. Using a tight correlation between PSC area and the total vortex ozone depletion and taking the decreasing amounts of ozone depleting substances into account we make empirical estimates of future ozone. The result...

  18. Foraging segregation of two congeneric diving seabird species (common and thick-billed murres breeding on St. George Island, Bering Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kokubun

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sub-arctic environmental changes are expected to affect the ecology of marine top predators. We examined the characteristics of foraging behavior of two sympatric congeneric diving seabirds, common (Uria aalge: hereafter COMU and thick-billed (U. lomvia: hereafter TBMU murres breeding on St. George Island located in the seasonal sea-ice region of the Bering Sea. We investigated their flight duration, diel patterns of dive depth, and underwater wing strokes, along with morphology and blood stable isotopes. Acceleration-temperature-depth data loggers were attached to chick-guarding birds, and behavioral data were obtained from 7 COMU and 12 TBMU. Both species showed similar trip duration (13.21 ± 4.79 h for COMU and 10.45 ± 7.09 h for TBMU and similar diurnal patterns of diving (frequent dives to various depths in the daytime and less frequent dives to shallow depths in the nighttime. During the daytime, dive depths of COMU had two peaks in shallow (18.1 ± 6.0 m and deep (74.2 ± 8.7 m depths, while those of TBMU were 20.2 ± 7.4 m and 59.7 ± 7.9 m. COMU showed more frequent wing strokes during the bottom phase of dives (1.90 ± 0.11 s−1 than TBMU (1.66 ± 0.15 s−1. Fishes occurred with higher proportion in the bill-loads brought back to chicks in COMU (85 % than in TBMU (56 %. δ15N value of blood was significantly higher in COMU (14.47 ± 0.27 ‰ than in TBMU (13.14 ± 0.36 ‰. Relatively small wing area (0.053 ± 0.007 m2 of COMU compared to TBMU (0.067 ± 0.007 m2 may make them more agile underwater and thus enable them to target more mobile prey including larger fishes that inhabit deeper depths. These differences in foraging behavior between COMU and TBMU might explain the differences in their responses to long-term marine environmental changes.

  19. Foraging segregation of two congeneric diving seabird species (common and thick-billed murres) breeding on St. George Island, Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubun, N.; Yamamoto, T.,; Sato, N.; Watanuki, Y.; Will, A.; Kitaysky, A. S.; Takahashi, A.

    2015-11-01

    Sub-arctic environmental changes are expected to affect the ecology of marine top predators. We examined the characteristics of foraging behavior of two sympatric congeneric diving seabirds, common (Uria aalge: hereafter COMU) and thick-billed (U. lomvia: hereafter TBMU) murres breeding on St. George Island located in the seasonal sea-ice region of the Bering Sea. We investigated their flight duration, diel patterns of dive depth, and underwater wing strokes, along with morphology and blood stable isotopes. Acceleration-temperature-depth data loggers were attached to chick-guarding birds, and behavioral data were obtained from 7 COMU and 12 TBMU. Both species showed similar trip duration (13.21 ± 4.79 h for COMU and 10.45 ± 7.09 h for TBMU) and similar diurnal patterns of diving (frequent dives to various depths in the daytime and less frequent dives to shallow depths in the nighttime). During the daytime, dive depths of COMU had two peaks in shallow (18.1 ± 6.0 m) and deep (74.2 ± 8.7 m) depths, while those of TBMU were 20.2 ± 7.4 m and 59.7 ± 7.9 m. COMU showed more frequent wing strokes during the bottom phase of dives (1.90 ± 0.11 s-1) than TBMU (1.66 ± 0.15 s-1). Fishes occurred with higher proportion in the bill-loads brought back to chicks in COMU (85 %) than in TBMU (56 %). δ15N value of blood was significantly higher in COMU (14.47 ± 0.27 ‰) than in TBMU (13.14 ± 0.36 ‰). Relatively small wing area (0.053 ± 0.007 m2) of COMU compared to TBMU (0.067 ± 0.007 m2) may make them more agile underwater and thus enable them to target more mobile prey including larger fishes that inhabit deeper depths. These differences in foraging behavior between COMU and TBMU might explain the differences in their responses to long-term marine environmental changes.

  20. Pattern Formation in a Bacterial Colony Model

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the spatiotemporal dynamics of a bacterial colony model. Based on the stability analysis, we derive the conditions for Hopf and Turing bifurcations. Furthermore, we present novel numerical evidence of time evolution of patterns controlled by parameters in the model and find that the model dynamics exhibit a diffusion controlled formation growth to spots, holes and stripes pattern replication, which show that the bacterial colony model is useful in revealing the spatial predatio...

  1. Pattern Formation in a Bacterial Colony Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinze Lian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the spatiotemporal dynamics of a bacterial colony model. Based on the stability analysis, we derive the conditions for Hopf and Turing bifurcations. Furthermore, we present novel numerical evidence of time evolution of patterns controlled by parameters in the model and find that the model dynamics exhibit a diffusion controlled formation growth to spots, holes and stripes pattern replication, which show that the bacterial colony model is useful in revealing the spatial predation dynamics in the real world.

  2. Automatic Programming with Ant Colony Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Jennifer; Jacqueline L. Whalley; Johnson, Colin G.

    2004-01-01

    Automatic programming is the use of search techniques to find programs that solve a problem. The most commonly explored automatic programming technique is genetic programming, which uses genetic algorithms to carry out the search. In this paper we introduce a new technique called Ant Colony Programming (ACP) which uses an ant colony based search in place of genetic algorithms. This algorithm is described and compared with other approaches in the literature.

  3. Eutectic colony formation: A phase field study

    OpenAIRE

    Plapp, Mathis; Karma, Alain

    2001-01-01

    Eutectic two-phase cells, also known as eutectic colonies, are commonly observed during the solidification of ternary alloys when the composition is close to a binary eutectic valley. In analogy with the solidification cells formed in dilute binary alloys, colony formation is triggered by a morphological instability of a macroscopically planar eutectic solidification front due to the rejection by both solid phases of a ternary impurity that diffuses in the liquid. Here we develop a phase-fiel...

  4. Influence of feeding bee colonies on colony strenght and honey authenticity

    OpenAIRE

    Andreja KANDOLF BOROVŠAK; Ogrinc, Nives; Lilek, Nataša; Boštjan NOČ; Božič, Janko; Korošec, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    For the natural development of bee colonies, there is the need for appropriate nutrition. Lack of natural honey flow must be supplemented by feeding bee colonies with sugar syrups or candy paste. This supplementary feeding encourages brood breeding and forage activity, whereby stronger colonies collect more honey. Sugar syrups can cause honey adulteration, which is more frequent with the reversing of the brood combs with the bee food, with the combs moved from the brood chamber to the upper c...

  5. ColonyArea: An ImageJ Plugin to Automatically Quantify Colony Formation in Clonogenic Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán, Camilo; Bagga, Manish; Kaur, Amanpreet; Westermarck, Jukka; Abankwa, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The clonogenic or colony formation assay is a widely used method to study the number and size of cancer cell colonies that remain after irradiation or cytotoxic agent administration and serves as a measure for the anti-proliferative effect of these treatments. Alternatively, this assay is used to quantitate the transforming potential of cancer associated genes and chemical agents. Therefore, there is a need for a simplified and standardized analysis of colony formation assays for both routine...

