Sample records for arctic salix arctica

  1. Effects of Reducing the Ambient UV-B Radiation in the High Arctic on Salix arctica and Vaccinium uliginosum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian; Ro-Poulsen, Helge; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard;


    Effects of reducing the ambient UV-B radiation on gas exchange and chlorophyll fluores-cence of two dwarf shrub species, Salix arctica and Vaccinium uliginosum, was studied in a high arctic heath in North East Greenland during two growing seasons. Films (Mylar, transmitting ¿ > 320 nm, and Lexan...

  2. Effects of reducing the ambient UV-B radiation in the high Arctic on Salix arctica and Vaccinium uliginosum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, K.R.; Ro-Poulsen, H.; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard;


    Effects of reducing the ambient UV-B radiation on gas exchange and chlorophyll fluores-cence of two dwarf shrub species, Salix arctica and Vaccinium uliginosum, was studied in a high arctic heath in North East Greenland during two growing seasons. Films (Mylar, transmitting λ > 320 nm, and Lexan...

  3. Ambient UV-B radiation reduces PSII performance and net photosynthesis in high Arctic Salix arctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, Helge


    Ambient ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation potentially impacts the photosynthetic performance of high Arctic plants. We conducted an UV-B exclusion experiment in a dwarf shrub heath in NE Greenland (74°N), with open control, filter control, UV-B filtering and UV-AB filtering, all in combination...... with leaf angle control. Two sites with natural leaf positions had ground angles of 0° (‘level site’) and 45° (‘sloping site’), while at a third site the leaves were fixed in an angle of 45° to homogenize the irradiance dose (‘fixed leaf angle site’). The photosynthetic performance of the leaves......, nitrogen and UV-B absorbing compounds. Compared to a 60% reduced UV-B irradiance, the ambient solar UV-B reduced net photosynthesis in Salix arctica leaves fixed in the 45° position which exposed leaves to maximum natural irradiance. Also a reduced Calvin Cycle capacity was found, i.e. the maximum rate...

  4. Effects of ambient versus reduced UV-B radiation on high arctic Salix arctica assessed by measurements and calculations of chlorophyll-a fluorescence parameters from fluorescence transients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost


    cross-section of leaf sample, the number of active PSII reaction centres (RC/ CSM) and electron transport rate (ETM/CSM) and all performance indexes (PIABS, PICSo and PICSm) were increased in reduced UV-B. The total soluble flavonoid content was highest in ambient UV-B. The treatment effects......A UV-B exclusion-experiment was conducted in the high arctic Zackenberg, NE Greenland, in which Salix arctica leaves during most of the growing season were fixed perpendicular to the solar zenith angle, thereby receiving maximal solar radiation. Covered with Teflon and Mylar foil, the leaves...... received approximately 90 and 40% of the ambient UV-B irradiance, respectively. The effects were examined through recordings of chlorophyll a fluorescence transients, determination of biomass and analysis of total carbon and nitrogen content and amount of soluble flavonoids in the leaves. The processing...

  5. Effects of ambient versus reduced UV-B radiation on high arctic ¤Salix arctica¤ assessed by measurements and calculations of chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters from fluorescence transients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, K.R.; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.


    cross-section of leaf sample, the number of active PSII reaction centres (RC/CSM) and electron transport rate (ETM/CSM) and all performance indexes (PIABS, PICSo and PICSm) were increased in reduced UV-B. The total soluble flavonoid content was highest in ambient UV-B. The treatment effects......A UV-B exclusion-experiment was conducted in the high Arctic Zackenberg, NE Greenland, in which Salix arctica leaves during most of the growing season were fixed perpendicular to the solar zenith angle, thereby receiving maximal solar radiation. Covered with Teflon and Mylar foil, the leaves...... received approximately 90 and 40% of the ambient UV-B irradiance, respectively. The effects were examined through recordings of chlorophyll a fluorescence transients, determination of biomass and analysis of total carbon and nitrogen content and amount of soluble flavonoids in the leaves. The processing...

  6. A Large Ornithurine Bird (Tingmiatornis arctica) from the Turonian High Arctic: Climatic and Evolutionary Implications (United States)

    Bono, Richard K.; Clarke, Julia; Tarduno, John A.; Brinkman, Donald


    Bird fossils from Turonian (ca. 90 Ma) sediments of Axel Heiberg Island (High Canadian Arctic) are among the earliest North American records. The morphology of a large well-preserved humerus supports identification of a new volant, possibly diving, ornithurine species (Tingmiatornis arctica). The new bird fossils are part of a freshwater vertebrate fossil assemblage that documents a period of extreme climatic warmth without seasonal ice, with minimum mean annual temperatures of 14 °C. The extreme warmth allowed species expansion and establishment of an ecosystem more easily able to support large birds, especially in fresh water bodies such as those present in the Turonian High Arctic. Review of the high latitude distribution of Northern Hemisphere Mesozoic birds shows only ornithurine birds are known to have occupied these regions. We propose physiological differences in ornithurines such as growth rate may explain their latitudinal distribution especially as temperatures decline later in the Cretaceous. Distribution and physiology merit consideration as factors in their preferential survival of parts of one ornithurine lineage, Aves, through the K/Pg boundary.

  7. Ambient UV-B radiation reduces PSII performance and net photosynthesis in high Arctic Salix arctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.;


    was characterized by simultaneous gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements and the PSII performance through the growing season was investigated with fluorescence measurements. Leaf harvest towards the end of the growing season was done to determine the specific leaf area and the content of carbon...... with leaf angle control. Two sites with natural leaf positions had ground angles of 0° (‘level site’) and 45° (‘sloping site’), while at a third site the leaves were fixed in an angle of 45° to homogenize the irradiance dose (‘fixed leaf angle site’). The photosynthetic performance of the leaves...

  8. Neisseria arctica sp. nov. isolated from nonviable eggs of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) in Arctic Alaska (United States)

    Hansen, Cristina M.; Himschoot, Elizabeth; Hare, Rebekah F.; Meixell, Brandt; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Hueffer, Karsten


    During the summers of 2013 and 2014, isolates of a novel Gram-negative coccus in the Neisseria genus were obtained from the contents of nonviable greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) eggs on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. We used a polyphasic approach to determine whether these isolates represent a novel species. 16S rRNA gene sequences, 23S rRNA gene sequences, and chaperonin 60 gene sequences suggested that these Alaskan isolates are members of a distinct species that is most closely related to Neisseria canis, N. animaloris, and N. shayeganii. Analysis of the rplF gene additionally showed that our isolates are unique and most closely related to N. weaveri. Average nucleotide identity of the whole genome sequence of our type strain was between 71.5% and 74.6% compared to close relatives, further supporting designation as a novel species. Fatty acid methyl ester analysis showed a predominance of C14:0, C16:0, and C16:1ω7c fatty acids. Finally, biochemical characteristics distinguished our isolates from other Neisseria species. The name Neisseria arctica (type strain KH1503T = ATCC TSD-57T = DSM 103136T) is proposed.

  9. The Arctic--A Global Hot Spot: Resources for Teaching the Geography of the Contemporary Canadian Arctic (United States)

    Arntzen, Betsy; Sotherden, Amy


    Canadian geography is a fascinating topic, particularly the Canadian North. The North is central to Canadian identity as can be seen by the choice of the far north "inukshuk" standing stones as the emblem for the 2010 Winter Olympics held in Vancouver, southern British Columbia. Canada's Arctic is receiving increasing attention by media,…

  10. Remotely sensed vicennial changes of green phytomass, Salix cover, and leaf turnover in a sedge-shrub tundra, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska (United States)

    Kushida, K.; Kim, Y.; Tsuyuzaki, S.; Watanabe, M.; Kadosaki, G.; Sawada, Y.; Ishikawa, M.; Fukuda, M.


    We obtained the relationship between spectral indices, green phytomass, Salix - non-Salix ratio, and leaf turnover in a sedge-shrub tundra, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), Alaska based on the field observations of spectral reflectance and phytomass, and we used Landsat TM images acquired in July of 1986, 1994, and 2006 and the time series of NOAA AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) for evaluating the vicennial changes. 51% of Beaufort coastal plain, Alaska was occupied by lowland moist sedge-shrub tundra, lowland wet sedge tundra, riverine moist sedge-shrub tundra, and riverine wet sedge tundra, where willow shrubs and sedges dominate. We set a 50-m × 50-m plot located on the floodplain of Jago River in ANWR. Shrub (Salix lanata L.) and sedge (Carex bigelowii Torr.) dominated in the plot. Ten 0.5-m × 0.5-m quadrates (Salix} quadrates) were set on the Salix cover and ten 0.5-m × 0.5-m quadrates (non-Salix quadrates) were set on the ground that was not covered with Salix lanata. Salix lanata in each of the Salix quadrates was harvested, and the leaf area index (LAI) and the oven-dried weights of the photosynthetic (leaf) and non-photosynthetic parts were measured. After harvesting Salix, other green plants were harvested and the oven-dried weights of the plants were measured. The Salix quadrates were spectrally measured with a spectroradiometer at a wavelength of 350 - 2500 nm before and after harvesting Salix and after harvesting other green plants. Non-Salix quadrates were also spectrally measured with the spectroradiometer. The coefficients of determination (R2) of the green phytomass, Salix - non-Salix ratio, and leaf turnover estimations from the spectral indices were 0.63, 0.57, and 0.79, respectively. These estimations were used for evaluating the vicennial changes using the satellite data.

  11. Effects of Reducing the Ambient UV-B Radiation in the High Arctic on Salix arctica and Vaccinium uliginosum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian; Ro-Poulsen, Helge; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard;


    , transmitting ¿ > 400 nm) were used to reduce UV-B radiation and UV-B+A respectively. A UV transparent film (Teflon, transmitting ¿ > 280 nm) and no film were used as controls. Field measurements showed that the plants under Teflon, Mylar and Lexan received app. 91%, 39% and 17% of the ambient UV-B irradiance...

  12. Salix polaris growth responses to active layer detachment and solifluction processes in High Arctic. (United States)

    Siekacz, Liliana


    The work is dedicated to demonstrate the potential of Salix polaris grow properties in the dendrogemorphologic image, analyzing periglacially induced slope processes in the high Arctic.. Observed anatomical and morphological plants responses to solifluction and active layer detachment processes are presented qualitatively and quantitatively as a summary of presented features frequency. The results are discussed against the background of the other research results in this field. The investigations was performed in Ebba valley, in the vicinity of Petunia Bay, northernmost part of Billefjorden in central Spitsbergen (Svalbard). Environmental conditions are characterized by annual precipitation sum lower than 200 mm (Hagen et al.,1993) and average summer temperature of about 5°C, with maximum daily temperatures rarely exceeding 10°C (Rachlewicz, 2009). Collected shrub material was prepared according to the methods presented by Schweingruber and Poschlod (2005). Thin (approx. 15-20μm) sections of the whole cross-section were prepared with a sledge microtome, stained with Safranine and Astra blue and finally permanently fixed on microslides with Canada balsam and dried. Snapshots were taken partially for each cross-section with digital camera (ColorView III, Olympus) connected to a microscope (Olympus BX41) and merged into one, high resolution image. After all, ring widths were measured in 3-4 radii in every single cross-section using ImageJ software. Analyzed plants revealed extremely harsh environmental conditions of their growth. Buchwał et al. (2013) provided quantitative data concerning missing rings and partially missing rings in shrubs growing on Ebba valley floor. Mean ring width at the level of 79μm represents one of the smallest values of yearly growth ever noted. The share of missing rings and partially missing rings was 11,2% and 13,6% respectively. Plants growing on Ebba valley slope indicate almost twice smaller values of ring width (41μm), and higher

  13. Improved UV-B screening capacity does not prevent negative effects of ambient UV irradiance on PSII performance in High Arctic plants. Results from a six year UV exclusion study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.


    Long-term responses of ambient solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation were investigated on Salix arctica and Vaccinium uliginosum in a High Arctic heath ecosystem in Zackenberg, northeast Greenland. Over a period of six years, UV exclusion was conducted in the growing season by means of filters: 60% UV......, exposing the vegetation to high spring UV-B, and to be present in the future to the degree the ozone layer is not fully recovered....

  14. Does warming affect growth rate and biomass production of shrubs in the High Arctic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campioli, Matteo; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Albert, Kristian Rost


    Few studies have assessed directly the impact of warming on plant growth and biomass production in the High Arctic. Here, we aimed to investigate the impact of 7 years of warming (open greenhouses) on the aboveground relative growth rate (RGR) of Cassiope tetragona and Salix arctica in North......-Eastern Greenland. RGR was assessed for apical (leaves, stem, reproductive organs) and lateral meristems (secondary growth of stem and branches) and accompanied by measures of gross ecosystem production (GEP), branching and tissue carbon (C) concentration. Measurements were based on harvest and biometric methods...... limits the growth of Cassiope but not that of Salix in North-Eastern Greenland. Summer warming thus has the potential to stimulate biomass production in the High Arctic but major species-specific differences are expected....

