WorldWideScience

Sample records for arctic sea ice

  1. Arctic tides from GPS on sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard Rose, Stine; Skourup, Henriette; Forsberg, René

    The presence of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean plays a significant role in the Arctic climate. Sea ice dampens the ocean tide amplitude with the result that global tidal models which use only astronomical data perform less accurately in the polar regions. This study presents a kinematic processing of...... Global Positioning System (GPS) buoys placed on sea-ice at five different sites north of Greenland for the study of sea level height and tidal analysis to improve tidal models in the Central Arctic. The GPS measurements are compared with the Arctic tidal model AOTIM-5, which assimilates tide-gauges and...

  2. Arctic Landfast Sea Ice 1953-1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The files in this data set contain landfast sea ice data (monthly means) gathered from both Russian Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) and Canadian Ice...

  3. Predictability of the Arctic sea ice edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goessling, H. F.; Tietsche, S.; Day, J. J.; Hawkins, E.; Jung, T.

    2016-02-01

    Skillful sea ice forecasts from days to years ahead are becoming increasingly important for the operation and planning of human activities in the Arctic. Here we analyze the potential predictability of the Arctic sea ice edge in six climate models. We introduce the integrated ice-edge error (IIEE), a user-relevant verification metric defined as the area where the forecast and the "truth" disagree on the ice concentration being above or below 15%. The IIEE lends itself to decomposition into an absolute extent error, corresponding to the common sea ice extent error, and a misplacement error. We find that the often-neglected misplacement error makes up more than half of the climatological IIEE. In idealized forecast ensembles initialized on 1 July, the IIEE grows faster than the absolute extent error. This means that the Arctic sea ice edge is less predictable than sea ice extent, particularly in September, with implications for the potential skill of end-user relevant forecasts.

  4. Arctic and Southern Ocean Sea Ice Concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly sea ice concentration for Arctic (1901 to 1995) and Southern oceans (1973 to 1990) were digitized on a standard 1-degree grid (cylindrical projection) to...

  5. Influence of sea ice on Arctic precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopec, Ben G; Feng, Xiahong; Michel, Fred A; Posmentier, Eric S

    2016-01-01

    Global climate is influenced by the Arctic hydrologic cycle, which is, in part, regulated by sea ice through its control on evaporation and precipitation. However, the quantitative link between precipitation and sea ice extent is poorly constrained. Here we present observational evidence for the response of precipitation to sea ice reduction and assess the sensitivity of the response. Changes in the proportion of moisture sourced from the Arctic with sea ice change in the Canadian Arctic and Greenland Sea regions over the past two decades are inferred from annually averaged deuterium excess (d-excess) measurements from six sites. Other influences on the Arctic hydrologic cycle, such as the strength of meridional transport, are assessed using the North Atlantic Oscillation index. We find that the independent, direct effect of sea ice on the increase of the percentage of Arctic sourced moisture (or Arctic moisture proportion, AMP) is 18.2 ± 4.6% and 10.8 ± 3.6%/100,000 km(2) sea ice lost for each region, respectively, corresponding to increases of 10.9 ± 2.8% and 2.7 ± 1.1%/1 °C of warming in the vapor source regions. The moisture source changes likely result in increases of precipitation and changes in energy balance, creating significant uncertainty for climate predictions. PMID:26699509

  6. Contrasting Arctic and Antarctic sea ice temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancoppenolle, Martin; Raphael, Marilyn; Rousset, Clément; Vivier, Frédéric; Moreau, Sébastien; Delille, Bruno; Tison, Jean-Louis

    2016-04-01

    Sea ice temperature affects the sea ice growth rate, heat content, permeability and habitability for ice algae. Large-scale simulations with NEMO-LIM suggest large ice temperature contrasts between the Arctic and the Antarctic sea ice. First, Antarctic sea ice proves generally warmer than in the Arctic, in particular during winter, where differences reach up to ~10°C. Second, the seasonality of temperature is different among the two hemispheres: Antarctic ice temperatures are 2-3°C higher in spring than they are in fall, whereas the opposite is true in the Arctic. These two key differences are supported by the available ice core and mass balance buoys temperature observations, and can be attributed to differences in air temperature and snow depth. As a result, the ice is found to be habitable and permeable over much larger areas and much earlier in late spring in the Antarctic as compared with the Arctic, which consequences on biogeochemical exchanges in the sea ice zone remain to be evaluated.

  7. The Last Arctic Sea Ice Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Tremblay, B.; Newton, R.; Fowler, C.

    2010-12-01

    Summer sea ice may persist along the northern flank of Canada and Greenland for decades longer than the rest of the Arctic, raising the possibility of a naturally formed refugium for ice-associated species. Observations and models indicate that some ice in this region forms locally, while some is transported to the area by winds and ocean currents. Depending on future changes in melt patterns and sea ice transport rates, both the central Arctic and Siberian shelf seas may be sources of ice to the region. An international system of monitoring and management of the sea ice refuge, along with the ice source regions, has the potential to maintain viable habitat for ice-associated species, including polar bears, for decades into the future. Issues to consider in developing a strategy include: + the likely duration and extent of summer sea ice in this region based on observations, models and paleoenvironmental information + the extent and characteristics of the “ice shed” contributing sea ice to the refuge, including its dynamics, physical and biological characteristics as well as potential for contamination from local or long-range sources + likely assemblages of ice-associated species and their habitats + potential stressors such as transportation, tourism, resource extraction, contamination + policy, governance, and development issues including management strategies that could maintain the viability of the refuge.

  8. Arctic sea ice balance and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proxy data and local historical records show that sea ice extent has undergone large secular variations over past millennia and centuries, for reasons that are only qualitatively understood. Since the onset of systematic observations in situ and satellites, the record shows a remarkable constancy of the annual cycle of the arctic sea ice cover. This cycle is described by a continuity equation that is used to discuss the mechanisms relating ice extent and thickness to climate, and to illustrate how ice formation, transport, and melting combine to produce the seasonal cycle of sea ice cover. The heat balances and stresses at the surface and bottom of the sea ice are external forcing functions with small-scale and large-scale feedbacks. Examples are the stable stratification of the ocean boundary layer caused by bottom melting and surface drainage which suppress the vertical ocean heat flux, and the arctic summer stratus which forms over ice-covered ocean regions and limits surface melting. Recent efforts to model the seasonal cycle of sea ice in the Arctic are discussed in light of the observational record. A promising new development is the incorporation of satellite data as explicit variables carried in dynamic-thermodynamic ice models. Of special interest in the context of climate is the fresh water budget of the Arctic Basin. Its largest components, the runoff generated by mid-latitude precipitation over the Eurasian continent, and the ice export driven by the wind field over the Arctic Basin, have no immediately apparent connection. Taking into account all other components of the fresh water balance, Aagaard and Carmack estimate that the contemporary influx and outflux of fresh water at the perimeter of the Arctic Basin are equal. The unraveling of the mechanisms responsible for this equality, and the consequence of a possible imbalance remain challenging questions

  9. History of sea ice in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyak, Leonid; Alley, Richard B.; Andrews, John T.;

    2010-01-01

    Optimum, and consistently covered at least part of the Arctic Ocean for no less than the last 13–14 million years. Ice was apparently most widespread during the last 2–3 million years, in accordance with Earth’s overall cooler climate. Nevertheless, episodes of considerably reduced sea ice or even......-scale) and lower-magnitude variability. The current reduction in Arctic ice cover started in the late 19th century, consistent with the rapidly warming climate, and became very pronounced over the last three decades. This ice loss appears to be unmatched over at least the last few thousand years and...

  10. Arctic sea ice and Eurasian climate: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yongqi; Sun, Jianqi; Li, Fei; HE Shengping; Sandven, Stein; Yan, Qing; Zhang, Zhongshi; Lohmann, Katja; Keenlyside, Noel; Furevik, Tore; Suo, Lingling

    2014-01-01

    The Arctic plays a fundamental role in the climate system and has shown significant climate change in recent decades, including the Arctic warming and decline of Arctic sea-ice extent and thickness. In contrast to the Arctic warming and reduction of Arctic sea ice, Europe, East Asia and North America have experienced anomalously cold conditions, with record snowfall during recent years. In this paper, we review current understanding of the sea-ice impacts on the Eurasian climate. Paleo, obser...

  11. Comparative Views of Arctic Sea Ice Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    NASA researchers have new insights into the mysteries of Arctic sea ice, thanks to the unique abilities of Canada's Radarsat satellite. The Arctic is the smallest of the world's four oceans, but it may play a large role in helping scientists monitor Earth's climate shifts.Using Radarsat's special sensors to take images at night and to peer through clouds, NASA researchers can now see the complete ice cover of the Arctic. This allows tracking of any shifts and changes, in unprecedented detail, over the course of an entire winter. The radar-generated, high-resolution images are up to 100 times better than those taken by previous satellites.The two images above are separated by nine days (earlier image on the left). Both images represent an area (approximately 96 by 128 kilometers; 60 by 80 miles)located in the Baufort Sea, north of the Alaskan coast. The brighter features are older thicker ice and the darker areas show young, recently formed ice. Within the nine-day span, large and extensive cracks in the ice cover have formed due to ice movement. These cracks expose the open ocean to the cold, frigid atmosphere where sea ice grows rapidly and thickens.Using this new information, scientists at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, Calif., can generate comprehensive maps of Arctic sea ice thickness for the first time. 'Before we knew only the extent of the ice cover,' said Dr. Ronald Kwok, JPL principal investigator of a project called Sea Ice Thickness Derived From High Resolution Radar Imagery. 'We also knew that the sea ice extent had decreased over the last 20 years, but we knew very little about ice thickness.''Since sea ice is very thin, about 3 meters (10 feet) or less,'Kwok explained, 'it is very sensitive to climate change.'Until now, observations of polar sea ice thickness have been available for specific areas, but not for the entire polar region.The new radar mapping technique has also given scientists a close look at how the sea ice cover

  12. The early twentieth century warming and winter Arctic sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Semenov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic featured the strongest surface warming over the globe during the recent decades, and the temperature increase was accompanied by a rapid decline in sea ice extent. However, little is known about Arctic sea ice change during the Early Twentieth Century Warming (ETCW during 1920–1940, also a period of a strong surface warming, both globally and in the Arctic. Here, we investigate the sensitivity of Arctic winter surface air temperature (SAT to sea ice during 1875–2008 by means of simulations with an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM forced by estimates of the observed sea surface temperature (SST and sea ice concentration. The Arctic warming trend since the 1960s is very well reproduced by the model. In contrast, ETCW in the Arctic is hardly captured. This is consistent with the fact that the sea ice extent in the forcing data does not strongly vary during ETCW. AGCM simulations with observed SST but fixed sea ice reveal a strong dependence of winter SAT on sea ice extent. In particular, the warming during the recent decades is strongly underestimated by the model, if the sea ice extent does not decline and varies only seasonally. This suggests that a significant reduction of Arctic sea ice extent may have also accompanied the Early Twentieth Century Warming, pointing toward an important link between anomalous sea ice extent and Arctic surface temperature variability.

  13. The early twentieth century warming and winter Arctic sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Semenov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic has featured the strongest surface warming over the globe during the recent decades, and the temperature increase has been accompanied by a rapid decline in sea ice extent. However, little is known about Arctic sea ice change during the early twentieth century warming (ETCW during 1920–1940, also a period of a strong surface warming, both globally and in the Arctic. Here, we investigate the sensitivity of Arctic winter surface air temperature (SAT to sea ice during 1875–2008 by means of simulations with an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM forced by estimates of the observed sea surface temperature (SST and sea ice concentration. The Arctic warming trend since the 1960s is very well reproduced by the model. In contrast, ETCW in the Arctic is hardly captured. This is consistent with the fact that the sea ice extent in the forcing data does not strongly vary during ETCW. AGCM simulations with observed SST but fixed sea ice reveal a strong dependence of winter SAT on sea ice extent. In particular, the warming during the recent decades is strongly underestimated by the model, if the sea ice extent does not decline and varies only seasonally. This suggests that a significant reduction of winter Arctic sea ice extent may have also accompanied the early twentieth century warming, pointing toward an important link between anomalous sea ice extent and Arctic surface temperature variability.

  14. High resolution modelling of the decreasing Arctic sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, K. S.; Rasmussen, T. A. S.; Blüthgen, Jonas;

    2012-01-01

    The Arctic sea ice cover has been rapidly decreasing and thinning over the last decade, with minimum ice extent in 2007 and almost as low extent in 2011. This study investigates two aspects of the decreasing ice cover; first the large scale thinning and changing dynamics of the polar sea ice, and...

  15. SEDNA: Sea ice Experiment - Dynamic Nature of the Arctic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sea Ice Experiment - Dynamic Nature of the Arctic (SEDNA) is an international collaborative effort to improve the understanding of the interaction between sea...

  16. Canadian Ice Service Arctic Regional Sea Ice Charts in SIGRID-3 Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Canadian Ice Service (CIS) produces digital Arctic regional sea ice charts for marine navigation, climate research, and input to the Global Digital Sea Ice Data...

  17. Arctic Sea Ice and Its Changes during the Satellite Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Liu, Y.; Key, J. R.

    2009-12-01

    Sea ice is a very important indicator and an effective modulator of regional and global climate change. Changes in sea ice will significantly affect the complex exchanges of momentum, heat, and mass between sea and the atmosphere, along with profound socio-economic influences due to its role in transportation, fisheries, hunting, polar animal habitat. Over the last two decades of the 20th century, the Arctic underwent significant changes in sea ice as part of the accelerated global warming of that period. More accurate, consistent, and detailed ice thickness, extent, and volume data are critical for a wide range of applications including climate change detection, climate modeling, and operational applications such as shipping and hazard mitigation. Satellite data provide an unprecedented opportunity to estimate and monitor Arctic sea ice routinely with relatively high spatial and temporal resolutions. In this study, a One-dimensional Thermodynamic Ice Model (OTIM) has been developed to estimate sea ice thickness based on the surface energy balance at a thermo-equilibrium state, containing all components of the surface energy balance. The OTIM has been extensively validated against submarine Upward-Looking Sonar (ULS) measurements, meteorological station measurements, and comprehensive numerical model simulations. Overall, OTIM-estimated sea ice thickness is accurate to within about 20% error when compared to submarine ULS ice thickness measurements and Canadian meteorological station measurements for ice less than 3 m. Along with sea ice extent information from the SSM/I, the Arctic sea ice volume can be estimated for the satellite period from 1984 to 2004. The OTIM has been used with satellite data from the extended Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Polar Pathfinder (APP-x) products for the Arctic sea ice thickness, and sequentially sea ice volume estimations, and following statistical analysis of spatial and temporal distribution and trends in sea

  18. Optical properties of melting first-year Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Bonnie; Perovich, Donald K.; Webster, Melinda A.; Polashenski, Christopher; Dadic, Ruzica

    2015-11-01

    The albedo and transmittance of melting, first-year Arctic sea ice were measured during two cruises of the Impacts of Climate on the Eco-Systems and Chemistry of the Arctic Pacific Environment (ICESCAPE) project during the summers of 2010 and 2011. Spectral measurements were made for both bare and ponded ice types at a total of 19 ice stations in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. These data, along with irradiance profiles taken within boreholes, laboratory measurements of the optical properties of core samples, ice physical property observations, and radiative transfer model simulations are employed to describe representative optical properties for melting first-year Arctic sea ice. Ponded ice was found to transmit roughly 4.4 times more total energy into the ocean, relative to nearby bare ice. The ubiquitous surface-scattering layer and drained layer present on bare, melting sea ice are responsible for its relatively high albedo and relatively low transmittance. Light transmittance through ponded ice depends on the physical thickness of the ice and the magnitude of the scattering coefficient in the ice interior. Bare ice reflects nearly three-quarters of the incident sunlight, enhancing its resiliency to absorption by solar insolation. In contrast, ponded ice absorbs or transmits to the ocean more than three-quarters of the incident sunlight. Characterization of the heat balance of a summertime ice cover is largely dictated by its pond coverage, and light transmittance through ponded ice shows strong contrast between first-year and multiyear Arctic ice covers.

  19. Skill improvement of dynamical seasonal Arctic sea ice forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikken, Folmer; Schmeits, Maurice; Vlot, Willem; Guemas, Virginie; Hazeleger, Wilco

    2016-05-01

    We explore the error and improve the skill of the outcome from dynamical seasonal Arctic sea ice reforecasts using different bias correction and ensemble calibration methods. These reforecasts consist of a five-member ensemble from 1979 to 2012 using the general circulation model EC-Earth. The raw model reforecasts show large biases in Arctic sea ice area, mainly due to a differently simulated seasonal cycle and long term trend compared to observations. This translates very quickly (1-3 months) into large biases. We find that (heteroscedastic) extended logistic regressions are viable ensemble calibration methods, as the forecast skill is improved compared to standard bias correction methods. Analysis of regional skill of Arctic sea ice shows that the Northeast Passage and the Kara and Barents Sea are most predictable. These results show the importance of reducing model error and the potential for ensemble calibration in improving skill of seasonal forecasts of Arctic sea ice.

  20. Marine Transportation Implications of the Last Arctic Sea Ice Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, L. W.

    2010-12-01

    Marine access is increasing throughout the Arctic Ocean and the 'Last Arctic Sea Ice Refuge' may have implications for governance and marine use in the region. Arctic marine transportation is increasing due to natural resource developemnt, increasing Arctic marine tourism, expanded Arctic marine research, and a general linkage of the Arctic to the gloabl economy. The Arctic Council recognized these changes with the release of the Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment of 2009. This key study (AMSA)can be viewed as a baseline assessment (using the 2004 AMSA database), a strategic guide for a host of stakeholders and actors, and as a policy document of the Arctic Council. The outcomes of AMSA of direct relevance to the Ice Refuge are within AMSA's 17 recommendations provided under three themes: Enhancing Arctic Marine Safety, Protecting Arctic People and the Environment, and Building the Arctic Marine Infrastructure. Selected recommendations of importance to the Ice Refuge include: a mandatory polar navigation code; identifying areas of heightened ecological and cultural significance; potential designation of special Arctic marine areas; enhancing the tracking and monitoring of Arctic marine traffic; improving circumpolar environmental response capacity; developing an Arctic search and rescue agreement; and, assessing the effects of marine transportation on marine mammals. A review will be made of the AMSA outcomes and how they can influence the governance, marine use, and future protection of this unique Arctic marine environment.

  1. Arctic Tides from GPS on sea-ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard Rose, Stine; Skourup, Henriette; Forsberg, René

    2013-01-01

    The presence of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean plays a significant role in the Arctic climate. Sea-ice dampens the ocean tide amplitude with the result that global tidal models perform less accurately in the polar regions. This paper presents, a kinematic processing of global positioning system (GPS......) placed on sea-ice, at six different sites north of Greenland for the preliminary study of sea surface height (SSH), and tidal analysis to improve tide models in the Central Arctic. The GPS measurements are compared with the Arctic tide model AOTIM-5, which assimilates tide-gauges and altimetry data. The...... results show coherence between the GPS buoy measurements, and the tide model. Furthermore, we have proved that the reference ellipsoid of WGS84, can be interpolated to the tidal defined zero level by applying geophysical corrections to the GPS data....

  2. Sea ice in the Canadian Arctic in the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate warming will occur first and most intensely in Arctic regions, according to the numerical simulations of future climate performed with different Global Climate Models (GCMs). It includes the simulations performed by the Meteorological Service of Canada. The observations gathered in the Arctic indicate that the present warming has no precedent over the past four hundred years. Since the 1970s, data acquired mainly by satellite indicates that the extent of Arctic sea ice decreased at a rate of approximately three per cent per decade. Over the period 1969-2000, a similar rate of decrease has been observed within Canadian Arctic waters. Over the past forty years, estimates of the thickness of ice in the Arctic, based on submarine measurements, show a 40 per cent decrease. By 2050, if all the conditions remain as they are, the Arctic Ocean could be ice free. The most widely held scientific opinion seems to be that in the future there will be less ice in the Arctic than what was observed in the past, an opinion that is still being debated by scientists. The development of local natural resources and trans-shipment between Europe and Asia could increase dramatically in a future with less ice. Marine transportation in the Canadian Arctic would be expanded. Climatological analysis results of Canadian ice information is presented by the authors, and they have chosen to discuss various probable scenarios related to ice conditions during this century. 13 refs., 8 figs

  3. The changing Arctic Sea ice cover : regional and seasonal aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Steene, Rebekka Jastamin

    2015-01-01

    As global climate changes are becoming increasingly evident, increasing air temperatures, melting glaciers, rising sea levels, and decreasing biodiversity is observed at increasing rates worldwide. The Arctic sea ice cover has has become a key indicator of the ongoing global climate change through its substantial decline in both extent and thickness. In this study we show how the observed regression of the Northern Hemisphere sea ice is distributed over different regions of the...

  4. Coincident multiscale estimates of Arctic sea ice thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Joan; Richter-Menge, Jackie; Farrell, Sinead; Brozena, John

    2012-02-01

    Recent dramatic changes in the characteristics of the Arctic sea ice cover have sparked interest and concern from a wide range of disciplines including socioeconomics, maritime safety and security, and resource management, as well as basic research science. Though driven by different priorities, common to all is the demand for an improved ability to monitor and forecast changes in the sea ice cover. Key to meeting this demand is further improvement in the quality of observations collected from remote platforms. Satellites provide an important platform for instruments designed to monitor basin-wide changes in the volume of the ice cover, a function of ice extent and thickness. Remote techniques to monitor sea ice extent in all seasons are well developed—these observations reveal a dramatic decline in summer sea ice extent since 1979, when satellite records became available. Further, they indicate that the decline has been facilitated by a dramatic decrease in the extent of perennial (i.e., multiyear) ice. Combined estimates of ice thickness derived from submarine records between 1958 and 2000, and Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimetry from 2003 to 2008, provide the longest-term record of sea ice thickness observations. These data suggest a decrease in the mean overall thickness of the sea ice over a region covering about 38% of the Arctic Ocean.

  5. Age characteristics in a multidecadal Arctic sea ice simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunke, Elizabeth C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bitz, Cecllia M [UNIV. OF WASHINGTON

    2008-01-01

    Results from adding a tracer for age of sea ice to a sophisticated sea ice model that is widely used for climate studies are presented. The consistent simulation of ice age, dynamics, and thermodynamics in the model shows explicitly that the loss of Arctic perennial ice has accelerated in the past three decades, as has been seen in satellite-derived observations. Our model shows that the September ice age average across the Northern Hemisphere varies from about 5 to 8 years, and the ice is much younger (about 2--3 years) in late winter because of the expansion of first-year ice. We find seasonal ice on average comprises about 5% of the total ice area in September, but as much as 1.34 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} survives in some years. Our simulated ice age in the late 1980s and early 1990s declined markedly in agreement with other studies. After this period of decline, the ice age began to recover, but in the final years of the simulation very little young ice remains after the melt season, a strong indication that the age of the pack will again decline in the future as older ice classes fail to be replenished. The Arctic ice pack has fluctuated between older and younger ice types over the past 30 years, while ice area, thickness, and volume all declined over the same period, with an apparent acceleration in the last decade.

  6. Sea Ice Edge Location and Extent in the Russian Arctic, 1933-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sea Ice Edge Location and Extent in the Russian Arctic, 1933-2006 data are derived from sea ice charts from the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI),...

  7. Evaluation of Arctic Sea Ice Thickness Simulated by Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark; Proshuntinsky, Andrew; Aksenov, Yevgeny; Nguyen, An T.; Lindsay, Ron; Haas, Christian; Zhang, Jinlun; Diansky, Nikolay; Kwok, Ron; Maslowski, Wieslaw; Hakkinen, Sirpa; Ashik, Igor; De Cuevas, Beverly

    2012-01-01

    Six Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project model simulations are compared with estimates of sea ice thickness derived from pan-Arctic satellite freeboard measurements (2004-2008); airborne electromagnetic measurements (2001-2009); ice draft data from moored instruments in Fram Strait, the Greenland Sea, and the Beaufort Sea (1992-2008) and from submarines (1975-2000); and drill hole data from the Arctic basin, Laptev, and East Siberian marginal seas (1982-1986) and coastal stations (1998-2009). Despite an assessment of six models that differ in numerical methods, resolution, domain, forcing, and boundary conditions, the models generally overestimate the thickness of measured ice thinner than approximately 2 mand underestimate the thickness of ice measured thicker than about approximately 2m. In the regions of flat immobile landfast ice (shallow Siberian Seas with depths less than 25-30 m), the models generally overestimate both the total observed sea ice thickness and rates of September and October ice growth from observations by more than 4 times and more than one standard deviation, respectively. The models do not reproduce conditions of fast ice formation and growth. Instead, the modeled fast ice is replaced with pack ice which drifts, generating ridges of increasing ice thickness, in addition to thermodynamic ice growth. Considering all observational data sets, the better correlations and smaller differences from observations are from the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean, Phase II and Pan-Arctic Ice Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System models.

  8. Relating Regional Arctic Sea Ice and climate extremes over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionita-Scholz, Monica; Grosfeld, Klaus; Lohmann, Gerrit; Scholz, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The potential increase of temperature extremes under climate change is a major threat to society, as temperature extremes have a deep impact on environment, hydrology, agriculture, society and economy. Hence, the analysis of the mechanisms underlying their occurrence, including their relationships with the large-scale atmospheric circulation and sea ice concentration, is of major importance. At the same time, the decline in Arctic sea ice cover during the last 30 years has been widely documented and it is clear that this change is having profound impacts at regional as well as planetary scale. As such, this study aims to investigate the relation between the autumn regional sea ice concentration variability and cold winters in Europe, as identified by the numbers of cold nights (TN10p), cold days (TX10p), ice days (ID) and consecutive frost days (CFD). We analyze the relationship between Arctic sea ice variation in autumn (September-October-November) averaged over eight different Arctic regions (Barents/Kara Seas, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi/Bering Seas, Central Arctic, Greenland Sea, Labrador Sea/Baffin Bay, Laptev/East Siberian Seas and Northern Hemisphere) and variations in atmospheric circulation and climate extreme indices in the following winter season over Europe using composite map analysis. Based on the composite map analysis it is shown that the response of the winter extreme temperatures over Europe is highly correlated/connected to changes in Arctic sea ice variability. However, this signal is not symmetrical for the case of high and low sea ice years. Moreover, the response of temperatures extreme over Europe to sea ice variability over the different Arctic regions differs substantially. The regions which have the strongest impact on the extreme winter temperature over Europe are: Barents/Kara Seas, Beaufort Sea, Central Arctic and the Northern Hemisphere. For the years of high sea ice concentration in the Barents/Kara Seas there is a reduction in the number

  9. A rapidly declining perennial sea ice cover in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2002-10-01

    The perennial sea ice cover in the Arctic is shown to be declining at -9% per decade using satellite data from 1978 to 2000. A sustained decline at this rate would mean the disappearance of the multiyear ice cover during this century and drastic changes in the Arctic climate system. An apparent increase in the fraction of second year ice in the 1990s is also inferred suggesting an overall thinning of the ice cover. Surface ice temperatures derived from satellite data are negatively correlated with perennial ice area and are shown to be increasing at the rate of 1.2 K per decade. The latter implies longer melt periods and therefore decreasing ice volume in the more recent years.

  10. Arctic sea ice decline contributes to thinning lake ice trend in northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, Vladimir A.; Arp, Christopher D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Cai, Lei

    2016-07-01

    Field measurements, satellite observations, and models document a thinning trend in seasonal Arctic lake ice growth, causing a shift from bedfast to floating ice conditions. September sea ice concentrations in the Arctic Ocean since 1991 correlate well (r = +0.69, p characterizing lake ice conditions. A lake ice growth model forced with Weather Research and Forecasting model output produced a 7% decrease in lake ice growth when 2007/08 sea ice was imposed on 1991/92 climatology and a 9% increase in lake ice growth for the opposing experiment. Here, we clearly link early winter ‘ocean-effect’ snowfall and warming to reduced lake ice growth. Future reductions in sea ice extent will alter hydrological, biogeochemical, and habitat functioning of Arctic lakes and cause sub-lake permafrost thaw.

  11. Seasonal evolution of melt ponds on Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Melinda A.; Rigor, Ignatius G.; Perovich, Donald K.; Richter-Menge, Jacqueline A.; Polashenski, Christopher M.; Light, Bonnie

    2015-09-01

    The seasonal evolution of melt ponds has been well documented on multiyear and landfast first-year sea ice, but is critically lacking on drifting, first-year sea ice, which is becoming increasingly prevalent in the Arctic. Using 1 m resolution panchromatic satellite imagery paired with airborne and in situ data, we evaluated melt pond evolution for an entire melt season on drifting first-year and multiyear sea ice near the 2011 Applied Physics Laboratory Ice Station (APLIS) site in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas. A new algorithm was developed to classify the imagery into sea ice, thin ice, melt pond, and open water classes on two contrasting ice types: first-year and multiyear sea ice. Surprisingly, melt ponds formed ˜3 weeks earlier on multiyear ice. Both ice types had comparable mean snow depths, but multiyear ice had 0-5 cm deep snow covering ˜37% of its surveyed area, which may have facilitated earlier melt due to its low surface albedo compared to thicker snow. Maximum pond fractions were 53 ± 3% and 38 ± 3% on first-year and multiyear ice, respectively. APLIS pond fractions were compared with those from the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) field campaign. APLIS exhibited earlier melt and double the maximum pond fraction, which was in part due to the greater presence of thin snow and first-year ice at APLIS. These results reveal considerable differences in pond formation between ice types, and underscore the importance of snow depth distributions in the timing and progression of melt pond formation.

  12. Controls on Arctic sea ice from first-year and multi-year survival rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunke, Jes [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The recent decrease in Arctic sea ice cover has transpired with a significant loss of multi year ice. The transition to an Arctic that is populated by thinner first year sea ice has important implications for future trends in area and volume. Here we develop a reduced model for Arctic sea ice with which we investigate how the survivability of first year and multi year ice control the mean state, variability, and trends in ice area and volume.

  13. Seasonal cycle of solar energy fluxes through Arctic sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Arndt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Arctic sea ice has not only decreased considerably during the last decades, but also changed its physical properties towards a thinner and more seasonal cover. These changes strongly impact the energy budget and might affect the ice-associated ecosystem of the Arctic. But until now, it is not possible to quantify shortwave energy fluxes through sea ice sufficiently well over large regions and during different seasons. Here, we present a new parameterization of light transmittance through sea ice for all seasons as a function of variable sea ice properties. The annual maximum solar heat flux of 30 × 105 J m−2 occurs in June, then also matching the under ice ocean heat flux. Furthermore, our results suggest that 96% of the total annual solar heat input occurs from May to August, during four months only. Applying the new parameterization on remote sensing and reanalysis data from 1979 to 2011, we find an increase in light transmission of 1.5% a−1 for all regions. Sensitivity studies reveal that the results strongly depend on the timing of melt onset and the correct classification of ice types. Hence, these parameters are of great importance for quantifying under-ice radiation fluxes and the uncertainty of this parameterization. Assuming a two weeks earlier melt onset, the annual budget increases by 20%. Continuing the observed transition from Arctic multi- to first year sea ice could increase light transmittance by another 18%. Furthermore, the increase in light transmission directly contributes to an increase in internal and bottom melt of sea ice, resulting in a positive transmittance-melt feedback process.

  14. Impacts of Declining Arctic Sea Ice: An International Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serreze, M.

    2008-12-01

    As reported by the National Snow and Ice Data Center in late August of 2008, Arctic sea ice extent had already fallen to its second lowest level since regular monitoring began by satellite. As of this writing, we were closing in on the record minimum set in September of 2007. Summers may be free of sea ice by the year 2030. Recognition is growing that ice loss will have environmental impacts that may extend well beyond the Arctic. The Arctic Ocean will in turn become more accessible, not just to tourism and commercial shipping, but to exploitation of oil wealth at the bottom of the ocean. In recognition of growing accessibility and oil operations, the United States Coast Guard set up temporary bases this summer at Barrow and Prudhoe Bay, AK, from which they conducted operations to test their readiness and capabilities, such as for search and rescue. The Canadians have been busy showing a strong Arctic presence. In August, a German crew traversed the Northwest Passage from east to west in one of their icebreakers, the Polarstern. What are the major national and international research efforts focusing on the multifaceted problem of declining sea ice? What are the areas of intersection, and what is the state of collaboration? How could national and international collaboration be improved? This talk will review some of these issues.

  15. Decadal to seasonal variability of Arctic sea ice albedo

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, S; Moon, W.; Wettlaufer, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    A controlling factor in the seasonal and climatological evolution of the sea ice cover is its albedo $\\alpha$. Here we analyze Arctic data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Polar Pathfinder and assess the seasonality and variability of broadband albedo from a 23 year daily record. We produce a histogram of daily albedo over ice covered regions in which the principal albedo transitions are seen; high albedo in late winter and spring, the onset of snow melt and melt pond...

  16. A recent bifurcation in Arctic sea-ice cover

    CERN Document Server

    Livina, Valerie N

    2012-01-01

    There is ongoing debate over whether Arctic sea-ice has already passed a 'tipping point', or whether it will do so in future, with several recent studies arguing that the loss of summer sea ice does not involve a bifurcation because it is highly reversible in models. Recently developed methods can detect and sometimes forewarn of bifurcations in time-series data, hence we applied them to satellite data for Arctic sea-ice cover. Here we show that a new low ice cover state has appeared from 2007 onwards, which is distinct from the normal state of seasonal sea ice variation, suggesting a bifurcation has occurred from one attractor to two. There was no robust early warning signal of critical slowing down prior to this bifurcation, consistent with it representing the appearance of a new ice cover state rather than the loss of stability of the existing state. The new low ice cover state has been sampled predominantly in summer-autumn and seasonal forcing combined with internal climate variability are likely respons...

  17. Arctic Sea Ice Simulation in the PlioMIP Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Fergus W.; Haywood, Alan M.; Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; Bragg, Fran; Chan, Wing-Le; Chandler, Mark A.; Contoux, Camille; Kamae, Youichi; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Rosenbloom, Nan A.; Stepanek, Christian; Zhang, Zhongshi

    2016-01-01

    Eight general circulation models have simulated the mid-Pliocene warm period (mid-Pliocene, 3.264 to 3.025 Ma) as part of the Pliocene Modelling Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP). Here, we analyse and compare their simulation of Arctic sea ice for both the pre-industrial period and the mid-Pliocene. Mid-Pliocene sea ice thickness and extent is reduced, and the model spread of extent is more than twice the pre-industrial spread in some summer months. Half of the PlioMIP models simulate ice-free conditions in the mid-Pliocene. This spread amongst the ensemble is in line with the uncertainties amongst proxy reconstructions for mid-Pliocene sea ice extent. Correlations between mid-Pliocene Arctic temperatures and sea ice extents are almost twice as strong as the equivalent correlations for the pre-industrial simulations. The need for more comprehensive sea ice proxy data is highlighted, in order to better compare model performances.

  18. Controls on Arctic sea ice from first-year and multi-year ice survival rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, K.; Bitz, C. M.; Hunke, E. C.; Thompson, L.

    2009-12-01

    The recent decrease in Arctic sea ice cover has transpired with a significant loss of multi-year (MY) ice. The transition to an Arctic that is populated by thinner first-year (FY) sea ice has important implications for future trends in area and volume. We develop a reduced model for Arctic sea ice with which we investigate how the survivability of FY and MY ice control various aspects of the sea-ice system. We demonstrate that Arctic sea-ice area and volume behave approximately as first-order autoregressive processes, which allows for a simple interpretation of September sea-ice in which its mean state, variability, and sensitivity to climate forcing can be described naturally in terms of the average survival rates of FY and MY ice. This model, used in concert with a sea-ice simulation that traces FY and MY ice areas to estimate the survival rates, reveals that small trends in the ice survival rates explain the decline in total Arctic ice area, and the relatively larger loss of MY ice area, over the period 1979-2006. Additionally, our model allows for a calculation of the persistence time scales of September area and volume anomalies. A relatively short memory time scale for ice area (~ 1 year) implies that Arctic ice area is nearly in equilibrium with long-term climate forcing at all times, and therefore observed trends in area are a clear indication of a changing climate. A longer memory time scale for ice volume (~ 5 years) suggests that volume can be out of equilibrium with climate forcing for long periods of time, and therefore trends in ice volume are difficult to distinguish from its natural variability. With our reduced model, we demonstrate the connection between memory time scale and sensitivity to climate forcing, and discuss the implications that a changing memory time scale has on the trajectory of ice area and volume in a warming climate. Our findings indicate that it is unlikely that a “tipping point” in September ice area and volume will be

  19. Characterizing Arctic sea ice topography using high-resolution IceBridge data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Alek A.; Tsamados, Michel C.; Kurtz, Nathan T.; Farrell, Sinead L.; Newman, Thomas; Harbeck, Jeremy P.; Feltham, Daniel L.; Richter-Menge, Jackie A.

    2016-05-01

    We present an analysis of Arctic sea ice topography using high-resolution, three-dimensional surface elevation data from the Airborne Topographic Mapper, flown as part of NASA's Operation IceBridge mission. Surface features in the sea ice cover are detected using a newly developed surface feature picking algorithm. We derive information regarding the height, volume and geometry of surface features from 2009 to 2014 within the Beaufort/Chukchi and Central Arctic regions. The results are delineated by ice type to estimate the topographic variability across first-year and multi-year ice regimes. The results demonstrate that Arctic sea ice topography exhibits significant spatial variability, mainly driven by the increased surface feature height and volume (per unit area) of the multi-year ice that dominates the Central Arctic region. The multi-year ice topography exhibits greater interannual variability compared to the first-year ice regimes, which dominates the total ice topography variability across both regions. The ice topography also shows a clear coastal dependency, with the feature height and volume increasing as a function of proximity to the nearest coastline, especially north of Greenland and the Canadian Archipelago. A strong correlation between ice topography and ice thickness (from the IceBridge sea ice product) is found, using a square-root relationship. The results allude to the importance of ice deformation variability in the total sea ice mass balance, and provide crucial information regarding the tail of the ice thickness distribution across the western Arctic. Future research priorities associated with this new data set are presented and discussed, especially in relation to calculations of atmospheric form drag.

  20. Arctic Sea Ice Thickness - Past, Present And Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhams, P.

    2007-12-01

    In November 2005 the International Workshop on Arctic Sea Ice Thickness: Past, Present and Future was held at Rungstedgaard Conference Center, near Copenhagen, Denmark. The proceedings of the Workshop were subsequently published as a book by the European Commission. In this review we summarise the conclusions of the Workshop on the techniques which show the greatest promise for thickness monitoring on different spatial and temporal scales, and for different purposes. Sonic methods, EM techniques, buoys and satellite methods will be considered. Some copies of the book will be available at the lecture, and others can be ordered from the European Commission. The paper goes on to consider early results from some of the latest measurements on Arctic sea ice thickness done in 2007. These comprise a trans-Arctic voyage by a UK submarine, HMS "Tireless", equipped with a Kongsberg 3002 multibeam sonar which generates a 3-D digital terrain map of the ice underside; and experiments at the APLIS ice station in the Beaufort Sea carried out by the Gavia AUV equipped with a GeoSwath interferometric sonar. In both cases 3-D mapping of sea ice constitutes a new step forward in sea ice data collection, but in the case of the submarine the purpose is to map change in ice thickness (comparing results with a 2004 "Tireless" cruise and with US and UK data prior to 2000), while for the small AUV the purpose is intensive local mapping of a few ridges to improve our knowledge of their structure, as part of a multisensor programme

  1. Intercomparison of passive microwave sea ice concentration retrievals over the high-concentration Arctic sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    andersen, susanne; Tonboe, R.; Kaleschke, L.; Heygster, G.; Pedersen, Leif Toudal

    [1] Measurements of sea ice concentration from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) using seven different algorithms are compared to ship observations, sea ice divergence estimates from the Radarsat Geophysical Processor System, and ice and water surface type classification of 59 wide...... trusted subset of the SAR scenes across the central Arctic allow the separation of the ice concentration uncertainty due to emissivity variations and sensor noise from other error sources during the winter of 2003-2004. Depending on the algorithm, error standard deviations from 2.5 to 5.0% are found with...... sensor noise between 1.3 and 1.8%. This is in accord with variability estimated from analysis of SSM/I time series. Algorithms, which primarily use 85 GHz information, consistently give the best agreement with both SAR ice concentrations and ship observations. Although the 85 GHz information is more...

  2. Peopling of the high Arctic - induced by sea ice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funder, Svend

    2010-05-01

    'We travelled in the winter after the return of daylight and did not go into fixed camp until spring, when the ice broke up. There was good hunting on the way, seals, beluga, walrus, bear.' (From Old Merkrusârk's account of his childhood's trek from Baffin Island to Northwest Greenland, told to Knud Rasmussen on Saunders Island in 1904) Five thousand years ago people moving eastwards from Beringia spread over the barrens of the Canadian high Arctic. This was the first of three waves of prehistoric Arctic 'cultures', which eventually reached Greenland. The passage into Greenland has to go through the northernmost and most hostile part of the country with a 5 month Polar night, and to understand this extraordinary example of human behaviour and endurance, it has been customary to invoke a more favourable (warmer) climate. This presentation suggests that land-fast sea ice, i.e. stationary sea ice anchored to the coast, is among the most important environmental factors behind the spread of prehistoric polar cultures. The ice provides the road for travelling and social communion - and access to the most important source of food, the ocean. In the LongTerm Project (2006 and 2007) we attempted to establish a Holocene record for sea ice variations along oceanic coasts in northernmost Greenland. Presently the coasts north of 80° N are beleaguered by year-round sea ice - for ten months this is land-fast ice, and only for a period in the stormy autumn months are the coasts exposed to pack-ice. This presentation Land-fast ice - as opposed to pack-ice - is a product of local temperatures, but its duration over the year, and especially into the daylight season, is also conditioned by other factors, notably wind strength. In the geological record we recognize long lasting land-fast ice by two absences: absence of traces of wave action (no beach formation), which, however, can also be a result of pack-ice along the coast; - and absence of driftwood on the shore (land-fast ice

  3. The retreat of Arctic sea ice: flash-back on the latest decades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The melting of the world's ice and snow, including Arctic sea ice is probably one of the most striking pictures of ongoing climate change. Arctic sea ice cover is now observed in real-time by satellite, and its changes in time are probably more visible to the general public than long term temperature or precipitation changes. However, the interpretation of the current retreat of Arctic sea ice is not straightforward. This article reviews progress in the scientific understanding of recent trends in sea ice due to recent observations and breakthroughs in sea ice modelling. (author)

  4. Stochastic dynamics of Arctic sea ice Part I: Additive noise

    CERN Document Server

    Moon, Woosok

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the numerical solutions of a stochastic Arctic sea ice model with constant additive noise over a wide range of external heat-fluxes, $\\Delta F_0$, which correspond to greenhouse gas forcing. The variability that the stochasticity provides to the deterministic steady state solutions (perennial and seasonal ice states) is illustrated by examining both the stochastic paths and probability density functions (PDFs). The principal stochastic moments (standard deviation, mean and skewness) are calculated and compared with those determined from a stochastic perturbation theory described previously by Moon and Wettlaufer (2013). We examine in detail the competing roles of the destabilizing sea ice-albedo-feedback and the stabilizing long-wave radiative loss contributions to the variability of the ice cover under increased greenhouse-gas forcing. In particular, the variability of the stochastic paths at the end of summer shows a clear maximum, which is due to the combination of the increasing importance of t...

  5. Sea ice inertial oscillation magnitudes in the Arctic basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gimbert

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An original method to quantify the amplitude of inertial motion of oceanic and ice drifters, through the introduction of a non-dimensional parameter M defined from a spectral analysis, is presented. A strong seasonal dependence of the magnitude of sea ice inertial oscillations is revealed, in agreement with the corresponding annual cycles of sea ice extent, concentration, thickness, advection velocity, and deformation rates. The spatial pattern of the magnitude of the sea ice inertial oscillations over the Arctic basin is also in agreement with the sea ice thickness and concentration patterns. This argues for a strong link between the magnitude of inertial motion on one hand, the dissipation of energy through mechanical processes, and the cohesiveness of the cover on the other hand. Finally, a significant pluri-annual evolution towards greater magnitudes of inertial oscillations in recent years, in both summer and winter, is reported, thus concomitant with reduced sea ice thickness, concentration and spatial extent.

  6. The impact of under-ice melt ponds on Arctic sea ice volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Naomi; Flocco, Daniela; Feltham, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    A one-dimensional, thermodynamic model of Arctic sea ice [Flocco et al, 2015] has been adapted to study the evolution of under-ice melt ponds, pools of fresh water that are found below the Arctic sea ice, and false bottoms, sheets of ice that form at the boundary between the under-ice melt pond and the oceanic mixed layer. Over time, either the under-ice melt pond freezes or the false bottom is completely ablated. We have been investigating the impact that these features have on the growth or ablation of sea ice during the time that they are present. The sensitivity of our model to a range of parameters has been tested, revealing some interesting effects of the thermodynamic processes taking place during the life-cycle of these phenomena. For example, the under-ice melt pond and its associated false bottom can insulate the sea ice layer from ocean, increasing the thickness of sea ice present at the end of the time frame considered. A comparison of the results of the model of under-ice melt pond evolution with that of sea ice with a bare base has been used to estimate the impact of under-ice melt ponds on sea ice volume towards the end of the melt season. We find that the under-ice melt ponds could have a significant impact on the mass balance of the sea ice, suggesting that it could be desirable to include a parameterisation of the effects of under-ice melt pond in the sea ice components of climate models.

  7. Intercomparison of the Arctic sea ice cover in global ocean-sea ice reanalyses from the ORA-IP project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevallier, Matthieu; Smith, Gregory C.; Dupont, Frédéric; Lemieux, Jean-François; Forget, Gael; Fujii, Yosuke; Hernandez, Fabrice; Msadek, Rym; Peterson, K. Andrew; Storto, Andrea; Toyoda, Takahiro; Valdivieso, Maria; Vernieres, Guillaume; Zuo, Hao; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Chang, You-Soon; Ferry, Nicolas; Garric, Gilles; Haines, Keith; Keeley, Sarah; Kovach, Robin M.; Kuragano, Tsurane; Masina, Simona; Tang, Yongming; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Wang, Xiaochun

    2016-01-01

    Ocean-sea ice reanalyses are crucial for assessing the variability and recent trends in the Arctic sea ice cover. This is especially true for sea ice volume, as long-term and large scale sea ice thickness observations are inexistent. Results from the Ocean ReAnalyses Intercomparison Project (ORA-IP) are presented, with a focus on Arctic sea ice fields reconstructed by state-of-the-art global ocean reanalyses. Differences between the various reanalyses are explored in terms of the effects of data assimilation, model physics and atmospheric forcing on properties of the sea ice cover, including concentration, thickness, velocity and snow. Amongst the 14 reanalyses studied here, 9 assimilate sea ice concentration, and none assimilate sea ice thickness data. The comparison reveals an overall agreement in the reconstructed concentration fields, mainly because of the constraints in surface temperature imposed by direct assimilation of ocean observations, prescribed or assimilated atmospheric forcing and assimilation of sea ice concentration. However, some spread still exists amongst the reanalyses, due to a variety of factors. In particular, a large spread in sea ice thickness is found within the ensemble of reanalyses, partially caused by the biases inherited from their sea ice model components. Biases are also affected by the assimilation of sea ice concentration and the treatment of sea ice thickness in the data assimilation process. An important outcome of this study is that the spatial distribution of ice volume varies widely between products, with no reanalysis standing out as clearly superior as compared to altimetry estimates. The ice thickness from systems without assimilation of sea ice concentration is not worse than that from systems constrained with sea ice observations. An evaluation of the sea ice velocity fields reveals that ice drifts too fast in most systems. As an ensemble, the ORA-IP reanalyses capture trends in Arctic sea ice area and extent

  8. Arctic Sea Ice Changes, Interactions, and Feedbacks on the Arctic Climate during the Satellite Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Key, J. R.; Liu, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Of all the components of the Earth climate system, the cryosphere is arguably the least understood even though it is a very important indicator and an effective modulator of regional and global climate change. Changes in sea ice will significantly affect exchanges of momentum, heat, and mass between the ocean and the atmosphere, and have profound socio-economic impacts on transportation, fisheries, hunting, polar animal habitat and more. In the last three decades, the Arctic underwent significant changes in sea ice as part of the accelerated global climate change. With the recently developed One-dimensional Thermodynamic Ice Model (OTIM), sea and lake ice thickness and trends can be reasonably estimated. The OTIM has been extensively validated against submarine and moored upward-looking sonar measurements, meteorological station measurements, and comprehensive numerical model simulations. The Extended AVHRR Polar Pathfinder (APP-x) dataset has 25 climate parameters covering surface, cloud, and sea ice properties as well as surface and top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes for the period 1982 - 2004 over the Arctic and Antarctic at 25 km resolution. The OTIM has been used with APP-x dataset for Arctic sea ice thickness and volume estimation. Statistical analysis of spatial and temporal distributions and trends in sea ice extent, thickness, and volume over the satellite period has been performed, along with the temporal analysis of first year and multiple year sea ice extent changes. Preliminary results show clear evidence that Arctic sea ice has been experiencing significant changes over the last two decades of the 20th century. The Arctic sea ice has been shrinking unexpectedly fast with the declines in sea ice extent, thickness, and volume, most apparent in the fall season. Moreover, satellites provide an unprecedented opportunity to observe Arctic sea ice and its changes with high spatial and temporal coverage that is making it an ideal data source for mitigating

  9. Dipole anomaly in the Arctic atmosphere and winter Arctic sea ice motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Bingyi; ZHANG; Renhe

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates a previously-ignored atmospheric circulation anomaly-di- pole structure anomaly in the arctic atmosphere, and its relationship with the winter sea ice motion, based on analyses of the International Arctic Buoy Programme Data (1979-1998) and datasets from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) for the period of 1960-2002. The dipole structure anomaly is the second-leading mode of EOF of monthly mean SLP north of 70(N during the winter season (Oct.-Mar.), which accounts for 13% of the variance. One of its two anomaly centers is over the Canadian Archipelago; the other is situated over northern Eurasia and the Siberian marginal seas. Due to the dipole structure anomaly's strong meridionality, it becomes an important mechanism to drive both anomalous sea ice export out of the Arctic Basin and cold air outbreaks into the Barents Sea, the Nordic Seas and northern Europe.

  10. The uniaxial compressive strength of the Arctic summer sea ice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Hongwei; LI Zhijun; HUANG Wenfeng; LU Peng; LEI Ruibo

    2015-01-01

    The results on the uniaxial compressive strength of Arctic summer sea ice are presented based on the sam-ples collected during the fifth Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition in 2012 (CHINARE-2012). Exper-imental studies were carried out at different testing temperatures (−3, −6 and −9°C), and vertical samples were loaded at stress rates ranging from 0.001 to 1 MPa/s. The temperature, density, and salinity of the ice were measured to calculate the total porosity of the ice. In order to study the effects of the total porosity and the density on the uniaxial compressive strength, the measured strengths for a narrow range of stress rates from 0.01 to 0.03 MPa/s were analyzed. The results show that the uniaxial compressive strength decreases linearly with increasing total porosity, and when the density was lower than 0.86 g/cm3, the uniaxial com-pressive strength increases in a power-law manner with density. The uniaxial compressive behavior of the Arctic summer sea ice is sensitive to the loading rate, and the peak uniaxial compressive strength is reached in the brittle-ductile transition range. The dependence of the strength on the temperature shows that the calculated average strength in the brittle-ductile transition range, which was considered as the peak uniaxial compressive strength, increases steadily in the temperature range from −3 to −9°C.

  11. The ASIBIA sea-ice facility: First results from the Atmosphere-Sea-Ice-Biogeochemistry in the Arctic chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, James L.; Thomas, Max

    2016-04-01

    Working in the natural ocean-ice-atmosphere system is very difficult, as conducting fieldwork on sea-ice presents many challenges ice including costs, safety, experimental controls and access. The new ASIBIA (Atmosphere-Sea-Ice-Biogeochemistry in the Arctic) coupled Ocean-Sea-Ice-(Snow)-Atmosphere chamber facility at the University of East Anglia, UK, we are aiming to perform controlled first-year sea-ice investigations in areas such as sea-ice physics, physicochemical and biogeochemical processes in sea-ice and quantification of the bi-directional flux of gases in various states of first-year sea-ice conditions. The facility is a medium sized chamber with programmable temperatures from -55°C to +30°C, allowing a full range of first year sea-ice growing conditions in both the Arctic and Antarctic to be simulated. The water depth can be up to 1 m (including up to 25 cm of sea-ice) and an optional 1 m tall Teflon film atmosphere on top of the sea-ice, thus creating a closed and coupled ocean-sea-ice-atmosphere mesocosm. Ice growth in the tank is well suited for studying first-year sea-ice physical properties, with in-situ ice-profile measurements of temperature, salinity, conductivity, pressure and spectral light transmission. Underwater and above ice cameras are installed to record the physical development of the sea-ice. Here, we present the data from the first suites of experiments in the ASIBIA chamber focussing on sea-ice physics and give a brief description of the capabilities of the facility going forward. The ASIBIA chamber was funded as part of an ERC consolidator grant to the late Prof. Roland von Glasow and we hope this work and further development of the facility will act as a lasting legacy.

  12. On the existence of stable seasonally varying Arctic sea ice

    CERN Document Server

    Moon, W

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework lower order thermodynamic theories for the climatic evolution of Arctic sea ice we isolate the conditions required for the existence of stable seasonally-varying ice states. This is done by constructing a two-season model from the continuously evolving theory of Eisenman and Wettlaufer (2009) and showing that the necessary and sufficient condition for stable seasonally-varying states resides in the relaxation of the constant annual average short-wave radiative forcing. This forcing is examined within the scenario of greenhouse gas warming, as a function of which stability conditions are discerned.

  13. Evaluation of Arctic Sea Ice Thickness Simulated by AOMIP Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark; Proshutinsky, Andrey; Aksenov, Yevgeny; Nguyen, An T.; Lindsay, Ron; Haas, Christian; Zhang, Jinlun; Diansky, Nimolay; Kwok, Ron; Maslowski, Wieslaw; Hakkinen, Sirpa; Ashik, Igor; de Cuevas, Beverly

    2011-01-01

    We compare results from six AOMIP model simulations with estimates of sea ice thickness obtained from ICESat, moored and submarine-based upward looking sensors, airborne electromagnetic measurements and drill holes. Our goal is to find patterns of model performance to guide model improvement. The satellite data is pan-arctic from 2004-2008, ice-draft data is from moored instruments in Fram Strait, the Greenland Sea and the Beaufort Sea from 1992-2008 and from submarines from 1975-2000. The drill hole data are from the Laptev and East Siberian marginal seas from 1982-1986 and from coastal stations from 1998-2009. While there are important caveats when comparing modeled results with measurements from different platforms and time periods such as these, the models agree well with moored ULS data. In general, the AOMIP models underestimate the thickness of measured ice thicker than about 2 m and overestimate thickness of ice thinner than 2 m. The simulated results are poor over the fast ice and marginal seas of the Siberian shelves. Averaging over all observational data sets, the better correlations and smaller differences from observed thickness are from the ECCO2 and UW models.

  14. Recent wind driven high sea ice export in the Fram Strait contributes to Arctic sea ice decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. Smedsrud

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Arctic sea ice area decrease has been visible for two decades, and continues at a steady rate. Apart from melting, the southward drift through Fram Strait is the main loss. We present high resolution sea ice drift across 79° N from 2004 to 2010. The ice drift is based on radar satellite data and correspond well with variability in local geostrophic wind. The underlying current contributes with a constant southward speed close to 5 cm s−1, and drives about 33 % of the ice export. We use geostrophic winds derived from reanalysis data to calculate the Fram Strait ice area export back to 1957, finding that the sea ice area export recently is about 25 % larger than during the 1960's. The increase in ice export occurred mostly during winter and is directly connected to higher southward ice drift velocities, due to stronger geostrophic winds. The increase in ice drift is large enough to counteract a decrease in ice concentration of the exported sea ice. Using storm tracking we link changes in geostrophic winds to more intense Nordic Sea low pressure systems. Annual sea ice export likely has a significant influence on the summer sea ice variability and we find low values in the 60's, the late 80's and 90's, and particularly high values during 2005–2008. The study highlight the possible role of variability in ice export as an explanatory factor for understanding the dramatic loss of Arctic sea ice the last decades.

  15. Near Real Time Arctic sea ice thickness and volume from CryoSat-2

    OpenAIRE

    Tilling, R. L.; Ridout, A; Shepherd, A.

    2016-01-01

    Timely observations of sea ice thickness help us to understand Arctic climate, and can support maritime activities in the Polar Regions. Although it is possible to calculate Arctic sea ice thickness using measurements acquired by CryoSat-2, the latency of the final release dataset is typically one month, due to the time required to determine precise satellite orbits. We use a new fast delivery CryoSat-2 dataset based on preliminary orbits to compute Arctic sea ice thickness ...

  16. Development, sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty quantification of high-fidelity arctic sea ice models.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Kara J.; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston; Paskaleva, Biliana S.

    2010-09-01

    Arctic sea ice is an important component of the global climate system and due to feedback effects the Arctic ice cover is changing rapidly. Predictive mathematical models are of paramount importance for accurate estimates of the future ice trajectory. However, the sea ice components of Global Climate Models (GCMs) vary significantly in their prediction of the future state of Arctic sea ice and have generally underestimated the rate of decline in minimum sea ice extent seen over the past thirty years. One of the contributing factors to this variability is the sensitivity of the sea ice to model physical parameters. A new sea ice model that has the potential to improve sea ice predictions incorporates an anisotropic elastic-decohesive rheology and dynamics solved using the material-point method (MPM), which combines Lagrangian particles for advection with a background grid for gradient computations. We evaluate the variability of the Los Alamos National Laboratory CICE code and the MPM sea ice code for a single year simulation of the Arctic basin using consistent ocean and atmospheric forcing. Sensitivities of ice volume, ice area, ice extent, root mean square (RMS) ice speed, central Arctic ice thickness, and central Arctic ice speed with respect to ten different dynamic and thermodynamic parameters are evaluated both individually and in combination using the Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications (DAKOTA). We find similar responses for the two codes and some interesting seasonal variability in the strength of the parameters on the solution.

  17. Influence of winter sea-ice motion on summer ice cover in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriaki Kimura

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Summer sea-ice cover in the Arctic varies largely from year to year owing to several factors. This study examines one such factor, the relationship between interannual difference in winter ice motion and ice area in the following summer. A daily-ice velocity product on a 37.5-km resolution grid is prepared using the satellite passive microwave sensor Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer—Earth Observing System data for the nine years of 2003–2011. Derived daily-ice motion reveals the dynamic modification of the winter ice cover. The winter ice divergence/convergence is strongly related to the summer ice cover in some regions; the correlation coefficient between the winter ice convergence and summer ice area ranges between 0.5 and 0.9 in areas with high interannual variability. This relation implies that the winter ice redistribution controls the spring ice thickness and the summer ice cover.

  18. Regional dependence in the rapid loss of Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Sally; Houssais, Marie-Noëlle; Herbaut, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    The accelerating rate of sea ice decline in the Arctic, particularly in the summer months, has been well documented by previous studies. However, the methods of analysis used to date have tended to employ pre-defined regions over which to determine sea ice loss, potentially masking regional variability within these regions. Similarly, evidence of acceleration has frequently been based on decade-to-decade comparisons that do not precisely quantify the timing of the increase in rate of decline. In this study, we address this issue by quantifying the onset time of rapid loss in sea ice concentration on a point-by-point basis, using an objective method applied to satellite passive microwave data. Seasonal maps of onset time are produced, and reveal strong regional dependency, with differences of up to 20 years in onset time between the various subregions of the Arctic. In certain cases, such as the Laptev Sea, strong spatial variability is found even at the regional scale, suggesting that caution should be employed in the use of geographically-based region definitions that may be misaligned with the physical response. The earliest onset times are found in the Pacific sector, where certain areas undergo a transition ca. 1992. In contrast, onset times in the Atlantic sector are much more recent. Rates of decline prior to and following the onset of rapid decline are calculated, and suggest that the post-onset rate of loss is weakest in the Pacific sector and greatest in the Barents Sea region. Coherency is noted in the season-to-season response, both at interannual and longer time scales. Our results describe a series of spatially self-consistent regional responses, and may be useful in understanding the primary drivers of recent sea ice loss.

  19. Fine-resolution simulation of surface current and sea ice in the Arctic Mediterranean Seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiying; ZHANG Xuehong; YU Rucong; LIU Hailong; LI Wei

    2007-01-01

    A fine-resolution model is developed for ocean circulation simulation in the National Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (LASG),Chinese Academy of Sciences, and is applied to simulate surface current and sea ice variations in the Arctic Mediterranean Seas. A dynamic sea ice model in elastic-viscous-plastic rheology and a thermodynamic sea ice model are employed. A 200-year simulation is performed and a dimatological average of a 10-year period (141 st-150 th) is presented with focus on sea ice concentration and surface current variations in the Arctic Mediterranean Seas. The model is able to simulate well the East Greenland Current, Beaufort Gyre and the Transpolar Drift, but the simulated West Spitsbergen Current is small and weak. In the March climatology, the sea ice coverage can be simulated well except for a bit more ice in east of Spitsbergen Island. The result is also good for the September scenario except for less ice concentration east of Greenland and greater ice concentration near the ice margin. The extra ice east of Spitsbergen Island is caused by sea ice current convergence forced by atmospheric wind stress.

  20. Investigating changes in the climate- and ecosystemof Arctic sea ice using remotely operated vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Katlein, Christian; Arndt, Stefanie; Fernandez Mendez, Mar; Lange, Benjamin; Nicolaus, Marcel; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Jakuba, Mike; German, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean is currently undergoing a dramatic change. Decreasing sea-ice extent, thickness and age are changing important processes in the climate system. An increasing coverage of the sea ice by melt ponds and an increased amount of light transmitted to the upper ocean are also affecting the ice associated ecosystem. To document these changes, we operated different remotely operated vehicles (ROV) underneath the drifting sea ice of the Central Arctic Ocean. The newest under...

  1. Causes for different spatial distributions of minimum Arctic sea-ice extent in 2007 and 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Hongyan; QIAO Fangli; SHU Qi; SONG Yajuan; JIANG Chunfei

    2015-01-01

    Satellite records show the minimum Arctic sea ice extents (SIEs) were observed in the Septembers of 2007 and 2012, but the spatial distributions of sea ice concentration reduction in these two years were quite different. Atmospheric circulation pattern and the upper-ocean state in summer were investigated to explain the difference. By employing the ice-temperature and ice-specific humidity (SH) positive feedbacks in the Arctic Ocean, this paper shows that in 2007 and 2012 the higher surface air temperature (SAT) and sea level pressure (SLP) accompanied by more surface SH and higher sea surface temperature (SST), as a consequence, the strengthened poleward wind was favorable for melting summer Arctic sea ice in different regions in these two years. SAT was the dominant factor influencing the distribution of Arctic sea ice melting. The correlation coefficient is–0.84 between SAT anomalies in summer and the Arctic SIE anomalies in autumn. The increase SAT in different regions in the summers of 2007 and 2012 corresponded to a quicker melting of sea ice in the Arctic. The SLP and related wind were promoting factors connected with SAT. Strengthening poleward winds brought warm moist air to the Arctic and accelerated the melting of sea ice in different regions in the summers of 2007 and 2012. Associated with the rising air temperature, the higher surface SH and SST also played a positive role in reducing summer Arctic sea ice in different regions in these two years, which form two positive feedbacks mechanism.

  2. Links between Arctic sea ice and extreme summer precipi- tation in China:an alternative view

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Petteri Uotila; Alexey Karpechko; Timo Vihma

    2014-01-01

    Potential links between the Arctic sea-ice concentration anomalies and extreme precipitation in China are explored. Associations behind these links can be explained by physical interpretations aided by visualisations of temporarily lagged composites of variables such as atmospheric mean sea level pressure and sea surface temperature. This relatively simple approach is veriifed by collectively examining already known links between the Arctic sea ice and rainfall in China. For example, similarities in the extreme summer rainfall response to Arctic sea-ice concentration anomalies either in winter (DJF) or in spring (MAM) are highlighted. Furthermore, new links between the Arctic sea ice and the extreme weather in India and Eurasia are proposed. The methodology developed in this study can be further applied to identify other remote impacts of the Arctic sea ice variability.