  6. ColonyArea: an ImageJ plugin to automatically quantify colony formation in clonogenic assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Guzmán

    Full Text Available The clonogenic or colony formation assay is a widely used method to study the number and size of cancer cell colonies that remain after irradiation or cytotoxic agent administration and serves as a measure for the anti-proliferative effect of these treatments. Alternatively, this assay is used to quantitate the transforming potential of cancer associated genes and chemical agents. Therefore, there is a need for a simplified and standardized analysis of colony formation assays for both routine laboratory use and for parallelized automated analysis. Here we describe the freely available ImageJ-plugin "ColonyArea", which is optimized for rapid and quantitative analysis of focus formation assays conducted in 6- to 24-well dishes. ColonyArea processes image data of multi-well dishes, by separating, concentrically cropping and background correcting well images individually, before colony formation is quantitated. Instead of counting the number of colonies, ColonyArea determines the percentage of area covered by crystal violet stained cell colonies, also taking the intensity of the staining and therefore cell density into account. We demonstrate that these parameters alone or in combination allow for robust quantification of IC50 values of the cytotoxic effect of two staurosporines, UCN-01 and staurosporine (STS on human glioblastoma cells (T98G. The relation between the potencies of the two compounds compared very well with that obtained from an absorbance based method to quantify colony growth and to published data. The ColonyArea ImageJ plugin provides a simple and efficient analysis routine to quantitate assay data of one of the most commonly used cellular assays. The bundle is freely available for download as supporting information. We expect that ColonyArea will be of broad utility for cancer biologists, as well as clinical radiation scientists.

  7. Arctic adaptation and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amplification of climatic warming in the Arctic and the sensitivity of physical, biological, and human systems to changes in climate make the Arctic particularly vulnerable to climate changes. Large areas of the Arctic permafrost and sea ice are expected to disappear under climate warming and these changes will have considerable impacts on the natural and built environment of the north. A review is presented of some recent studies on what these impacts could be for the permafrost and sea ice environment and to identify linkages with socioeconomic activities. Terrestrial adaptation to climate change will include increases in ground temperature; melting of permafrost with consequences such as frost heave, mudslides, and substantial settlement; rotting of peat contained in permafrost areas, with subsequent emission of CO2; increased risk of forest fire; and flooding of low-lying areas. With regard to the manmade environment, structures that will be affected include buildings, pipelines, highways, airports, mines, and railways. In marine areas, climate change will increase the ice-free period for marine transport operations and thus provide some benefit to the offshore petroleum industry. This benefit will be offset by increased wave height and period, and increased coastal erosion. The offshore industry needs to be particularly concerned with these impacts since the expected design life of industry facilities (30-60 y) is of the same order as the time frame for possible climatic changes. 18 refs., 5 figs

  8. At-sea behavior varies with lunar phase in a nocturnal pelagic seabird, the swallow-tailed gull.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian M Cruz

    Full Text Available Strong and predictable environmental variability can reward flexible behaviors among animals. We used long-term records of activity data that cover several lunar cycles to investigate whether behavior at-sea of swallow-tailed gulls Creagrus furcatus, a nocturnal pelagic seabird, varied with lunar phase in the Galápagos Islands. A Bayesian hierarchical model showed that nighttime at-sea activity of 37 breeding swallow-tailed gulls was clearly associated with changes in moon phase. Proportion of nighttime spent on water was highest during darker periods of the lunar cycle, coinciding with the cycle of the diel vertical migration (DVM that brings prey to the sea surface at night. Our data show that at-sea behavior of a tropical seabird can vary with environmental changes, including lunar phase.

  9. At-sea behavior varies with lunar phase in a nocturnal pelagic seabird, the swallow-tailed gull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Sebastian M.; Hooten, Mevin; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Proaño, Carolina B.; Anderson, David J.; Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Wikelski, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Strong and predictable environmental variability can reward flexible behaviors among animals. We used long-term records of activity data that cover several lunar cycles to investigate whether behavior at-sea of swallow-tailed gulls Creagrus furcatus, a nocturnal pelagic seabird, varied with lunar phase in the Galápagos Islands. A Bayesian hierarchical model showed that nighttime at-sea activity of 37 breeding swallow-tailed gulls was clearly associated with changes in moon phase. Proportion of nighttime spent on water was highest during darker periods of the lunar cycle, coinciding with the cycle of the diel vertical migration (DVM) that brings prey to the sea surface at night. Our data show that at-sea behavior of a tropical seabird can vary with environmental changes, including lunar phase.

  10. Arctic whaling: proceedings of the International Symposium Arctic Whaling February 1983

    OpenAIRE

    H.K. 's Jacob; Snoeijing, K

    1984-01-01

    Contents: D.M. Hopkins and Louie Marincovich Jr. Whale Biogeography and the history of the Arctic Basin P.M. Kellt, J.H.W. Karas and L.D. Williams Arctic Climate: Past, Present and Future Torgny E. Vinje On the present state and the future fate of the Arctic sea ice cover P.J.H. van Bree On the biology of whales Edward Mitchell Ecology of North Atlantic Boreal and Arctic Monodontid and Mysticete Whales Allen P. McCartney History of native whaling in the Arctic and Subarctic Albert A. Dekin Jr...

  11. Human myeloma in vitro colony growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human myeloma stem cells were examined by their capacity to form colonies in culture. Cells separated from bone marrow of 15 patients with multiple myeloma were cultured in semi-solid methylcellulose with conditioned medium obtained from cultured T lymphocytes stimulated by phytohemagglutinin. The number of colonies consisting of more than 20 cells was counted after 10 days of culture. The colonies formed consisted mostly of lymphoplasmacytoid or plasma cells, and the immunoglobulin in the cytoplasm of cells from colonies was identical to that found in cells used for culture. The number of colonies formed was proportional to the number of cells plated. These results suggested that the cells in the colonies were derived from the myeloma cells originally used. The proportion of myeloma stem cells in the proliferative state was examined in 12 patients by the suicide method using [3H]-TdR and the results were between 21 and 75 %, the mean value being approximately 40 %. The irradiation sensitivity of myeloma stem cells was examined by the 60Co-γ-irradiation method. The mean Do value in 7 cases was 116 rads and the mean extrapolation number was 2.0. An inverse relationship was observed between the Do value and the proportion of cells in the S phase. (author)

  12. Periodic Pattern Formation of Bacterial Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Hiroto; Wakita, Jun-ichi; Matsuyama, Tohey; Matsushita, Mitsugu

    1999-04-01

    We have experimentally investigated pattern formation of colonies ofbacterial species Proteus mirabilis, which is famous forforming concentric-ring-like colonies.The colony grows cyclically with the interface repeating an advance anda stop alternately on a surface of a solid agar medium.We distinguish three phases (initial lag phase, the followingmigration and consolidation phases that appear alternately) for the colony growth.When we cut a colony just behind a migrating front shortly after the migrationstarted, the migration ended earlier and the following consolidationlasted longer.However, the following cycles were not influenced by the cut, i.e., thephases of the migration and consolidation were not affected.Global chemical signals governing the colony formation from thecenter were not found to exist.We also quantitatively checked phase entrainment by letting two coloniescollide with each other and found that it does not take place in macroscopic scales.All these experimental results suggest that the most important factorfor the migration is the cell population density.

  13. Migration and stopover in a small pelagic seabird, the Manx shearwater Puffinus puffinus: insights from machine learning

    OpenAIRE

    Guilford, T.; Meade, J.; Willis, J.; Phillips, R. A.; Boyle, D; Roberts, S; M. Collett; Freeman, R.; Perrins, C.M

    2009-01-01

    The migratory movements of seabirds (especially smaller species) remain poorly understood, despite their role as harvesters of marine ecosystems on a global scale and their potential as indicators of ocean health. Here we report a successful attempt, using miniature archival light loggers (geolocators), to elucidate the migratory behaviour of the Manx shearwater Puffinus puffinus, a small (400 g) Northern Hemisphere breeding procellariform that undertakes a trans-equatorial, trans-Atlantic mi...