  15. Effects of mid-season frost and elevated growing season temperature on stomatal conductance and specific xylem conductivity of the arctic shrub, Salix pulchra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorsuch, D. M.; Oberbauer, S. F. [Florida International Univ., Dept. of Biological Sciences, Miami, FL (United States)


    It is hypothesized that because deciduous plants have a growth season limited in length and also have generally larger conduit volumes, they are more likely to be injured by freeze-thaw induced cavitation during the growing season. To test this hypothesis, the deciduous arctic shrub, Salix pulchra, was grown in simulated Alaskan summer temperatures and at five degrees C above the ambient simulation in controlled environments. Specific hydraulic conductivity and leaf stomatal conductance were measured in plants grown at both temperatures before and after freeze treatment simulating a mid-season frost. Before freeze treatment specific hydraulic conductivity was 2.5 times higher and stomatal conductance was 1.3 times higher in plants grown at elevated temperature. After freeze treatment reduction in hydraulic conductivity and stomatal conductance was 3.5 and 1.8 times higher in the plants grown at the higher temperature than plants grown at ambient temperature. Plants grown at the higher temperature also had larger vessel diameters and higher vessel densities than ambient-grown plants. These results suggest that higher growing season temperatures will make arctic deciduous shrubs more susceptible to frost damage. The implication of these results for plant growth in the arctic tundra is that while climate warming favours plants with larger vessels and higher specific xylem conductivity over plants with lower values, this competitive advantage may be lost if there is an increase in the risk of frost during the growing season. 43 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Climate Change Influences on Species Interrelationships and Distributions in High-Arctic Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D. R., Klein; Bruun, H. H.; Lundgren, R.


    , reproduction, and dispersal of all life forms present. Climate-associated changes in the biotic communities of the region are altering inter-species interactions, notably pollination, seed dispersal and plant-herbivore relations. Sexual reproduction and dispersal of propagules, primarily seeds, are essential...... be of particular significance to long-distance seed dispersal. In Northeast Greenland, dispersal of viable seeds may frequently occur by passage through the guts of geese and musk oxen. Research at Zackenberg on the role of insects in pollination of flowering plants has shown that Diptera species, primarily flies......, dominate among the insect species visiting flowers each summer. Diptera, Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), Hymenoptera (bumble bees and small wasps), and one Hemiptera (true bugs) species have constituted the primary pollinators at Zackenberg. Arctic willow Salix arctica, white arctic bell heather...

  17. Diel Variation of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound Emissions- A field Study in the Sub, Low and High Arctic on the Effect of Temperature and Light (United States)

    Lindwall, Frida; Faubert, Patrick; Rinnan, Riikka


    Many hours of sunlight in the midnight sun period suggest that significant amounts of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) may be released from arctic ecosystems during night-time. However, the emissions from these ecosystems are rarely studied and limited to point measurements during daytime. We measured BVOC emissions during 24-hour periods in the field using a push-pull chamber technique and collection of volatiles in adsorbent cartridges followed by analysis with gas chromatography- mass spectrometry. Five different arctic vegetation communities were examined: high arctic heaths dominated by Salix arctica and Cassiope tetragona, low arctic heaths dominated by Salix glauca and Betula nana and a subarctic peatland dominated by the moss Warnstorfia exannulata and the sedge Eriophorum russeolum. We also addressed how climate warming affects the 24-hour emission and how the daytime emissions respond to sudden darkness. The emissions from the high arctic sites were lowest and had a strong diel variation with almost no emissions during night-time. The low arctic sites as well as the subarctic site had a more stable release of BVOCs during the 24-hour period with night-time emissions in the same range as those during the day. These results warn against overlooking the night period when considering arctic emissions. During the day, the quantity of BVOCs and the number of different compounds emitted was higher under ambient light than in darkness. The monoterpenes α-fenchene, α -phellandrene, 3-carene and α-terpinene as well as isoprene were absent in dark measurements during the day. Warming by open top chambers increased the emission rates both in the high and low arctic sites, forewarning higher emissions in a future warmer climate in the Arctic. PMID:25897519

  18. Climate change alters leaf anatomy, but has no effects on volatile emissions from Arctic plants. (United States)

    Schollert, Michelle; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Valolahti, Hanna M; Rinnan, Riikka


    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions are expected to change substantially because of the rapid advancement of climate change in the Arctic. BVOC emission changes can feed back both positively and negatively on climate warming. We investigated the effects of elevated temperature and shading on BVOC emissions from arctic plant species Empetrum hermaphroditum, Cassiope tetragona, Betula nana and Salix arctica. Measurements were performed in situ in long-term field experiments in subarctic and high Arctic using a dynamic enclosure system and collection of BVOCs into adsorbent cartridges analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In order to assess whether the treatments had resulted in anatomical adaptations, we additionally examined leaf anatomy using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Against expectations based on the known temperature and light-dependency of BVOC emissions, the emissions were barely affected by the treatments. In contrast, leaf anatomy of the studied plants was significantly altered in response to the treatments, and these responses appear to differ from species found at lower latitudes. We suggest that leaf anatomical acclimation may partially explain the lacking treatment effects on BVOC emissions at plant shoot-level. However, more studies are needed to unravel why BVOC emission responses in arctic plants differ from temperate species.

  19. Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions along a high arctic soil moisture gradient. (United States)

    Svendsen, Sarah Hagel; Lindwall, Frida; Michelsen, Anders; Rinnan, Riikka


    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from terrestrial ecosystems are important for the atmospheric chemistry and the formation of secondary organic aerosols, and may therefore influence the climate. Global warming is predicted to change patterns in precipitation and plant species compositions, especially in arctic regions where the temperature increase will be most pronounced. These changes are potentially highly important for the BVOC emissions but studies investigating the effects are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the quality and quantity of BVOC emissions from a high arctic soil moisture gradient extending from dry tundra to a wet fen. Ecosystem BVOC emissions were sampled five times in the July-August period using a push-pull enclosure technique, and BVOCs trapped in absorbent cartridges were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Plant species compositions were estimated using the point intercept method. In order to take into account important underlying ecosystem processes, gross ecosystem production, ecosystem respiration and net ecosystem production were measured in connection with chamber-based BVOC measurements. Highest emissions of BVOCs were found from vegetation communities dominated by Salix arctica and Cassiope tetragona, which had emission profiles dominated by isoprene and monoterpenes, respectively. These results show that emissions of BVOCs are highly dependent on the plant cover supported by the varying soil moisture, suggesting that high arctic BVOC emissions may affect the climate differently if soil water content and plant cover change.

  20. Tradera-verkkopalvelu ja Arcticas SOAP -asiakassovellus


    Vettainen, Jorma


    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on toteuttaa Arcticas Oy:lle rajapinta, jonka kautta siirretään XML-muotoisia aineistoja toimeksiantajan oman tietokannan ja Traderan välillä käyttäen SOAP-protokollaa. Opinnäytetyö käsittelee myös Traderan Web Service -rajapinnan ominaisuuksia. Opinnäytetyössä kuvaillaan näiden edellä mainittujen asioiden toteutusta, käytettyjä teknologioita, protokollia ja standardeja. Tämä opinnäytetyö toteutettiin syyskuun 2013 – toukokuun 2014 välisenä aikana. ...

  1. Coccolithophores in Polar Waters: Papposphaera arctica HET and HOL revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Helge Abildhauge; Heldal, Mikal; Østergaard, Jette B.


    It has been generally accepted based on the finding of combination coccospheres in field samples that Turrisphaera arctica and Papposphaera sarion are alternate life-cycle phases of a single species. However, while recently revisiting P. sarion it became evident that the Turrisphaera phase of thi...

  2. A SEM study of the reindeer sinus worm (Linguatula arctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Nikander


    Full Text Available Pentastomids are a group of peculiar parasitic arthropods, often referred to as tongue worms due to the resemblance of some species to a tongue. Linguatula arctica is the sinus worm of the reindeer (Rangifer tarandus, being the only pentastomid to have a direct life cycle and an ungulate as a definite host. Here, the surface structures and internal anatomy of adult L. arctica are described as seen by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Sinus worms were collected in the winter 1991-92 in Finnish Lapland. Paranasal cavities of about 80 reindeer were examined and 30 sinus worms were found. The sinus worms had typical Linguatula sp. morphology, being paddle-shaped, transparent, pale yellow, dorsoventrally flattened and pseudosegmented with a long tapering end. Present at the anteroventral part of the cephalothorax was an oral opening with a large, conspicuous, head-like papillar structure. Bilaterally, on both sides of this opening, was a pair of strong curved hooks. The cephalothorax and abdomen had a segmented appearance, as they showed distinct annulation. There was a small cup-shaped sensory organ present at the lateral margin on each annula. The posterior edge of each annula was roughened by tiny spines projecting backwards. Throughout the cuticular surface, small, circular depressions that represented the apical portion of chloride cells. The genital opening of the male was located medioventrally between the tips of the posterior pair of hooks, and that of the female posteroventrally and subterminally. In both sexes, the genital opening was bilaterally flanked by papillar (in males or leaf-like (in females structures. One copulating couple was present, with the male attached to the posteroventral part of the female with its anteroventral hooks and papillae. Several structures typical of arthropods and other pentastomids were identified. Because SEM allows only surfaces to be studied, the morphology and especially the sense organs of L. arctica

  3. Growth of juvenile Arctica islandica under experimental conditions (United States)

    Witbaard, R.; Franken, R.; Visser, B.


    In two laboratory experiments, the effects of temperature and food availability on the growth of 10- to 23-mm high specimens of the bivalve Arctica islandica were estimated. Each experimental set-up consisted of 5 treatments in which either the food supply or the temperature differed. It was demonstrated that Arctica is able to grow at temperatures as low as 1°C. A tenfold increase of shell growth was observed at temperatures between 1° and 12°C. The greatest change in growth rate took place between 1° and 6°C. Average instantaneous shell growth varies between 0.0003 at 1°C to 0.0032/day at 12°C. The results suggest that temperature hardly affects the time spent in filtration, whereas particle density strongly influences that response. Starved animals at 9°C have their siphons open during only 12% of the time, whereas the siphons of optimally fed animals were open on average during 76% of the observations. Increased siphon activity corresponded to high shell and tissue growth. At 9°C, average shell growth at the optimum cell density of 20×106 cell/l was 3.1 mm corresponding to an instantaneous rate of 0.0026/day. An algal cell density ( Isochrysis galbana, Dunaliella marina) ranging between 5 and 7×106 cell/l is just enough to keep shells alive at 9°C. Carbon conversion efficiency at 9°C is estimated to vary between 11 and 14%.

  4. Characteristics of atypical Huperzia selago subsp. arctica habitats to the south of distribution area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Jukonienė


    Full Text Available Two localities for Huperzia selago subsp. arctica are recorded from Lithuania, to the south of its known distribution area. The habitats of this subspecies are cutover peatlands whose natural vegetation was disturbed 6-8 years ago during peat exploitation. One of the dominant species of latest vegetation cover is the invasive bryophyte Campylopus introflexus. Characteristics of the habitats of H. selago subsp. arctica and the frequency of this taxon in populations were analysed.

  5. Integrated long-term responses of an arctic-alpine willow and associated ectomycorrhizal fungi to an altered environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Karina Engelbrecht; Michelsen, Anders


    We evaluated ectomycorrhizal (ECM) colonization and morphotype community composition together with growth response and biomass distribution in the arctic-alpine, prostrate willow Salix herbacea L. x Salix polaris Wahlenb. after 11 seasons of shading, warming, and fertilization at a fellfield...

  6. Polymorphism and Divergence in Two Willow Species, Salix viminalis L. and Salix schwerinii E. Wolf. (United States)

    Berlin, Sofia; Fogelqvist, Johan; Lascoux, Martin; Lagercrantz, Ulf; Rönnberg-Wästljung, Ann Christin


    We investigated species divergence, present and past gene flow, levels of nucleotide polymorphism, and linkage disequilibrium in two willows from the plant genus Salix. Salix belongs together with Populus to the Salicaceae family; however, most population genetic studies of Salicaceae have been performed in Populus, the model genus in forest biology. Here we present a study on two closely related willow species Salix viminalis and S. schwerinii, in which we have resequenced 33 and 32 nuclear gene segments representing parts of 18 nuclear loci in 24 individuals for each species. We used coalescent simulations and estimated the split time to around 600,000 years ago and found that there is currently limited gene flow between the species. Mean intronic nucleotide diversity across gene segments was slightly higher in S. schwerinii (π(i) = 0.00849) than in S. viminalis (π(i) = 0.00655). Compared with other angiosperm trees, the two willows harbor intermediate levels of silent polymorphisms. The decay of linkage disequilibrium was slower in S. viminalis compared with S. schwerinii, and we speculate that this is due to different demographic histories as S. viminalis has been partly domesticated in Europe.