  3. Biopolymers form a gelatinous microlayer at the air-sea interface when Arctic sea ice melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgani, Luisa; Piontek, Judith; Engel, Anja

    2016-07-01

    The interface layer between ocean and atmosphere is only a couple of micrometers thick but plays a critical role in climate relevant processes, including the air-sea exchange of gas and heat and the emission of primary organic aerosols (POA). Recent findings suggest that low-level cloud formation above the Arctic Ocean may be linked to organic polymers produced by marine microorganisms. Sea ice harbors high amounts of polymeric substances that are produced by cells growing within the sea-ice brine. Here, we report from a research cruise to the central Arctic Ocean in 2012. Our study shows that microbial polymers accumulate at the air-sea interface when the sea ice melts. Proteinaceous compounds represented the major fraction of polymers supporting the formation of a gelatinous interface microlayer and providing a hitherto unrecognized potential source of marine POA. Our study indicates a novel link between sea ice-ocean and atmosphere that may be sensitive to climate change.

  4. Trends in sea-ice variability on the way to an ice-free Arctic

    CERN Document Server

    Bathiany, Sebastian; Williamson, Mark S; Lenton, Timothy M; Scheffer, Marten; van Nes, Egbert; Notz, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    It has been widely debated whether Arctic sea-ice loss can reach a tipping point beyond which a large sea-ice area disappears abruptly. The theory of dynamical systems predicts a slowing down when a system destabilises towards a tipping point. In simple stochastic systems this can result in increasing variance and autocorrelation, potentially yielding an early warning of an abrupt change. Here we aim to establish whether the loss of Arctic sea ice would follow these conceptual predictions, and which trends in sea ice variability can be expected from pre-industrial conditions toward an Arctic that is ice-free during the whole year. To this end, we apply a model hierarchy consisting of two box models and one comprehensive Earth system model. We find a consistent and robust decrease of the ice volume's annual relaxation time before summer ice is lost because thinner ice can adjust more quickly to perturbations. Thereafter, the relaxation time increases, mainly because the system becomes dominated by the ocean wa...

  5. Influence of ice thickness and surface properties on light transmission through Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katlein, C.; Arndt, S.; Nicolaus, M.; Perovich, D. K.; Jakuba, M.; Suman, S.; Elliott, S.; Whitcomb, L. L.; McFarland, C.; Gerdes, R.; Boetius, A.

    2015-12-01

    The changes in physical properties of sea ice such as decreased thickness and increased melt pond cover observed over the last decades severely impact the energy budget of Arctic sea ice. Increased light transmission leads to increased deposition of solar energy in the upper ocean and thus plays a crucial role in the amount and timing of sea-ice-melt and under-ice primary production. Recent developments in underwater technology provide new opportunities to undertake challenging research at the largely inaccessible underside of sea ice. We measured spectral under-ice radiance and irradiance onboard the new Nereid Under-Ice (NUI) underwater robotic vehicle, during a cruise of the R/V Polarstern to 83°N 6°W in the Arctic Ocean in July 2014. NUI is a next generation hybrid remotely operated vehicle (H-ROV) designed for both remotely-piloted and autonomous surveys underneath land-fast and moving sea ice. Here we present results from one of the first comprehensive scientific dives of NUI employing its interdisciplinary sensor suite. We combine under-ice optical measurements with three-dimensional under-ice topography and aerial images of the surface conditions. We investigate the influence of spatially varying ice-thickness and surface properties during summer on the spatial variability of light transmittance. Results show that surface properties dominate the spatial distribution of the under-ice light field on small scales (<1000m²), while sea ice-thickness is the most important predictor for light transmission on larger scales. In addition, we suggest an algorithm to obtain histograms of light transmission from distributions of sea ice thickness and surface albedo.

  6. Influence of ice thickness and surface properties on light transmission through Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katlein, Christian; Arndt, Stefanie; Nicolaus, Marcel; Perovich, Donald K.; Jakuba, Michael V.; Suman, Stefano; Elliott, Stephen; Whitcomb, Louis L.; McFarland, Christopher J.; Gerdes, Rüdiger; Boetius, Antje; German, Christopher R.

    2015-09-01

    The observed changes in physical properties of sea ice such as decreased thickness and increased melt pond cover severely impact the energy budget of Arctic sea ice. Increased light transmission leads to increased deposition of solar energy in the upper ocean and thus plays a crucial role for amount and timing of sea-ice-melt and under-ice primary production. Recent developments in underwater technology provide new opportunities to study light transmission below the largely inaccessible underside of sea ice. We measured spectral under-ice radiance and irradiance using the new Nereid Under-Ice (NUI) underwater robotic vehicle, during a cruise of the R/V Polarstern to 83°N 6°W in the Arctic Ocean in July 2014. NUI is a next generation hybrid remotely operated vehicle (H-ROV) designed for both remotely piloted and autonomous surveys underneath land-fast and moving sea ice. Here we present results from one of the first comprehensive scientific dives of NUI employing its interdisciplinary sensor suite. We combine under-ice optical measurements with three dimensional under-ice topography (multibeam sonar) and aerial images of the surface conditions. We investigate the influence of spatially varying ice-thickness and surface properties on the spatial variability of light transmittance during summer. Our results show that surface properties such as melt ponds dominate the spatial distribution of the under-ice light field on small scales (<1000 m2), while sea ice-thickness is the most important predictor for light transmission on larger scales. In addition, we propose the use of an algorithm to obtain histograms of light transmission from distributions of sea ice thickness and surface albedo.

  7. Polar bear and walrus response to the rapid decline in Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, K.; Whalen, M.; Douglas, D.; Udevitz, M.; Atwood, T.; Jay, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Arctic is warming faster than other regions of the world due to positive climate feedbacks associated with loss of snow and ice. One highly visible consequence has been a rapid decline in Arctic sea ice over the past 3 decades - a decline projected to continue and result in ice-free summers likely as soon as 2030. The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) are dependent on sea ice over the continental shelves of the Arctic Ocean's marginal seas. The continental shelves are shallow regions with high biological productivity, supporting abundant marine life within the water column and on the sea floor. Polar bears use sea ice as a platform for hunting ice seals; walruses use sea ice as a resting platform between dives to forage for clams and other bottom-dwelling invertebrates. How have sea ice changes affected polar bears and walruses? How will anticipated changes affect them in the future?

  8. Propaganda, News, or Education: Reporting Changing Arctic Sea Ice Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitzell, K.; Meier, W.

    2010-12-01

    The National Snow and Ice Data Center provides information on Arctic sea ice conditions via the Arctic Sea Ice News & Analysis (ASINA) website. As a result of this effort to explain climatic data to the general public, we have attracted a huge amount of attention from our readers. Sometimes, people write to thank us for the information and the explanation. But people also write to accuse us of bias, slant, or outright lies in our posts. The topic of climate change is a minefield full of political animosity, and even the most carefully written verbiage can appear incomplete or biased to some audiences. Our strategy has been to report the data and stick to the areas in which our scientists are experts. The ASINA team carefully edits our posts to make sure that all statements are based on the science and not on opinion. Often this means using some technical language that may be difficult for a layperson to understand. However, we provide concise definitions for technical terms where appropriate. The hope is that by communicating the data clearly, without an agenda, we can let the science speak for itself. Is this an effective strategy to communicate clearly about the changing climate? Or does it downplay the seriousness of climate change? By writing at a more advanced level and avoiding oversimplification, we require our readers to work harder. But we may also maintain the attention of skeptics, convincing them to read further and become more knowledgeable about the topic.

  9. Sea ice concentration and sea ice drift for the Arctic summer using C- and L-band SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Malin; Berg, Anders; Eriksson, Leif

    2014-05-01

    The decreasing amount of sea ice and changes from multi-year ice to first year ice within the Arctic Ocean opens up for increased maritime activities. These activities include transportation, fishing and tourism. One of the major threats for the shipping is the presence of sea ice. Should an oil spill occur, the search and rescue is heavily dependent on constant updates of sea ice movements, both to enable a safer working environment and to potentially prevent the oil from reaching the sea ice. It is therefore necessary to have accurate and updated sea ice charts for the Arctic Ocean during the entire year. During the melt season that ice is subject to melting conditions making satellite observations of sea ice more difficult. This period coincides with the peak in marine shipping activities and therefore requires highly accurate sea ice concentration estimates. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) are not hindered by clouds and do not require daylight. The continuous record and high temporal resolution makes C-band data preferable as input data for operational sea ice mapping. However, with C-band SAR it is sometimes difficult to distinguish between a wet sea ice surface and surrounding open water. L-band SAR has a larger penetration depth and has been shown to be less sensitive to less sensitive than C-band to the melt season. Inclusion of L-band data into sea chart estimates during the melt season in particular could therefore improve sea ice monitoring. We compare sea ice concentration melt season observations using Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) L-band images with Envisat ASAR C-band images. We evaluate if L-band images can be used to improve separation of wet surface ice from open water and compare with results for C-band.

  10. Isolation of novel psychrophilic bacteria from Arctic sea ice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of culturable psychrophilic bacteria associated with sea ice from the high latitude regions of Canadian Basin and Chukchi Sea, Arctic, was investigated. A total of 34 psychropilic strains were isolated using three methods of (Ⅰ) dilution plating (at 4 ℃), (Ⅱ) bath culturing (at -1 ℃) and dilution plating, and (Ⅲ) cold shock (-20 ℃ for 24 h), bath culturing and dilution plating under aerobic conditions. Sea-ice samples were exposed to -20 ℃ for 24 h that might reduce the number of common microorganisms and encourage outgrowth of psychrophilic strains. This process might be able to be introduced to isolation psychrophilic bacteria from other environmental samples in future study. 16S rDNA nearly full-length sequence analysis revealed that psychrophilic strains felled in two phylogenetic divisions, γ-proteobacteria (in the genera Colwellia、Marinobacter、Shewanella、Glaciecola、Marinomonas and Pseudoalteromonas) and Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides (Flavobacterium and Psychroflexus). Fifteen of bacterial isolates quite likely represented novel species (16S rDNA sequence similarity below 98%). One of strains (BSi20002) from Canadian Basin showed 100% sequence similarity to that of Marinobacter sp. ANT8277 isolated from the Antarctic Weddell sea ice, suggesting bacteria may have a bipolar distribution at the species level.

  11. Exploring Arctic Transpolar Drift During Dramatic Sea Ice Retreat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gascard, J.C.; Festy, J.; le Goff, H.;

    2008-01-01

    The Arctic is undergoing significant environmental changes due to climate warming. The most evident signal of this warming is the shrinking and thinning of the ice cover of the Arctic Ocean. If the warming continues, as global climate models predict, the Arctic Ocean will change from a perennially...

  12. Apparent Arctic sea ice modeling improvement caused by volcanoes

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenblum, Erica

    2016-01-01

    The downward trend in Arctic sea ice extent is one of the most dramatic signals of climate change during recent decades. Comprehensive climate models have struggled to reproduce this, typically simulating a slower rate of sea ice retreat than has been observed. However, this bias has been substantially reduced in models participating in the most recent phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) compared with the previous generation of models (CMIP3). This improvement has been attributed to improved physics in the models. Here we examine simulations from CMIP3 and CMIP5 and find that simulated sea ice trends are strongly influenced by historical volcanic forcing, which was included in all of the CMIP5 models but in only about half of the CMIP3 models. The volcanic forcing causes temporary simulated cooling in the 1980s and 1990s, which contributes to raising the simulated 1979-2013 global-mean surface temperature trends to values substantially larger than observed. This warming bias is accompan...

  13. Decadal to seasonal variability of Arctic sea ice albedo

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, S; Wettlaufer, J S

    2011-01-01

    A controlling factor in the seasonal and climatological evolution of the sea ice cover is its albedo $\\alpha$. Here we analyze Arctic data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Polar Pathfinder and assess the seasonality and variability of broadband albedo from a 23 year daily record. We produce a histogram of daily albedo over ice covered regions in which the principal albedo transitions are seen; high albedo in late winter and spring, the onset of snow melt and melt pond formation in the summer, and fall freeze up. The bimodal late summer distribution demonstrates the combination of the poleward progression of the onset of melt with the coexistence of perennial bare ice with melt ponds and open water, which then merge to a broad peak at $\\alpha \\gtrsim $ 0.5. We find the interannual variability to be dominated by the low end of the $\\alpha$ distribution, highlighting the controlling influence of the ice thickness distribution and large-scale ice edge dynamics. The statistics obtained pro...

  14. Observations of Recent Arctic Sea Ice Volume Loss and Its Impact on Ocean-Atmosphere Energy Exchange and Ice Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, N. T.; Markus, T.; Farrell, S. L.; Worthen, D. L.; Boisvert, L. N.

    2011-01-01

    Using recently developed techniques we estimate snow and sea ice thickness distributions for the Arctic basin through the combination of freeboard data from the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) and a snow depth model. These data are used with meteorological data and a thermodynamic sea ice model to calculate ocean-atmosphere heat exchange and ice volume production during the 2003-2008 fall and winter seasons. The calculated heat fluxes and ice growth rates are in agreement with previous observations over multiyear ice. In this study, we calculate heat fluxes and ice growth rates for the full distribution of ice thicknesses covering the Arctic basin and determine the impact of ice thickness change on the calculated values. Thinning of the sea ice is observed which greatly increases the 2005-2007 fall period ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes compared to those observed in 2003. Although there was also a decline in sea ice thickness for the winter periods, the winter time heat flux was found to be less impacted by the observed changes in ice thickness. A large increase in the net Arctic ocean-atmosphere heat output is also observed in the fall periods due to changes in the areal coverage of sea ice. The anomalously low sea ice coverage in 2007 led to a net ocean-atmosphere heat output approximately 3 times greater than was observed in previous years and suggests that sea ice losses are now playing a role in increasing surface air temperatures in the Arctic.

  15. Radar and laser altimeter measurements over Arctic sea ice.

    OpenAIRE

    Giles, K. A.

    2005-01-01

    To validate sea ice models, basin wide sea ice thickness measurements with an accuracy of 0.5 m are required to analyse trends in sea ice thickness, it is necessary to detect changes in sea ice thickness of 4 cm per year on a basin wide scale. The estimated error on satellite radar altimeter estimates of sea ice thickness is 0.45 m and the estimated error on satellite laser altimetry estimates of sea ice thickness is 0.78 m. The Laser Radar Altimetry (LaRA) field campaign took place in the Ar...

  16. Ice–ocean coupled computations for sea-ice prediction to support ice navigation in Arctic sea routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyanarachchi Waruna Arampath De Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available With the recent rapid decrease in summer sea ice in the Arctic Ocean extending the navigation period in the Arctic sea routes (ASR, the precise prediction of ice distribution is crucial for safe and efficient navigation in the Arctic Ocean. In general, however, most of the available numerical models have exhibited significant uncertainties in short-term and narrow-area predictions, especially in marginal ice zones such as the ASR. In this study, we predict short-term sea-ice conditions in the ASR by using a mesoscale eddy-resolving ice–ocean coupled model that explicitly treats ice floe collisions in marginal ice zones. First, numerical issues associated with collision rheology in the ice–ocean coupled model (ice–Princeton Ocean Model [POM] are discussed and resolved. A model for the whole of the Arctic Ocean with a coarser resolution (about 25 km was developed to investigate the performance of the ice–POM model by examining the reproducibility of seasonal and interannual sea-ice variability. It was found that this coarser resolution model can reproduce seasonal and interannual sea-ice variations compared to observations, but it cannot be used to predict variations over the short-term, such as one to two weeks. Therefore, second, high-resolution (about 2.5 km regional models were set up along the ASR to investigate the accuracy of short-term sea-ice predictions. High-resolution computations were able to reasonably reproduce the sea-ice extent compared to Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer–Earth Observing System satellite observations because of the improved expression of the ice–albedo feedback process and the ice–eddy interaction process.

  17. Spectral albedo and transmittance of thin young Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskjelle, Torbjørn; Hudson, Stephen R.; Granskog, Mats A.; Nicolaus, Marcel; Lei, Ruibo; Gerland, Sebastian; Stamnes, Jakob J.; Hamre, Børge

    2016-01-01

    Spectral albedo and transmittance in the range were measured on three separate dates on less than thick new Arctic sea ice growing on Kongsfjorden, Svalbard at , . Inherent optical properties, including absorption coefficients of particulate and dissolved material, were obtained from ice samples and fed into a radiative transfer model, which was used to analyze spectral albedo and transmittance and to study the influence of clouds and snow on these. Integrated albedo and transmittance for photosynthetically active radiation () were in the range 0.17-0.21 and 0.77-0.86, respectively. The average albedo and transmittance of the total solar radiation energy were 0.16 and 0.51, respectively. Values inferred from the model indicate that the ice contained possibly up to 40% brine and only 0.6% bubbles. Angular redistribution of solar radiation by clouds and snow was found to influence both the wavelength-integrated value and the spectral shape of albedo and transmittance. In particular, local peaks and depressions in the spectral albedo and spectral transmittance were found for wavelengths within atmospheric absorption bands. Simulated and measured transmittance spectra were within 5% for most of the wavelength range, but deviated up to 25% in the vicinity of , indicating the need for more optical laboratory measurements of pure ice, or improved modeling of brine optical properties in this near-infrared wavelength region.

  18. The influence of winter cloud on summer sea ice in the Arctic, 1983-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letterly, Aaron; Key, Jeffrey; Liu, Yinghui

    2016-03-01

    Arctic sea ice extent has declined dramatically over the last two decades, with the fastest decrease and greatest variability in the Beaufort, Chukchi, and East Siberian Seas. Thinner ice in these areas is more susceptible to changes in cloud cover, heat and moisture advection, and surface winds. Using two climate reanalyses and satellite data, it is shown that increased wintertime surface cloud forcing contributed to the 2007 summer sea ice minimum. An analysis over the period 1983-2013 reveals that reanalysis cloud forcing anomalies in the East Siberian and Kara Seas precondition the ice pack and, as a result, explain 25% of the variance in late summer sea ice concentration. This finding was supported by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer cloud cover anomalies, which explain up to 45% of the variance in sea ice concentration. Results suggest that winter cloud forcing anomalies in this area have predictive capabilities for summer sea ice anomalies across much of the central and Eurasian Arctic.

  19. Less winter cloud aids summer 2013 Arctic sea ice return from 2012 minimum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September 2012, Arctic sea ice cover reached a record minimum for the satellite era. The following winter the sea ice quickly returned, carrying through to the summer when ice extent was 48% greater than the same time in 2012. Most of this rebound in the ice cover was in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, areas experiencing the greatest decline in sea ice over the last three decades. A variety of factors, including ice dynamics, oceanic and atmospheric heat transport, wind, and solar insolation anomalies, may have contributed to the rebound. Here we show that another factor, below-average Arctic cloud cover in January–February 2013, resulted in a more strongly negative surface radiation budget, cooling the surface and allowing for greater ice growth. More thick ice was observed in March 2013 relative to March 2012 in the western Arctic Ocean, and the areas of ice growth estimated from the negative cloud cover anomaly and advected from winter to summer with ice drift data, correspond well with the September ice concentration anomaly pattern. Therefore, decreased wintertime cloud cover appears to have played an important role in the return of the sea ice cover the following summer, providing a partial explanation for large year-to-year variations in an otherwise decreasing Arctic sea ice cover. (paper)

  20. Growth limitation of three Arctic sea ice algal species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogaard, D.H.; Hansen, P.J.; Rysgaard, Søren;

    2011-01-01

    The effect of salinity, pH, and dissolved inorganic carbon (TCO(2)) on growth and survival of three Arctic sea ice algal species, two diatoms (Fragilariopsis nana and Fragilariopsis sp.), and one species of chlorophyte (Chlamydomonas sp.) was assessed in controlled laboratory experiments. Our...... maximal growth rate at pH 8.0 and/or 8.5. The two diatom species stopped growing at pH > 9.5, while the chlorophyte species still was able to grow at a rate which was 1/3 of its maximum growth rate at pH 10. Thus, Chlamydomonas sp. was able to grow at high pH levels in the succession experiment and...

  1. Arctic sea ice freeboard from AltiKa and comparison with CryoSat-2 and Operation IceBridge

    OpenAIRE

    Armitage, T. W. K.; Ridout, A. L.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite radar altimeters have improved our knowledge of Arctic sea ice thickness over the past decade. The main sources of uncertainty in sea ice thickness retrievals are associated with inadequate knowledge of the snow layer depth and the radar interaction with the snow pack. Here we adapt a method of deriving sea ice freeboard from CryoSat-2 to data from the AltiKa Ka band radar altimeter over the 2013–14 Arctic sea ice growth season. AltiKa measures basin-averaged freeboards between 4.4 ...

  2. Arctic sea ice response to atmospheric forcings with varying levels of anthropogenic warming and climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinlun; Steele, Michael; Schweiger, Axel

    2010-10-01

    Numerical experiments are conducted to project arctic sea ice responses to varying levels of future anthropogenic warming and climate variability over 2010-2050. A summer ice-free Arctic Ocean is likely by the mid-2040s if arctic surface air temperature (SAT) increases 4°C by 2050 and climate variability is similar to the past relatively warm two decades. If such a SAT increase is reduced by one-half or if a future Arctic experiences a range of SAT fluctuation similar to the past five decades, a summer ice-free Arctic Ocean would be unlikely before 2050. If SAT increases 4°C by 2050, summer ice volume decreases to very low levels (10-37% of the 1978-2009 summer mean) as early as 2025 and remains low in the following years, while summer ice extent continues to fluctuate annually. Summer ice volume may be more sensitive to warming while summer ice extent more sensitive to climate variability. The rate of annual mean ice volume decrease relaxes approaching 2050. This is because, while increasing SAT increases summer ice melt, a thinner ice cover increases winter ice growth. A thinner ice cover also results in a reduced ice export, which helps to further slow ice volume loss. Because of enhanced winter ice growth, arctic winter ice extent remains nearly stable and therefore appears to be a less sensitive climate indicator.

  3. The impact of varying atmospheric forcing on the thickness of arctic multi-year sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, J. A.; Flato, G. M.; Weaver, A. J.

    2003-09-01

    A 1-D thermodynamic sea ice model, forced with North Pole Drift Station observations from 1954-91, is used to study the effect of changing atmospheric forcing on multi-year Arctic sea ice. From 1954-70, most seasons show positive trends in calculated sea ice thickness over much of the Arctic. A dip in calculated ice thickness takes place between 1971-77 over most of the Arctic. Following the North Pacific regime shift in 1976-1977, the period 1978-91 reveals large negative trends in calculated sea ice thickness in all seasons. The results indicate that an important part of the variability and trends in Arctic sea ice thickness is thermodynamically-driven. Of the total variance in multi-year sea ice thickness, 10 to 20% is explained by variations in the Arctic Oscillation and Pacific North American patterns. The multi-year ice thickness response to a positive wintertime Arctic Oscillation anomaly occurs the following summer and persists for more than a year.

  4. Snow depth on Arctic and Antarctic sea ice derived from autonomous (Snow Buoy) measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaus, Marcel; Arndt, Stefanie; Hendricks, Stefan; Heygster, Georg; Huntemann, Marcus; Katlein, Christian; Langevin, Danielle; Rossmann, Leonard; Schwegmann, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    The snow cover on sea ice received more and more attention in recent sea ice studies and model simulations, because its physical properties dominate many sea ice and upper ocean processes. In particular; the temporal and spatial distribution of snow depth is of crucial importance for the energy and mass budgets of sea ice, as well as for the interaction with the atmosphere and the oceanic freshwater budget. Snow depth is also a crucial parameter for sea ice thickness retrieval algorithms from satellite altimetry data. Recent time series of Arctic sea ice volume only use monthly snow depth climatology, which cannot take into account annual changes of the snow depth and its properties. For Antarctic sea ice, no such climatology is available. With a few exceptions, snow depth on sea ice is determined from manual in-situ measurements with very limited coverage of space and time. Hence the need for more consistent observational data sets of snow depth on sea ice is frequently highlighted. Here, we present time series measurements of snow depths on Antarctic and Arctic sea ice, recorded by an innovative and affordable platform. This Snow Buoy is optimized to autonomously monitor the evolution of snow depth on sea ice and will allow new insights into its seasonality. In addition, the instruments report air temperature and atmospheric pressure directly into different international networks, e.g. the Global Telecommunication System (GTS) and the International Arctic Buoy Programme (IABP). We introduce the Snow Buoy concept together with technical specifications and results on data quality, reliability, and performance of the units. We highlight the findings from four buoys, which simultaneously drifted through the Weddell Sea for more than 1.5 years, revealing unique information on characteristic regional and seasonal differences. Finally, results from seven snow buoys co-deployed on Arctic sea ice throughout the winter season 2015/16 suggest the great importance of local

  5. Sensitivity of Arctic warming to sea ice concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Bo Young; Min, Hong Sik; Kim, Baek-Min; Jeong, Jee-Hoon; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2016-06-01

    We examine the sensitivity of Arctic amplification (AA) to background sea ice concentration (SIC) under greenhouse warming by analyzing the data sets of the historical and Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 runs of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5. To determine whether the sensitivity of AA for a given radiative forcing depends on background SIC state, we examine the relationship between the AA trend and mean SIC on moving 30 year windows from 1960 to 2100. It is found that the annual mean AA trend varies depending on the mean SIC condition. In particular, some models show a highly variable AA trend in relation to the mean SIC clearly. In these models, the AA trend tends to increase until the mean SIC reaches a critical level (i.e., 20-30%), and the maximum AA trend is almost 3 to 5 times larger than the trend in the early stage of global warming (i.e., 50-60%, 60-70%). However, the AA trend tends to decrease after that. Further analysis shows that the sensitivity of AA trend to mean SIC condition is closely related to the feedback processes associated with summer surface albedo and winter turbulent heat flux in the Arctic Ocean.

  6. Future Arctic marine access: analysis and evaluation of observations, models, and projections of sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Rogers

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available There is an emerging need for regional applications of sea ice projections to provide more accuracy and greater detail to scientists, national, state and local planners, and other stakeholders. The present study offers a prototype for a comprehensive, interdisciplinary study to bridge observational data, climate model simulations, and user needs. The study's first component is an observationally based evaluation of Arctic sea ice trends during 1980–2008, with an emphasis on seasonal and regional differences relative to the overall pan-Arctic trend. Regional sea ice loss has varied, with a significantly larger decline of winter maximum (January–March extent in the Atlantic region than in other sectors. A lead–lag regression analysis of Atlantic sea ice extent and ocean temperatures indicates that reduced sea ice extent is associated with increased Atlantic Ocean temperatures. Correlations between the two variables are greater when ocean temperatures lag rather than lead sea ice. The performance of 13 global climate models is evaluated using three metrics to compare sea ice simulations with the observed record. We rank models over the pan-Arctic domain and regional quadrants and synthesize model performance across several different studies. The best performing models project reduced ice cover across key access routes in the Arctic through 2100, with a lengthening of seasons for marine operations by 1–3 months. This assessment suggests that the Northwest and Northeast Passages hold potential for enhanced marine access to the Arctic in the future, including shipping and resource development opportunities.

  7. Influence of Sea Ice on Arctic Marine Sulfur Biogeochemistry in the Community Climate System Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deal, Clara [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AL (United States); Jin, Meibing [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AL (United States)

    2013-06-30

    Global climate models (GCMs) have not effectively considered how responses of arctic marine ecosystems to a warming climate will influence the global climate system. A key response of arctic marine ecosystems that may substantially influence energy exchange in the Arctic is a change in dimethylsulfide (DMS) emissions, because DMS emissions influence cloud albedo. This response is closely tied to sea ice through its impacts on marine ecosystem carbon and sulfur cycling, and the ice-albedo feedback implicated in accelerated arctic warming. To reduce the uncertainty in predictions from coupled climate simulations, important model components of the climate system, such as feedbacks between arctic marine biogeochemistry and climate, need to be reasonably and realistically modeled. This research first involved model development to improve the representation of marine sulfur biogeochemistry simulations to understand/diagnose the control of sea-ice-related processes on the variability of DMS dynamics. This study will help build GCM predictions that quantify the relative current and possible future influences of arctic marine ecosystems on the global climate system. Our overall research objective was to improve arctic marine biogeochemistry in the Community Climate System Model (CCSM, now CESM). Working closely with the Climate Ocean Sea Ice Model (COSIM) team at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), we added 1 sea-ice algae and arctic DMS production and related biogeochemistry to the global Parallel Ocean Program model (POP) coupled to the LANL sea ice model (CICE). Both CICE and POP are core components of CESM. Our specific research objectives were: 1) Develop a state-of-the-art ice-ocean DMS model for application in climate models, using observations to constrain the most crucial parameters; 2) Improve the global marine sulfur model used in CESM by including DMS biogeochemistry in the Arctic; and 3) Assess how sea ice influences DMS dynamics in the arctic marine

  8. Sensitivity of Pliocene Arctic climate to orbital forcing, atmospheric CO2 and sea ice albedo parameterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Fergus W.; Haywood, Alan M.; Dowsett, Harry J.; Pickering, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    General circulation model (GCM) simulations of the mid-Pliocene Warm Period (mPWP, 3.264 to 3.025 Myr ago) do not reproduce the magnitude of Northern Hemisphere high latitude surface air and sea surface temperature (SAT and SST) warming that proxy data indicate. There is also large uncertainty regarding the state of sea ice cover in the mPWP. Evidence for both perennial and seasonal mPWP Arctic sea ice is found through analyses of marine sediments, whilst in a multi-model ensemble of mPWP climate simulations, half of the ensemble simulated ice-free summer Arctic conditions. Given the strong influence that sea ice exerts on high latitude temperatures, an understanding of the nature of mPWP Arctic sea ice would be highly beneficial.

  9. Identification of paleo Arctic winter sea ice limits and the marginal ice zone: Optimised biomarker-based reconstructions of late Quaternary Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belt, Simon T.; Cabedo-Sanz, Patricia; Smik, Lukas; Navarro-Rodriguez, Alba; Berben, Sarah M. P.; Knies, Jochen; Husum, Katrine

    2015-12-01

    during the early Holocene, but this interpretation requires further investigation. In contrast, IP25 and HBI III data obtained from a core from the northern Barents Sea demonstrate that seasonal sea ice prevailed throughout the Holocene, but with a gradual shift from winter ice edge conditions during the early Holocene to more sustained ice cover in the Neoglacial; a directional shift that has undergone a reverse in the last ca. 150 yr according to observational records. Our combined surface and downcore datasets suggest that combined analysis of IP25 and HBI III can provide information on temporal variations in the position of the maximum (winter) Arctic sea ice extent, together with insights into sea ice seasonality by characterisation of the MIZ. Combining IP25 with HBI III in the form of the previously proposed PIP25 index yields similar outcomes to those obtained using brassicasterol as the phytoplankton marker. Importantly, however, some problems associated with use of a variable balance factor employed in the PIP25 calculation, are potentially alleviated using HBI III.

  10. Impact of aerosol emission controls on future Arctic sea ice cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, M.-È.; Gillett, N. P.; Fyfe, J. C.

    2015-10-01

    We examine the response of Arctic sea ice to projected aerosol and aerosol precursor emission changes under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios in simulations of the Canadian Earth System Model. The overall decrease in aerosol loading causes a warming, largest over the Arctic, which leads to an annual mean reduction in sea ice extent of approximately 1 million km2 over the 21st century in all RCP scenarios. This accounts for approximately 25% of the simulated reduction in sea ice extent in RCP 4.5, and 40% of the reduction in RCP 2.5. In RCP 4.5, the Arctic ocean is projected to become ice-free during summertime in 2045, but it does not become ice-free until 2057 in simulations with aerosol precursor emissions held fixed at 2000 values. Thus, while reductions in aerosol emissions have significant health and environmental benefits, their substantial contribution to projected Arctic climate change should not be overlooked.

  11. Sea Ice Charts of the Russian Arctic in Gridded Format, 1933-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) in St. Petersburg, Russia, produces sea ice charts for safety of navigation in the polar regions and for other...

  12. Halogen-based reconstruction of Russian Arctic sea ice area from the Akademii Nauk ice core (Severnaya Zemlya)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolaor, A.; Opel, T.; McConnell, J. R.; Maselli, O. J.; Spreen, G.; Varin, C.; Kirchgeorg, T.; Fritzsche, D.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Vallelonga, P.

    2016-01-01

    The role of sea ice in the Earth climate system is still under debate, although it is known to influence albedo, ocean circulation, and atmosphere-ocean heat and gas exchange. Here we present a reconstruction of 1950 to 1998 AD sea ice in the Laptev Sea based on the Akademii Nauk ice core (Severnaya Zemlya, Russian Arctic). The chemistry of halogens bromine (Br) and iodine (I) is strongly active and influenced by sea ice dynamics, in terms of physical, chemical and biological process. Bromine reacts on the sea ice surface in autocatalyzing "bromine explosion" events, causing an enrichment of the Br / Na ratio and hence a bromine excess (Brexc) in snow compared to that in seawater. Iodine is suggested to be emitted from algal communities growing under sea ice. The results suggest a connection between Brexc and spring sea ice area, as well as a connection between iodine concentration and summer sea ice area. The correlation coefficients obtained between Brexc and spring sea ice (r = 0.44) as well as between iodine and summer sea ice (r = 0.50) for the Laptev Sea suggest that these two halogens could become good candidates for extended reconstructions of past sea ice changes in the Arctic.

  13. Interplay between linear, dissipative and permanently critical mechanical processes in Arctic sea ice

    OpenAIRE

    A. Chmel; Smirnov, V; Panov, A.

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical processes in the Arctic ice pack result in fragmented sea ice cover, the regular geometry of which could be described in main features in terms of the conventional mechanics. However, the size distribution of sea ice floes does not exhibit the random (poissonian-like) statistics and follows the power law typical for self-similar (fractal) structures. The analysis of ice floe oscillations in the frequency range specific for cracking, shearing and stick-slip motion evidences the self...

  14. Stochastic dynamics of Arctic sea ice Part II: Multiplicative noise

    CERN Document Server

    Moon, Woosok

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the numerical solutions of a stochastic Arctic sea ice model with multiplicative noise over a wide range of external heat-fluxes, $\\Delta F_0$, which correspond to greenhouse gas forcing. When the noise is multiplicative, the noise-magnitude depends on the state-variable, and this will influence the statistical moments in a manner that differs from the additive case, which we analyzed in Part I of this study. The state variable describing the deterministic backbone of our model is the energy, $E(t)$, contained in the ice or the ocean and for a thorough comparison and contrast we choose the simplest form of multiplicative noise $\\sigma E(t) \\xi(t)$, where $\\sigma$ is the noise amplitude and $\\xi(t)$ is the noise process. The case of constant additive noise (CA) we write as $\\sigma\\overline{E_S}\\xi(t)$, in which $\\overline{E_S}$ is the seasonally averaged value of the periodic deterministic steady-state solution $E_S(t)$, or the deterministic seasonal cycle. We then treat the case of seasonally-varyi...

  15. Waveform classification of airborne synthetic aperture radar altimeter over Arctic sea ice

    OpenAIRE

    Zygmuntowska, M.; Khvorostovsky, K.; V. Helm; S. Sandven

    2013-01-01

    Sea ice thickness is one of the most sensitive variables in the Arctic climate system. In order to quantify changes in sea ice thickness, CryoSat-2 was launched in 2010 carrying a Ku-band radar altimeter (SIRAL) designed to measure sea ice freeboard with a few centimeters accuracy. The instrument uses the synthetic aperture radar technique providing signals with a resolution of about 300m along track. In this study, airborne Ku-band radar altimeter data over different ...

  16. Quantifying the contribution of natural variability to September Arctic sea ice decline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Mirong; WEI Lixin; WANG Zhenzhan

    2016-01-01

    Arctic sea ice extent has been declining in recent decades. There is ongoing debate on the contribution of natural internal variability to recent and future Arctic sea ice changes. In this study, we contrast the trends in the forced and unforced simulations of carefully selected global climate models with the extended observed Arctic sea ice records. The results suggest that the natural variability explains no more than 42.3% of the observed September sea ice extent trend during 35 a (1979–2013) satellite observations, which is comparable to the results of the observed sea ice record extended back to 1953 (61 a, less than 48.5% natural variability). This reinforces the evidence that anthropogenic forcing plays a substantial role in the observed decline of September Arctic sea ice in recent decades. The magnitude of both positive and negative trends induced by the natural variability in the unforced simulations is slightly enlarged in the context of increasing greenhouse gases in the 21st century. However, the ratio between the realizations of positive and negative trends change has remained steady, which enforces the standpoint that external forcing will remain the principal determiner of the decreasing Arctic sea ice extent trend in the future.

  17. The effect of changing sea ice on the physical vulnerability of Arctic coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Barnhart

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea ice limits the interaction of the land and ocean water in the Arctic winter and influences this interaction in the summer by governing the fetch. In many parts of the Arctic, the open-water season is increasing in duration and summertime sea-ice extents are decreasing. Sea ice provides a first-order control on the physical vulnerability of Arctic coasts to erosion, inundation, and damage to settlements and infrastructures by ocean water. We ask how the changing sea-ice cover has influenced coastal erosion over the satellite record. First, we present a pan-Arctic analysis of satellite-based sea-ice concentration specifically along the Arctic coasts. The median length of the 2012 open-water season, in comparison to 1979, expanded by between 1.5 and 3-fold by Arctic Sea sector, which allows for open water during the stormy Arctic fall. Second, we present a case study of Drew Point, Alaska, a site on the Beaufort Sea, characterized by ice-rich permafrost and rapid coastal-erosion rates, where both the duration of the open-water season and distance to the sea-ice edge, particularly towards the northwest, have increased. At Drew Point, winds from the northwest result in increased water levels at the coast and control the process of submarine notch incision, the rate-limiting step of coastal retreat. When open-water conditions exist, the distance to the sea ice edge exerts control on the water level and wave field through its control on fetch. We find that the extreme values of water-level setup have increased consistently with increasing fetch.

  18. Arctic energy budget in relation to sea-ice variability on monthly to annual time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikken, Folmer; Hazeleger, Wilco

    2015-04-01

    The strong decrease in Arctic sea-ice in recent years has triggered a strong interest in Arctic sea-ice predictions on seasonal to decadal time scales. Hence, it is key to understand physical processes that provide enhanced predictability beyond persistence of sea ice anomalies. The authors report on an analysis of natural variability of Arctic sea-ice from an energy budget perspective, using 15 CMIP5 climate models, and comparing these results to atmospheric and oceanic reanalyses data. We quantify the persistence of sea ice anomalies and the cross-correlation with the surface and top energy budget components. The Arctic energy balance components primarily indicate the important role of the seasonal sea-ice albedo feedback, in which sea-ice anomalies in the melt season reemerge in the growth season. This is a robust anomaly reemergence mechanism among all 15 climate models. The role of ocean lies mainly in storing heat content anomalies in spring, and releasing them in autumn. Ocean heat flux variations only play a minor role. The role of clouds is further investigated. We demonstrate that there is no direct atmospheric response of clouds to spring sea-ice anomalies, but a delayed response is evident in autumn. Hence, there is no cloud-ice feedback in late spring and summer, but there is a cloud-ice feedback in autumn, which strengthens the ice-albedo feedback. Anomalies in insolation are positively correlated with sea-ice variability. This is primarily a result of reduced multiple-reflection of insolation due to an albedo decrease. This effect counteracts the sea-ice albedo effect up to 50%. ERA-Interim and ORAS4 confirm the main findings from the climate models.

  19. Winter spring dynamics in sea-ice carbon cycling in the coastal Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Andrea; Michel, Christine; Gosselin, Michel; LeBlanc, Bernard

    2008-12-01

    An understanding of microbial interactions in first-year sea ice on Arctic shelves is essential for identifying potential responses of the Arctic Ocean carbon cycle to changing sea-ice conditions. This study assessed dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC, POC), exopolymeric substances (EPS), chlorophyll a, bacteria and protists, in a seasonal (24 February to 20 June 2004) investigation of first-year sea ice and associated surface waters on the Mackenzie Shelf. The dynamics of and relationships between different sea-ice carbon pools were investigated for the periods prior to, during and following the sea-ice-algal bloom, under high and low snow cover. A predominantly heterotrophic sea-ice community was observed prior to the ice-algal bloom under high snow cover only. However, the heterotrophic community persisted throughout the study with bacteria accounting for, on average, 44% of the non-diatom particulate carbon biomass overall the study period. There was an extensive accumulation of sea-ice organic carbon following the onset of the ice-algal bloom, with diatoms driving seasonal and spatial trends in particulate sea-ice biomass. DOC and EPS were also significant sea-ice carbon contributors such that sea-ice DOC concentrations were higher than, or equivalent to, sea-ice-algal carbon concentrations prior to and following the algal bloom, respectively. Sea-ice-algal carbon, DOC and EPS-carbon concentrations were significantly interrelated under high and low snow cover during the algal bloom ( r values ≥ 0.74, p algae are primarily responsible for the large pools of DOC and EPS-carbon and that similar stressors and/or processes could be involved in regulating their release. This study demonstrates that DOC can play a major role in organic carbon cycling on Arctic shelves.

  20. Are Recent Arctic Sea Ice Changes a Fingerprint of Greenhouse Warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavrus, S. J.

    2002-12-01

    Arctic sea ice has undergone significant reductions in thickness and extent in recent decades, leading to speculation that the ice pack is already showing signs of greenhouse warming. The decline in ice cover is not uniform across the Arctic Ocean, but instead shows a distinct spatial pattern of maximum reductions in the eastern (European) sector and minimum decreases in the western (North American) sector. This dipole spatial pattern has been dubbed the "East-West Arctic Anomaly Pattern" (EWAAP) and is consistent with recent trends in high-latitude atmospheric circulation, which in turn are driven by the well-known decrease in Arctic sea level pressure. Climate simulations using an AGCM coupled to a mixed-layer ocean (GENESIS) are presented to show that enhanced greenhouse forcing causes the model to produce the EWAAP and its associated anomalous cyclonic circulation pattern. Paleoclimate simulations of orbitally forced warm periods in the Arctic (mid-Holocene and last interglacial) show similar changes of sea ice cover and surface winds, suggesting that the recent anomalies may be a signature of warmer Arctic climates. The consistent EWAAP response to warm external forcings is caused by two dynamical mechanisms. First, the flow of Arctic sea ice in the modern climate produces ice divergence (convergence) and more (less) open water in the eastern (western) Arctic Ocean, thus favoring (hindering) melting in the eastern (western) sector under warmer conditions. Second, because warmer climates promote a decrease in Arctic sea level pressure, anomalous surface winds blow across the Arctic Ocean from Eurasia toward North America and thus enhance the spatial dipole pattern of ice coverage.

  1. Changing Arctic ecosystems: sea ice decline, permafrost thaw, and benefits for geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Paul; Whalen, Mary; Pearce, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Through the Changing Arctic Ecosystems (CAE) initiative, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) strives to inform resource management decisions for Arctic Alaska by providing scientific information on current and future ecosystem response to a warming climate. A key area for the USGS CAE initiative has been the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska. This region has experienced a warming trend over the past 30 years, leading to reductions in sea ice and thawing of permafrost. Loss of sea ice has increased ocean wave action, leading to erosion and salt water inundation of coastal habitats. Saltwater tolerant plants are now thriving in these areas and this appears to be a positive outcome for geese in the Arctic. This finding is contrary to the deleterious effects that declining sea ice is having on habitats of ice-dependent animals, such as polar bear and walrus.

  2. Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.

    2013-01-01

    During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

  3. The Role of Sea Ice for Vascular Plant Dispersal in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geirsdottir, A.; Alsos, I. G.; Seidenkrantz, M. S.; Bennike, O.; Kirchhefer, A.; Ehrich, D.

    2015-12-01

    Plant species adapted to arctic environments are expected to go extinct at their southern margins due to climate warming whereas they may find suitable habitats on arctic islands if they are able to disperse there. Analyses of species distribution and phylogenetic data indicate both that the frequency of dispersal events is higher in the arctic than in other regions, and that the dispersal routes often follow the routes of sea surface currents. Thus, it has been hypothesised that sea ice has played a central role in Holocene colonisation of arctic islands. Here we compile data on the first Holocene occurrence of species in East Greenland, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, and Svalbard. We then combine these records with interpretations of dispersal routes inferred from genetic data and data on geographical distributions, reconstructions of Holocene sea ice extent, and records of driftwood to evaluate the potential role sea ice has played in past colonisation events.

  4. Estimation of Arctic Sea Ice Freeboard and Thickness Using CryoSat-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Im, J.; Kim, J. W.; Kim, M.; Shin, M.

    2014-12-01

    Arctic sea ice is one of the significant components of the global climate system as it plays a significant role in driving global ocean circulation. Sea ice extent has constantly declined since 1980s. Arctic sea ice thickness has also been diminishing along with the decreasing sea ice extent. Because extent and thickness, two main characteristics of sea ice, are important indicators of the polar response to on-going climate change. Sea ice thickness has been measured with numerous field techniques such as surface drilling and deploying buoys. These techniques provide sparse and discontinuous data in spatiotemporal domain. Spaceborne radar and laser altimeters can overcome these limitations and have been used to estimate sea ice thickness. Ice Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICEsat), a laser altimeter provided data to detect polar area elevation change between 2003 and 2009. CryoSat-2 launched with Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)/Interferometric Radar Altimeter (SIRAL) in April 2010 can provide data to estimate time-series of Arctic sea ice thickness. In this study, Arctic sea ice freeboard and thickness between 2011 and 2014 were estimated using CryoSat-2 SAR and SARIn mode data that have sea ice surface height relative to the reference ellipsoid WGS84. In order to estimate sea ice thickness, freeboard, i.e., elevation difference between the top of sea ice surface should be calculated. Freeboard can be estimated through detecting leads. We proposed a novel lead detection approach. CryoSat-2 profiles such as pulse peakiness, backscatter sigma-0, stack standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis were examined to distinguish leads from sea ice. Near-real time cloud-free MODIS images corresponding to CryoSat-2 data measured were used to visually identify leads. Rule-based machine learning approaches such as See5.0 and random forest were used to identify leads. The proposed lead detection approach better distinguished leads from sea ice than the existing approaches

  5. Characterization of sea-ice kinematic in the Arctic outflow region using buoy data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruibo Lei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from four ice-tethered buoys deployed in 2010 were used to investigate sea-ice motion and deformation from the Central Arctic to Fram Strait. Seasonal and long-term changes in ice kinematics of the Arctic outflow region were further quantified using 42 ice-tethered buoys deployed between 1979 and 2011. Our results confirmed that the dynamic setting of the transpolar drift stream (TDS and Fram Strait shaped the motion of the sea ice. Ice drift was closely aligned with surface winds, except during quiescent conditions, or during short-term reversal of the wind direction opposing the TDS. Meridional ice velocity south of 85°N showed a distinct seasonal cycle, peaking between late autumn and early spring in agreement with the seasonality of surface winds. Inertia-induced ice motion was strengthened as ice concentration decreased in summer. As ice drifted southward into the Fram Strait, the meridional ice speed increased dramatically, while associated zonal ice convergence dominated the ice-field deformation. The Arctic atmospheric Dipole Anomaly (DA influenced ice drift by accelerating the meridional ice velocity. Ice trajectories exhibited less meandering during the positive phase of DA and vice versa. From 2005 onwards, the buoy data exhibit high Arctic sea-ice outflow rates, closely related to persistent positive DA anomaly. However, the long-term data from 1979 to 2011 do not show any statistically significant trend for sea-ice outflow, but exhibit high year-to-year variability, associated with the change in the polarity of DA.

  6. Sediment-Laden sea ice in the Arctic Ocean: Implications for climate, environment and sedimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sediments in sea ice were first described by F. Nansen during his famous Fram expedition (1893-1896). Many researchers observed and recorded sediment-laden or dirty sea ice in the Central Arctic, but the origin and incorporation mechanisms are poorly understood and were never the object of detailed studies. Sea ice-rafted sediments are important factors for the albedo and for the ecology and productivity of marine organisms, because of the absorption of solar radiation and lowered light transmission. Beginning in 1987 in the Eastern Arctic Basin and continuing in 1988, 1989 and 1990 in Fram Strait, Barents Sea and Greenland Sea the authors conducted a multi-disciplinary sea ice project on the role and importance of sea ice-rafted sediments for sedimentation in the Arctic Ocean. During the field work very high sediment accumulations were observed and sampled (up to 560 g sediment/kg ice). Most of the material was concentrated in small patches of 1-10 m in diameter, but in some areas, especially in the Eastern Arctic, they covered up to 80% of the ice surface and formed layers of pure mud, 2-3 cm thick. First estimations of the observed concentrations, the annual ice flow through Fram Strait, and the average sedimentation rate in this area show that the necessary sediment flux can be obtained only by sea ice. Thus, sea ice-rafting seems to be the most important input mechanism of fine grained terrigenous (biogenic and terrigenic) sediment into the ice-covered deep sea regions

  7. Object-based Image Classification of Arctic Sea Ice and Melt Ponds through Aerial Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, X.; Xie, H.; Li, Z.; Lei, R.

    2013-12-01

    The last six years have marked the lowest Arctic summer sea ice extents in the modern era, with a new record summer minimum (3.4 million km2) set on 13 September 2012. It has been predicted that the Arctic could be free of summer ice within the next 25-30. The loss of Arctic summer ice could have serious consequences, such as higher water temperature due to the positive feedback of albedo, more powerful and frequent storms, rising sea levels, diminished habitats for polar animals, and more pollution due to fossil fuel exploitation and/ or increased traffic through the Northwest/ Northeast Passage. In these processes, melt ponds play an important role in Earth's radiation balance since they strongly absorb solar radiation rather than reflecting it as snow and ice do. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the ability of predicting the sea ice/ melt pond extents and space-time evolution, which is pivotal to prepare for the variation and uncertainty of the future environment, political, economic, and military needs. A lot of efforts have been put into Arctic sea ice modeling to simulate sea ice processes. However, these sea ice models were initiated and developed based on limited field surveys, aircraft or satellite image data. Therefore, it is necessary to collect high resolution sea ice aerial photo in a systematic way to tune up, validate, and improve models. Currently there are many sea ice aerial photos available, such as Chinese Arctic Exploration (CHINARE 2008, 2010, 2012), SHEBA 1998 and HOTRAX 2005. However, manually delineating of sea ice and melt pond from these images is time-consuming and labor-intensive. In this study, we use the object-based remote sensing classification scheme to extract sea ice and melt ponds efficiently from 1,727 aerial photos taken during the CHINARE 2010. The algorithm includes three major steps as follows. (1) Image segmentation groups the neighboring pixels into objects according to the similarity of spectral and texture

  8. Monitoring Arctic sea ice phenology change using hypertemporal remotely sensed data: 1989-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wenxia; LeDrew, Ellsworth

    2016-07-01

    Arctic sea ice has undergone a significant decline in recent years. Previous studies have demonstrated that the annual sea ice cycle has experienced earlier melt and later freeze up, leading to a significant reduction in minimum sea ice extents and the lengthening of the melting season. The Arctic is being transformed into a regime of widespread seasonal ice with a large loss of old and thick multiyear ice in recent years. However, the sea ice change exhibits considerable interannual and regional variability at different spatial and temporal scales. In this study, we present a new method for hypertemporal sea ice data change detection based on the annual sea ice concentration (SIC) profile for the melt months of each year. A decision tree-based classification is adopted to group pixels with similar annual SIC profiles, and a phenology map of each year is generated for visualization. The phenoregion map visualizes the spatial and temporal configurations of ice melt process for a year. The change detection objective is achieved by comparing the phenoregion number of the same pixel in different years. The algorithm further leads to interpretation of anomalies to obtain change maps at the pixel level. Compared to previous sea ice studies that mainly focused on a particular spatial region and commonly use time period averages, the proposed pixel-based approach has the potential to map sea ice data change both temporally and spatially.

  9. Numerical model of the ice cover evolution in Arctic Seas for the operational forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Klyachkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic-thermodynamic model of the ice cover evolution is used for operational 5‑day ice forecasts in the Russian Arctic seas and to obtain some statistical estimates of the ice cover state. The model is a numerical realization of the heat budget and the motion balance equations for sea and ice cover with appropriate boundary conditions. The statistical processing of the data resulted in revealing characteristics of seasonal and spatial variability of the ice compressionin the Barents and Kara Seas.

  10. A sea ice free summer Arctic within 30 years: An update from CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Muyin; Overland, James E.

    2012-09-01

    Three years ago we proposed that the summer Arctic would be nearly sea ice free by the 2030s; “nearly” is interpreted as sea ice extent less than 1.0 million km2. We consider this estimate to be still valid based on projections of updated climate models (CMIP5) and observational data. Similar to previous models (CMIP3), CMIP5 still shows a wide spread in hindcast and projected sea ice loss among different models. Further, there is no consensus in the scientific literature for the cause of such a spread in results for CMIP3 and CMIP5. While CMIP5 model mean sea ice extents are closer to observations than CMIP3, the rates of sea ice reduction in most model runs are slow relative to recent observations. All CMIP5 models do show loss of sea ice due to increased anthropogenic forcing relative to pre-industrial control runs. Applying the same technique of model selection and extrapolation approach to CMIP5 as we used in our previous paper, the interval range for a nearly sea ice free Arctic is 14 to 36 years, with a median value of 28 years. Relative to a 2007 baseline, this suggests a nearly sea ice free Arctic in the 2030s.

  11. A study of Arctic sea ice freeboard heights, gravity anomalies and dynamic topography from ICESat measurementes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skourup, Henriette

    used to estimate the sea ice freeboard, and shows good qualitative correlation to QuikSCAT scatterometer data. As the method depends on the presence of open water, the method is underestimating the sea ice freeboard heights, when compared to coincident high resolution airborne lidar measurements in...... Arctic is a combination of sea ice and open water. The sea surface height is found by a "lowest-level" filtering procedure, originally developed for airborne lidar measurements, which assumes that the lowest levels measured represent the open water in the ice pack. The sea surface obtained this way is...... are investigated. The ICESat gravity grid shows all the major tectonic features of the Arctic Ocean at high resolution. The results show that the laser altimetry data provides excellent gravity results comparable to open ocean altimetry even over the most heavy ice conditions. Subtracting a geoid...

  12. Modelling the mass balance and salinity of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice

    OpenAIRE

    Vancoppenolle, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Ice formed from seawater, called sea ice, is both an important actor in and a sensitive indicator of climate change. Covering 7% of the World Ocean, sea ice damps the atmosphere-ocean exchanges of heat, radiation and momentum in polar regions. It also affects the oceanic circulation at a global scale. Recent satellite and submarine observations systems indicate a sharp decrease in the extent and volume of Arctic sea ice over the last 30 years. In addition, climate models project drastic sea i...

  13. Impact of a Reduced Arctic Sea Ice Cover on Ocean and Atmospheric Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Sedláček, Jan; Knutti, Reto; Martius, Olivia; Beyerle, Urs

    2012-01-01

    The Arctic sea ice cover declined over the last few decades and reached a record minimum in 2007, with a slight recovery thereafter. Inspired by this the authors investigate the response of atmospheric and oceanic properties to a 1-yr period of reduced sea ice cover. Two ensembles of equilibrium and transient simulations are produced with the Community Climate System Model. A sea ice change is induced through an albedo change of 1 yr. The sea ice area and thickness recover in both ensembles a...

  14. Impacts of Organic Macromolecules, Chlorophyll and Soot on Arctic Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunro, O. O.; Wingenter, O. W.; Elliott, S.; Flanner, M.; Dubey, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    Recent intensification of Arctic amplification can be strongly connected to positive feedback relating black carbon deposition to sea ice surface albedo. In addition to soot deposition on the ice and snow pack, ice algal chlorophyll is likely to compete as an absorber and redistributor of energy. Hence, solar radiation absorption by chlorophyll and some components of organic macromolecules in/under the ice column is currently being examined to determine the level of influence on predicted rate of ice loss. High amounts of organic macromolecules and chlorophyll are produced in global sea ice by the bottom microbial community and also in vertically distributed layers where substantial biological activities take place. Brine channeling in columnar ice can allow for upward flow of nutrients which leads to greater primary production in the presence of moderate light. Modeling of the sea-ice processes in tandem with experiments and field observations promises rapid progress in enhancing Arctic ice predictions. We are designing and conducting global climate model experiments to determine the impact of organic macromolecules and chlorophyll on Arctic sea ice. Influences on brine network permeability and radiation/albedo will be considered in this exercise. Absorption by anthropogenic materials such as soot and black carbon will be compared with that of natural pigments. We will indicate areas of soot and biological absorption dominance in the sense of single scattering, then couple into a full radiation transfer scheme to attribute the various contributions to polar climate change amplification. The work prepares us to study more traditional issues such as chlorophyll warming of the pack periphery and chemical effects of the flow of organics from ice internal communities. The experiments started in the Arctic will broaden to include Antarctic sea ice and shelves. Results from the Arctic simulations will be presented.

  15. SONARC: A Sea Ice Monitoring and Forecasting System to Support Safe Operations and Navigation in Arctic Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, S. R.; Babiker, M.; Sandven, S.; Muckenhuber, S.; Korosov, A.; Bobylev, L.; Vesman, A.; Mushta, A.; Demchev, D.; Volkov, V.; Smirnov, K.; Hamre, T.

    2015-12-01

    Sea ice monitoring and forecasting systems are important tools for minimizing accident risk and environmental impacts of Arctic maritime operations. Satellite data such as synthetic aperture radar (SAR), combined with atmosphere-ice-ocean forecasting models, navigation models and automatic identification system (AIS) transponder data from ships are essential components of such systems. Here we present first results from the SONARC project (project term: 2015-2017), an international multidisciplinary effort to develop novel and complementary ice monitoring and forecasting systems for vessels and offshore platforms in the Arctic. Automated classification methods (Zakhvatkina et al., 2012) are applied to Sentinel-1 dual-polarization SAR images from the Barents and Kara Sea region to identify ice types (e.g. multi-year ice, level first-year ice, deformed first-year ice, new/young ice, open water) and ridges. Short-term (1-3 days) ice drift forecasts are computed from SAR images using feature tracking and pattern tracking methods (Berg & Eriksson, 2014). Ice classification and drift forecast products are combined with ship positions based on AIS data from a selected period of 3-4 weeks to determine optimal vessel speed and routing in ice. Results illustrate the potential of high-resolution SAR data for near-real-time monitoring and forecasting of Arctic ice conditions. Over the next 3 years, SONARC findings will contribute new knowledge about sea ice in the Arctic while promoting safe and cost-effective shipping, domain awareness, resource management, and environmental protection.

  16. Arctic Sea Ice Charts from Danish Meteorological Institute, 1893 - 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1893 to 1956, the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) created charts of observed and inferred sea ice extent for each summer month. These charts are based on...

  17. Sea Ice Melt Pond Data from the Canadian Arctic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains observations of albedo, depth, and physical characteristics of melt ponds on sea ice, taken during the summer of 1994. The melt ponds studied...

  18. Late winter biogeochemical conditions under sea ice in the Canadian High Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen S. Findlay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the Arctic summer sea-ice extent in decline, questions are arising as to how changes in sea-ice dynamics might affect biogeochemical cycling and phenomena such as carbon dioxide (CO2 uptake and ocean acidification. Recent field research in these areas has concentrated on biogeochemical and CO2 measurements during spring, summer or autumn, but there are few data for the winter or winter–spring transition, particularly in the High Arctic. Here, we present carbon and nutrient data within and under sea ice measured during the Catlin Arctic Survey, over 40 days in March and April 2010, off Ellef Ringnes Island (78° 43.11′ N, 104° 47.44′ W in the Canadian High Arctic. Results show relatively low surface water (1–10 m nitrate (<1.3 µM and total inorganic carbon concentrations (mean±SD=2015±5.83 µmol kg−1, total alkalinity (mean±SD=2134±11.09 µmol kg−1 and under-ice pCO2sw (mean±SD=286±17 µatm. These surprisingly low wintertime carbon and nutrient conditions suggest that the outer Canadian Arctic Archipelago region is nitrate-limited on account of sluggish mixing among the multi-year ice regions of the High Arctic, which could temper the potential of widespread under-ice and open-water phytoplankton blooms later in the season.

  19. Spatial and temporal variations in the age structure of Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belchansky, G.I.; Douglas, D.C.; Platonov, N.G.

    2005-01-01

    Spatial and temporal variations in the age structure of Arctic sea ice are investigated using a new reverse chronology algorithm that tracks ice-covered pixels to their location and date of origin based on ice motion and concentration data. The Beaufort Gyre tends to harbor the oldest (>10 years old) sea ice in the western Arctic while direct ice advection pathways toward the Transpolar Drift Stream maintain relatively young (10 years old (10+ year age class) were observed during 1989-2003. Since the mid-1990s, losses to the 10+ year age class lacked compensation by recruitment due to a prior depletion of all mature (6-10 year) age classes. Survival of the 1994 and 1996-1998 sea ice generations reestablished most mature age classes, and thereby the potential to increase extent of the 10+ year age class during the mid-2000s.

  20. Insights on Arctic Sea Ice Processes from New Seafloor and Coastline Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Hall, D. K.; Rigor, I. G.; Clemente-Colon, P.; Li, P.; Neumann, G.

    2014-12-01

    The seafloor can exert a significant control on Arctic sea ice patterns by guiding the distribution of ocean water masses and river discharge in the Arctic Ocean. Satellite observations of sea ice and surface temperature are used together with bathymetry data to understand dynamic and thermodynamic processes of sea ice. In particular, data from satellite radars, including scatterometer and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) instruments, are used to identify and map sea ice with different spatial and temporal resolutions across the Arctic. Data from a satellite spectroradiometer, such as MODIS, are used to accurately measure surface temperature under clear sky conditions. For seafloor measurements, advances have been made with new observations surveyed to modern standards in different regions of the Arctic, enabling the production of an improved bathymetry dataset, such as the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean Version 3.0 (IBCAO 3.0) released in 2012. The joint analyses of these datasets reveal that the seafloor can govern warm- and cold-water distribution and thereby dictate sea ice patterns on the sea surface from small local scales to a large regional scale extending over thousands of km. Satellite results show that warm river waters can intrude into the Arctic Ocean and affect sea ice melt hundreds of km away from the river mouths. The Arctic rivers bring significant heat as their waters come from sources across vast watersheds influenced by warm continental climate effects in summertime. In the case of the Mackenzie River, results from the analysis with the new IBCAO 3.0 indicated that the formation and break-up of landfast sea ice is related to the depth and not the slope of the seafloor. In turn, such ice processes can impact the discharge and distribution of warm river waters and influence the melting of sea ice. Animations of satellite observations of sea ice overlaid on both the old and new versions of IBCAO will be presented to illustrate

  1. Temporal and spatial variability in sea-ice carbon:nitrogen ratios on Canadian Arctic shelves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Niemi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To enhance the accuracy of carbon cycling models as applied to sea ice in the changing Arctic, we analyzed a large data set of particulate organic carbon (POC and nitrogen (PON measurements in first-year bottom sea ice (n = 257 from two Arctic shelves, the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and Beaufort Sea shelf, including dark winter and spring seasonal measurements. Wide ranges of sea-ice POC:PON ratios were observed during both the dark winter (12–46 mol:mol and spring (3–24 mol:mol periods. Sea-ice POC:PON ratios and chlorophyll a concentrations were significantly higher in the Archipelago versus the Beaufort Sea shelf (p < 0.01, yet there was a highly significant relationship between sea-ice POC and PON during spring for both shelves (r2 = 0.94. POC:PON ratios were not consistent over the range of measured POC and PON concentrations, justifying the use of a power function model to best describe the relationship between POC and PON. Distinct relationships between POC:PON ratios and chlorophyll-based biomass were observed for the dark winter and the spring: dark winter sea-ice POC:PON ratios decreased with increasing sea-ice biomass whereas spring POC:PON ratios increased with increasing sea-ice biomass. The transition from the dark period to the spring growth period in first-year sea ice represented a distinct stoichiometric shift in POC:PON ratios. Our results demonstrate that the Redfield ratio has limited applicability over the four-order of magnitude range of biomass concentrations observed in first-year sea ice on Arctic shelves. This study emphasizes the need for variable POC:PON stoichiometry in sea-ice biogeochemical models and budget estimates, in particular at high biomass concentrations and when considering seasonality outside of the spring period in first year ice. The use of a power function model for POC:PON relationships in sea ice is also recommended to better constrain carbon estimates in biogeochemical sea-ice models.