  14. Responses of seabirds, in particular prions ( Pachyptila sp.), to small-scale processes in the Antarctic Polar Front

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Franeker, Jan A.; van den Brink, Nico W.; Bathmann, Ulrich V.; Pollard, Raymond T.; de Baar, Hein J. W.; Wolff, Wim J.

    Small-scale distribution patterns of seabirds in the Antarctic Polar Front (APF) were investigated in relation to other biological, physical, and chemical features during the ANT-XIII/2 research cruise of R.V. Polarstern from December 1995 to January 1996. The APF is characterized by steep gradients in sea-surface temperature and salinity. Within the APF, gradient zones were closely associated with elevated levels of primary production, chlorophyll- a (chl- a) concentrations, and zooplankton densities. Even broad-billed prions (' Pachyptila vittata-group'), which dominated the seabird community by 83% in carbon requirements, showed small-scale distributional patterns that were positively related to primary production, chl- a, and total zooplankton densities. The findings demonstrate a close, direct link between fine-scale physical processes in the APF and biological activity through several food web levels up to that of zooplankton-eating seabirds. Broad-billed prions appeared to forage on very small copepods ( Oithona spp.) in close association with the front. Fish- and squid-eating predators showed poor correlations with small-scale spatial structures of the APF. However, in a wider band around the APF, most top predators did occur in elevated densities, showing gradual spatio-temporal diffusion of the impact of the APF on higher trophic levels.

  15. Ontogeny of plunge diving behaviour in brown boobies: Application of a data logging technique to hand-raised seabirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, Ken; Kohno, Hiroyoshi; Naito, Yasuhiko

    2007-02-01

    How do seabirds acquire diving skills after fledging? This is an important issue to complete our basic knowledge of life history in seabirds, but the mobility of juveniles obstructs the continuous recording of the development of diving behaviour. In this study, we raised hatchling brown boobies, Sula leucogaster, which are known to have a long post-fledging period. Once boobies began to fly, they made round trips between the sea and the nest, and begged for food from us, their surrogate parents. During this post-fledging care period, the development of diving behaviour was recorded using data loggers. In addition, we attached data loggers to adult brown boobies in the field and compared their diving performance with that of juveniles. The hand-raised juveniles had relatively slow development of diving ability during the first month after fledging. This slow development of behaviour with ontogeny might be the proximate cause for the extended post-fledging care period in this species. This study shows that the combination of bio-logging and hand raising of seabirds is a useful tool for assessing the ontogeny of diving behaviour in these animals.

  16. Marine wind farms - seabirds, white-tailed eagles, Eurasian eagle-owl and waders. A screening of potential conflict areas; Offshore vindenergianlegg - sjoefugl, havoern, hubro og vadere. En screening av potensielle konfliktomraader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, S.; Lorentsen, S.-H.; Dahl, E.L.; Follestad, A.; Hanssen, F.O.; Systad, G.H.

    2010-06-15

    sufficient quality to be used for this method. For the species where less data was available (e.g. geese, waders, white-tailed eagle and the Eurasian eagle-owl) we have chosen to illustrate potential conflicts by means of maps of the major functional areas. The results are presented in maps, where the WSI is given for 10x10 km squares. The results of the study showed a clear difference in WSI between areas and seasons. For the seabirds it was shown that especially the large breeding colonies in Vesteraalen, Roest and Runde were areas with high WSI. In Vesteraalen, the gannets and some of the puffin colonies resulted in a high WSI, while on Roest auks and for Runde gannets and gulls resulted in high WSI-values. Further south it was mainly gulls and terns that caused high WSI-values on the coast of Vest- Agder and between Jaeren and Karmoey. The results for the breeding season were as expected, as other studies have previously pointed to these sites as valuable areas. There were some similarities between important localities in summer and winter, for example between Jaeren and Vesteraalen. But during the winter season, areas such as Lista, Nordoeyerne and Gossen (Moere and Romsdal), Smoela, Froan, Oerlandet, Frost, Vikna and Vega also showed a high vulnerability. For the white-tailed sea eagle especially the islands of Smoela, Hitra and Froeya, as well as the area from Bodoe to Steigen were very important. For the Eurasian eagle-owl the coast of Helgeland and the areas surrounding Karmoey in Rogaland were most important. For waders and geese the focus was on important resting and moulting sites. Such sites for geese and eiders are distributed across the study area, with the most important and largest areas being the coast of central Norway and northwards. For waders a number of important resting areas are spread over the entire study area, but with a concentration of localities along the coast of Moere and Romsdal and Rogaland, especially along the coast of Jaeren. In our

  17. Health in the Arctic and climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Sloth Pedersen, Henning

    2007-01-01

    The Arctic environment is like a magnifying glass. Many of the hazards stemming from industrial activity in the South tend to concentrate in the North. This is true for DDT, PCB, heavy metals and many other substances that may endanger human health. Climate change is yet another example of how the negative impact of industrial activity may be magnified in the Arctic region.

  18. Arctic freshwater export: Status, mechanisms, and prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haine, T.W.N.; Curry, B.; Gerdes, R.; Hansen, E.; Karcher, M.; Lee, C.; Rudels, B.; Spreen, G.; de Steur, L.; Stewart, K.D.; Woodgate, R.

    2015-01-01

    Large freshwater anomalies clearly exist in the Arctic Ocean. For example, liquid freshwater has accumulated in the Beaufort Gyre in the decade of the 2000s compared to 1980–2000, with an extra ˜ 5000 km3 — about 25% — being stored. The sources of freshwater to the Arctic from precipitation and runo

  19. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Alaska (ARCTIC) research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current program continues studies of arctic ecosystems begun in 1959 as part of the Cape Thompson Program. Specific ecosystem aspects include studies of the ecology of arctic and red foxes, small mammel and bird population studies, lichen studies, and radiation ecology studies

  20. CHARACTERISTICS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION IN ARCTIC CIRCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Lež

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of large quantities of hydrocarbons is supposed within the Arctic Circle. Assumed quantities are 25% of the total undiscovered hydrocarbon reserves on Earth, mostly natural gas. Over 500 major and minor gas accumulations within the Arctic Circle were discovered so far, but apart from Snøhvit gas field, there is no commercial exploitation of natural gas from these fields. Arctic gas projects are complicated, technically hard to accomplish, and pose a great threat to the return of investment, safety of people and equipment and for the ecosystem. Russia is a country that is closest to the realization of the Arctic gas projects that are based on the giant gas fields. The most extreme weather conditions in the seas around Greenland are the reason why this Arctic region is the least explored and furthest from the realization of any gas project (the paper is published in Croatian .

  1. Varroa-Virus Interaction in Collapsing Honey Bee Colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Roy M; NIELSEN, STEEN L.; Per Kryger

    2013-01-01

    Varroa mites and viruses are the currently the high-profile suspects in collapsing bee colonies. Therefore, seasonal variation in varroa load and viruses (Acute-Kashmir-Israeli complex (AKI) and Deformed Wing Virus (DWV)) were monitored in a year-long study. We investigated the viral titres in honey bees and varroa mites from 23 colonies (15 apiaries) under three treatment conditions: Organic acids (11 colonies), pyrethroid (9 colonies) and untreated (3 colonies). Approximately 200 bees were ...

  2. The makeshift settlement: colonial policy in British West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, A M

    1982-01-01

    This thesis examines the evolution of colonial policy within British West Africa, and is based largely on unpublished correspondence between the Colonial office and colonial governors, held in the Public Record Office in London. It argues that the colonial states were unable to generate or implement a satisfactory strategy for capitalist development. In the first twenty years of colonial rule, various projects were outlined, which assumed the introduction of private property in land, the enco...

  3. Top-down and bottom-up factors affecting seabird population trends in the California current system (1985-2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainley, David G.; David Hyrenbach, K.