    E. V. Kompantseva; O. O. Frolova; T. M. Dementieva


    Under review is Salix babylonica L., which is widely cultivated in Russia as an ornamental plant. The purpose of the review is to summarize the literature on the chemical composition and pharmacological activity of the Babylonian willow. In Russia, only the qualitative composition of the studied species studied, pharmacologi-cal studies have not been conducted. Abroad, there is a positive experience of Salix babylonica in folk medicine, and obtained results that indicate a high content of bio...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Kompantseva


    Full Text Available Under review is Salix babylonica L., which is widely cultivated in Russia as an ornamental plant. The purpose of the review is to summarize the literature on the chemical composition and pharmacological activity of the Babylonian willow. In Russia, only the qualitative composition of the studied species studied, pharmacologi-cal studies have not been conducted. Abroad, there is a positive experience of Salix babylonica in folk medicine, and obtained results that indicate a high content of biologically active compounds. Shown in the survey data suggest the prospect of studying the Babylonian willows growing in the southern regions of Russia for use in medicine and pharmacy.

  9. Whole-genome sequences of 13 endophytic bacteria isolated from shrub willow (salix) grown in geneva, new york. (United States)

    Gan, Huan You; Gan, Han Ming; Savka, Michael A; Triassi, Alexander J; Wheatley, Matthew S; Smart, Lawrence B; Fabio, Eric S; Hudson, André O


    Shrub willow, Salix spp. and hybrids, is an important bioenergy crop. Here we report the whole-genome sequences and annotation of 13 endophytic bacteria from stem tissues of Salix purpurea grown in nature and from commercial cultivars and Salix viminalis × Salix miyabeana grown in bioenergy fields in Geneva, New York.

  10. Eimeria fraterculae sp. n. in the kidneys of Atlantic puffins (Fratercula arctica) from Newfoundland, Canada: species description and lesions. (United States)

    Leighton, F A; Gajadhar, A A


    Renal coccidiosis is reported for the first time in an auk (Alcidae). Infection was detected in seven of 50 nestling Atlantic puffins (Fratercula arctica) and a new species of coccidia, Eimeria fraterculae sp. n., is described. The structure and sporulation of oocysts are characterized. Meronts, gamonts, and developing oocysts were present in collecting duct epithelium of medullary cones. The predominant host response was hypertrophy of infected cells, tubule dilation, and a mild localized peritubular infiltration with mononuclear inflammatory cells.

  11. Composition, Buoyancy Regulation and Fate of Ice Algal Aggregates in the Central Arctic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez-Mendez, Mar; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Peeken, Ilka


    Sea-ice diatoms are known to accumulate in large aggregates in and under sea ice and in melt ponds. There is recent evidence from the Arctic that such aggregates can contribute substantially to particle export when sinking from the ice. The role and regulation of microbial aggregation in the highly...... seasonal, nutrient- and light-limited Arctic sea-ice ecosystem is not well understood. To elucidate the mechanisms controlling the formation and export of algal aggregates from sea ice, we investigated samples taken in late summer 2011 and 2012, during two cruises to the Eurasian Basin of the Central...... Arctic Ocean. Spherical aggregates densely packed with pennate diatoms, as well as filamentous aggregates formed by Melosira arctica showed sign of different stages of degradation and physiological stoichiometries, with carbon to chlorophyll a ratios ranging from 110 to 66700, and carbon to nitrogen...

  12. Nanoscale Phenomena Occurring during Pyrolysis of Salix viminalis Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra W. Cyganiuk


    Full Text Available Selective utilisation of unique properties of Salix viminalis wood enables preparation of materials of nanotechnologic properties. Thermal decomposition of lignin-cellulose organic matter results in the formation of a nanostructured porous carbon matrix (charcoal. Narrowed pore size distribution (PSD in the subnanometer range allows to consider the charcoals as carbon molecular sieves (CMSs, which are capable of separating even chemically inert gases like neon, krypton, and nitrogen. High tolerance of Salix viminalis to heavy metal ions enables enriching living plant tissues with metal ions like lanthanum and manganese. Such ions may later form LaMnO3 with parallel transformation of plant tissues (organic matter to carbon matrix using a heat treatment. In this way, one gets a hybrid material: a porous carbon matrix with uniformly suspended nanocrystallites of LaMoO3. The crystallites are in the catalytically active phase during the conversion of n-butanol to heptanone-4 with high yield and selectivity.

  13. Hydrology modifies ecosystem responses to warming through interactions between soil, leaf and canopy processes in a high Arctic ecosystem (United States)

    Maseyk, K. S.; Welker, J. M.; Lett, C.; Czimczik, C. I.; Lupascu, M.; Seibt, U. H.


    Arctic ecosystems are experiencing temperature increases more strongly than the global average, and increases in precipitation are also expected amongst the climate impacts on this region in the future. These changes are expected to strongly influence both plant physiology and soil biogeochemistry, and therefore ecosystem carbon balance, hydrology and nutrient cycling. We have investigated the effects of a long-term (10 years) increase in temperature (T2), soil water (W) and the combination of both (T2W) on leaf-level structure and function and ecosystem CO2 and water fluxes in a tundra ecosystem at a field manipulation experiment in NW Greenland. Leaf-level gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and morphology were measured on Salix arctica plants in treatment and control plots in June-July 2011, and continuous measurements of net ecosystem fluxes of carbon and water were made using automatic chambers coupled to a trace gas analyzer. Contrasting responses to the treatments were observed between leaf-level and net ecosystem fluxes. Plants in the elevated temperature treatment had the highest leaf-level photosynthetic capacity in terms of net CO2 assimilation rates and photosystem II efficiencies, and lowest rates of non-photochemical energy dissipation during photosynthesis. The plants in the plots with both elevated temperatures and additional water had the lowest photosystem II efficiencies and the highest rates of non-photochemical energy dissipation. However, net photosynthetic rates remained similar to control plants with additional water, due in part to higher stomatal conductance (W) and lower dark respiration rates (T2W). In contrast, net ecosystem CO2 and water fluxes were highest in the T2W plots, due largely to a 35% increase in leaf area. Total growing season C accumulation was 3-5 times greater, water fluxes were 1.5-2 times higher, and water use efficiency was about 3 times higher in the combined treatment than the control

  14. Aphid-willow interactions in a high Arctic ecosystem: responses to raised temperature and goose disturbance. (United States)

    Gillespie, Mark A K; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg S; Hodkinson, Ian D; Cooper, Elisabeth J


    Recently, there have been several studies using open top chambers (OTCs) or cloches to examine the response of Arctic plant communities to artificially elevated temperatures. Few, however, have investigated multitrophic systems, or the effects of both temperature and vertebrate grazing treatments on invertebrates. This study investigated trophic interactions between an herbivorous insect (Sitobion calvulum, Aphididae), a woody perennial host plant (Salix polaris) and a selective vertebrate grazer (barnacle geese, Branta leucopsis). In a factorial experiment, the responses of the insect and its host to elevated temperatures using open top chambers (OTCs) and to three levels of goose grazing pressure were assessed over two summer growing seasons (2004 and 2005). OTCs significantly enhanced the leaf phenology of Salix in both years and there was a significant OTC by goose presence interaction in 2004. Salix leaf number was unaffected by treatments in both years, but OTCs increased leaf size and mass in 2005. Salix reproduction and the phenology of flowers were unaffected by both treatments. Aphid densities were increased by OTCs but unaffected by goose presence in both years. While goose presence had little effect on aphid density or host plant phenology in this system, the OTC effects provide interesting insights into the possibility of phenological synchrony disruption. The advanced phenology of Salix effectively lengthens the growing season for the plant, but despite a close association with leaf maturity, the population dynamics of the aphid appeared to lack a similar phenological response, except for the increased population observed.

  15. Evaluation of salix farmers experiences and attitudes to growing; Utvaerdering av salixodlares erfarenheter och attityder till odling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulrud, Susanne; Roennbaeck, Marie (Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)); Gunnarsson, Carina; Olsson, Johanna (Swedish Inst. of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden))


    Approximately 16 000 hectares of salix (willow) were planted in Sweden in the early 1990s, driven by subsidies and optimistic market expectations. Today the salix plantations have decreased to approximately 12000 hectares. In this study 29 salix farmers and four entrepreneurs that work with salix harvest were interviewed to find out more about their attitudes to, and experiences of growing salix. Most of the farmers interviewed were not satisfied with their salix plantation. The reasons given were the low profitability and problems with the harvest systems. Key reasons for the low profitability are cited as: old plantations that are planted on poor soil; lack of fertilization; an ineffective organization to taking care of the harvest and to sell the salix chips; and a low price for the salix chips. In addition the system for harvesting needs to be more flexible and there is a need for machine systems adapted for harvest of smaller fields

  16. Elemental and Isotopic Incorporation into the Aragonitic Shells of Arctica Islandica: Insights from Temperature Controlled Experiments (United States)

    Wanamaker, A. D.; Gillikin, D. P.


    The long-lived ocean quahog, Arctica islandica, is a fairly well developed and tested marine proxy archive, however, the utility of elemental ratios in A. islandica shell material as environmental proxies remains questionable. To further evaluate the influence of seawater temperature on elemental and isotopic incorporation during biomineralization, A. islandica shells were grown at constant temperatures under two regimes during a 16-week period from March 27 to July 21, 2011. Seawater from the Darling Marine Center in Walpole, Maine was pumped into temperature and flow controlled tanks that were exposed to ambient food and salinity conditions. A total of 20 individual juvenile clams with an average shell height of 36 mm were stained with calcein (a commonly used biomarker) and cultured at 10.3 ± 0.3 °C for six weeks. After this, shell heights were measured and the clams were again stained with calcein and cultured at 15.0 ± 0.4 °C for an additional 9.5 weeks. The average shell growth during the first phase of the experiment was 2.4 mm with a linear extension rate of 0.40 mm/week. The average shell growth during the second phase of the experiment was 3.2 mm with an extension rate of 0.34 mm/week. Average salinity values were 30.2 ± 0.7 and 30.7 ±0.7 in the first and second phases of the experiment, respectively. Oxygen isotopes from the cultured seawater were collected throughout the experiment and provide the basis for establishing if shells grew in oxygen isotopic equilibrium. Elemental ratios (primarily Ba/Ca, Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca) in the aragonitic shells were determined via laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), while stable oxygen and carbon isotope ratios were measured using continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Continuous sampling within and across the temperature conditions (from 10 °C to 15 °C) coupled with the calcein markings provides the ability to place each sample into a precise temporal framework. The

  17. Taxonomic revision of deep-sea Ostracoda from the Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Stepanova, Anna; Okahashi, Hisayo; Cronin, Thomas M.; Brouwers, Elisabeth M.


    Taxonomic revision of deep-sea Ostracoda from the Arctic Ocean was conducted to reduce taxonomic uncertainty that will improve our understanding of species ecology, biogeography and relationship to faunas from other deep-sea regions. Fifteen genera and 40 species were examined and (re-)illustrated with high-resolution scanning electron microscopy images, covering most of known deep-sea species in the central Arctic Ocean. Seven new species are described: Bythoceratina lomonosovensis n. sp., Cytheropteron parahamatum n. sp., Cytheropteron lanceae n. sp.,Cytheropteron irizukii n. sp., Pedicythere arctica n. sp., Cluthiawhatleyi n. sp., Krithe hunti n. sp. This study provides a robust taxonomic baseline for application to paleoceanographical reconstruction and biodiversity analyses in this climatically sensitive region.

  18. A New Flavonoid Glycoside from Salix denticulata Aerial Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Bamola


    Full Text Available Abstract: A new flavonoid glycoside (1 has been isolated from the aerial parts of Salix denticulata (Salicaceae together with five known compounds, β-sitosterol, 2,6-dihydroxy- 4-methoxy acetophenone, eugenol-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-β-D-(3’-benzoyl salicyl alcohol and luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-6-glucopyranoside. The structure of 1 was elucidated as 2’,5-dihydroxy-3’-methoxyflavone-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside by means of chemical and spectral data including 2D NMR studies.

  19. Arctic Newcomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki


    Interest in the Arctic region and its economic potential in Japan, South Korea and Singapore was slow to develop but is now rapidly growing. All three countries have in recent years accelerated their engagement with Arctic states, laying the institutional frameworks needed to better understand an...