  2. Does ocean coupling matter for the northern extratropical response to projected Arctic sea ice loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deser, Clara; Sun, Lantao; Tomas, Robert A.; Screen, James

    2016-03-01

    The question of whether ocean coupling matters for the extratropical Northern Hemisphere atmospheric response to projected late 21st century Arctic sea ice loss is addressed using a series of experiments with Community Climate System Model version 4 at 1° spatial resolution under different configurations of the ocean model component: no interactive ocean, thermodynamic slab ocean, and full-depth (dynamic plus thermodynamic) ocean. Ocean-atmosphere coupling magnifies the response to Arctic sea ice loss but does not change its overall structure; however, a slab ocean is inadequate for inferring the role of oceanic feedbacks. The westerly winds along the poleward flank of the eddy-driven jet weaken in response to Arctic sea ice loss, accompanied by a smaller-magnitude strengthening on the equatorward side, with largest amplitudes in winter. Dynamical and thermodynamic oceanic feedbacks amplify this response by approximately 50%. Air temperature, precipitation, and sea level pressure responses also show sensitivity to the degree of ocean coupling.

  3. Arctic sea ice variability during the last deglaciation: a biomarker approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, J.; Stein, R. H.

    2014-12-01

    The last transition from full glacial to current interglacial conditions was accompanied by distinct short-term climate fluctuations caused by changes in the global ocean circulation system. Most palaeoceanographic studies focus on the documentation of the behaviour of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) during the last deglaciation in response to freshwater forcing events. In this respect, the role of Arctic sea ice remained relatively unconsidered - primarily because of the difficulty of its reconstruction. Here we present new proxy data on late glacial (including the Last Glacial Maximum; LGM) and deglacial sea ice variability in the Arctic Ocean and its main gateway - the Fram Strait - and how these changes in sea ice coverage contributed to AMOC perturbations observed during Heinrich Event 1 and the Younger Dryas. Recurrent short-term advances and retreats of sea ice in Fram Strait, prior and during the LGM, are in line with a variable (or intermittent) North Atlantic heat flow along the eastern corridor of the Nordic Seas. Possibly in direct response to the initial freshwater discharge from melting continental ice-sheets, a permanent sea ice cover established only at about 19 ka BP (i.e. post-LGM) and lasted until 17.6 ka BP, when an abrupt break-up of this thick ice cover and a sudden discharge of huge amounts of sea ice and icebergs through Fram Strait coincided with the weakening of the AMOC during Heinrich Event 1. Similarly, another sea ice maximum at about 12.8 ka BP is associated with the slowdown of the AMOC during the Younger Dryas. The new data sets clearly highlight the important role of Arctic sea ice for the re-organisation of the oceanographic setting in the North Atlantic during the last deglaciation. Further studies and sensitivity experiments to identify crucial driving (and feedback) mechanisms within the High Latitude ice-ocean-atmosphere system will contribute the understanding of rapid climate changes.

  4. A Possible Feedback Mechanism Involving the Arctic Freshwater,the Arctic Sea Ice, and the North Atlantic Drift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Odd Helge OTTER(A); Helge DRANGE

    2004-01-01

    Model studies point to enhanced warming and to increased freshwater fluxes to high northern latitudes in response to global warming. In order to address possible feedbacks in the ice-ocean system in response to such changes, the combined effect of increased freshwater input to the Arctic Ocean and Arctic warming--the latter manifested as a gradual melting of the Arctic sea ice--is examined using a 3-D isopycnic coordinate ocean general circulation model. A suite of three idealized experiments is carried out: one control integration, one integration with a doubling of the modern Arctic river runoff, and a third more extreme case, where the river runoff is five times the modern value. In the two freshwater cases, the sea ice thickness is reduced by 1.5-2 m in the central Arctic Ocean over a 50-year period. The modelled ocean response is qualitatively the same for both perturbation experiments: freshwater propagates into the Atlantic Ocean and the Nordic Seas, leading to an initial weakening of the North Atlantic Drift.Furthermore, changes in the geostrophic currents in the central Arctic and melting of the Arctic sea ice lead to an intensified Beaufort Gyre, which in turn increases the southward volume transport through the Canadian Archipelago. To compensate for this southward transport of mass, more warm and saline Atlantic water is carried northward with the North Atlantic Drift. It is found that the increased transport of salt into the northern North Atlantic and the Nordic Seas tends to counteract the impact of the increased freshwater originating from the Arctic, leading to a stabilization of the North Atlantic Drift.

  5. Frost flowers on young Arctic sea ice: The climatic, chemical, and microbial significance of an emerging ice type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barber, D.; Ehn, J.; Pucko, M.;

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing changes in Arctic sea ice are increasing the spatial and temporal range of young sea ice types over which frost flowers can occur, yet the significance of frost flowers to ocean-sea ice-atmosphere exchange processes remains poorly understood. Frost flowers form when moisture from seawater...... formed. The new ice and frost flowers dramatically changed the radiative and thermal environment. The frost flowers were about 5°C colder than the brine surface, with an approximately linear temperature gradient from their base to their upper tips. Salinity and δ18O values indicated that frost flowers...

  6. A Low Order Theory of Arctic Sea Ice Stability

    CERN Document Server

    Moon, W

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the stability of a low-order coupled sea ice and climate model and extract the essential physics governing the time scales of response as a function of greenhouse gas forcing. Under present climate conditions the stability is controlled by longwave radiation driven heat conduction. However, as greenhouse gas forcing increases and the ice cover decays, the destabilizing influence of ice-albedo feedback acts on equal footing with longwave stabilization. Both are seasonally out of phase and as the system warms towards a seasonal ice state these effects, which underlie the bifurcations between climate states, combine to extend the intrinsic relaxation time scale from ~ 2 yr to 5 yr.

  7. Observational determination of albedo decrease caused by vanishing Arctic sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistone, Kristina; Eisenman, Ian; Ramanathan, V

    2014-03-01

    The decline of Arctic sea ice has been documented in over 30 y of satellite passive microwave observations. The resulting darkening of the Arctic and its amplification of global warming was hypothesized almost 50 y ago but has yet to be verified with direct observations. This study uses satellite radiation budget measurements along with satellite microwave sea ice data to document the Arctic-wide decrease in planetary albedo and its amplifying effect on the warming. The analysis reveals a striking relationship between planetary albedo and sea ice cover, quantities inferred from two independent satellite instruments. We find that the Arctic planetary albedo has decreased from 0.52 to 0.48 between 1979 and 2011, corresponding to an additional 6.4 ± 0.9 W/m(2) of solar energy input into the Arctic Ocean region since 1979. Averaged over the globe, this albedo decrease corresponds to a forcing that is 25% as large as that due to the change in CO2 during this period, considerably larger than expectations from models and other less direct recent estimates. Changes in cloudiness appear to play a negligible role in observed Arctic darkening, thus reducing the possibility of Arctic cloud albedo feedbacks mitigating future Arctic warming. PMID:24550469

  8. Observational uncertainty of Arctic sea-ice concentration significantly affects seasonal climate forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzel, Felix; Notz, Dirk; Baehr, Johanna; Müller, Wolfgang; Fröhlich, Kristina

    2016-04-01

    We examine how the choice of a particular satellite-retrieved sea-ice concentration dataset used for initialising seasonal climate forecasts impacts the prediction skill of Arctic sea-ice area and Northern hemispheric 2-meter air temperatures. To do so, we performed two assimilation runs with the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) from 1979 to 2012, where atmospheric and oceanic parameters as well as sea-ice concentration were assimilated using Newtonian relaxation. The two assimilation runs differ only in the sea-ice concentration dataset used for assimilating sea ice. In the first run, we use sea-ice concentrations as derived by the NASA-Team algorithm, while in the second run we use sea-ice concentrations as derived from the Bootstrap algorithm. A major difference between these two sea-ice concentration data products involves the treatment of melt ponds. While for both products melt ponds appear as open water in the raw satellite data, the Bootstrap algorithm more strongly attempts to offset this systematic bias by synthetically increasing the retrieved ice concentration during summer months. For each year of the two assimilation runs we performed a 10-member ensemble of hindcast experiments starting on 1 May and 1 November with a hindcast length of 6 months. For hindcasts started in November, initial differences in Arctic sea-ice area and surface temperature decrease rapidly throughout the freezing period. For hindcasts started in May, initial sea-ice area differences increase over time. By the end of the melting period, this causes significant differences in 2-meter air temperature of regionally more than 3°C. Hindcast skill for surface temperatures over Europe and North America is higher with Bootstrap initialization during summer and with NASA Team initialisation during winter. This implies that the choice of the sea-ice data product and, thus, the observational uncertainty also affects forecasts of teleconnections that depend on Northern

  9. Sea-ice hazards, associated risks and implications for human activities in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicken, Hajo; Mahoney, Andrew; Jones, Joshua

    2014-05-01

    Polar sea ice serves important functions in the Earth system, including as climate regulator, habitat for diverse biological communities, or substrate and platform for a range of human activities. Subsumed under the concept of sea-ice services, polar ice covers are associated with benefits and risks of harm to ecosystems and people. Recent changes in Arctic ice extent, thickness and mobility have transformed services derived from sea ice. We summarize how these changes have diminished some benefits derived from the ice cover, while increasing others. More important, growing maritime activities in the North and a changing ice cover drive a need for better understanding of sea-ice hazards and the risk they represent in the context of human activities in the Arctic. Three major aspects of this problem are: (1) Broader risks associated with a rapid reduction in summer ice extent, such as geographic shifts in marine ecosystems and warming of submarine permafrost and adjacent land; (2) hazards resulting from changes in sea ice extent and dynamics such as increased coastal erosion and threats to infrastructure; and (3) risks derived from the combination of sea-ice hazards and human activities such as shipping or offshore resource development. Problem (1) is typically seen as a slow-onset hazard that requires a response in the form of mitigation and adaptation. At the same time, the importance of linkages between summer sea-ice reduction to processes outside of the Arctic has only recently emerged (such as atmospheric circulation patterns and extreme weather events) and remains difficult to quantify. Hazards and risks subsumed under (2) and (3) are more localized but with potentially major ecological and socio-economic consequences beyond the Arctic. Drawing on examples from our research in Alaska, we review and illustrate key aspects of sea-ice hazards in terms of risks to ecosystems, people and infrastructure in the coastal zone and Arctic shelf seas. In the Pacific

  10. Sensitivity of the Arctic sea ice concentration forecasts to different atmospheric forcing:a case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Qinghua; LIU Jiping; ZHANG Zhanhai; SUI Cuijuan; XING Jianyong; LI Ming; LI Chunhua; ZHAO Jiechen; ZHANG Lin

    2014-01-01

    A regional Arctic configuration of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MIT-gcm) is used as the coupled ice-ocean model for forecasting sea ice conditions in the Arctic Ocean at the Na-tional Marine Environmental Forecasting Center of China (NMEFC), and the numerical weather prediction from the National Center for Environmental Prediction Global Forecast System (NCEP GFS) is used as the atmospheric forcing. To improve the sea ice forecasting, a recently developed Polar Weather Research and Forecasting model (Polar WRF) model prediction is also tested as the atmospheric forcing. Their forecasting performances are evaluated with two different satellite-derived sea ice concentration products as initializa-tions: (1) the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) and (2) the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E). Three synoptic cases, which represent the typical atmospheric circulations over the Arctic Ocean in summer 2010, are selected to carry out the Arctic sea ice numerical forecasting experiments. The evaluations suggest that the forecasts of sea ice concentrations using the Polar WRF atmo-spheric forcing show some improvements as compared with that of the NCEP GFS.

  11. Skill improvement of seasonal Arctic sea ice forecasts using bias-correction and ensemble calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikken, Folmer; Hazeleger, Wilco; Vlot, Willem; Schmeits, Maurice; Guemas, Virginie

    2016-04-01

    We explore the standard error and skill of dynamical seasonal sea ice forecasts of the Arctic using different bias-correction and ensemble calibration methods. The latter is often used in weather forecasting, but so far has not been applied to Arctic sea ice forecasts. We use seasonal predictions of Arctic sea ice of a 5-member ensemble forecast using the fully coupled GCM EC-Earth, with model initial states obtained by nudging towards ORAS4 and ERA-Interim. The raw model forecasts contain large biases in total sea ice area, especially during the summer months. This is mainly caused by a difference in average seasonal cycle between EC-Earth and observations, which translates directly into the forecasts yielding large biases. Further errors are introduced by the differences in long term trend between the observed sea ice, and the uninitialised EC-earth simulation. We find that extended logistic regression (ELR) and heteroscedastic extended logistic regression (HELR) both prove viable ensemble calibration methods, and improve the forecasts substantially compared to standard bias correction techniques. No clear distinction between ELR and HELR is found. Forecasts starting in May have higher skill (CRPSS > 0 up to 5 months lead time) than forecasts starting in August (2-3 months) and November (2-3 months), with trend-corrected climatology as reference. Analysis of regional skill in the Arctic shows distinct differences, where mainly the Arctic ocean and the Kara and Barents sea prove to be one of the more predictable regions with skilful forecasts starting in May up to 5-6 months lead time. Again, forecasts starting in August and November show much lower regional skill. Overall, it is still difficult to beat relative simple statistical forecasts, but by using ELR and HELR we are getting reasonably close to skilful seasonal forecasts up to 12 months lead time. These results show there is large potential, and need, for using ensemble calibration in seasonal forecasts of

  12. Future Arctic sea ice loss reduces severity of cold air outbreaks in midlatitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayarzagüena, Blanca; Screen, James A.

    2016-03-01

    The effects of Arctic sea ice loss on cold air outbreaks (CAOs) in midlatitudes remain unclear. Previous studies have defined CAOs relative to the present-day climate, but changes in CAOs, defined in such a way, may reflect changes in mean climate and not in weather variability, and society is more sensitive to the latter. Here we revisit this topic but applying changing temperature thresholds relating to climate conditions of the time. CAOs do not change in frequency or duration in response to projected sea ice loss. However, they become less severe, mainly due to advection of warmed polar air, since the dynamics associated with the occurrence of CAOs are largely not affected. CAOs weaken even in midlatitude regions where the winter mean temperature decreases in response to Arctic sea ice loss. These results are robustly simulated by two atmospheric models prescribed with differing future sea ice states and in transient runs where external forcings are included.

  13. Arctic climate change: observed and modelled temperature and sea-ice variability

    OpenAIRE

    Johannessen, Ola M.; BENGTSSON, LENNART; MILES, MARTIN W.; Kuzmina, Svetlana I.; Semenov, Vladimir A.; Alekseev, Genrikh V.; NAGURNYI, ANDREI P.; Zakharov, Victor F.; Bobylev, Leonid P.; Pettersson, Lasse H.; HASSELMANN, KLAUS; Cattle, Howard P.

    2004-01-01

    Changes apparent in the arctic climate system in recent years require evaluation in a century-scale perspective in order to assess the Arctic's response to increasing anthropogenic greenhouse-gas forcing. Here, a new set of century- and multidecadal-scale observational data of surface air temperature (SAT) and sea ice is used in combination with ECHAM4 and HadCM3 coupled atmosphere-ice-ocean global model simulations in order to better determine and understand arctic climate variability. We sh...

  14. In situ expression of eukaryotic ice-binding proteins in microbial communities of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, Christiane; Kilpert, Fabian; Frickenhaus, Stephan; Kegel, Jessica U; Krell, Andreas; Mock, Thomas; Valentin, Klaus; Beszteri, Bánk

    2015-11-01

    Ice-binding proteins (IBPs) have been isolated from various sea-ice organisms. Their characterisation points to a crucial role in protecting the organisms in sub-zero environments. However, their in situ abundance and diversity in natural sea-ice microbial communities is largely unknown. In this study, we analysed the expression and phylogenetic diversity of eukaryotic IBP transcripts from microbial communities of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice. IBP transcripts were found in abundances similar to those of proteins involved in core cellular processes such as photosynthesis. Eighty-nine percent of the IBP transcripts grouped with known IBP sequences from diatoms, haptophytes and crustaceans, but the majority represented novel sequences not previously characterized in cultured organisms. The observed high eukaryotic IBP expression in natural eukaryotic sea ice communities underlines the essential role of IBPs for survival of many microorganisms in communities living under the extreme conditions of polar sea ice. PMID:25885562

  15. Seasonal sea ice predictions for the Arctic based on assimilation of remotely sensed observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauker, F.; Kaminski, T.; Ricker, R.; Toudal-Pedersen, L.; Dybkjaer, G.; Melsheimer, C.; Eastwood, S.; Sumata, H.; Karcher, M.; Gerdes, R.

    2015-10-01

    The recent thinning and shrinking of the Arctic sea ice cover has increased the interest in seasonal sea ice forecasts. Typical tools for such forecasts are numerical models of the coupled ocean sea ice system such as the North Atlantic/Arctic Ocean Sea Ice Model (NAOSIM). The model uses as input the initial state of the system and the atmospheric boundary condition over the forecasting period. This study investigates the potential of remotely sensed ice thickness observations in constraining the initial model state. For this purpose it employs a variational assimilation system around NAOSIM and the Alfred Wegener Institute's CryoSat-2 ice thickness product in conjunction with the University of Bremen's snow depth product and the OSI SAF ice concentration and sea surface temperature products. We investigate the skill of predictions of the summer ice conditions starting in March for three different years. Straightforward assimilation of the above combination of data streams results in slight improvements over some regions (especially in the Beaufort Sea) but degrades the over-all fit to independent observations. A considerable enhancement of forecast skill is demonstrated for a bias correction scheme for the CryoSat-2 ice thickness product that uses a spatially varying scaling factor.

  16. Airborne lidar measurements of surface ozone depletion over Arctic sea ice

    OpenAIRE

    Seabrook, J. A.; Whiteway, J. A.; Gray, L. H.; Staebler, R.; A. Herber

    2013-01-01

    A differential absorption lidar (DIAL) for measurement of atmospheric ozone concentration was operated aboard the Polar 5 research aircraft in order to study the depletion of ozone over Arctic sea ice. The lidar measurements during a flight over the sea ice north of Barrow, Alaska, on 3 April 2011 found a surface boundary layer depletion of ozone over a range of 300 km. The photochemical destruction of surface level ozone was strongest at the most northern point of the flight, and steadily de...

  17. Sea ice melt onset dynamics in the northern Canadian Arctic Archipelago from RADARSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, M. S.; Howell, S.; Geldsetzer, T.; Yackel, J.

    2015-12-01

    Sea ice melt onset, the appearance of liquid water in its snow cover, decreases surface albedo which increases shortwave absorption and thereby accelerates snow and sea ice melting. Earlier melt onset leads to the earlier formation of open water which enhances the ice-albedo feedback. Sea ice melt onset timing and duration vary considerably, both spatially and temporally, owing to variability in atmospheric forcing; this in turn influences the September sea ice extent. Sea ice melt onset variability has been investigated using coarse resolution passive microwave observation in Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA); however, this does not provide sufficient information about sea ice melt dynamics. We developed a new melt onset algorithm using high resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images from RADARSAT to better understand sea ice melt onset dynamics in northern Canadian Arctic Archipelago (fig 1) from 1997 to 2014. The algorithm is based on the temporal evolution of the SAR backscatter coefficient (σo), using separate thresholds for seasonal first-year ice and multi-year ice. Results indicated that the mean annual average melt onset date in the northern CAA was on year day 164 (mid-June) with a standard deviation of 4 days over the 18 year period. No significant trend for melt onset date was found over the 18 year period (fig: 2) but extreme early melt onset was detected in 1998 and 2012 associated with anomalous atmospheric forcing. Spatially, sea ice onset over the entire northern CAA varied from a 10-day minimum in 2007, to a 35-day maximum in 2011 and exhibited negative correlation (r=0.70) with the rate of increase in surface air temperature (fig 3) derived from Extended AVHRR Polar Pathfinder (APP-x) dataset. An earlier (later) melt onset also results in light (heavier) September sea ice area in the northern CAA (fig 4).

  18. Changes in Arctic and Antarctic Sea Ice as a Microcosm of Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    2014-01-01

    Polar sea ice is a key element of the climate system and has now been monitored through satellite observations for over three and a half decades. The satellite observations reveal considerable information about polar ice and its changes since the late 1970s, including a prominent downward trend in Arctic sea ice coverage and a much lesser upward trend in Antarctic sea ice coverage, illustrative of the important fact that climate change entails spatial contrasts. The decreasing ice coverage in the Arctic corresponds well with contemporaneous Arctic warming and exhibits particularly large decreases in the summers of 2007 and 2012, influenced by both preconditioning and atmospheric conditions. The increasing ice coverage in the Antarctic is not as readily explained, but spatial differences in the Antarctic trends suggest a possible connection with atmospheric circulation changes that have perhaps been influenced by the Antarctic ozone hole. The changes in the polar ice covers and the issues surrounding those changes have many commonalities with broader climate changes and their surrounding issues, allowing the sea ice changes to be viewed in some important ways as a microcosm of global climate change.

  19. Arctic sea ice area in CMIP3 and CMIP5 climate model ensembles – variability and change

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Semenov; Martin, T.; Behrens, L. K.; M Latif

    2015-01-01

    The shrinking Arctic sea ice cover observed during the last decades is probably the clearest manifestation of ongoing climate change. While climate models in general reproduce the sea ice retreat in the Arctic during the 20th century and simulate further sea ice area loss during the 21st century in response to anthropogenic forcing, the models suffer from large biases and the model results exhibit considerable spread. The last generation of climate models from World Climate Research ...

  20. Surface water mass composition changes captured by cores of Arctic land-fast sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, I. J.; Eicken, H.; Mahoney, A. R.; Van Hale, R.; Gough, A. J.; Fukamachi, Y.; Jones, J.

    2016-04-01

    In the Arctic, land-fast sea ice growth can be influenced by fresher water from rivers and residual summer melt. This paper examines a method to reconstruct changes in water masses using oxygen isotope measurements of sea ice cores. To determine changes in sea water isotope composition over the course of the ice growth period, the output of a sea ice thermodynamic model (driven with reanalysis data, observations of snow depth, and freeze-up dates) is used along with sea ice oxygen isotope measurements and an isotopic fractionation model. Direct measurements of sea ice growth rates are used to validate the output of the sea ice growth model. It is shown that for sea ice formed during the 2011/2012 ice growth season at Barrow, Alaska, large changes in isotopic composition of the ocean waters were captured by the sea ice isotopic composition. Salinity anomalies in the ocean were also tracked by moored instruments. These data indicate episodic advection of meteoric water, having both lower salinity and lower oxygen isotopic composition, during the winter sea ice growth season. Such advection of meteoric water during winter is surprising, as no surface meltwater and no local river discharge should be occurring at this time of year in that area. How accurately changes in water masses as indicated by oxygen isotope composition can be reconstructed using oxygen isotope analysis of sea ice cores is addressed, along with methods/strategies that could be used to further optimize the results. The method described will be useful for winter detection of meteoric water presence in Arctic fast ice regions, which is important for climate studies in a rapidly changing Arctic. Land-fast sea ice effective fractionation coefficients were derived, with a range of +1.82‰ to +2.52‰. Those derived effective fractionation coefficients will be useful for future water mass component proportion calculations. In particular, the equations given can be used to inform choices made when

  1. Assessing the controllability of Arctic sea ice extent by sulfate aerosol geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, L. S.; Crook, J. A.; Jarvis, A.; Leedal, D.; Ridgwell, A.; Vaughan, N.; Forster, P. M.

    2015-02-01

    In an assessment of how Arctic sea ice cover could be remediated in a warming world, we simulated the injection of SO2 into the Arctic stratosphere making annual adjustments to injection rates. We treated one climate model realization as a surrogate "real world" with imperfect "observations" and no rerunning or reference to control simulations. SO2 injection rates were proposed using a novel model predictive control regime which incorporated a second simpler climate model to forecast "optimal" decision pathways. Commencing the simulation in 2018, Arctic sea ice cover was remediated by 2043 and maintained until solar geoengineering was terminated. We found quantifying climate side effects problematic because internal climate variability hampered detection of regional climate changes beyond the Arctic. Nevertheless, through decision maker learning and the accumulation of at least 10 years time series data exploited through an annual review cycle, uncertainties in observations and forcings were successfully managed.

  2. Circumpolar Arctic greening: Relationships to summer sea-ice concentrations, land temperatures and disturbance regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D. A.; Bhatt, U. S.; Epstein, H. E.; Raynolds, M. K.; Frost, G. V.; Leibman, M. O.; Khomutov, A.; Jia, G.; Comiso, J. C.; Pinzon, J. E.; Tucker, C. J.; Webber, P. J.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2009-12-01

    The global distribution of Arctic tundra vegetation is closely tied to the presence of summer sea ice. Models predict that the reduction of sea ice will cause large changes to summer land-surface temperatures. Warming combined with increased natural and anthropogenic disturbance are expected to greatly increase arctic tundra productivity. To examine where tundra productivity is changing most rapidly, we studied 1982-2008 trends of sea-ice concentrations, summer warmth index (SWI) and the annual Maximum Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (MaxNDVI). We summarize the results according to the tundra adjacent to 14 Arctic seas. Sea-ice concentrations have declined and summer land temperatures have increased in all parts of the Arctic coast. The overall percentage increase in Arctic MaxNDVI was +7%. The trend was much greater in North America (+11%) than in Eurasia (+4%). Large percentage increases of MaxNDVI occurred inland from Davis Straight (+20%), Baffin Bay (+18%), Canadian Archipelago (+14%), Beaufort Sea (+12%), and Laptev Sea (+8%). Declines occurred in the W. Chukchi (-6%) and E. Bering (-5%) seas. The changes in NDVI are strongly correlated to changes in summer ground temperatures. Two examples from a 900-km north-south Arctic transect in Russia and long-term observations at a High Arctic site in Canada provide insights to where the changes in productivity are occurring most rapidly. At tree line near Kharp in northwest Siberia, alder shrubs are expanding vigorously in fire-disturbed areas; seedling establishment is occurring primarily in areas with disturbed mineral soils, particularly nonsorted circles. In the Low Arctic tundra areas of the central Yamal Peninsula greening is concentrated in riparian areas and upland landslides associated with degrading massive ground ice, where low-willow shrublands replace the zonal sedge, dwarf-shrub tundra growing on nutrient-poor sands. In polar desert landscapes near the Barnes Ice Cap, Baffin Island, Canada

  3. Advancing the understanding of variations of Arctic sea ice optical and thermal behaviors through an international research and mobility project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcel Nicolaus; LEI Ruibo; LI Qun; LU Peng; Caixin Wang; Sebastian Gerland; LI Na; LI Zhijun; Bin Cheng; Don K Perovich; Mats A Granskog; SHI Liqiong

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, significant changes of Arctic sea ice have taken place. These changes are expected to influence the surface energy balance of the ice-covered Arctic Ocean. To quantify this energy balance and to increase our understanding of mechanisms leading to observed changes in the Arctic sea ice, the project“Advancing Modelling and Observing solar Radiation of Arctic sea ice—understanding changes and processes (AMORA)”was initiated and conducted from 2009 to 2013. AMORA was funded and organized under a frame of Norway-China bilateral collaboration program with partners from Finland, Germany, and the USA. The primary goal of the project was achieved by developing an autonomous spectral radiation buoy, deploying it on drifting sea ice close to the North Pole, and receiving a high-resolution time series of spectral radiation over and under sea ice from spring (before melt onset) to autumn (after freeze-up) 2012. Beyond this, in-situ sea ice data were collected during several ifeld campaigns and simulations of snow and sea ice thermodynamics were performed. More autonomous measurements are available through deployments of sea ice mass balance buoys. These new observational data along with numerical model studies are helping us to better understand the key thermodynamic processes of Arctic sea ice and changes in polar climate. A strong scientiifc, but also cultural exchange between Norway, China, and the partners from the USA and Europe initiated new collaborations in Arctic reseach.

  4. Atmospheric response in summer linked to recent Arctic sea ice loss

    OpenAIRE

    Petrie, Ruth E.; Shaffrey, Len C.; Sutton, Rowan T.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2007 a large decline in Arctic sea ice has been observed. The large-scale atmospheric circulation response to this decline is investigated in ERA-Interim reanalyses and HadGEM3 climate model experiments. In winter, post-2007 observed circulation anomalies over the Arctic, North Atlantic and Eurasia are small compared to interannual variability. In summer, the post-2007 observed circulation is dominated by an anticyclonic anomaly over Greenland which has a large signal-to-noise ratio. Cl...

  5. Cyclone impact on sea ice in the central Arctic Ocean: a statistical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kriegsmann

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of cyclones on the Arctic Ocean sea ice for the first time in a statistical manner. We apply the coupled ice–ocean model NAOSIM which is forced by the ECMWF analyses for the period 2006–2008. Cyclone position and radius detected in the ECMWF data are used to extract fields of wind, ice drift, and concentration from the ice–ocean model. Composite fields around the cyclone centre are calculated for different cyclone intensities, the four seasons, and different regions of the Arctic Ocean. In total about 3500 cyclone events are analyzed. In general, cyclones reduce the ice concentration on the order of a few percent increasing towards the cyclone centre. This is confirmed by independent AMSR-E satellite data. The reduction increases with cyclone intensity and is most pronounced in summer and on the Siberian side of the Arctic Ocean. For the Arctic ice cover the impact of cyclones has climatologic consequences. In winter, the cyclone-induced openings refreeze so that the ice mass is increased. In summer, the openings remain open and the ice melt is accelerated via the positive albedo feedback. Strong summer storms on the Siberian side of the Arctic Ocean may have been important reasons for the recent ice extent minima in 2007 and 2012.

  6. Snow and sea ice thermodynamics in the Arctic: Model validation and sensitivity study against SHEBA data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Bin; Timo Vihma; ZHANG Zhan-hai; LI Zhi-jun; WU Hui-ding

    2008-01-01

    Evolution of the Arctic sea ice and its snow cover during the SHEBA year were simulated by applying a high-resolution thermodynamic snow/ice model (HIGHTSI). Attention was paid to the impact of albedo on snow and sea ice mass balance, effect of snow on total ice mass balance, and the model vertical resolution.The SHEBA annual simulation was made applying the best possible external forcing data set created by the Sea Ice Model Intercomparison Project. The HIGHTSI control run reasonably reproduced the observed snow and ice thickness. A number of albedo schemes were incorporated into HIGHTSI to study the feedhack processes between the albedo and snow and ice thickness. The snow thickness turned out to be an essential variable in the albedo parametetization. Albedo schemes dependent on the surface temperature were liable to excessive positive feedback effects generated by errors in the modelled surface temperature. The superimposed ice formation should be taken into account for the annual Arctic sea ice mass balance.

  7. Sensitivity of Pliocene Arctic climate to orbital forcing, atmospheric CO2 and sea ice albedo parameterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Fergus W.; Haywood, Alan M.; Dowsett, Harry J.; Pickering, Steven J.

    2016-05-01

    General circulation model (GCM) simulations of the mid-Pliocene Warm Period (mPWP, 3.264 to 3.025 Myr ago) do not reproduce the magnitude of Northern Hemisphere high latitude surface air and sea surface temperature (SAT and SST) warming that proxy data indicate. There is also large uncertainty regarding the state of sea ice cover in the mPWP. Evidence for both perennial and seasonal mPWP Arctic sea ice is found through analyses of marine sediments, whilst in a multi-model ensemble of mPWP climate simulations, half of the ensemble simulated ice-free summer Arctic conditions. Given the strong influence that sea ice exerts on high latitude temperatures, an understanding of the nature of mPWP Arctic sea ice would be highly beneficial. Using the HadCM3 GCM, this paper explores the impact of various combinations of potential mPWP orbital forcing, atmospheric CO2 concentrations and minimum sea ice albedo on sea ice extent and high latitude warming. The focus is on the Northern Hemisphere, due to availability of proxy data, and the large data-model discrepancies in this region. Changes in orbital forcings are demonstrated to be sufficient to alter the Arctic sea ice simulated by HadCM3 from perennial to seasonal. However, this occurs only when atmospheric CO2 concentrations exceed 300 ppm. Reduction of the minimum sea ice albedo from 0.5 to 0.2 is also sufficient to simulate seasonal sea ice, with any of the combinations of atmospheric CO2 and orbital forcing. Compared to a mPWP control simulation, monthly mean increases north of 60°N of up to 4.2 °C (SST) and 9.8 °C (SAT) are simulated. With varying CO2, orbit and sea ice albedo values we are able to reproduce proxy temperature records that lean towards modest levels of high latitude warming, but other proxy data showing greater warming remain beyond the reach of our model. This highlights the importance of additional proxy records at high latitudes and ongoing efforts to compare proxy signals between sites.

  8. Robust seasonal cycle of Arctic sea ice area through tipping point in amplitude

    CERN Document Server

    Ditlevsen, Peter D

    2012-01-01

    The variation in the Arctic sea ice is dominated by the seasonal cycle with little inter-annual correlation. Though the mean sea ice area has decreased steadily in the period of satellite observations, a dramatic transition in the dynamics was initiated with the record low September ice area in 2007. The change is much more pronounced in the amplitude of the seasonal cycle than in the annual mean ice area. The shape of the seasonal cycle is surprisingly constant for the whole observational record despite the general decline. A simple explanation, independent of the increased greenhouse warming, for the shape of the seasonal cycle is offered. Thus the dramatic climate change in arctic ice area is seen in the amplitude of the cycle and to a lesser extend the annual mean and the summer ice extend. The reason why the climate change is most pronounced in the amplitude is related to the rapid reduction in perennial ice and thus a thinning of the ice. The analysis shows that a tipping point for the arctic ice area w...

  9. Arctic sea ice and atmospheric circulation under the abrupt4xCO2 scenario

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiaoyong; Annette Rinke; JI Duoying; CUI Xuefeng; John C Moore

    2014-01-01

    We analyze sea ice changes from eight different earth system models that have conducted experiment abrupt4xCO2 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). In response to abrupt quadrupling of CO2 from preindustrial levels, Arctic temperatures dramatically rise by about 10°C—16°C in winter and the seasonal sea ice cycle and sea ice concentration are signiifcantly changed compared with the pre-industrial control simulations (piControl). Changes of Arctic sea ice concentration are spatially correlated with temperature patterns in all seasons and highest in autumn. Changes in sea ice are associated with changes in atmospheric circulation patterns at heights up to the jet stream. While the pattern of sea level pressure changes is generally similar to the surface air temperature change pattern, the wintertime 500 hPa circulation displays a positive Paciifc North America (PNA) anomaly under abrupt4xCO2-piControl. This large scale teleconnection may contribute to, or feedback on, the simulated sea ice cover change and is associated with an intensiifcation of the jet stream over East Asia and the north Paciifc in winter.

  10. The delivery of organic contaminants to the Arctic food web: Why sea ice matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pucko, M.; Stern, Gary; Macdonald, Robie;

    2015-01-01

    For decades sea ice has been perceived as a physical barrier for the loading of contaminants to the Arctic Ocean. We show that sea ice, in fact, facilitates the delivery of organic contaminants to the Arctic marine food web through processes that: 1) are independent of contaminant physical......–chemical properties (e.g. 2–3-fold increase in exposure to brine-associated biota), and 2) depend on physical–chemical properties and, therefore, differentiate between contaminants (e.g. atmospheric loading of contaminants to melt ponds over the summer, and their subsequent leakage to the ocean). We estimate...... the concentrations of legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and current-use pesticides (CUPs) in melt pond water in the Beaufort Sea, Canadian High Arctic, in 2008, at near-gas exchange equilibriumbased on Henry's lawconstants (HLCs), air concentrations and exchange dynamics. CUPs currently present the highest...

  11. Melt ponds on Arctic sea ice determined from MODIS satellite data using an artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rösel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Melt ponds on sea ice strongly reduce the surface albedo and accelerate the decay of Arctic sea ice. Due to different spectral properties of snow, ice, and water, the fractional coverage of these distinct surface types can be derived from multispectral sensors like the Moderate Resolution Image Spectroradiometer (MODIS using a spectral unmixing algorithm. The unmixing was implemented using a multilayer perceptron to reduce computational costs.

    Arctic-wide melt pond fractions and sea ice concentrations are derived from the level 3 MODIS surface reflectance product. The validation of the MODIS melt pond data set was conducted with aerial photos from the MELTEX campaign 2008 in the Beaufort Sea, data sets from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC for 2000 and 2001 from four sites spread over the entire Arctic, and with ship observations from the trans-Arctic HOTRAX cruise in 2005. The root-mean-square errors range from 3.8 % for the comparison with HOTRAX data, over 10.7 % for the comparison with NSIDC data, to 10.3 % and 11.4 % for the comparison with MELTEX data, with coefficient of determination ranging from R2=0.28 to R2=0.45. The mean annual cycle of the melt pond fraction per grid cell for the entire Arctic shows a strong increase in June, reaching a maximum of 15 % by the end of June. The zonal mean of melt pond fractions indicates a dependence of the temporal development of melt ponds on the geographical latitude, and has its maximum in mid-July at latitudes between 80° and 88° N.

    Furthermore, the MODIS results are used to estimate the influence of melt ponds on retrievals of sea ice concentrations from passive microwave data. Results from a case study comparing sea ice concentrations from ARTIST Sea Ice-, NASA Team 2-, and Bootstrap-algorithms with MODIS sea ice concentrations indicate an underestimation of around 40 % for sea ice concentrations retrieved with microwave

  12. Arctic Sea Ice Export Through Fram Strait and Atmospheric Planetary Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalieri, Donald J.; Koblinsky, Chester (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A link is found between the variability of Arctic sea ice export through Ram Strait and the phase of the longest atmospheric planetary wave (zonal wave 1) in SLP for the period 1958-1997. Previous studies have identified a link between From Strait ice export and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), but this link has been described as unstable because of a lack of consistency over time scales longer than the last two decades. Inconsistent and low correlations are also found between From Strait ice export and the Arctic Oscillation (AD) index. This paper shows that the phase of zonal wave 1 explains 60% - 70% of the simulated From Strait ice export variance over the Goodyear period 1958 - 1997. Unlike the NAB and AD links, these high variances are consistent for both the first and second halves of the Goodyear period. This consistency is attributed to the sensitivity of the wave I phase at high latitudes to the presence of secondary low pressure systems in the Barents Sea that serve to drive sea ice southward through From Strait. These results provide further evidence that the phase of zonal wave 1 in SLP at high latitudes drives regional as well as hemispheric low frequency Arctic Ocean and sea ice variability.

  13. On the influence of model physics on simulations of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Massonnet

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Two hindcast (1983–2007 simulations are performed with the global, ocean-sea ice models NEMO-LIM2 and NEMO-LIM3 driven by atmospheric reanalyses and climatologies. The two simulations differ only in their sea ice component, while all other elements of experimental design (resolution, initial conditions, atmospheric forcing are kept identical. The main differences in the sea ice models lie in the formulation of the subgrid-scale ice thickness distribution, of the thermodynamic processes, of the sea ice salinity and of the sea ice rheology. To assess the differences in model skill over the period of investigation, we develop a set of metrics for both hemispheres, comparing the main sea ice variables (concentration, thickness and drift to available observations and focusing on both mean state and seasonal to interannual variability. Based upon these metrics, we discuss the physical processes potentially responsible for the differences in model skill. In particular, we suggest that (i a detailed representation of the ice thickness distribution increases the seasonal to interannual variability of ice extent, with spectacular improvement for the simulation of the recent observed summer Arctic sea ice retreats, (ii the elastic-viscous-plastic rheology enhances the response of ice to wind stress, compared to the classical viscous-plastic approach, (iii the grid formulation and the air-sea ice drag coefficient affect the simulated ice export through Fram Strait and the ice accumulation along the Canadian Archipelago, and (iv both models show less skill in the Southern Ocean, probably due to the low quality of the reanalyses in this region and to the absence of important small-scale oceanic processes at the models' resolution (~1°.

  14. An analytical model for wind-driven Arctic summer sea ice drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H.-S.; Stewart, A. L.

    2016-01-01

    The authors present an analytical model for wind-driven free drift of sea ice that allows for an arbitrary mixture of ice and open water. The model includes an ice-ocean boundary layer with an Ekman spiral, forced by transfers of wind-input momentum both through the sea ice and directly into the open water between the ice floes. The analytical tractability of this model allows efficient calculation of the ice velocity provided that the surface wind field is known and that the ocean geostrophic velocity is relatively weak. The model predicts that variations in the ice thickness or concentration should substantially modify the rotation of the velocity between the 10 m winds, the sea ice, and the ocean. Compared to recent observational data from the first ice-tethered profiler with a velocity sensor (ITP-V), the model is able to capture the dependencies of the ice speed and the wind/ice/ocean turning angles on the wind speed. The model is used to derive responses to intensified southerlies on Arctic summer sea ice concentration, and the results are shown to compare closely with satellite observations.

  15. Improved Arctic sea ice thickness projections using bias corrected CMIP5 simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, N.; Haines, K.; Hawkins, E.

    2015-07-01

    Projections of Arctic sea ice thickness (SIT) have the potential to inform stakeholders about accessibility to the region, but are currently rather uncertain. The latest suite of CMIP5 Global Climate Models (GCMs) produce a wide range of simulated SIT in the historical period (1979-2014) and exhibit various spatial and temporal biases when compared with the Pan-Arctic Ice Ocean Modelling and Assimilation System (PIOMAS) sea ice reanalysis. We present a new method to constrain such GCM simulations of SIT to narrow projection uncertainty via a statistical bias correction technique. The bias correction successfully constrains the spatial SIT distribution and temporal variability in the CMIP5 projections whilst retaining the climatic fluctuations from individual ensemble members. The bias correction acts to reduce the uncertainty in projections of SIT and reveals the significant contributions of sea ice internal variability in the first half of the century and of scenario uncertainty from mid-century onwards. The projected date of ice-free conditions in the Arctic under the RCP8.5 high emission scenario occurs in the 2050s, which is a decade earlier than without the bias correction, with potentially significant implications for stakeholders in the Arctic such as the shipping industry. The bias correction methodology developed could be similarly applied to other variables to narrow uncertainty in climate projections more generally.

  16. Environmental Working Group Joint U.S.-Russian Arctic Sea Ice Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Note: The Russian chart component of this product has been replaced and updated by Sea Ice Charts of the Russian Arctic in Gridded Format, 1933-2006 and the U.S...

  17. Does Change in the Arctic Sea Ice Indicate Climate Change? A Lesson Using Geospatial Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Judith K.

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic sea ice has not since melted to the 2007 extent, but annual summer melt extents do continue to be less than the decadal average. Climate fluctuations are well documented by geologic records. Averages are usually based on a minimum of 10 years of averaged data. It is typical for fluctuations to occur from year to year and season to…

  18. Influence of projected Arctic sea ice loss on polar stratospheric ozone and circulation in spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of projected Arctic sea ice loss on the stratosphere is investigated using the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM), a state-of-the-art coupled chemistry climate model. Two 91-year simulations are conducted: one with a repeating seasonal cycle of Arctic sea ice for the late twentieth-century, taken from the fully coupled WACCM historical run; the other with Arctic sea ice for the late twenty-first century, obtained from the fully coupled WACCM RCP8.5 run. In response to Arctic sea ice loss, polar cap stratospheric ozone decreases by 13 DU (34 DU at the North Pole) in spring, confirming the results of Scinocca et al (2009 Geophys. Res. Lett. 36 L24701). The ozone loss is dynamically initiated in March by a suppression of upward-propagating planetary waves, possibly related to the destructive interference between the forced wave number 1 and its climatology. The diminished upward wave propagation, in turn, weakens the Brewer–Dobson circulation at high latitudes, strengthens the polar vortex, and cools the polar stratosphere. The ozone reduction persists until the polar vortex breaks down in late spring. (letter)

  19. Ship-borne electromagnetic induction sounding of sea ice thickness in the Arctic during summer 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Shirasawa,Kunio /Tateyama,Kazutaka /Takatsuka,Toru /Kawamura,Toshiyuki /Uto,Shotaro

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of ice thickness were carried out by a ship-borne electromagnetic induction instrument mounted on the R/V Xuelong during the Second Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition (CHINARE-2003) in summer 2003 in the Chukchi Sea. A 1-D multi-layer model, consisting of three layers of snow, ice and seawater, was used to calculate the total thickness of snow and sea ice. The time series of total thickness from 24 August to 7 September 2003 indicates that deformed and second-/multi-year...

  20. Modeling the 20th century Arctic Ocean/Sea ice system: Reconstruction of surface forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauker, Frank; KöBerle, Cornelia; Gerdes, Rüdiger; Karcher, Michael

    2008-09-01

    The ability to simulate the past variability of the sea ice-ocean system is of fundamental interest for the identification of key processes and the evaluation of scenarios of future developments. To achieve this goal atmospheric surface fields are reconstructed by statistical means for the period 1900 to 1997 and applied to a coupled sea ice-ocean model of the North Atlantic/Arctic Ocean. We devised a statistical model using a redundancy analysis to reconstruct the atmospheric fields. Several sets of predictor and predictand fields are used for reconstructions on different time scales. The predictor fields are instrumental records available as gridded or station data sets of sea level pressure and surface air temperature. The predictands are surface fields from the NCAR/NCEP reanalysis. Spatial patterns are selected by maximizing predictand variance during a "learning" period. The reliability of these patterns is tested in a validation period. The ensemble of reconstructions is checked for robustness by mutual comparison and an "optimal" reconstruction is selected. Results of the simulations with the sea ice-ocean model are compared with historical sea ice extent observations for the Arctic and Nordic Seas. The results obtained with the "optimal" reconstruction are shown to be highly consistent with these historical data. An analysis of simulated trends of the "early 20th century warming" and the recent warming in the Arctic complete the manuscript.

  1. Arctic sea ice freeboard from AltiKa and comparison with CryoSat-2 and Operation IceBridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Thomas W. K.; Ridout, Andy L.

    2015-08-01

    Satellite radar altimeters have improved our knowledge of Arctic sea ice thickness over the past decade. The main sources of uncertainty in sea ice thickness retrievals are associated with inadequate knowledge of the snow layer depth and the radar interaction with the snow pack. Here we adapt a method of deriving sea ice freeboard from CryoSat-2 to data from the AltiKa Ka band radar altimeter over the 2013-14 Arctic sea ice growth season. AltiKa measures basin-averaged freeboards between 4.4 cm and 6.9 cm larger than CryoSat-2 in October and March, respectively. Using airborne laser and radar measurements from spring 2013 and 2014, we estimate the effective scattering horizon for each sensor. While CryoSat-2 echoes penetrate to the ice surface over first-year ice and penetrate the majority (82 ± 3%) of the snow layer over multiyear ice, AltiKa echoes are scattered from roughly the midpoint (46 ± 5%) of the snow layer over both ice types.

  2. Sea Ice Deformation Rates in the Arctic: from Wind-Driven Synoptic Variability to Seasonal Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, O.; Herman, A.

    2012-12-01

    Deformation mechanisms of the Arctic Ocean ice sheet are characterized by high spatial and temporal variability, in which ice ridges and leads tend to be concentrated in elongated, narrow zones. Present state-of-the-art numerical models, especially those based on various versions of viscous-plastic rheology, are still far from perfection in terms of reproducing localized and intermittent characteristics of sea ice deformation. In this study, the relationship (and its variability) between scaling properties of sea ice deformation and 10-m wind speed is analyzed. We used NCEP-DOE Reanalysis 2 data to determine area-averaged atmospheric drag force. Gridded sea ice total deformation rates from Radarsat Geophysical Processor System (RGPS) data were obtained from the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, with a time resolution of 3 days and a spatial resolution of 12.55 km. Our analysis covers 11 winter seasons from 1996/1997 to 2007/2008. We calculated the moments mq, L of probability distribution functions (pdfs) of total sea ice deformation rates for a range of spatial scales L. The logarithms of the moments are significantly correlated with basin-scale wind forcing, especially for low values of q (with Pearson correlation coefficient reaching 0.7). It can be well-described by simplified momentum equations and a very general rheology model. Furthermore, the strength of this relationship varies seasonally and reaches its minimum in March, due to changeable thickness and consolidation of the Arctic Ocean ice sheet. This effect is clearly seen in comparison with trend lines of time-varying values of moments. Finally, there is a positive trend in seasonally-averaged power of correlation, which is probably associated with decreasing area of the multi-year ice. As a result, the course of sea ice deformation process in the Arctic is a possible indicator of climate change.

  3. Snow thickness retrieval over thick Arctic sea ice using SMOS satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Maaß

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The microwave interferometric radiometer of the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS mission measures at a frequency of 1.4 GHz in the L-band. In contrast to other microwave satellites, low frequency measurements in L-band have a large penetration depth in sea ice and thus contain information on the ice thickness. Previous ice thickness retrievals have neglected a snow layer on top of the ice. Here, we implement a snow layer in our emission model and investigate how snow influences L-band brightness temperatures and whether it is possible to retrieve snow thickness over thick Arctic sea ice from SMOS data. We find that the brightness temperatures above snow-covered sea ice are higher than above bare sea ice and that horizontal polarisation is more affected by the snow layer than vertical polarisation. In accordance with our theoretical investigations, the root mean square deviation between simulated and observed horizontally polarised brightness temperatures decreases from 20.9 K to 4.7 K, when we include the snow layer in the simulations. Although dry snow is almost transparent in L-band, we find brightness temperatures to increase with increasing snow thickness under cold Arctic conditions. The brightness temperatures' dependence on snow thickness can be explained by the thermal insulation of snow and its dependence on the snow layer thickness. This temperature effect allows us to retrieve snow thickness over thick sea ice. For the best simulation scenario and snow thicknesses up to 35 cm, the average snow thickness retrieved from horizontally polarised SMOS brightness temperatures agrees within 0.1 cm with the average snow thickness measured during the IceBridge flight campaign in the Arctic in spring 2012. The corresponding root mean square deviation is 5.5 cm, and the coefficient of determination is r2 = 0.58.

  4. Monitoring Sea Ice Conditions and Use in Arctic Alaska to Enhance Community Adaptation to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckenmiller, M. L.; Eicken, H.

    2010-12-01

    Sea ice changes in the coastal zone, while less conspicuous in relation to the dramatic thinning and retreat of perennial Arctic sea ice, can be more readily linked to local impacts. Shorefast ice is a unique area for interdisciplinary research aimed at improving community adaptation to climate through local-scale environmental observations. Here, geophysical monitoring, local Iñupiat knowledge, and the documented use of ice by the Native hunting community of Barrow, Alaska are combined to relate coastal ice processes and morphologies in the Chukchi Sea to ice stability and community adaption strategies for travel, hunting, and risk assessment. A multi-year effort to map and survey the community’s seasonal ice trails, alongside a detailed record of shorefast ice conditions, provides insight into how hunters evaluate the evolution of ice throughout winter and spring. Various data sets are integrated to relate the annual accretion history of the local ice cover to both measurements of ice thickness and topography and hunter observations of ice types and hazards. By relating changes in the timing of shorefast ice stabilization, offshore ice conditions, and winter wind patterns to ice characteristics in locations where spring bowhead whaling occurs, we are working toward an integrated scientific product compatible with the perspective of local ice experts. A baseline for assessing future change and community climate-related vulnerabilities may not be characterized by single variables, such as ice thickness, but rather by how changes in observable variables manifest in impacts to human activities. This research matches geophysical data to ice-use to establish such a baseline. Documenting human-environment interactions will allow future monitoring to illustrate how strategies for continued community ice-use are indicative of or responsive to change, and potentially capable of incorporating science products as additional sources of useable information.

  5. Analysis of an Arctic sea ice loss model in the limit of a discontinuous albedo

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Kaitlin; Silber, Mary

    2015-01-01

    As Arctic sea ice extent decreases with increasing greenhouse gases, there is a growing interest in whether there could be a bifurcation associated with its loss, and whether there is significant hysteresis associated with that bifurcation. A challenge in answering this question is that the bifurcation behavior of certain Arctic energy balance models have been shown to be sensitive to how ice-albedo feedback is parameterized. We analyze an Arctic energy balance model in the limit as a smoothing parameter associated with ice-albedo feedback tends to zero, which makes the system piecewise-smooth. Our analysis provides a case study where we use the piecewise-smooth system to explore bifurcation behavior of the smooth system. In this case study, we demonstrate that certain qualitative bifurcation behaviors of the smooth system can have nonsmooth counterparts. We use this perspective to systematically search parameter space. For example, we uncover parameter sets for which the largest transition, with increasing g...

  6. Atmospheric response to the autumn sea-ice free Arctic and its detectability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Lingling; Gao, Yongqi; Guo, Dong; Liu, Jiping; Wang, Huijun; Johannessen, Ola M.

    2016-04-01

    We have used an Atmospheric General Circulation Model with a large ensemble (300) to explore the atmospheric responses during the autumn-winter (September to February) to the projected sea-ice free Arctic in autumn (September to November). The detectability of the responses against the internal variability has also been studied. Three ensemble experiments have been performed, the control (CONT) forced by the simulated present-day Arctic sea-ice concentration (SIC) and sea surface temperature (SST), the second forced by the projected autumn Arctic SIC free and present-day SSTs (SENSICE) and the third forced by the projected autumn Arctic SIC free and projected SSTs (SENS). The results show that the disappearance of autumn Arctic sea-ice can cause significant synchronous near-surface warming and increased precipitation over the regions where the sea-ice is removed. The changes in autumn surface heat flux (sensible plus latent), surface air temperature (SAT) and precipitation averaged over the sea-ice reduction region between the SENS and the CONT are about 46, 43 and 50 % more respectively than the changes between the SENSICE and the CONT, which is consistent with the prescribed boundary setting: the surface temperature warming averaged over the sea-ice reduction region in the SENS relative to the CONT is 48 % higher than that in the SENSICE relative to the CONT. The response shows a significant negative Arctic Oscillation (AO) in the troposphere during autumn and December. However, the negative AO does not persist into January-February (JF). Instead, 500 hPa geopotential height (GH) response presents a wave train like pattern in JF which is related to the downstream propagation of the planetary wave perturbations during November-December. The SAT increases over northern Eurasia in JF in accordance with the atmosphere circulation changes. The comparison of the atmosphere response with the atmosphere internal variability (AIV) shows that the responses of SAT and

  7. Interplay between linear, dissipative and permanently critical mechanical processes in Arctic sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chmel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical processes in the Arctic ice pack result in fragmented sea ice cover, the regular geometry of which could be described in main features in terms of the conventional mechanics. However, the size distribution of sea ice floes does not exhibit the random (poissonian-like statistics and follows the power law typical for self-similar (fractal structures. The analysis of ice floe oscillations in the frequency range specific for cracking, shearing and stick-slip motion evidences the self-organized dynamics of sea ice fracturing, which manifests itself in scaling distributions of both the discrete energy discharges in fracture events and the recurrence times between that one. So determined space-time-energy self-similarity characterises the ice pack as the non-equilibrium, nonlinear thermodynamic system where the synergic relations are established through conventional long propagating wave/oscillations. The presented experimental data were collected at the Russian ice-research camp "North Pole 35" drifting on the Arctic ice pack in 2008.

  8. Projected polar bear sea ice habitat in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen G Hamilton

    Full Text Available Sea ice across the Arctic is declining and altering physical characteristics of marine ecosystems. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus have been identified as vulnerable to changes in sea ice conditions. We use sea ice projections for the Canadian Arctic Archipelago from 2006 - 2100 to gain insight into the conservation challenges for polar bears with respect to habitat loss using metrics developed from polar bear energetics modeling.Shifts away from multiyear ice to annual ice cover throughout the region, as well as lengthening ice-free periods, may become critical for polar bears before the end of the 21st century with projected warming. Each polar bear population in the Archipelago may undergo 2-5 months of ice-free conditions, where no such conditions exist presently. We identify spatially and temporally explicit ice-free periods that extend beyond what polar bears require for nutritional and reproductive demands.Under business-as-usual climate projections, polar bears may face starvation and reproductive failure across the entire Archipelago by the year 2100.

  9. Recent and future changes in Arctic sea ice simulated by the HadCM3 AOGCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, J. M.; Stott, P. A.; Cresswell, D. J.; Rayner, N. A.; Gordon, C.; Sexton, D. M. H.

    2002-12-01

    The HadCM3 AOGCM has been used to undertake an ensemble of four integrations from 1860 to 1999 with forcings due to all major anthropogenic and natural climate factors. The simulated decreasing trend in average Arctic sea ice extent for 1970-1999 (-2.5% per decade) is very similar to observations. HadCM3 indicates that internal variability and natural forcings (solar and volcanic) of the climate system are very unlikely by themselves to have caused a trend of this size. The simulated decreasing trend in Arctic sea ice volume (-3.4% per decade for 1961-1998) is less than some recent observationally based estimates. Extending the integrations into the 21st century, Arctic sea ice area and volume continue to decline. Area decreases linearly as global-average temperature rises (by 13% per K), and volume diminishes more rapidly than area. By the end of the century, in some scenarios, the Arctic is ice-free in late summer.

  10. Determination of Sea Ice Freeboard in Arctic from ICESat: Case Study of 2005—2006

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Guodong; Li, Jiancheng; CHU Yonghai; Li, Dawei

    2015-01-01

    Based on variation characters of sea surface height and parameters of ICESat return pulse waveform, a method is proposed for estimating Arctic sea ice freeboard with ICESat observation. This proposed method is compared with the common ‘lowest-level’ method. The results show that the lowest-level method is vulnerable to gross errors and present systematic errors in spatial distribution of freeboard. But the proposed method is more reliable than the lowest-level method. The lowest-level method ...

  11. Real-Time Observations of Optical Properties of Arctic Sea Ice with an Autonomous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Gerland, S.; Nicolaus, M.; Granskog, M. A.; Hudson, S. R.; Perovich, D. K.; Karlsen, T. I.; Fossan, K.

    2012-12-01

    The recent drastic changes in the Arctic sea ice cover have altered the interaction of solar radiation and sea ice. To improve our understanding of this interaction, a Spectral Radiation Buoy (SRB) for measuring sea ice optical properties was developed, based on a system used during the last International Polar Year at the drift of "Tara" across the Arctic Ocean. A first version of the SRB was deployed on drifting ice in the high Arctic in April 2012. It includes three Satlantic spectral radiometers (two in air, one under ice), covering the wavelength range from 347 nm to 804 nm with 3.3 nm spectral resolution, a bio-shutter to protect the under-ice radiometer, a data logger to handle and store collected data, and an Iridium satellite modem to transfer data in real-time. The under-ice radiometer is mounted on an adjustable under-ice arm, and the other instruments are mounted on a triangular frame frozen into the ice. The SRB measures simultaneously, autonomously and continuously the spectral fluxes of incident and reflected solar radiation, as well as under-ice irradiance, water temperature and water pressure every hour. So far, between mid April and early August 2012, the system has drifted about 600 km, from the starting position near the North Pole towards the Fram Strait. The data collected during this deployment, so far, already demonstrate that this system is suitable for autonomous and long-term observations over and under sea ice in harsh conditions. Along with the SRB, commercially available Ice Mass Balance buoys (IMB) were deployed on the same ice floe. In the vicinity of the site, manned baseline measurements of snow and sea ice physical properties have been carried out during the SRB deployment. The combined datasets allow description of the evolution of the ice floe during seasonal melt. With snow melt, the spectral surface albedo decreased and the transmittance through the snow and ice increased after mid-April, especially when melt ponds started to

  12. Impact Studies of a 2 C Global Warming on the Arctic Sea Ice Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2004-01-01

    The possible impact of an increase in global temperatures of about 2 C, as may be caused by a doubling of atmospheric CO2, is studied using historical satellite records of surface temperatures and sea ice from late 1970s to 2003. Updated satellite data indicate that the perennial ice continued to decline at an even faster rate of 9.2 % per decade than previously reported while concurrently, the surface temperatures have steadily been going up in most places except for some parts of northern Russia. Surface temperature is shown to be highly correlated with sea ice concentration in the seasonal sea ice regions. Results of regression analysis indicates that for every 1 C increase in temperature, the perennial ice area decreases by about 1.48 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers with the correlation coefficient being significant but only -0.57. Arctic warming is estimated to be about 0.46 C per decade on average in the Arctic but is shown to be off center with respect to the North Pole, and is prominent mainly in the Western Arctic and North America. The length of melt has been increasing by 13 days per decade over sea ice covered areas suggesting a thinning in the ice cover. The length of melt also increased by 5 days per decade over Greenland, 7 days per decade over the permafrost areas of North America but practically no change in Eurasia. Statistically derived projections indicate that the perennial sea ice cover would decline considerably in 2025, 2035, and 2060 when temperatures are predicted by models to reach the 2 C global increase.

  13. Shifting El Niño inhibits summer Arctic warming and Arctic sea-ice melting over the Canada Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chundi; Yang, Song; Wu, Qigang; Li, Zhenning; Chen, Junwen; Deng, Kaiqiang; Zhang, Tuantuan; Zhang, Chengyang

    2016-06-01

    Arctic climate changes include not only changes in trends and mean states but also strong interannual variations in various fields. Although it is known that tropical-extratropical teleconnection is sensitive to changes in flavours of El Niño, whether Arctic climate variability is linked to El Niño, in particular on interannual timescale, remains unclear. Here we demonstrate for the first time a long-range linkage between central Pacific (CP) El Niño and summer Arctic climate. Observations show that the CP warming related to CP El Niño events deepens the tropospheric Arctic polar vortex and strengthens the circumpolar westerly wind, thereby contributing to inhibiting summer Arctic warming and sea-ice melting. Atmospheric model experiments can generally capture the observed responses of Arctic circulation and robust surface cooling to CP El Niño forcing. We suggest that identification of the equator-Arctic teleconnection, via the `atmospheric bridge', can potentially contribute to improving the skill of predicting Arctic climate.

  14. Linkages between Arctic sea ice cover, large-scale atmospheric circulation, and weather and ice conditions in the Gulf of Bothnia, Baltic Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Timo Vihma; Bin Cheng; Petteri Uotila; WEI Lixin; QIN Ting

    2014-01-01

    During years 1980/1981–2012/2013, inter-annual variations in sea ice and snow thickness in Kemi, in the northern coast of the Gulf of Bothnia, Baltic Sea, depended on the air temperature, snow fall, and rain. Inter-annual variations in the November—April mean air temperature, accumulated total precipitation, snow fall, and rain, as well as ice and snow thickness in Kemi and ice concentration in the Gulf of Bothnia correlated with inter-annual variations of the Paciifc Decadal Oscillation (PDO), Arctic Oscillation (AO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Scandinavian Pattern (SCA), and Polar / Eurasian Pattern (PEU). The strong role of PDO is a new ifnding. In general, the relationships with PDO were approximately equally strong as those with AO, but rain and sea ice concentration were better correlated with PDO. The correlations with PDO were, however, not persistent; for a study period since 1950 the correlations were much lower. During 1980/1981—2012/2013, also the Paciifc / North American Pattern (PNA) and El Nino–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) had statistical connections with the conditions in the Gulf of Bothnia, revealed by analyzing their effects combined with those of PDO and AO. A reduced autumn sea ice area in the Arctic was related to increased rain and total precipitation in the following winter in Kemi. This correlation was signiifcant for the Pan-Arctic sea ice area in September, October, and November, and for the November sea ice area in the Barents / Kara seas.

  15. National Ice Center Arctic Sea Ice Charts and Climatologies in Gridded Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Ice Center (NIC) is an inter-agency sea ice analysis and forecasting center comprised of the Department of Commerce/NOAA, the Department of...