    2010-03-01

    To characterize the environmental factors affecting seabird population trends in the central portion of the California current system (CCS), we analyzed standardized vessel-based surveys collected during the late spring (May-June) upwelling season over 22 yr (1985-2006). We tested the working hypothesis that population trends are related to species-specific foraging ecology, and predicted that temporal variation in population size should be most extreme in diving species with higher energy expenditure during foraging. We related variation in individual species abundance (number km -2) to seasonally lagged (late winter, early spring, late spring) and concurrent ocean conditions, and to long-term trends (using a proxy variable: year) during a multi-decadal period of major fluctuations in the El Niño-Southern oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO). We considered both remote (Multivariate ENSO Index, PDO) and local (coastal upwelling indices and sea-surface temperature) environmental variables as proxies for ocean productivity and prey availability. We also related seabird trends to those of potentially major trophic competitors, humpback ( Megaptera novaeangliae) and blue ( Balaenoptera musculus) whales, which increased in number 4-5-fold midway during our study. Cyclical oscillations in seabird abundance were apparent in the black-footed albatross ( Phoebastria nigripes), and decreasing trends were documented for ashy storm-petrel ( Oceanodroma homochroa), pigeon guillemot ( Cepphus columbus), rhinoceros auklet ( Cerorhinca monocerata), Cassin’s auklet ( Ptychoramphus aleuticus), and western gull ( Larus occidentalis); the sooty shearwater ( Puffinus griseus), exhibited a marked decline before signs of recovery at the end of the study period. The abundance of nine other focal species varied with ocean conditions, but without decadal or long-term trends. Six of these species have the largest global populations in the CCS, and four are highly

  4. Marine Transportation Implications of the Last Arctic Sea Ice Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, L. W.

    2010-12-01

    Marine access is increasing throughout the Arctic Ocean and the 'Last Arctic Sea Ice Refuge' may have implications for governance and marine use in the region. Arctic marine transportation is increasing due to natural resource developemnt, increasing Arctic marine tourism, expanded Arctic marine research, and a general linkage of the Arctic to the gloabl economy. The Arctic Council recognized these changes with the release of the Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment of 2009. This key study (AMSA)can be viewed as a baseline assessment (using the 2004 AMSA database), a strategic guide for a host of stakeholders and actors, and as a policy document of the Arctic Council. The outcomes of AMSA of direct relevance to the Ice Refuge are within AMSA's 17 recommendations provided under three themes: Enhancing Arctic Marine Safety, Protecting Arctic People and the Environment, and Building the Arctic Marine Infrastructure. Selected recommendations of importance to the Ice Refuge include: a mandatory polar navigation code; identifying areas of heightened ecological and cultural significance; potential designation of special Arctic marine areas; enhancing the tracking and monitoring of Arctic marine traffic; improving circumpolar environmental response capacity; developing an Arctic search and rescue agreement; and, assessing the effects of marine transportation on marine mammals. A review will be made of the AMSA outcomes and how they can influence the governance, marine use, and future protection of this unique Arctic marine environment.

  5. Assessing the structure and temporal dynamics of seabird communities: the challenge of capturing marine ecosystem complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Rocío; Stowasser, Gabriele; McGill, Rona A R; Bearhop, Stuart; Phillips, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    Understanding interspecific interactions, and the influences of anthropogenic disturbance and environmental change on communities, are key challenges in ecology. Despite the pressing need to understand these fundamental drivers of community structure and dynamics, only 17% of ecological studies conducted over the past three decades have been at the community level. Here, we assess the trophic structure of the procellariiform community breeding at South Georgia, to identify the factors that determine foraging niches and possible temporal changes. We collected conventional diet data from 13 sympatric species between 1974 and 2002, and quantified intra- and inter-guild, and annual variation in diet between and within foraging habits. In addition, we tested the reliability of stable isotope analysis (SIA) of seabird feathers collected over a 13-year period, in relation to those of their potential prey, as a tool to assess community structure when diets are diverse and there is high spatial heterogeneity in environmental baselines. Our results using conventional diet data identified a four-guild community structure, distinguishing species that mainly feed on crustaceans; large fish and squid; a mixture of crustaceans, small fish and squid; or carrion. In total, Antarctic krill Euphausia superba represented 32%, and 14 other species a further 46% of the combined diet of all 13 predators, underlining the reliance of this community on relatively few types of prey. Annual variation in trophic segregation depended on relative prey availability; however, our data did not provide evidence of changes in guild structure associated with a suggested decline in Antarctic krill abundance over the past 40 years. Reflecting the differences in δ(15) N of potential prey (crustaceans vs. squid vs. fish and carrion), analysis of δ(15) N in chick feathers identified a three-guild community structure that was constant over a 13-year period, but lacked the trophic cluster representing

  6. Chlorinated biphenyls and pesticides in migrating and resident seabirds from East and West Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsolini, Simonetta; Borghesi, Nicoletta; Ademollo, Nicoletta; Focardi, Silvano

    2011-11-01

    The unhatched eggs of the following seabirds were analyzed to quantify PCBs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), α-, β-, γ-, δ-hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), o,p' and p,p' isomers of DDT, DDD and DDE: resident Adèlie (Pygoscelis adèliae, ADPE) and Emperor (Aptenodytes forsteri, EMPE) penguins, migrating snow petrel (Pagodroma nivea, SNPT) and South Polar skua (Catharacta maccormicki, SPSK) from the Ross Sea (East Antarctica); and migrating Brown skua (Catharacta antartica, BRSK) and resident ADPE from the Brainsfield Strait (West Antarctica). The general aims were to evaluate the contaminant accumulation in eggs of migrating and resident species in the two study areas, and to compare levels in penguins and skuas nesting in East and West Antarctica. PCB congener and HCH and DDT isomer profiles were also assessed. Comparisons were evaluated using seven PCB congeners (IUPAC nos. 28, 52, 101, 118+149, 138, 153, and 180), p,p'-DDE, ΣDDTs, and ΣHCHs. Higher contaminant concentrations were detected in migrating seabirds (South polar skua and brown skua)>sub-Antarctic species (snow petrel)>Antarctic species (penguins) from both the sampling sites, suggesting contamination events at lower latitudes for those birds migrating northward. HCHs showed the lowest concentrations in all species (from 0.03±0.03 ng/g wet wt in SPSK to 1.81±1.23 ng/g wet wt in ADPE from West Antarctica), and PCBs were the most abundant contaminants (from 4.34±2.15 ng/g wet wt. in EMPE to 53.41±19.61 ng/g wet wt. in brown skua). Among pesticides, it is relevant the detection of p,p'-DDT in Adèlie penguin from West Antarctica and in both species of skua; the detection of this pesticide can confirm its actual use in certain malaria-endemic countries from where it is transferred through the long range transport to the polar regions. Contaminants did not show any significant temporal trend during a ten year time span, from 1994/95 to 2004/05, in organisms collected in East Antarctica and they did not

  7. Colony collapse disorder: a descriptive study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Vanengelsdorp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last two winters, there have been large-scale, unexplained losses of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L. colonies in the United States. In the absence of a known cause, this syndrome was named Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD because the main trait was a rapid loss of adult worker bees. We initiated a descriptive epizootiological study in order to better characterize CCD and compare risk factor exposure between populations afflicted by and not afflicted by CCD. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of 61 quantified variables (including adult bee physiology, pathogen loads, and pesticide levels, no single measure emerged as a most-likely cause of CCD. Bees in CCD colonies had higher pathogen loads and were co-infected with a greater number of pathogens than control populations, suggesting either an increased exposure to pathogens or a reduced resistance of bees toward pathogens. Levels of the synthetic acaricide coumaphos (used by beekeepers to control the parasitic mite Varroa destructor were higher in control colonies than CCD-affected colonies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first comprehensive survey of CCD-affected bee populations that suggests CCD involves an interaction between pathogens and other stress factors. We present evidence that this condition is contagious or the result of exposure to a common risk factor. Potentially important areas for future hypothesis-driven research, including the possible legacy effect of mite parasitism and the role of honey bee resistance to pesticides, are highlighted.