  20. Arctic methane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dyupina, E.; Amstel, van A.R.


    What are the risks of a runaway greenhouse effect from methane release from hydrates in the Arctic? In January 2013, a dramatic increase of methane concentration up to 2000 ppb has been measured over the Arctic north of Norway in the Barents Sea. The global average being 1750 ppb. It has been sugges

  1. Growth of Populus and Salix Species under Compost Leachate Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tooba Abedi


    Full Text Available According to the known broad variation in remediation capacity, three plant species were used in the experiment: two fast growing poplar’s clones - Populus deltoides, Populus euramericana, and willows Salix alba. Populus and Salix cuttings were collected from the nursery of the Populus Research Center of Safrabasteh in the eastern part of Guilan province at north of Iran. The Populus clones were chosen because of their high biomass production capacity and willow- because it is native in Iran. The highest diameter growth rate was exhibited for all three plant species by the 1:1 treatment with an average of 0.26, 0.22 and 0.16 cm in eight months period for P. euroamericana, P. deltoides and S. alba, respectively. Over a period of eight months a higher growth rate of height was observed in (P and (1:1 treatment for S. alba (33.70 and 15.77 cm, respectively and in (C treatment for P. deltoides (16.51 cm. P. deltoides and S. alba produced significantly (p<0.05 smaller aboveground biomass in (P treatment compared to all species. P. deltoides exhibited greater mean aboveground biomass in the (1:1 treatment compared to other species. There were significant differences (p<0.05 in the growth of roots between P. deltoides, P. euramericana and S. alba in all of the treatments.

  2. Arctic Watch (United States)

    Orcutt, John; Baggeroer, Arthur; Mikhalevsky, Peter; Munk, Walter; Sagen, Hanne; Vernon, Frank; Worcester, Peter


    The dramatic reduction of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean will increase human activities in the coming years. This will be driven by increased demand for energy and the marine resources of an Arctic Ocean more accessible to ships. Oil and gas exploration, fisheries, mineral extraction, marine transportation, research and development, tourism and search and rescue will increase the pressure on the vulnerable Arctic environment. Synoptic in-situ year-round observational technologies are needed to monitor and forecast changes in the Arctic atmosphere-ice-ocean system at daily, seasonal, annual and decadal scales to inform and enable sustainable development and enforcement of international Arctic agreements and treaties, while protecting this critical environment. This paper will discuss multipurpose acoustic networks, including subsea cable components, in the Arctic. These networks provide communication, power, underwater and under-ice navigation, passive monitoring of ambient sound (ice, seismic, biologic and anthropogenic), and acoustic remote sensing (tomography and thermometry), supporting and complementing data collection from platforms, moorings and autonomous vehicles. This paper supports the development and implementation of regional to basin-wide acoustic networks as an integral component of a multidisciplinary, in situ Arctic Ocean Observatory.

  3. Two new acyclic diterpene-y-lactones from the leaves of Salix matsudana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Two new acyclic diterpene-(-lactones named hanliuine III (1) and hanliuine IV (2) were isolated from leaves of Salix matsudana (Chinese name "hanliu"). Their structures were deduced from spectral data.

  4. Bioaccessibility in vitro of nutraceuticals from bark of selected Salix species. (United States)

    Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Sugier, Danuta; Dziki, Dariusz; Sugier, Piotr


    The aim of this study was to investigate and to compare the extractability, bioaccessibility, and bioavailability in vitro of antioxidative compounds from bark of selected Salix species: S. alba (SA), S. daphnoides (SD), S. purpurea (SP), and S. daphnoides x purpurea (SDP) hybrid willow clones originating from their natural habitats and cultivated on the sandy soil. The highest amount of phenolic glycosides was found in the bark of SDP and SD. The best source of phenolics was bark of SDP. The highest content of flavonoids were found in SD bark samples, whereas the highest concentration of bioaccessible and bioavailable phenolic acids was determined in SDP bark. Bark of all tested Salix species showed significant antiradical activity. This properties are strongly dependent on extraction system and genetic factors. Regardless of Salix genotypes, the lowest chelating power was found for chemically-extractable compounds. Bark of all Salix species contained ethanol-extractable compounds with reducing ability. Besides this, high bioaccessibility and bioavailability in vitro of Salix bark phytochemicals were found. Obtained results indicate that extracts from bark tested Salix genotypes can provide health promoting benefits to the consumers; however, this problem requires further study.

  5. Preliminary tests for Salix sp. tolerance to heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Pb) (United States)

    Corneanu, Mihaela; Hernea, Cornelia; Butnariu, Monica; Corneanu, Gabriel; Sărac, Ioan; Hollerbach, Wilhelm; Neţoiu, Constantin; Petcov, Andreea Adriana


    The species of Salix genus constitute potential sources of germplasm in the prevention of the environment degradation, and offer remedy for about two third from the all degradation types. The majority of the willow species, present a good adaptation to hypoxic conditions, feature which suggest that they manifest a preference for mineral nutrition in comparison with organic one. Thus, many of willow species can be developed on soils with a big amount of minerals and/or radionuclides, being both phytoremediatory species, as well as pioneer ones, contributing to the restoration of soil. Thus, the willow species, posses the capacity for development in degraded areas, natural or anthropic, as swamps, abandoning crops areas, sandy dune, riparian sandy areas, gravels, a.o. In this paper are present some laboratory comparative tests of heavy metals tolerance on four Salix sp. genotypes: clone 202 (Salix alba), hybrid 892 (Salix alba), Inger (Salix viminalis) and Gudrun (Salix viminalis). The genotypes of Salix alba are native from Romania, produced in the Forest Research and Management Institute Bucharest, while the genotypes of Salix viminalis are native from Sweden, but the plant material was produced under license in Romania by REBINA Agrar SRL. As plant material were used one-year-old cuttings (5-10 cm long), with 2-6 buds each. Per genotype, per heavy metal and each of three concentration five replication were used. There were ten experimental variants for each genotype: three concentrations for each of the heavy metals; concentrations selected, in the accordance SR ISO 11269-2/March 1999 and Control (tap water). The cuttings were maintained in metalic solutions for 15 days. In the days 7th and 15th, were performed biometrical observations on: the roots number and length, the shoots number and length, the leaves number/shoot, viability of the shoots. At the end of the experiment the content in heavy metals was determined in roots and shoots (by atomic absorption

  6. Arctic Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Ørts; Grønsedt, Peter; Lindstrøm Graversen, Christian

    , the latter aiming at developing key concepts and building up a basic industry knowledge base for further development of CBS Maritime research and teaching. This report attempts to map the opportunities and challenges for the maritime industry in an increasingly accessible Arctic Ocean...

  7. Development and application of the mollusc Arctica islandica as a paleoceanographic tool for the North Atlantic Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidman, C.R.


    Until now there has been no tool comparable to corals for reconstructing long term high-resolution geochemical time-series for the colder, higher-latitude oceans. In this thesis, the long-lived (+100 years) boreal mollusc (Bivalvia) Arctica islandica is shown to be practical for this purpose in the northern North Atlantic Ocean. The evidence, compiled here, demonstrates that the carbonate shell of this species faithfully records the ambient dissolved inorganic carbon`s (DIC) radiocarbon ({Delta}{sup 14}C) concentration and accurately reflects the ambient temperature in its stable oxygen isotope ({delta}{sup 18}O) composition. However, the stable carbon isotope ({delta}{sup 13}C) composition of the A. islandica shell likely is not a good recorder of ambient DIC {delta}{sup 13}C, and likely responds to physiological controls. Four {Delta}{sup 14}C time histories are reconstructed from the annual bands of A. islandica shells for the higher-latitudes of the northern North Atlantic Ocean (from 41{degree}N to 70{degree}N).

  8. Anatomy and histochemistry of flight muscles in a wing-propelled diving bird, the Atlantic puffin, Fratercula arctica. (United States)

    Kovacs, C E; Meyers, R A


    Twenty-three species within the avian family Alcidae are capable of wing-propelled flight in the air and underwater. Alcids have been viewed as Northern Hemisphere parallels to penguins, and have often been studied to see if their underwater flight comes at a cost, compromising their aerial flying ability. We examined the anatomy and histochemistry of select wing muscles (Mm. pectoralis, supracoracoideus, latissimus dorsi caudalis, coracobrachialis caudalis, triceps scapularis, and scapulohumeralis caudalis) from Atlantic puffins (Fratercula arctica) to assess if the muscle fiber types reveal the existence of a compromise associated with "dual-medium" flight. Pectoralis was found to be proportional in size with that of nondiving species, although the supracoracoideus was proportionally larger in puffins. Muscle fiber types were largely aerobic in both muscles, with two distinct fast-twitch types demonstrable: a smaller, aerobic, moderately glycolytic population (FOg), and a larger, moderately aerobic, glycolytic population (FoG). The presence of these two fiber types in the primary flight muscles of puffins suggests that aerial and underwater flight necessitate a largely aerobic fiber complement. We suggest that alcids do not represent an adaptive compromise, but a stable adaptation for wing-propelled locomotion both in the air and underwater.

  9. Salix daphnoides: A Screening for Oligomeric and Polymeric Proanthocyanidins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Wiesneth


    Full Text Available In the present study, a qualitative analysis of proanthocyanidins (PAs from an aqueous-methanolic extract of Salix daphnoides VILL. bark is described. Procyanidin B1 (1, B2 (2, B3 (3, B4 (4, C1 (5, epicatechin-(4β→8-epicatechin-(4β→8-catechin (6 and epicatechin-(4β→8-epicatechin-(4β→8-epicatechin-(4β→8-catechin (7 have been isolated by a combination of different chromatographic separations on Sephadex® LH-20-, MCI®-, Diol-and RP-18-phases. Mass spectrometry, 1D- and 2D-NMR, circular dichroism and polarimetry were used for their structure elucidation and verification by comparison with the literature. Additionally, two fractions of very polar flavan-3-ols were compared: “regular” polymeric PAs received at the very end of the Sephadex® LH-20 chromatography showing no mobility on silica TLC and “unusual” PAs with the same RF-value but already eluting together with flavonoids in the Sephadex® LH-20 system. These “unusual” PAs were subsequently enriched by centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC. 13C-NMR, polarimetry, thiolysis, acid hydrolysis and phloroglucinol degradation were used to characterize both fractions. Differences in the composition of different flavan-3-ol units and the middle chain length were observed.

  10. Phytotoxicity of landfill leachate on willow--Salix amygdalina L. (United States)

    Bialowiec, Andrzej; Randerson, Peter F


    Because of low investment and operational costs, interest is increasing in the use of willow plants in landfill leachate disposal. Toxic effects of leachate on the plants should be avoided in the initial period of growth and phytotoxicological testing may be helpful to select appropriate leachate dose rates. The aim of this study was to determine the phytotoxicity of landfill leachate on young willow (Salix amygdalina L.) cuttings, as a criterion for dose rate selection in the early phase of growth. Over a test period of 6 weeks plants were exposed to six concentrations of landfill leachate solutions (0%; 6.25%; 12.5%; 25%; 50% and 100%), under two different regimes. In regime A willow plants were cultivated in leachate solution from the beginning, whereas in regime B they were grown initially in clean water for 4 weeks, after which the water was exchanged for leachate solutions. The lowest effective concentration causing toxic effects (LOEC) was calculated (pWillow plants were able to survive in landfill leachate solutions with electrical conductivity (EC) values up to 5.0 mS/cm in regime A, whereas in regime B plants were killed when EC exceeded 3.0 mS/cm. This indicates an ability of willow plants to tolerate higher strengths of landfill leachate if they are cultivated in such concentrations from the beginning.

  11. Feeding preferences of the willow sawfly Nematus oligospilus (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae for commercial Salix clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica LOETTI


    Full Text Available Nematus oligospilus Förster (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae, o la avispa sierra de los sauces, es nativa del Hemisferio Norte y se ha convertido en un serio defoliador en plantaciones de sauces (Salix spp. del Hemisferio Sur, después de su introducción a principios de 1980. Los estudios sobre las preferencias de hospedador aportan información útil para el desarrollo de estrategias, donde la avispa sierra puede producir daño a los árboles y pérdidas económicas. Se evaluó la preferencia alimentaria de las larvas de N. oligospilus, mediante ensayos de laboratorio; se ofrecieron en forma simultánea hojas de cuatro clones de sauce, usados comúnmente en plantaciones comerciales en Argentina (Salix babylonica var sacramenta Hortus, Salix nigra Marsch., S. babylonica L. x Salix alba L. 131-27 and Salix matsudana Koidz. x S. alba L. 13-44. Las larvas de N. oligospilus se alimentaron de las hojas de los cuatro clones. Sin embargo, consumieron una proporción significativamente mayor de las hojas de S. babylonica var sacramenta. Estos resultados indican que todos los clones utilizados en los ensayos fueron palatables para el insecto y que S. babylonica var sacramenta es el hospedador preferido para la herbivoría de las larvas.