  16. Differences between the bacterial community structures of first- and multi-year Arctic sea ice in the Lincoln Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatam, I.; Beckers, J. F.; Haas, C.; Lanoil, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic sea ice composition is shifting from predominantly thick perennial ice (multiyear ice -MYI) to thinner, seasonal ice (first year ice -FYI). The effects of the shift on the Arctic ecosystem and macro-organisms of the Arctic Ocean have been the focus of many studies and have also been extensively debated in the public domain. The effect of this shift on the microbial constituents of the Arctic sea ice has been grossly understudied, although it is a vast habitat for a microbial community that plays a key role in the biogeochemical cycles and energy flux of the Arctic Ocean. MYI and FYI differ in many chemical and physical attributes (e.g. bulk salinity, brine volume, thickness and age), therefore comparing and contrasting the structure and composition of microbial communities from both ice types will be crucial to our understanding of the challenges that the Arctic Ocean ecosystem faces as MYI cover continues to decline. Here, we contend that due to the differences in abiotic conditions, differences in bacterial community structure will be greater between samples from different ice types than within samples from the same ice type. We also argue that since FYI is younger, its community structure will be closer to that of the surface sea water (SW). To test this hypotheses, we extracted DNA and used high throughput sequencing to sequence V1-V3 regions of the bacterial 16s rRNA gene from 10 sea ice samples (5 for each ice type) and 4 surface sea water (SW) collected off the shore of Northern Ellesmere Island, NU, CAN, during the month of May from 2010-2012. Our results showed that observed richness was higher in FYI than MYI. FYI and MYI shared 26% and 36% of their observed richness respectively. While FYI shared 23% of its observed richness with SW, MYI only shared 17%. Both ice types showed similar levels of endemism (61% of the observed richness). This high level of endemism results in the grouping of microbial communities from MYI, FYI, and SW to three

  17. Waveform classification of airborne synthetic aperture radar altimeter over Arctic sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zygmuntowska

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sea ice thickness is one of the most sensitive variables in the Arctic climate system. In order to quantify changes in sea ice thickness, CryoSat-2 was launched in 2010 carrying a Ku-band radar altimeter (SIRAL designed to measure sea ice freeboard with a few centimeters accuracy. The instrument uses the synthetic aperture radar technique providing signals with a resolution of about 300 m along track. In this study, airborne Ku-band radar altimeter data over different sea ice types have been analyzed. A set of parameters has been defined to characterize the differences in strength and width of the returned power waveforms. With a Bayesian-based method, it is possible to classify about 80% of the waveforms from three parameters: maximum of the returned power waveform, the trailing edge width and pulse peakiness. Furthermore, the maximum of the power waveform can be used to reduce the number of false detections of leads, compared to the widely used pulse peakiness parameter. For the pulse peakiness the false classification rate is 12.6% while for the power maximum it is reduced to 6.5%. The ability to distinguish between different ice types and leads allows us to improve the freeboard retrieval and the conversion from freeboard into sea ice thickness, where surface type dependent values for the sea ice density and snow load can be used.

  18. Waveform analysis of airborne synthetic aperture radar altimeter over Arctic sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zygmuntowska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sea ice thickness is one of the most sensitive variables in the Arctic climate system. In order to quantify changes in sea ice thickness, CryoSat was launched in 2010 carrying a Ku-band Radar Altimeter (SIRAL designed to measure sea ice freeboard with a few centimeters accuracy. The instrument uses the synthetic aperture radar technique providing signals with a resolution of about 300 m along track. In this study, airborne Ku-band radar altimeter data over different sea ice types has been analyzed. A set of parameters has been defined to characterize the difference in strength and width of the returned power waveforms. With a Bayesian based method it is possible to classify about 80% of the waveforms by three parameters: maximum of the returned power echo, the trailing edge width and pulse peakiness. Furthermore, the radar power echo maximum can be used to minimize the rate of false detection of leads compared to the widely used Pulse Peakiness parameter. The possibility to distinguish between different ice types and open water allows to improve the freeboard retrieval and the conversion into sea ice thickness where surface type dependent values for the sea ice density and snow load can be used.

  19. Summer Arctic sea fog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Synchronous or quasi-synchronous sea-land-air observations were conducted using advanced sea ice, atmospheric and marine instruments during China' s First Arctic Expedition. Based on the Precious data from the expedition, it was found that in the Arctic Ocean, most part of which is covered with ice or is mixed with ice, various kinds of sea fog formed such as advection fog, radiation fog and vapor fog. Each kind has its own characteristic and mechanics of creation. In the southern part of the Arctic Ocean, due to the sufficient warm and wet flow there, it is favorable for advection fog to form,which is dense and lasts a long time. On ice cap or vast floating ice, due to the strong radiation cooling effect, stable radiating fog is likely to form. In floating ice area there forms vapor fog with the appearance of masses of vapor from a boiling pot, which is different from short-lasting land fog. The study indicates that the reason why there are many kinds of sea fog form in the Arctic Ocean is because of the complicated cushion and the consequent sea-air interaction caused by the sea ice distribution and its unique physical characteristics. Sea fog is the atmospheric phenomenon of sea-air heat exchange. Especially, due to the high albedo of ice and snow surface, it is diffcult to absorb great amount of solar radiation during the polar days. Besides, ice is a poor conductor of heat; it blocks the sea-air heat exchange.The sea-air exchange is active in floating ice area where the ice is broken. The sea sends heat to the atmosphere in form of latent heat; vapor fog is a way of sea-air heat exchange influencing the climate and an indicator of the extent of the exchange. The study also indicates that the sea also transports heat to the atmosphere in form of sensible heat when vapor fog occurs.

  20. Fluctuations and seasonality in the Arctic sea ice area: A sudden regime shift in 2007?

    CERN Document Server

    Ditlevsen, Peter D

    2013-01-01

    Since the beginning of satellite observations, the Arctic sea ice extent has shown a downward trend. The decline has been weaker in the March maximum than in the September minimum and masked by inter-annual fluctuations. One of the less understood aspects of the sea ice response is the persistence times for fluctuations, which could indicate the dominant physical processes behind the sea ice decline. To determine the fluctuation persistence times, however, it is necessary to first filter out the dominant effect of the seasonal cycle. In the current study, we thus develop a statistical model, which accurately decomposes the ice area changes into: (1) a variable seasonal cycle component with a constant shape and (2) a residual (short term) fluctuation. We find the persistence time of fluctuations to be only about three weeks, independently from season, which is substantially shorter than previously reported. Such short time scale points to the dominance of atmospheric forcing. The shape of the seasonal cycle is...

  1. TOPAZ4: an ocean-sea ice data assimilation system for the North Atlantic and Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sakov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed description of TOPAZ4, the latest version of TOPAZ – a coupled ocean-sea ice data assimilation system for the North Atlantic Ocean and Arctic. It is the only operational, large-scale ocean data assimilation system that uses the ensemble Kalman filter. This means that TOPAZ features a time-evolving, state-dependent estimate of the state error covariance. Based on results from the pilot MyOcean reanalysis for 2003–2008, we demonstrate that TOPAZ4 produces a realistic estimate of the ocean circulation in the North Atlantic and the sea-ice variability in the Arctic. We find that the ensemble spread for temperature and sea-level remains fairly constant throughout the reanalysis demonstrating that the data assimilation system is robust to ensemble collapse. Moreover, the ensemble spread for ice concentration is well correlated with the actual errors. This indicates that the ensemble statistics provide reliable state-dependent error estimates – a feature that is unique to ensemble-based data assimilation systems. We demonstrate that the quality of the reanalysis changes when different sea surface temperature products are assimilated, or when in-situ profiles below the ice in the Arctic Ocean are assimilated. We find that data assimilation improves the match to independent observations compared to a free model. Improvements are particularly noticeable for ice thickness, salinity in the Arctic, and temperature in the Fram Strait, but not for transport estimates or underwater temperature. At the same time, the pilot reanalysis has revealed several flaws in the system that have degraded its performance. Finally, we show that a simple bias estimation scheme can effectively detect the seasonal or constant bias in temperature and sea-level.

  2. Upwelling of Arctic pycnocline associated with shear motion of sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, M. G.; Kwok, R.; Robins, R.; Coon, M.

    2006-01-01

    High-resolution radar imagery shows that the dynamic response of winter sea ice to gradients in large-scale surface wind stress is often localized along quasi-linear fractures hundreds of kilometers long. Relative shearing motion across these narrow fractures can exceed 10 cm/s. In one event recorded during the drift of the SHEBA ice camp, we observed an intense zone of pycnocline upwelling (approx.14 m) associated with significant shear motion near the camp, while upward turbulent heat flux in the ocean boundary layer reached nearly 400 W/sq m, an order of magnitude greater than at any other time during the year-long drift. We attribute the upwelling to Ekman pumping associated with concentrated ice shear. Over the entire Arctic Ocean sea ice cover, this process could be responsible for significant heat exchange between the cold surface layer and warmer subsurface water at the ubiquitous fractures resulting from large-scale atmosphere-ice interactions.

  3. A Comparison of Sea Ice Type, Sea Ice Temperature, and Snow Thickness Distributions in the Arctic Seasonal Ice Zones with the DMSP SSM/I

    Science.gov (United States)

    St.Germain, Karen; Cavalieri, Donald J.; Markus, Thorsten

    1997-01-01

    Global climate studies have shown that sea ice is a critical component in the global climate system through its effect on the ocean and atmosphere, and on the earth's radiation balance. Polar energy studies have further shown that the distribution of thin ice and open water largely controls the distribution of surface heat exchange between the ocean and atmosphere within the winter Arctic ice pack. The thickness of the ice, the depth of snow on the ice, and the temperature profile of the snow/ice composite are all important parameters in calculating surface heat fluxes. In recent years, researchers have used various combinations of DMSP SSMI channels to independently estimate the thin ice type (which is related to ice thickness), the thin ice temperature, and the depth of snow on the ice. In each case validation efforts provided encouraging results, but taken individually each algorithm gives only one piece of the information necessary to compute the energy fluxes through the ice and snow. In this paper we present a comparison of the results from each of these algorithms to provide a more comprehensive picture of the seasonal ice zone using passive microwave observations.

  4. Improved Arctic sea ice thickness projections using bias-corrected CMIP5 simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, N.; Haines, K.; Hawkins, E.

    2015-12-01

    Projections of Arctic sea ice thickness (SIT) have the potential to inform stakeholders about accessibility to the region, but are currently rather uncertain. The latest suite of CMIP5 global climate models (GCMs) produce a wide range of simulated SIT in the historical period (1979-2014) and exhibit various biases when compared with the Pan-Arctic Ice-Ocean Modelling and Assimilation System (PIOMAS) sea ice reanalysis. We present a new method to constrain such GCM simulations of SIT via a statistical bias correction technique. The bias correction successfully constrains the spatial SIT distribution and temporal variability in the CMIP5 projections whilst retaining the climatic fluctuations from individual ensemble members. The bias correction acts to reduce the spread in projections of SIT and reveals the significant contributions of climate internal variability in the first half of the century and of scenario uncertainty from the mid-century onwards. The projected date of ice-free conditions in the Arctic under the RCP8.5 high emission scenario occurs in the 2050s, which is a decade earlier than without the bias correction, with potentially significant implications for stakeholders in the Arctic such as the shipping industry. The bias correction methodology developed could be similarly applied to other variables to reduce spread in climate projections more generally.

  5. Intensified Arctic warming under greenhouse warming by vegetation–atmosphere–sea ice interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations and modeling studies indicate that enhanced vegetation activities over high latitudes under an elevated CO2 concentration accelerate surface warming by reducing the surface albedo. In this study, we suggest that vegetation-atmosphere-sea ice interactions over high latitudes can induce an additional amplification of Arctic warming. Our hypothesis is tested by a series of coupled vegetation-climate model simulations under 2xCO2 environments. The increased vegetation activities over high latitudes under a 2xCO2 condition induce additional surface warming and turbulent heat fluxes to the atmosphere, which are transported to the Arctic through the atmosphere. This causes additional sea-ice melting and upper-ocean warming during the warm season. As a consequence, the Arctic and high-latitude warming is greatly amplified in the following winter and spring, which further promotes vegetation activities the following year. We conclude that the vegetation-atmosphere-sea ice interaction gives rise to additional positive feedback of the Arctic amplification. (letter)

  6. Increased Arctic Sea Ice Drift Alters Polar Bear Movements and Energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, D. C.; Durner, G. M.; Albeke, S. E.; Whiteman, J. P.; Amstrup, S. C.; Richardson, E.; Wilson, R. R.; Ben-David, M.

    2015-12-01

    Recent thinning of Arctic sea ice has increased its drift from currents and winds. Increased ice drift could affect movements and energy balance of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) which rely, almost exclusively, on this substrate for hunting seals. Foraging by polar bears is a relatively sedentary behavior, as they typically capture their main prey by waiting at breathing holes, where seals haul-out along leads, or by short-distance stalking. We examined the response of polar bears to ice drift in the Beaufort (BS) and Chukchi (CS) seas, and between two periods with different sea ice characteristics: 1987-1998 and 1999-2013. We used satellite-tracked adult female polar bear locations, standardized by a continuous-time correlated random walk, coupled with modeled ice drift, to estimate displacement and drift-corrected bear movements along east-west and north-south axes. Sea ice drift in both regions increased with greater westward and more extreme northward and southward rates from 1987-1998 to 1999-2013. Polar bears responded with greater eastward movements and, in the CS greater movements north and south. We show that efforts by polar bears to compensate for greater westward ice drift in recent years translated into a model-derived estimate of 5.7-7.2% increase in energy expenditure. We also estimated that polar bears increased their travel time 18-20% between the two time periods, suggesting time allocated to foraging was reduced. Increased energetic costs and travel time resulting from greater ice drift, in conjunction with ongoing habitat loss, suggest that recent changes to Arctic sea ice may affect movements and energy balance of polar bears.

  7. Phylogenetic analysis of bacteria in sea ice brine sampled from the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial diversity in sea ice brine samples which collected from four stations located at the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean was analyzed by PCR-DGGE. Twenty-three 16S rDNA sequences of bacteria obtained from DGGE bands were cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis clustered these sequences within γ-proteobacteria, Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides (CFB) group, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. The phylotype of Pseudoalteromonas in the γ-proteobacteria was predominant and members of the CFB group and γ-proteobacteria were highly abundant in studied sea ice brine samples.

  8. Ku-Band radar penetration into Snow over Arctic Sea Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Stefan; Stenseng, Lars; Helm, Veit;

    is the snow/air interface, whereas radar waves interact with the variable physical properties of the snow cover on the Arctic sea ice. In addition, radar elevation measurements may vary for different retracker algorithms, which determine the track point of the scattered echo power distribution. Since accurate...... knowledge of the reflection horizon is critical for sea ice thickness retrieval, validation data is necessary to investigate the penetration of radar waves into the snow for the upcoming CryoSat-2 mission. Furthermore, the combination of both optical and RF wavelengths might be used to derive snow thickness...

  9. CBSIT 2009: Airborne Validation of Envisat Radar Altimetry and In Situ Ice Camp Measurements Over Arctic Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Laurence; Farrell, Sinead; McAdoo, David; Krabill, William; Laxon, Seymour; Richter-Menge, Jacqueline; Markus, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    The past few years have seen the emergence of satellite altimetry as valuable tool for taking quantitative sea ice monitoring beyond the traditional surface extent measurements and into estimates of sea ice thickness and volume, parameters that arc fundamental to improved understanding of polar dynamics and climate modeling. Several studies have now demonstrated the use of both microwave (ERS, Envisat/RA-2) and laser (ICESat/GLAS) satellite altimeters for determining sea ice thickness. The complexity of polar environments, however, continues to make sea ice thickness determination a complicated remote sensing task and validation studies remain essential for successful monitoring of sea ice hy satellites. One such validation effort, the Arctic Aircraft Altimeter (AAA) campaign of2006. included underflights of Envisat and ICESat north of the Canadian Archipelago using NASA's P-3 aircraft. This campaign compared Envisat and ICESat sea ice elevation measurements with high-resolution airborne elevation measurements, revealing the impact of refrozen leads on radar altimetry and ice drift on laser altimetry. Continuing this research and validation effort, the Canada Basin Sea Ice Thickness (CBSIT) experiment was completed in April 2009. CBSIT was conducted by NOAA. and NASA as part of NASA's Operation Ice Bridge, a gap-filling mission intended to supplement sea and land ice monitoring until the launch of NASA's ICESat-2 mission. CBIST was flown on the NASA P-3, which was equipped with a scanning laser altimeter, a Ku-band snow radar, and un updated nadir looking photo-imaging system. The CB5IT campaign consisted of two flights: an under flight of Envisat along a 1000 km track similar to that flown in 2006, and a flight through the Nares Strait up to the Lincoln Sea that included an overflight of the Danish GreenArc Ice Camp off the coast of northern Greenland. We present an examination of data collected during this campaign, comparing airborne laser altimeter measurements

  10. MEaSUREs Arctic Sea Ice Characterization Daily 25km EASE-Grid 2.0 V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, part of the NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) program, provides a daily record of Arctic sea ice...

  11. Relating the Age of Arctic Sea Ice to its Thickness, as Measured during NASA’s ICESat and IceBridge Campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Mark A. Tschudi; Stroeve, Julienne C.; J. Scott Stewart

    2016-01-01

    Recent satellite observations yield estimates of the distribution of sea ice thickness across the entire Arctic Ocean. While these sensors were only placed in operation within the last few years, information from other sensors may assist us with estimating the distribution of sea ice thickness in the Arctic beginning in the 1980s. A previous study found that the age of sea ice is correlated to sea ice thickness from 2003 to 2006, but an extension of the temporal analysis is needed to better q...

  12. The effects of additional black carbon on the albedo of Arctic sea ice: variation with sea ice type and snow cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Marks

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The response of the albedo of bare sea ice and snow-covered sea ice to the addition of black carbon is calculated. Visible light absorption and light-scattering cross-sections are derived for a typical first-year and multi-year sea ice with both "dry" and "wet" snow types. The cross-sections are derived using data from a 1970s field study that recorded both reflectivity and light penetration in Arctic sea ice and snow overlying sea ice. The variation of absorption cross-section over the visible wavelengths suggests black carbon is the dominating light-absorbing impurity. The response of first-year and multi-year sea ice albedo to increasing black carbon, from 1 to 1024 ng g−1, in a top 5 cm layer of a 155 cm-thick sea ice was calculated using a radiative-transfer model. The albedo of the first-year sea ice is more sensitive to additional loadings of black carbon than the multi-year sea ice. An addition of 8 ng g−1 of black carbon causes a decrease to 98.7% of the original albedo for first-year sea ice compared to a decrease to 99.7% for the albedo of multi-year sea ice, at a wavelength of 500 nm. The albedo of sea ice is surprisingly unresponsive to additional black carbon up to 100 ng g−1 . Snow layers on sea ice may mitigate the effects of black carbon in sea ice. Wet and dry snow layers of 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 cm depth were added onto the sea ice surface. The albedo of the snow surface was calculated whilst the black carbon in the underlying sea ice was increased. A layer of snow 0.5 cm thick greatly diminishes the effect of black carbon in sea ice on the surface albedo. The albedo of a 2–5 cm snow layer (less than the e-folding depth of snow is still influenced by the underlying sea ice, but the effect of additional black carbon in the sea ice is masked.

  13. Late Quaternary sea-ice history of northern Fram Strait/Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Anne; Stein, Rüdiger; Fahl, Kirsten; Matthießen, Jens; Forwick, Matthias; O'Regan, Matt

    2016-04-01

    One of the main characteristics of the Arctic Ocean is its seasonal to perennial sea-ice cover. Variations of sea-ice conditions affect the Earth's albedo, primary production, rate of deep-water etc.. During the last decades, a drastic decrease in sea ice has been recorded, and the causes of which, i.e., natural vs. anthropogenic forcings, and their relevance within the global climate system, are subject of intense scientific and societal debate. In this context, records of past sea-ice conditions going beyond instrumental records are of major significance. These records may help to better understand the processes controlling natural sea-ice variability and to improve models for forecasts of future climatic conditions. During RV Polarstern Cruise PS92 in summer 2015, a 860 cm long sediment core (PS92/039-2) was recovered from the eastern flank of Yermak Plateau north of the Svalbard archipelago (Peeken, 2015). Based on a preliminary age model, this sediment core probably represents the time interval from MIS 6 to MIS 1. This core, located close to the modern summer ice edge, has been selected for reconstruction of past Arctic sea-ice variability based on specific biomarkers. In this context, we have determined the ice-algae-derived sea-ice proxy IP25 (Belt et al., 2007), in combination with other biomarkers indicative for open-water conditions (cf., Müller et al., 2009, 2011). Furthermore, organic carbon fluxes were differentiated using specific biomarkers indicative for marine primary production (brassicasterol, dinosterol) and terrigenous input (campesterol, β-sitosterol). In this poster, preliminary results of our organic-geochemical and sedimentological investigations are presented. Distinct fluctuations of these biomarkers indicate several major, partly abrupt changes in sea-ice cover in the Yermak Plateau area during the late Quaternary. These changes are probably linked to changes in the inflow of Atlantic Water along the western coastline of Svalbard into

  14. Radar and infrared remote sensing of terrain, water resources, arctic sea ice, and agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, A. W.

    1983-01-01

    Radar range measurements, basic waveforms of radar systems, and radar displays are initially described. These are followed by backscatter from several types of terrain and vegetation as a function of frequency and grazing angle. Analytical models for this backscatter include the facet models of radar return, with range-angle, velocity-range, velocity-angle, range, velocity, and angular only discriminations. Several side-looking airborne radar geometries are presented. Radar images of Arctic sea ice, fresh water lake ice, cloud-covered terrain, and related areas are presented to identify applications of radar imagery. Volume scatter models are applied to radar imagery from alpine snowfields. Short pulse ice thickness radar for subsurface probes is discussed in fresh-water ice and sea ice detection. Infrared scanners, including multispectral, are described. Diffusion of cold water into a river, Arctic sea ice, power plant discharges, volcanic heat, and related areas are presented in thermal imagery. Multispectral radar and infrared imagery are discussed, with comparisons of photographic, infrared, and radar imagery of the same terrain or subjects.

  15. The delivery of organic contaminants to the Arctic food web: why sea ice matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pućko, Monika; Stern, Gary A; Macdonald, Robie W; Jantunen, Liisa M; Bidleman, Terry F; Wong, Fiona; Barber, David G; Rysgaard, Søren

    2015-02-15

    For decades sea ice has been perceived as a physical barrier for the loading of contaminants to the Arctic Ocean. We show that sea ice, in fact, facilitates the delivery of organic contaminants to the Arctic marine food web through processes that: 1) are independent of contaminant physical-chemical properties (e.g. 2-3-fold increase in exposure to brine-associated biota), and 2) depend on physical-chemical properties and, therefore, differentiate between contaminants (e.g. atmospheric loading of contaminants to melt ponds over the summer, and their subsequent leakage to the ocean). We estimate the concentrations of legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and current-use pesticides (CUPs) in melt pond water in the Beaufort Sea, Canadian High Arctic, in 2008, at near-gas exchange equilibrium based on Henry's law constants (HLCs), air concentrations and exchange dynamics. CUPs currently present the highest risk of increased exposures through melt pond loading and drainage due to the high ratio of melt pond water to seawater concentration (Melt pond Enrichment Factor, MEF), which ranges from 2 for dacthal to 10 for endosulfan I. Melt pond contaminant enrichment can be perceived as a hypothetical 'pump' delivering contaminants from the atmosphere to the ocean under ice-covered conditions, with 2-10% of CUPs annually entering the Beaufort Sea via this input route compared to the standing stock in the Polar Mixed Layer of the ocean. The abovementioned processes are strongly favored in first-year ice compared to multi-year ice and, therefore, the dynamic balance between contaminant inventories and contaminant deposition to the surface ocean is being widely affected by the large-scale icescape transition taking place in the Arctic. PMID:25437762

  16. In-situ calibration and validation of Cryosat-2 observations over arctic sea ice north of Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerland, Sebastian; Renner, Angelika H. H.; Spreen, Gunnar;

    CryoSat-2's radar altimeter allows to observe the panArctic sea ice thickness up to 88°N on a monthly basis. However, calibration and validation are crucial to assess limitations and accuracy of the altimeter, and to better quantify the uncertainties involved in converting sea ice freeboard to...

  17. Autotrophic and heterotrophic activity in Arctic first-year sea-ice: Seasonal study from Marlene Bight, SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Dorte Haubjerg; Kristensen, Morten; Rysgaard, Søren;

    2010-01-01

    We present a study of autotrophic and heterotrophic activities of Arctic sea ice (Malene Bight, SW Greenland) as measured by 2 different approaches: (1) standard incubation techniques ((HCO3-)-C-14 and [H-3] thymidine incubation) on sea ice cores brought to the laboratory and (2) cores incubated ...

  18. Arctic Sea Ice Freeboard from Icebridge Acquisitions in 2009: Estimates and Comparisons with ICEsat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, R.; Cunningham, Glenn F.; Manizade, S. S.; Krabill, W. B.

    2012-01-01

    During the spring of 2009, the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) system on the IceBridge mission acquired cross-basin surveys of surface elevations of Arctic sea ice. In this paper, the total freeboard derived from four 2000 km transects are examined and compared with those from the 2009 ICESat campaign. Total freeboard, the sum of the snow and ice freeboards, is the elevation of the air-snow interface above the local sea surface. Prior to freeboard retrieval, signal dependent range biases are corrected. With data from a near co-incident outbound and return track on 21 April, we show that our estimates of the freeboard are repeatable to within 4 cm but dependent locally on the density and quality of sea surface references. Overall difference between the ATM and ICESat freeboards for the four transects is 0.7 (8.5) cm (quantity in bracket is standard deviation), with a correlation of 0.78 between the data sets of one hundred seventy-eight 50 km averages. This establishes a level of confidence in the use of ATM freeboards to provide regional samplings that are consistent with ICESat. In early April, mean freeboards are 41 cm and 55 cm over first year and multiyear sea ice (MYI), respectively. Regionally, the lowest mean ice freeboard (28 cm) is seen on 5 April where the flight track sampled the large expanse of seasonal ice in the western Arctic. The highest mean freeboard (71 cm) is seen in the multiyear ice just west of Ellesmere Island from 21 April. The relatively large unmodeled variability of the residual sea surface resolved by ATM elevations is discussed.

  19. New Visualizations Highlight New Information on the Contrasting Arctic and Antarctic Sea-Ice Trends Since the Late 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.

    2016-01-01

    Month-by-month ranking of 37 years (1979-2015) of satellite-derived sea-ice extents in the Arctic and Antarctic reveals interesting new details in the overall trends toward decreasing sea-ice coverage in the Arctic and increasing sea-ice coverage in the Antarctic. The Arctic decreases are so definitive that there has not been a monthly record high in Arctic sea-ice extents in any month since 1986, a time period during which there have been 75 monthly record lows. The Antarctic, with the opposite but weaker trend toward increased ice extents, experienced monthly record lows in 5 months of 1986, then 6 later monthly record lows scattered through the dataset, with the last two occurring in 2006, versus 45 record highs since 1986. However, in the last three years of the 1979-2015 dataset, the downward trends in Arctic sea-ice extents eased up, with no new record lows in any month of 2013 or 2014 and only one record low in 2015,while the upward trends in Antarctic ice extents notably strengthened, with new record high ice extents in 4 months (August-November) of 2013, in 6 months (April- September) of 2014, and in 3 months (January, April, and May) of 2015. Globally, there have been only 3 monthly record highs since 1986 (only one since 1988), whereas there have been 43 record lows, although the last record lows (in the 1979-2015 dataset) occurred in 2012.

  20. Arctic sea ice thickness loss determined using subsurface, aircraft, and satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lindsay

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sea ice thickness is a fundamental climate state variable that provides an integrated measure of changes in the high-latitude energy balance. However, observations of ice thickness have been sparse in time and space making the construction of observation-based time series difficult. Moreover, different groups use a variety of methods and processing procedures to measure ice thickness and each observational source likely has different and poorly characterized measurement and sampling biases. Observational sources include upward looking sonars mounted on submarines or moorings, electromagnetic sensors on helicopters or aircraft, and lidar or radar altimeters on airplanes or satellites. Here we use a curve-fitting approach to evaluate the systematic differences between eight different observation systems in the Arctic Basin. The approach determines the large-scale spatial and temporal variability of the ice thickness as well as the mean differences between the observation systems using over 3000 estimates of the ice thickness. The thickness estimates are measured over spatial scales of approximately 50 km or time scales of 1 month and the primary time period analyzed is 2000–2013 when the modern mix of observations is available. Good agreement is found between five of the systems, within 0.15 m, while systematic differences of up to 0.5 m are found for three others compared to the five. The trend in annual mean ice thickness over the Arctic Basin is −0.58 ± 0.07 m decade−1 over the period 2000–2013, while the annual mean ice thickness for the central Arctic Basin alone (the SCICEX Box has decreased from 3.45 m in 1975 to 1.11 m in 2013, a 68% reduction. This is nearly double the 36% decline reported by an earlier study. These results provide additional direct observational confirmation of substantial sea ice losses found in model analyses.

  1. Inorganic carbon dynamics of melt pond-covered first year sea ice in the Canadian Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier; Galley, R.J.; Crabeck, O.;

    2014-01-01

    of this high concentration pCO2 melt water increase the in situ brine pCO2 within the sea ice matrix. The low in situ pCO2 observed in brine and melt ponds results in CO2 fluxes of −0.04 to −5.4 mmol m–2 d–1. As melt ponds reach equilibrium with the atmosphere, the uptake becomes less significant. However......, since melt ponds are continuously supplied by melt water their in situ pCO2 still remains low, promoting a continuous but moderate uptake of CO2 (~ −1mmol m–2 d–1). The potential uptake of atmospheric CO2 by melting sea ice during the Arctic summer has been estimated from 7 to 16 Tg of C ignoring...... the role of melt ponds. This additional uptake of CO2 associated to Arctic sea ice needs to be further explored and considered in the estimation of the Arctic Ocean's overall CO2 budget....

  2. Rapidly changing distribution of velocity and suspended materials under the drifting Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Ho Kyung; Im, Jungho; Kim, Yong Hoon; Yae Son, Eun; Lee, Sanggyun

    2015-04-01

    In two summer seasons of 2011 and 2014, the short-term (1-4 days) ice-camp study has been conducted on the drifting Arctic sea ice. In particular, in 2014, the international collaboration with the Marginal Ice Zone program (sponsored by Office of Naval Research) has been integrated. The mooring package comprises the acoustic Doppler velocity profiler, holographic imaging camera, and conductivity-temperature-depth profiler, which are used to understand the dynamic behavior of sea ice and spatial-temporal variation of mixing layer (ML) and suspended particulate matters under the sea ice. Mooring data clearly shows the mixing and entrainment pattern in the upper ML in the marginal ice zone. When ice floes drift toward the pack ice, the upward entrainment from the seasonal pycnocline to sea ice-water boundary was induced by shear across ML and seasonal pycnocline. The entrainment speed was in the range of 0.25-2 m/hr, which matches well with thickening and thinning rate of ML during the near-inertial period (~12 hr). When ice floes drift toward the open ocean, the turbulent wakes at the advancing edge of ice were combined with the entrainment caused by near-inertial motion, which results in a complex mixing pattern of both upward and downward fluxes in the ML. Also, the acoustic backscatter observed by the acoustic Doppler current profiler and beam attenuation from transmissometer revealed the increased concentration of suspended particulate materials in the ML, which can be direct evidence visualizing the mixing pattern. Results suggest that the mixing and entrainment found in our study sustain particulate matters in suspension within the upper ML for a few months.

  3. Convective forcing of mercury and ozone in the Arctic boundary layer induced by leads in sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Christopher W.; Obrist, Daniel; Steffen, Alexandra; Staebler, Ralf M.; Douglas, Thomas A.; Richter, Andreas; Nghiem, Son V.

    2014-02-01

    The ongoing regime shift of Arctic sea ice from perennial to seasonal ice is associated with more dynamic patterns of opening and closing sea-ice leads (large transient channels of open water in the ice), which may affect atmospheric and biogeochemical cycles in the Arctic. Mercury and ozone are rapidly removed from the atmospheric boundary layer during depletion events in the Arctic, caused by destruction of ozone along with oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg(0)) to oxidized mercury (Hg(II)) in the atmosphere and its subsequent deposition to snow and ice. Ozone depletion events can change the oxidative capacity of the air by affecting atmospheric hydroxyl radical chemistry, whereas atmospheric mercury depletion events can increase the deposition of mercury to the Arctic, some of which can enter ecosystems during snowmelt. Here we present near-surface measurements of atmospheric mercury and ozone from two Arctic field campaigns near Barrow, Alaska. We find that coastal depletion events are directly linked to sea-ice dynamics. A consolidated ice cover facilitates the depletion of Hg(0) and ozone, but these immediately recover to near-background concentrations in the upwind presence of open sea-ice leads. We attribute the rapid recoveries of Hg(0) and ozone to lead-initiated shallow convection in the stable Arctic boundary layer, which mixes Hg(0) and ozone from undepleted air masses aloft. This convective forcing provides additional Hg(0) to the surface layer at a time of active depletion chemistry, where it is subject to renewed oxidation. Future work will need to establish the degree to which large-scale changes in sea-ice dynamics across the Arctic alter ozone chemistry and mercury deposition in fragile Arctic ecosystems.

  4. The Arctic Amplification and inter-relation between Arctic Sea-Ice, cloud greenhouse heating and atmospheric circulation in ERA-Interim and EC-Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willen, Ulrika; Bintanja, Richard; Sedlar, Joseph; Königk, Torben

    2014-05-01

    The Arctic is warming faster than the global average especially in autumn and winter and substantial reductions in summer and winter sea-ice have been observed recently. It is also the part of the globe where climate model scenarios show the largest spread. The impact of clouds on sea ice and Arctic amplification is not well understood even though an increase in clouds in winter is expected to have a warming effect due to the initial small amounts of cloud condensate and especially in liquid form. Many recent observational data sets report significant amounts of mixed-phase clouds over the Arctic in all seasons. The frequent occurrence of Arctic mixed-phase clouds has important implications for the cloud radiative forcing at the surface, since mixed-phase clouds tend to be optically thicker than ice-only clouds and emit more downward long-wave flux which increases the surface temperature and sea-ice melt. A number of studies have shown that models underestimate the amount of cloud water in Arctic mixed-phase clouds. In this study we investigate how cloudiness affect the Arctic warming and sea-ice retreat in the global coupled climate model EC-Earth for AMIP and transient experiments. We also investigate how the cloud-radiation and sea-ice interactions affect the circulation in EC-Earth and in ERA-Interim reanalysis data.

  5. The influence of regional Arctic sea-ice decline on stratospheric and tropospheric circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Christine; Bracegirdle, Thomas; Shuckburgh, Emily; Haynes, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Arctic sea-ice extent has rapidly declined over the past few decades, and most climate models project a continuation of this trend during the 21st century in response to greenhouse gas forcing. A number of recent studies have shown that this sea-ice loss induces vertically propagating Rossby waves, which weaken the stratospheric polar vortex and increase the frequency of sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs). SSWs have been shown to increase the probability of a negative NAO in the following weeks, thereby driving anomalous weather conditions over Europe and other mid-latitude regions. In contrast, other studies have shown that Arctic sea-ice loss strengthens the polar vortex, increasing the probability of a positive NAO. Sun et al. (2015) suggest these conflicting results may be due to the region of sea-ice loss considered. They find that if only regions within the Arctic Circle are considered in sea-ice projections, the polar vortex weakens; if only regions outwith the Arctic Circle are considered, the polar vortex strengthens. This is because the anomalous Rossby waves forced in the former/latter scenario constructively/destructively interfere with climatological Rossby waves, thus enhancing/suppressing upward wave propagation. In this study, we investigate whether Sun et al.'s results are robust to a different model. We also divide the regions of sea-ice loss they considered into further sub-regions, in order to examine the regional differences in more detail. We do this by using the intermediate complexity climate model, IGCM4, which has a well resolved stratosphere and does a good job of representing stratospheric processes. Several simulations are run in atmosphere only mode, where one is a control experiment and the others are perturbation experiments. In the control run annually repeating historical mean surface conditions are imposed at the lower boundary, whereas in each perturbation run the model is forced by SST perturbations imposed in a specific

  6. The influence of Arctic sea ice variability on the summer North Atlantic Oscillation (SNAO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderholm, H. W.; Folland, C. K.; Ou, T.; Jeong, J. H.; Wilson, R.; Rydval, M.; Chen, D.; Kim, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    The summer North Atlantic Oscillation (SNAO), which is strongly related to changes in Atlantic and European summer storm tracks and the latitudinal position of the jet stream, exerts a strong influence on rainfall, temperature, and cloudiness and is related to summer extremes, such as droughts and floods, mainly in Europe. Reconstructions suggest that the SNAO was mainly negative during the last several centuries until the mid-twentieth century when it entered a positive phase, and climate model projections have suggested a predominantly positive SNAO under future global warming. However, during the recent decade, the SNAO has mainly been in a negative phase, along with a southerly shift in the jet stream, accompanied by wet and cool summers in northwest Europe. Sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic (related to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, AMO) strongly influence the SNAO, and the current positive phase of the AMO has likely played some role in the recent downturn of the SNAO. Additionally, we found a consistent association between winter/spring Arctic sea ice concentration (SIC), particularly in the Labrador and Nordic seas, and the SNAO over the last decades based on observations. However, since the 1990s the strength of the correlations with the regional SIC has changed, weakening over the Labrador Sea and strengthening over Barents Sea. This is particularly evident during the last decade. Possibly this is a response to the rapid changes in Arctic sea ice. To test this, a new tree-ring based reconstruction of the SNAO as well as CMIP5 model runs are used to examine the influence of Arctic sea ice on the summer atmospheric circulation over northwestern Europe in a long-term context.

  7. History of sea ice in the Arctic basin: Lessons from the past for future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Borzenkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of the sea ice formation in the Arctic Ocean is analyzed for the period of the last 65 million years, i.e. from the Paleocene to the present time. Appearance of sea ice in the high latitudes is demonstrated to be caused by the negative trend in global temperatures due to decreasing of the CO2 concentration in the ancient atmosphere. Formation of seasonal and perennial ice cover in the limited area near the Pole could take place during the mid-Neogene period, about 12–13 Ma ago. However, areas of the sea icing could be obviously changed for this time during periods of the climate warming and cooling. Permanent sea ice had been formed in the early Pleistocene, i.e. about 2.0–1.8 Ma ago only. Paleoclimatic reconstructions, based on the indirect data and modeling simulation for the Holocene optimum (10–6 ka ago and for the Last Interglacial period (the isotopic substage in the marine cross-section 5e, about 125–127 ka ago had shown that rising of global temperatures by 1.0–1.5 °C resulted in strong decreasing of the sea ice area, and the perennial ice cover became the seasonal one. Relatively small changes in the incoming solar radiation originating during the spring-summer time due to the orbital factors played the role of a trigger for onset of the melting process. Further on, the process could be enhanced owing to difference in the albedo between the ice cover and open water. Recently, the rapid shortening of the sea ice area is noted, and in some parts of the Arctic Ocean the area is twice cut down as compared with the normal. In 2015, the record low area of the winter sea ice was observed, and therewith the maximum of the ice area shifted to the earlier period (by 15 days as compared with the period of 1981–2010. The winter fluctuations of the sea ice areas are as much important as the summer ones, since they are the best indicators of the present-day global warming. Thus, it can be supposed that some

  8. Large, omega-3 rich, pelagic diatoms under Arctic sea ice: sources and implications for food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerksen, Steven W; Thiemann, Gregory W; Budge, Suzanne M; Poulin, Michel; Niemi, Andrea; Michel, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Pelagic primary production in Arctic seas has traditionally been viewed as biologically insignificant until after the ice breakup. There is growing evidence however, that under-ice blooms of pelagic phytoplankton may be a recurrent occurrence. During the springs of 2011 and 2012, we found substantial numbers (201-5713 cells m-3) of the large centric diatom (diameter >250 µm) Coscinodiscus centralis under the sea ice in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago near Resolute Bay, Nunavut. The highest numbers of these pelagic diatoms were observed in Barrow Strait. Spatial patterns of fatty acid profiles and stable isotopes indicated two source populations for C. centralis: a western origin with low light conditions and high nutrients, and a northern origin with lower nutrient levels and higher irradiances. Fatty acid analysis revealed that pelagic diatoms had significantly higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (mean ± SD: 50.3 ± 8.9%) compared to ice-associated producers (30.6 ± 10.3%) in our study area. In particular, C. centralis had significantly greater proportions of the long chain omega-3 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), than ice algae (24.4 ± 5.1% versus 13.7 ± 5.1%, respectively). Thus, C. centralis represented a significantly higher quality food source for local herbivores than ice algae, although feeding experiments did not show clear evidence of copepod grazing on C. centralis. Our results suggest that C. centralis are able to initiate growth under pack ice in this area and provide further evidence that biological productivity in ice-covered seas may be substantially higher than previously recognized. PMID:25473949

  9. Migration phenology and seasonal fidelity of an Arctic marine predator in relation to sea ice dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Seth G; Derocher, Andrew E; Thiemann, Gregory W; Lunn, Nicholas J

    2013-07-01

    Understanding how seasonal environmental conditions affect the timing and distribution of synchronized animal movement patterns is a central issue in animal ecology. Migration, a behavioural adaptation to seasonal environmental fluctuations, is a fundamental part of the life history of numerous species. However, global climate change can alter the spatiotemporal distribution of resources and thus affect the seasonal movement patterns of migratory animals. We examined sea ice dynamics relative to migration patterns and seasonal geographical fidelity of an Arctic marine predator, the polar bear (Ursus maritimus). Polar bear movement patterns were quantified using satellite-linked telemetry data collected from collars deployed between 1991-1997 and 2004-2009. We showed that specific sea ice characteristics can predict the timing of seasonal polar bear migration on and off terrestrial refugia. In addition, fidelity to specific onshore regions during the ice-free period was predicted by the spatial pattern of sea ice break-up but not by the timing of break-up. The timing of migration showed a trend towards earlier arrival of polar bears on shore and later departure from land, which has been driven by climate-induced declines in the availability of sea ice. Changes to the timing of migration have resulted in polar bears spending progressively longer periods of time on land without access to sea ice and their marine mammal prey. The links between increased atmospheric temperatures, sea ice dynamics, and the migratory behaviour of an ice-dependent species emphasizes the importance of quantifying and monitoring relationships between migratory wildlife and environmental cues that may be altered by climate change. PMID:23510081

  10. Greenland sea ice anomalies during 1901-1984 and their relation to an interdecadal arctic climate cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two ice data sets from the Greenland and neighboring seas have been analyzed to determine interannual and decadal time scale sea ice extent anomalies during this century. Sea ice concentration data on a 1 degree x 1 degree grid for 1953-1984 revealed the presence of a large positive anomaly in the Greenland Sea during the 1960s which coincided with the Great Salinity Anomaly, a low-salinity water mass that traveled cyclonically around the northern North Atlantic during 1968-1982. The two anomalies propagated into the Labrador Sea with a typical travel time of 3-5 years. Spring and summer ice-limit data obtained from Danish Meteorological Institute charts for 1901-1956 indicated the presence of heavy ice conditions in the Greenland Sea during 1902-1920 and in the late 1940s, and generally light ice conditions during the 1920s and 1930s. Only limited evidence of propagation of Greenland Sea ice anomalies into the Labrador Sea was observed, however. On the other hand, several large ice anomalies in the Greenland Sea occurred 2-3 years after large runoffs from northern Canada into the western Arctic Ocean. Similarly, a large runoff into the Arctic preceded the large Greenland Sea ice anomaly of the 1960s. These facts, together with recent evidence of climatic jumps in the Northern Hemisphere tropospheric circulation, suggest the existence of an interdecadal, self-sustained climate cycle in the Arctic which is described in terms of a negative feed-back loop. In the Greenland Sea this cycle is characterized by a state of large sea ice extent overlying a layer of cool freshwater that does not convectively overturn, which alternates with a state of small sea ice extent and warm saline surface water that frequently overturns

  11. Summer sea ice characteristics and morphology in the Pacific Arctic sector as observed during the CHINARE 2010 cruise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Xie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the summer of 2010, atmosphere–ice–ocean interaction was studied aboard the icebreaker R/V Xuelong during the Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition (CHINARE, in the sea ice zone of the Pacific Arctic sector between 150° W and 180° W up to 88.5° N. The expedition lasted from 21 July to 28 August and comprised of ice observations and measurements along the cruise track, 8 short-term stations and one 12-day drift station. Ship-based observations of ice thickness and concentration are compared with ice thickness measured by an electromagnetic induction device (EM31 mounted off the ship's side and ice concentrations obtained from AMSR-E. It is found that the modal thickness from ship-based visual observations matches well with the modal thickness from the mounted EM31. A grid of 8 profiles of ice thickness measurements (four repeats was conducted at the 12-day drift station in the central Arctic (~ 86°50´ N–87°20´ N and an average melt rate of 2 cm day−1, primarily bottom melt, was found. As compared with the 2005 data from the Healy/Oden Trans-Arctic Expedition (HOTRAX for the same sector but ~ 20 days later (9 August to 10 September, the summer 2010 was first-year ice dominant (vs. the multi-year ice dominant in 2005, 70% or less in mean ice concentration (vs. 90% in 2005, and 94–114 cm in mean ice thickness (vs. 150 cm in 2005. Those changes suggest the continuation of ice thinning, less concentration, and younger ice for the summer sea ice in the sector since 2007 when a record minimum sea ice extent was observed. Overall, the measurements provide a valuable dataset of sea ice morphological properties over the Arctic Pacific Sector in summer 2010 and can be used as a benchmark for measurements of future changes.

  12. Arctic climate response to forcing from light-absorbing particles in snow and sea ice in CESM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Goldenson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of light-absorbing aerosol particles deposited on arctic snow and sea ice influences the surface albedo, causing greater shortwave absorption, warming, and loss of snow and sea ice, lowering the albedo further. The Community Earth System Model version 1 (CESM1 now includes the radiative effects of light-absorbing particles in snow on land and sea ice and in sea ice itself. We investigate the model response to the deposition of black carbon and dust to both snow and sea ice. For these purposes we employ a slab ocean version of CESM1, using the Community Atmosphere Model version 4 (CAM4, run to equilibrium for year 2000 levels of CO2 and fixed aerosol deposition. We construct experiments with and without aerosol deposition, with dust or black carbon deposition alone, and with varying quantities of black carbon and dust to approximate year 1850 and 2000 deposition fluxes. The year 2000 deposition fluxes of both dust and black carbon cause 1–2 °C of surface warming over large areas of the Arctic Ocean and sub-Arctic seas in autumn and winter and in patches of Northern land in every season. Atmospheric circulation changes are a key component of the surface-warming pattern. Arctic sea ice thins by on average about 30 cm. Simulations with year 1850 aerosol deposition are not substantially different from those with year 2000 deposition, given constant levels of CO2. The climatic impact of particulate impurities deposited over land exceeds that of particles deposited over sea ice. Even the surface warming over the sea ice and sea ice thinning depends more upon light-absorbing particles deposited over land. For CO2 doubled relative to year 2000 levels, the climate impact of particulate impurities in snow and sea ice is substantially lower than for the year 2000 equilibrium simulation.

  13. Arctic sea ice bordering on the North Atlantic and intera- nnual climate variations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Variations of winter Arctic sea ice bordering on the North Atlantic are closely related to climate variations in the same region. When winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index is positive (negative) anomaly phase, Icelandic Low is obviously deepened and shifts northwards (southwards). Simultaneously, the Subtropical High over the North Atlantic is also intensified, and moves northwards (south-wards). Those anomalies strengthen (weaken) westerly be-tween Icelandic Low and the Subtropical High, and further result in positive (negative) sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the mid-latitude of the North Atlantic, and increase (decrease) the warm water transportation from the mid-latitude to the Barents Sea, which causes positive (nega-tive) mixed-layer water temperature anomalies in the south part of the Barents Sea. Moreover, the distribution of anom-aly air temperature clearly demonstrates warming (cooling) in northern Europe and the subarctic regions (including the Barents Sea) and cooling (warming) in Baffin Bay/ Davis Strait. Both of distributions of SST and air temperature anomalies directly result in sea ice decrease (increase) in the Barents/Kara Seas, and sea ice increase (decrease) in Baffin Bay/Davis Strait.

  14. Optimization of a sea ice model using basinwide observations of Arctic sea ice thickness, extent, and velocity

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Paul A.; Laxon, Seymour W.; FELTHAM, DANIEL L.; Cresswell, Douglas J.

    2006-01-01

    A stand-alone sea ice model is tuned and validated using satellite-derived, basinwide observations of sea ice thickness, extent, and velocity from the years 1993 to 2001. This is the first time that basin-scale measurements of sea ice thickness have been used for this purpose. The model is based on the CICE sea ice model code developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, with some minor modifications, and forcing consists of 40-yr ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-40) and Polar Exchange at the Sea Su...

  15. Arctic layer salinity controls heat loss from deep Atlantic layer in seasonally ice-covered areas of the Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Sigrid; Ingvaldsen, Randi B.; Furevik, Tore

    2016-05-01

    In the seasonally ice-covered northern Barents Sea an intermediate layer of cold and relatively fresh Arctic Water at ~25-110 m depth isolates the sea surface and ice cover from a layer of warm and saline Atlantic Water below, a situation that resembles the cold halocline layer in the Eurasian Basin. The upward heat flux from the Atlantic layer is of major concern. What causes variations in the heat flux and how is the Arctic layer maintained? Using observations, we found that interannual variability in Arctic layer salinity determines the heat flux from the Atlantic layer through its control of stratification and vertical mixing. A relatively fresh Arctic layer effectively suppresses the upward heat flux, while a more saline Arctic layer enhances the heat flux. The corresponding upward salt flux causes a positive feedback. The Arctic layer salinity and the water column structures have been remarkably stable during 1970-2011.

  16. The distribution of radiocesium and plutonium in sea ice-entrained arctic sediments in relation to potential sources and sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma counting of a range of grain size fractions of sediments entrained in Arctic Ocean sea ice indicate that the wide range of radiocesium activities that are observed in bulk samples are primarily a function of the geographical origin of the sediment, rather than mineral composition, or physical processes that increase the content of fine clays in sediments. Plutonium isotope ratios (240Pu:239Pu) of sea ice sediments are consistent with an ultimate origin of the plutonium from bomb fallout (240Pu:239Pu=similar0·18), and these sediment ratios differ significantly in plutonium isotope ratios from deep sea sediments of the Arctic Ocean. Much lower plutonium activities were observed in deep sea sediments relative to the sea ice entrained sediments. These differences in isotopic ratios indicate that on decadal scales, sedimentation of bomb fallout plutonium is not the sole source of plutonium to deep Arctic Ocean sediments. The large differences in total plutonium activity between some of the sea ice entrained sediments and all of the deep Arctic Ocean sediments also suggest that the total flux of plutonium from sea ice entrained sediments to the deep sea may be relatively small. Radiocesium activity in the sea ice entrained sediments is well correlated with total plutonium abundance, but the best-fit regression line does not pass through the origin, indicating that a small secondary source of cesium (3 to 9 Bq kg-1 dry weight) that is free of plutonium may contribute to the radiocesium activity observed in sediments entrained in Arctic Ocean sea ice. Based upon observations of carbon:nitrogen weight/weight ratios in excess of 20 in the organic carbon fraction, together with δ13C values less than -23%, several of the sea ice entrained sediments show indications of estuarine origin. However, these specific samples typically have low radionuclide burdens. Consideration of the low smectite content (sea ice sediments and prevailing

  17. Arctic sea ice melt, the Polar vortex, and mid-latitude weather: Are they connected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihma, Timo; Overland, James; Francis, Jennifer; Hall, Richard; Hanna, Edward; Kim, Seong-Joong

    2015-04-01

    The potential of recent Arctic changes to influence broader hemispheric weather is a difficult and controversial topic with considerable skepticism, as time series of potential linkages are short (relative to chaotic weather events is small. A way forward is through further understanding of potential atmospheric dynamic mechanisms. Although not definitive of change in a statistical or in a causality sense, the exceptionally warm Arctic winters since 2007 do contain increased variability according to some climate indices, with six negative (and two positive) Arctic Oscillation atmospheric circulation index events that created meridional flow reaching unusually far north and south. High pressure anomalies developed east of the Ural Mountains in Russia in response to sea-ice loss in the Barents/Kara Seas, which initiated eastward-propagating wave trains of high and low pressure that advected cold air over central and eastern Asia. Increased Greenland blocking and greater geopotential thickness related to low-level temperatures increases led to northerly meridional flow into eastern North America, inducing persistent cold periods. Arctic connections in Europe and western North America are less clear. The quantitative impact of potential Arctic change on mid-latitude weather will not be resolved within the foreseeable future, yet new approaches to high-latitude atmospheric dynamics can contribute to improved extended range forecasts as outlined by the WMO/Polar Prediction Program and other international activities.

  18. The impact of variable sea ice roughness on changes in Arctic Ocean surface stress: A model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Torge; Tsamados, Michel; Schroeder, David; Feltham, Daniel L.

    2016-03-01

    The Arctic sea ice cover is thinning and retreating, causing changes in surface roughness that in turn modify the momentum flux from the atmosphere through the ice into the ocean. New model simulations comprising variable sea ice drag coefficients for both the air and water interface demonstrate that the heterogeneity in sea ice surface roughness significantly impacts the spatial distribution and trends of ocean surface stress during the last decades. Simulations with constant sea ice drag coefficients as used in most climate models show an increase in annual mean ocean surface stress (0.003 N/m2 per decade, 4.6%) due to the reduction of ice thickness leading to a weakening of the ice and accelerated ice drift. In contrast, with variable drag coefficients our simulations show annual mean ocean surface stress is declining at a rate of -0.002 N/m2 per decade (3.1%) over the period 1980-2013 because of a significant reduction in surface roughness associated with an increasingly thinner and younger sea ice cover. The effectiveness of sea ice in transferring momentum does not only depend on its resistive strength against the wind forcing but is also set by its top and bottom surface roughness varying with ice types and ice conditions. This reveals the need to account for sea ice surface roughness variations in climate simulations in order to correctly represent the implications of sea ice loss under global warming.

  19. Tracking and responding to a changing Arctic sea-ice cover: How ice users can help the scientific community design better observing systems (Louis Agassiz Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicken, Hajo

    2010-05-01

    The Arctic sea-ice cover is undergoing a major transformation, with substantial reductions in summer ice extent reflecting changes in ice thickness, age, and circulation. These changes are impacting Arctic ecosystems and a range of human activities. Anticipating and responding to such impacts, exacerbated by increasing economic activity in parts of the Arctic, requires a foundation of environmental observations and model predictions. Recent increases in industrial activities such as shipping and resource development in parts of the Arctic have further highlighted the need for an integrated observing system. In the case of a changing sea-ice cover, how would one best design and optimize such a system? One of the challenges is to meet the information needs of the scientific community in furthering fundamental understanding of the Arctic system, as well as those of key stakeholders and society, helping them to prepare for and respond to Arctic change. This presentation focuses on how the concept of sea-ice system services, i.e., the uses and benefits (or harm) derived from sea ice, may help guide the implementation of an effective observing system. Principal service categories are (1) sea ice as climate regulator, marine hazard, and coastal buffer; (2) transportation and use of ice as a platform; (3) cultural services obtained from the "icescape"; and (4) support of food webs and biological diversity by sea ice. An analysis of the different ice services provided to different user groups can help prioritize different types of observations and determine optimal measurement strategies. Moreover, the focus on different uses of the ice cover may also help synthesize fundamental and applied research to help Arctic communities adapt in a changing environment. Alaska has experienced some of the most substantial changes in sea-ice conditions throughout the Arctic over the past three decades and is used to illustrate the concepts discussed above. Specifically, we have examined

  20. Loss of Arctic sea ice causing punctuated change in sightings of killer whales (Orcinus orca) over the past century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higdon, Jeff W; Ferguson, Steven H

    2009-07-01

    Killer whales (Orcinus orca) are major predators that may reshape marine ecosystems via top-down forcing. Climate change models predict major reductions in sea ice with the subsequent expectation for readjustments of species' distribution and abundance. Here, we measure changes in killer whale distribution in the Hudson Bay region with decreasing sea ice as an example of global readjustments occurring with climate change. We summarize records of killer whales in Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, and Foxe Basin in the eastern Canadian Arctic and relate them to an historical sea ice data set while accounting for spatial and temporal autocorrelation in the data. We find evidence for "choke points," where sea ice inhibits killer whale movement, thereby creating restrictions to their Arctic distribution. We hypothesize that a threshold exists in seasonal sea ice concentration within these choke points that results in pulses in advancements in distribution of an ice-avoiding predator. Hudson Strait appears to have been a significant sea ice choke point that opened up .approximately 50 years ago allowing for an initial punctuated appearance of killer whales followed by a gradual advancing distribution within the entire Hudson Bay region. Killer whale sightings have increased exponentially and are now reported in the Hudson Bay region every summer. We predict that other choke points will soon open up with continued sea ice melt producing punctuated predator-prey trophic cascades across the Arctic. PMID:19688941

  1. Where to Forage in the Absence of Sea Ice? Bathymetry As a Key Factor for an Arctic Seabird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Amélineau

    Full Text Available The earth is warming at an alarming rate, especially in the Arctic, where a marked decline in sea ice cover may have far-ranging consequences for endemic species. Little auks, endemic Arctic seabirds, are key bioindicators as they forage in the marginal ice zone and feed preferentially on lipid-rich Arctic copepods and ice-associated amphipods sensitive to the consequences of global warming. We tested how little auks cope with an ice-free foraging environment during the breeding season. To this end, we took advantage of natural variation in sea ice concentration along the east coast of Greenland. We compared foraging and diving behaviour, chick diet and growth and adult body condition between two years, in the presence versus nearby absence of sea ice in the vicinity of their breeding site. Moreover, we sampled zooplankton at sea when sea ice was absent to evaluate prey location and little auk dietary preferences. Little auks foraged in the same areas both years, irrespective of sea ice presence/concentration, and targeted the shelf break and the continental shelf. We confirmed that breeding little auks showed a clear preference for larger copepod species to feed their chick, but caught smaller copepods and nearly no ice-associated amphipod when sea ice was absent. Nevertheless, these dietary changes had no impact on chick growth and adult body condition. Our findings demonstrate the importance of bathymetry for profitable little auk foraging, whatever the sea-ice conditions. Our investigations, along with recent studies, also confirm more flexibility than previously predicted for this key species in a warming Arctic.

  2. Where to Forage in the Absence of Sea Ice? Bathymetry As a Key Factor for an Arctic Seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amélineau, Françoise; Grémillet, David; Bonnet, Delphine; Le Bot, Tangi; Fort, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    The earth is warming at an alarming rate, especially in the Arctic, where a marked decline in sea ice cover may have far-ranging consequences for endemic species. Little auks, endemic Arctic seabirds, are key bioindicators as they forage in the marginal ice zone and feed preferentially on lipid-rich Arctic copepods and ice-associated amphipods sensitive to the consequences of global warming. We tested how little auks cope with an ice-free foraging environment during the breeding season. To this end, we took advantage of natural variation in sea ice concentration along the east coast of Greenland. We compared foraging and diving behaviour, chick diet and growth and adult body condition between two years, in the presence versus nearby absence of sea ice in the vicinity of their breeding site. Moreover, we sampled zooplankton at sea when sea ice was absent to evaluate prey location and little auk dietary preferences. Little auks foraged in the same areas both years, irrespective of sea ice presence/concentration, and targeted the shelf break and the continental shelf. We confirmed that breeding little auks showed a clear preference for larger copepod species to feed their chick, but caught smaller copepods and nearly no ice-associated amphipod when sea ice was absent. Nevertheless, these dietary changes had no impact on chick growth and adult body condition. Our findings demonstrate the importance of bathymetry for profitable little auk foraging, whatever the sea-ice conditions. Our investigations, along with recent studies, also confirm more flexibility than previously predicted for this key species in a warming Arctic. PMID:27438790

  3. Review: Potential catastrophic reduction of sea ice in the western Arctic Ocean: Its impact on biogeochemical cycles and marine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    The reduction of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean, which has progressed more rapidly than previously predicted, has the potential to cause multiple environmental stresses, including warming, acidification, and strengthened stratification of the ocean. Observational studies have been undertaken to detect the impacts on biogeochemical cycles and marine ecosystems of these environmental stresses in the Arctic Ocean. Satellite analyses show that the reduction of sea ice has been especially great in the western Arctic Ocean. Observations and model simulations have both helped to clarify the impact of sea-ice reductions on the dynamics of ecosystem processes and biogeochemical cycles. In this review, I focus on the western Arctic Ocean, which has experienced the most rapid retreat of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean and, very importantly, has a higher rate of primary production than any other area of the Arctic Ocean owing to the supply of nutrient-rich Pacific water. I report the impact of the current reduction of sea ice on marine biogeochemical cycles in the western Arctic Ocean, including lower-trophic-level organisms, and identify the key mechanism of changes in the biogeochemical cycles, based on published observations and model simulations. The retreat of sea ice has enhanced primary production and has increased the frequency of appearance of mesoscale anticyclonic eddies. These eddies enhance the light environment and replenish nutrients, and they also represent a mechanism that can increase the rate of the biological pump in the Arctic Ocean. Various unresolved issues that require further investigation, such as biological responses to environmental stressors such as ocean acidification, are also discussed.

  4. Air-sea-ocean interaction processes and impacts on polynya formation and sea ice production in the Laptev Sea of the Siberian Arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Heinemann, Günther; Schröder, David; Willmes, Sascha; Ebner, Lars; Adams, Susanne; Ernsdorf, Thomas; Helbig, Alfred; Timmermann, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Processes of the exchange of energy and momentum at the sea ice-ocean-atmosphere interface are key processes for the polar climate system. Heat and moisture fluxes are strongly modulated by open water fractions associated with polynyas, having important consequences for the atmosphere, ocean processes, ice formation, brine release, gas exchange and biology. Our paper aims at the study of atmospheric processes forcing and maintaining polynyas in the Laptev Sea of the Siberian Arctic. This regi...

  5. The 2013 Arctic Field Season of the NRL Sea-Ice Measurement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, J. M.; Brozena, J. M.; Ball, D.; Hagen, R. A.; Liang, R.; Stoudt, C.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is conducting a five year study of the changing Arctic with a particular focus on ice thickness and distribution variability with the intent of optimizing state-of-the-art computer models which are currently used to predict sea ice changes. An important part of our study is to calibrate/validate CryoSat2 ice thickness data prior to its incorporation into new ice forecast models. NRL Code 7420 collected coincident data with the CryoSat2 satellite in 2011 and 2012 using a LiDAR (Riegl Q560) to measure combined snow and ice thickness and a 10 GHz pulse-limited precision radar altimeter to measure sea-ice freeboard. This field season, LiDAR data was collected using the Riegl Q680 which permitted higher density operation and data collection. Concident radar data was collected using an improved version of the NRL 10 GHz pulse limited radar that was used for the 2012 fieldwork. 8 coincident tracks of CryoSat2 satellite data were collected. Additionally a series of grids (7 total) of adjacent tracks were flown coincident with Cryosat2 satellite overpass. These grids cover the approximate satellite footprint of the satellite on the ice as it passes overhead. Data from these grids are shown here and will be used to examine the relationship of the tracked satellite waveform data to the actual surface across the footprint. We also coordinated with the Seasonal Ice Zone Observing Network (SIZONet) group who conducted surface based ice thickness surveys using a Geonics EM-31 along hunter trails on the landfast ice near Barrow as well as on drifting ice offshore during helicopter landings. On two sorties, a twin otter carrying the NRL LiDAR and radar altimeter flew in tandem with the helicopter carrying the EM-31 to achieve synchronous data acquisition. Data from these flights are shown here along with a digital elevation map.

  6. Species of Thaumatomastix (Thaumatomastigidae, Protista incertae sedis) from the Arctic sea ice biota (North-East Water Polynya, NE Greenland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Helge Abildhauge; Ikävalko, Johanna

    1997-01-01

    The sea ice biota of polar regions contains numerous heterotrophic flagellates very few of which have been properly identified. The whole mount technique for transmission electron microscopy enables the identification of loricate and scaly forms. A survey of Arctic ice samples (North-East Water Polynya, NE Greenland) revealed the presence of ca. 12 taxa belonging to the phagotrophic genus Thaumatomastix (Protista incertae sedis). Species of Thaumatomastix possess siliceous body scales and one naked and one scale-covered flagellum. The presence in both Arctic samples and sea ice material previously examined from the Antarctic indicates that this genus is most likely ubiquitous in polar sea ice and may be an important component in sea ice biota microbial activities.

  7. EASE-Grid Sea Ice Age

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides weekly estimates of sea ice age for the Arctic Ocean from remotely sensed sea ice motion and sea ice extent. The ice age data are derived...