  8. Ant colony optimization algorithm for continuous domains based on position distribution model of ant colony foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liqiang; Dai, Yuntao; Gao, Jinyu

    2014-01-01

    Ant colony optimization algorithm for continuous domains is a major research direction for ant colony optimization algorithm. In this paper, we propose a distribution model of ant colony foraging, through analysis of the relationship between the position distribution and food source in the process of ant colony foraging. We design a continuous domain optimization algorithm based on the model and give the form of solution for the algorithm, the distribution model of pheromone, the update rules of ant colony position, and the processing method of constraint condition. Algorithm performance against a set of test trials was unconstrained optimization test functions and a set of optimization test functions, and test results of other algorithms are compared and analyzed to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:24955402

  9. Ecosystem dynamics of the Pacific-influenced Northern Bering and Chukchi Seas in the Amerasian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebmeier, Jacqueline M.; Cooper, Lee W.; Feder, Howard M.; Sirenko, Boris I.

    2006-10-01

    The shallow continental shelves and slope of the Amerasian Arctic are strongly influenced by nutrient-rich Pacific waters advected over the shelves from the northern Bering Sea into the Arctic Ocean. These high-latitude shelf systems are highly productive both as the ice melts and during the open-water period. The duration and extent of seasonal sea ice, seawater temperature and water mass structure are critical controls on water column production, organic carbon cycling and pelagic-benthic coupling. Short food chains and shallow depths are characteristic of high productivity areas in this region, so changes in lower trophic levels can impact higher trophic organisms rapidly, including pelagic- and benthic-feeding marine mammals and seabirds. Subsistence harvesting of many of these animals is locally important for human consumption. The vulnerability of the ecosystem to environmental change is thought to be high, particularly as sea ice extent declines and seawater warms. In this review, we focus on ecosystem dynamics in the northern Bering and Chukchi Seas, with a more limited discussion of the adjoining Pacific-influenced eastern section of the East Siberian Sea and the western section of the Beaufort Sea. Both primary and secondary production are enhanced in specific regions that we discuss here, with the northern Bering and Chukchi Seas sustaining some of the highest water column production and benthic faunal soft-bottom biomass in the world ocean. In addition, these organic carbon-rich Pacific waters are periodically advected into low productivity regions of the nearshore northern Bering, Chukchi and Beaufort Seas off Alaska and sometimes into the East Siberian Sea, all of which have lower productivity on an annual basis. Thus, these near shore areas are intimately tied to nutrients and advected particulate organic carbon from the Pacific influenced Bering Shelf-Anadyr water. Given the short food chains and dependence of many apex predators on sea ice, recent

  10. Arctic Visiting Speakers Series (AVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, S. E.; Griswold, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic Visiting Speakers (AVS) Series funds researchers and other arctic experts to travel and share their knowledge in communities where they might not otherwise connect. Speakers cover a wide range of arctic research topics and can address a variety of audiences including K-12 students, graduate and undergraduate students, and the general public. Host applications are accepted on an on-going basis, depending on funding availability. Applications need to be submitted at least 1 month prior to the expected tour dates. Interested hosts can choose speakers from an online Speakers Bureau or invite a speaker of their choice. Preference is given to individuals and organizations to host speakers that reach a broad audience and the general public. AVS tours are encouraged to span several days, allowing ample time for interactions with faculty, students, local media, and community members. Applications for both domestic and international visits will be considered. Applications for international visits should involve participation of more than one host organization and must include either a US-based speaker or a US-based organization. This is a small but important program that educates the public about Arctic issues. There have been 27 tours since 2007 that have impacted communities across the globe including: Gatineau, Quebec Canada; St. Petersburg, Russia; Piscataway, New Jersey; Cordova, Alaska; Nuuk, Greenland; Elizabethtown, Pennsylvania; Oslo, Norway; Inari, Finland; Borgarnes, Iceland; San Francisco, California and Wolcott, Vermont to name a few. Tours have included lectures to K-12 schools, college and university students, tribal organizations, Boy Scout troops, science center and museum patrons, and the general public. There are approximately 300 attendees enjoying each AVS tour, roughly 4100 people have been reached since 2007. The expectations for each tour are extremely manageable. Hosts must submit a schedule of events and a tour summary to be posted online

  11. Arctic sea ice and Eurasian climate: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yongqi; Sun, Jianqi; Li, Fei; HE Shengping; Sandven, Stein; Yan, Qing; Zhang, Zhongshi; Lohmann, Katja; Keenlyside, Noel; Furevik, Tore; Suo, Lingling

    2014-01-01

    The Arctic plays a fundamental role in the climate system and has shown significant climate change in recent decades, including the Arctic warming and decline of Arctic sea-ice extent and thickness. In contrast to the Arctic warming and reduction of Arctic sea ice, Europe, East Asia and North America have experienced anomalously cold conditions, with record snowfall during recent years. In this paper, we review current understanding of the sea-ice impacts on the Eurasian climate. Paleo, obser...

  12. THE ARCTIC: AN INDICATOR OF THE PLANET"S HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Callaghan, Terry

    2012-01-01

    The Arctic is a critically important component of the earth system and the Arctic is subject to dramatic change due to global warming in particular. To build capacity for better environmental monitoring and research in the Arctic, the EU has funded the SCANNET-INTERACT Consortium, which consists of partners from all the Arctic countries and 33 research infrastructures located throughout the large environmental envelope of the Arctic and a further 8 research facilities have joined as "observer...

  13. Radioactivity assessment in the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1991 ministers from eight Arctic countries committed themselves to the establishment of the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP). AMAP was asked to prepare regular State of the Arctic Environment Reports. This paper describes the background, methods and table of contents of the radioactivity section of the State of the Arctic Environment Report, being prepared for presentation to the ministers from the eight Arctic countries in 1996. 2 refs

  14. Colony location algorithm for assignment problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dingwei WANG

    2004-01-01

    A novel algorithm called Colony Location Algorithm (CLA) is proposed. It mimics the phenomena in biotic conmunity that colonies of species could be located in the places most suitable to their growth. The factors working on the species location such as the nutrient of soil, resource competition between species, growth and decline process, and effect on environment were considered in CLA via the nutrient function, growth and decline rates, environment evaluation and fertilization strategy.CLA was applied to solve the classical assignment problems. The computation results show that CLA can achieve the optimal solution with higher possibility and shorter running time.

  15. Print, Newspapers and Audiences in Colonial Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Bodil Folke

    2011-01-01

    The article addresses African and Indian newspaper networks in Kenya in the late 1940s in an Indian Ocean perspective. Newspapers were important parts of a printing culture that was sustained by Indian and African nationalist politics and economic enterprise. In this period new intermediary groups...... of view in newspapers. They depended on voluntary and political associations and anti-colonial struggles in Kenya and on links to nationalists in India and the passive resistance movement in South Africa. They sidestepped the European-dominated print culture and created an anti-colonial counter...