  12. Tracing the origin of Arctic driftwood (United States)

    Hellmann, Lena; Tegel, Willy; Eggertsson, Ã.`Lafur; Schweingruber, Fritz Hans; Blanchette, Robert; Kirdyanov, Alexander; GäRtner, Holger; Büntgen, Ulf


    Arctic environments, where surface temperatures increase and sea ice cover and permafrost depth decrease, are very sensitive to even slight climatic variations. Placing recent environmental change of the high-northern latitudes in a long-term context is, however, complicated by too short meteorological observations and too few proxy records. Driftwood may represent a unique cross-disciplinary archive at the interface of marine and terrestrial processes. Here, we introduce 1445 driftwood remains from coastal East Greenland and Svalbard. Macroscopy and microscopy were applied for wood anatomical classification; a multi-species subset was used for detecting fungi; and information on boreal vegetation patterns, circumpolar river systems, and ocean current dynamics was reviewed and evaluated. Four conifer (Pinus, Larix, Picea, and Abies) and three deciduous (Populus, Salix, and Betula) genera were differentiated. Species-specific identification also separated Pinus sylvestris and Pinus sibirica, which account for ~40% of all driftwood and predominantly originate from western and central Siberia. Larch and spruce from Siberia or North America represents ~26% and ~18% of all materials, respectively. Fungal colonization caused different levels of driftwood staining and/or decay. Our results demonstrate the importance of combining wood anatomical knowledge with insight on boreal forest composition for successfully tracing the origin of Arctic driftwood. To ultimately reconstruct spatiotemporal variations in ocean currents, and to better quantify postglacial uplift rates, we recommend consideration of dendrochronologically dated material from many more circumpolar sites.

  13. Arctic Diatoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tammilehto, Anna

    are often dominated by diatoms. They are single-celled, eukaryotic algae, which play an essential role in ocean carbon and silica cycles. Many species of the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia Peragallo produce a neurotoxin, domoic acid (DA), which can be transferred to higher levels in food webs causing amnesic...... as vectors for DA to higher levels in the arctic marine food web, posing a possible risk also to humans. DA production in P. seriata was, for the first time, found to be induced by chemical cues from C. finmarchicus, C. hyperboreus and copepodite stages C3 and C4, suggesting that DA may be related to defense...... against grazing. This thesis also quantified population genetic composition and changes of the diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus spring bloom using microsatellite markers. Diatom-dominated spring blooms in the Arctic are the key event of the year, providing the food web with fundamental pulses of organic...

  14. Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)


    The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the Earth's four major oceans, covering 14x10(exp 6) sq km located entirely within the Arctic Circle (66 deg 33 min N). It is a major player in the climate of the north polar region and has a variable sea ice cover that tends to increase its sensitivity to climate change. Its temperature, salinity, and ice cover have all undergone changes in the past several decades, although it is uncertain whether these predominantly reflect long-term trends, oscillations within the system, or natural variability. Major changes include a warming and expansion of the Atlantic layer, at depths of 200-900 m, a warming of the upper ocean in the Beaufort Sea, a considerable thinning (perhaps as high as 40%) of the sea ice cover, a lesser and uneven retreat of the ice cover (averaging approximately 3% per decade), and a mixed pattern of salinity increases and decreases.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Sannikova


    Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative composition of phenolcarbonic acids in one year tendrils of Salix triandra L. was determined. Identification in quantitative determination of certain phenolcarbonic acids was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography. Six individual substances were discovered. The total content of the sum of phenolcarbonic acids was determined with extractionphotometric method, based on a selective extraction from acidulous solution into ethyl acetate. The highest content of phenolcarbonic acids (about 0.47% was detected in the leaves of Salix triandra L., the lowest content was detected in the tendrils without leaves (about 0.40%. Phenolcarbonic acids discovered in the tendrils of Salix triandra L. may significantly contribute to the total pharmacological effect.

  16. Selection of Willows (Salix sp. for Biomass Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorin Kajba


    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Willows compared with other species are the most suitable for biomass production in short rotations because of their very abundant growth during the first years. Nowadays, in Croatia, a large number of selected and registered willow clones are available. The main objective of the research should be to find genotypes which, with minimum nutrients, will produce the maximum quantity of biomass. Material and Methods: Clonal test of the arborescent willows include the autochthonous White Willow (Salix alba, interracial hybrids of the autochthonous White Willow and the English ‘cricket’ Willow (S. alba var. calva, interspecies hybrids (S. matsudana × S. alba, as well as multispecies hybrids of willows. Average production of dry biomass (DM∙ha-1∙a-1 per hectare was estimated in regard to the clone, survival, spacing and the number of shoots per stump. Results: The highest biomass production as well as the best adaptedness and phenotypic stability on testing site was shown by clones (‘V 374’, ‘V 461’, ‘V 578’ from 15.2 - 25.0 t∙DM∙ha-1∙a-1 originated from backcross hybrid S. matsudana × (S. matsudana × S. alba and by one S. alba clone (‘V 95’, 23.1 - 25.7 t∙DM∙ha-1∙a-1. These clones are now at the stage of registration and these results indicate significant potential for further breeding aimed at biomass production in short rotations. Conclusions: Willow clones showed high biomass production on marginal sites and dry biomass could be considerably increased with the application of intensive silvicultural and agro technical measures. No nutrition or pest control measures were applied (a practice otherwise widely used in intensive cultivation system, while weed vegetation was regulated only at the earliest age.

  17. Arctic Social Sciences: Opportunities in Arctic Research. (United States)

    Arctic Research Consortium of the United States, Fairbanks, AK.

    The U.S. Congress passed the Arctic Research and Policy Act in 1984 and designated the National Science Foundation (NSF) the lead agency in implementing arctic research policy. In 1989, the parameters of arctic social science research were outlined, emphasizing three themes: human-environment interactions, community viability, and rapid social…

  18. Salicilatos isolados de folhas e talos de Salix martiana Leyb. (Salicaceae Salicylates isolated from leaves and stems of Salix martiana Leyb. (Salicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carromberth Carioca Fernandes


    Full Text Available Salix martiana Leyb. is an endemic species from the Amazon river floodplain areas (varzeas, of the State of Amazonas. Stems and leaves were extracted with dichloromethane, methanol and hydro-alcohol and these extracts were fractionated by using conventional chromatographic techniques. The major substances isolated, salicin and trichocarposide (6-0-p-coumaroyl salicin, were determined through analyses of NMR 1D (¹H and 13C and NMR 2D (gHSQC and gHMBC. These compounds were isolated for the first time in Salix martiana Leyb. (Salicaceae. The percentage of these compounds in S. martiana is very high. The extracts were analyzed for their DPPH antioxidant capacity and the methanolic from the leaves and the hydro-alcoholic from the stems were the more active.

  19. Salicylates isolated from leaves and stems of Salix martiana Leyb. (Salicaceae); Salicilatos isolados de folhas e talos de Salix martiana Leyb. (Salicaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Carromberth Carioca [Universidade Federal do Acre (UFAC), Rio Branco, AC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Natureza; Cursino, Lorena Mayara de Carvalho; Novaes, Jussival de Abreu Pinheiro; Demetrio, Camilla Avelino; Pereira Junior, Orlando Liborio; Nunez, Cecilia Veronica [Instituto de Pesquisa da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Produtos Naturais; Amaral, Ieda Leao do [Instituto de Pesquisa da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Botanica


    Salix martiana Leyb. is an endemic species from the Amazon river floodplain areas (varzeas), of the State of Amazonas. Stems and leaves were extracted with dichloromethane, methanol and hydro-alcohol and these extracts were fractionated by using conventional chromatographic techniques. The major substances isolated, salicin and trichocarposide (6-0-p-coumaroyl salicin), were determined through analyses of NMR 1D ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C) and NMR 2D (gHSQC and gHMBC). These compounds were isolated for the first time in Salix martiana Leyb. (Salicaceae). The percentage of these compounds in S. martiana is very high. The extracts were analyzed for their DPPH antioxidant capacity and the methanolic from the leaves and the hydro-alcoholic from the stems were the more active. (author)

  20. Low Density of Top Predators (Seabirds and Marine Mammals in the High Arctic Pack Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude R. Joiris


    Full Text Available The at-sea distribution of top predators, seabirds and marine mammals, was determined in the high Arctic pack ice on board the icebreaker RV Polarstern in July to September 2014. In total, 1,620 transect counts were realised, lasting 30 min each. The five most numerous seabird species represented 74% of the total of 15,150 individuals registered: kittiwake Rissa tridactyla, fulmar Fulmarus glacialis, puffin Fratercula arctica, Ross’s gull Rhodostethia rosea, and little auk Alle alle. Eight cetacean species were tallied for a total of 330 individuals, mainly white-beaked dolphin Lagenorhynchus albirostris and fin whale Balaenoptera physalus. Five pinniped species were represented by a total of 55 individuals and the polar bear Ursus maritimus was represented by 12 individuals. Four main geographical zones were identified: from Tromsø to the outer marginal ice zone (OMIZ, the Arctic pack ice (close pack ice, CPI, the end of Lomonosov Ridge off Siberia, and the route off Siberia and northern Norway. Important differences were detected between zones, both in species composition and in individual abundance. Low numbers of species and high proportion of individuals for some of them can be considered to reflect very low biodiversity. Numbers encountered in zones 2 to 4 were very low in comparison with other European Arctic seas. The observed differences showed strong patterns.

  1. Phylogenetic Relationships between Four Salix L. Species Based on DArT Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy A. Przyborowski


    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the usefulness of DArT markers in genotypic identification of willow species and describe genetic relationships between four willow species: Salix viminalis, S. purpurea, S. alba and S. triandra. The experimental plant material comprised 53 willow genotypes of these four species, which are popularly grown in Poland. DArT markers seem to identify Salix species with a high degree of accuracy. As a result, the examined species were divided into four distinct groups which corresponded to the four analyzed species. In our study, we observed that S. triandra was very different genetically from the other species, including S. alba which is generally classified into the same subgenus of Salix. The above corroborates the findings of other authors who relied on molecular methods to reveal that the classification of S. triandra to the subgenus Salix was erroneous. The Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA and the neighbor-joining dendrogram also confirmed the clear division of the studied willow genotypes into four clusters corresponding to individual species. This confirmed the usefulness of DArT markers in taxonomic analyses and identification of willow species.

  2. A genetic linkage map of willow (Salix viminalis) based on AFLP and microsatelite markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanley, S.; Barker, J.H.A.; Ooijen, van J.W.; Aldam, C.; Harris, S.L.; Ahman, I.; Larsson, S.; Karp, A.


    The genus Salix (willow) contains a number of species of great value as biomass crops. Efforts to breed varieties with improved biomass yields and resistances to pests and diseases are limited by the lack of knowledge on the genetic basis of the traits. We have used AFLP and microsatellite markers t

  3. Behavioral responses of Arctica islandica (Bivalvia: Arcticidae) to simulated leakages of carbon dioxide from sub-sea geological storage. (United States)

    Bamber, Shaw D; Westerlund, Stig


    Sub-sea geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) provides a viable option for the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) approach for reducing atmospheric emissions of this greenhouse gas. Although generally considered to offer a low risk of major leakage, it remains relevant to establish the possible consequences for marine organisms that live in or on sediments overlying these storage areas if such an event may occur. The present study has used a series of laboratory exposures and behavioral bioassays to establish the sensitivity of Arctica islandica to simulated leakages of CO2. This long-lived bivalve mollusc is widely distributed throughout the North Sea, an area where geological storage is currently taking place and where there are plans to expand this operation significantly. A recently published model has predicted a maximum drop of 1.9pH units in seawater at the point source of a substantial escape of CO2 from sub-sea geological storage in this region. Valve movements of A. islandica exposed to reduced pH seawater were recorded continuously using Hall effect proximity sensors. Valve movement regulation is important for optimising the flow of water over the gills, which supplies food and facilitates respiration. A stepwise reduction in seawater pH showed an initial increase in both the rate and extent of valve movements in the majority of individuals tested when pH fell to 6.2 units. Exposing A. islandica to pH 6.2 seawater continuously for seven days resulted in a clear increase in valve movements during the first 40h of exposure, followed by a gradual reduction in activity intensity over the subsequent five days, suggesting acclimation. The ability of both exposed and control bivalves to burrow successfully into sediment on completion of this exposure was very similar. A final exposure trial, testing whether increased valve movements initiated by reduced pH were related to foot extension during attempted burrowing, found no such association. In summary

  4. Phylogenetic position of Linguatula arctica and Linguatula serrata (Pentastomida) as inferred from the nuclear 18S rRNA gene and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. (United States)

    Gjerde, Bjørn


    Genomic DNA was isolated from a Linguatula serrata female expelled from a dog imported to Norway from Romania and from four Linguatula arctica females collected from semi-domesticated reindeer from northern Norway and subjected to PCR amplification of the complete nuclear 18S rRNA gene and a 1,045-bp portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (cox1). The two species differed at two of 1,830 nucleotide positions (99.9% identity) of the complete 18S rRNA gene sequences and at 102 of 1,045 nucleotide positions (90.2% identity) of the partial cox1 sequences. The four isolates of L. arctica showed no genetic variation in either gene. The new cox1 primers may facilitate the diagnosis of various developmental stages of L. arctica and L. serrata in their hosts. In separate phylogenetic analyses using the maximum likelihood method on sequence data from either gene, L. arctica and L. serrata clustered with members of the order Cephalobaenida rather than with members of the order Porocephalida, in which the genus Linguatula is currently placed based on morphological characters. The phylogenetic relationship of L. arctica, L. serrata and other pentastomids to other metazoan groups could not be clearly resolved, but the pentastomids did not seem to have a sister relationship to crustaceans of the subclass Branchiura as found in other studies. A more extensive taxon sampling, including molecular characterisation of more pentastomid taxa across different genera, seems to be necessary in order to estimate the true relationship of the Pentastomida to other metazoan groups.