  8. Arctic Sea Ice in Transformation: A Review of Recent Observed Changes and Impacts on Biology and Human Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Walter N.; Hovelsrud, Greta K.; van Oort, Bob E. H.; Key, Jeffrey R.; Kovacs, Kit M.; Michel, Christine; Haas, Christian; Granskog, Mats A.; Gerland, Sebastian; Perovich, Donald K.; Makshtas, Alexander; Reist, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Sea ice in the Arctic is one of the most rapidly changing components of the global climate system. Over the past few decades, summer areal extent has declined over 30, and all months show statistically significant declining trends. New satellite missions and techniques have greatly expanded information on sea ice thickness, but many uncertainties remain in the satellite data and long-term records are sparse. However, thickness observations and other satellite-derived data indicate a 40 decline in thickness, due in large part to the loss of thicker, older ice cover. The changes in sea ice are happening faster than models have projected. With continued increasing temperatures, summer ice-free conditions are likely sometime in the coming decades, though there are substantial uncertainties in the exact timing and high interannual variability will remain as sea ice decreases. The changes in Arctic sea ice are already having an impact on flora and fauna in the Arctic. Some species will face increasing challenges in the future, while new habitat will open up for other species. The changes are also affecting peoples living and working in the Arctic. Native communities are facing challenges to their traditional ways of life, while new opportunities open for shipping, fishing, and natural resource extraction.

  9. Sea Ice, Hydrocarbon Extraction, Rain-on-Snow and Tundra Reindeer Nomadism in Arctic Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, B. C.; Kumpula, T.; Meschtyb, N.; Laptander, R.; Macias-Fauria, M.; Zetterberg, P.; Verdonen, M.

    2015-12-01

    It is assumed that retreating sea ice in the Eurasian Arctic will accelerate hydrocarbon development and associated tanker traffic along Russia's Northern Sea Route. However, oil and gas extraction along the Kara and Barents Sea coasts will likely keep developing rapidly regardless of whether the Northwest Eurasian climate continues to warm. Less certain are the real and potential linkages to regional biota and social-ecological systems. Reindeer nomadism continues to be a vitally important livelihood for indigenous tundra Nenets and their large herds of semi-domestic reindeer. Warming summer air temperatures over the NW Russian Arctic have been linked to increases in tundra productivity, longer growing seasons, and accelerated growth of tall deciduous shrubs. These temperature increases have, in turn, been linked to more frequent and sustained summer high-pressure systems over West Siberia, but not to sea ice retreat. At the same time, winters have been warming and rain-on-snow (ROS) events have become more frequent and intense, leading to record-breaking winter and spring mortality of reindeer. What is driving this increase in ROS frequency and intensity is not clear. Recent modelling and simulation have found statistically significant near-surface atmospheric warming and precipitation increases during autumn and winter over Arctic coastal lands in proximity to regions of sea-ice loss. During the winter of 2013-14 an extensive and lasting ROS event led to the starvation of 61,000 reindeer out of a population of ca. 300,000 animals on Yamal Peninsula, West Siberia. Historically, this is the region's largest recorded mortality episode. More than a year later, participatory fieldwork with nomadic herders during spring-summer 2015 revealed that the ecological and socio-economic impacts from this extreme event will unfold for years to come. There is an urgent need to understand whether and how ongoing Barents and Kara Sea ice retreat may affect the region's ancient

  10. Impact of rapid sea-ice reduction in the Arctic Ocean on the rate of ocean acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yamamoto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The largest pH decline and widespread undersaturation with respect to aragonite in this century due to uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the Arctic Ocean have been projected. The reductions in pH and aragonite saturation state in the Arctic Ocean have been caused by the melting of sea ice as well as by an increase in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Therefore, future projections of pH and aragonite saturation in the Arctic Ocean will be affected by how rapidly the reduction in sea ice occurs. The observed recent Arctic sea-ice loss has been more rapid than projected by many of the climate models that contributed to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report. In this study, the impact of sea-ice reduction rate on projected pH and aragonite saturation state in the Arctic surface waters was investigated. Reductions in pH and aragonite saturation were calculated from the outputs of two versions of an Earth system model with different sea-ice reduction rates under similar CO2 emission scenarios. The newer model version projects that Arctic summer ice-free condition will be achieved by the year 2040, and the older version predicts ice-free condition by 2090. The Arctic surface water was projected to be undersaturated with respect to aragonite in the annual mean when atmospheric CO2 concentration reaches 513 (606 ppm in year 2046 (2056 in new (old version. At an atmospheric CO2 concentration of 520 ppm, the maximum differences in pH and aragonite saturation state between the two versions were 0.1 and 0.21 respectively. The analysis showed that the decreases in pH and aragonite saturation state due to rapid sea-ice reduction were caused by increases in both CO2 uptake and freshwater input. Thus, the reductions in pH and aragonite saturation state in the Arctic surface waters are significantly affected by the difference in future projections for sea-ice

  11. Relationships linking primary production, sea ice melting, and biogenic aerosol in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becagli, S.; Lazzara, L.; Marchese, C.; Dayan, U.; Ascanius, S. E.; Cacciani, M.; Caiazzo, L.; Di Biagio, C.; Di Iorio, T.; di Sarra, A.; Eriksen, P.; Fani, F.; Giardi, F.; Meloni, D.; Muscari, G.; Pace, G.; Severi, M.; Traversi, R.; Udisti, R.

    2016-07-01

    This study examines the relationships linking methanesulfonic acid (MSA, arising from the atmospheric oxidation of the biogenic dimethylsulfide, DMS) in atmospheric aerosol, satellite-derived chlorophyll a (Chl-a), and oceanic primary production (PP), also as a function of sea ice melting (SIM) and extension of the ice free area in the marginal ice zone (IF-MIZ) in the Arctic. MSA was determined in PM10 samples collected over the period 2010-2012 at two Arctic sites, Ny Ålesund (78.9°N, 11.9°E), Svalbard islands, and Thule Air Base (76.5°N, 68.8°W), Greenland. PP is calculated by means of a bio-optical, physiologically based, semi-analytical model in the potential source areas located in the surrounding oceanic regions (Barents and Greenland Seas for Ny Ålesund, and Baffin Bay for Thule). Chl-a peaks in May in the Barents sea and in the Baffin Bay, and has maxima in June in the Greenland sea; PP follows the same seasonal pattern of Chl-a, although the differences in absolute values of PP in the three seas during the blooms are less marked than for Chl-a. MSA shows a better correlation with PP than with Chl-a, besides, the source intensity (expressed by PP) is able to explain more than 30% of the MSA variability at the two sites; the other factors explaining the MSA variability are taxonomic differences in the phytoplanktonic assemblages, and transport processes from the DMS source areas to the sampling sites. The taxonomic differences are also evident from the slopes of the correlation plots between MSA and PP: similar slopes (in the range 34.2-36.2 ng m-3of MSA/(gC m-2 d-1)) are found for the correlation between MSA at Ny Ålesund and PP in Barents Sea, and between MSA at Thule and PP in the Baffin Bay; conversely, the slope of the correlation between MSA at Ny Ålesund and PP in the Greenland Sea in summer is smaller (16.7 ng m-3of MSA/(gC m-2 d-1)). This is due to the fact that DMS emission from the Barents Sea and Baffin Bay is mainly related to the MIZ

  12. Biological and physical processes influencing sea ice, under-ice algae, and dimethylsulfoniopropionate during spring in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, V.; Levasseur, M.; Mundy, C. J.; Gosselin, M.; Tremblay, J.-É.; Scarratt, M.; Gratton, Y.; Papakiriakou, T.; Poulin, M.; Lizotte, M.

    2014-06-01

    This study presents temporal variations in concentrations of chlorophyll a (Chl a), particulate and dissolved dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSPp and DMSPd) in the sea ice and underlying water column in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago during the spring of 2010 and 2011. During both years, bottom ice Chl a, DMSPp and DMSPd concentrations were high (up to 1328 µg L-1, 15,082 nmol L-1, and 6110 nmol L-1, respectively) in May and decreased thereafter. The release of bottom ice algae and DMSPp in the water column was gradual in 2010 and rapid (8 days) in 2011. Bottom brine drainage during the presnowmelt period in 2010 and a rapid loss of the snow cover in 2011 coinciding with rain events explain most of the difference between the 2 years. During both years, less than 13% of the DMSPd lost from the ice was detected in the water column, suggesting a rapid microbial consumption. An under-ice diatom bloom developed in both years. In 2010, the bloom was dominated by centric diatoms while in 2011 pennates dominated, likely reflecting seeding by ice algae following the faster snowmelt progression induced by rainfall events in 2011. Both under-ice blooms were associated with high DMSPp concentrations (up to 185 nmol L-1), but pennate diatoms showed DMSPp/Chl a ratios twice higher than centrics. These results highlight the key role of snowmelt and precipitation on the temporal pattern of ice-DMSP release to the water column and on the timing, taxonomic composition, and DMSP content of phytoplankton under-ice blooms in the Arctic.

  13. Variability of scaling time series in the Arctic sea-ice drift dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chmel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The motion of an individual ice floe in the Arctic Ocean was monitored at the Russian research station North Pole 35 established on the ice pack in 2008. The ice floe speed (V was found to be correlated with wind speed (v in main features, such as the positions of maxima and minima of V and v. However, the fine structure of the V-variation cannot be explained by the wind forcing alone. There were periods of time when the floe drift was affected by the interactions of ice floes between each other or by the periodical forcing due to either the Coriolis inertia effect or the tidal activity. These data were compared with the "waiting times" statistics that are the distributions of time intervals between subsequent, sufficiently strong changes in the kinetic energy of drifting ice floe. These distributions were measured in several time windows differing in the average wind speed and wind direction, and/or in the mechanical state of the ice pack. The distribution functions N (t>τ, where N is the number of successive events of energy change separated by the time interval t that exceeds τ, constructed in different time windows demonstrate fractal or a multifractal nature of the time series during motion in the consolidated ice pack but were truly random when the ice floe drifted in the highly fragmented sea ice. The latter result shows the existence of a relationship between the long-range mechanical interactions in the pack and long-term memory (time scaling behaviour of the sea-ice motion.

  14. Fluctuating Arctic Sea ice thickness changes estimated by an in situ learned and empirically forced neural network model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belchansky, G.I.; Douglas, D.C.; Platonov, N.G.

    2008-01-01

    Sea ice thickness (SIT) is a key parameter of scientific interest because understanding the natural spatiotemporal variability of ice thickness is critical for improving global climate models. In this paper, changes in Arctic SIT during 1982-2003 are examined using a neural network (NN) algorithm trained with in situ submarine ice draft and surface drilling data. For each month of the study period, the NN individually estimated SIT of each ice-covered pixel (25-km resolution) based on seven geophysical parameters (four shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes, surface air temperature, ice drift velocity, and ice divergence/convergence) that were cumulatively summed at each monthly position along the pixel's previous 3-yr drift track (or less if the ice was <3 yr old). Average January SIT increased during 1982-88 in most regions of the Arctic (+7.6 ?? 0.9 cm yr-1), decreased through 1996 Arctic-wide (-6.1 ?? 1.2 cm yr-1), then modestly increased through 2003 mostly in the central Arctic (+2.1 ?? 0.6 cm yr-1). Net ice volume change in the Arctic Ocean from 1982 to 2003 was negligible, indicating that cumulative ice growth had largely replaced the estimated 45 000 km3 of ice lost by cumulative export. Above 65??N, total annual ice volume and interannual volume changes were correlated with the Arctic Oscillation (AO) at decadal and annual time scales, respectively. Late-summer ice thickness and total volume varied proportionally until the mid-1990s, but volume did not increase commensurate with the thickening during 1996-2002. The authors speculate that decoupling of the ice thickness-volume relationship resulted from two opposing mechanisms with different latitudinal expressions: a recent quasi-decadal shift in atmospheric circulation patterns associated with the AO's neutral state facilitated ice thickening at high latitudes while anomalously warm thermal forcing thinned and melted the ice cap at its periphery. ?? 2008 American Meteorological Society.

  15. Recent ice cap snowmelt in Russian High Arctic and anti-correlation with late summer sea ice extent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glacier surface melt dynamics throughout Novaya Zemlya (NovZ) and Severnaya Zemlya (SevZ) serve as a good indicator of ice mass ablation and regional climate change in the Russian High Arctic. Here we report trends of surface melt onset date (MOD) and total melt days (TMD) by combining multiple resolution-enhanced active and passive microwave satellite datasets and analyze the TMD correlations with local temperature and regional sea ice extent. The glacier surface snowpack on SevZ melted significantly earlier (−7.3 days/decade) from 1992 to 2012 and significantly longer (7.7 days/decade) from 1995 to 2011. NovZ experienced large interannual variability in MOD, but its annual mean TMD increased. The snowpack melt on NovZ is more sensitive to temperature fluctuations than SevZ in recent decades. After ruling out the regional temperature influence using partial correlation analysis, the TMD on both archipelagoes is statistically anti-correlated with regional late summer sea ice extent, linking land ice snowmelt dynamics to regional sea ice extent variations. (letter)

  16. Using records from submarine, aircraft and satellite to evaluate climate model simulations of Arctic sea ice thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Stroeve

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Arctic sea ice thickness distributions from models participating in the World Climate Research Programme Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 are evaluated against observations from submarines, aircraft and satellites. While it's encouraging that the mean thickness distributions from the models are in general agreement with observations, the spatial patterns of sea ice thickness are poorly represented in most models. The poor spatial representation of thickness patterns is associated with a failure of models to represent details of the mean atmospheric circulation pattern that governs the transport and spatial distribution of sea ice. The climate models as a whole also tend to underestimate the rate of ice volume loss from 1979 to 2013, though the multi-model ensemble mean trend remains within the uncertainty of that from the Pan-Arctic Ice Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System. These results raise concerns regarding the ability of CMIP5 models to realistically represent the processes driving the decline of Arctic sea ice and project the timing of when a seasonally ice-free Arctic may be realized.

  17. Wind-driven interannual variability of sea ice algal production over the western Arctic Chukchi Borderland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Watanabe

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal and interannual variability in sinking flux of biogenic particles was reported by the multi-year bottom-tethered sediment trap measurements in the Northwind Abyssal Plain (Station NAP: 75° N, 162° W, 1975 m water depth of the western Arctic Chukchi Borderland. Whereas the trapped particle flux had an obvious peak with the dominance of sea ice-related diatom valve in August 2011, the observed particle flux was considerably suppressed throughout the summer season in 2012. In the present study, response of ice algal production and biomass to wind-driven changes in physical environments was addressed using a pan-Arctic sea ice–ocean modeling approach. Sea ice ecosystem with ice algae was newly incorporated into the lower-trophic marine ecosystem model, which was previously coupled with a high-resolution (i.e., horizontal grid size of 5 km ocean general circulation model. Seasonal experiments covering two year-long mooring periods indicated that primary productivity of ice algae around the Chukchi Borderland depended on basin-scale wind pattern through various processes. Easterly wind in the southern part of distinct Beaufort High supplied high abundance of nutrient for euphotic zones of the NAP region via both surface Ekman transport of Chukchi shelf water and vertical turbulent mixing with underlying nutricline water as in 2011. In contrast, northwesterly wind flowing in the northern part of extended Siberian High transported oligotrophic water within the Beaufort Gyre circulation toward the NAP region as in 2012. The modeled ice algal biomass during the summer season certainly reflected the differences in nutrient distribution. The sinking flux of Particulate Organic Nitrogen (PON was comparable with the time series obtained from the sediment trap data in summer 2011. On the other hand, lateral advection of shelf-origin ice algal patch during a great cyclone event might have caused a model bias on the PON flux in 2012. The extension

  18. Rising sea surface temperature: towards ice-free Arctic summers and a changing marine food chain Document Actions

    OpenAIRE

    Coppini, Giovanni; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Bologna, Bologna, Italia; Christiansen, Trine; European Environment Agency

    2009-01-01

    Global sea surface temperature is approximately 1 degree C higher now than 140 years ago, and is one of the primary physical impacts of climate change. Sea surface temperature in European seas is increasing more rapidly than in the global oceans. Projections show the temperature increases will persist throughout this century. Ice-free summers are expected in the Arctic by the end of this century, if not earlier. Already, there is evidence that many marine ecosystems in European seas are affec...

  19. Ikaite crystals in melting sea ice - implications for pCO(2) and pH levels in Arctic surface waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard, Søren; Glud, Ronnie N.; Lennert, K.;

    2012-01-01

    A major issue of Arctic marine science is to understand whether the Arctic Ocean is, or will be, a source or sink for air-sea CO2 exchange. This has been complicated by the recent discoveries of ikaite (a polymorph of CaCO3 center dot 6H(2)O) in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, which indicate that m...

  20. Ikaite crystals in melting sea ice – implications for pCO2 and pH levels in Arctic surface waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard, Søren; Glud, R.N.; Lennert, K.;

    2012-01-01

    A major issue of Arctic marine science is to understand whether the Arctic Ocean is, or will be, a source or sink for air-sea CO 2 exchange. This has been complicated by the recent discoveries of ikaite (a polymorph of CaCO 3•6H 2O) in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, which indicate that multiple ch...

  1. Arctic Ocean gravity, geoid and sea-ice freeboard heights from ICESat and GRACE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Skourup, Henriette

    2005-01-01

    coverage of multi-year sea-ice; however, comparison to an airborne lidar underflight north of Greenland shows that the lowest-level filtering scheme may introduce a bias. We finally use the ICESat and GRACE results to derive new gravity anomalies by Fourier inversion. The satellite-only gravity field shows...... all major tectonic features of the Arctic Ocean, and has an accuracy of 6 mGal compared to recent airborne gravity data, illustrating the usefulness of ICESat data for gravity field determination....

  2. A closer investigation of associations between Autumn Arctic sea ice and central and east Eurasian winter climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaoyin; Liu, Jiping

    2016-04-01

    Whether recent Arctic sea ice loss is responsible for recent severe winters over mid-latitude continents has emerged as a major debate among climate scientists owing to short records of observations and large internal variability in mid- and high-latitudes. In this study, we divide the evolution of autumn Arctic sea ice extent during 1979-2014 into three epochs, 1979-1986 (high), 1987-2006 (moderate) and 2007-2014 (low), using a regime shift identification method. We then compare the associations between autumn Arctic sea ice and winter climate anomalies over central and eastern Eurasia for the three epochs with focus not only on the mean state, but also the extreme events. The results show robust and detectable signals of sea ice loss in weather and climate over western Siberia and East Asia. For the mean state, anomalous low sea ice extent is associated with a strengthening of the Siberian high pressure, a weakening of westerly winds over north Asia, leading to cold anomalies in central Asia and northern China. For the extreme events, the latitude (speed) of the jet stream shifts southward (reduces), the wave extent amplifies, blocking high events increase over Ural Mountains, leading to increased frequency of cold air outbreaks extending from central Asia to northeast China. These associations bear a high degree of similarity to the observed atmospheric anomalies during the low sea ice epoch. By contrast, the patterns of atmospheric anomalies for the high sea ice epoch are different from those congruent with sea ice variability, which is related to the persistent negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation. We also found that the ENSO plays a minor role in the determination of the observed atmospheric anomalies for the three epochs. Support for these observational analysis is largely corroborated by independent atmospheric model simulations.

  3. Using records from submarine, aircraft and satellites to evaluate climate model simulations of Arctic sea ice thickness

    OpenAIRE

    J. Stroeve; Barrett, A; Serreze, M.; Schweiger, A

    2014-01-01

    Arctic sea ice thickness distributions from models participating in the World Climate Research Programme Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) are evaluated against observations from submarines, aircraft and satellites. While it is encouraging that the mean thickness distributions from the models are in general agreement with observations, the spatial patterns of sea ice thickness are poorly represented in most models. The poor spatial representation of thick...

  4. Archival and Analysis of Sea Ice Thickness in the Arctic Ocean Based on On-Ice In Situ Historical Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, B.; Melocik, K.

    2009-12-01

    A largely unexplored sea ice data record consists of in situ thickness measurements derived from drill holes, cores, gauges, thermistor strings, and surface electromagnetic induction. By compiling these often disparate and scattered but generally highly accurate measurements into a single database, a long-term record is being developed, that will expand and extend in time and space the thickness record obtained from the submarine ice draft record as well as the developing satellite, helicopter EM, and sonar and mass balance buoys measurements. From journal articles, reports, on-line databases, and direct contact with sea ice investigators, we assembled measurements from many types of expeditions, large and small, with the earliest data so far from 1928 to the most recent from 2007. Many of the field expeditions are in regions outside of the central Arctic region that submarines are able to sample, thereby expanding the spatial extent of the sea ice record. We will discuss the preliminary analysis of these records, as a means to improving the understanding of thickness changes in relation to climate change.

  5. Improvement in Simulation of Eurasian Winter Climate Variability with a Realistic Arctic Sea Ice Condition in an Atmospheric GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Ham, Yoo-Geun; Jeong, Jee-Hoon; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates how much a realistic Arctic sea ice condition can contribute to improve simulation of the winter climate variation over the Eurasia region. Model experiments are set up using different sea ice boundary conditions over the past 24 years (i.e., 1988-2011). One is an atmospheric model inter-comparison (AMIP) type of run forced with observed sea-surface temperature (SST), sea ice, and greenhouse gases (referred to as Exp RSI), and the other is the same as Exp RSI except for the sea ice forcing, which is a repeating climatological annual cycle (referred to as Exp CSI). Results show that Exp RSI produces the observed dominant pattern of Eurasian winter temperatures and their interannual variation better than Exp CSI (correlation difference up to approx. 0.3). Exp RSI captures the observed strong relationship between the sea ice concentration near the Barents and Kara seas and the temperature anomaly across Eurasia, including northeastern Asia, which is not well captured in Exp CSI. Lagged atmospheric responses to sea ice retreat are examined using observations to understand atmospheric processes for the Eurasian cooling response including the Arctic temperature increase, sea-level pressure increase, upper-level jet weakening and cold air outbreak toward the mid-latitude. The reproducibility of these lagged responses by Exp RSI is also evaluated.

  6. Improvement in simulation of Eurasian winter climate variability with a realistic Arctic sea ice condition in an atmospheric GCM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study investigates how much a realistic Arctic sea ice condition can contribute to improve simulation of the winter climate variation over the Eurasia region. Model experiments are set up using different sea ice boundary conditions over the past 24 years (i.e., 1988–2011). One is an atmospheric model inter-comparison (AMIP) type of run forced with observed sea-surface temperature (SST), sea ice, and greenhouse gases (referred to as Exp RSI), and the other is the same as Exp RSI except for the sea ice forcing, which is a repeating climatological annual cycle (referred to as Exp CSI). Results show that Exp RSI produces the observed dominant pattern of Eurasian winter temperatures and their interannual variation better than Exp CSI (correlation difference up to ∼0.3). Exp RSI captures the observed strong relationship between the sea ice concentration near the Barents and Kara seas and the temperature anomaly across Eurasia, including northeastern Asia, which is not well captured in Exp CSI. Lagged atmospheric responses to sea ice retreat are examined using observations to understand atmospheric processes for the Eurasian cooling response including the Arctic temperature increase, sea-level pressure increase, upper-level jet weakening and cold air outbreak toward the mid-latitude. The reproducibility of these lagged responses by Exp RSI is also evaluated. (letter)

  7. Impact of rapid sea-ice reduction in the Arctic Ocean on the rate of ocean acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yamamoto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The largest pH decline and widespread undersaturation with respect to aragonite in this century due to uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the Arctic Ocean have been projected. The reductions in pH and aragonite saturation state have been caused primarily by an increase in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, in a previous study, simulations with and without warming showed that these reductions in the Arctic Ocean also advances due to the melting of sea ice caused by global warming. Therefore, future projections of pH and aragonite saturation in the Arctic Ocean will be affected by how rapidly the reduction in sea ice occurs. In this study, the impact of sea-ice reduction rate on projected pH and aragonite saturation state in the Arctic surface waters was investigated. Reductions in pH and aragonite saturation were calculated from the outputs of two versions of an earth system model (ESM with different sea-ice reduction rates under similar CO2 emission scenarios. The newer model version projects that Arctic summer ice-free condition will be achieved by the year 2040, and the older version predicts ice-free condition by 2090. The Arctic surface water was projected to be undersaturated with respect to aragonite in the annual mean when atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 480 (550 ppm in year 2040 (2048 in new (old version. At an atmospheric CO2 concentration of 520 ppm, the maximum differences in pH and aragonite saturation state between the two versions were 0.08 and 0.15, respectively. The analysis showed that the decreases in pH and aragonite saturation state due to rapid sea-ice reduction were caused by increases in both CO2 uptake and freshwater input. Thus, the reductions in pH and aragonite saturation state in the Arctic surface waters are significantly affected by the difference in future projections for sea-ice reduction rate. The critical CO2 concentration

  8. Arctic sea-ice melting: Effects on hydroclimatic variability and on UV-induced carbon cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzberger, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Since 1980 both the perennial and the multiyear central Arctic sea ice areas have declined by approximately 13 and 15% per decade, respectively (IPCC, 2013). Arctic sea-ice melting has led to an increase in the amplitude of the Northern Hemisphere jet stream and, as a consequence, in more slowly moving Rossby waves which results in blocking of weather patterns such as heat waves, droughts, cold spells, and heavy precipitation events (Francis and Vavrus, 2012). Changing Rossby waves account for more than 30% of the precipitation variability over several regions of the northern middle and high latitudes, including the US northern Great Plains and parts of Canada, Europe, and Russia (Schubert et al., 2011). From 2007 to 2013, northern Europe experienced heavy summer precipitation events that were unprecedented in over a century, concomitant with Arctic sea ice loss (Screen, 2013). Heavy precipitation events tend to increase the runoff intensity of terrigenous dissolved organic matter (tDOM) (Haaland et al., 2010). In surface waters tDOM is subject to UV-induced oxidation to produce atmospheric CO2. Mineralization of DOM also occurs via microbial respiration. However, not all chemical forms of DOM are available to bacterioplankton. UV-induced transformations generally increase the bioavailability of tDOM (Sulzberger and Durisch-Kaiser, 2009). Mineralization of tDOM is an important source of atmospheric CO2 and this process is likely to contribute to positive feedbacks on global warming (Erickson et al., 2015). However, the magnitudes of these potential feedbacks remain unexplored. This paper will discuss the following items: 1.) Links between Arctic sea-ice melting, heavy precipitation events, and enhanced tDOM runoff. 2.) UV-induced increase in the bioavailability of tDOM. 3.) UV-mediated feedbacks on global warming. References Erickson, D. J. III, B. Sulzberger, R. G. Zepp, A. T. Austin (2015), Effects of stratospheric ozone depletion, solar UV radiation, and climate

  9. Could massive Arctic sea ice export to the North Atlantic be the real cause of abrupt climate change during the last deglaciation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletti, A. J.; Condron, A.

    2015-12-01

    Using a coupled ocean-sea ice model (MITgcm), we investigate whether the break-up and mobilization of thick, multiyear, Arctic sea ice might have supplied enough freshwater to the Nordic Seas to reduce North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) formation and weaken the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Numerical simulations of a Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) environment show the potential for sea ice to grow to ~30m thick, storing ~1.41x105 km3 of freshwater as sea ice in the Arctic (this is ~10 times the volume of freshwater stored in the modern-day Arctic). Releasing this volume of sea ice from the Arctic in 1-yr is equivalent to a high-latitude freshwater forcing of ~4.5 Sv, which is comparable (or larger) in magnitude to most meltwater floods emanating from land-based glacial lakes (e.g. Agassiz) during the last deglaciation. Opening of the Bering Strait and Barents Sea are two plausible mechanisms that may have initiated sea ice mobilization. Opening Bering Strait increases sea ice transport through the Fram Strait by 7% and results in a 22% weakening of AMOC for 2000 years and a >3°C warming in the Arctic basin at 800 m depth. Opening Barents Sea to simulate a collapse of the Fennoscandian ice sheet has little impact on Arctic sea ice and freshwater export to the North Atlantic, but weakens AMOC ~8%. In a simulation with both straits open there is a transition to near-modern sea ice circulation pattern and a 24% reduction in AMOC. Experiments with the Bering Strait open and sea ice artificially capped to 10 m show barely any difference to those when sea ice can grow to ~30m, suggesting that changes in topography have a much greater impact on AMOC than the freshwater forcing from sea ice melting in the Nordic Seas.

  10. Sensitivity of CryoSat-2 Arctic sea-ice freeboard and thickness on radar-waveform interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Ricker, R.; Hendricks, S.; V. Helm; H. Skourup; M. Davidson

    2014-01-01

    In the context of quantifying Arctic ice-volume decrease at global scale, the CryoSat-2 satellite was launched in 2010 and is equipped with the Ku band synthetic aperture radar altimeter SIRAL (Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Radar Altimeter), which we use to derive sea-ice freeboard defined as the height of the ice surface above the sea level. Accurate CryoSat-2 range measurements over open water and the ice surface of the order of centimetres are necessary to achieve...

  11. The sensitivity of Arctic sea ice production to shelf flooding during the early Holocene: a modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschek, M.; Renssen, H.

    2012-04-01

    During the last deglaciation, the global sea-level started rising, changing the coastlines from an early Holocene stand (40 m lower than today at approximately 10 kyr BP, Siddall et al., 2003) to modern day coastlines. Proxy evidence shows that this transgression occurred non-uniformly over the globe. For instance, Bauch et al. (2001) report for the Laptev Sea (Arctic Ocean), that the modern coastline was only established at 5 kyr BP after a fast transgression from the early Holocene, leading to a flooding of the extensive shelf area. This shelf area is presently regarded to be an important production zone of Arctic sea ice, playing an important role in the dynamics of sea ice in the Arctic, as well as its export to the Nordic Seas along the East Greenland Current (EGC). Through this sea ice export, changes in the Laptev Sea shelf area during the Holocene could potentially have had a substantial impact on the sea surface conditions of the EGC, and the Denmark Strait, which is known to be sensitive to sea ice. This is consistent with a rapid increase in sea ice export through the EGC around 5 kyr BP as reported by Jennings et al. (2002). In this study we investigate the impact of this Arctic shelf flooding on sea ice production in the Holocene, and on the climate of the Nordic Seas in the LOVECLIM1.2 global ocean-atmosphere-vegetation model. We present results of several experiments in which we study the sensitivity of Arctic sea ice production to various Arctic shelf areas under early Holocene conditions (9 kyr BP). We approach this by changing the land-sea mask to represent different lower-than-present sea-level coastlines. For example, we perform experiments with the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) land-sea mask, representing a lowering of the sea-level by 120 m, while keeping other forcings at 9 kyr BP. A further step is to modify selected areas in the Arctic, such as the Laptev Sea area, to examine the importance of different areas. Our results help to explain long

  12. Pathways of Atlantic Waters into the Arctic Ocean: Eddy-permitting ocean and sea ice simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wekerle, Claudia; von Appen, Wilken-Jon; Danilov, Sergey; Jung, Thomas; Kanzow, Torsten; Schauer, Ursula; Timmermann, Ralph; Wang, Qiang

    2015-04-01

    Fram Strait is the only deep gateway connecting the central Arctic with the North Atlantic. Boundary currents on each side are responsible for the exchange of water masses between the Arctic and North Atlantic. The East Greenland Current (EGC) carries fresh and cold Arctic waters and sea ice southward, whereas the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC) carries warm Atlantic Waters (AW) into the Arctic Ocean. The complex topography in Fram Strait leads to a branching of the northward flowing WSC, with one branch recirculating between 78°N and 81°N which then joins the EGC. To date, the dynamics as well as the precise location of this recirculation are unclear. The goal of this research project is to quantify the amount and variability of AW which recirculates immediately in Fram Strait, and to investigate the role of atmospheric forcing and oceanic meso-scale eddies for the recirculation. We use simulations carried out with a global configuration of the Finite Element Sea ice-Ocean Model (FESOM) at eddy-permitting scales. The advantage of this model is the finite element discretization of the governing equations, which allows us to locally refine the mesh in areas of interest and keep it coarse in other parts of the global oceans without the need for traditional nesting. Here we will show the first results of the model validation. The model has ~9 km resolution in the Nordic Seas and Fram Strait and 1 deg south of 50°N. We assess the model capabilities in simulating the ocean circulation in the Nordic Seas and Fram Strait by comparing with the available observational data, e.g. with data from the Fram Strait oceanographic mooring array. The ocean volume and heat transport from the Atlantic Ocean into the Nordic Seas and at the Fram Strait are analyzed. Our results show that the model can capture some of the observed key ocean properties in our region of interest, while some tuning is required to further improve the model. In the next phase of this project we will focus

  13. The 2012 Arctic Field Season of the NRL Sea-Ice Measurement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, J. M.; Brozena, J. M.; Hagen, R. A.; Liang, R.; Ball, D.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is beginning a five year study of the changing Arctic with a particular focus on ice thickness and distribution variability with the intent of optimizing state-of-the-art computer models which are currently used to predict sea ice changes. An important part of our study is to calibrate/validate CryoSat2 ice thickness data prior to its incorporation into new ice forecast models. NRL Code 7420 collected coincident data with the CryoSat2 satellite in both 2011 and 2012 using a LiDAR (Riegl Q560) to measure combined snow and ice thickness and a 10 GHz pulse-limited precision radar altimeter to measure sea-ice freeboard. These measurements were coordinated with the Seasonal Ice Zone Observing Network (SIZONet) group who conducted surface based ice thickness surveys using a Geonics EM-31 along hunter trails on the landfast ice near Barrow as well as on drifting ice offshore during helicopter landings. On two sorties, a twin otter carrying the NRL LiDAR and radar altimeter flew in tandem with the helicopter carrying the EM-31 to achieve synchronous data acquisition. Data from these flights are shown here along with a digital elevation map. The LiDAR and radar altimeter were also flown on grid patterns over the ice that were synchronous with 5 Cryosat2 satellite passes. These grids were intended to cover roughly 10 km long segments of Cryosat2 tracks with widths similar to the footprint of the satellite (~2 km). Reduction of these grids is challenging because of ice drift which can be many hundreds of meters over the 1-2 hours collection period of each grid. Relocation of the individual scanning LiDAR tracks is done by means of tie-points observed in the overlapping swaths. Data from these grids are shown here and will be used to examine the relationship of the tracked satellite waveform data to the actual surface across the footprint.

  14. Sea-ice melt CO2-carbonate chemistry in the western Arctic Ocean: meltwater contributions to air-sea CO2 gas exchange, mixed layer properties and rates of net community production under sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, N. R.; Garley, R.; Frey, K. E.; Shake, K. L.; Mathis, J. T.

    2014-01-01

    The carbon dioxide (CO2)-carbonate chemistry of sea-ice melt and co-located, contemporaneous seawater has rarely been studied in sea ice covered oceans. Here, we describe the CO2-carbonate chemistry of sea-ice melt (both above sea ice as "melt ponds" and below sea ice as "interface waters") and mixed layer properties in the western Arctic Ocean in the early summer of 2010 and 2011. At nineteen stations, the salinity (~ 0.5 to 1500 μatm) with the majority of melt ponds acting as potentially strong sources of CO2 to the atmosphere. The pH of melt pond waters was also highly variable ranging from mildly acidic (6.1 to 7) to slightly more alkaline than underlying seawater (8 to 10.7). All of observed melt ponds had very low ( 50%) and under-ice interface melt water is ubiquitous during this spring/summer sea-ice retreat. Our observations contribute to growing evidence that sea-ice CO2-carbonate chemistry is highly variable and its contribution to the complex factors that influence the balance of CO2 sinks and sources (and thereby ocean acidification) is difficult to predict in an era of rapid warming and sea ice loss in the Arctic Ocean.

  15. Observed microphysical changes in Arctic mixed-phase clouds when transitioning from sea-ice to open ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gillian; Jones, Hazel M.; Crosier, Jonathan; Bower, Keith N.; Darbyshire, Eoghan; Taylor, Jonathan W.; Liu, Dantong; Allan, James D.; Williams, Paul I.; Gallagher, Martin W.; Choularton, Thomas W.

    2016-04-01

    The Arctic sea-ice is intricately coupled to the atmosphere[1]. The decreasing sea-ice extent with the changing climate raises questions about how Arctic cloud structure will respond. Any effort to answer these questions is hindered by the scarcity of atmospheric observations in this region. Comprehensive cloud and aerosol measurements could allow for an improved understanding of the relationship between surface conditions and cloud structure; knowledge which could be key in validating weather model forecasts. Previous studies[2] have shown via remote sensing that cloudiness increases over the marginal ice zone (MIZ) and ocean with comparison to the sea-ice; however, to our knowledge, detailed in-situ data of this transition have not been previously presented. In 2013, the Aerosol-Cloud Coupling and Climate Interactions in the Arctic (ACCACIA) campaign was carried out in the vicinity of Svalbard, Norway to collect in-situ observations of the Arctic atmosphere and investigate this issue. Fitted with a suite of remote sensing, cloud and aerosol instrumentation, the FAAM BAe-146 aircraft was used during the spring segment of the campaign (Mar-Apr 2013). One case study (23rd Mar 2013) produced excellent coverage of the atmospheric changes when transitioning from sea-ice, through the MIZ, to the open ocean. Clear microphysical changes were observed, with the cloud liquid-water content increasing by almost four times over the transition. Cloud base, depth and droplet number also increased, whilst ice number concentrations decreased slightly. The surface warmed by ~13 K from sea-ice to ocean, with minor differences in aerosol particle number (of sizes corresponding to Cloud Condensation Nuclei or Ice Nucleating Particles) observed, suggesting that the primary driver of these microphysical changes was the increased heat fluxes and induced turbulence from the warm ocean surface as expected. References: [1] Kapsch, M.L., Graversen, R.G. and Tjernström, M. Springtime

  16. Late glacial and interglacial sea ice variability in the Arctic Ocean: new insights from proxy and numerical modelling data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Juliane; Wagner, Axel; Stärz, Michael; Stein, Ruediger

    2013-04-01

    The importance of Arctic Ocean sea ice coverage for global climate (change) is widely acknowledged. Due to its high albedo and its capacity to insulate the sea surface from the atmosphere the ice directly impacts on the oceanic and atmospheric heat and moisture balance and thus affects large-scale circulation patterns. At the same time, sea ice displays a sensitive responder to changes in 1) orbital forcing (i.e. insolation), 2) large-scale wind patterns (governing ice drift) and 3) ocean temperature (e.g. due to fluctuations in the Atlantic water advection). Among climate proxies preserved within marine sediments the IP25 sea ice biomarker and the novel PIP25 index derived therefrom seem to be most promising means for sea ice reconstructions in the Arctic (Belt et al., 2007; Müller et al., 2011). The identification of this molecule in marine sediment cores thus enables the assessment of spatial and temporal variations in sea ice coverage through time. Among numerical climate models the high-resolution regional ocean-sea ice model NAOSIM repeatedly has been applied for palaeo sea ice modelling studies (e.g. Stärz et al., 2012). Here we present and discuss biomarker-based sea ice reconstructions with an unusual high temporal resolution covering the past glacial, deglacial and the Holocene climate history of eastern Fram Strait. These proxy results are complemented by model data obtained from NAOSIM. The documentation of changing sea ice conditions that accompanied the transition from the last glacial to interglacial climate mode contributes to the understanding of oceanic and atmospheric driving and feedback mechanisms associated with this large-scale climate shift. Furthermore, the continuous biomarker records from Fram Strait enable the assessment of how fast sea surface conditions (i.e. sea ice cover) responded to climate perturbations. Events of abruptly retreating or advancing sea ice cover as well as long-term trends are observable. Comparison of these proxy

  17. Towards an ice free Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article surveys the rate of ice melting in Arctic and forecasts that the region will be free of ice during this century. Observations of the atmospheric and sea climate, total ice areas for the period 1978 to 1998 and predictions for the areas from 1990 to 2040 by using two different models are presented. Possible reasons for the changes are discussed and some views on the consequences for the Norwegian climate presented

  18. Measuring Sea-Ice Motion in the Arctic with Real Time Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozena, J. M.; Hagen, R. A.; Peters, M. F.; Liang, R.; Ball, D.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, in coordination with other groups, has been collecting sea-ice data in the Arctic off the north coast of Alaska with an airborne system employing a radar altimeter, LiDAR and a photogrammetric camera in an effort to obtain wide swaths of measurements coincident with Cryosat-2 footprints. Because the satellite tracks traverse areas of moving pack ice, precise real-time estimates of the ice motion are needed to fly a survey grid that will yield complete data coverage. This requirement led us to develop a method to find the ice motion from the aircraft during the survey. With the advent of real-time orthographic photogrammetric systems, we developed a system that measures the sea ice motion in-flight, and also permits post-process modeling of sea ice velocities to correct the positioning of radar and LiDAR data. For the 2013 and 2014 field seasons, we used this Real Time Ice Motion Estimation (RTIME) system to determine ice motion using Applanix's Inflight Ortho software with an Applanix DSS439 system. Operationally, a series of photos were taken in the survey area. The aircraft then turned around and took more photos along the same line several minutes later. Orthophotos were generated within minutes of collection and evaluated by custom software to find photo footprints and potential overlap. Overlapping photos were passed to the correlation software, which selects a series of "chips" in the first photo and looks for the best matches in the second photo. The correlation results are then passed to a density-based clustering algorithm to determine the offset of the photo pair. To investigate any systematic errors in the photogrammetry, we flew several flight lines over a fixed point on various headings, over an area of non-moving ice in 2013. The orthophotos were run through the correlation software to find any residual offsets, and run through additional software to measure chip positions and offsets relative to the aircraft

  19. Recent extreme light sea ice years in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: 2011 and 2012 eclipse 1998 and 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. L. Howell

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Record low mean September sea ice area in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA was observed in 2011 (146 × 103 km2, a level that was nearly exceeded in 2012 (150 × 103 km2. These values eclipsed previous September records set in 1998 (200 × 103 km2 and 2007 (220 × 103 km2 and are ∼60% lower than the 1981–2010 mean September climatology. In this study, the driving processes contributing to the extreme light years of 2011 and 2012 were investigated, compared to previous extreme minima of 1998 and 2007, and contrasted against historic summer seasons with above average September ice area. The 2011 minimum was driven by positive July surface air temperature (SAT anomalies that facilitated rapid melt, coupled with atmospheric circulation in July and August that restricted multi-year ice (MYI inflow from the Arctic Ocean into the CAA. The 2012 minimum was also driven by positive July SAT anomalies (with coincident rapid melt but further ice decline was temporarily mitigated by atmospheric circulation in August and September which drove Arctic Ocean MYI inflow into the CAA. Atmospheric circulation was comparable between 2011 and 1998 (impeding Arctic Ocean MYI inflow and 2012 and 2007 (inducing Arctic Ocean MYI inflow. However, evidence of both preconditioned thinner Arctic Ocean MYI flowing into CAA and maximum landfast first-year ice (FYI thickness within the CAA was more apparent leading up to 2011 and 2012 than 1998 and 2007. The rapid melt process in 2011 and 2012 was more intense than observed in 1998 and 2007 because of the thinner ice cover being more susceptible to positive SAT forcing. The thinner sea ice cover within the CAA in recent years has also helped counteract the processes that facilitate extreme heavy ice years. The recent extreme light years within the CAA are associated with a longer navigation season within the Northwest Passage.

  20. Interannual variability of summer sea ice thickness in the Siberian and central Arctic under different atmospheric circulation regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Christian; Eicken, Hajo

    2001-03-01

    Extensive drill hole and electromagnetic induction measurements of sea ice thickness in the Siberian and central Arctic Seas in the summers of 1993, 1995, and 1996 reveal significant interannual variability. In the Laptev Sea, minimum and maximum modal first-year ice thicknesses amounted to 1.25 and 1.85 m in 1995 and 1996, respectively. Ice thickness correlates with ice extent, which reached a record minimum in August 1995 and was well above average in 1996. These differences are explained by the strength and location of a summer cyclonic atmospheric circulation pattern affecting both ice advection and surface melt. From drifting buoys deployed in 1995 and satellite radar backscatter data, first- and second-year ice regimes are delineated. Differences in first-year ice backscatter coefficients between 1993, 1995, and 1996 are explained by differences in level ice surface roughness. The Lagrangian evolution of ice thickness between 1995 and 1996 is studied. While the shape of the thickness distribution does not change significantly, the mean (modal) ice thickness of the ice field increases from 1.80 m (1.25 m) in 1995 to 2.86 m (2.25 m) in 1996. The thickness distribution of second-year ice in 1996 closely agrees with that of level multiyear ice downstream in the Transpolar Drift obtained in 1991. In 1996, mean level ice thickness increases at 0.23 and 0.16 m deg-1 with latitude in the Kara and Laptev Sea sectors of the Arctic Ocean, respectively.

  1. Revisiting the Potential of Melt Pond Fraction as a Predictor for the Seasonal Arctic Sea Ice Extent Minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiping; Song, Mirong; Horton, Radley M.; Hu, Yongyun

    2015-01-01

    The rapid change in Arctic sea ice in recent decades has led to a rising demand for seasonal sea ice prediction. A recent modeling study that employed a prognostic melt pond model in a stand-alone sea ice model found that September Arctic sea ice extent can be accurately predicted from the melt pond fraction in May. Here we show that satellite observations show no evidence of predictive skill in May. However, we find that a significantly strong relationship (high predictability) first emerges as the melt pond fraction is integrated from early May to late June, with a persistent strong relationship only occurring after late July. Our results highlight that late spring to mid summer melt pond information is required to improve the prediction skill of the seasonal sea ice minimum. Furthermore, satellite observations indicate a much higher percentage of melt pond formation in May than does the aforementioned model simulation, which points to the need to reconcile model simulations and observations, in order to better understand key mechanisms of melt pond formation and evolution and their influence on sea ice state.

  2. Sensitivity of CryoSat-2 Arctic sea-ice volume trends on radar-waveform interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ricker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that there is considerable evidence that the Arctic sea-ice is thinning during the last decades. When combined with the observed rapid reduction of ice-covered area this leads to a decline in sea-ice volume. The only remote sensing technique capable of quantifying this ice volume decrease at global scale is satellite altimetry. In this context the CryoSat-2 satellite was launched in 2010 and is equipped with the Ku-band SAR radar altimeter SIRAL, which we use to derive sea-ice freeboard defined as the height of the ice surface above the local sea level. In the context of quantifying Arctic ice-volume decrease at global scale, the CryoSat-2 satellite was launched in 2010 and is equipped with the Ku-band SAR radar altimeter SIRAL, which we use to derive sea-ice freeboard defined as the height of the ice surface above the sea level. Accurate CryoSat-2 range measurements over open water and the ice surface in the order of centimeters are necessary to achieve the required accuracy of the freeboard to thickness conversion. Besides uncertainties of the actual sea-surface height and limited knowledge of ice and snow properties, the penetration of the radar signal into the snow cover and therefore the interpretation of radar echoes is crucial. This has consequences in the selection of retracker algorithms which are used to track the main scattering horizon and assign a range estimate to each CryoSat measurement. In this paper we apply a retracker algorithm with thresholds of 40%, 50% and 80% of the first maximum of radar echo power, spanning the range of values used in current literature. For the 40% threshold we assume that the main scattering horizon lies at a certain depth between the surface and snow-ice interface as verified through coincident CryoSat-2 and airborne laser altimetry measurements. This contrasts with the 50% and 80% thresholds where we assume the ice-snow interface as the main scattering horizon similar to

  3. Winter Sea Ice Deformation Measured by Autonomous Buoys During the N-ICE2015 Cruise in the Arctic Ocean North of Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkin, P.; Spreen, G.; Gerland, S.

    2015-12-01

    The motion of the sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean north of Svalbard is characterized by fast sea ice drift (10 to 70 km/day) during the winter season. The Norwegian Young sea ICE cruise (N-ICE2015) took place in that region from January till June 2015. During this period more than 40 buoys in nested arrays at the distance of 5 to 100 km apart from each other were deployed in 2 deployments (in January/February and in April/May). The buoy types include drifters, snow buoys, ice-mass balance buoys, radiation buoys and wave buoys. The buoys were deployed on the first- and second-year ice that was characteristic for the region. The sea ice dynamics measured by these buoy arrays are explored in relation to the changing atmospheric forcing and internal ice stress during the experiment. The deformation rates obtained from the buoy array are on average higher than measured by buoy experiments in other Arctic regions by earlier experiments. Our preliminary results show a strong connection of the deformation events to the atmospheric forcing. The high sea ice drift speed associated to strong winds is connected to high deformation rates, while the low speeds in the calm periods are connected to the low deformation rates. While it is known that the relationship between the deformation rate and the spatial scale over which it is measured can be represented by a power law (Stern and Lindsay, 2009, JGR), we find that the exponent is not constant over time and space during the experiment. For high ice drift speeds, associated with high wind speeds and a more loose ice cover, the exponent becomes more negative than for lower ice drift speeds and a compressed ice cover. Figure: Locations of buoy deployments and buoy types for all the buoys deployed during the N-ICE2015 cruise.

  4. Revisiting the relationship between Arctic sea-ice thickness and snow depth through climate-model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzel, Felix; Notz, Dirk; Toudal Pedersen, Leif

    2016-04-01

    The thickness of snow covering sea ice is a crucial parameter in any algorithm deriving sea-ice thickness from satellite-measured sea-ice freeboard. Here we investigate whether such snow thickness can robustly be estimated by assuming a simple correlation between snow thickness and sea-ice thickness. Such correlation is sometimes applied in schemes that aim at correcting the multi-year Warren snow climatology for the more recent past. In order to quantify the relationship between sea-ice thickness and snow depth, we analyse the correlation of ice thickness and snow depth in a multi-century pre-industrial model simulation and in a transient historical simulation performed with the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). We find correlation coefficients to be low in the central Arctic, while they show substantial regional and temporal variations in the vicinity of the ice edge. Our results point towards possibly substantial errors in algorithms that assume too simplistic a relationship between sea-ice thickness and snow depth.

  5. The effect of tides on sea ice, temperature and salinity fields in the Arctic Ocean on multi-decadal scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luneva, Maria; Harle, James; Holt, Jason; Aksenov, Yevgeny

    2014-05-01

    The effects of tides on the hydrographical fields and sea-ice on multi-decadal timescales (from 1978-2007) has been examined using a newly developed Arctic Ocean NEMO-shelf-ice coupled model of moderate (10-15km) resolution, which explicitly simulates tides and processes in the benthic boundary layer. The model realistically reproduces the tides, which can be extremely strong on the Arctic shelf, with amplitudes reaching 4.4m in the Hudson Strait, 2-3m in the White Sea and above 1m in the Canadian Archipelago. It also accurately predicts the sea ice volume trends over this period, when compared with PIOMAS results, and demonstrates a stronger reduction in ice volume (by ~15%) and extent (by ~5%) in comparison with simulations without tides. By including tides in the Arctic simulation we find: (i) a decrease in ice thickness from 0.1 to 1m in Central Arctic, and up to 2m in the Canadian Archipelago; (ii) ice melting and thinning is accompanied by an increase in average surface salinity by 2PSU and changes of river freshwater pathways; (iii) cooling of the upper 300m of the Arctic Ocean in comparison with non-tidal simulations. We hypothesize that tidal mixing and advection support the supply of heat from warm Atlantic waters through the strongly stratified halocline layer. It has been found that tidal effects on the water mass structure are regionally localised, but subsequent can be transported across the entire basin. We discuss the following physical mechanisms for tidal influence: (a) increased vertical mixing near the bottom layer and on the ice-ocean interface; (b) opening and closing of leads in the sea ice in summer time altering the solar radiation flux to water below, thus affecting the ocean heat content and amount of ice melt ; (c) opening and closing of leads in the sea ice during winter leading to an increase the heat loss from the ocean to atmosphere, with subsequent ice production and brine rejection; (d) increased mixing in the pycnocline and at the

  6. Phylogenetic analysis of cultivable bacteria isolated from Arctic sea-ice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA of 8 strains of cultivable bacteria isolated from Arctic sea-ice was studied. The results showed that strain BJ1 belonged to genus Planococcus, which was a genus of low mole percent G+C gram-positive bacteria; strain BJ6 belonged to genus Burkholderia of β- proteobacteria and the rest 6 strain all belonged to γ-proteobacteria, of which strain BJ8 was a species of Pseudoalteromonas, strain BJ2-BJ5 and BJ7 were members of genus Psychrobacter. Phylogenetic analysis also indicated that bacteria of genus Psychrobacter of the isolates formed a relatively independent phylogenetic cluster in comparison with other bacteria belonged to genus Psychrobacter.

  7. Melt onset over Arctic sea ice controlled by atmospheric moisture transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortin, Jonas; Svensson, Gunilla; Graversen, Rune G.; Kapsch, Marie-Luise; Stroeve, Julienne C.; Boisvert, Linette N.

    2016-06-01

    The timing of melt onset affects the surface energy uptake throughout the melt season. Yet the processes triggering melt and causing its large interannual variability are not well understood. Here we show that melt onset over Arctic sea ice is initiated by positive anomalies of water vapor, clouds, and air temperatures that increase the downwelling longwave radiation (LWD) to the surface. The earlier melt onset occurs; the stronger are these anomalies. Downwelling shortwave radiation (SWD) is smaller than usual at melt onset, indicating that melt is not triggered by SWD. When melt occurs early, an anomalously opaque atmosphere with positive LWD anomalies preconditions the surface for weeks preceding melt. In contrast, when melt begins late, clearer than usual conditions are evident prior to melt. Hence, atmospheric processes are imperative for melt onset. It is also found that spring LWD increased during recent decades, consistent with trends toward an earlier melt onset.

  8. Diversity and cold-active hydrolytic enzymes of culturable bacteria associated with Arctic sea ice, Spitzbergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groudieva, Tatiana; Kambourova, Margarita; Yusef, Hoda; Royter, Maryna; Grote, Ralf; Trinks, Hauke; Antranikian, Garabed

    2004-12-01

    The diversity of culturable bacteria associated with sea ice from four permanently cold fjords of Spitzbergen, Arctic Ocean, was investigated. A total of 116 psychrophilic and psychrotolerant strains were isolated under aerobic conditions at 4 degrees C. The isolates were grouped using amplified rDNA restriction analysis fingerprinting and identified by partial sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. The bacterial isolates fell in five phylogenetic groups: subclasses alpha and gamma of Proteobacteria, the Bacillus-Clostridium group, the order Actinomycetales, and the Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides (CFB) phylum. Over 70% of the isolates were affiliated with the Proteobacteria gamma subclass. Based on phylogenetic analysis (<98% sequence similarity), over 40% of Arctic isolates represent potentially novel species or genera. Most of the isolates were psychrotolerant and grew optimally between 20 and 25 degrees C. Only a few strains were psychrophilic, with an optimal growth at 10-15 degrees C. The majority of the bacterial strains were able to secrete a broad range of cold-active hydrolytic enzymes into the medium at a cultivation temperature of 4 degrees C. The isolates that are able to degrade proteins (skim milk, casein), lipids (olive oil), and polysaccharides (starch, pectin) account for, respectively, 56, 31, and 21% of sea-ice and seawater strains. The temperature dependences for enzyme production during growth and enzymatic activity were determined for two selected enzymes, alpha-amylase and beta-galactosidase. Interestingly, high levels of enzyme productions were measured at growth temperatures between 4 and 10 degrees C, and almost no production was detected at higher temperatures (20-30 degrees C). Catalytic activity was detected even below the freezing point of water (at -5 degrees C), demonstrating the unique properties of these enzymes. PMID:15252724

  9. Application of data assimilation methods for analysis and integration of observed and modeled Arctic Sea ice motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Walter Neil

    This thesis demonstrates the applicability of data assimilation methods to improve observed and modeled ice motion fields and to demonstrate the effects of assimilated motion on Arctic processes important to the global climate and of practical concern to human activities. Ice motions derived from 85 GHz and 37 GHz SSM/I imagery and estimated from two-dimensional dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice models are compared to buoy observations. Mean error, error standard deviation, and correlation with buoys are computed for the model domain. SSM/I motions generally have a lower bias, but higher error standard deviations and lower correlation with buoys than model motions. There are notable variations in the statistics depending on the region of the Arctic, season, and ice characteristics. Assimilation methods are investigated and blending and optimal interpolation strategies are implemented. Blending assimilation improves error statistics slightly, but the effect of the assimilation is reduced due to noise in the SSM/I motions and is thus not an effective method to improve ice motion estimates. However, optimal interpolation assimilation reduces motion errors by 25--30% over modeled motions and 40--45% over SSM/I motions. Optimal interpolation assimilation is beneficial in all regions, seasons and ice conditions, and is particularly effective in regimes where modeled and SSM/I errors are high. Assimilation alters annual average motion fields. Modeled ice products of ice thickness, ice divergence, Fram Strait ice volume export, transport across the Arctic and interannual basin averages are also influenced by assimilated motions. Assimilation improves estimates of pollutant transport and corrects synoptic-scale errors in the motion fields caused by incorrect forcings or errors in model physics. The portability of the optimal interpolation assimilation method is demonstrated by implementing the strategy in an ice thickness distribution (ITD) model. This research presents an

  10. Integrating Research on Global Climate Change and Human Use of the Oceans: a Geospatial Method for Daily Monitoring of Sea Ice and Ship Traffic in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eucker, W.; McGillivary, P. A.

    2012-12-01

    One apparent consequence of global climate change has been a decrease in the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice more rapidly than models have predicted, while Arctic ship traffic has likewise increased beyond economic predictions. To ensure representative observations of changing climate conditions and human use of the Arctic Ocean, we concluded a method of tracking daily changes in both sea ice and shipping in the Arctic Ocean was needed. Such a process improves the availability of sea ice data for navigational safety and allows future developments to be monitored for understanding of ice and shipping in relation to policy decisions appropriate to optimize sustainable use of a changing Arctic Ocean. The impetus for this work was the 2009 Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment (AMSA) which provided baseline data on Arctic ship traffic. AMSA was based on responses from circumpolar countries, was manpower intensive, and took years to compile. A more timely method of monitoring human use of the Arctic Ocean was needed. To address this, a method of monitoring sea ice on a scale relevant to ship-navigation (internationally required on ships over a certain size, which includes most commercial vessels in the Arctic Ocean. Daily AIS and sea ice observations were chosen for this study. Results of this method of geospatial analysis of the entire arctic are presented for a year long period from April 1, 2010 to March 31, 2011. This confirmed the dominance of European Arctic ship traffic. Arctic shipping is maximal during August and diminishes in September with a minimum in winter, although some shipping continues year-round in perennially ice-free areas. Data are analyzed for the four principal arctic quadrants around the North Pole by season for number and nationality of vessels. The goal of this study was not merely to monitor ship traffic and ice conditions concurrently, but also to demonstrate a new method of ocean monitoring based on daily assimilation, data fusion, and

  11. Sea-ice melt CO2-carbonate chemistry in the western Arctic Ocean: meltwater contributions to air-sea CO2 gas exchange, mixed layer properties and rates of net community production under sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Bates

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The carbon dioxide (CO2-carbonate chemistry of sea-ice melt and co-located, contemporaneous seawater has rarely been studied in sea ice covered oceans. Here, we describe the CO2-carbonate chemistry of sea-ice melt (both above sea ice as "melt ponds" and below sea ice as "interface waters" and mixed layer properties in the western Arctic Ocean in the early summer of 2010 and 2011. At nineteen stations, the salinity (~ 0.5 to –1 and total alkalinity (TA; ~ 30 to –1 of above-ice melt pond water was low compared to water in the underlying mixed layer. The partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 in these melt ponds was highly variable (~ 1500 μatm with the majority of melt ponds acting as potentially strong sources of CO2 to the atmosphere. The pH of melt pond waters was also highly variable ranging from mildly acidic (6.1 to 7 to slightly more alkaline than underlying seawater (8 to 10.7. All of observed melt ponds had very low (3 minerals such as aragonite (Ωaragonite. Our data suggests that sea ice generated "alkaline" or "acidic" melt pond water. This melt-water chemistry dictates whether the ponds are sources of CO2 to the atmosphere or CO2 sinks. Below-ice interface water CO2-carbonate chemistry data also indicated substantial generation of alkalinity, presumably owing to dissolution of calcium CaCO3 in sea ice. The interface waters generally had lower pCO2 and higher pH/Ωaragonite than the co-located mixed layer beneath. Sea-ice melt thus contributed to the suppression of mixed layer pCO2 enhancing the surface ocean's capacity to uptake CO2 from the atmosphere. Meltwater contributions to changes in mixed–layer DIC were also used to estimate net community production rates (mean of 46.9 ±29.8 g C m–2 for the early-season period under sea-ice cover. Although sea-ice melt is a transient seasonal feature, above-ice melt pond coverage can be substantial (10 to > 50% and under-ice interface melt water is ubiquitous during this spring/summer sea-ice

  12. Effectively Communicating Information about Dynamically Changing Arctic Sea Ice to the Public through the Global Fiducials Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnia, B. F.; Friesen, B.; Wilson, E.; Noble, S.

    2015-12-01

    On July 15, 2009, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) released a report, Scientific Value of Arctic Sea Ice Imagery Derived Products, advocating public release of Arctic images derived from classified data. In the NAS press release that announced the release, report lead Stephanie Pfirman states "To prepare for a possibly ice-free Arctic and its subsequent effects on the environment, economy, and national security, it is critical to have accurate projections of changes over the next several decades." In the same release NAS President Ralph Cicerone states "We hope that these images are the first of many that could help scientists learn how the changing climate could impact the environment and our society." The same day, Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar announced that the requested images had been released and were available to the public on a US Geological Survey Global Fiducials Program (GFP) Library website (http://gfl.usgs.gov). The website was developed by the USGS to provide public access to the images and to support environmental analysis of global climate-related science. In the statement describing the release titled, Information Derived from Classified Materials Will Aid Understanding of Changing Climate, Secretary Salazar states "We need the best data from all places if we are to meet the challenges that rising carbon emissions are creating. This information will be invaluable to scientists, researchers, and the public as we tackle climate change." Initially about 700 Arctic sea ice images were released. Six years later, the number exceeds 1,500. The GFP continues to facilitate the acquisition of new Arctic sea ice imagery from US National Imagery Systems. This example demonstrates how information about dynamically changing Arctic sea ice continues to be effectively communicated to the public by the GFP. In addition to Arctic sea ice imagery, the GFP has publicly released imagery time series of more than 125 other environmentally important

  13. Sea-ice thickness from airborne laser altimetry over the Arctic Ocean north of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidegaard, Sine Munk; Forsberg, René

    2002-01-01

    We present a new method to measure ice thickness of polar sea-ice freeboard heights, using airborne laser altimetry combined with a precise geoid model, giving estimates of thickness of ice through isostatic equilibrium assumptions. In the paper we analyze a number of flights from the Polar Sea off...

  14. Examining the role of sea ice and meteorology in Arctic boundary layer halogen chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Peter Kevin

    Given the ubiquitous nature of ice, chemistry taking place on ice surfaces has a substantial effect on the environment, particularly in the polar regions. The return of sunlight to the polar regions releases halogen radicals (e.g. Br, Cl and their oxides, e.g. BrO) generated from salts on ice surfaces. These radicals fundamentally alter the chemistry of the Arctic boundary layer through processes such as boundary-layer ozone depletion events and mercury deposition events. Current understanding of the chemical processes involved in Arctic halogen chemistry is inhibited by a lack of knowledge about the ice surfaces on which this chemistry is thought to take place, as well as the sparsity of long-term field observations of this chemistry and its effects. This dissertation addresses both needs through a combination of laboratory experiments and long-term field studies. First, we use X-ray absorption computed micro-tomography at the Advanced Photon Source to image brine distributions within laboratory grown mimics of sea-ice features. These experiments showed that when brine is introduced to ice via wicking of brine from a saline surface, the resulting brine distribution is heterogeneous, with brine existing in distinct regions within the sample, rather than evenly spreading over the sample surface. To examine the horizontal and vertical extent of halogen chemistry in the Arctic boundary layer, we conducted long-term measurements of BrO at Barrow, Alaska using Multiple-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS). We developed a method to reduce these measurements to timeseries of near-surface and total column amounts of BrO. These measurements showed that the vertical distribution is highly variable, ranging from shallow layer events confined to the lowest 200 m, to distributed column events, which have lower mixing ratios of BrO, but are more distributed throughout approximately the lowest kilometer of the atmosphere. We find that the observed vertical

  15. On the formulation of sea-ice models. Part 2: Lessons from multi-year adjoint sea-ice export sensitivities through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbach, Patick; Menemenlis, Dimitris; Losch, Martin; Campin, Jean-Michel; Hill, Chris

    The adjoint of an ocean general circulation model is at the heart of the ocean state estimation system of the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO) project. As part of an ongoing effort to extend ECCO to a coupled ocean/sea-ice estimation system, a dynamic and thermodynamic sea-ice model has been developed for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm). One key requirement is the ability to generate, by means of automatic differentiation (AD), tangent linear (TLM) and adjoint (ADM) model code for the coupled MITgcm ocean/sea-ice system. This second part of a two-part paper describes aspects of the adjoint model. The adjoint ocean and sea-ice model is used to calculate transient sensitivities of solid (ice and snow) freshwater export through Lancaster Sound in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA). The adjoint state provides a complementary view of the dynamics. In particular, the transient, multi-year sensitivity patterns reflect dominant pathways and propagation timescales through the CAA as resolved by the model, thus shedding light on causal relationships, in the model, across the Archipelago. The computational cost of inferring such causal relationships from forward model diagnostics alone would be prohibitive. The role of the exact model trajectory around which the adjoint is calculated (and therefore of the exactness of the adjoint) is exposed through calculations using free-slip vs no-slip lateral boundary conditions. Effective ice thickness, sea surface temperature, and precipitation sensitivities, are discussed in detail as examples of the coupled sea-ice/ocean and atmospheric forcing control space. To test the reliability of the adjoint, finite-difference perturbation experiments were performed for each of these elements and the cost perturbations were compared to those "predicted" by the adjoint. Overall, remarkable qualitative and quantitative agreement is found. In particular, the adjoint correctly

  16. Relationships between declining summer sea ice, increasing temperatures and changing vegetation in the Siberian Arctic tundra from MODIS time series (2000–11)

    OpenAIRE

    Dutrieux, L.P.; Bartholomeus, H.; Herold, M.; Verbesselt, J.