  16. Drivers and fitness consequences of dispersive migration in a pelagic seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Robin; Shoji, Akiko; Boyle, Dave; Kirk, Holly L.; Dean, Ben J.; Perrins, Chris M.; Guilford, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Animals can be flexible in their migration strategies, using several wintering sites or a variety of routes. The mechanisms promoting the development of these migratory patterns and their potential fitness consequences are poorly understood. Here, we address these questions by tracking the dispersive migration of a pelagic seabird, the Atlantic puffin Fratercula arctica, using over 100 complete migration tracks collected over 7 years, including repeated tracks of individuals for up to 6 consecutive years. Because puffins have high flight costs, dispersion may generate important variation in costs of migration. We investigate differences in activity budgets and energy expenditure between different strategies. We find that puffins visit a range of overwintering destinations, resulting in a diversity of migratory routes differing in energy expenditures; however, they show interindividual similarity in the timings and location of major movements. We consider 3 hypothetical mechanisms that could generate this pattern: 1) random dispersion; 2) sex segregation; and 3) intraspecific competition or differences in individual quality. First, we dismiss random dispersion because individuals show strong route fidelity between years. Second, we find that sex differences contribute to, but do not account fully for, the migratory variation observed. Third, we find significant differences in breeding success between overwintering destinations, which, together with differences in foraging levels between routes, suggest that birds of different quality may visit different destinations. Taken together, our results show that dispersive migration is a complex phenomenon that can be driven by multiple factors simultaneously and can shape a population’s fitness landscape. PMID:27418752

  17. Thyroid hormones correlate with resting metabolic rate, not daily energy expenditure, in two charadriiform seabirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle H. Elliott

    2013-04-01

    Thyroid hormones affect in vitro metabolic intensity, increase basal metabolic rate (BMR in the lab, and are sometimes correlated with basal and/or resting metabolic rate (RMR in a field environment. Given the difficulty of measuring metabolic rate in the field—and the likelihood that capture and long-term restraint necessary to measure metabolic rate in the field jeopardizes other measurements—we examined the possibility that circulating thyroid hormone levels were correlated with RMR in two free-ranging bird species with high levels of energy expenditure (the black-legged kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla, and thick-billed murre, Uria lomvia. Because BMR and daily energy expenditure (DEE are purported to be linked, we also tested for a correlation between thyroid hormones and DEE. We examined the relationships between free and bound levels of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4 and triiodothyronine (T3 with DEE and with 4-hour long measurements of post-absorptive and thermoneutral resting metabolism (resting metabolic rate; RMR. RMR but not DEE increased with T3 in both species; both metabolic rates were independent of T4. T3 and T4 were not correlated with one another. DEE correlated with body mass in kittiwakes but not in murres, presumably owing to the larger coefficient of variation in body mass during chick rearing for the more sexually dimorphic kittiwakes. We suggest T3 provides a good proxy for resting metabolism but not DEE in these seabird species.

  18. Long-term isolation of a highly mobile seabird on the Galapagos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailer, Frank; Schreiber, E.A.; Miller, Joshua M.; Levin, Iris I.; Parker, Patricia G.; Chesser, R. Terry; Fleischer, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    The Galapagos Islands are renowned for their high degree of endemism. Marine taxa inhabiting the archipelago might be expected to be an exception, because of their utilization of pelagic habitats--the dispersal barrier for terrestrial taxa--as foraging grounds. Magnificent frigatebirds (Fregata magnificens) have a highly vagile lifestyle and wide geographical distribution around the South and Central American coasts. Given the potentially high levels of gene flow among populations, the species provides a good test of the effectiveness of the Galapagos ecosystem in isolating populations of highly dispersive marine species. We studied patterns of genetic (mitochondrial DNA, microsatellites and nuclear introns) and morphological variation across the distribution of magnificent frigatebirds. Concordant with predictions from life-history traits, we found signatures of extensive gene flow over most of the range, even across the Isthmus of Panama, which is a major barrier to gene flow in other tropical seabirds. In contrast, individuals from the Galapagos were strongly differentiated from all conspecifics, and have probably been isolated for several hundred thousand years. Our finding is a powerful testimony to the evolutionary uniqueness of the taxa inhabiting the Galapagos archipelago and its associated marine ecosystems.

  19. Stimulation of gaseous phosphine production from Antarctic seabird guanos and ornithogenic soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Renbin; LIU Yashu; SUN Jianjun; SUN Liguang; GENG Jinju

    2009-01-01

    Matrix-bound phosphine (MBP) is a general term used to indicate non-gaseous reduced phosphorus compounds that are transformed into phosphine gas upon reaction with bases or acids. Antarctic seabird guanos and ornithogenic soils were used as materials to compare the different digestion methods for transforming matrix-bound phosphine into phosphine gas. The results demonstrated that more phosphine gas in most of Antarctic environmental materials was formed of matrix-bound phosphine by caustic digestion than by acidic digestion. The comparative study on different digestion methods also revealed that the fraction of MBP converted to gaseous phosphine during the digestion depended on the temperature. The optimal digestion temperature was close to 70℃ and the optimal digestion time was about 20 min. Acidic conditions were more favorable for the release of matrix-bound phosphine compared to the central[u1] conditions. The proper additional water dilution can increase the production and emission of phosphine from the Antarctic penguin guanos.

  20. The effects of oil pollution on seabirds off the west coast of Vancouver Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annual oil shipments off the west coast of Vancouver Island include over 300 tankers carrying 26 million m3 of crude oil, over 400 loads totalling ca 2 million m3 of refined petroleum products delivered to local ports, and thousands of smaller fuel deliveries. The incidence and estimated risks of oil spills off the coast of Vancouver Island are reviewed. Large spills of over 1,000 bbl are likely to affect the area every 4-5 y, but several hundred minor spills occur annually. Beached bird surveys yielded densities of 0.72 carcasses/km, of which at least 12% were oiled by small, predominantly unreported spills. Under normal conditions, the incidence of oiled birds on beaches is low relative to beach survey results from other parts of the world, but these data underestimate the actual at-sea mortality because of the characteristics of the beaches and the ocean currents off the island. This has been confirmed by experiments using bird-sized drift blocks released off the island and studies of carcass persistence on beaches. The effects of the Nestucca spill, which killed ca 56,000 seabirds off Vancouver Island and northern Washington in winter 1988-89, are reviewed. 57 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  1. Trophic structure in a seabird host-parasite food web: insights from stable isotope analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gómez-Díaz

    Full Text Available Ecological studies on food webs rarely include parasites, partly due to the complexity and dimensionality of host-parasite interaction networks. Multiple co-occurring parasites can show different feeding strategies and thus lead to complex and cryptic trophic relationships, which are often difficult to disentangle by traditional methods. We analyzed stable isotope ratios of C ((13C/(12C, delta(13C and N ((15N/(14N, delta(15N of host and ectoparasite tissues to investigate trophic structure in 4 co-occurring ectoparasites: three lice and one flea species, on two closely related and spatially segregated seabird hosts (Calonectris shearwaters. delta(13C isotopic signatures confirmed feathers as the main food resource for the three lice species and blood for the flea species. All ectoparasite species showed a significant enrichment in delta(15N relatively to the host tissue consumed (discrimination factors ranged from 2 to 5 per thousand depending on the species. Isotopic differences were consistent across multiple host-ectoparasite locations, despite of some geographic variability in baseline isotopic levels. Our findings illustrate the influence of both ectoparasite and host trophic ecology in the isotopic structuring of the Calonectris ectoparasite community. This study highlights the potential of stable isotope analyses in disentangling the nature and complexity of trophic relationships in symbiotic systems.