  5. Effects of steam explosion and co-digestion in the methane production from Salix by mesophilic batch assays. (United States)

    Estevez, Maria M; Linjordet, Roar; Morken, John


    Salix that was steam exploded at different conditions of temperature and time was anaerobically digested in a series of batch tests. Steam explosion proved to be favorable to increase the methane yields up to 50%, with best results obtained for temperatures starting at 210 °C. Batch studies for mixtures of cow manure and steam exploded Salix were performed, with C/N ratios varying from 31 to 56, related to volatile solids (VS) contents from 20 up to 80% of each of the substrates. Methane yields reached 230 mL CH(4)/g VS for the mixtures containing 30% and 40% VS of Salix over the total mixture's VS content (35 and 39 C/N ratio, respectively). A fraction up to 40% in VS from pre-treated Salix provided good methane yields with a faster digestion process.

  6. Barry Lopez's Relational Arctic


    Kjeldaas, Sigfrid


    "Arctic dreams: imagination and desire in a Northern landscape"(1986) can be read as American nature writer Barry Lopez’s attempt to evoke a more profound and ecologically sound understanding of the North American Arctic. This article investigates how Arctic Dreams uses insights from Jacob von Uexküll’s Umwelt theory, in combination with what Tim Ingold describes as a particular form of animism associated with circumpolar indigenous hunter cultures, to portray the Arctic natur...

  7. Sexual and Asexual Reproduction of Salix sitchensis and the Influence of Beaver (Castor canadensis) Herbivory on Reproductive Success


    Travis G. Gerwing; Alyssa M. Allen Gerwing; Rapaport, Eric; Alström-Rapaport, Cecilia


    The influence of beaver (Castor canadensis Kuhl) herbivory on Salix reproduction, specifically the stimulation of asexual reproduction via browsed stem fragments, is relatively unknown. This study aimed to determine if beaver herbivory stimulates asexual reproduction of riparian willows and results in mature populations dominated by clones. The survival of seedlings and asexual propagules produced by beaver browse in populations of the riparian willow Salix sitchensis (Sanson in Bongard) were...

  8. Deeper snow alters soil nutrient availability and leaf nutrient status in high Arctic tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenchuk, Philipp R.; Elberling, Bo; Amtorp, Cecilie;


    Nitrogen (N) mineralization, nutrient availability, and plant growth in the Arctic are often restricted by low temperatures. Predicted increases of cold-season temperatures may be important for plant nutrient availability and growth, given that N mineralization is also taking place during the cold...... season. Changing nutrient availability may be reflected in plant N and chlorophyll content and lead to increased photosynthetic capacity, plant growth, and ultimately carbon (C) assimilation by plants. In this study, we increased snow depth and thereby cold-season soil temperatures in high Arctic......, Bistorta vivipara, and Luzula arcuata at peak season. Nutrient availability was significantly higher with increased snow depth in the two mesic meadow vegetation types, but not in the drier heath vegetation. Nitrogen concentrations and delta N-15 values of Salix leaves were significantly higher in all...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NUKA ARCTICA in the Davis Strait, Kattegat and others from 2007-04-27 to 2008-01-05 (NCEI Accession 0144288) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144288 includes Surface underway data collected from NUKA ARCTICA in the Davis Strait, Kattegat, The Sound, Great Belt, Little Belt, North Atlantic...

  10. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the STENA ARCTICA in the South Atlantic Ocean from 1989-02-14 to 1989-03-17 (NODC Accession 0113893) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113893 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from STENA ARCTICA in the South Atlantic Ocean from 1989-02-14 to...

  11. Failure of two consecutive annual treatments with ivermectin to eradicate the reindeer parasites (Hypoderma tarandi, Cephenemyia trompe and Linguatula arctica from an island in northern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne C. Nilssen


    Full Text Available The highly efficient endectocide ivermectin is used to reduce the burden of parasites in many semidomestic reindeer herds in northern Fennoscandia. In the autumn of 1995 and 1996 all reindeer on the island of Silda (42 km2 were treated with ivermectin in an attempt to eradicate the warble fly (Hypoderma (=Oedemagena tarandi (L., the nose bot fly (Cephenemyia trompe (Modeer (Diptera: Oestridae and the sinus worm (Linguatula arctica Riley, Haugerud and Nilssen (Pentastomida: Linguatulidae. Silda is situated 2-3 km off the mainland of Finnmark, northern Norway, and supports about 475 reindeer in summer. A year after the first treatment, the mean abundance of H. tarandi was reduced from 3.5 to 0.6, but a year after the second treatment the mean abundance unexpectedly had increased to 4.5. After one year without treatment, the mean abundance and prevalence of the three target parasites were at the same level, or higher, than pre-treatment levels. The main hypothesis for the failure to eliminate the parasites is that gravid H. tarandi and C. trompe females originating from untreated reindeer in adjacent mainland areas dispersed to the island during the warm summer of 1997 (possibly also in 1998. As these oestrids are strong flyers, it may not be too difficult for them to cross >2-3 km of oceanic waters. There are no good explanations for the failure to eradicate L. arctica, but the results indicate that there may be elements in its life cycle that are unknown. The conclusion of the study is that it may be difficult or impossible to eradicate these parasites permanently, even locally such as on islands unless adjacent areas on the mainland are also cleared.

  12. Feeding preferences of the willow sawfl y Nematus oligospilus (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae for commercial Salix clones Preferencias alimentarias de la avispa sierra de los sauces Nematus oligospilus (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae por clones de Salix comerciales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Loetti


    Full Text Available Nematus oligospilus Förster (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae is a willow sawfly native to the Northern Hemisphere which became a serious defoliator in willow plantations (Salix spp. of the Southern Hemisphere after being introduced in the early 1980´s. Studies on host preferences provide useful information for the development of pest management strategies where the willow sawfly may produce tree damage and economic loss. Feeding preferences of N. oligospilus larvae were evaluated in laboratory trials by simultaneously offering leaves from four willow tree clones commonly used in commercial plantations in Argentina (Salix babylonica var sacramenta Hortus, Salix nigra Marsch., S. babylonica L. x Salix alba L. 131-27 and Salix matsudana Koidz. x S. alba L. 13-44. Larvae of N. oligospilus fed on leaves from the four clones. However, insects consumed a significantly higher proportion of S. babylonica var sacramenta leaves than of leaves from the other clones. Results indicate that all clones used in the trials were palatable to the insect, and that S. babylonica var sacramenta is the preferred host for larval herbivory.Nematus oligospilus Förster (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae, o la avispa sierra de los sauces, es nativa del Hemisferio Norte y se ha convertido en un serio defoliador en plantaciones de sauces (Salix spp. del Hemisferio Sur, después de su introducción a principios de 1980. Los estudios sobre las preferencias de hospedador aportan información útil para el desarrollo de estrategias, donde la avispa sierra puede producir daño a los árboles y pérdidas económicas. Se evaluó la preferencia alimentaria de las larvas de N. oligospilus, mediante ensayos de laboratorio; se ofrecieron en forma simultánea hojas de cuatro clones de sauce, usados comúnmente en plantaciones comerciales en Argentina (Salix babylonica var sacramenta Hortus, Salix nigra Marsch., S. babylonica L. x Salix alba L. 131-27 and Salix matsudana Koidz. x S. alba L. 13

  13. Resistência do vimeiro, Salix spp. (Salicaceae, à pragas e doenças

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamille Casa


    Full Text Available The present work aimed at evaluating the resistance reaction to pest and disease of introduced species and local clones of Salix x rubens, in different ecosystems of “Planalto Serrano Catarinense”. Three experiments were conducted in field conditions during 2003/2004 crop cycle with introduced genotypes from Argentina, Chile, Germany and France and local clones of Salix x rubens. The resistance evaluations consisted of pest incidence and severity of leaf diseases estimations. A rank of resistance reaction of willow was demonstrated as result of large genetic base. The research showed that genotypes EEL_10, EEL_08, EEL_02, EEL_13, EEL_09, and EEL_20 access were the most resistant ones against pest and diseases. Further studies would be needed to verify if these genotypes can be suitable for crafting when cultivated in the “Planalto Serrano Catarinense” conditions.

  14. Molecular diversity of volatile compounds in rare willow (Salix spp.) honeydew honey: identification of chemical biomarkers. (United States)

    Jerković, I; Marijanović, Z; Tuberoso, C I G; Bubalo, D; Kezić, N


    Salix spp. honeydew honey volatiles were analyzed for the first time by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE) followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC, GC-MS). The use of HS-SPME and USE had advantageous results over the use of one single technique, as it provided different complementary chromatographic profiles for a comprehensive screening of the honeydew volatile composition. The volatiles with different functionality, molecular weight, and polarity were extracted and identified. High percentages of benzoic acid, phenylacetic acid, 2-hydroxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid with minor percentages of 4-methoxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxyphenylethanol, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid from USE extracts can be emphasized as volatile biomarkers of this honeydew that probably originated from Salix spp., as well as methyl salicylate identified only by HS-SPME. The application of heat treatment at 80 degrees C for 2 h did not change significantly the volatile composition of this honeydew.

  15. Islands of the Arctic (United States)

    Overpeck, Jonathan


    Few environments on Earth are changing more dramatically than the Arctic. Sea ice retreat and thinning is unprecedented in the period of the satellite record. Surface air temperatures are the warmest in centuries. The biology of Arctic lakes is changing like never before in millennia. Everything is pointing to the meltdown predicted by climate model simulations for the next 100 years. At the same time, the Arctic remains one of the most pristine and beautiful places on Earth. For both those who know the Arctic and those who want to know it, this book is worth its modest price. There is much more to the Arctic than its islands, but there's little doubt that Greenland and the major northern archipelagos can serve as a great introduction to the environment and magnificence of the Arctic. The book uses the islands of the Arctic to give a good introduction to what the Arctic environment is all about. The first chapter sets the stage with an overview of the geography of the Arctic islands, and this is followed by chapters that cover many key aspects of the Arctic: the geology (origins), weather and climate, glaciers, ice sheets, sea ice, permafrost and other frozen ground issues, coasts, rivers, lakes, animals, people, and environmental impacts. The material is pitched at a level well suited for the interested layperson, but the book will also appeal to those who study the science of the Arctic.

  16. Approaching a Postcolonial Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars


    This article explores different postcolonially configured approaches to the Arctic. It begins by considering the Arctic as a region, an entity, and how the customary political science informed approaches are delimited by their focus on understanding the Arctic as a region at the service...... of the contemporary neoliberal order. It moves on to explore how different parts of the Arctic are inscribed in a number of sub-Arctic nation-state binds, focusing mainly on Canada and Denmark. The article argues that the postcolonial can be understood as a prism or a methodology that asks pivotal questions to all...... approaches to the Arctic. Yet the postcolonial itself is characterised by limitations, not least in this context its lack of interest in the Arctic, and its bias towards conventional forms of representation in art. The article points to the need to develop a more integrated critique of colonial and neo...

  17. Cadmium phytoextraction using short-rotation coppice Salix: the evidence trail. (United States)

    Dickinson, Nicholas M; Pulford, Ian D


    A substantial body of evidence has now accumulated that raises expectations that clean-up of Cd-contaminated land can be achieved through cultivation and harvest of selected clones of short-rotation coppice willow within a realistic crop lifecycle. Cd uptake rates into Salix are high compared to other trace elements and to other plant species. Effective phytoextraction would require (i) careful targeting of hotspots, (ii) repeated harvest prior to leaf fall and (iii) final removal of the root bole.

  18. 9,10-seco-9,19-cyclolanostane triterpene from Salix caprea L. (goat willow). (United States)

    Tantry, Mudasir A; Shah, Saba; Dar, Mohammad Y; Mir, Mohammad M; Ghazanfar, Khalid; Sheikh, Faheem A; Khuroo, Mohammad A; Akbar, Seema


    Chemical investigation of low polar solvent extract of Salix caprea through chromatographic techniques led to the isolation of new triterpene as 1α,3β,25-trihydroxy-9(11)-ene-16-one-9,10-seco-9,19-cyclolanostane (1) along with fatty alcohols. The structure of compound 1 was established by IR, HRESI/MS and NMR including 1D and 2D experiments. The compound 1 showed moderate in vitro antiplasmodial activity.

  19. Bioaccessibility In Vitro of Nutraceuticals from Bark of Selected Salix Species


    Urszula Gawlik-Dziki; Danuta Sugier; Dariusz Dziki; Piotr Sugier


    The aim of this study was to investigate and to compare the extractability, bioaccessibility, and bioavailability in vitro of antioxidative compounds from bark of selected Salix species: S. alba (SA), S. daphnoides (SD), S. purpurea (SP), and S. daphnoides x purpurea (SDP) hybrid willow clones originating from their natural habitats and cultivated on the sandy soil. The highest amount of phenolic glycosides was found in the bark of SDP and SD. The best source of phenolics was bark of SDP. The...