    2012-01-01

    The concern about Arctic greening has grown recently as the phenomenon is thought to have significant influence on global climate via atmospheric carbon emissions. Earlier work on Arctic vegetation highlighted the role of summer sea ice decline in the enhanced warming and greening phenomena observed in the region, but did not contain enough details for spatially characterizing the interactions between sea ice, temperature and vegetation photosynthetic absorption. By using 1 km resolution data...

  17. Effects of sea-ice light attenuation and CDOM absorption in the water below the Eurasian sector of central Arctic Ocean (>88°N)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lund-Hansen, L.C.; Markager, S.; Hancke, K.; Stratmann, T.; Rysgaard, S.; Ramløv, H.; Sorrell, B.K.

    2015-01-01

    This is a study of the optical, physical and biological parameters of sea ice and the water below it at stations (n=25) in the central (>88°N) Eurasian sector of the Arctic Ocean during the summer 2012 record low sea-ice minimum extent. Results show that photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) tra

  18. Selected aspects of the the Arctic sea ice motion and its influences on the ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Itkin, Polona

    2014-01-01

    A faithful simulation of the sea ice drift in a coupled sea ice-ocean model is one of the key prerequisites for a reliable simulation of the sea ice, ocean and atmosphere interactions. To achieve this goal we should continue improving model physics and constructing parameterizations for relevant sub-gird processes. Also a validation of the simulations against the observational data is essential. The main aim of this work is to demonstrate the importance of the sea ice motion for the underlayi...

  19. Selected Aspect of the Arctic Sea Ice Motion and Its influence on the ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Itkin, Polona

    2014-01-01

    A faithful simulation of the sea ice drift in a coupled sea ice-ocean model is one of the key prerequisites for a reliable simulation of the sea ice, ocean and atmosphere interactions. To achieve this goal we should continue improving model physics and constructing parameterizations for relevant sub-gird processes. Also a validation of the simulations against the observational data is essential. The main aim of this work is to demonstrate the importance of the sea ice motion for the underlayi...

  20. Seasonality of Air-sea-ice-land Variables for Arctic Tundra in Northern Eurasia and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, U. S.; Walker, D. A.; Raynolds, M. K.; Steele, M.; Epstein, H.; Jia, G.; Comiso, J. C.; Pinzon, J. E.; Tucker, C. J.

    2009-12-01

    The strength of tundra productivity trends as measured by the annual maximum Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (MaxNDVI) and time integrated NDVI (TI-NDVI) vary around the Arctic over the 1982-2008 period. Our analysis suggests that the timing of terrestrial vegetation growth is connected to seasonal patterns of sea-ice concentrations, ocean temperatures and land surface temperatures. This study used SSMI estimates of sea ice concentration, based on a bootstrap algorithm and AVHRR radiometric surface temperature. Summer Warmth Index (SWI) was calculated as the sum from May to August of the degree months above freezing of surface temperature at each pixel and is an accepted measure of plant growth potential. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) represents vegetation greenness and has been used extensively to monitor changes in the Arctic. The albedo of green plants varies with solar radiation wavelength, which is the basis for the NDVI index. The analysis was conducted within 50 km of the Arctic coastline to focus on the region of maximum maritime influence. Time series of regional sea-ice concentration, SWI and NDVI were constructed for the 50-km width domains for the Pan-Arctic, North America, Eurasia and Arctic subregions. Standard climate analysis techniques were applied to the regional time series to investigate the seasonality of sea ice, NDVI and SWI. MaxNDVI has increased in the 50-km land domain contiguous to the Beaufort Sea by 17% since 1982, whereas it has only increased by 3% in the coastal Kara Sea region. Analysis of semimonthly MaxNDVI indicates that the vegetation greens up more rapidly in the spring in the Beaufort than the W. Kara and the Kara has slightly higher NDVI in the fall. The climatological weekly sea ice concentrations in 50-km coastal domain displays an earlier breakup in the Beaufort and a later freeze-up in the Kara Sea area. Regional differences in the seasonal cycle can in part explain the spatially varied trends

  1. Ikaite crystal distribution in Arctic winter sea ice and implications for CO2 system dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. McGinnnis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The precipitation of ikaite (CaCO3·6H2O in polar sea ice is critical to the efficiency of the sea ice-driven carbon pump and potentially important to the global carbon cycle, yet the spatial and temporal occurrence of ikaite within the ice is poorly known. We report unique observations of ikaite in unmelted ice and vertical profiles of ikaite abundance and concentration in sea ice for the crucial season of winter. Ice was examined from two locations: a 1 m thick land-fast ice site and a 0.3 m thick polynya site, both in the Young Sound area (74° N, 20° W of NE Greenland. Ikaite crystals, ranging in size from a few µm to 700 µm were observed to concentrate in the interstices between the ice platelets in both granular and columnar sea ice. In vertical sea-ice profiles from both locations, ikaite concentration determined from image analysis, decreased with depth from surfaceice values of 700–900 µmol kg−1 ice (~ 25 × 106 crystals kg−1 to bottom-layer values of 100–200 µmol kg−1 ice (1–7 × 106 kg−1, all of which are much higher (4–10 times than those reported in the few previous studies. Direct measurements of total alkalinity (TA in surface layers fell within the same range as ikaite concentration whereas TA concentrations in bottom layers were twice as high. This depth-related discrepancy suggests interior ice processes where ikaite crystals form in surface sea ice layers and partly dissolved in bottom layers. From these findings and model calculations we relate sea ice formation and melt to observed pCO2 conditions in polar surface waters, and hence, the air-sea CO2 flux.

  2. Sea-ice melt CO2-carbonate chemistry in the western Arctic Ocean: meltwater contributions to air-sea CO2 gas exchange, mixed-layer properties and rates of net community production under sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, N. R.; Garley, R.; Frey, K. E.; Shake, K. L.; Mathis, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    The carbon dioxide (CO2)-carbonate chemistry of sea-ice melt and co-located, contemporaneous seawater has rarely been studied in sea-ice-covered oceans. Here, we describe the CO2-carbonate chemistry of sea-ice melt (both above sea-ice as "melt ponds" and below sea-ice as "interface waters") and mixed-layer properties in the western Arctic Ocean in the early summer of 2010 and 2011. At 19 stations, the salinity (∼0.5 to 1500 μatm) with the majority of melt ponds acting as potentially strong sources of CO2 to the atmosphere. The pH of melt pond waters was also highly variable ranging from mildly acidic (6.1 to 7) to slightly more alkaline than underlying seawater (>8.2 to 10.8). All of the observed melt ponds had very low (ocean acidification) is difficult to predict in an era of rapid warming and sea-ice loss in the Arctic Ocean.

  3. A comparative study on three EOF analysis techniques using decades of Arctic sea-ice concentration data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈新保; 刘信陶; 李松年; Chow Annie

    2015-01-01

    Change in Arctic sea ice extent is one of the indicators of global climate changes. Spatio-temporal change and change patterns can be identified using various methods to facilitate human understanding global climate changes. Three empirical orthogonal function (EOF) techniques are discussed and applied to decades of sea-ice concentration (SIC) dataset in Arctic area for identifying independent patterns. It was found that: 1) discrepancies exist in magnitude and scope for each EOF pattern, however, the first two leading EOFs of variability possess high similarities in structure and shape; 2) Even though there are somewhat differences in amplitude of each PC mode, the first two leading PC modes maintain consistent in overall trend and periodicity; 3) There are significant discrepancies and inconsistencies in the third and fourth leading EOF and PC modes. The accuracies of three techniques are further validated in representing the physical phenomena of SIC anomaly patterns.

  4. Simulation of how a geo-engineering intervention to restore arctic sea ice might work in practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Piers; Jackson, Lawrence

    2014-05-01

    The declining trend in annual minimum Arctic sea ice coverage and years of more pronounced drops like 2007 and 2012 raise the prospect of an Arctic Ocean largely free of sea ice in late summer and the potential for a climate crisis or emergency. In a novel computer simulation, we treated one realisation of a climate model (HadGEM2) as the real world and tried to restore its Arctic sea ice by the rapid deployment of geo-engineering with emission of SO2 into the Arctic stratosphere. The objective was to restore the annual minimum Arctic sea ice coverage to levels seen in the late twentieth century using as little geo-engineering as possible. We took intervention decisions as one might do in the real world: by committee, using a limited set of uncertain "observations" from our simulated world and using models and control theory to plan the best intervention strategy for the coming year - so learning as we went and being thrown off course by future volcanoes and technological breakdowns. Uncertainties in real world observations were simulated by applying noise to emerging results from the climate model. Volcanic radiative forcing of twenty-first century climate was included with the timing and magnitude of the simulated eruptions unknown by the "geo-engineers" until after the year of the eruption. Monitoring of Arctic sea ice with the option to intervene with SO2 emissions started from 2018 and continued to 2075. Simulated SO2 emissions were made in January-May each year at a latitude of 79o N and an altitude within the range of contemporary tanker aircraft. The magnitude of emissions was chosen annually using a model predictive control process calibrated using results from CMIP5 models (excluding HadGEM2), using the simplified climate model MAGICC and assimilation of emerging annual results from the HadGEM2 "real world". We found that doubts in the minds of the "geo-engineers" of the radiative effect of their interventions, the side effects of their past interventions

  5. Evolution of the Arctic and Antarctic sea ice over the 20th and 21st centuries as simulated by CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippon-Berthier, G.; Fichefet, T.; Goosse, H.; Massonnet, F.

    2011-12-01

    Results from simulations conducted with the CMIP5 atmosphere-ocean general circulation models are used to study the evolution of the Arctic and Antarctic sea ice covers over the 20th and 21st centuries. We first assess the ability of the individual models and the multi-model mean to reproduce the average seasonal cycle, the interannual variability and the longer-term changes of the Arctic and Antarctic sea ice extents and volumes over the late 20th century. A performance metric based on observations is proposed and applied to all available models with the aim of selecting those that yield the most realistic behavior of both ice packs. Outputs from the selected models are then thoroughly analyzed to better understand the sharp decline of the Arctic sea ice area coverage observed during the last decades and to determine the causes of the recent increase in Antarctic sea ice extent. Second, we project with each individual model and the multi-model mean the response of the Arctic and Antarctic sea ice extents and volumes over the 21st century to the RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6 and RCP8.5 forcing scenarios. Models that meet the performance criteria defined by the metric are finally used to reduce uncertainties regarding the date of disappearance of the summer Arctic sea ice.

  6. Impact of Arctic sea-ice retreat on the recent change in cloud-base height during autumn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K.; Inoue, J.; Kodama, Y.; Overland, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    Cloud-base observations over the ice-free Chukchi and Beaufort Seas in autumn were conducted using a shipboard ceilometer and radiosondes during the 1999-2010 cruises of the Japanese R/V Mirai. To understand the recent change in cloud base height over the Arctic Ocean, these cloud-base height data were compared with the observation data under ice-covered situation during SHEBA (the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean project in 1998). Our ice-free results showed a 30 % decrease (increase) in the frequency of low clouds with a ceiling below (above) 500 m. Temperature profiles revealed that the boundary layer was well developed over the ice-free ocean in the 2000s, whereas a stable layer dominated during the ice-covered period in 1998. The change in surface boundary conditions likely resulted in the difference in cloud-base height, although it had little impact on air temperatures in the mid- and upper troposphere. Data from the 2010 R/V Mirai cruise were investigated in detail in terms of air-sea temperature difference. This suggests that stratus cloud over the sea ice has been replaced as stratocumulus clouds with low cloud fraction due to the decrease in static stability induced by the sea-ice retreat. The relationship between cloud-base height and air-sea temperature difference (SST-Ts) was analyzed in detail using special section data during 2010 cruise data. Stratus clouds near the sea surface were predominant under a warm advection situation, whereas stratocumulus clouds with a cloud-free layer were significant under a cold advection situation. The threshold temperature difference between sea surface and air temperatures for distinguishing the dominant cloud types was 3 K. Anomalous upward turbulent heat fluxes associated with the sea-ice retreat have likely contributed to warming of the lower troposphere. Frequency distribution of the cloud-base height (km) detected by a ceilometer/lidar (black bars) and radiosondes (gray bars), and profiles of potential

  7. Sea ice contribution to the air-sea CO(2) exchange in the Arctic and Southern Oceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard...[], Søren; Bendtsen, Jørgen; Delille, B.;

    2011-01-01

    -sea CO(2) exchange and use recent measurements of inorganic carbon compounds in bulk sea ice to estimate that oceanic CO(2) uptake during the seasonal cycle of sea-ice growth and decay in ice-covered oceanic regions equals almost half of the net atmospheric CO(2) uptake in ice-free polar seas. This sea......-ice driven CO(2) uptake has not been considered so far in estimates of global oceanic CO(2) uptake. Net CO(2) uptake in sea-ice-covered oceans can be driven by; (1) rejection during sea-ice formation and sinking of CO(2)-rich brine into intermediate and abyssal oceanic water masses, (2) blocking of air......Although salt rejection from sea ice is a key process in deep-water formation in ice-covered seas, the concurrent rejection of CO(2) and the subsequent effect on air-sea CO(2) exchange have received little attention. We review the mechanisms by which sea ice directly and indirectly controls the air...

  8. Shape-Constrained Segmentation Approach for Arctic Multiyear Sea Ice Floe Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabalka, Yuliya; Brucker, Ludovic; Ivanoff, Alvaro; Tilton, James C.

    2013-01-01

    The melting of sea ice is correlated to increases in sea surface temperature and associated climatic changes. Therefore, it is important to investigate how rapidly sea ice floes melt. For this purpose, a new Tempo Seg method for multi temporal segmentation of multi year ice floes is proposed. The microwave radiometer is used to track the position of an ice floe. Then,a time series of MODIS images are created with the ice floe in the image center. A Tempo Seg method is performed to segment these images into two regions: Floe and Background.First, morphological feature extraction is applied. Then, the central image pixel is marked as Floe, and shape-constrained best merge region growing is performed. The resulting tworegionmap is post-filtered by applying morphological operators.We have successfully tested our method on a set of MODIS images and estimated the area of a sea ice floe as afunction of time.

  9. An analytical model for wind-driven Arctic summer sea ice drift

    OpenAIRE

    Park, H. -S.; Stewart, A L

    2016-01-01

    The authors present an analytical model for wind-driven free drift of sea ice that allows for an arbitrary mixture of ice and open water. The model includes an ice–ocean boundary layer with an Ekman spiral, forced by transfers of wind-input momentum both through the sea ice and directly into the open water between the ice floes. The analytical tractability of this model allows efficient calculation of the ice velocity provided that the surface wind field is known and t...

  10. Microwave emission from high Arctic Sea ice during freeze-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinger, J. P.; Troy, B. E.; Ramseier, R. O.; Asmus, K. W.; Hartman, M. F.; Luther, C. A.

    1984-09-01

    A cooperative sea ice remote sensing experiment was conducted in the eastern Beaufort Sea and Mould Bay area during the freeze-up period in October 1981. Airborne millimeter-wave imagery at 90, 140, and 220 GHz, and nadir microwave radiometric measurements at 19, 22, and 31 GHz, were made from a U. S. Naval Research Laboratory aircraft, while the Canadian Atmospheric Environment Service conducted an extensive concurrent surface measurement program. This study demonstrates for the first time the high-resolution capability of 90 GHz to investigate detailed ice morphology and to define ice types. The 140 and 220 GHz imagery is the first ever made of sea ice at these high frequencies. Emissivities are determined for young ice, second-year ice (SY), multiyear ice (MY), new ice, old shorefast ice, and open water. The young ice exhibits the emissivity typical of first-year (FY) ice types, i.e., near unity and independent of frequency. The emissivities of new ice and open water increase with frequency, and that of MY ice decreases with frequency. Those of SY ice and old shorefast ice, measured here for the first time, also decrease with frequency but are larger in value than the MY emissivity. Ice type discrimination is optimum at 90 GHz, i.e., the spread in microwave signature between FY ice and old ice (SY and MY) is greatest at 90 GHz. The MY emissivity is lower than that of open water at both 90 and 140 GHz. The measurements presented here provide a basis for development of algorithms to exploit the potential of the Mission Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) to be launched on a Defense Meteorological Satellite in 1985 and, in particular, the 85.5-GHz SSM/I channels for ice type, concentration, and edge determination.

  11. Sea-ice thickness from airborne laser altimetry over the Arctic Ocean north of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidegaard, Sine Munk; Forsberg, René

    2002-01-01

    We present a new method to measure ice thickness of polar sea-ice freeboard heights, using airborne laser altimetry combined with a precise geoid model, giving estimates of thickness of ice through isostatic equilibrium assumptions. In the paper we analyze a number of flights from the Polar Sea o...... Northern Greenland, and estimate accuracies of the estimated freeboard values to be at a 13 cm level, corresponding to about 1 m in absolute thickness....

  12. Arctic and Antarctic Ice Pack Changes during the Past Decade from a High Resolution Global Coupled Sea Ice-Ocean Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, D. P.; McClean, J. L.; Thoppil, P.; Hunke, E.; Stark, D.; Maltrud, M. E.; Lipscomb, W.

    2004-12-01

    Changes over the past decade in the global ice pack are analyzed using a coupled ice-ocean model and observational data sets. The model consists of the latest versions of the Los Alamos Parallel Ocean Program (POP) and sea ice model (CICE) and is configured on a moderately high-resolution global grid (0.4° and 40 vertical levels). A model simulation forced with high frequency daily NCEP/NCAR atmospheric fields was integrated for 23 years (1979-2002). Following a decade-long ice spin-up, the model's ability to reproduce observed ice extent, ice thickness and ice drift distributions is evaluated by statistical comparisons using satellite, upward looking sonar and ice drift buoy data. In particular, the realism of the ice mean state and variability on time scales from daily to interannual are examined. To better understand ocean-ice interaction processes, coupled model results are compared to stand alone integrations of the ice and ocean models. Mean ice states are examined during the positive/negative phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation and Arctic Oscillation in the last decade of the coupled simulation. Particularly ice export from the Fram and Bering Straits during these phases will be considered.

  13. Affects of Changes in Sea Ice Cover on Bowhead Whales and Subsistence Whaling in the Western Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S.; Suydam, R.; Overland, J.; Laidre, K.; George, J.; Demaster, D.

    2004-12-01

    Global warming may disproportionately affect Arctic marine mammals and disrupt traditional subsistence hunting activities. Based upon analyses of a 24-year time series (1979-2002) of satellite-derived sea ice cover, we identified significant positive trends in the amount of open-water in three large and five small-scale regions in the western Arctic, including habitats where bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) feed or are suspected to feed. Bowheads are the only mysticete whale endemic to the Arctic and a cultural keystone species for Native peoples from northwestern Alaska and Chukotka, Russia. While copepods (Calanus spp.) are a mainstay of the bowhead diet, prey sampling conducted in the offshore region of northern Chukotka and stomach contents from whales harvested offshore of the northern Alaskan coast indicate that euphausiids (Thysanoessa spp.) advected from the Bering Sea are also common prey in autumn. Early departure of sea ice has been posited to control availability of zooplankton in the southeastern Bering Sea and in the Cape Bathurst polynya in the southeastern Canadian Beaufort Sea, with maximum secondary production associated with a late phytoplankton bloom in insolatoin-stratified open water. While it is unclear if declining sea-ice has directly affected production or advection of bowhead prey, an extension of the open-water season increases opportunities for Native subsistence whaling in autumn. Therefore, bowhead whales may provide a nexus for simultaneous exploration of the effects sea ice reduction on pagophillic marine mammals and on the social systems of the subsistence hunting community in the western Arctic. The NOAA/Alaska Fisheries Science Center and NSB/Department of Wildlife Management will investigate bowhead whale stock identity, seasonal distribution and subsistence use patterns during the International Polar Year, as an extension of research planned for 2005-06. This research is in response to recommendations from the Scientific

  14. Arctic sea ice in the PlioMIP ensemble: is model performance for modern climates a reliable guide to performance for the past or the future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. W. Howell

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Eight general circulation models have simulated the mid-Pliocene Warm Period (mPWP, 3.264 to 3.025 Ma as part of the Pliocene Modelling Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP. Here, we analyse and compare their simulation of Arctic sea ice for both the pre-industrial and the mid-Pliocene. Mid-Pliocene sea ice thickness and extent is reduced and displays greater variability within the ensemble compared to the pre-industrial. This variability is highest in the summer months, when the model spread in the mid-Pliocene is more than three times larger than the rest of the year. Correlations between mid-Pliocene Arctic temperatures and sea ice extents are almost twice as strong as the equivalent correlations for the pre-industrial simulations. It is suggested that the weaker relationship between pre-industrial Arctic sea ice and temperatures is likely due to the tuning of climate models to achieve an optimal pre-industrial sea ice cover, which may also affect future predictions of Arctic sea ice. Model tuning for the pre-industrial does not appear to be best suited for simulating the different climate state of the mid-Pliocene. This highlights the importance of evaluating climate models through simulation of past climates, and the urgent need for more proxy evidence of sea ice during the Pliocene.

  15. Study of Impacts of Arctic Sea Ice Reduction on Atmospheric Chemical Processes - The BROMEX 2012 Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, S. V.

    2012-12-01

    Arctic perennial sea ice has decreased drastically in the last decade and still remained low in spring 2012 as observed from scatterometer datasets acquired by QuikSCAT and Oceansat-2 satellites. In particular, the thinner, weaker, and saltier seasonal sea ice has dominated over the perennial ice in the Chukchi Sea and Beaufort Sea. To investigate impacts of sea ice reduction on atmospheric chemical processes, we conducted the BRomine, Ozone, and Mercury EXperiment in (BROMEX) in March-April 2012 around Barrow, extending out to a large region offshore and inland. Here we present overview results from BROMEX, which was successfully carried out by about 30 scientists, researchers, and field workers from multiple international institutions. For BROMEX, we coordinated and collected satellite data, including a number of near-real-time products, from multiple satellite instruments including MODIS, AMSR-E, GOME-2, SCIAMACHY, OMI, RADARSAT-2, Envisat ASAR, TanDEM-X, SMOS, CryoSat-2, and Oceansat-2. Over the BROMEX field region, we made measurements and collected sea ice, snow, ocean, and air samples for physical, meteorological, chemical, biological, and acoustic studies. A helicopter was used to deploy chemical and meteorological buoys in the Chukchi Sea and the Beaufort Sea. Measurements were also made with airborne sensors across sea ice, leads, lagoon, and tundra along various flight patterns of the ALAR aircraft. Furthermore, we coordinated with the NASA IceBridge P3 aircraft to collect surface temperature, surface height, snow depth, and ice thickness measurements. We set up and maintained field sites on sea ice and in the tundra to measure bromine, ozone, mercury, and other chemical species. Moreover, we obtained temperature data from many different types of temperature sensors for temperature accuracy assessment to identify potential issues that might cause errors or biases in temperature measurements. An enormous amount of in-situ snow and ice data was collected

  16. Assessing the potential impacts of declining Arctic sea ice cover on the photochemical degradation of dissolved organic matter in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logvinova, Christie L.; Frey, Karen E.; Mann, Paul J.; Stubbins, Aron; Spencer, Robert G. M.

    2015-11-01

    A warming and shifting climate in the Arctic has led to significant declines in sea ice over the last several decades. Although these changes in sea ice cover are well documented, large uncertainties remain in how associated increases in solar radiation transmitted to the underlying ocean water column will impact heating, biological, and biogeochemical processes in the Arctic Ocean. In this study, six under-ice marine, two ice-free marine, and two ice-free terrestrially influenced water samples were irradiated using a solar simulator for 72 h (representing ~10 days of ambient sunlight) to investigate dissolved organic matter (DOM) dynamics from the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. Solar irradiation caused chromophoric DOM (CDOM) light absorption at 254 nm to decrease by 48 to 63%. An overall loss in total DOM fluorescence intensity was also observed at the end of all experiments, and each of six components identified by parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis was shown to be photoreactive in at least one experiment. Fluorescent DOM (FDOM) also indicated that the majority of DOM in under-ice and ice-free marine waters was likely algal-derived. Measurable changes in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were only observed for sites influenced by riverine runoff. Losses of CDOM absorbance at shorter wavelengths suggest that the beneficial UV protection currently received by marine organisms may decline with the increased light transmittance associated with sea ice melt ponding and overall reductions of sea ice. Our FDOM analyses demonstrate that DOM irrespective of source was susceptible to photobleaching. Additionally, our findings suggest that photodegradation of CDOM in under-ice waters is not currently a significant source of carbon dioxide (CO2) (i.e., we did not observe systematic DOC loss). However, increases in primary production and terrestrial freshwater export expected under future climate change scenarios may cause an increase in CDOM quantity and shift in quality

  17. Biases of the Arctic climate in a regional ocean-sea ice-atmosphere coupled model:an annual validation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiying

    2014-01-01

    The Coupling of three model components, WRF/PCE (polar climate extension version of weather research and forecasting model ( WRF)), ROMS (regional ocean modeling system), and CICE (community ice code), has been implemented, and the regional atmosphere-ocean-sea ice coupled model named WRF/PCE-ROMS-CICE has been validated against ERA-interim reanalysis data sets for 1989. To better understand the reasons that generate model biases, the WRF/PCE-ROMS-CICE results were compared with those of its components, the WRF/PCE and the ROMS-CICE. There are cold biases in surface air temperature (SAT) over the Arctic Ocean, which contribute to the sea ice concentration (SIC) and sea surface temperature (SST) biases in the results of the WRF/PCE-ROMS-CICE. The cold SAT biases also appear in results of the atmo-spheric component with a mild temperature in winter and similar temperature in summer. Compared to results from the WRF/PCE, due to influences of different distributions of the SIC and the SST and inclusion of interactions of air-sea-sea ice in the WRF/PCE-ROMS-CICE, the simulated SAT has new features. These influences also lead to apparent differences at higher levels of the atmosphere, which can be thought as responses to biases in the SST and sea ice extent. There are similar atmospheric responses in feature of distribution to sea ice biases at 700 and 500 hPa, and the strength of responses weakens when the pressure decreases in January. The atmospheric responses in July reach up to 200 hPa. There are surplus sea ice ex-tents in the Greenland Sea, the Barents Sea, the Davis Strait and the Chukchi Sea in winter and in the Beau-fort Sea, the Chukchi Sea, the East Siberian Sea and the Laptev Sea in summer in the ROMS-CICE. These differences in the SIC distribution can all be explained by those in the SST distributions. These features in the simulated SST and SIC from ROMS-CICE also appear in the WRF/PCE-ROMS-CICE. It is shown that the performance of the WRF/PCE-ROMS-CICE is

  18. Limits to benthic feeding by eiders in a vital Arctic migration corridor due to localized prey and changing sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovvorn, James R.; Rocha, Aariel R.; Jewett, Stephen C.; Dasher, Douglas; Oppel, Steffen; Powell, Abby N.

    2015-08-01

    Four species of threatened or declining eider ducks that nest in the Arctic migrate through the northeast Chukchi Sea, where anticipated industrial development may require prioritizing areas for conservation. In this nearshore corridor (10-40 m depth), the eiders' access to benthic prey during the spring is restricted to variable areas of open water within sea ice. For the most abundant species, the king eider (Somateria spectabilis), stable isotopes in blood cells, muscle, and potential prey indicate that these eiders ate mainly bivalves when traversing this corridor. Bivalves there were much smaller than the same taxa in deeper areas of the northern Bering Sea, possibly due to higher mortality rates caused by ice scour in shallow water; future decrease in seasonal duration of fast ice may increase this effect. Computer simulations suggested that if these eiders forage for >15 h/day, they can feed profitably at bivalve densities >200 m-2 regardless of water depth or availability of ice for resting. Sampling in 2010-2012 showed that large areas of profitable prey densities occurred only in certain locations throughout the migration corridor. Satellite data in April-May over 13 years (2001-2013) indicated that access to major feeding areas through sea ice in different segments of the corridor can vary from 0% to 100% between months and years. In a warming and increasingly variable climate, unpredictability of access may be enhanced by greater effects of shifting winds on unconsolidated ice. Our results indicate the importance of having a range of potential feeding areas throughout the migration corridor to ensure prey availability in all years. Spatial planning of nearshore industrial development in the Arctic, including commercial shipping, pipeline construction, and the risk of released oil, should consider these effects of high environmental variability on the adequacy of habitats targeted for conservation.

  19. Comparison of advanced Arctic Ocean model sea ice fields to satellite derived measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitriou, David S.

    1998-01-01

    Numerical models have proven integral to the study of climate dynamics. Sea ice models are critical to the improvement of general circulation models used to study the global climate. The object of this study is to evaluate a high resolution ice-ocean coupled model by comparing it to derived measurements from SMMR and SSM/I satellite observations. Utilized for this study was the NASA Goddard Space Flight (GSFC) Sea Ice Concentration Data Set from the National Snow and Ice Data Center. Using an...

  20. The progress in the study of Arctic pack ice ecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何剑锋; 王桂忠; 蔡明红; 李少菁

    2004-01-01

    The sea ice community plays an important role in the Arctic marine ecosystem. Because of the predicted environmental changes in the Arctic environment and specifically related to sea ice, the Arctic pack ice biota has received more attention in recent years using modern ice-breaking research vessels. Studies show that the Arctic pack ice contains a diverse biota and besides ice algae, the bacterial and protozoan biomasses can be high. Surprisingly high primary production values were observed in the pack ice of the central Arctic Ocean. Occasionally biomass maximum were discovered in the interior of the ice floes, a habitat that had been ignored in most Arctic studies. Many scientific questions, which deserve special attention, remained unsolved due to logistic limitations and the sea ice characteristics. Little is know about the pack ice community in the central Arctic Ocean. Almost no data exists from the pack ice zone for the winter season. Concerning the abundance of bacteria and protozoa, more studies are needed to understand the microbial network within the ice and its role in material and energy flows. The response of the sea ice biota to global change will impact the entire Arctic marine ecosystem and a long-term monitoring program is needed. The techniques, that are applied to study the sea ice biota and the sea ice ecology, should be improved.

  1. Abundance, biomass and composition of spring ice algal and phytoplankton communities of the Laptev Sea (Arctic)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Abundance, biomass and composition of the ice algal and phytoplankton communities were investigated in the southeastern Laptev Sea in spring 1999.Diatoms dominated the algal communities and pennate diatoms dominated the diatom population. 12 dominant algal species occurred within sea ice and underlying water column, including Fragilariopsis oceanica, F. cylindrus, Nitzschia frigida , N. promare, Achnanthes taeniata , Nitzschia neofrigida , Navicula pelagica , N. vanhoef fenii, N. septentrionalis, Melosira arctica , Clindrotheca closterium and Pyramimonas sp. The algal abundance of bottom 10 cm sea ice varied between 14.6 and 1562.2 × 104 cells l-1 with an average of 639.0 × 104cells l-1 , and the algal biomass ranged from 7.89 to 2093.5 μg C l-1 with an average of 886.9 μg C l-1 , which were generally one order of magnitude higher than those of sub-bottom ice and two orders of magnitude higher than those of underlying surface water. The integrated algal abundance and biomass of lowermost 20 cm ice column were averagely 7.7 and 12.2 times as those of upper 20 m water column, respectively, suggesting that the ice algae might play an important role in maintaining the coastal marine ecosystem before the thawing of sea ice. Ice algae influenced the phytoplankton community of the underlying water column.However, the "seeding" of ice algae for phytoplankton bloom was negligible because of the low phytoplankton biomass within the underlying water column.

  2. CryoSat2 Pre-Launch Validation Measurements on Arctic Sea Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaus, Marcel; Hendricks, Stefan; Stenseng, Lars;

    2010-01-01

    sea ice and its snow cover will contribute to increasing our understanding of atmosphere-ice-ocean interaction and improve our ability to quantify observed changes. Our validation measurements show that the penetration depth of the radar signal strongly depends on snow cover characteristics...... (seasonality and underlying ice type) and is often not the snow-ice interface, as commonly assumed. Validation transects, using airborne electromagnetic ice-thickness measurements, are shown to be a powerful tool for regional-scale validation experiments during different seasons....

  3. Impact of Decreasing Perennial Arctic Sea Ice Extent on Local and Remote Water Masses as Depicted by a 60-Year Forced Global Coupled 0.1° Ocean/Sea Ice Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClean, J.; Bailey, D. A.; Papadopoulos, C.

    2015-12-01

    The global climate impact of decreasing perennial Arctic sea ice extent over the past decades remains unclear. To appreciate regional and remote effects due to this reduction, we present results from two forced global coupled ocean and sea ice simulations, run in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) framework, one for 1970-2009 and the other for 1948-2009. A strongly eddy-active (nominal 0.1°) configuration of the Parallel Ocean Program 2 and CICE2 were forced in CESM with Coordinated Ocean Reference Experiment 2 (CORE2) interannually varying atmospheric reanalysis surface fluxes. We compare climatologies and trends of simulated sea-ice quantities as consistently as possible with observations over the past decades. Results, among others, include comparisons of ice thickness from the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat), ice concentration from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager, and ice drift statistics from the International Arctic Buoy Programme with quantities from the 40-year simulation. The observed decreasing trend of September sea ice extent is well represented by the model. Histograms of sea ice drift show that slow speeds are under-represented in the model relative to the observations. Using the 60-year simulation, we examine changes and variability through the decades between the 1970s and the 2000s in upper ocean stratification and water mass composition in the western Arctic. Our final objective is to understand how variation in the Arctic freshwater outflow modifies the water mass characteristics of the buoyancy-driven East Greenland Current (EGC) and in turn, how this water mass variation modifies mixing over the East Greenland shelf/slope between Irminger Sea and EGC waters.

  4. Exploring the Microseismicity of the Gakkel Ridge from Arctic Sea Ice

    OpenAIRE

    Hope, Gaute

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring of microseismicity is an important tool to understand the magmatism, tectonics and hydrothermal circulation of a mid-oceanic ridge. In the presence of sea ice, use of ocean bottom seismometers is not practical, but several experiments with small networks of seismometers drifting with the sea ice have previously been completed successfully. The goal of this project was to build on the earlier experiments and develop a method for monitoring the microseismicity above the Gakkel Ri...

  5. Field and Satellite Observations of the Formation and Distribution of Arctic Atmospheric Bromine Above a Rejuvenated Sea Ice Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son V.; Rigor, Ignatius G.; Richter, Andreas; Burrows, John P.; Shepson, Paul B.; Bottenheim, Jan; Barber, David G.; Steffen, Alexandra; Latonas, Jeff; Wang, Feiyue; Stern, Gary; Clemente-Colon, Pablo; Martin, Seelye; Hall, Dorothy K.; Kaleschke, Lars; Tackett, Philip; Neumann, Gregory; Asplin, Matthew G.

    2012-01-01

    Recent drastic reduction of the older perennial sea ice in the Arctic Ocean has resulted in a vast expansion of younger and saltier seasonal sea ice. This increase in the salinity of the overall ice cover could impact tropospheric chemical processes. Springtime perennial ice extent in 2008 and 2009 broke the half-century record minimum in 2007 by about one million km2. In both years seasonal ice was dominant across the Beaufort Sea extending to the Amundsen Gulf, where significant field and satellite observations of sea ice, temperature, and atmospheric chemicals have been made. Measurements at the site of the Canadian Coast Guard Ship Amundsen ice breaker in the Amundsen Gulf showed events of increased bromine monoxide (BrO), coupled with decreases of ozone (O3) and gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), during cold periods in March 2008. The timing of the main event of BrO, O3, and GEM changes was found to be consistent with BrO observed by satellites over an extensive area around the site. Furthermore, satellite sensors detected a doubling of atmospheric BrO in a vortex associated with a spiral rising air pattern. In spring 2009, excessive and widespread bromine explosions occurred in the same region while the regional air temperature was low and the extent of perennial ice was significantly reduced compared to the case in 2008. Using satellite observations together with a Rising-Air-Parcel model, we discover a topographic control on BrO distribution such that the Alaskan North Slope and the Canadian Shield region were exposed to elevated BrO, whereas the surrounding mountains isolated the Alaskan interior from bromine intrusion.

  6. Ikaite crystal distribution in Arctic winter sea ice and implications for CO2 system dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard, Søren; Søgaard, D. H.; Cooper, M.; Pućko, M.; Lennert, Kunuk; Papakyriakou, T. N.; Wang, F.; Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier; Glud, Ronnie Nøhr; Ehn, J.; McGinnnis, D. F.; Attard, Karl; Sievers, Jakob; Deming, J. W.; Barber, D.

    2012-01-01

    in unmelted ice and vertical profiles of ikaite abundance and concentration in sea ice for the crucial season of winter. Ice was examined from two locations: a 1 m thick land-fast ice site and a 0.3 m thick polynya site, both in the Young Sound area (74° N, 20° W) of NE Greenland. Ikaite crystals......-900 µmol kg-1 ice (~ 25 × 106 crystals kg-1) to bottom-layer values of 100-200 µmol kg-1 ice (1-7 × 106 kg-1), all of which are much higher (4-10 times) than those reported in the few previous studies. Direct measurements of total alkalinity (TA) in surface layers fell within the same range as ikaite...... concentration whereas TA concentrations in bottom layers were twice as high. This depth-related discrepancy suggests interior ice processes where ikaite crystals form in surface sea ice layers and partly dissolved in bottom layers. From these findings and model calculations we relate sea ice formation and melt...

  7. Creating future fit between ice and society: The institutionalization of a refuge in the Arctic to preserve sea ice system services in a changing North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovecraft, A. L.; Meek, C. L.

    2010-12-01

    The Arctic sea ice system can be holistically characterized as a social-ecological system that provides not only vital geophysical and biological services to climate and oceans but also provisioning services to people and industry. These services are under threat from the three major interconnected global forces of increasing traffic for shipping, security, and tourism; contaminant accumulation primarily from distant, but also related to some local marine activities, industrial production; and climatic changes, especially the warming at the poles which is diminishing the earth’s cryosphere. As the Arctic becomes more open due to sea ice loss the current strategies to preserve individual species or sea ice system functions may become obsolete in the next several decades. Concurrent to this will be the rise of traffic in areas currently not passable and an increase in exploitation of natural resources (biological and mineral) further north. This expansion of human activity does not have a suite of institutions in place that comprehensively address a future open Arctic Ocean and the coasts of the circumpolar north. Consequently, as the amount of space that can preserve a diversity of sea ice system services shrinks and the use of that space becomes crowded with interests, governments across scales need to be able to plan to balance the increase in use with preservation of services valuable both in terms of regulating and supporting planetary processes and the cultural and provisioning services more immediately tied to human flourishing. In short, it is a race between stressors and human capacity to manage them through rules minimizing their direct impact on the ice or preventing them from entering an eventual “ice shed” boundaries of a minimum summer sea ice cover. This poster explores the potential for the creation of a system of governance that would provide a refuge based on the projected summer sea ice to remain in the Arctic even as the climate shifts in

  8. Autonomous observations of solar energy partitioning in first-year sea ice in the Arctic Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Caixin; Granskog, Mats A.; Gerland, Sebastian; Hudson, Stephen R.; Perovich, Donald K.; Nicolaus, Marcel; Ivan Karlsen, Tor; Fossan, Kristen; Bratrein, Marius

    2014-01-01

    A Spectral Radiation Buoy (SRB) was developed to autonomously measure the spectral incident, reflected, and transmitted spectral solar radiation (350-800 nm) above and below sea ice. The SRB was deployed on drifting first-year sea ice near the North Pole in mid-April 2012, together with velocity and ice mass balance buoys. The buoys drifted southward and reached Fram Strait after approximately 7 months, covering a complete melt season. At the SRB site, snowmelt started on 10 June, and had com...

  9. The melt pond fraction and spectral sea ice albedo retrieval from MERIS data: validation and trends of sea ice albedo and melt pond fraction in the Arctic for years 2002–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Istomina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of melt ponds on the Arctic sea ice strongly affects the energy balance of the Arctic Ocean in summer. It affects albedo as well as transmittance through the sea ice, which has consequences on the heat balance and mass balance of sea ice. An algorithm to retrieve melt pond fraction and sea ice albedo (Zege et al., 2014 from the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS data is validated against aerial, ship borne and in situ campaign data. The result show the best correlation for landfast and multiyear ice of high ice concentrations (albedo: R = 0.92, RMS = 0.068, melt pond fraction: R = 0.6, RMS = 0.065. The correlation for lower ice concentrations, subpixel ice floes, blue ice and wet ice is lower due to complicated surface conditions and ice drift. Combining all aerial observations gives a mean albedo RMS equal to 0.089 and a mean melt pond fraction RMS equal to 0.22. The in situ melt pond fraction correlation is R = 0.72 with an RMS = 0.14. Ship cruise data might be affected by documentation of varying accuracy within the ASPeCT protocol, which is the reason for discrepancy between the satellite value and observed value: mean R = 0.21, mean RMS = 0.16. An additional dynamic spatial cloud filter for MERIS over snow and ice has been developed to assist with the validation on swath data. The case studies and trend analysis for the whole MERIS period (2002–2011 show pronounced and reasonable spatial features of melt pond fractions and sea ice albedo. The most prominent feature is the melt onset shifting towards spring (starting already in weeks 3 and 4 of June within the multiyear ice area, north to the Queen Elizabeth Islands and North Greenland.

  10. Variations in the Arctic's multiyear sea ice cover: A neural network analysis of SMMR-SSM/I data, 1979-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belchansky, Gennady I.; Douglas, David C.; Eremeev, Vladimir A.; Platonov, Nikita G.

    2005-05-01

    A 26-year (1979-2004) observational record of January multiyear sea ice distributions, derived from neural network analysis of SMMR-SSM/I passive microwave satellite data, reveals dense and persistent cover in the central Arctic basin surrounded by expansive regions of highly fluctuating interannual cover. Following a decade of quasi equilibrium, precipitous declines in multiyear ice area commenced in 1989 when the Arctic Oscillation shifted to a pronounced positive phase. Although extensive survival of first-year ice during autumn 1996 fully replenished the area of multiyear ice, a subsequent and accelerated decline returned the depletion to record lows. The most dramatic multiyear sea ice declines occurred in the East Siberian, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas.

  11. Estimating Arctic sea-ice freeze-up and break-up from the satellite record: A comparison of different approaches in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Johnson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available 1. Abstract The recognized importance of the annual cycle of sea ice in the Arctic to heat budgets, human behavior, and ecosystem functions, requires consistent definitions of such key events in the ice cycle as break-up and freeze-up. An internally consistent and reproducible approach to characterize the timing of these events in the annual sea-ice cycle is described. An algorithm was developed to calculate the start and end dates of freeze-up and break-up and applied to time series of satellite-derived sea-ice concentration from 1979 to 2013. Our approach builds from discussions with sea-ice experts having experience observing and working on the sea ice in the Bering, Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. Applying the algorithm to the 1979–2013 satellite data reveals that freeze-up is delayed by two weeks per decade for the Chukchi coast and one week per decade for the Beaufort coast. For both regions, break-up start is arriving earlier by 5–7 days per decade and break-up end is arriving earlier by 10–12 days per decade. In the Chukchi Sea, “early” break-up is arriving earlier by one month over the 34-year period and alternates with a “late” break-up. The calculated freeze-up and break-up dates provide information helpful to understanding the dynamics of the annual sea-ice cycle and identifying the drivers that modify this cycle. The algorithm presented here, and potential refinements, can help guide future work on changes in the seasonal cycle of sea ice. The sea-ice phenology of freeze-up and break-up that results from our approach is consistent with observations of sea-ice use. It may be applied to advancing our understanding and prediction of the timing of seasonal navigation, availability of ice as a biological habitat, and assessment of numerical models.

  12. Polarimetric C-/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar Observations of Melting Sea Ice in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, J. A.; Beckers, J. F.; Brossier, E.; Haas, C.

    2013-12-01

    Operational ice information services rely heavily on space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data for the production of ice charts to meet their mandate of providing timely and accurate sea ice information to support safe and efficient marine operations. During the summer melt period, the usefulness of SAR data for sea ice monitoring is limited by the presence of wet snow and melt ponds on the ice surface, which can mask the signature of the underlying ice. This is a critical concern for ice services whose clients (e.g. commercial shipping, cruise tourism, resource exploration and extraction) are most active at this time of year when sea ice is at its minimum extent, concentration and thickness. As a result, there is a need to further quantify the loss of ice information in SAR data during the melt season and to identify what information can still be retrieved about ice surface conditions and melt pond evolution at this time of year. To date the majority of studies have been limited to analysis of single-polarization C-band SAR data. This study will investigate the potential complimentary and unique sea ice information that polarimetric C- and X-band SAR data can provide to supplement the information available from traditional single co-polarized C-band SAR data. A time-series of polarimetric C- and X-band SAR data was acquired over Jones Sound in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, in the vicinity of the Grise Fiord, Nunavut. Five RADARSAT-2 Wide Fine Quad-pol images and 11 TerraSAR-X StripMap dual-pol (HH/VV) images were acquired. The time-series begins at the onset of melt in early June and extends through advanced melt conditions in late July. Over this period several ponding and drainage events and two snowfall events occurred. Field observations of sea ice properties were collected using an Ice Mass Balance (IMB) buoy, hourly photos from a time-lapse camera deployed on a coastal cliff, and manual in situ measurements of snow thickness and melt pond depth

  13. Air-sea flux of CO2 in arctic coastal waters influenced by glacial melt water and sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejr, Mikael Kristian; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Rysgaard, Søren;

    2011-01-01

    Annual air–sea exchange ofCO2 inYoung Sound,NEGreenlandwas estimated using pCO2 surface-water measurements during summer (2006–2009) and during an ice-covered winter 2008. All surface pCO2 values were below atmospheric levels indicating an uptake of atmospheric CO2. During sea ice formation...... carbonate minerals may contribute to the low surface-water pCO2 levels. The average annual uptake of atmospheric CO2 was estimated at 2.7 mol CO2 m−2 yr−1 or 32 g C m−2 yr−1 for the study area, which is lower than estimates from the Greenland Sea. Variability in duration of sea ice cover caused significant......, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) content is reduced causing sea ice to be under saturated in CO2. Approximately 1% of the DIC forced out of growing sea ice was released into the atmosphere while the remaining 99% was exported to the underlying water column. Sea ice covered the fjord 9 months a year...

  14. Long-Term Record of Arctic and Antarctic Sea and Ice Surface Temperatures from Thermal Infrared Satellite Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Cristina; Dybkjær, Gorm; Eastwood, Steinar; Tonboe, Rasmus; Høyer, Jacob

    2015-04-01

    Surface temperature is among the most important variables in the surface energy balance equation and it significantly affects the atmospheric boundary layer structure, the turbulent heat exchange and, over ice, the ice growth rate. Here we measure the surface temperature using thermal infrared sensors from 10-12 µm wavelength, a method whose primary limitation over sea ice is the detection of clouds. However, in the Arctic and around Antarctica there are very few conventional observations of surface temperature from buoys, and it is sometimes difficult to determine if the temperature is measured at the surface or within the snowpack, the latter of which often results in a warm bias. To reduce this bias, much interest is being paid to alternative remote sensing methods for monitoring high latitude surface temperature. We used Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) global area coverage (GAC) data to produce a high latitude sea surface temperature (SST), ice surface temperature (IST) and ice cap skin temperature dataset spanning 27 years (1982-2009). This long-term climate record is the first of its kind for IST. In this project we used brightness temperatures from the infrared channels of AVHRR sensors aboard NOAA and Metop polar-orbiting satellites. Surface temperatures were calculated using separate split window algorithms for day SST, night SST, and IST. The snow surface emissivity across all angles of the swath were simulated specifically for all sensors using an emission model. Additionally, all algorithms were tuned to the Arctic using simulated brightness temperatures from a radiative transfer model with atmospheric profiles and skin temperatures from European Centre for Medium-Range Forecasts (ECMWF) re-analysis data (ERA-Interim). Here we present the results of product quality as compared to in situ measurements from buoys and infrared radiometers, as well as a preliminary analysis of climate trends revealed by the record.

  15. Biogeography and Photosynthetic Biomass of Arctic Marine Pico-Eukaroytes during Summer of the Record Sea Ice Minimum 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metfies, Katja; von Appen, Wilken-Jon; Kilias, Estelle; Nicolaus, Anja; Nöthig, Eva-Maria

    2016-01-01

    Information on recent photosynthetic biomass distribution and biogeography of Arctic marine pico-eukaryotes (0.2-3 μm) is needed to better understand consequences of environmental change for Arctic marine ecosystems. We analysed pico-eukaryote biomass and community composition in Fram Strait and large parts of the Central Arctic Ocean (Nansen Basin, Amundsen Basin) using chlorophyll a (Chl a) measurements, automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) and 454-pyrosequencing. Samples were collected during summer 2012, the year with the most recent record sea ice minimum. Chl a concentrations were highest in eastern Fram Strait and pico-plankton accounted for 60-90% of Chl a biomass during the observation period. ARISA-patterns and 454-pyrosequencing revealed that pico-eukaryote distribution is closely related to water mass distribution in the euphotic zone of the Arctic Ocean. Phaeocystaceae, Micromonas sp., Dinophyceae and Syndiniales constitute a high proportion of sequence reads, while sequence abundance of autotrophic Phaeocystaceae and mixotrophic Micromonas sp. was inversely correlated. Highest sequence abundances of Phaeocystaceae were observed in the warm Atlantic Waters in Fram Strait, while Micromonas sp. dominated the abundant biosphere in the arctic halocline. Our results are of particular interest considering existing hypotheses that environmental conditions in Nansen Basin might become more similar to the current conditions in Fram Strait. We propose that in response, biodiversity and biomass of pico-eukaryotes in Nansen Basin could resemble those currently observed in Fram Strait in the future. This would significantly alter biogeochemical cycles in a large part of the Central Arctic Ocean. PMID:26895333

  16. Biogeography and Photosynthetic Biomass of Arctic Marine Pico-Eukaroytes during Summer of the Record Sea Ice Minimum 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Metfies

    Full Text Available Information on recent photosynthetic biomass distribution and biogeography of Arctic marine pico-eukaryotes (0.2-3 μm is needed to better understand consequences of environmental change for Arctic marine ecosystems. We analysed pico-eukaryote biomass and community composition in Fram Strait and large parts of the Central Arctic Ocean (Nansen Basin, Amundsen Basin using chlorophyll a (Chl a measurements, automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA and 454-pyrosequencing. Samples were collected during summer 2012, the year with the most recent record sea ice minimum. Chl a concentrations were highest in eastern Fram Strait and pico-plankton accounted for 60-90% of Chl a biomass during the observation period. ARISA-patterns and 454-pyrosequencing revealed that pico-eukaryote distribution is closely related to water mass distribution in the euphotic zone of the Arctic Ocean. Phaeocystaceae, Micromonas sp., Dinophyceae and Syndiniales constitute a high proportion of sequence reads, while sequence abundance of autotrophic Phaeocystaceae and mixotrophic Micromonas sp. was inversely correlated. Highest sequence abundances of Phaeocystaceae were observed in the warm Atlantic Waters in Fram Strait, while Micromonas sp. dominated the abundant biosphere in the arctic halocline. Our results are of particular interest considering existing hypotheses that environmental conditions in Nansen Basin might become more similar to the current conditions in Fram Strait. We propose that in response, biodiversity and biomass of pico-eukaryotes in Nansen Basin could resemble those currently observed in Fram Strait in the future. This would significantly alter biogeochemical cycles in a large part of the Central Arctic Ocean.

  17. Seasonal Evolution and Interannual Variability of the Local Solar Energy Absorbed by the Arctic Sea Ice-Ocean System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, Donald K.; Nghiem, Son V.; Markus, Thorsten; Schwieger, Axel

    2007-01-01

    The melt season of the Arctic sea ice cover is greatly affected by the partitioning of the incident solar radiation between reflection to the atmosphere and absorption in the ice and ocean. This partitioning exhibits a strong seasonal cycle and significant interannual variability. Data in the period 1998, 2000-2004 were analyzed in this study. Observations made during the 1997-1998 SHEBA (Surface HEat Budget of the Arctic Ocean) field experiment showed a strong seasonal dependence of the partitioning, dominated by a five-phase albedo evolution. QuikSCAT scatterometer data from the SHEBA region in 1999-2004 were used to further investigate solar partitioning in summer. The time series of scatterometer data were used to determine the onset of melt and the beginning of freezeup. This information was combined with SSM/I-derived ice concentration, TOVS-based estimates of incident solar irradiance, and SHEBA results to estimate the amount of solar energy absorbed in the ice-ocean system for these years. The average total solar energy absorbed in the ice-ocean system from April through September was 900 MJ m(sup -2). There was considerable interannual variability, with a range of 826 to 1044 MJ m(sup -2). The total amount of solar energy absorbed by the ice and ocean was strongly related to the date of melt onset, but only weakly related to the total duration of the melt season or the onset of freezeup. The timing of melt onset is significant because the incident solar energy is large and a change at this time propagates through the entire melt season, affecting the albedo every day throughout melt and freezeup.

  18. Lead detection in Arctic sea ice from CryoSat-2: quality assessment, lead area fraction and width distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wernecke

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Leads cover only a small fraction of the Arctic sea ice but they have a dominant effect on the turbulent exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere. A supervised classification of CryoSat-2 measurements is performed by a combination with visual MODIS scenes. For several parameters thresholds are optimized and tested in order to reproduce this prior classification. The maximum power of the waveform shows the best classification properties amongst them, including the Pulse Peakiness. With the same correct lead detection rates as of published classifiers, the amount of ice being detected as lead can be reduced by up to 40%. Lead area fraction estimates based on CryoSat-2 show a major fracturing event in the Beaufort Sea in 2013. The resulting Arctic wide lead width distribution follows a power law with an exponent of 2.47 ± 0.04 for the winter seasons from 2011 to 2014, confirming and complementing a regional study based on a high resolution SPOT image.

  19. The 'interior' shelves of the Arctic Ocean: Physical oceanographic setting, climatology and effects of sea-ice retreat on cross-shelf exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, William J.; Carmack, Eddy C.

    2015-12-01

    The interior shelves of the Arctic Mediterranean are the shelves of the Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, East Siberian Sea and Beaufort Sea. They comprise approximately 40% of the total arctic shelf area (∼2.5 × 106 km2) and are distinguished from inflow and outflow shelves by their principal forcing dynamics. Along their southern (continental) boundary the interior shelves are dominated by the major arctic rivers, receiving over 80% of the total freshwater input to the Arctic Ocean. In the mid-shelf region wind and ice motion surface stresses dominate mixing and circulation, resulting in high variability. Along, their northern (seaward) boundary they are forced by upwelling- and downwelling-favourable surface stresses which drive shelf-basin exchanges with Atlantic- and Pacific-origin cyclonic boundary currents over the upper slope. Shelf-basin exchange is further modified by shelf-break morphometry (e.g. canyons, valleys, headlands and bottom slope). Here we review the physical oceanographic settings and forcing of the interior shelves and then focus on shelfbreak exchange and supply of nutrients for new primary production due to upwelling across the shelfbreak. As a proxy for this nutrient supply, we show seasonal and annual time series of along-shelfbreak surface-stress due to wind and ice motion from 1979 to 2011. We apply this analysis to the shallow shelves from the Kara Sea to the Beaufort Sea and comment on recent increases due to atmospheric changes and sea-ice retreat.

  20. Snow Dunes: A Controlling Factor of Melt Pond Distribution on Arctic Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrich, Chris; Eicken, Hajo; Polashenski, Christopher M.; Sturm, Matthew; Harbeck, Jeremy P.; Perovich, Donald K.; Finnegan, David C.

    2012-01-01

    The location of snow dunes over the course of the ice-growth season 2007/08 was mapped on level landfast first-year sea ice near Barrow, Alaska. Landfast ice formed in mid-December and exhibited essentially homogeneous snow depths of 4-6 cm in mid-January; by early February distinct snow dunes were observed. Despite additional snowfall and wind redistribution throughout the season, the location of the dunes was fixed by March, and these locations were highly correlated with the distribution of meltwater ponds at the beginning of June. Our observations, including ground-based light detection and ranging system (lidar) measurements, show that melt ponds initially form in the interstices between snow dunes, and that the outline of the melt ponds is controlled by snow depth contours. The resulting preferential surface ablation of ponded ice creates the surface topography that later determines the melt pond evolution.

  1. Spatial and temporal multiyear sea ice distributions in the Arctic: A neural network analysis of SSM/I data, 1988?2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belchansky, G.I.; Douglas, D.C.; Alpatsky, I.V.; Platonov, N.G.

    2004-01-01

    Arctic multiyear sea ice concentration maps for January 1988-2001 were generated from SSM/I brightness temperatures (19H, 19V, and 37V) using modified multiple layer perceptron neural networks. Learning data for the neural networks were extracted from ice maps derived from Okean and ERS satellite imagery to capitalize on the stability of active radar multiyear ice signatures. Evaluations of three learning algorithms and several topologies indicated that networks constructed with error back propagation learning and 3-20-1 topology produced the most consistent and physically plausible results. Operational neural networks were developed specifically with January learning data, and then used to estimate daily multiyear ice concentrations from daily-averaged SSM/I brightness temperatures during January. Monthly mean maps were produced for analysis by averaging the respective daily estimates. The 14-year series of January multiyear ice distributions revealed dense and persistent cover in the central Arctic surrounded by expansive regions of highly fluctuating interannual cover. Estimates of total multiyear ice area by the neural network were intermediate to those of other passive microwave algorithms, but annual fluctuations and trends were similar among all algorithms. When compared to Radarsat estimates of multiyear ice concentration in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas (1997-1999), average discrepancies were small (0.9-2.5%) and spatial coherency was reasonable, indicating the neural network's Okean and ERS learning data facilitated passive microwave inversion that emulated backscatter signatures. During 1988-2001, total January multiyear ice area declined at a significant linear rate of -54.3 x 10^3 km2/yr (-1.4%/yr). The most persistent and extensive decline in multiyear ice concentration (-3.3%/yr) occurred in the southern Beaufort and Chukchi Seas. In autumn 1996, a large multiyear ice recruitment of over 106 km2 (mostly in the Siberian Arctic) fully replenished the

  2. Effect of sea-ice melt on inherent optical properties and vertical distribution of solar radiant heating in Arctic surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granskog, Mats A.; Pavlov, Alexey K.; Sagan, Sławomir; Kowalczuk, Piotr; Raczkowska, Anna; Stedmon, Colin A.

    2015-10-01

    The inherent optical properties (IOPs) of Polar Waters (PW) exiting the Arctic Ocean in the East Greenland Current (EGC) and of the inflowing Atlantic waters (AW) in the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC) were studied in late summer when surface freshening due to sea-ice melt was widespread. The absorption and attenuation coefficients in PW were significantly higher than previous observations from the western Arctic. High concentrations of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) resulted in 50-60% more heat deposition in the upper meters relative to clearest natural waters. This demonstrates the influence of terrigenous organic material inputs on the optical properties of waters in the Eurasian basin. Sea-ice melt in CDOM-rich PW decreased CDOM absorption, but an increase in scattering nearly compensated for lower absorption, and total attenuation was nearly identical in the sea-ice meltwater layer. This suggests a source of scattering material associated with sea-ice melt, relative to the PW. In the AW, melting sea-ice forms a stratified surface layer with lower absorption and attenuation, than well-mixed AW waters in late summer. It is likely that phytoplankton in the surface layer influenced by sea-ice melt are nutrient limited. The presence of a more transparent surface layer changes the vertical radiant heat absorption profile to greater depths in late summer both in EGC and WSC waters, shifting accumulation of solar heat to greater depths and thus this heat is not directly available for ice melt during periods of stratification.

  3. Warm Arctic—cold continents: climate impacts of the newly open Arctic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    James E. Overland; Kevin R. Wood; Wang, Muyin

    2011-01-01

    Recent Arctic changes are likely due to coupled Arctic amplification mechanisms with increased linkage between Arctic climate and sub-Arctic weather. Historically, sea ice grew rapidly in autumn, a strong negative radiative feedback. But increased sea-ice mobility, loss of multi-year sea ice, enhanced heat storage in newly sea ice-free ocean areas, and modified wind fields form connected positive feedback processes. One-way shifts in the Arctic system are sensitive to the combination of episo...

  4. Cesium-137 contamination in Arctic Ocean ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sea ice and ice-borne sediment samples were collected across the western Arctic basin on the joint US/Canada Arctic Ocean Section during August 1994. Samples were processed on board and returned at the completion of the cruise to Oak Ridge National Laboratory for analysis. Sediment was observed on the surface and in the ice from the southern ice limit in the Chukchi Sea to the North Pole. Preliminary results on the ice-borne sediment samples show widespread elevated concentrations of 137Cs, ranging from 4.9 to 73 mBq g dry weight-1. An analysis of the measurements indicate that sea ice is primary transport mechanism by which contaminated sediments are redistributed throughout the Arctic Ocean and possibly exported into the Greenland Sea and North Atlantic through Fram Strait. The wide variability in the ice-borne sediment concentrations of 137Cs measured along the transect argues that contaminants incorporated on the Siberian shelves can follow much more variable trajectories than is suggested by mean ice drift calculations. 2 figs

  5. Rapid Arctic change and implications for sea-ice use and its management at the local and regional level: An example from Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicken, H.; Lovecraft, A. L.; Meek, C. L.; Druckenmiller, M. L.

    2008-12-01

    Reductions in sea-ice thickness and summer extent over the past few decades have been particularly pronounced in Alaska. This rapid environmental change coincides with significant socio-economic transformations, including increased ship traffic and offshore oil and gas development. Adaptation and response to these changes and regulation of coastal and offshore activities require environmental data and projections on seasonal to decadal timescales. Nascent Arctic observation networks are of great potential value in this context. However, in order for such observing and associated modeling activities to be useful, several criteria have to be met: (1) observations need to be relevant to stakeholders adapting or responding to a changing ice regime, (2) data products need to be accessible and interpretable by those they are meant to serve, and (3) institutions and governance strategies need to be in place to allow effective utilization of environmental data and information on changing ice conditions. We show how the concept of sea-ice system services can help guide observing programs, in particular in situations with conjoined uses of the ice cover. An example from our work in Arctic Alaska illustrates this concept for the use of sea ice as a platform by indigenous hunters, industry and marine mammals. Adaptive responses by different user groups to the substantial variability observed in local-scale ice conditions will require a significant effort in downscaling standard sea-ice data products and integrating new types of measurements. The challenge for ice-covered waters is that current approaches governing utilization of the sea-ice environment may not always be effective in addressing conjoined, potentially conflicting uses. The major transformations underway in the Arctic now provide us with an opportunity to explore and evaluate different approaches of observing, adapting and responding to change.