  2. Skin pentosidine and telomere length do not covary with age in a long-lived seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattiste, Kalev; Klandorf, Hillar; Urvik, Janek; Sepp, Tuul; Asghar, Muhammad; Hasselquist, Dennis; Cooey, Crissa; Hõrak, Peeter

    2015-08-01

    The questions about why and how senescence occurs in the wild are among the most pertinent ones in evolutionary ecology. Telomere length is a commonly used marker for aging, while other biomarkers of aging have received considerably less attention. Here we studied how another potent indicator of aging-skin pentosidine concentration-relates to age and blood telomere length in a long-lived seabird with well-documented reproductive senescence. We found no associations between telomere length, skin pentosidine and chronological age in male common gulls (Larus canus), aging from 2 to 30 years. However, the variance in telomere length was 4.6 times higher among the birds older than 13 years, which hints at relaxed selection on telomere length among the birds that have passed their prime age of reproduction. These results suggest that physiological and chronological ages may be largely uncoupled in our study system. Furthermore, our findings do not support a hypothesis about the presence of a common physiological factor (e.g., such as oxidative stress) that would cause covariation between two independent markers of aging. PMID:25726322

  3. Breeding phenology and winter activity predict subsequent breeding success in a trans-global migratory seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, A; Aris-Brosou, S; Culina, A; Fayet, A; Kirk, H; Padget, O; Juarez-Martinez, I; Boyle, D; Nakata, T; Perrins, C M; Guilford, T

    2015-10-01

    Inter-seasonal events are believed to connect and affect reproductive performance (RP) in animals. However, much remains unknown about such carry-over effects (COEs), in particular how behaviour patterns during highly mobile life-history stages, such as migration, affect RP. To address this question, we measured at-sea behaviour in a long-lived migratory seabird, the Manx shearwater (Puffinus puffinus) and obtained data for individual migration cycles over 5 years, by tracking with geolocator/immersion loggers, along with 6 years of RP data. We found that individual breeding and non-breeding phenology correlated with subsequent RP, with birds hyperactive during winter more likely to fail to reproduce. Furthermore, parental investment during one year influenced breeding success during the next, a COE reflecting the trade-off between current and future RP. Our results suggest that different life-history stages interact to influence RP in the next breeding season, so that behaviour patterns during winter may be important determinants of variation in subsequent fitness among individuals. PMID:26510674

  4. Monoclonal origin of B lymphocyte colony-forming cells in spleen colonies formed by multipotential hemopoietic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, PK; Johnson, GR

    1978-01-01

    Spleen colonies produced by transplanting lethally irradiated mice with either 12 day fetal liver or adult bone marrow cells were found to contain B- lymphocyte colony-forming cells (BL-CFC) . The proportion of BL-CFC positive spleen colonies did not increase substantially between 8 and 14 days after transplantation, the range being 18-45 percent. However, the absolute number of BL-CFC per spleen colony varied considerably (between 1 and 10,318), although the majority of colonies contained less than 200 BL-CFC. Irrespective of the time after transplantation, smaller spleen colonies were found to have a higher frequency of BL-CFC than larger spleen colonies. To determine the possible clonal origin of BL-CFC from spleen colony- forming unit (CFU-S), CBA mice were injected with equal numbers of CBA and CBA T(6)/T(6) fetal liver or adult bone marrow cells. Analysis of 7-15-day spleen colonies demonstrated that 90 percent were either exclusively T(6) positive or T(6) negative and approximately equal numbers ofboth colony types were observed. B-lymphocyte colonies were grown and successfully karyotyped from 19 spleen colonies. When compared with the original spleen colony karyotype the B-lymphocyte colony cells karyotype was identical in all 19 cases. In 3 of the 19 colonies analyzed a mixture of T(6) positive and T(6) negative karyotypes was present and identical proportions of the karyotypes were present in the pooled B-lymphocyte colony cells and spleen colony cells. The data indicate that the B-lymphocyte colony-forming cells detected in spleen colonies are genuine members of the hemopoietic clone derived from the initiating hemopoietic stem cell (CFU-S). PMID:309918

  5. Persistent organic pollutant and mercury concentrations in eggs of ground-nesting marine birds in the Canadian high Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Liam E; Gilchrist, H Grant; Mallory, Conor D; Braune, Birgit M; Mallory, Mark L

    2016-06-15

    We collected eggs of eight marine bird species from several colony sites in the Canadian high Arctic located at approximately 76°N and analyzed them for concentrations of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and mercury. We provide the first report on concentrations of POPs in eggs of three Arctic species (Thayer's gull Larus thayeri, Sabine's gull Xema sabini, Ross's Gull Rhodostethia rosea), and we found significant differences in each of the POP profiles among the five species with sufficient data for statistical comparisons (Thayer's gull, black guillemot Cepphus grylle, Sabine's gull, Arctic tern Sterna paradisaea and common eider Somateria mollissima borealis). The Ross's Gull had unexpectedly high POP concentrations relative to the other species examined, although this was based on a single egg, while glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus eggs from our sampling location had very low POPs. Sabine's gulls had the lowest Hg of the eggs studied, consistent with their low trophic position, but concentrations of their legacy POPs were higher than expected. We also noted that total hexachlorocyclohexanes were higher than reported elsewhere in the circumpolar Arctic in three species. PMID:26971212

  6. Facility engineering for Arctic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, D.M.; McClusky, K.R.; Shirley, R.; Spitzenberger, R. [Mustang Engineering Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The Northstar Development Project is located on Seal Island in the Beaufort Sea, north of Prudhoe Bay. The design and engineering of the facilities for the Northstar Development Project was fraught with challenges. Mustang Engineering Incorporated was involved in the design and engineering of the pipe rack, pump house, process and compressor modules. All the characteristics of an offshore facility are present, even though the project is land-based on a man-made island. A number of the strategies developed for offshore platforms of the Gulf of Mexico were adapted to the fabrication, logistics and installation of the modules. To reduce yard fabrication time, a modularized design concept was adopted. Cost savings and onsite fabrication efficiencies were realized through open communication with the operator, early discussions with vendors, regulatory agencies, and local fabrication and installation contractors. Some improvisation and deviations were required to meet the stringent requirements for operation under Arctic conditions. The lessons learned on this project will be of use in future Arctic projects. 1 tab., 6 figs.

  7. Environmental marine geology of the Arctic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Arctic Ocean and its ice cover are major regulators of Northern Hemisphere climate, ocean circulation and marine productivity. The Arctic is also very sensitive to changes in the global environment because sea ice magnifies small changes in temperature, and because polar regions are sinks for air pollutants. Marine geology studies are being carried out to determine the nature and rate of these environmental changes by study of modern ice and sea bed environments, and by interpretation of geological records imprinted in the sea floor sediments. Sea ice camps, an ice island, and polar icebreakers have been used to study both western and eastern Arctic Ocean basins. Possible early warning signals of environmental changes in the Canadian Arctic are die-back in Arctic sponge reefs, outbreaks of toxic dinoflagellates, and pesticides in the marine food chain. Eastern Arctic ice and surface waters are contaminated by freon and radioactive fallout from Chernobyl. At present, different sedimentary processes operate in the pack ice-covered Canadian polar margin than in summer open waters off Alaska and Eurasia. The geological records, however, suggest that a temperature increase of 1-4C would result in summer open water throughout the Arctic, with major changes in ocean circulation and productivity of waters off Eastern North America, and more widespread transport of pollutants from eastern to western Arctic basins. More studies of longer sediment cores are needed to confirm these interpretations, but it is now clear that the Arctic Ocean has been the pacemaker of climate change during the past 1 million years

  8. Environmental marine geology of the Arctic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Arctic Ocean and its ice cover are major regulators of Northern Hemisphere climate, ocean circulation and marine productivity. The Arctic is also very sensitive to changes in the global environment because sea ice magnifies small changes in temperature, and because polar regions are sinks for air pollutants. Marine geology studies are being carried out to determine the nature and rate of these environmental changes by study of modem ice and sea-bed environments, and by interpretation of geological records imprinted in the sea-floor sediments. Sea ice camps, an ice island, and polar icebreakers have been used to study both western and eastern Arctic Ocean basins. Possible early warning signals of environmental changes in the Canadian Arctic are die-back in Arctic sponge reefs, outbreaks of toxic dinoflagellates, and pesticides in the marine food chain. Eastern Arctic ice and surface waters are contaminated by freon and radioactive fallout from Chernobyl. At present, different sedimentary processes operate in the pack ice-covered Canadian polar margin than in summer open waters off Alaska and Eurasia. The geological records, however, suggest that a temperature increase of 1-4 degree C would result in summer open water throughout the Arctic, with major changes in ocean circulation and productivity of waters off Eastern North America, and more widespread transport of pollutants from eastern to western Arctic basins. More studies of longer sediment cores are needed to confirm these interpretations, but is is now clear that the Arctic Ocean has been the pacemaker of climate change during the past 1 million years