  20. Composition, buoyancy regulation and fate of ice algal aggregates in the Central Arctic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Fernández-Méndez

    Full Text Available Sea-ice diatoms are known to accumulate in large aggregates in and under sea ice and in melt ponds. There is recent evidence from the Arctic that such aggregates can contribute substantially to particle export when sinking from the ice. The role and regulation of microbial aggregation in the highly seasonal, nutrient- and light-limited Arctic sea-ice ecosystem is not well understood. To elucidate the mechanisms controlling the formation and export of algal aggregates from sea ice, we investigated samples taken in late summer 2011 and 2012, during two cruises to the Eurasian Basin of the Central Arctic Ocean. Spherical aggregates densely packed with pennate diatoms, as well as filamentous aggregates formed by Melosira arctica showed sign of different stages of degradation and physiological stoichiometries, with carbon to chlorophyll a ratios ranging from 110 to 66700, and carbon to nitrogen molar ratios of 8-35 and 9-40, respectively. Sub-ice algal aggregate densities ranged between 1 and 17 aggregates m(-2, maintaining an estimated net primary production of 0.4-40 mg C m(-2 d(-1, and accounted for 3-80% of total phototrophic biomass and up to 94% of local net primary production. A potential factor controlling the buoyancy of the aggregates was light intensity, regulating photosynthetic oxygen production and the amount of gas bubbles trapped within the mucous matrix, even at low ambient nutrient concentrations. Our data-set was used to evaluate the distribution and importance of Arctic algal aggregates as carbon source for pelagic and benthic communities.

  1. Composition, buoyancy regulation and fate of ice algal aggregates in the Central Arctic Ocean. (United States)

    Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Peeken, Ilka; Sørensen, Heidi L; Glud, Ronnie N; Boetius, Antje


    Sea-ice diatoms are known to accumulate in large aggregates in and under sea ice and in melt ponds. There is recent evidence from the Arctic that such aggregates can contribute substantially to particle export when sinking from the ice. The role and regulation of microbial aggregation in the highly seasonal, nutrient- and light-limited Arctic sea-ice ecosystem is not well understood. To elucidate the mechanisms controlling the formation and export of algal aggregates from sea ice, we investigated samples taken in late summer 2011 and 2012, during two cruises to the Eurasian Basin of the Central Arctic Ocean. Spherical aggregates densely packed with pennate diatoms, as well as filamentous aggregates formed by Melosira arctica showed sign of different stages of degradation and physiological stoichiometries, with carbon to chlorophyll a ratios ranging from 110 to 66700, and carbon to nitrogen molar ratios of 8-35 and 9-40, respectively. Sub-ice algal aggregate densities ranged between 1 and 17 aggregates m(-2), maintaining an estimated net primary production of 0.4-40 mg C m(-2) d(-1), and accounted for 3-80% of total phototrophic biomass and up to 94% of local net primary production. A potential factor controlling the buoyancy of the aggregates was light intensity, regulating photosynthetic oxygen production and the amount of gas bubbles trapped within the mucous matrix, even at low ambient nutrient concentrations. Our data-set was used to evaluate the distribution and importance of Arctic algal aggregates as carbon source for pelagic and benthic communities.

  2. The Study of Interactions between Active Compounds of Coffee and Willow (Salix sp. Bark Water Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Durak


    Full Text Available Coffee and willow are known as valuable sources of biologically active phytochemicals such as chlorogenic acid, caffeine, and salicin. The aim of the study was to determine the interactions between the active compounds contained in water extracts from coffee and bark of willow (Salix purpurea and Salix myrsinifolia. Raw materials and their mixtures were characterized by multidirectional antioxidant activities; however, bioactive constituents interacted with each other. Synergism was observed for ability of inhibition of lipid peroxidation and reducing power, whereas compounds able to scavenge ABTS radical cation acted antagonistically. Additionally, phytochemicals from willow bark possessed hydrophilic character and thermostability which justifies their potential use as an ingredient in coffee beverages. Proposed mixtures may be used in the prophylaxis or treatment of some civilization diseases linked with oxidative stress. Most importantly, strong synergism observed for phytochemicals able to prevent lipids against oxidation may suggest protective effect for cell membrane phospholipids. Obtained results indicate that extracts from bark tested Salix genotypes as an ingredient in coffee beverages can provide health promoting benefits to the consumers; however, this issue requires further study.

  3. The study of interactions between active compounds of coffee and willow (Salix sp.) bark water extract. (United States)

    Durak, Agata; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula


    Coffee and willow are known as valuable sources of biologically active phytochemicals such as chlorogenic acid, caffeine, and salicin. The aim of the study was to determine the interactions between the active compounds contained in water extracts from coffee and bark of willow (Salix purpurea and Salix myrsinifolia). Raw materials and their mixtures were characterized by multidirectional antioxidant activities; however, bioactive constituents interacted with each other. Synergism was observed for ability of inhibition of lipid peroxidation and reducing power, whereas compounds able to scavenge ABTS radical cation acted antagonistically. Additionally, phytochemicals from willow bark possessed hydrophilic character and thermostability which justifies their potential use as an ingredient in coffee beverages. Proposed mixtures may be used in the prophylaxis or treatment of some civilization diseases linked with oxidative stress. Most importantly, strong synergism observed for phytochemicals able to prevent lipids against oxidation may suggest protective effect for cell membrane phospholipids. Obtained results indicate that extracts from bark tested Salix genotypes as an ingredient in coffee beverages can provide health promoting benefits to the consumers; however, this issue requires further study.

  4. Zn, Cd, S and trace metal bioaccumulation in willow (Salix spp.) cultivars grown hydroponically. (United States)

    McBride, M B; Martinez, C E; Kim, B


    Willows (Salix spp.) can be used to phytoremediate soils contaminated by Zn and Cd under certain conditions. In this study, the ability of 14 Salix cultivars to concentrate Cd, Zn and S in leaves was measured in hydroponic culture with 10 and 200 µM Cd and Zn, respectively, in the nutrient medium. The cultivars showed a wide range of biomass yields, tolerance to metals, and foliar concentrations of Zn and Cd, with some cultivars accumulating up to 1000 mg kg(-1) Zn, 70 mg kg(-1) Cd and 10,000 mg kg(-1) S with only mild phytotoxicity symptoms attributable to excess Zn. Cultivars with higher foliar Zn concentrations tended to have higher foliar Cd concentrations as well, and competition between Zn and Cd for uptake was observed. Exposure of Salix cultivars to Cd and Zn did not affect foliar concentrations of secondary metabolites such as polyphenols, but trace metal concentrations in leaves were significantly reduced (Fe and Cu) or increased (Mn) by exposure to excess Zn and Cd. Sulfur-XANES spectroscopy showed foliar S to be predominantly in highly oxidized (sulfate plus sulfonate) and reduced (thiol) forms, with oxidized S more prevalent in willows with the highest total S content.

  5. Agaricus bisporus compost improves the potential of Salix purpurea × viminalis hybrid for copper accumulation. (United States)

    Magdziak, Z; Mleczek, M; Gąsecka, M; Drzewiecka, K; Kaczmarek, Z; Siwulski, M; Goliński, P


    The aim of the study was to determine the ability of spent mushroom compost (SMC) from the production of Agaricus bisporus (A. bisporus) to stimulate the growth and efficiency of copper (Cu) accumulation by Salix purpurea × viminalis hybrid. Roots, shoots and leaves were analysed in terms of total Cu content and selected biometric parameters. Due to the absence of information regarding the physiological response of the studied plant, low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs), phenolic compounds and salicylic acid (SA) contents were investigated. The obtained results clearly demonstrate the effectiveness (usefulness) of SMC in promoting the growth and stimulation of Cu accumulation by the studied Salix taxon. The highest Cu content in roots and shoots was found at the 10% SMC addition (507±22 and 380±11 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively), while there was a reduction of the content in leaves and young shoots (109±8 and 124±7 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively). In terms of physiological response, lowered secretion of LMWOAs, biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and SA, as well as accumulation of soluble sugars in Salix leaves was observed with SMC addition. Simultaneously, an elevation of the total phenolic content in leaves of plants cultivated with SMC was observed, considered as antioxidant biomolecules.

  6. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci Conditioning the Main Biomass Yield Components and Resistance to Melampsora spp. in Salix viminalis × Salix schwerinii Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Sulima


    Full Text Available The biomass of Salix viminalis is the most highly valued source of green energy, followed by S. schwerinii, S. dasyclados and other species. Significant variability in productivity and leaf rust resistance are noted both within and among willow species, which creates new opportunities for improving willow yield parameters through selection of desirable recombinants supported with molecular markers. The aim of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs linked with biomass yield-related traits and the resistance/susceptibility of Salix mapping population to leaf rust. The experimental material comprised a mapping population developed based on S. viminalis × S. schwerinii hybrids. Phenotyping was performed on plants grown in a field experiment that had a balanced incomplete block design with 10 replications. Based on a genetic map, 11 QTLs were identified for plant height, 9 for shoot diameter, 3 for number of shoots and 11 for resistance/susceptibility to leaf rust. The QTLs identified in our study explained 3%–16% of variability in the analyzed traits. Our findings make significant contributions to the development of willow breeding programs and research into shrubby willow crops grown for energy.

  7. Demonstration cultivation of Salix in northern Sweden with a focus on frost resistance; Demonstrationsodling av Salix i Norrland med frosttolerans i fokus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederstroem, Yvonne


    This project is part of the Thermal Engineering Research Association's (Vaermeforsk) programme 'Crops from field to energy production' and the goal is to convince growers to begin cultivating Salix in the northern part of Sweden. The project will demonstrate whether it is possible to grow Salix and examine what type of Salix (the report refers to the different types as Tora, Karin and Gudrun) is most frost-resistant and resistant to insects, fungal infections and animals. The project is aimed primarily at landowners and energy companies. The results showed that growth at the demonstration plots was moderate and the establishment rate was considered good. Growth has been uneven across the fields. At Eriksgaard, about 75% of the plants survived the winter. Survival was determined by the number of plants missing and dead. Additional plants were planted at the sites in 2009. No major insect or leaf fungus attacks were noted at either Eriksgaard or Soergaard, but they both experienced grazing from deer and elk. The rating showed that the herbicide treatment was not sufficient on the demonstration fields. For this reason, a comparison of average lengths was performed of Gudrun in Bodum, where the weeds had not grown as much. The comparison showed that the difference in growth was not significant in the autumn 2008, but the plants in Bodum had grown more by autumn 2009. Topping was not performed in the spring 2009 so that the plants would have an opportunity to grow higher than the weeds and the plants would have an opportunity to have a growth spurt. A comparison of Tora, Karin and Gudrun in Roedoen showed moderate growth for the three types. There were variations in the rows and across the field, mostly for Tora and Karin. Gudrun had lower, but more consistent growth across the field. During the summer 2009, survival was rated for the plants in Roedoen. This rating showed that 90% of Tora, 60% of Karin and 70% of Gudrun had survived the winter. The Salix

  8. Declines in populations of Salix caprea L.during forest regeneration after strong herbivore pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz B. Faliński


    Full Text Available Communities of broadleaved forest subject to strong pressure from large herbivores underwent degeneration. The relief of this pressure led to regeneration of the community, in which an important role was played by the sallow Salix caprea and other light-seeded pioneer species of tree (Populus tremula, Betula pendula and B. pubescens. Regeneration involving Salix caprea proceeded following the conservatorial protection of the degenerate stands in a reserve and later in Białowieża National Park. The emergence and development of the population of Salix caprea proceeded following the invasion of spruce, which coincided with the period of enhanced animal pressure on broadleaved forest. Salix caprea filled all the gaps in the tree stand arising as a result of the destruction of trees and undergrowth by herbivores (in the years 1892-1915. It also appeared en masse on old, at that time unforested, clearings and felled areas. In these places, Salix caprea created very abundant populations, with particular trees being in good condition, with a habit typical of forest trees and attaining considerable heights. The majority of trees were 50-60 years old at the time of death, although individuals reached 74 years of age. The process of extinction of the sallow population - observed over 19 years on permanent plots and fixed trees - proceeded very quickly, especially in the first decade of observation. It led to the almost complete disappearance of sallow for the forest communities of Białowieża National Park. The death of individual trees is preceded by impairment of their health and reduced annual increments in the 4-9 last years of life. The extinction of the population is associated with the loss of its primary phenological differentiation and with a change in the sex structure of the population from a prevalence of female trees to a near even distribution of the two sexes. The development of the populations of permanent constituents of the forest

  9. Arctic wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltola, E. [Kemijoki Oy (Finland); Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Tammelin, B. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland)


    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  10. Arctic tipping points


    Smolkova, Valentina


    The Arctic is warming much faster than the entire planet, and this causes severe melting of sea ice. However, the climate of different regions of the Earth is interconnected, and changes in the amount of ice in the Arctic can dramatically affect the climate across the whole planet. Some scientists claim that a possible tipping point is the event of the ice-free Arctic Ocean in summer. Certain predictions point towards ice-free Arctic summers around the year 2050, whereas others pre- dict this...