  6. Analysis of a link between fall Arctic sea ice concentration and atmospheric patterns in the following winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Hopsch

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of anomalous fall Arctic sea ice concentrations (SICs on atmospheric patterns in the following winter is revisited by analysing results for two time periods: the most recent, satellite-era period (1979–2010 and a longer time-period (1950–2010. On the basis of September SICs for each time-period, an index was constructed which was used to identify anomalous high/low SIC years for both the original, as well as for the linearly detrended sea ice index. Identified years were then used to derive composites for the following winter's monthly atmospheric variables. Mid-troposphere geopotential height composites for winter months are in general reminiscent of the North Atlantic Oscillation pattern with high latitude maximum shifted towards the Barents Sea. Also, lower troposphere temperatures indicate the presence of cooler conditions over the continents during low SIC years. However, differences in the composite patterns are significant only for areas with limited spatial extent. While suggested pathways in previously published studies seem reasonable, our results show that these findings are not yet robust enough from a statistical significance perspective. More data (e.g. provided by longer, climate-quality reanalysis datasets are needed before conclusions of impacts and feedbacks can be drawn with certainty.

  7. An Assessment of the INM RAS Coupled Arctic Ocean Sea Ice Model. The Results of the AOMIP 30-year Coordinated Spin-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, N.

    2003-04-01

    The development of the mathematical theory of climate and corresponding numerical methods of climate modeling is one of the topics for the Institute of Numerical Mathematics of Russian Academy of Sciences (INM RAS). On the basis of the extended experience in 3D large-scale ocean climate modeling the new coupled ocean sea ice model has been developed for Arctic Ocean and polar seas climate studies. The physical background of the model is the hydrostatic primitive equation ocean model with the linearized kinematic condition at the upper surface, Parkinson and Washington style model for ice snow thermodynamics and viscous-plastic rheology for ice dynamics. There're several gradations of the ice thickness, with the simple parameterization of the ice thickness redistribution during ridging. For the river run-off both mass and fresh water fluxes are taken into account. Model domain covers area of Arctic Ocean and GIN Sea north 65N. This version of the model is aimed mostly to methodological experiments, so the spatial grid size is approx. 100 km. The numerical scheme of the model is based on the finite-element (FE) spatial approximation. Time approximation is made by the time-splitting scheme with some special treatment of nonlinear sea ice rheology. There the step of vertical turbulent diffusion of temperature and salinity is extracted, when snow ice thermal evolution and vertical profiles of temperature and salinity over the whole depth are determined simultaneously by the implicit time scheme. Wind drift problem is solved for water and ice current velocities in a similar way. Temperature, salinity and momentum advection is approximated by the FE upwind scheme with no crosswind diffusion by Hughes and Brooks. This model was modified to adopt the Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (AOMIP) forcing and parameterizations. Model is driven by realistic NCEP NCAR Reanalysis daily air temperature and sea level pressure, as well as climatological monthly means of river

  8. Relationships between declining summer sea ice, increasing temperatures and changing vegetation in the Siberian Arctic tundra from MODIS time series (2000-11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutrieux, L. P.; Bartholomeus, H.; Herold, M.; Verbesselt, J.

    2012-12-01

    The concern about Arctic greening has grown recently as the phenomenon is thought to have significant influence on global climate via atmospheric carbon emissions. Earlier work on Arctic vegetation highlighted the role of summer sea ice decline in the enhanced warming and greening phenomena observed in the region, but did not contain enough details for spatially characterizing the interactions between sea ice, temperature and vegetation photosynthetic absorption. By using 1 km resolution data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) as a primary data source, this study presents detailed maps of vegetation and temperature trends for the Siberian Arctic region, using the time integrated normalized difference vegetation index (TI-NDVI) and summer warmth index (SWI) calculated for the period 2000-11 to represent vegetation greenness and temperature respectively. Spatio-temporal relationships between the two indices and summer sea ice conditions were investigated with transects at eight locations using sea ice concentration data from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I). In addition, the derived vegetation and temperature trends were compared among major Arctic vegetation types and bioclimate subzones. The fine resolution trend map produced confirms the overall greening (+1% yr-1) and warming (+0.27% yr-1) of the region, reported in previous studies, but also reveals browning areas. The causes of such local decreases in vegetation, while surrounding areas are experiencing the opposite reaction to changing conditions, are still unclear. Overall correlations between sea ice concentration and SWI as well as TI-NDVI decreased in strength with increasing distance from the coast, with a particularly pronounced pattern in the case of SWI. SWI appears to be driving TI-NDVI in many cases, but not systematically, highlighting the presence of limiting factors other than temperature for plant growth in the region. Further unravelling those limiting factors

  9. The Arctic Gakkel Vents (AGAVE) Expedition: Technology Development and the Search for Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Fields Under the Arctic Ice Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reves-Sohn, R. A.; Singh, H.; Humphris, S.; Shank, T.; Jakuba, M.; Kunz, C.; Murphy, C.; Willis, C.

    2007-12-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal fields on the Gakkel Ridge beneath the Arctic ice cap provide perhaps the best terrestrial analogue for volcanically-hosted chemosynthetic biological communities that may exist beneath the ice-covered ocean of Europa. In both cases the key enabling technologies are robotic (untethered) vehicles that can swim freely under the ice and the supporting hardware and software. The development of robotic technology for deep- sea research beneath ice-covered oceans thus has relevance to both polar oceanography and future astrobiological missions to Europa. These considerations motivated a technology development effort under the auspices of NASA's ASTEP program and NSF's Office of Polar Programs that culminated in the AGAVE expedition aboard the icebreaker Oden from July 1 - August 10, 2007. The scientific objective was to study hydrothermal processes on the Gakkel Ridge, which is a key target for global studies of deep-sea vent fields. We developed two new autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) for the project, and deployed them to search for vent fields beneath the ice. We conducted eight AUV missions (four to completion) during the 40-day long expedition, which also included ship-based bathymetric surveys, CTD/rosette water column surveys, and wireline photographic and sampling surveys of remote sections of the Gakkel Ridge. The AUV missions, which lasted 16 hours on average and achieved operational depths of 4200 meters, returned sensor data that showed clear evidence of hydrothermal venting, but for a combination of technical reasons and time constraints, the AUVs did not ultimately return images of deep-sea vent fields. Nevertheless we used our wireline system to obtain images and samples of extensive microbial mats that covered fresh volcanic surfaces on a newly discovered set of volcanoes. The microbes appear to be living in regions where reducing and slightly warm fluids are seeping through cracks in the fresh volcanic terrain. These discoveries

  10. Multiyear Arctic Ice Classification Using ASCAT and SSMIS

    OpenAIRE

    David B. Lindell; Long, David G.

    2016-01-01

    The concentration, type, and extent of sea ice in the Arctic can be estimated based on measurements from satellite active microwave sensors, passive microwave sensors, or both. Here, data from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) are employed to broadly classify Arctic sea ice type as first-year (FY) or multiyear (MY). Combining data from both active and passive sensors can improve the performance of MY and FY ice classification. The class...

  11. Bio-optical and structural properties inferred from irradiance measurements within the bottommost layers in an Arctic landfast sea ice cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Jens K.; Mundy, C. J.; Barber, David G.

    2008-03-01

    Irradiance spectra were measured at vertical increments within the bottommost layers of landfast sea ice with the aid of divers in Franklin Bay, Canada, in an effort to obtain input parameters for bio-optical modeling of sea ice. The study took place between 22 April and 9 May 2004 during the overwintering stage of CASES (Canadian Arctic Shelf Exchange Study). The ice was about 1.8 m thick with a snow cover of variable thickness (˜0.04 to 0.4 m). Ice surface temperatures increased from about -12° to -6.4°C during the sampling period, while ice temperatures within the bottommost portion under study ranged from -3.0° to -1.2°C. Ice algae were visible within the bottommost centimeters of the sea ice. This algae layer had a marked effect on the spectral distribution of transmitted irradiance beneath the ice. Particulate absorption spectra, ap(λ), measured from melted ice samples showed evidence of chloroplastic pigment degradation and could not fully explain the shape of the in situ diffuse attenuation coefficient, Kd(λ), for the algal layer. Interior ice layers, however, did show absorption curves similar to ap(λ) from samples, suggesting the presence of degraded algal pigments within these layers. The discrete ordinates radiative transfer (DISORT) code was iterated in an inverse approach to estimate ap(λ) and the scattering coefficient, btot, from the irradiance profiles. For the bottom 0.1 m of the sea ice, btot was around 400 m-1, while at the 0.1- to 0.2-m layer from the ice bottom it decreased to 165 m-1. Using ap(λ) combined with wavelength independent btot as inputs to DISORT seem to adequately explain the radiative transfer near the bottom of first-year sea ice provided that adjustments were made to the brine volume fraction.

  12. Turbulent flux exchange characteristics of air-ice-sea above the Arctic Ocean during the polar day period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Chinese “Xue Long” breaker made its first voyage to the Arctic Ocean for scientific expedition from July to September, 1999. The tethersonde meteorological tower (TMT) sounding system was used to probe the temperature, humidity, air pressure, wind direction and wind speed on different underlying surfaces above the Arctic Ocean. The probed data were used for calculating the roughness length z0, momentum flux M, drag coefficient CDD, sensible heat flux Hss, bulk transfer coefficient CHH for sensible heat, latent heat flux HLL, and bulk transfer coefficient CEE for latent heat of air-ice-sea on different underlying surfaces. They vary within the ranges of (0.2 ~ 1.0) mm, (1.14~9.19) ×10-2N/m2, (0.87~ 1.76) × 10-3,-(4.2~ 12.5) W/m2, (0.84~ 1.37) x 10-3,-6.6~ 23.6 W/m2 and (0.85 ~ 1.40) x 10-3, respectively. It shows that the drag coefficient is greater than the latent heat transfer coefficient, and again the latent heat transfer coefficient is larger than the sensible heat transfer coefficient. Besides, the fluxes of momentum, sensible and latent heat are apparently correlated to the mean wind speed and the mean potential temperature difference and mean specific humidity difference.

  13. Effects of sea-ice light attenuation and CDOM absorption in the water below the Eurasian sector of central Arctic Ocean (> 880N)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Hansen, Lars Chresten; Markager, Stiig; Hancke, Kasper;

    2015-01-01

    This is a study of the optical, physical and biological parameters of sea ice and the water below it at stations (n=25) in the central (>88°N) Eurasian sector of the Arctic Ocean during the summer 2012 record low sea-ice minimum extent. Results show that photosynthetically active radiation (PAR...... dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption coefficient with a strong terrestrial optical signature. Two distinct clusters of stations with waters of Pacific and North Atlantic origin were identified based on significant differences in temperature, salinity and CDOM absorption coefficient between water...

  14. Quaternary Sea Ice Reconstruction: Proxy Data and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersonde, R.; De Vernal, A.; Wolff, E. W.

    2014-11-01

    The satellite-based observation of distinct contrasts between Arctic and Antarctic sea ice development provides a strong motivation to improve our knowledge of physical and biological processes governing sea ice occurrence and the role of sea ice as a polar climate amplifier. For further insight into such processes, sea ice records must be extended beyond instrumental observations.

  15. Impact of sea ice initialization on sea ice and atmosphere prediction skill on seasonal timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guemas, V.; Chevallier, M.; Déqué, M.; Bellprat, O.; Doblas-Reyes, F.

    2016-04-01

    We present a robust assessment of the impact of sea ice initialization from reconstructions of the real state on the sea ice and atmosphere prediction skill. We ran two ensemble seasonal prediction experiments from 1979 to 2012 : one using realistic sea ice initial conditions and another where sea ice is initialized from a climatology, with two forecast systems. During the melting season in the Arctic Ocean, sea ice forecasts become skilful with sea ice initialization until 3-5 months ahead, thanks to the memory held by sea ice thickness. During the freezing season in both the Arctic and Antarctic Oceans, sea ice forecasts are skilful for 7 and 2 months, respectively, with negligible differences between the two experiments, the memory being held by the ocean heat content. A weak impact on the atmosphere prediction skill is obtained.

  16. Breaking the ice: Theorizing the mechanisms of Arctic thaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennermalm, Asa K.; Mioduszewski, John; Moustafa, Samiah

    2012-10-01

    Breaking the Ice: Theorizing the Arctic Thaw;New Brunswick, New Jersey, 12-14 April 2012 Some of the most striking contemporary environmental changes are the warming of the Arctic region and increased mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet. For example, areas of summer melt atop Greenland's massive ice sheet continue to expand, sending large volumes of ice and meltwater into surrounding seas and oceans. This may have profound implications for regional hydrology and marine biogeochemical cycles, as well as global sea level rise. While these trends are readily observable, urgent questions regarding how the Greenland ice sheet will respond to future climate change remain unanswered.

  17. The Sea Ice Board Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Kathryn Berry

    2008-01-01

    The National Science Foundation-funded Arctic Climate Modeling Program (ACMP) provides "curriculum resource-based professional development" materials that combine current science information with practical classroom instruction embedded with "best practice" techniques for teaching science to diverse students. The Sea Ice Board Game, described…

  18. Sea ice terminology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    A group of definitions of terms related to sea ice is presented, as well as a graphic representation of late winter ice zonation of the Beaufort Sea Coast. Terms included in the definition list are belt, bergy bit, bight, brash ice, calving, close pack ice, compacting, compact pack ice, concentration, consolidated pack ice, crack, diffuse ice edge, fast ice, fast-ice boundary, fast-ice edge, first-year ice, flaw, flaw lead, floe, flooded ice, fractured, fractured zone, fracturing, glacier, grey ice, grey-white ice, growler, hummock, iceberg, iceberg tongue, ice blink, ice boundary, ice cake, ice edge, ice foot, ice free, ice island, ice shelf, large fracture, lead, medium fracture, multiyear ice, nilas, old ice, open pack ice, open water, pack ice, polar ice, polynya, puddle, rafted ice, rafting, ram, ridge, rotten ice, second-year ice, shearing, shore lead, shore polynya, small fracture, strip, tabular berg, thaw holes, very close pack ice, very open pack ice, water sky, young coastal ice, and young ice.

  19. Arctic Sea Ice Melt Pond Statistics and Maps, 1999-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible band imagery from high-resolution satellites were acquired over four Arctic Ocean sites (three in 1999) during the summers of 1999, 2000, and 2001. The...

  20. Impacts of the variability of second-year ice types on the decline of the Arctic perennial sea-ice cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    The observed rapid decline in the Arctic perennial ice cover is one of the most remarkable signals of change in the Arctic region. Updated data now show an even higher rate of decline of 9.8% decade -1 (1978-2005) than the previous report of 8.9% decade -1 (1978-2000). To gain insights into this decline, the variability of the second-year ice, which is the relatively thin component of the perennial ice cover, is studied. The perennial ice cover in the 1990s was observed to be highly variable, leading to relatively high production of second-year ice that may in part explain the observed ice thinning during the period and have triggered further decline. The microwave signature of second-year ice is shown to be different from that of the older multi-year ice types and, surprisingly, more similar to that of first-year ice. This in part explains why previous estimates of the area of multi-year ice during the winter period are considerably lower than the area of the perennial ice cover during the preceding summer. Analysis of multichannel cluster maps in conjunction with submarine ice-draft data indicates ability to detect regions covered primarily by second-year ice and hence to infer ice-thickness information from the microwave data. The periodic increase of second-year ice in the 1990s was apparently followed by continuous decline due in part to anomolously warm temperatures during the latter period that shortened the ice season and kept first-year ice from getting thick enough to survive the summer and become second year ice.

  1. Relationships between declining summer sea ice, increasing temperatures and changing vegetation in the Siberian Arctic tundra from MODIS time series (2000–11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concern about Arctic greening has grown recently as the phenomenon is thought to have significant influence on global climate via atmospheric carbon emissions. Earlier work on Arctic vegetation highlighted the role of summer sea ice decline in the enhanced warming and greening phenomena observed in the region, but did not contain enough details for spatially characterizing the interactions between sea ice, temperature and vegetation photosynthetic absorption. By using 1 km resolution data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) as a primary data source, this study presents detailed maps of vegetation and temperature trends for the Siberian Arctic region, using the time integrated normalized difference vegetation index (TI-NDVI) and summer warmth index (SWI) calculated for the period 2000–11 to represent vegetation greenness and temperature respectively. Spatio-temporal relationships between the two indices and summer sea ice conditions were investigated with transects at eight locations using sea ice concentration data from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I). In addition, the derived vegetation and temperature trends were compared among major Arctic vegetation types and bioclimate subzones. The fine resolution trend map produced confirms the overall greening (+1% yr−1) and warming (+0.27% yr−1) of the region, reported in previous studies, but also reveals browning areas. The causes of such local decreases in vegetation, while surrounding areas are experiencing the opposite reaction to changing conditions, are still unclear. Overall correlations between sea ice concentration and SWI as well as TI-NDVI decreased in strength with increasing distance from the coast, with a particularly pronounced pattern in the case of SWI. SWI appears to be driving TI-NDVI in many cases, but not systematically, highlighting the presence of limiting factors other than temperature for plant growth in the region. Further unravelling those limiting

  2. Zeroing tests of luminescence sediment dating in the Arctic Ocean: Review and new results from Alaska-margin core tops and central-ocean dirty sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Glenn W.

    2009-07-01

    Additional numeric dating techniques are needed for sediments in the Arctic Ocean that span at least the last half million years. Almost all presently suitable geochronometers are relative-dating methods, requiring significant assumptions about sedimentation rates (such as continuous deposition and preservation). An alternative 'absolute' geochronometer, luminescence sediment dating, assumes daylight exposure of siliciclastic grains before burial. Early tests and applications of thermoluminescence (TL) techniques in the western Arctic Ocean showed some promise, but trans-ocean application to core tops of more sensitive photon-stimulated-luminescence (PSL) multi-aliquot procedures revealed large regional variations in accuracy. Recent applications of single-aliquot PSL procedures to core tops and dirty sea ice refine our understanding of the limitations and capabilities of PSL dating in this ocean. Dirty sea ice is the source of most of the bottom sediment. Particular procedures for multi-aliquot and single-aliquot PSL dating produce near-zero ages for silt grains from 4 available dirty sea-ice samples. This suggests that TL and PSL age overestimates obtained previously from core-top samples were due mainly to bottom-current reworking (mixing or stripping) of silt grains in abyssal darkness, rather than due to sedimentation of relict-age grains from sea ice. Single-aliquot PSL dating of silt grains from core tops at two different-depth sites at the Alaskan margin reveals large variations in accuracy. This re-emphasizes the critical sensitivity of fine-silt PSL dating accuracy to the effects of bottom-current processes. These recent applications are beginning to provide a more precise knowledge of just where and how PSL methods are likely to be accurate in the Arctic Ocean.

  3. Observing Muostakh disappear: permafrost thaw subsidence and erosion of a ground-ice-rich island in response to arctic summer warming and sea ice reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, F.; Overduin, P. P.; Yakshina, I. A.; Opel, T.; Baranskaya, A. V.; Grigoriev, M. N.

    2015-01-01

    Observations of coastline retreat using contemporary very high resolution satellite and historical aerial imagery were compared to measurements of open water fraction, summer air temperature, and wind. We analysed seasonal and interannual variations of thawing-induced cliff top retreat (thermo-denudation) and marine abrasion (thermo-abrasion) on Muostakh Island in the southern central Laptev Sea. Geomorphometric analysis revealed that total ground ice content on Muostakh is made up of equal amounts of intrasedimentary and macro ground ice and sums up to 87%, rendering the island particularly susceptible to erosion along the coast, resulting in land loss. Based on topographic reference measurements during field campaigns, we generated digital elevation models using stereophotogrammetry, in order to block-adjust and orthorectify aerial photographs from 1951 and GeoEye, QuickBird, WorldView-1, and WorldView-2 imagery from 2010 to 2013 for change detection. Using sea ice concentration data from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) and air temperature time series from nearby Tiksi, we calculated the seasonal duration available for thermo-abrasion, expressed as open water days, and for thermo-denudation, based on the number of days with positive mean daily temperatures. Seasonal dynamics of cliff top retreat revealed rapid thermo-denudation rates of -10.2 ± 4.5 m a-1 in mid-summer and thermo-abrasion rates along the coastline of -3.4 ± 2.7 m a-1 on average during the 2010-2013 observation period, currently almost twice as rapid as the mean rate of -1.8 ± 1.3 m a-1 since 1951. Our results showed a close relationship between mean summer air temperature and coastal thermo-erosion rates, in agreement with observations made for various permafrost coastlines different to the East Siberian Ice Complex coasts elsewhere in the Arctic. Seasonality of coastline retreat and interannual variations of environmental factors suggest that an increasing length of thermo

  4. Summer sea ice characteristics of the Chukchi Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    During August 1999, we investigated sea ice characteristics; its distribution, surface feature, thickness, ice floe movement, and the temperature field around inter-borders of air/ice/seawater in the Chukchi Sea. Thirteen ice cores were drilled at 11 floe stations in the area of 72°24′ 77°18′N, 153°34′ 163°28′W and the ice core structure was observed. From field observation, three melting processes of ice were observed; surface layer melting, surface and bottom layers melting, and all of ice melting. The observation of temperature fields around sea ice floes showed that the bottom melting under the ice floes were important process. As ice floes and open water areas were alternately distributed in summer Arctic Ocean; the water under ice was colder than the open water by 0.4 2.8℃. The sun radiation heated seawater in open sea areas so that the warmer water went to the bottom when the ice floes move to those areas. This causes ice melting to start at the bottom of the ice floes. This process can balance effectively the temperature fluctuating in the sea in summer. From the crystalline structure of sea ice observed from the cores, it was concluded that the ice was composed of ice crystals and brine-ice films. During the sea ice melting, the brine-ice films between ice crystals melted firstly; then the ice crystals were encircled by brine films; the sea ice became the mixture of ice and liquid brine. At the end of melting, the ice crystals would be separated each other, the bond between ice crystals weakens and this leads to the collapse of the ice sheet.

  5. Further observations of a decreasing atmospheric CO2 uptake capacity in the Canada Basin (arctic Ocean) due to sea ice loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Else, B.G.T.; Galley, R.J.; Lansard, B.;

    2013-01-01

    ), considering that surface water temperatures were low and the influence of ice melt was strong. A simple model simulating melt of the remaining ice and exposure of the surface water for 100 days revealed a weak capacity for atmospheric CO2 uptake (mean flux: 2.4 mmol m2 d1), due largely to warming of the shallow....... Galley, B. Lansard, D. G. Barber, K. Brown, L. A. Miller, A. Mucci, T. N. Papakyriakou, J.-É. Tremblay, and S. Rysgaard (2013), Further observations of a decreasing atmospheric CO2 uptake capacity in the Canada Basin (Arctic Ocean) due to sea ice loss, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 1132–1137, doi:10.1002/grl......[1] Using data collected in 2009, we evaluated the potential for the southeastern Canada Basin (Arctic Ocean) to act as an atmospheric CO2 sink under the summertime ice-free conditions expected in the near future. Beneath a heavily decayed ice cover, we found surprisingly high pCO2sw (~290–320matm...

  6. Sea Ice Mapping using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbø, S.; Storvold, R.

    2011-12-01

    Mapping of sea ice extent and sea ice features is an important task in climate research. Since the arctic coastal and oceanic areas have a high probability of cloud coverage, aerial platforms are superior to satellite measurements for high-resolution optical measurements. However, routine observations of sea ice conditions present a variety of problems using conventional piloted aircrafts. Specially, the availability of suitable aircrafts for lease does not cover the demand in major parts of the arctic. With the recent advances in unmanned aerial systems (UAS), there is a high possibility of establishing routine, cost effective aerial observations of sea ice conditions in the near future. Unmanned aerial systems can carry a wide variety of sensors useful for characterizing sea-ice features. For instance, the CryoWing UAS, a system initially designed for measurements of the cryosphere, can be equipped with digital cameras, surface thermometers and laser altimeters for measuring freeboard of ice flows. In this work we will present results from recent CryoWing sea ice flights on Svalbard, Norway. The emphasis will be on data processing for stitching together images acquired with the non-stabilized camera payload, to form high-resolution mosaics covering large spatial areas. These data are being employed to map ice conditions; including ice and lead features and melt ponds. These high-resolution mosaics are also well suited for sea-ice mechanics, classification studies and for validation of satellite sea-ice products.

  7. Sea ice-albedo climate feedback mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, J.L.; Curry, J.A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Ebert, E.E. [Bureau of Meterology Research Center, Melbourne (Australia)

    1995-02-01

    The sea ice-albedo feedback mechanism over the Arctic Ocean multiyear sea ice is investigated by conducting a series of experiments using several one-dimensional models of the coupled sea ice-atmosphere system. In its simplest form, ice-albedo feedback is thought to be associated with a decrease in the areal cover of snow and ice and a corresponding increase in the surface temperature, further decreasing the area cover of snow and ice. It is shown that the sea ice-albedo feedback can operate even in multiyear pack ice, without the disappearance of this ice, associated with internal processes occurring within the multiyear ice pack (e.g., duration of the snow cover, ice thickness, ice distribution, lead fraction, and melt pond characteristics). The strength of the ice-albedo feedback mechanism is compared for several different thermodynamic sea ice models: a new model that includes ice thickness distribution., the Ebert and Curry model, the Mayjut and Untersteiner model, and the Semtner level-3 and level-0 models. The climate forcing is chosen to be a perturbation of the surface heat flux, and cloud and water vapor feedbacks are inoperative so that the effects of the sea ice-albedo feedback mechanism can be isolated. The inclusion of melt ponds significantly strengthens the ice-albedo feedback, while the ice thickness distribution decreases the strength of the modeled sea ice-albedo feedback. It is emphasized that accurately modeling present-day sea ice thickness is not adequate for a sea ice parameterization; the correct physical processes must be included so that the sea ice parameterization yields correct sensitivities to external forcing. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Variable wind, pack ice, and prey dispersion affect the long-term adequacy of protected areas for an Arctic sea duck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovvorn, James R; Anderson, Eric M; Rocha, Aariel R; Larned, William W; Grebmeier, Jacqueline M; Cooper, Lee W; Kolts, Jason M; North, Christopher A

    2014-03-01

    With changing climate, delineation of protected areas for sensitive species must account for long-term variability and geographic shifts of key habitat elements. Projecting the future adequacy of protected areas requires knowing major factors that drive such changes, and how readily the animals adjust to altered resources. In the Arctic, the viability of habitats for marine birds and mammals often depends on sea ice to dissipate storm waves and provide platforms for resting. However, some wind conditions (including weak winds during extreme cold) can consolidate pack ice into cover so dense that air-breathing divers are excluded from the better feeding areas. Spectacled Eiders (Somateria fischeri) winter among leads (openings) in pack ice in areas where densities of their bivalve prey are quite high. During winter 2009, however, prevailing winds created a large region of continuous ice with inadequate leads to allow access to areas of dense preferred prey. Stable isotope and fatty acid biomarkers indicated that, under these conditions, the eiders did not diversify their diet to include abundant non-bivalve taxa but did add a smaller, less preferred, bivalve species. Consistent with a computer model of eider energy balance, the body fat of adult eiders in 2009 was 33-35% lower than on the same date (19 March) in 2001 when ice conditions allowed access to higher bivalve densities. Ice cover data suggest that the eiders were mostly excluded from areas of high bivalve density from January to March in about 30% of 14 winters from 1998 to 2011. Thus, even without change in total extent of ice, shifts in prevailing winds can alter the areal density of ice to reduce access to important habitats. Because changes in wind-driven currents can also rearrange the dispersion of prey, the potential for altered wind patterns should be an important concern in projecting effects of climate change on the adequacy of marine protected areas for diving endotherms in the Arctic. PMID

  9. Better constraints on the sea-ice state using global sea-ice data assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mathiot

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Short-term and decadal sea-ice prediction systems need a realistic initial state, generally obtained using ice-ocean model simulations with data assimilation. However, only sea-ice concentration and velocity data are currently assimilated. In this work, an Ensemble Kalman Filter system is used to assimilate observed ice concentration and freeboard (i.e. thickness of emerged sea ice data into a global coupled ocean–sea-ice model. The impact and effectiveness of our data assimilation system is assessed in two steps: firstly, through the assimilation of synthetic data (i.e., model-generated data and, secondly, through the assimilation of satellite data. While ice concentrations are available daily, freeboard data used in this study are only available during six one-month periods spread over 2005–2007. Our results show that the simulated Arctic and Antarctic sea-ice extents are improved by the assimilation of synthetic ice concentration data. Assimilation of synthetic ice freeboard data improves the simulated sea-ice thickness field. Using real ice concentration data enhances the model realism in both hemispheres. Assimilation of ice concentration data significantly improves the total hemispheric sea-ice extent all year long, especially in summer. Combining the assimilation of ice freeboard and concentration data leads to better ice thickness, but does not further improve the ice extent. Moreover, the improvements in sea-ice thickness due to the assimilation of ice freeboard remain visible well beyond the assimilation periods.

  10. IOMASA SEA ICE DEVELOPMENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren; Tonboe, Rasmus; Heygster, Georg; Melsheimer, Christian; Pedersen, Leif Toudal; Schyberg, Harald; Tveter, Frank; Dahlgren, Per; Lundelius, Tomas; Gustafsson, Nils

    2005-01-01

    Sensitivity studies show that the radiometer ice concentration estimate can be biased by +10% by anomalous atmospheric emissivity and -20% by anomalous ice surface emissivity. The aim of the sea ice activities in EU 5th FP project IOMASA is to improve sea ice concentration estimates at higher...... spatial resolution. The project is in the process of facilitating an ice concentration observing system through validation and a better understanding of the microwave radiative transfer of the sea ice and overlying snow layers. By use of a novel modelling approach, it is possible to better detect and...... determine the circumstances that may lead to anomalous sea ice concentration retrieval as well as to assess and possibly minimize the sensitivities of the retrieval system. Through an active partnership with the SAF on Ocean and Sea Ice, a prototype system will be implemented as an experimental product...

  11. Climate change and ice hazards in the Beaufort Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Barber, D. G.; McCullough, G.; Babb, D.; Komarov, A.S.; L. M. Candlish; Lukovich, J.V.; Asplin, M.; S. Prinsenberg; Dmitrenko, I.; S. Rysgaard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Recent reductions in the summer extent of sea ice have focused the world’s attention on the effects of climate change. Increased CO2-derived global warming is rapidly shrinking the Arctic multi-year ice pack. This shift in ice regimes allows for increasing development opportunities for large oil and gas deposits known to occur throughout the Arctic. Here we show that hazardous ice features remain a threat to stationary and mobile infrastructure in the southern Beaufort Sea. With the ...

  12. Simulating the mass balance and salinity of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice. 1. Model description and validation

    OpenAIRE

    Vancoppenolle, M.; Fichefet, T.; Goosse, H.; S. Bouillon; Madec, G.; Maqueda, M. A. M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is the first part of a twofold contribution dedicated to the new version of the Louvain-la-Neuve sea ice model LIM3. In this part, LIM3 is described and its results arc, compared with observations. LIM3 is a C-grid dynamic-thermodynamic model, including the representation of the subgrid-scale distributions of ice thickness, enthalpy, salinity and age. Brine entrapment and drainage as well as brine impact on ice thermodynamics are explicitly included. LIM3 is embedded into the ocean...

  13. Evolution of the passive and active microwave signatures of a large sea ice feature during its 212-year drift through the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohin, Francis; Cavanié, Alain; Ezraty, Robert

    1998-04-01

    Although estimation of the total ice concentration from special sensor microwave imagers (SSM/I) has proven to be successful, none of the various algorithms developed to discriminate new and older ice provide satisfying results. While the strong contrast between the emissivity of sea ice and that of open water can be utilized to provide reliable estimators of the total ice concentration, passive microwave characteristics of second-year and multiyear ice may locally evolve in different ways, even during the cold season. Scatterometers, as the active microwave instrument in wind mode (AMI-wind) on board the European Remote Sensing Satellites (ERS), provide backscatter data which have a higher sensitivity to the surface topography of ice and a better stability in time, at a resolution compatible with the SSM/I measurements. Here we present the evolutions of the microwave properties of an ice feature appearing along the shores of Novosibirskiye Ostrova (New Siberian Islands) at the end of July 1992 as the ice ages during its 3-year drift toward the Fram Strait. The track of this well-defined ice surface is easily followed on the maps of the backscatter coefficient provided by the AMI-wind during the cold season. In summer, because of melting, the ice undergoes critical changes which alter its microwave signatures and hamper automatic tracking. Moreover, on approaching the Fram Strait the resolution of the scatterometer is not sufficient to capture the complex and rapid transformations of the ice cover. To compensate for this, buoy data obtained from the International Arctic Buoy Program are used, alone during summers or together with satellite data, to build basin-wide ice displacement fields. These displacement fields, successively applied to each pixel of the ice feature selected, provide a series of Lagrangian observations. During the drift, which ends in May 1995, the active and passive signatures evolve coherently, except for the cold season 1992-1993 when

  14. A high-resolution ocean and sea-ice modelling system for the Arctic and North Atlantic oceans

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, F.; Higginson, S.; Bourdallé-Badie, R.; Lu, Y; Roy, F.; G. C. Smith; Lemieux, J.-F.; G. Garric; Davidson, F.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the CONCEPTS (Canadian Operational Network of Coupled Environmental PredicTion Systems) initiative, a high-resolution (1/12°) ice–ocean regional model is developed covering the North Atlantic and the Arctic oceans. The long-term objective is to provide Canada with short-term ice–ocean predictions and hazard warnings in ice-infested regions. To evaluate the modelling component (as opposed to the analysis – or data-assimilation – component, which is not covered in t...

  15. Structural and functional characterization of mature forms of metalloprotease E495 from Arctic sea-ice bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM495.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Lun He

    Full Text Available E495 is the most abundant protease secreted by the Arctic sea-ice bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM495. As a thermolysin family metalloprotease, E495 was found to have multiple active forms in the culture of strain SM495. E495-M (containing only the catalytic domain and E495-M-C1 (containing the catalytic domain and one PPC domain were two stable mature forms, and E495-M-C1-C2 (containing the catalytic domain and two PPC domains might be an intermediate. Compared to E495-M, E495-M-C1 had similar affinity and catalytic efficiency to oligopeptides, but higher affinity and catalytic efficiency to proteins. The PPC domains from E495 were expressed as GST-fused proteins. Both of the recombinant PPC domains were shown to have binding ability to proteins C-phycocyanin and casein, and domain PPC1 had higher affinity to C-phycocyanin than domain PPC2. These results indicated that the domain PPC1 in E495-M-C1 could be helpful in binding protein substrate, and therefore, improving the catalytic efficiency. Site-directed mutagenesis on the PPC domains showed that the conserved polar and aromatic residues, D26, D28, Y30, Y/W65, in the PPC domains played key roles in protein binding. Our study may shed light on the mechanism of organic nitrogen degradation in the Arctic sea ice.

  16. Sea Ice Prediction Has Easy and Difficult Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Lawrence C.; Bitz, Cecilia M.; Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, Edward; Cutler, Matthew; Kay, Jennifer; Meier, Walter N.; Stroeve, Julienne; Wiggins, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Arctic sea ice follows an annual cycle, reaching its low point in September each year. The extent of sea ice remaining at this low point has been trending downwards for decades as the Arctic warms. Around the long-term downward trend, however, there is significant variation in the minimum extent from one year to the next. Accurate forecasts of yearly conditions would have great value to Arctic residents, shipping companies, and other stakeholders and are the subject of much current research. Since 2008 the Sea Ice Outlook (SIO) (http://www.arcus.org/search-program/seaiceoutlook) organized by the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) (http://www.arcus.org/search-program) has invited predictions of the September Arctic sea ice minimum extent, which are contributed from the Arctic research community. Individual predictions, based on a variety of approaches, are solicited in three cycles each year in early June, July, and August. (SEARCH 2013).

  17. Comparing Near Coincident Space Borne C and X Band Fully Polarimetric SAR Data for Arctic Sea Ice Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Ressel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This work compares the polarimetric backscatter behavior of sea ice in spaceborne X-band and C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR imagery. Two spatially and temporally coincident pairs of fully polarimetric acquisitions from the TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X and RADARSAT-2 satellites are investigated. Proposed supervised classification algorithm consists of two steps: The first step comprises a feature extraction, the results of which are ingested into a neural network classifier in the second step. Based on the common coherency and covariance matrix, we extract a number of features and analyze the relevance and redundancy by means of mutual information for the purpose of sea ice classification. Coherency matrix based features which require an eigendecomposition are found to be either of low relevance or redundant to other covariance matrix based features, which makes coherency matrix based features dispensable for the purpose of sea ice classification. Among the most useful features for classification are matrix invariant based features (Geometric Intensity, Scattering Diversity, Surface Scattering Fraction. This analysis reveals analogous results for all four acquisitions, in both X-band and C-band frequencies. The subsequent classification produces similarly promising results for all four acquisitions. In particular, the overlapping image portions exhibit a reasonable congruence of detected ice types.

  18. Solar radiation interactions with seasonal sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Jens Kristian

    Presently, the Arctic Ocean is undergoing an escalating reduction in sea ice and a transition towards a seasonal sea ice environment. This warrants detailed investigations into improving our understanding of the seasonal evolution of sea ice and snow covers, and their representation in climate models. The interaction of solar radiation with sea ice is an important process influencing the energy balance and biological activity in polar seas, and consequently plays a key role in the earth's climate system. This thesis focuses on characterization of the optical properties---and the underlying physical properties that determine them---of seasonal sea ice during the fall freeze-up and the spring melt periods. Both periods display high spatial heterogeneity and rapid temporal changes in sea ice properties, and are therefore poorly understood. Field data were collected in Amundsen Gulf/Franklin Bay (FB), southern-eastern Beaufort Sea, in Oct.-Nov. 2003 and Apr. 2004 and in Button Bay (BB), western Hudson Bay, in Mar.-May 2005 to address (1) the temporal and spatial evolution of surface albedo and transmittance, (2) how radiative transfer in sea ice is controlled by its physical nature, and (3) the characteristics of the bottom ice algae community and its effect on the optical properties. The fall study showed the importance of surface features such as dry or slushy bare ice, frost flowers and snow cover in determining the surface albedo. Ice thickness was also important, however, mostly because surface features were associated with thickness. For example, nilas (snow layer as snow grains were dissolved or merged with the salty and warm brine skim layer on the surface, while surface conditions on thicker ice types were cold and dry enough to support a snow cover. In general, the surface albedo increased exponentially with an ice thickness increase, however, variability within ice thickness types were very large. It is apparent that a more complete treatment of brine

  19. Bacterial and extracellular polysaccharide content of brine-wetted snow over Arctic winter first-year sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, M.; Carpenter, S. D.; Colangelo-Lillis, J.; Deming, J. W.

    2013-02-01

    During freeze-up and consolidation, sea ice rejects to its surface brine of marine origin that is incorporated into overlying snow. To evaluate the transport of biological components in brines from ice to snow, vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, bacterial abundance, and extracellular polysaccharide substances (EPS) were obtained through snow and first-year sea ice (Barrow, AK) in consecutive winters (2010, 2011). Snow profiles showed strong interannual variation, with 2010 presenting higher values and wider ranges in salinity (0.3-30.9, practical salinity), bacterial abundance (2.8 × 102-1.5 × 104 cells mL- 1), and particulate EPS (pEPS, 0.04-0.23 glucose equivalents (glu-eq) mg L- 1) than 2011 (0-11.9, 2.7 × 103-4.2 × 103 cells mL- 1 and 0.04-0.09 glu-eq mg L- 1, respectively). Surface ice also differed interannually, with 2010 presenting again higher salinity (19.4, n = 1), bacterial abundance (5.4 × 104-9.6 × 104 cells mL- 1) and pEPS (0.13-0.51 glu-eq mg L- 1) than 2011 (7.7-11.9, 1.7 × 104-2.2 × 104 cells mL- 1, and 0.01-0.09 glu-eq mg L- 1, respectively). Transport of bacteria and pEPS from sea-ice brines into snow was evident in 2010 but not 2011, a year with more extreme winter conditions of colder temperature, thinner snow, and stronger wind. By size fraction, the smallest EPS ( 80%) total EPS in both ice and snow; the > 3 µm fraction of EPS in snow appeared to have an atmospheric source. Evaluation of membrane integrity by Live/Dead stain revealed a high percentage (85%) of live bacteria in saline snow, identifying this vast environment as a previously unrecognized microbial habitat.

  20. Post-glacial variability of sea ice cover, river run-off and biological production in the western Laptev Sea (Arctic Ocean) - A high-resolution biomarker study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörner, T.; Stein, R.; Fahl, K.; Birgel, D.

    2016-07-01

    Multi-proxy biomarker measurements were applied on two sediment cores (PS51/154, PS51/159) to reconstruct sea ice cover (IP25), biological production (brassicasterol, dinosterol) and river run-off (campesterol, β-sitosterol) in the western Laptev Sea over the last ∼17 ka with unprecedented temporal resolution. The absence of IP25 from 17.2 to 15.5 ka, in combination with minimum concentration of phytoplankton biomarkers, suggests that the western Laptev Sea shelf was mostly covered with permanent sea ice. Very minor river run-off and restricted biological production occurred during this cold interval. From ∼16 ka until 7.5 ka, a long-term decrease of terrigenous (riverine) organic matter and a coeval increase of marine organic matter reflect the gradual establishment of fully marine conditions in the western Laptev Sea, caused by the onset of the post-glacial transgression. Intensified river run-off and reduced sea ice cover characterized the time interval between 15.2 and 12.9 ka, including the Bølling/Allerød warm period (14.7-12.9 ka). Prominent peaks of the DIP25 Index coinciding with maximum abundances of subpolar foraminifers, are interpreted as pulses of Atlantic water inflow on the western Laptev Sea shelf. After the warm period, a sudden return to severe sea ice conditions with strongest ice-coverage between 11.9 and 11 ka coincided with the Younger Dryas (12.9-11.6 ka). At the onset of the Younger Dryas, a distinct alteration of the ecosystem (reflected in a distinct drop in terrigenous and phytoplankton biomarkers) was detected. During the last 7 ka, the sea ice proxies reflect a cooling of the Laptev Sea spring/summer season. This cooling trend was superimposed by a short-term variability in sea ice coverage, probably representing Bond cycles (1500 ± 500 ka) that are related to solar activity changes. Hence, atmospheric circulation changes were apparently able to affect the sea ice conditions on the Laptev Sea shelf under modern sea level

  1. Determination of changes in the state of the Arctic ice pack using the NPS Pan-Arctic coupled ice-ocean model

    OpenAIRE

    McNamara, Terry P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis provides an analysis of the diminishing sea ice trend in the Arctic Ocean by examining the NPS 1/12-degree pan-Arctic coupled ice-ocean model. While many previous studies have analyzed changes in ice extent and concentration, this research focuses on ice thickness as it gives a better indication of ice volume variability. The skill of the model is examined by comparing its output to sea ice thickness data gathered during the last two decades. The first dataset used is the collecti...

  2. Comparing Near Coincident Space Borne C and X Band Fully Polarimetric SAR Data for Arctic Sea Ice Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolf Ressel; Suman Singha

    2016-01-01

    This work compares the polarimetric backscatter behavior of sea ice in spaceborne X-band and C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery. Two spatially and temporally coincident pairs of fully polarimetric acquisitions from the TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X and RADARSAT-2 satellites are investigated. Proposed supervised classification algorithm consists of two steps: The first step comprises a feature extraction, the results of which are ingested into a neural network classifier in the second step. B...

  3. Operation of a Hovercraft Scientific Platform Over Sea Ice in the Arctic Ocean Transpolar Drift (81 - 85N): The FRAM-2012 Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. K.; Kristoffersen, Y.

    2013-12-01

    We have tested the feasibility of hovercraft travel through predominantly first year ice of the Transpolar Drift between 81°N - 85°N north of Svalbard. With 2-9 ridges per kilometer, our hovercraft (Griffon TD2000 Mark II), with an effective hover height of about 0.5 m, had to travel a distance 1.3 times the great circle distance between the point of origin and the final destination. Instantaneous speeds were mostly 5-7 knots. Two weeks later icebreaker Oden completed the same transit under conditions with no significant pressure in the ice at a speed mostly 1 knot higher than the hovercraft and travelled 1.2 times the great circle distance. The hovercraft spent 25 days monitoring micro-earthquake activity of the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge at a section of the spreading center where no seismicity has been recorded by the global seismograph network. More than ten small earthquake events per day were recorded. Visibility appears to be the most critical factor to hovercraft travel in polar pack ice. Improved control of hovercraft motion would substantially increase the potential usefulness of hovercraft in the sea ice environment. University of Bergen graduate student Gaute Hope emplacing one of the hydrophones in the triangular array used to locate small earthquakes over the Gakkel Ridge rift valley around 85N during FRAM-2012. The research hovercraft R/H SABVABAA is in the background.

  4. Characterizing the sea ice algae chlorophyll a-snow depth relationship over Arctic spring melt using transmitted irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, K.; Mundy, C. J.; Barber, D. G.; Gosselin, M.

    2015-07-01

    The bottom ice algae chlorophyll a (chl a)-snow depth (HS) relationship was investigated for first-year sea ice in Allen Bay, Nunavut, from 27 April to 13 June 2011. A transmitted irradiance technique was used to estimate ice algae chl a throughout the period at time series locations covered and cleared of snow. Furthermore, chl a was estimated along transects perpendicular to dominant snowdrift orientation, and at short-term snow clear experimental sites. The association between chl a and most snow depths was characterized by four phases over the spring; light limitation (negative relationship), a transitional period (no relationship), chl a decline associated with higher transmitted irradiance (positive relationship), and a final phase of chl a decline independent from HS (no relationship). Algal chl a under areas cleared of snow was lower, reached zero chl a earlier and declined faster than snow-covered control sites. Results indicated that snow removal caused these chl a responses through photoinhibition, as well as ice melt later in the spring. Based on this research we propose that weather events that can rapidly melt the snowpack could significantly deplete bottom ice chl a and cause early termination of the bloom if they occur late in the spring.

  5. Improving the WRF model's simulation over sea ice surface through coupling with a complex thermodynamic sea ice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Y.; Huang, J.; Luo, Y.; Zhao, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Sea ice plays an important role in the air-ice-ocean interaction, but it is often represented simply in many regional atmospheric models. The Noah sea ice model, which has been widely used in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, exhibits cold bias in simulating the Arctic sea ice temperature when validated against the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) in situ observations. According to sensitivity tests, this bias is attributed not only to the simulation of snow depth and turbulent fluxes but also to the heat conduction within snow and ice. Compared with the Noah sea ice model, the high-resolution thermodynamic snow and ice model (HIGHTSI) has smaller bias in simulating the sea ice temperature. HIGHTSI is further coupled with the WRF model to evaluate the possible added value from better resolving the heat transport and solar penetration in sea ice from a complex thermodynamic sea ice model. The cold bias in simulating the surface temperature over sea ice in winter by the original Polar WRF is reduced when HIGHTSI rather than Noah is coupled with the WRF model, and this also leads to a better representation of surface upward longwave radiation and 2 m air temperature. A discussion on the impact of specifying sea ice thickness in the WRF model is presented. Consistent with previous research, prescribing the sea ice thickness with observational information would result in the best simulation among the available methods. If no observational information is available, using an empirical method based on the relationship between sea ice concentration and sea ice thickness could mimic the large-scale spatial feature of sea ice thickness. The potential application of a thermodynamic sea ice model in predicting the change in sea ice thickness in a RCM is limited by the lack of sea ice dynamic processes in the model and the coarse assumption on the initial value of sea ice thickness.

  6. Recent summer sea ice thickness surveys in Fram Strait and associated ice volume fluxes

    OpenAIRE

    T. Krumpen; R. Gerdes; Haas, C.; Hendricks, S.; A. Herber; Selyuzhenok, V.; Smedsrud, L.; Spreen, G.

    2016-01-01

    Fram Strait is the main gateway for sea ice export out of the Arctic Ocean, and therefore observations there give insight into the composition and properties of Arctic sea ice in general and how it varies over time. A data set of ground-based and airborne electromagnetic ice thickness measurements collected during summer between 2001 and 2012 is presented here, including long transects well into the southern part of the Transpolar Drift obtained using fixed-wing aircrafts. T...

  7. Collaborative Project. Understanding the effects of tides and eddies on the ocean dynamics, sea ice cover and decadal/centennial climate prediction using the Regional Arctic Climate Model (RACM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, Jennifer [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Joseph, Renu [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2013-09-14

    The goal of this project is to develop an eddy resolving ocean model (POP) with tides coupled to a sea ice model (CICE) within the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) to investigate the importance of ocean tides and mesoscale eddies in arctic climate simulations and quantify biases associated with these processes and how their relative contribution may improve decadal to centennial arctic climate predictions. Ocean, sea ice and coupled arctic climate response to these small scale processes will be evaluated with regard to their influence on mass, momentum and property exchange between oceans, shelf-basin, ice-ocean, and ocean-atmosphere. The project will facilitate the future routine inclusion of polar tides and eddies in Earth System Models when computing power allows. As such, the proposed research addresses the science in support of the BER’s Climate and Environmental Sciences Division Long Term Measure as it will improve the ocean and sea ice model components as well as the fully coupled RASM and Community Earth System Model (CESM) and it will make them more accurate and computationally efficient.

  8. Ocean surface waves in an ice-free Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Guo

    2016-08-01

    The retreat of the Arctic ice edge implies that global ocean surface wave models have to be extended at high latitudes or even to cover the North Pole in the future. The obstacles for conventional latitude-longitude grid wave models to cover the whole Arctic are the polar problems associated with their Eulerian advection schemes, including the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) restriction on diminishing grid length towards the Pole, the singularity at the Pole and the invalid scalar assumption for vector components defined relative to the local east direction. A spherical multiple-cell (SMC) grid is designed to solve these problems. It relaxes the CFL restriction by merging the longitudinal cells towards the Poles. A round polar cell is used to remove the singularity of the differential equation at the Pole. A fixed reference direction is introduced to define vector components within a limited Arctic part in mitigation of the scalar assumption errors at high latitudes. The SMC grid has been implemented in the WAVEWATCH III model and validated with altimeter and buoy observations, except for the Arctic part, which could not be fully tested due to a lack of observations as the polar region is still covered by sea ice. Here, an idealised ice-free Arctic case is used to test the Arctic part and it is compared with a reference case with real ice coverage. The comparison indicates that swell wave energy will increase near the ice-free Arctic coastlines due to increased fetch. An expanded Arctic part is used for comparisons of the Arctic part with available satellite measurements. It also provides a direct model comparison between the two reference systems in their overlapping zone.

  9. Unified Sea Ice Thickness Climate Data Record Collection Spanning 1947-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Unified Sea Ice Thickness Climate Data Record is the result of a concerted effort to collect as many observations as possible of Arctic sea-ice draft,...

  10. Satellite and ground-based observations of patterns and seasonality of sea-ice, summer warmth, snow, and NDVI along the North America and Eurasia Arctic transects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D. A.; Epstein, H. E.; Raynolds, M. K.; Bhatt, U. S.; Bieniek, P. A.

    2011-12-01

    We analyzed vegetation, climate, and spectral data from zonal sites along two >1500 km long transects that span all five Arctic bioclimate subzones in North America and Eurasia to help interpret the long-term changes in satellite-derived trends of pattern and seasonality of vegetation greenness. Despite large differences in environment and vegetation along the two transects, there is nearly an identical logarithmic relationship between biomass and the summer maximum normalized difference vegetation index derived from AVHRR sensors (MaxNDVI) along the two transects. Summer open water in the Northern Alaska/Beaufort Sea region has increased by 39%, the summer warmth index (SWI) of the tundra increased by 14%, MaxNDVI by 28% and time-integrated NDVI (TI-NDVI) by 21%. The increased open water in the Beaufort is associated with a warming of the land and a large positive increase in the NDVI. In the eastern Kara Sea/Yamal Peninsula region, summer-fall open water has increased by 115%, the SWI decreased by -3%, MaxNDVI increased by only 6%, and TI-NDVI by 2%. The greatly reduced sea ice has affected the summer total warmth and NDVI of the Eurasia transect minimally possibly due to increased winter snow and delayed snowmelt in much of northwest Russian Arctic. In northern Alaska, there is distinctive trend of earlier snow melt at most stations; whereas the northern Yamal has seen an increase in the snow water equivalent and delayed melt on much of the Yagorsky, Yamal, Gydan, and Taimyr peninsulas. This appears to be associated with the reduction in the total summer warmth and relatively small increase in NDVI.

  11. Correlated Energy Exchange in Drifting Sea Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chmel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ice floe speed variations were monitored at the research camp North Pole 35 established on the Arctic ice pack in 2008. A three-month time series of measured speed values was used for determining changes in the kinetic energy of the drifting ice floe. The constructed energy distributions were analyzed by methods of nonextensive statistical mechanics based on the Tsallis statistics for open nonequilibrium systems, such as tectonic formations and drifting sea ice. The nonextensivity means the nonadditivity of externally induced energy changes in multicomponent systems due to dynamic interrelation of components having no structural links. The Tsallis formalism gives one an opportunity to assess the correlation between ice floe motions through a specific parameter, the so-called parameter of nonextensivity. This formalistic assessment of the actual state of drifting pack allows one to forecast some important trends in sea ice behavior, because the level of correlated dynamics determines conditions for extended mechanical perturbations in ice pack. In this work, we revealed temporal fluctuations of the parameter of nonextensivity and observed its maximum value before a large-scale sea ice fragmentation (faulting of consolidated sea ice. The correlation was not detected in fragmented sea ice where long-range interactions are weakened.

  12. Sea Ice Biogeochemistry: A Guide for Modellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Letizia; Vichi, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Sea ice is a fundamental component of the climate system and plays a key role in polar trophic food webs. Nonetheless sea ice biogeochemical dynamics at large temporal and spatial scales are still rarely described. Numerical models may potentially contribute integrating among sparse observations, but available models of sea ice biogeochemistry are still scarce, whether their relevance for properly describing the current and future state of the polar oceans has been recently addressed. A general methodology to develop a sea ice biogeochemical model is presented, deriving it from an existing validated model application by extension of generic pelagic biogeochemistry model parameterizations. The described methodology is flexible and considers different levels of ecosystem complexity and vertical representation, while adopting a strategy of coupling that ensures mass conservation. We show how to apply this methodology step by step by building an intermediate complexity model from a published realistic application and applying it to analyze theoretically a typical season of first-year sea ice in the Arctic, the one currently needing the most urgent understanding. The aim is to (1) introduce sea ice biogeochemistry and address its relevance to ocean modelers of polar regions, supporting them in adding a new sea ice component to their modelling framework for a more adequate representation of the sea ice-covered ocean ecosystem as a whole, and (2) extend our knowledge on the relevant controlling factors of sea ice algal production, showing that beyond the light and nutrient availability, the duration of the sea ice season may play a key-role shaping the algal production during the on going and upcoming projected changes. PMID:24586604

  13. Sea ice biogeochemistry: a guide for modellers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Tedesco

    Full Text Available Sea ice is a fundamental component of the climate system and plays a key role in polar trophic food webs. Nonetheless sea ice biogeochemical dynamics at large temporal and spatial scales are still rarely described. Numerical models may potentially contribute integrating among sparse observations, but available models of sea ice biogeochemistry are still scarce, whether their relevance for properly describing the current and future state of the polar oceans has been recently addressed. A general methodology to develop a sea ice biogeochemical model is presented, deriving it from an existing validated model application by extension of generic pelagic biogeochemistry model parameterizations. The described methodology is flexible and considers different levels of ecosystem complexity and vertical representation, while adopting a strategy of coupling that ensures mass conservation. We show how to apply this methodology step by step by building an intermediate complexity model from a published realistic application and applying it to analyze theoretically a typical season of first-year sea ice in the Arctic, the one currently needing the most urgent understanding. The aim is to (1 introduce sea ice biogeochemistry and address its relevance to ocean modelers of polar regions, supporting them in adding a new sea ice component to their modelling framework for a more adequate representation of the sea ice-covered ocean ecosystem as a whole, and (2 extend our knowledge on the relevant controlling factors of sea ice algal production, showing that beyond the light and nutrient availability, the duration of the sea ice season may play a key-role shaping the algal production during the on going and upcoming projected changes.

  14. Recent Trends in the Arctic Navigable Ice Season and Links to Atmospheric Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslanik, J.; Drobot, S.

    2002-12-01

    One of the potential effects of Arctic climate warming is an increase in the navigable ice season, perhaps resulting in development of the Arctic as a major shipping route. The distance from western North American ports to Europe through the Northwest Passage (NWP) or the Northern Sea Route (NSR) is typically 20 to 60 percent shorter than travel through the Panama Canal, while travel between Europe and the Far East may be reduced by as much as three weeks compared to transport through the Suez Canal. An increase in the navigable ice season would also improve commercial opportunities within the Arctic region, such as mineral and oil exploration and tourism, which could potentially expand the economic base of Arctic residents and companies, but which would also have negative environmental impacts. Utilizing daily passive-microwave derived sea ice concentrations, trends and variability in the Arctic navigable ice season are examined from 1979 through 2001. Trend analyses suggest large increases in the length of the navigable ice season in the Kara and Barents seas, the Sea of Okhotsk, and the Beaufort Sea, with decreases in the length of the navigable ice season in the Bering Sea. Interannual variations in the navigable ice season largely are governed by fluctuations in low-frequency atmospheric circulation, although the specific annular modes affecting the length of the navigable ice season vary by region. In the Beaufort and East Siberian seas, variations in the North Atlantic Oscillation/Arctic Oscillation control the navigable ice season, while variations in the East Pacific anomaly play an important role in controlling the navigable ice season in the Kara and Barents seas. In Hudson Bay, the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, and Baffin Bay, interannual variations in the navigable ice season are strongly related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation.

  15. Climate change and ice hazards in the Beaufort Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barber, D. G.; McCullough, G.; Babb, D.;

    2014-01-01

    Recent reductions in the summer extent of sea ice have focused the world’s attention on the effects of climate change. Increased CO2-derived global warming is rapidly shrinking the Arctic multi-year ice pack. This shift in ice regimes allows for increasing development opportunities for large oil ...

  16. Role of ice dynamics in anomalous ice conditions in the Beaufort Sea during 2006 and 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, J. K.; Rigor, I. G.

    2012-05-01

    A new record minimum in summer sea ice extent was set in 2007 and an unusual polynya formed in the Beaufort Sea ice cover during the summer of 2006. Using a combination of visual observations from cruises, ice drift, and satellite passive microwave sea ice concentration, we show that ice dynamics during preceding years included events that preconditioned the Beaufort ice pack for the unusual patterns of opening observed in both summers. Intrusions of first year ice from the Chukchi Sea to the Northern Beaufort, and increased pole-ward ice transport from the western Arctic during summer has led to reduced replenishment of multiyear ice, older than five years, in the western Beaufort, resulting in a younger, thinner ice pack in most of the Beaufort. We find ice younger than five years melts out completely by the end of summer, south of 76N. The 2006 unusual polynya was bounded to the south by an ice tongue composed of sea ice older than 5 years, and formed when first year and second year ice melted between 76N and the older ice to the south. In this paper we demonstrate that a recent shift in ice circulation patterns in the western Arctic preconditions the Beaufort ice pack for increased seasonal ice zone extent.

  17. Acoustic Monitoring of the Arctic Ice Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, D. L.; Goemmer, S. A.; Chayes, D. N.

    2012-12-01

    Introduction The monitoring of the Arctic Ice Cap is important economically, tactically, and strategically. In the scenario of ice cap retreat, new paths of commerce open, e.g. waterways from Northern Europe to the Far East. Where ship-going commerce is conducted, the U.S. Navy and U.S. Coast Guard have always stood guard and been prepared to assist from acts of nature and of man. It is imperative that in addition to measuring the ice from satellites, e.g. Icesat, that we have an ability to measure the ice extent, its thickness, and roughness. These parameters play an important part in the modeling of the ice and the processes that control its growth or shrinking and its thickness. The proposed system consists of three subsystems. The first subsystem is an acoustic source, the second is an array of geophones and the third is a system to supply energy and transmit the results back to the analysis laboratory. The subsystems are described below. We conclude with a plan on how to tackle this project and the payoff to the ice cap modeler and hence the users, i.e. commerce and defense. System Two historically tested methods to generate a large amplitude multi-frequency sound source include explosives and air guns. A new method developed and tested by the University of Texas, ARL is a combustive Sound Source [Wilson, et al., 1995]. The combustive sound source is a submerged combustion chamber that is filled with the byproducts of the electrolysis of sea water, i.e. Hydrogen and Oxygen, an explosive mixture which is ignited via a spark. Thus, no additional compressors, gases, or explosives need to be transported to the Arctic to generate an acoustic pulse capable of the sediment and the ice. The second subsystem would be geophones capable of listening in the O(10 Hz) range and transmitting that data back to the laboratory. Thus two single arrays of geophones arranged orthogonal to each other with a range of 1000's of kilometers and a combustive sound source where the two

  18. neXtSIM: a new Lagrangian sea ice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampal, Pierre; Bouillon, Sylvain; Ólason, Einar; Morlighem, Mathieu

    2016-05-01

    The Arctic sea ice cover has changed drastically over the last decades. Associated with these changes is a shift in dynamical regime seen by an increase of extreme fracturing events and an acceleration of sea ice drift. The highly non-linear dynamical response of sea ice to external forcing makes modelling these changes and the future evolution of Arctic sea ice a challenge for current models. It is, however, increasingly important that this challenge be better met, both because of the important role of sea ice in the climate system and because of the steady increase of industrial operations in the Arctic. In this paper we present a new dynamical/thermodynamical sea ice model called neXtSIM that is designed to address this challenge. neXtSIM is a continuous and fully Lagrangian model, whose momentum equation is discretised with the finite-element method. In this model, sea ice physics are driven by the combination of two core components: a model for sea ice dynamics built on a mechanical framework using an elasto-brittle rheology, and a model for sea ice thermodynamics providing damage healing for the mechanical framework. The evaluation of the model performance for the Arctic is presented for the period September 2007 to October 2008 and shows that observed multi-scale statistical properties of sea ice drift and deformation are well captured as well as the seasonal cycles of ice volume, area, and extent. These results show that neXtSIM is an appropriate tool for simulating sea ice over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales.

  19. Mirabilite solubility in equilibrium sea ice brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Benjamin Miles; Papadimitriou, Stathys; Santoro, Anna; Kennedy, Hilary

    2016-06-01

    The sea ice microstructure is permeated by brine channels and pockets that contain concentrated seawater-derived brine. Cooling the sea ice results in further formation of pure ice within these pockets as thermal equilibrium is attained, resulting in a smaller volume of increasingly concentrated residual brine. The coupled changes in temperature and ionic composition result in supersaturation of the brine with respect to mirabilite (Na2SO4·10H2O) at temperatures below -6.38 °C, which consequently precipitates within the sea ice microstructure. Here, mirabilite solubility in natural and synthetic seawater derived brines, representative of sea ice at thermal equilibrium, has been measured in laboratory experiments between 0.2 and -20.6 °C, and hence we present a detailed examination of mirabilite dynamics within the sea ice system. Below -6.38 °C mirabilite displays particularly large changes in solubility as the temperature decreases, and by -20.6 °C its precipitation results in 12.90% and 91.97% reductions in the total dissolved Na+ and SO42- concentrations respectively, compared to that of conservative seawater concentration. Such large non-conservative changes in brine composition could potentially impact upon the measurement of sea ice brine salinity and pH, whilst the altered osmotic conditions may create additional challenges for the sympagic organisms that inhabit the sea ice system. At temperatures above -6.38 °C, mirabilite again displays large changes in solubility that likely aid in impeding its identification in field samples of sea ice. Our solubility measurements display excellent agreement with that of the FREZCHEM model, which was therefore used to supplement our measurements to colder temperatures. Measured and modelled solubility data were incorporated into a 1D model for the growth of first-year Arctic sea ice. Model results ultimately suggest that mirabilite has a near ubiquitous presence in much of the sea ice on Earth, and illustrate the

  20. Role of sea ice in air-sea exchange and its relation to sea fog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解思梅; 包澄澜; 姜德中; 邹斌

    2001-01-01

    Synchronous or quasi-synchronous stereoscopic sea-ice-air comprehensive observation was conducted during the First China Arctic Expedition in summer of 1999. Based on these data, the role of sea ice in sea-air exchange was studied. The study shows that the kinds, distribution and thickness of sea ice and their variation significantly influence the air-sea heat exchange. In floating ice area, the heat momentum transferred from ocean to atmosphere is in form of latent heat; latent heat flux is closely related to floating ice concentration; if floating ice is less, the heat flux would be larger. Latent heat flux is about 21 23.6 W*m-2, which is greater than sensible heat flux. On ice field or giant floating ice, heat momentum transferred from atmosphere to sea ice or snow surface is in form of sensible heat. In the floating ice area or polynya, sea-air exchange is the most active, and also the most sensible for climate. Also this area is the most important condition for the creation of Arctic vapor fog. The heat exchange of a large-scale vapor fog process of about 500000 km2 on Aug. 21 22,1999 was calculated; the heat momentum transferred from ocean to air was about 14.8×109 kW. There are various kinds of sea fog, radiation fog, vapor fog and advection fog, forming in the Arctic Ocean in summer. One important cause is the existence of sea ice and its resultant complexity of both underlying surface and sea-air exchange.