  9. Stability of a Seabird Population in the Presence of an Introduced Predator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L. Major

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that although large populations may appear able to withstand predation and disturbance, added stochasticity in population growth rate (λ increases the risk of dramatic population declines. Approximately half of the Aleutian Islands' population of Least Auklets (Aethia pusilla breed at one large colony at Kiska Island in the presence of introduced Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus whose population erupts periodically. We evaluated two management plans, do nothing or eradicate rats, for this colony, and performed stochastic elasticity analysis to focus future research and management. Our results indicated that Least Auklets breeding at Kiska Island had the lowest absolute value of growth rate and more variable λ's (neither statistically significant during 2001-2010, when compared with rat-free colonies at Buldir and Kasatochi islands. We found variability in the annual proportional change in population size among islands with Kiska Island having the fastest rate of decline, 78% over 20 years. Under the assumption that the eradication of rats would result in vital rates similar to those observed at rat-free Buldir and Kasatochi islands, we found the projected population decline decreased from 78% to 24% over 20 years. Overall, eradicating rats at Kiska Island is not likely to increase Least Auklet vital rates, but will decrease the amount of variation in λ, resulting in a significantly slower rate of population decline. We recommend the eradication of rats from Kiska Island to decrease the probability of dramatic population declines and ensure the future persistence of this important colony.

  10. Surveys of the distribution of seabirds found in the vicinity of proposed geothermal project subzones in the District of Puna, Hawaii. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, M.; Ritchotte, G.; Viggiano, A.; Dwyer, J.; Nielsen, B.; Jacobi, J.D. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Hawaii National Park, HI (United States). Hawaii Research Station

    1994-08-01

    In 1993, the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) entered into an interagency agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct specific biological surveys to identify potential impacts of the proposed geothermal development on the natural resources of the East Rift Zone. This report presents information from published literature information and new field data on seabird populations on the island of Hawaii. These data are analyzed with regard to potential impacts of geothermal development on seabird populations in this area. Fifteen species of seabirds, waterbirds, and shorebirds are documented or suspected of being found using habitats within or immediately adjacent to the three geothermal subzones located in the Puna district on the island of Hawai`i. Of these species, two are on the federal Endangered Species List, three are on the State of Hawaii Endangered Species List, and all 15 are protected by the federal Migratory Bird Act.

  11. Atmospheric DMS in the High Arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Lundén, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    During the Arctic summer when the anthropogenic influence is limited, the natural marine source of sulfur in the form of gas-phase dimethyl sulfide viz. DMS(g), is of great importance for cloud formation. The harsh environment of the Arctic makes it difficult to perform in situ measurements of DMS(g) and hence regional model simulations can serve as a complement to increase our understanding of DMS related processes in the Arctic. In this thesis a regional scale meteorological forecast model,...

  12. The adaptation challenge in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, James D.; McDowell, Graham; Pearce, Tristan

    2015-12-01

    It is commonly asserted that human communities in the Arctic are highly vulnerable to climate change, with the magnitude of projected impacts limiting their ability to adapt. At the same time, an increasing number of field studies demonstrate significant adaptive capacity. Given this paradox, we review climate change adaptation, resilience and vulnerability research to identify and characterize the nature and magnitude of the adaptation challenge facing the Arctic. We find that the challenge of adaptation in the Arctic is formidable, but suggest that drivers of vulnerability and barriers to adaptation can be overcome, avoided or reduced by individual and collective efforts across scales for many, if not all, climate change risks.

  13. Politics of sustainability in the Arctic (POSUSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram; Jakobsen, Uffe; Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    The concept of sustainability is of central importance in Arctic politics. However, for different actors (governments, indigenious peoples, NGOs) the concept implies different sets of precautions and opportunities. Sustainability, therefore, is much more a fundamental concept to be further...... elaborated than a definable term with a specific meaning. This is the core hypothesis in a collective research project, the POSUSA project (Politics of Sustainability in the Arctic) that aims to map and analyse the role of sustainability in various political and economic strategies in the Arctic....

  14. Introduction: World Routes in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Leete

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is associated in popular perception with a vast frozen snow covered empty place. Everybody who has been in the Arctic, whether in the Eurasian or North American part, knows that this stereotype is correct. Indeed, the Arctic is a place with lots of space that determines the lifestyle of the people in this area. All human activities – whether livelihood or mastering of the territory– are and always have been connected with substantial movement. Hunting, fishing, trading, the establishment of settlements and keeping them alive, all this needs the movement of goods and human resources.

  15. RICE IN COLONIAL AND POST COLONIAL SOUTHEAST ASIA: A FOOD REGIME ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Dias Pradadimara

    2015-01-01

    This paper traces the ways in which rice, as a global commodity, has been produced and sold in various regions in Southeast Asia from the colonial era to the present days. This paper employs a food regime analysis first introduced by Harriet Friedmann (1982) and later developed together with Philip McMichael (1989) to look at the global political economy of rice. In this paper, it will be shown how various colonial and post colonial states in Southeast Asia (including Thailand who was never f...

  16. Performance of Bee Colonies Headed by Queens Instrumentally Inseminated with Semen of Drones Who Come from a Single Colony or Many Colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerula Dariusz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of honey bee worker diversity within the colony on: development, honey productivity, and wintering. Two different levels of diversity within the colony were tested. The appropriate levels of diversity within the colony were obtained by selecting drones for inseminating the queens. Lower genetic diversity was obtained in the colonies headed by a queen inseminated with semen collected from drones originating from a single colony. Higher genetic diversity was obtained in the colonies with queens inseminated with semen from drones of 30 different colonies. Colonies with a higher genetic variation of workers in the colonies had greater levels of functional characteristics. However, apart from the number of dead bees in winter, the genetic diversity level of the workers on the colony development and honey production, did not have a significant influence. There was an averaging effect observed concerning that male component in the colonies with a higher genetic variation of workers - on honey yield, when compared to the non-additive effect of the best drones.

  17. Education and Evangelism in the English Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watras, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    This article considers two related educational endeavors of the Massachusetts colony. The first is the colonists' efforts to pass their religious traditions to their children. The second is the effort of missionaries to spread the Christian faith to Native Americans. In both cases, the colonists wanted their children and the American Indians to…

  18. A Bicentennial Without a Puerto Rican Colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Piri

    1975-01-01

    The United States revolution of 1776 is said to lose validity in light of Puerto Rico's colonial situation under American rule. The plight of the Puerto Rican people is compared to that of the Euro-American settlers under the thumb-screw of British imperialism. (Author/AM)

  19. Medical management: from colony to community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldenkamp, Albert P

    2010-12-01

    In this article the development from the colonies founded in the 19th century to the current situation is discussed. Future development is not to simply follow the slogan 'to the community' translated as 'epilepsy must be treated in general hospitals' but to preserve epileptology as specialized care with 'centres of excellence' orchestrated by coupling epilepsy centres with academical neurology. PMID:21074458

  20. Project Final Report: HPC-Colony II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Terry R [ORNL; Kale, Laxmikant V [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Moreira, Jose [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center

    2013-11-01

    This report recounts the HPC Colony II Project which was a computer science effort funded by DOE's Advanced Scientific Computing Research office. The project included researchers from ORNL, IBM, and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The topic of the effort was adaptive system software for extreme scale parallel machines. A description of findings is included.