  1. Global warming: Sea ice and snow cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of differences among global climate simulations under scenarios where atmospheric CO2 is doubled, all models indicate at least some amplification of greenouse warming at the polar regions. Several decades of recent data on air temperature, sea ice, and snow cover of the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere are summarized to illustrate the general compatibility of recent variations in those parameters. Despite a data void over the Arctic Ocean, some noteworthy patterns emerge. Warming dominates in winter and spring, as projected by global climate models, with the warming strongest over subpolar land areas of Alaska, northwestern Canada, and northern Eurasia. A time-longitude summary of Arctic sea ice variations indicates that timescales of most anomalies range from several months to several years. Wintertime maxima of total sea ice extent contain no apparent secular trends. The statistical significance of trends in recent sea ice variations was evaluated by a Monte Carlo procedure, showing a statistically significant negative trend in the summer. Snow cover data over the 20-y period of record show a noticeable decrease of Arctic snow cover in the late 1980s. This is of potential climatic significance since the accompanying decrease of surface albedo leads to a rapid increase of solar heating. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  2. An inter-laboratory investigation of the Arctic sea ice biomarker proxy IP25 in marine sediments: key outcomes and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belt, S. T.; Brown, T. A.; Ampel, L.; Cabedo-Sanz, P.; Fahl, K.; Kocis, J. J.; Massé, G.; Navarro-Rodriguez, A.; Ruan, J.; Xu, Y.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the results of an inter-laboratory investigation into the identification and quantification of the Arctic sea ice biomarker proxy IP25 in marine sediments. Seven laboratories took part in the study, which consisted of the analysis of IP25 in a series of sediment samples from different regions of the Arctic, sub-Arctic and Antarctic, additional sediment extracts and purified standards. The results obtained allowed 4 key outcomes to be determined. First, IP25 was identified by all laboratories in sediments from the Canadian Arctic with inter-laboratory variation in IP25 concentration being substantially larger than within individual laboratories. This greater variation between laboratories was attributed to the difficulty in accurately determining instrumental response factors for IP25, even though laboratories were supplied with appropriate standards. Second, the identification of IP25 by 3 laboratories in sediment from SW Iceland that was believed to represent a blank, was interpreted as representing a better limit of detection or quantification for such laboratories, contamination or mis-identification. These alternatives could not be distinguished conclusively with the data available, although it is noted that the precision of these data was significantly poorer compared with the other IP25 concentration measurements. Third, 3 laboratories reported the occurrence of IP25 in a sediment sample from the Antarctic Peninsula even though this biomarker is believed to be absent from the Southern Ocean. This anomaly is attributed to a combined chromatographic and mass spectrometric interference that results from the presence of a di-unsaturated highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) pseudo-homologue of IP25 that occurs in Antarctic sediments. Finally, data are presented that suggest that extraction of IP25 is consistent between Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) and sonication methods and that IP25 concentrations based on 7-hexylnonadecane as an internal standard

  3. Large Decadal Decline of the Arctic Multiyear Ice Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2012-01-01

    The perennial ice area was drastically reduced to 38% of its climatological average in 2007 but recovered slightly in 2008, 2009, and 2010 with the areas being 10%, 24%, and 11% higher than in 2007, respectively. However, trends in extent and area remained strongly negative at -12.2% and -13.5% decade (sup -1), respectively. The thick component of the perennial ice, called multiyear ice, as detected by satellite data during the winters of 1979-2011 was studied, and results reveal that the multiyear ice extent and area are declining at an even more rapid rate of -15.1% and -17.2% decade(sup -1), respectively, with a record low value in 2008 followed by higher values in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Such a high rate in the decline of the thick component of the Arctic ice cover means a reduction in the average ice thickness and an even more vulnerable perennial ice cover. The decline of the multiyear ice area from 2007 to 2008 was not as strong as that of the perennial ice area from 2006 to 2007, suggesting a strong role of second-year ice melt in the latter. The sea ice cover is shown to be strongly correlated with surface temperature, which is increasing at about 3 times the global average in the Arctic but appears weakly correlated with the Arctic Oscillation (AO), which controls the atmospheric circulation in the region. An 8-9-yr cycle is apparent in the multiyear ice record, which could explain, in part, the slight recovery in the last 3 yr.

  4. Image Techniques for Identifying Sea-Ice Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of ice forces are critical to Dynamic Positioning (DP operations in Arctic waters. Ice conditions are important for the analysis of ice-structure interaction in an ice field. To monitor sea-ice conditions, cameras are used as field observation sensors on mobile sensor platforms in Arctic. Various image processing techniques, such as Otsu thresholding, k-means clustering, distance transform, Gradient Vector Flow (GVF Snake, mathematical morphology, are then applied to obtain ice concentration, ice types, and floe size distribution from sea-ice images to ensure safe operations of structures in ice covered regions. Those techniques yield acceptable results, and their effectiveness are demonstrated in case studies.

  5. Increased CO2 uptake due to sea ice growth and decay in the Nordic Seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard, Søren; Bendtsen, Jørgen; Petersen, L.T.;

    2009-01-01

    The uptake rates of atmospheric CO2 in the Nordic Seas are among the highest in the world's oceans. This has been ascribed mainly to a strong biological drawdown, but chemical processes within the sea ice itself have also been suggested to play a role. The importance of sea ice for the carbon...... exported from the Arctic Ocean into the East Greenland current and the Nordic Seas plays an important and overlooked role in regulating the surface water partial pressure of CO2 and increases the seasonal CO2 uptake in the area by approximately 50%....... uptake in the Nordic Seas is currently unknown. We present evidence from 50 localities in the Arctic Ocean that dissolved inorganic carbon is rejected together with brine from growing sea ice and that sea ice melting during summer is rich in carbonates. Model calculations show that melting of sea ice...

  6. Polar Sea Ice Monitoring Using HY-2A Scatterometer Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A sea ice detection algorithm based on Fisher’s linear discriminant analysis is developed to segment sea ice and open water for the Ku-band scatterometer onboard the China’s Hai Yang 2A Satellite (HY-2A/SCAT. Residual classification errors are reduced through image erosion/dilation techniques and sea ice growth/retreat constraint methods. The arctic sea-ice-type classification is estimated via a time-dependent threshold derived from the annual backscatter trends based on previous HY-2A/SCAT derived sea ice extent. The extent and edge of the sea ice obtained in this study is compared with the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS sea ice concentration data and the Sentinel-1 SAR imagery for verification, respectively. Meanwhile, the classified sea ice type is compared with a multi-sensor sea ice type product based on data from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT and SSMIS. Results show that HY-2A/SCAT is powerful in providing sea ice extent and type information, while differences in the sensitivities of active/passive products are found. In addition, HY-2A/SCAT derived sea ice products are also proved to be valuable complements for existing polar sea ice data products.

  7. Antarctic sea ice variability and trends, 1979–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Cavalieri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In sharp contrast to the decreasing sea ice coverage of the Arctic, in the Antarctic the sea ice cover has, on average, expanded since the late 1970s. More specifically, satellite passive-microwave data for the period November 1978–December 2010 reveal an overall positive trend in ice extents of 17 100 ± 2300 km2 yr−1. Much of the increase, at 13 700 ± 1500 km2 yr−1, has occurred in the region of the Ross Sea, with lesser contributions from the Weddell Sea and Indian Ocean. One region, that of the Bellingshausen/Amundsen Seas, has, like the Arctic, instead experienced significant sea ice decreases, with an overall ice extent trend of −8200 ± 1200 km2 yr−1. When examined through the annual cycle over the 32-yr period 1979–2010, the Southern Hemisphere sea ice cover as a whole experienced positive ice extent trends in every month, ranging in magnitude from a low of 9100 ± 6300 km2 yr−1 in February to a high of 24 700 ± 10 000 km2 yr−1 in May. The Ross Sea and Indian Ocean also had positive trends in each month, while the Bellingshausen/Amundsen Seas had negative trends in each month, and the Weddell Sea and Western Pacific Ocean had a mixture of positive and negative trends. Comparing ice-area results to ice-extent results, in each case the ice-area trend has the same sign as the ice-extent trend, but differences in the magnitudes of the two trends identify regions with overall increasing ice concentrations and others with overall decreasing ice concentrations. The strong pattern of decreasing ice coverage in the Bellingshausen/Amundsen Seas region and increasing ice coverage in the Ross Sea region is suggestive of changes in atmospheric circulation. This is a key topic for future research.

  8. Antarctic sea ice variability and trends, 1979–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Cavalieri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In sharp contrast to the decreasing sea ice coverage of the Arctic, in the Antarctic the sea ice cover has, on average, expanded since the late 1970s. More specifically, satellite passive-microwave data for the period November 1978–December 2010 reveal an overall positive trend in ice extents of 17 100 ± 2300 km2 yr−1. Much of the increase, at 13 700 ± 1500 km2 yr−1, has occurred in the region of the Ross Sea, with lesser contributions from the Weddell Sea and Indian Ocean. One region, that of the Bellingshausen/Amundsen Seas, has (like the Arctic instead experienced significant sea ice decreases, with an overall ice extent trend of −8200 ± 1200 km2 yr−1. When examined through the annual cycle over the 32-yr period 1979–2010, the Southern Hemisphere sea ice cover as a whole experienced positive ice extent trends in every month, ranging in magnitude from a low of 9100 ± 6300 km2 yr−1 in February to a high of 24 700 ± 10 000 km2 yr−1 in May. The Ross Sea and Indian Ocean also had positive trends in each month, while the Bellingshausen/Amundsen Seas had negative trends in each month, and the Weddell Sea and western Pacific Ocean had a mixture of positive and negative trends. Comparing ice-area results to ice-extent results, in each case the ice-area trend has the same sign as the ice-extent trend, but the magnitudes of the two trends differ, and in some cases these differences allow inferences about the corresponding changes in sea ice concentrations. The strong pattern of decreasing ice coverage in the Bellingshausen/Amundsen Seas region and increasing ice coverage in the Ross Sea region is suggestive of changes in atmospheric circulation. This is a key topic for future research.

  9. Warm Arctic—cold continents: climate impacts of the newly open Arctic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Overland

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent Arctic changes are likely due to coupled Arctic amplification mechanisms with increased linkage between Arctic climate and sub-Arctic weather. Historically, sea ice grew rapidly in autumn, a strong negative radiative feedback. But increased sea-ice mobility, loss of multi-year sea ice, enhanced heat storage in newly sea ice-free ocean areas, and modified wind fields form connected positive feedback processes. One-way shifts in the Arctic system are sensitive to the combination of episodic intrinsic atmospheric and ocean variability and persistent increasing greenhouse gases. Winter 2009/10 and December 2010 showed a unique connectivity between the Arctic and more southern weather patterns when the typical polar vortex was replaced by high geopotential heights over the central Arctic and low heights over mid-latitudes that resulted in record snow and low temperatures, a warm Arctic—cold continents pattern. The negative value of the winter (DJF 2009/10 North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO index associated with enhanced meridional winds was the lowest observed value since the beginning of the record in 1865. Wind patterns in December 2007 and 2008 also show an impact of warmer Arctic temperatures. A tendency for higher geopotential heights over the Arctic and enhanced meridional winds are physically consistent with continued loss of sea ice over the next 40 years. A major challenge is to understand the interaction of Arctic changes with climate patterns such as the NAO, Pacific North American and El Niño–Southern Oscillation.

  10. The greenhouse effect and the Arctic ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact on the Arctic ice of global warming is important for many people and for the environment. Less ice means changed conditions for the Inuits, hard times for the polar bears and changed conditions for the fishing sector. There is at present some uncertainty about the thickness of the ice and what might be the cause of its oscillation. It was reported a few years ago that the thickness of the ice had almost been reduced by 50 per cent since the 1950s and some researchers suggested that within a few decades the ice would disappear during the summer. These measurements have turned out not to be representative for the whole Arctic region, and it now appears that a great deal of the measured thickness variation can be attributed to changes in the atmospheric circulation. The article discusses the Arctic Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation in relation to the ice thickness, and climate models. Feedback mechanisms such as reduced albedo may have a big impact in the Arctic in a global greenhouse warming. Model simulations are at variance, and the scenarios for the future are uncertain

  11. Sensitivity of sea ice and ocean simulations to sea ice salinity in a coupled global climate model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The impacts of the spatiotemporal variations of sea ice salinity on sea ice and ocean characteristics have not been studied in detail, as the existing climate models neglect or misrepresent this process. To address this issue, this paper formulated a parameterization with more realistic sea ice salinity budget, and examined the sensitivity of sea ice and ocean simulations to the ice salinity variations and associated salt flux into the ocean using a coupled global climate model. Results show that the inclusion of such a parameterization leads to an increase and thickening of sea ice in the Eurasian Arctic and within the ice pack in the Antarctic circumpolar region, and a weakening of the North Atlantic Deep Water and a strengthening of the Antarctic Bottom Water. The atmospheric responses associated with the ice changes were also discussed.

  12. The Arctic DP Research Project: Effective Stationkeeping in Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Skjetne

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Stress on the environment from a potentially growing energy use is set to rise. Without doubt the energy resources in Arctic regions will be developed. An important goal will be to exploit the resources offered by for instance the Barents Sea as a new European energy province, and to do this in accordance with the principles of sustainable development that have successfully been used e.g. in the North Sea. The special edition of MIC on Arctic DP presents a set of articles that summarize to an extent the activities of the research project Arctic DP: Safe and green dynamic positioning operations of offshore vessels in an Arctic environment. This project was awarded in 2010 by the Research Council of Norway (RCN as a competence-building project (KMB project to NTNU and its partners Kongsberg Maritime, DNV GL, and Statoil. The objective was to target some of the challenges related to safe Arctic offshore operations by dynamic positioning. In this first article of the Arctic DP special edition we discuss the background for and establishment of the project, its planning and execution, and project closure. An overview is given for the scientific and engineering research performed in the project, with an account of what we have considered as Effective stationkeeping in ice by dynamic positioning. The corresponding research activities conducted under this main theme is summarized.

  13. Climate Change and China as a Global Emerging Regulatory Sea Power in the Arctic Ocean: Is China a Threat for Arctic Ocean Security?

    OpenAIRE

    Cassotta, Sandra; Hossain, Kamrul; Ren, Jingzheng; Goodsite, Michael Evan

    2015-01-01

    The impact of climate change in the Arctic Ocean such as ice melting and ice retreat facilitatesnatural resources extraction. Arctic fossil fuel becomes the drivers of geopolitical changes in theArctic Ocean. Climate change facilitates natural resource extractions and increases competitionbetween states and can result in tensions, even military ones. This article investigates through apolitical and legal analysis the role of China as an emerging regulatory sea power in the ArcticOcean given i...

  14. Sea-ice processes in the Laptev Sea and their importance for sediment export

    OpenAIRE

    Eicken, H.; Reimnitz, E.; V. Alexandrov; Martin, T; Kassens, Heidemarie; Viehoff, T.

    1997-01-01

    Based on remote-sensing data and an expedition during August-September 1993, the importance of the Laptev Sea as a source area for sediment-laden sea ice was studied. Ice-core analysis demonstrated the importance of dynamic ice-growth mechanisms as compared to the multi-year cover of the Arctic Basin. Ice-rafted sediment (IRS) was mostly associated with congealed frazil ice, although evidence for other entrainment mechanisms (anchor ice, entrainment into freshwater ice) was also found. Concen...

  15. Assimilation of sea ice motion in a finite-element sea ice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollenhagen, K.; Timmermann, R.; Janjić, T.; SchröTer, J.; Danilov, S.

    2009-05-01

    A finite-element sea ice model (FESIM) is applied in a data assimilation study with the singular evolutive interpolated Kalman (SEIK) filter. The model has been configured for a regional Arctic domain and is forced with a combination of daily NCEP reanalysis data for 2-m air temperature and 10-m winds with monthly mean humidities from the ECMWF reanalysis and climatological fields for precipitation and cloudiness. We assimilate 3-day mean ice drift fields derived from passive microwave satellite data. Based on multivariate covariances (which describe the statistical relationship between anomalies in different model fields), the sea ice drift data assimilation produces not only direct modifications of the ice drift but also updates for sea ice concentration and thickness, which in turn yield sustainable corrections of ice drift. We use observed buoy trajectories as an independent data set to validate the analyzed sea ice drift field. A good agreement between modeled and observed tracks is achieved already in the reference simulation. Application of the SEIK filter with satellite-derived drift fields further improves the agreement. Spatial and temporal variability of ice thickness increases due to the assimilation procedure; a comparison to thickness data from a submarine-based upward looking sonar indicates that the thickness distribution becomes more realistic. Validation with regard to satellite data shows that the velocity data assimilation has only a small effect on ice concentration, but a general improvement of the ice concentration within the pack is still evident.

  16. Effects of Mackenzie River Discharge and Bathymetry on Sea Ice in the Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Hall, D. K.; Rigor, I. G; Li, P.; Neumann, G.

    2014-01-01

    Mackenzie River discharge and bathymetry effects on sea ice in the Beaufort Sea are examined in 2012 when Arctic sea ice extent hit a record low. Satellite-derived sea surface temperature revealed warmer waters closer to river mouths. By 5 July 2012, Mackenzie warm waters occupied most of an open water area about 316,000 sq km. Surface temperature in a common open water area increased by 6.5 C between 14 June and 5 July 2012, before and after the river waters broke through a recurrent landfast ice barrier formed over the shallow seafloor offshore the Mackenzie Delta. In 2012, melting by warm river waters was especially effective when the strong Beaufort Gyre fragmented sea ice into unconsolidated floes. The Mackenzie and other large rivers can transport an enormous amount of heat across immense continental watersheds into the Arctic Ocean, constituting a stark contrast to the Antarctic that has no such rivers to affect sea ice.

  17. 2010年夏季北极冰情变化及大气环流场演变%STATUS OF ARCTIC SEA ICE AND ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION IN SUMMER 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋翠娟; 张占海; 凌铁军; 吴辉碇; 于乐江

    2011-01-01

    Based on data from the National Sea Ice Data Center (NSIDC) , we present the Arctic sea ice extent and concentration during the Fourth Chinese Arctic Research Expedition of 2010, and analyze the corresponding atmospheric circulation using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. It is found that the positive dipole anomaly increased ice melt rates in June and August. The ice extent in June reached the minimum of historical records. The melt rate was reduced in July because of the control of low pressure. In August, leads and polynyas appeared in the central Arctic area spanning the North Pole, from Pacific Ocean to Atlantic Ocean, where ice concentration was less than 80%.We therefore conclude that ice extent and concentration were significantly affected by the atmospheric circulation. Additionally, the earlier clearing of sea ice along the Northwest Passage was caused by abnormally high springtime temperatures in the Canadian Arctic area.%利用美国冰雪中心(NSIDC)资料分析2010年夏季中国第4次北极科学考察期间北极海冰的冰情变化,并通过NCEP再分析资料对同时期的大气环流演变进行分析,发现6月与8月环流形势为偶极子正异常,加速了海冰的融化,其中2010年6月的海冰覆盖范围达到有历史记录以来的6月最低值;7月为低压控制,减缓了海冰覆盖范围的进一步减少;2010年8月北极区域出现冰间水道和冰间湖,跨越极点由太平洋一侧到大西洋一侧,大范围区域内海冰密集度小于80%.由此可见,2010年夏季海冰覆盖范围及密集度变化主要受同期大气环流场的影响.此外,简单指出西北通道北线冰提前融化是由春季北极加拿大区域气温异常偏高引起.

  18. Dynamic preconditioning of the September sea-ice extent minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James; Tremblay, Bruno; Newton, Robert; Allard, Richard

    2016-04-01

    There has been an increased interest in seasonal forecasting of the sea-ice extent in recent years, in particular the minimum sea-ice extent. We propose a dynamical mechanism, based on winter preconditioning through first year ice formation, that explains a significant fraction of the variance in the anomaly of the September sea-ice extent from the long-term linear trend. To this end, we use a Lagrangian trajectory model to backtrack the September sea-ice edge to any time during the previous winter and quantify the amount of sea-ice divergence along the Eurasian and Alaskan coastlines as well as the Fram Strait sea-ice export. We find that coastal divergence that occurs later in the winter (March, April and May) is highly correlated with the following September sea-ice extent minimum (r = ‑0.73). This is because the newly formed first year ice will melt earlier allowing for other feedbacks (e.g. ice albedo feedback) to start amplifying the signal early in the melt season when the solar input is large. We find that the winter mean Fram Strait sea-ice export anomaly is also correlated with the minimum sea-ice extent the following summer. Next we backtrack a synthetic ice edge initialized at the beginning of the melt season (June 1st) in order to develop hindcast models of the September sea-ice extent that do not rely on a-priori knowledge of the minimum sea-ice extent. We find that using a multi-variate regression model of the September sea-ice extent anomaly based on coastal divergence and Fram Strait ice export as predictors reduces the error by 41%. A hindcast model based on the mean DJFMA Arctic Oscillation index alone reduces the error by 24%.

  19. The impact of a seasonally ice free Arctic Ocean on the climate and surface mass balance of Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Day

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available General circulation models (GCMs predict a rapid decrease in Arctic sea ice extent in the 21st century. The decline of September sea ice is expected to continue until the Arctic Ocean is seasonally ice free, leading to a much perturbed Arctic climate with large changes in surface energy flux. Svalbard, located on the present day sea ice edge, contains many low lying ice caps and glaciers which are extremely sensitive to changes in climate. Records of past accumulation indicate that the surface mass balance (SMB of Svalbard is also sensitive to changes in the position of the sea ice edge.

    To investigate the impact of 21st Century sea ice decline on the climate and surface mass balance of Svalbard a high resolution (25 km regional climate model (RCM was forced with a repeating cycle of sea surface temperatures (SSTs and sea ice conditions for the periods 1961–1990 and 2061–2090. By prescribing 20th Century SSTs and 21st Century sea ice for one simulation, the impact of sea ice decline is isolated. This study shows that the coupled impact of sea ice decline and SST increase results in a decrease in SMB, whereas the impact of sea ice decline alone causes an increase in SMB of similar magnitude.

  20. Reducing uncertainty in high-resolution sea ice models.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Kara J.; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston

    2013-07-01

    Arctic sea ice is an important component of the global climate system, reflecting a significant amount of solar radiation, insulating the ocean from the atmosphere and influencing ocean circulation by modifying the salinity of the upper ocean. The thickness and extent of Arctic sea ice have shown a significant decline in recent decades with implications for global climate as well as regional geopolitics. Increasing interest in exploration as well as climate feedback effects make predictive mathematical modeling of sea ice a task of tremendous practical import. Satellite data obtained over the last few decades have provided a wealth of information on sea ice motion and deformation. The data clearly show that ice deformation is focused along narrow linear features and this type of deformation is not well-represented in existing models. To improve sea ice dynamics we have incorporated an anisotropic rheology into the Los Alamos National Laboratory global sea ice model, CICE. Sensitivity analyses were performed using the Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications (DAKOTA) to determine the impact of material parameters on sea ice response functions. Two material strength parameters that exhibited the most significant impact on responses were further analyzed to evaluate their influence on quantitative comparisons between model output and data. The sensitivity analysis along with ten year model runs indicate that while the anisotropic rheology provides some benefit in velocity predictions, additional improvements are required to make this material model a viable alternative for global sea ice simulations.

  1. Large sea ice outflow into the Nares Strait in 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwok, R.; Pedersen, L.T.; Gudmandsen, Preben;

    2010-01-01

    at Fram Strait. Clearly, the ice arches control Arctic sea ice outflow. The duration of unobstructed flow explains more than 84% of the variance in the annual area flux. In our record, seasonal stoppages are always associated with the formation of an arch near the same location in the southern Kane...

  2. On the Arctic Ocean ice thickness response to changes in the external forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stranne, Christian; Bjoerk, Goeran [University of Gothenburg, Department of Earth Sciences, Box 460, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    Submarine and satellite observations show that the Arctic Ocean ice cover has undergone a large thickness reduction and a decrease in the areal extent during the last decades. Here the response of the Arctic Ocean ice cover to changes in the poleward atmospheric energy transport, F{sub wall}, is investigated using coupled atmosphere-ice-ocean column models. Two models with highly different complexity are used in order to illustrate the importance of different internal processes and the results highlight the dramatic effects of the negative ice thickness - ice volume export feedback and the positive surface albedo feedback. The steady state ice thickness as a function of F{sub wall} is determined for various model setups and defines what we call ice thickness response curves. When a variable surface albedo and snow precipitation is included, a complex response curve appears with two distinct regimes: a perennial ice cover regime with a fairly linear response and a less responsive seasonal ice cover regime. The two regimes are separated by a steep transition associated with surface albedo feedback. The associated hysteresis is however small, indicating that the Arctic climate system does not have an irreversible tipping point behaviour related to the surface albedo feedback. The results are discussed in the context of the recent reduction of the Arctic sea ice cover. A new mechanism related to regional and temporal variations of the ice divergence within the Arctic Ocean is presented as an explanation for the observed regional variation of the ice thickness reduction. Our results further suggest that the recent reduction in areal ice extent and loss of multiyear ice is related to the albedo dependent transition between seasonal and perennial ice i.e. large areas of the Arctic Ocean that has previously been dominated by multiyear ice might have been pushed below a critical mean ice thickness, corresponding to the above mentioned transition, and into a state dominated

  3. Climate Change and China as a Global Emerging Regulatory Sea Power in the Arctic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassotta Pertoldi-Bianchi, Sandra; Hossain, Kamrul; Ren, Jingzheng;

    2015-01-01

    on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and the Arctic Council (AC) are taken into consideration under climate change effects, to assess how global legal frameworks and institutions can deal with China’s strategy in the Arctic Ocean. China’s is moving away from its role as “humble power” to one of “informal......The impact of climate change in the Arctic Ocean such as ice melting and ice retreat facilitates natural resources extraction. Arctic fossil fuel becomes the drivers of geopolitical changes in the Arctic Ocean. Climate change facilitates natural resource extractions and increases competition...... imperialistic” resulting in substantial impact on the Arctic and Antartic dynamism. Due to ice-melting, an easy access to natural resources, China’s Arctic strategy in the Arctic Ocean has reinforced its military martitime strategy and has profoundly changed its maritime military doctrine shifting from regional...

  4. Laser Altimetry Sampling Strategies over Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Sinead L.; Markus, Thorsten; Kwok, Ron; Connor, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    With the conclusion of the science phase of the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) mission in late 2009, and the planned launch of ICESat-2 in late 2015, NASA has recently established the IceBridge program to provide continuity between missions. A major goal of IceBridge is to obtain a sea-ice thickness time series via airborne surveys over the Arctic and Southern Oceans. Typically two laser altimeters, the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) and the Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor (LVIS), are utilized during IceBridge flights. Using laser altimetry simulations of conventional analogue systems such as ICESat, LVIS and ATM, with the multi-beam system proposed for ICESat-2, we investigate differences in measurements gathered at varying spatial resolutions and the impact on sea-ice freeboard. We assess the ability of each system to reproduce the elevation distributions of two seaice models and discuss potential biases in lead detection and sea-surface elevation, arising from variable footprint size and spacing. The conventional systems accurately reproduce mean freeboard over 25km length scales, while ICESat-2 offers considerable improvements over its predecessor ICESat. In particular, its dense along-track sampling of the surface will allow flexibility in the algorithmic approaches taken to optimize the signal-to-noise ratio for accurate and precise freeboard retrieval.

  5. The Northern Bering Sea: An Arctic Ecosystem in Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebmeier, J. M.; Cooper, L. W.

    2004-12-01

    Arctic systems can be rich and diverse habitats for marine life in spite of the extreme cold environment. Benthic faunal populations and associated biogeochemical cycling processes are influenced by sea-ice extent, seawater hydrography (nutrients, salinity, temperature, currents), and water column production. Benthic organisms on the Arctic shelves and margins are long-term integrators of overlying water column processes. Because these organisms have adapted to living at cold extremes, it is reasonable to expect that these communities will be among the most susceptible to climate warming. Recent observations show that Arctic sea ice in the North American Arctic is melting and retreating northward earlier in the season and the timing of these events can have dramatic impacts on the biological system. Changes in overlying primary production, pelagic-benthic coupling, and benthic production and community structure can have cascading effects to higher trophic levels, particularly benthic feeders such as walruses, gray whales, and diving seaducks. Recent indicators of contemporary Arctic change in the northern Bering Sea include seawater warming and reduction in ice extent that coincide with our time-series studies of benthic clam population declines in the shallow northern Bering shelf in the 1990's. In addition, declines in benthic amphipod populations have also likely influenced the movement of feeding gray whales to areas north of Bering Strait during this same time period. Finally a potential consequence of seawater warming and reduced ice extent in the northern Bering Sea could be the northward movement of bottom feeding fish currently in the southern Bering Sea that prey on benthic fauna. This would increase the feeding pressure on the benthic prey base and enhance competition for this food source for benthic-feeding marine mammals and seabirds. This presentation will outline recent biological changes observed in the northern Bering Sea ecosystem as documented in

  6. Beyond Thin Ice: Co-Communicating the Many Arctics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckenmiller, M. L.; Francis, J. A.; Huntington, H.

    2015-12-01

    Science communication, typically defined as informing non-expert communities of societally relevant science, is persuaded by the magnitude and pace of scientific discoveries, as well as the urgency of societal issues wherein science may inform decisions. Perhaps nowhere is the connection between these facets stronger than in the marine and coastal Arctic where environmental change is driving advancements in our understanding of natural and socio-ecological systems while paving the way for a new assortment of arctic stakeholders, who generally lack adequate operational knowledge. As such, the Arctic provides opportunity to advance the role of science communication into a collaborative process of engagement and co-communication. To date, the communication of arctic change falls within four primary genres, each with particular audiences in mind. The New Arctic communicates an arctic of new stakeholders scampering to take advantage of unprecedented access. The Global Arctic conveys the Arctic's importance to the rest of the world, primarily as a regulator of lower-latitude climate and weather. The Intra-connected Arctic emphasizes the increasing awareness of the interplay between system components, such as between sea ice loss and marine food webs. The Transforming Arctic communicates the region's trajectory relative to the historical Arctic, acknowledging the impacts on indigenous peoples. The broad societal consensus on climate change in the Arctic as compared to other regions in the world underscores the opportunity for co-communication. Seizing this opportunity requires the science community's engagement with stakeholders and indigenous peoples to construct environmental change narratives that are meaningful to climate responses relative to non-ecological priorities (e.g., infrastructure, food availability, employment, or language). Co-communication fosters opportunities for new methods of and audiences for communication, the co-production of new interdisciplinary

  7. Analysis of the dual-mode feature of Arctic seasonal sea ice%北极冬季季节性海冰双模态特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝光华; 苏洁; 黄菲

    2015-01-01

    The change of Arctic sea ice change rapidly mainly occurred in the edge of central Arctic region in recent years.The edge area of the central Arctic is tending to be covered by seasonal ice which was dominated by multi-year ice in the past.The analysis in this paper shows that the first two EOF modes of seasonal sea ice anomaly mainly shows the characteristics of sea ice of year 2007 and 2005.The second mode mainly reflects an extreme change of Arctic sea ice in 2005,while the first mode not only reflects the change of Arctic sea ice in 2007,but also reflects a phase shift of seasonal sea ice in winter during 2002-2010.During the study period,the seasonal sea ice variability mainly occurs in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean.The phase of seasonal sea ice anomaly is negative before 2007 and shifts to positive after 2007,and the positive phase continues to 2010.The maximum anomalies of surface temperature in Pacific sector occur in 2007.And the anomaly high air pressure in Beaufort Sea region helps to reduce the summer sea ice in the Pacific sector,and the weakened westerly jet is in favor of positive anomaly high air pressure in Beaufort Sea region in summer and autumn.Also the clockwise ice velocity distribution is in favor of ice leaving from the Pacific sector,which will lead to the positive seasonal ice anomalies in winter maintained from 2007 to 2010 in Pacific sector.%近年来北极海冰快速变化,北极中央区边缘正由以多年冰为主转为季节性海冰为主。通过对北极冬季季节性海冰的 EOF 分解发现,2002-2012年期间北极季节性海冰变化的前两模态主要体现为2005年和2007年的季节性海冰距平。其中第二模态主要体现了北极海冰在2005年的一种极端变化,而第一模态不仅体现了北极海冰在2007年的变化,还体现了北极季节性海冰的从负位相到正位相的转变。通过比较发现,在研究时段北极季节性海冰最主要的变化发生

  8. Crystals and fabrics analysis of an Arctic thermal growth multi-year ice sample

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志军; 康建成; 张运良

    2002-01-01

    One of sea ice core samples was taken from Arctic by the First Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition Team in 1999. 20 vertical and 2 horizontal ice sections were cut out of the ice core sample 2.22 m in length, which covered the ice sheet from surface to bottom except losses for during sampling and section cutting. From the observation and analysis of the fabrics and crystals along the depth of the ice core sample, followings were found. Whole ice sheet consists of columnar, refrozen clastic pieces, granular, columnar, refrozen clastic pieces, granular, columnar and refrozen clastic pieces. This indicates that the ice core sample was 3-year old, and the ice sheet surface thawed and the melt water flowed into ice sheet during summer. Hence, the annual energy balance in Arctic can be determined by the ice sheet surface thawing in summer, and bottom growth in winter. The thickness of the ice sheet is kept constantly at a certain position based on the corresponding climate and ocean conditions; A new kind of hydrodynamic-effected ice crystal was found in the analysis and was defined as refrozen clastic pieces. The newly refrozen clastic pieces are explained as that they belong to the ocean dynamic broken ice pieces that come into contact with ice sheet due to buoyancy and move with the whole ice sheet. While these pieces moved to a colder zone, they were refrozen. Therefore, its structure is different from that of first-year ice and also can explain why there are typical Arctic sea ice micro-algae in the ice core sample. The age of the ice sheet is determined to be from 1997 winter to 1999 summer.

  9. 2010年夏季北极海冰反照率的观测研究%SURFACE ALBEDO MEASUREMENTS OVER SEA ICE IN THE ARCTIC OCEAN DURING SUMMER 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章睿; 柯长青; 谢红接; 孙波

    2012-01-01

    Snow and sea ice in the Arctic have the highest albedo of all surface types on Earth, and they can reflect most of the incident radiation energy back to the sky. Variations in the surface albedo of the Arctic region have a significant effect on the radiation budget of the Earth-atmosphere system and global climate. The surface albedo of different kinds of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean' s Pacific region were measured with a ASD spectrometer during the 4th Chinese National Arctic Expedition in 2010. The observation period was July 27 to August 23,over ageographical range of 72°18'- 87°20'N and 152° 34'-178°22'W. Results indicate that mean total albedo for sea ice covered by dry snow is 0. 82, which is the highest reported. This value decreased to a certain extent when during ice melting. There were many melting ponds in the Arctic Ocean summer. Ponded ice was classified into 3 types by color. Albedo of white ice was ahigh as 0. 54, blue ice waslower at 0. 31, gray ice wasfar lower than the other two types (generally 0. 20) , and albedo for melting ponds wasonly 0. 16 (calculated). Melting ponds are the main reasons for the variations in albedo during the Arctic summer.%雪和海冰作为北极地区反照率最高的地表类型,可以将大部分入射辐射能量反射回天空,其表面反照率的变化对整个地表-大气辐射平衡系统和全球气候变化都会有重要影响.2010年中国第4次北极科学考察期间,考察队利用ASD光谱仪对北极太平洋扇区不同类型海冰的表面反照率进行了现场测量.观测时段为7月27日至8月23日,地理范围在72°18′-87°20′N和152°34′-178°22′W之间.观测结果表明积雪覆盖海冰的反照率最高,干雪覆盖时均值达到0.82,融化的湿雪覆盖时反照率会有一定程度的降低.夏季北极地区存在大量融池,融池海冰按颜色划分为白冰、蓝冰和灰冰,白冰的平均反照率为0.54,蓝冰的为0.31,灰冰的只有0.20,

  10. Sediment transport by sea ice in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas: Increasing importance due to changing ice conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicken, H.; Gradinger, R.; Gaylord, A.; Mahoney, A.; Rigor, I.; Melling, H.

    2005-12-01

    Sediment-laden sea ice is widespread over the shallow, wide Siberian Arctic shelves, with off-shelf export from the Laptev and East Siberian Seas contributing substantially to the Arctic Ocean's sediment budget. By contrast, the North American shelves, owing to their narrow width and greater water depths, have not been deemed as important for basin-wide sediment transport by sea ice. Observations over the Chukchi and Beaufort shelves in 2001/02 revealed the widespread occurrence of sediment-laden ice over an area of more than 100,000 km 2 between 68 and 74°N and 155 and 170°W. Ice stratigraphic studies indicate that sediment inclusions were associated with entrainment of frazil ice into deformed, multiple layers of rafted nilas, indicative of a flaw-lead environment adjacent to the landfast ice of the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. This is corroborated by buoy trajectories and satellite imagery indicating entrainment in a coastal polynya in the eastern Chukchi Sea in February of 2002 as well as formation of sediment-laden ice along the Beaufort Sea coast as far eastward as the Mackenzie shelf. Moored upward-looking sonar on the Mackenzie shelf provides further insight into the ice growth and deformation regime governing sediment entrainment. Analysis of Radarsat Synthetic Aperture (SAR) imagery in conjunction with bathymetric data help constrain the water depth of sediment resuspension and subsequent ice entrainment (>20 m for the Chukchi Sea). Sediment loads averaged at 128 t km -2, with sediment occurring in layers of roughly 0.5 m thickness, mostly in the lower ice layers. The total amount of sediment transported by sea ice (mostly out of the narrow zone between the landfast ice edge and waters too deep for resuspension and entrainment) is at minimum 4×10 6 t in the sampling area and is estimated at 5-8×10 6 t over the entire Chukchi and Beaufort shelves in 2001/02, representing a significant term in the sediment budget of the western Arctic Ocean. Recent

  11. Can natural variability explain the discrepancy between observed and modeled sea ice trends?

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenblum, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Observations indicate that the Arctic sea ice cover is rapidly retreating while the Antarctic sea ice cover is steadily expanding. State-of-the-art climate models, by contrast, tend to predict a moderate decrease in both the Arctic and Antarctic sea ice covers. A number of recent studies have attributed this discrepancy in each hemisphere to natural variability, suggesting that the models are consistent with the observations when simulated natural variability is taken into account. Here we examine sea ice changes during 1979-2013 in simulations from the most recent Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) as well as the Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble (CESM-LE). We find that accurately simulated Arctic sea ice retreat occurs only in simulations with too much global warming, whereas accurately simulated Antarctic sea ice expansion tends to occur in simulations with too little global warming. We show that because of this, simulations from both ensembles do not capture the observed asymmetry bet...

  12. Sea ice dynamics influence halogen deposition to Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Spolaor

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sea ice is an important parameter in the climate system and its changes impact upon the polar albedo and the atmospheric and oceanic circulation. Iodine (I and bromine (Br have been measured in a shallow ice core drilled at the summit of the Holtedahlfonna glacier (Northwest Spitsbergen, Svalbard. Changing I concentrations can be linked to the spring maximum sea ice extension. Bromine enrichment, indexed to the Br/Na sea water mass ratio, appears to be influenced by changes in the seasonal sea ice area. I is emitted from marine biota and so the retreat of spring sea ice coincides with enlargement of the open ocean surface which enhances marine primary production and consequent I emission. The observed Br enrichment can be explained by greater Br emissions during the Br explosion that have been observed to occur above first year sea ice during the early springtime. In this work we present the first comparison between halogens in surface snow and Arctic sea ice extension. Although further investigation is required to characterize potential depositional and post-depositional processes, these preliminary findings suggest that I and Br can be linked to variability in the spring maximum sea ice extension and seasonal sea ice surface area.

  13. Seasonal changes in sea ice conditions along the Northeast Passage in 2007 and 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Ruibo; Li Na; Li Chunhua; Jnsdttir Ingibjrg

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing data from passive microwave and satellite-based altimeters, associated with the data measured underway, were used to characterize seasonal and spatial changes in sea ice conditions along the Arctic Northeast Passage (NEP) and the high-latitude sea route (HSR) north of the island groups in the eastern Arctic Ocean in 2007 and 2012. In both years, summer Arctic sea ice extent reached minima since satellite records began in 1979. However, there were large differences in spatial distribution of sea ice between the two years. Sea ice conditions in the eastern sections of the sea routes were relatively slight in the 2007 summer, because of the remarkable decline of sea ice in the Paciifc sector. A belt of sea ice that blocked sections from the western Laptev Sea to the eastern Kara Sea resulted in both sea routes not completely opening through the 2007 summer. The combination of a great storm in early August causing sea ice to be sheared from the Arctic pack ice and the thick ice surviving the winter delayed the summer opening of the eastern parts of the sea routes in 2012. However, the average open period, deifned by 50% ice concentration for the entire NEP and HSR, reached 82 d and 55 d, respectively. Thus, 2012 was the most accessible year since the satellite era began in 1979. The distinct decrease in sea ice in the western parts of the HSR in the 2012 summer can be attributed to the thinning preconditions of sea ice prior to the melt season. The HSR opening can beneift Arctic shipping of deeper-draft vessels.

  14. Brief Communication: Does it matter exactly when the Arctic will become ice-free?

    OpenAIRE

    J. K. Ridley; Wood, R A; A. B. Keen; Blockley, E.; Lowe, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Following the 2015 UNFCCC Conference of Parties in Paris there is renewed interest in understanding and avoiding potentially dangerous climate change. The loss of Arctic sea ice is one of the most directly visible aspects of climate change and the question is frequently asked: when can we expect the Arctic to be ice-free in summer? We argue here that this question may not be the most useful one to inform decisions on climate change mitigation or adaptation in the Arctic. The development of a ...

  15. The onset of spring melt in first-year ice regions of the Arctic as determined from scanning multichannel microwave radiometer data for 1979 and 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark R.

    1987-11-01

    Sea ice ablation is an important physical process affecting the global climate system. During the Arctic melt season, rapid changes occur in both sea ice surface conditions and the extent of ice. These changes alter the albedo and vary the surface energy budget. Understanding variations in Arctic sea ice is critical for global climate studies. This paper investigates the spring onset of melt in the Arctic seasonal sea ice zone through analysis of melt signatures derived from Nimbus 7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer data. Satellite-derived melt signatures, determined by 18- and 37-GHz vertical brightness temperatures, are associated with the initial melt of the snow pack on the sea ice surface. Sea ice melt events vary spatially and temporally. Within the arctic basin the melt signature is observed first in the Chukchi Sea and the Kara and Barents seas. As melting progresses, the melt signature moves westward from the Chukchi Sea and eastward from the Kara and Barents seas to the Laptev Sea region. The initial location of the melt signal also varies with year. In 1979 the melt signature occurs first in the Chukchi Sea; and in 1980 in the Kara Sea. The date for the initial melt varies between 1979 and 1980 by an average of 7-10 days with a maximum of 25 days in the Chukchi Sea region. Monitoring the occurrence of melt signatures can be used as an indicator of climate variability in the Arctic's seasonal sea ice zones.

  16. Contribution of a pathway through the Arctic Ocean to the re cent reduction in the ice cover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Motoyoshi Ikeda

    2008-01-01

    The sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean has been reducing and hit the low record in the summer of 2007. The anomaly was extremely large in the Pacific sector.The sea level height in the Bering Sea vs. the Greenland Sea has been analyzed and compared with the current meter data through the Bering Strait. A recent peak existed as a consequence of atmospheric circulation and is considered to contribute to inflow of the Pacific Water into the Arctic Basin. The timing of the Pacific Water inflow matched with the sea ice reduction in the Pacific sector and suggests a significant increase in heat flux. This component should be included in the model prediction for answering the question when the Arctic sea ice becomes a seasonal ice cover.

  17. Results of the Sea Ice Model Intercomparison Project: Evaluation of sea ice rheology schemes for use in climate simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreyscher, Martin; Harder, Markus; Lemke, Peter; Flato, Gregory M.

    2000-05-01

    A hierarchy of sea ice rheologies is evaluated on the basis of a comprehensive set of observational data. The investigations are part of the Sea Ice Model Intercomparison Project (SIMIP). Four different sea ice rheology schemes are compared: a viscous-plastic rheology, a cavitating-fluid model, a compressible Newtonian fluid, and a simple free drift approach with velocity correction. The same grid, land boundaries, and forcing fields are applied to all models. As verification data, there are (1) ice thickness data from upward looking sonars (ULS), (2) ice concentration data from the passive microwave radiometers SMMR and SSM/I, (3) daily buoy drift data obtained by the International Arctic Buoy Program (IABP), and (4) satellite-derived ice drift fields based on the 85 GHz channel of SSM/I. All models are optimized individually with respect to mean drift speed and daily drift speed statistics. The impact of ice strength on the ice cover is best revealed by the spatial pattern of ice thickness, ice drift on different timescales, daily drift speed statistics, and the drift velocities in Fram Strait. Overall, the viscous-plastic rheology yields the most realistic simulation. In contrast, the results of the very simple free-drift model with velocity correction clearly show large errors in simulated ice drift as well as in ice thicknesses and ice export through Fram Strait compared to observation. The compressible Newtonian fluid cannot prevent excessive ice thickness buildup in the central Arctic and overestimates the internal forces in Fram Strait. Because of the lack of shear strength, the cavitating-fluid model shows marked differences to the statistics of observed ice drift and the observed spatial pattern of ice thickness. Comparison of required computer resources demonstrates that the additional cost for the viscous-plastic sea ice rheology is minor compared with the atmospheric and oceanic model components in global climate simulations.

  18. Gene flow on ice: the role of sea ice and whaling in shaping Holarctic genetic diversity and population differentiation in bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus)

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Alter, S; Rosenbaum, Howard C.; Postma, Lianne D.; Whitridge, Peter; Gaines, Cork; Weber, Diana; Egan, Mary G; Lindsay, Melissa; Amato, George; Dueck, Larry; Brownell, Robert L.; Heide-Jørgensen, Mads-Peter; Kristin L Laidre; Caccone, Gisella; Hancock, Brittany L

    2012-01-01

    Sea ice is believed to be a major factor shaping gene flow for polar marine organisms, but it remains unclear to what extent it represents a true barrier to dispersal for arctic cetaceans. Bowhead whales are highly adapted to polar sea ice and were targeted by commercial whalers throughout Arctic and subarctic seas for at least four centuries, resulting in severe reductions in most areas. Both changing ice conditions and reductions due to whaling may have affected geographic distribution and ...

  19. Sea ice dynamics influence halogen deposition to Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Spolaor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sea ice is an important parameter in the climate system and its changes impact upon the polar albedo and atmospheric and oceanic circulation. Iodine (I and bromine (Br have been measured in a shallow firn core drilled at the summit of the Holtedahlfonna glacier (Northwest Spitsbergen, Svalbard. Changing I concentrations can be linked to the March–May maximum sea ice extension. Bromine enrichment, indexed to the Br / Na sea water mass ratio, appears to be influenced by changes in the seasonal sea ice area. I is emitted from marine biota and so the retreat of March–May sea ice coincides with enlargement of the open-ocean surface which enhances marine primary production and consequent I emission. The observed Br enrichment could be explained by greater Br emissions during the Br explosions that have been observed to occur mainly above first year sea ice during the early springtime. In this work we present the first comparison between halogens in surface snow and Arctic sea ice extension. Although further investigation is required to characterize potential depositional and post-depositional processes, these preliminary findings suggest that I and Br can be linked to variability in the spring maximum sea ice extension and seasonal sea ice surface area.

  20. Forecasting Future Sea Ice Conditions in the MIZ: a Lagrangian Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, B.; Newton, R.; de Repentigny, P.; Pfirman, S. L.; Meier, W.; Campbell, G. G.

    2014-12-01

    Significant changes in Arctic sea ice extent have been observed in recent years, particularly at the end of the summer. Climate models that have a reasonable late 20th century Arctic climate, forecast ice-free summers in the Arctic before the end of this century. While these models agree on the decline of sea ice extent and the likelihood of a largely seasonal Arctic sea ice cover, the pattern of the sea ice loss and marginal ice zone locations predicted by different models varies widely. Narrowing the uncertainty implicit in these model disagreements is an important contribution to the accuracy of global climate projections. To this end we track the boundary between first and multi-year ice (i.e. the minimum September sea-ice edge position) using Lagrangian back and forward trajectories in both the instrumental record and GCMs participating in the IPCC-AR5. We use the trajectories to quantify the magnitude and interannual variability in the thermodynamic and dynamic (ice export) ice loss, the amount and geographical distribution of multiyear ice melt and first year promotion to second year ice. Results clearly highlight the importance of pre-conditioning (previous winter ice export) on the following summer minimum ice extent. Assessing whether climate models reproduce the correct dynamics of the MIZ can increase our confidence in climate forecasts.

  1. Observing Radiative Properties of a Thinner, Seasonal Arctic Ice Pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, S. R.; Nicolaus, M.; Granskog, M.; Gerland, S.; Wang, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic is coming to be dominated by young ice, much of it seasonal. Many of our observations of the radiative properties of sea ice come from drifting stations on thick, multi-year ice. To better understand the Arctic climate system in a warmer world, we need more data about the radiative properties and their seasonal and spatial variability on thinner, younger ice. Since this younger ice is not always thick enough to support lengthy drifting stations, there is a need for new technologies to help us get optical measurements on seasonal ice. One challenge is obtaining seasonal data on ice that is too weak to support even a ship-based camp, and especially to have these observations extend well into the melt season. For these situations, we have developed a spectral radiation monitoring buoy that can be deployed during a one-day ice station, and that can then autonomously observe the spectral albedo and transmittance of the sea ice, transmitting all data in near real time by satellite, until the buoy melts out. Similar installations at manned or regularly visited sites have provided good data, with surprisingly few data-quality problems due to frost, precipitation, or tilting. The buoys consist of 3 spectral radiometers, covering wavelengths 350 to 800 nm, and a datalogger with an Irridium modem. The datalogger and necessary batteries are inside a sealed housing which is frozen into a hole drilled in the ice. Arms extend from both the top and bottom of the housing, holding sensors that measure incident, reflected, and transmitted spectra. The under-ice radiometer is equipped with a bioshutter to avoid algal growth on the sensor. They will be deployed alongside ice mass balance buoys, providing data about the physical development of the ice and snow, as well as position. While the buoys provide an excellent record of diurnal, synoptic, and seasonal variability, they are fixed to one location in the ice, so other methods are still needed for measuring the spatial

  2. Removal of snow cover inhibits spring growth of Arctic ice algae through physiological and behavioral effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Hansen, L.C.; Hawes, Ian; Sorrell, Brian Keith;

    2014-01-01

    The snow cover of Arctic sea ice has recently decreased, and climate models forecast that this will continue and even increase in future. We therefore tested the effect of snow cover on the optical properties of sea ice and the biomass, photobiology, and species composition of sea ice algae...... at Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland, during March 2011, using a snow-clearance experiment. Sea ice algae in areas cleared of snow was compared with control areas, using imaging variable fluorescence of photosystem II in intact, unthawed ice sections. The study coincided with the onset of spring growth of ice algae......) and filling of brine channels with fluorescing cells. In contrast, in the minus snow area, PAR transmittance increased sixfold and there was an exponential decrease in chl-a and no increase in F o, and the area of fluorescing biomass declined to become undetectable. This study suggests that the onset...

  3. Exploring the Habitability of Ice-covered Waterworlds: The Deep-Sea Hydrothermal System of the Aurora Mount at Gakkel Ridge, Arctic Ocean (82°54' N, 6°15W, 3900 m)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boetius, A.; Bach, W.; Borowski, C.; Diehl, A.; German, C. R.; Kaul, N. E.; Koehler, J.; Marcon, Y.; Mertens, C.; Molari, M.; Schlindwein, V. S. N.; Tuerke, A.; Wegener, G.

    2014-12-01

    The geographic remoteness of the ultraslow Gakkel Ridge in the ice-covered Arctic Ocean raises many questions about the nature and biogeography of its habitats. In 2001, the two-ice-breaker mission AMORE (RV POLARSTERN and USCGC HEALY) detected hydrothermal plumes and evidence for seafloor venting associated with volcanic ridges rising from the rift valley floor of 4.2 km depth (Edmonds et al., 2003; Michael et al., 2003). The AURORA expedition in July 2014 (RV POLARSTERN Cruise PS86) targeted this "Aurora" field at the SW limit of Gakkel Ridge, to investigate its habitats, communities and their energy sources. No robots can yet be deployed through ice-cover to explore such deep habitats and ice-breaking research vessels cannot hold position in the thick multiyear ice. Instead, we estimated ice-drift to predict suitable start positions, then attached POLARSTERN to a matching ice floe, to achieve the bottom trajectories that we required for targeted exploration. The Aurora mount is volcanic in origin formed from mounded pillow basalts overlain by about a meter of sediment and cut through by steep cliffs revealing basalt pillows in outcrop and in talus piles. We identified persistent plume activity in the water column above the mount at 3100-3600 m (800-300 m off-bottom of its top) characterized by anomalies in turbidity, Eh, methane, temperature, density, and elevated microbial chemoautotrophic activity. Using a towed camera-, and multisensor- platform (OFOS) we located active venting as the source of this plume together with inactive chimneys and associated craters on the SW flank of Mt.Aurora. Its dominantly filter-feeding fauna is apparently sustained by venting of energy-rich fluids and microbial transfer of this geofuel into nutrition. This communication presents first results of our recent fieldwork and experimental investigations in Summer 2014 to explore deep-sea ecosystems in ice-covered oceans.

  4. HAUSGARTEN: Multidisciplinary investigations at a deep-sea, long-term observatory in the Arctic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Soltwedel, T.; Bauerfeind, E.; Bergmann, M.; Budaeva, N.; Hoste, E; Jaeckisch, N.; von Juterzenka, K.; Matthiessen, J.; Mokievsky, V.; Nöthig, E.-M.; Quéric, N.-V.; Sablotny, B.; Sauter, E.; Schewe, I.; Urban-Malinga, B.

    2005-01-01

    The marine Arctic has played an essential role in the history of our planet over the past 130 million years and contributes considerably to the present functioning of Earth and its life. The global cycles of a variety of materials fundamental to atmospheric conditions and thus to life depend to a signifi cant extent on Arctic marine processes (Aargaard et al., 1999). The past decades have seen remarkable changes in key Arctic variables. The decrease of sea-ice extent and sea-ice thickness in ...

  5. Arctic spring awakening - Steering principles behind the phenology of vernal ice algal blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, E.; Mundy, C. J.; Assmy, P.; Campbell, K.; Gabrielsen, T. M.; Gosselin, M.; Juul-Pedersen, T.; Gradinger, R.

    2015-12-01

    Marine ecosystems at high latitudes are characterized by extreme seasonal changes in light conditions, as well as a limited period of high primary production during spring and early summer. As light returns at the end of winter to Arctic ice-covered seas, a first algal bloom takes place in the bottom layer of the sea ice. This bottom ice algae community develops through three distinct phases in the transition from winter to spring, starting with phase I, a predominantly net heterotroph community that has limited interaction with the pelagic or benthic realms. Phase II begins in the spring once light for photosynthesis becomes available at the ice bottom, although interaction with the water column and benthos remains limited. The transition to the final phase III is then mainly driven by a balance of atmospheric and oceanographic forcing that induce structural changes in the sea ice and ultimately the removal of algal biomass from the ice. Due to limited data availability an incomplete understanding exists of all the processes determining ice algal bloom phenology and the considerable geographic differences in sympagic algal standing stocks and primary production. We present here the first pan-Arctic compilation of available time-series data on vernal sea ice algal bloom development and identify the most important factors controlling its development and termination. Using data from the area surrounding Resolute Bay (Nunavut, Canada) as an example, we support previous investigations that snow cover on top of the ice influences sea ice algal phenology, with highest biomass development, but also earliest termination of blooms, under low snow cover. We also provide a pan-Arctic overview of sea ice algae standing stocks and primary production, and discuss the pertinent processes behind the geographic differences we observed. Finally, we assess potential future changes in vernal algal bloom phenology as a consequence of climate change, including their importance to

  6. Wave climate in the Arctic 1992-2014: seasonality, trends, and wave-ice influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard-Ardhuin, Fanny; Stopa, Justin; Ardhuin, Fabrice

    2016-04-01

    The diminishing sea ice has direct implications on the wave field which is mainly dependent on the ice-free area and wind. Over the past decade, the Arctic sea ice has diminished which directly impacts the wave field. This study characterizes the wave climate in the Arctic using detailed sea state information from a wave hindcast and merged altimeter dataset spanning 1992-2014. The waves are driven by winds from the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis. Ice concentrations derived from satellites with a grid spacing of 12.5 km are sufficiently able to resolve important features in the marginal ice zone. Before implementation, suitable wind forcing is identified and the validity and consistency of the wave hindcast is verified with altimeters. The seasonal ice advance and retreat largely dictates the waves and creates distinct features in the wind-waves and swells. The Nordic-Greenland Sea is dominated by swells from the North Atlantic while the coastal regions and semi-enclosed seas of the Kara, Laptev, Chukchi, and Beaufort have a more equal proportion of wind-waves and swells. Trends in the altimeters and model are in agreement and show increasing wave activities in the Baffin Bay, Beaufort, Chukchi, Laptev, and Kara Seas due to the loss of sea ice. In the Nordic-Greenland Sea, there is a decreasing trend related to changes in the wind field by North Atlantic Oscillation. The waves also influence the sea ice. Two distinctly different wave-ice environments are identified and selected events demonstrate the importance of waves in the marginal ice zone. The crux of the research identifies the need for continued study and improvement of wave-ice interaction.

  7. Environmental predictors of ice seal presence in the Bering Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Miksis-Olds

    Full Text Available Ice seals overwintering in the Bering Sea are challenged with foraging, finding mates, and maintaining breathing holes in a dark and ice covered environment. Due to the difficulty of studying these species in their natural environment, very little is known about how the seals navigate under ice. Here we identify specific environmental parameters, including components of the ambient background sound, that are predictive of ice seal presence in the Bering Sea. Multi-year mooring deployments provided synoptic time series of acoustic and oceanographic parameters from which environmental parameters predictive of species presence were identified through a series of mixed models. Ice cover and 10 kHz sound level were significant predictors of seal presence, with 40 kHz sound and prey presence (combined with ice cover as potential predictors as well. Ice seal presence showed a strong positive correlation with ice cover and a negative association with 10 kHz environmental sound. On average, there was a 20-30 dB difference between sound levels during solid ice conditions compared to open water or melting conditions, providing a salient acoustic gradient between open water and solid ice conditions by which ice seals could orient. By constantly assessing the acoustic environment associated with the seasonal ice movement in the Bering Sea, it is possible that ice seals could utilize aspects of the soundscape to gauge their safe distance to open water or the ice edge by orienting in the direction of higher sound levels indicative of open water, especially in the frequency range above 1 kHz. In rapidly changing Arctic and sub-Arctic environments, the seasonal ice conditions and soundscapes are likely to change which may impact the ability of animals using ice presence and cues to successfully function during the winter breeding season.

  8. Interactions Between Ice Thickness, Bottom Ice Algae, and Transmitted Spectral Irradiance in the Chukchi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arntsen, A. E.; Perovich, D. K.; Polashenski, C.; Stwertka, C.

    2015-12-01

    The amount of light that penetrates the Arctic sea ice cover impacts sea-ice mass balance as well as ecological processes in the upper ocean. The seasonally evolving macro and micro spatial variability of transmitted spectral irradiance observed in the Chukchi Sea from May 18 to June 17, 2014 can be primarily attributed to variations in snow depth, ice thickness, and bottom ice algae concentrations. This study characterizes the interactions among these dominant variables using observed optical properties at each sampling site. We employ a normalized difference index to compute estimates of Chlorophyll a concentrations and analyze the increased attenuation of incident irradiance due to absorption by biomass. On a kilometer spatial scale, the presence of bottom ice algae reduced the maximum transmitted irradiance by about 1.5 orders of magnitude when comparing floes of similar snow and ice thicknesses. On a meter spatial scale, the combined effects of disparities in the depth and distribution of the overlying snow cover along with algae concentrations caused maximum transmittances to vary between 0.0577 and 0.282 at a single site. Temporal variability was also observed as the average integrated transmitted photosynthetically active radiation increased by one order of magnitude to 3.4% for the last eight measurement days compared to the first nine. Results provide insight on how interrelated physical and ecological parameters of sea ice in varying time and space may impact new trends in Arctic sea ice extent and the progression of melt.

  9. NASA IceBridge: Scientific Insights from Airborne Surveys of the Polar Sea Ice Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter-Menge, J.; Farrell, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA Operation IceBridge (OIB) airborne sea ice surveys are designed to continue a valuable series of sea ice thickness measurements by bridging the gap between NASA's Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat), which operated from 2003 to 2009, and ICESat-2, which is scheduled for launch in 2017. Initiated in 2009, OIB has conducted campaigns over the western Arctic Ocean (March/April) and Southern Oceans (October/November) on an annual basis when the thickness of sea ice cover is nearing its maximum. More recently, a series of Arctic surveys have also collected observations in the late summer, at the end of the melt season. The Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) laser altimeter is one of OIB's primary sensors, in combination with the Digital Mapping System digital camera, a Ku-band radar altimeter, a frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) snow radar, and a KT-19 infrared radiation pyrometer. Data from the campaigns are available to the research community at: http://nsidc.org/data/icebridge/. This presentation will summarize the spatial and temporal extent of the OIB campaigns and their complementary role in linking in situ and satellite measurements, advancing observations of sea ice processes across all length scales. Key scientific insights gained on the state of the sea ice cover will be highlighted, including snow depth, ice thickness, surface roughness and morphology, and melt pond evolution.

  10. NWS Alaska Sea Ice Program: Operations and Decision Support Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck, M. B.; Nelson, J. A., Jr.; Heim, R.

    2015-12-01

    The National Weather Service's Alaska Sea Ice Program is designed to service customers and partners operating and planning operations within Alaska waters. The Alaska Sea Ice Program offers daily sea ice and sea surface temperature analysis products. The program also delivers a five day sea ice forecast 3 times each week, provides a 3 month sea ice outlook at the end of each month, and has staff available to respond to sea ice related information inquiries. These analysis and forecast products are utilized by many entities around the state of Alaska and nationally for safety of navigation and community strategic planning. The list of current customers stem from academia and research institutions, to local state and federal agencies, to resupply barges, to coastal subsistence hunters, to gold dredgers, to fisheries, to the general public. Due to a longer sea ice free season over recent years, activity in the waters around Alaska has increased. This has led to a rise in decision support services from the Alaska Sea Ice Program. The ASIP is in constant contact with the National Ice Center as well as the United States Coast Guard (USCG) for safety of navigation. In the past, the ASIP provided briefings to the USCG when in support of search and rescue efforts. Currently, not only does that support remain, but our team is also briefing on sea ice outlooks into the next few months. As traffic in the Arctic increases, the ASIP will be called upon to provide more and more services on varying time scales to meet customer needs. This talk will address the many facets of the current Alaska Sea Ice Program as well as delve into what we see as the future of the ASIP.

  11. Modelling sea ice for climate studies: recent advances and future challenges (Louis Agassiz Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichefet, Thierry

    2016-04-01

    Since the beginning of satellite measurements in 1979, the summer Arctic sea ice extent has shrunk at a mean rate of ~12% per decade, and there is evidence that the rate of decline has accelerated over the last decade. Current global climate models project further decrease in Arctic sea ice areal coverage through the 21st century if atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations continue to increase. However, rates of loss vary greatly between models, yielding a large uncertainty as to when a seasonally ice-free Arctic Ocean may be realized. Narrowing this uncertainty is of crucial importance since such changes in the Arctic sea ice cover might have profound ramifications, including the global ocean circulation and heat budget, regional ecosystems and wildlife, the indigenous human population, and commercial exploration and transportation. Regarding the Antarctic sea ice, its extent has been observed to slightly increase during the last 37 years, which appears puzzling in a global warming context. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this feature, but the issue is far from