  11. Exploring the impact of temperature and fluid chemistry on Ca and Sr isotope composition of Arctica islandica shells via experimental alteration (United States)

    Goos, Manuela; Eisenhauer, Anton; Liebetrau, Volker; Böhm, Florian; Fietzke, Jan; Nehrke, Gernot; Buhl, Dieter; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Dietzel, Martin


    Carbonate shells of marine organisms record by their chemical and isotopic composition environmental conditions like temperature, salinity and pH during their formation. However, primary signals can be overprinted by diagenesis, which has to be considered for the interpretation of environmental proxy data and on the other side may provide additional information about distinct reaction pathways throughout diagenesis (e.g. Allison et al, 2007). Aragonitic Arctica islandica shells widely used as proxy archives (e.g. Schöne et al, 2005) were chosen for hydrothermal alteration experiments in order to get a more detailed insight into diagenetic effects. Here we present results of experiments in which Arctica islandica shell fragments were exposed to North Sea seawater at temperatures of 100r{ }C and 175r{ }C at distinct reaction times. Strontium isotope composition of the experimental medium was adjusted from an original composition of δ 88/86SrSRM987= 0.391(1)‰ and 87Sr/86Sr= 0.70921(1) to δ 88/86SrSRM987= 0.179(1)‰ and 87Sr/86Sr= 0.70789(1) by sulfate extraction and Sr replacement procedures. The artificially altered shell material (six sub-samples of six shell fragments) and the corresponding solutions were prepared and analyzed. Results show that at 100r{ }C aragonite is still the predominant phase, but show lower peak intensities with Raman and XRD near the surface of the shell fragments. At 175r{ }C the aragonitic shell material recrystallized almost completely to calcite. In addition a rim of weakly ordered dolomite (10μ m) was found around these samples. Analysis of element concentrations of initial and final solutions show that at 175r{ }C Sr and Ca concentrations increase (Sr: 79 to 183 μ mol/l; Ca: 8 to 30 mmol/l), while Mg concentration decreases (Mg: 42 to 22 mmol/l). A corresponding Sr and Ca depletion along with an increase of Mg occurred in the samples, especially in the dolomite rim. At 100r{ }C only minor increase of Sr, Ca and Mg

  12. Arctic Shrub Growth Response to Climate Variation and Infrastructure Development on the North Slope of Alaska (United States)

    Ackerman, D.; Finlay, J. C.; Griffin, D.


    Woody shrub growth in the arctic tundra is increasing on a circumpolar scale. Shrub expansion alters land-atmosphere carbon fluxes, nutrient cycling, and habitat structure. Despite these ecosystem effects, the drivers of shrub expansion have not been precisely established at the landscape scale. This project examined two proposed anthropogenic drivers: global climate change and local infrastructure development, a press disturbance that generates high levels of dust deposition. Effects of global change were studied using dendrochronology to establish a relationship between climate and annual growth in Betula and Salix shrubs growing in the Alaskan low Arctic. To understand the spatial heterogeneity of shrub expansion, this analysis was replicated in shrub populations across levels of landscape properties including soil moisture and substrate age. Effects of dust deposition on normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and photosynthetic rate were measured on transects up to 625 meters from the Dalton Highway. Dust deposition rates decreased exponentially with distance from road, matching previous models of road dust deposition. NDVI tracked deposition rates closely, but photosynthetic rates were not strongly affected by deposition. These results suggest that dust deposition may locally bias remote sensing measurements such as NDVI, without altering internal physiological processes such as photosynthesis in arctic shrubs. Distinguishing between the effects of landscape properties, climate, and disturbance will improve our predictions of the biogeochemical feedbacks of arctic shrub expansion, with potential application in climate change modeling.

  13. Linkage mapping in tetraploid willows: segregation of molecular markers and estimation of linkage phases support an allotetraploid structure for Salix alba x Salix fragilis interspecific hybrids. (United States)

    Barcaccia, G; Meneghetti, S; Albertini, E; Triest, L; Lucchin, M


    Salix alba-Salix fragilis complex includes closely related dioecious polyploid species, which are obligate outcrossers. Natural populations of these willows and their hybrids are represented by a mixture of highly heterozygous genotypes sharing a common gene pool. Since nothing is known about their genomic constitution, tetraploidy (2n=4x=76) in willow species makes basic and applied genetic studies difficult. We have used a two-way pseudotestcross strategy and single-dose markers (SDMs) to construct the first linkage maps for both pistillate and staminate willows. A total of 242 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and 50 selective amplifications of microsatellite polymorphic loci (SAMPL) markers, which showed 1:1 segregation in the F(1) mapping populations, were used in linkage analysis. In S. alba, 73 maternal and 48 paternal SDMs were mapped to 19 and 16 linkage groups covering 708 and 339 cM, respectively. In S. fragilis, 13 maternal and 33 paternal SDMs were mapped in six and 14 linkage groups covering 98 and 321 cM, respectively. For most cosegregation groups, a comparable number of markers linked in coupling and repulsion was identified. This finding suggests that most of chromosomes pair preferentially as occurs in allotetraploid species exhibiting disomic inheritance. The detection of 10 pairs of marker alleles from single parents showing codominant inheritance strengthens this hypothesis. The fact that, of the 1122 marker loci identified in the two male and female parents, the vast majority (77.5%) were polymorphic and as few as 22.5% were shared between parental species highlight that S. alba and S. fragilis genotypes are differentiated. The highly difference between S. alba- and S. fragilis-specific markers found in both parental combinations (on average, 65.3 vs 34.7%, respectively) supports the (phylogenetic) hypothesis that S. fragilis is derived from S. alba-like progenitors.

  14. White Arctic vs. Blue Arctic: Making Choices (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Newton, R.; Schlosser, P.; Pomerance, R.; Tremblay, B.; Murray, M. S.; Gerrard, M.


    As the Arctic warms and shifts from icy white to watery blue and resource-rich, tension is arising between the desire to restore and sustain an ice-covered Arctic and stakeholder communities that hope to benefit from an open Arctic Ocean. If emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere continue on their present trend, most of the summer sea ice cover is projected to be gone by mid-century, i.e., by the time that few if any interventions could be in place to restore it. There are many local as well as global reasons for ice restoration, including for example, preserving the Arctic's reflectivity, sustaining critical habitat, and maintaining cultural traditions. However, due to challenges in implementing interventions, it may take decades before summer sea ice would begin to return. This means that future generations would be faced with bringing sea ice back into regions where they have not experienced it before. While there is likely to be interest in taking action to restore ice for the local, regional, and global services it provides, there is also interest in the economic advancement that open access brings. Dealing with these emerging issues and new combinations of stakeholders needs new approaches - yet environmental change in the Arctic is proceeding quickly and will force the issues sooner rather than later. In this contribution we examine challenges, opportunities, and responsibilities related to exploring options for restoring Arctic sea ice and potential pathways for their implementation. Negotiating responses involves international strategic considerations including security and governance, meaning that along with local communities, state decision-makers, and commercial interests, national governments will have to play central roles. While these issues are currently playing out in the Arctic, similar tensions are also emerging in other regions.

  15. Genetic Segregation and Genomic Hybridization Patterns Support an Allotetraploid Structure and Disomic Inheritance for Salix Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Barcaccia


    Full Text Available The Salix alba L. (white willow—Salix fragilis L. (crack willow complex includes closely related polyploid species, mainly tetraploid (2n = 4x = 76, which are dioecious and hence obligate allogamous. Because little is known about the genome constitution and chromosome behavior of these pure willow trees, genetic analysis of their naturally occurring interspecific polyploid hybrids is still very difficult. A two-way pseudo-testcross strategy was exploited using single-dose AFLP markers in order to assess the main inheritance patterns of tetraploid biotypes (disomy vs. tetrasomy in segregating populations stemmed from S. alba × S. fragilis crosses and reciprocals. In addition, a genomic in situ hybridization (GISH technology was implemented in willow to shed some light on the genome structure of S. alba and S. fragilis species, and their hybrids (allopolyploidy vs. autopolyploidy. The frequency of S. alba-specific molecular markers was almost double compared to that of S. fragilis-specific ones, suggesting the phylogenetic hypothesis of S. fragilis as derivative species from S. alba-like progenitors. Cytogenetic observations at pro-metaphase revealed about half of the chromosome complements being less contracted than the remaining ones, supporting an allopolyploid origin of both S. alba and S. fragilis. Both genetic segregation and genomic hybridization data are consistent with an allotetraploid nature of the Salix species. In particular, the vast majority of the AFLP markers were inherited according to disomic patterns in S. alba × S. fragilis populations and reciprocals. Moreover, in all S. alba against S. fragilis hybridizations and reciprocals, GISH signals were observed only on the contracted chromosomes whereas the non-contracted chromosomes were never hybridized. In conclusion, half of the chromosomes of the pure species S. alba and S. fragilis are closely related and they could share a common diploid ancestor, while the rest of


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Sannikova


    Full Text Available Plants of willow genus are rich in various flavonoids. In 60-e years of the XX century the works of V. A. Kompantsev showed that leaves of willow triandra, growing in the North Caucasus, contain up to 5% of rutin. The method, which required long sample preparation (extraction of the raw material with TLC, chromatographic layer extraction with methanol, removal of the solvent, dissolution in ethanol, optical density measurements was used. Currently available and simple methods for the determination of rutin in plant material are described. Given that leaves of Salix triandra contain significant amounts of rutin and can be a potential raw material for the creation of medicines on their basis, it is essential to determine the amount of flavonoids in the leaves of Salix triandra and its branches.The purpose of this study is determination of the amount of flavonoids in the willow triandra, growing in the North Caucasus, depending on the place and time of collection.Methods. TLC and the method of differential spectrophotometry were used to study chemical reactions. Results. The presence of flavonoids in various vegetative plant organs was established using qualitative reactions (cyanidin test; boric-citric reaction; the reaction with solution of lead acetate and solution of ammonia. Rutin and quercetin flavonoids in the presence of standard samples were identified using TLC. the method of differential spectrophotometry, based on the reaction of flavonoids with aluminum chloride was used for the quantitative determination of the amount of flavonoids. It is shown that the greatest quantity of flavonoids amount accumulated in the leaves (up to 3.76%, its value in branches is slightly smaller (up to 3.26%. The branches without leaves have almost 10 times less flavonoids. It was established experimentally that the accumulation of flavonoids in raw material of Salix triandra is dependent on the place and time of

  17. Quaternary ostracode and foraminiferal biostratigraphy and paleoceanography in the western Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas M.; DeNinno, Lauren H.; Polyak, L.V.; Caverly, Emma K.; Poore, Richard; Brenner, Alec R.; Rodriguez-Lazaro, J.; Marzen, R.E.


    The stratigraphic distributions of ostracodes and selected calcareous benthic and planktic foraminiferal species were studied in sediment cores from ~ 700 to 2700 m water depth on the Northwind, Mendeleev, and Lomonosov Ridges in the western Arctic Ocean. Microfaunal records in most cores cover mid- to late Quaternary sediments deposited in the last ~ 600 ka, with one record covering the last ~ 1.5 Ma. Results show a progressive faunal turnover during the mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT, ~ 1.2 to 0.7 Ma) and around the mid-Brunhes event (MBE, ~ 0.4 Ma) reflecting major changes in Arctic Ocean temperature, circulation and sea-ice cover. The observed MPT shift is characterized by the extinction of species that today inhabit the sea-ice free subpolar North Atlantic and/or seasonally sea-ice free Nordic Seas (Echinocythereis sp., Rockalliacf. enigmatica, Krithe cf. aquilonia, Pterygocythereis vannieuwenhuisei). After a very warm interglacial during marine isotope stage (MIS) 11 dominated by the temperate planktic foraminifer Turborotalita egelida, the MBE experienced a shift to polar assemblages characteristic of predominantly perennial Arctic sea-ice cover during the interglacial and interstadial periods of the last 300 ka. These include the planktic foraminifera Neogloboquadrina pachyderma, the sea-ice dwelling ostracodeAcetabulastoma arcticum and associated benthic taxa Pseudocythere caudata,Pedicythere neofluitans, and Polycope spp. Several species can be used as biostratigraphic markers of specific intervals such as ostracodes Rabilimis mirabilis — MIS 5 and P. vannieuwenhuisei extinction after MIS 11, and foraminiferal abundance zones Bulimina aculeata — late MIS 5 and Bolivina arctica — MIS 5-11.

  18. Distribution of algal aggregates under summer sea ice in the Central Arctic. (United States)

    Katlein, Christian; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Nicolaus, Marcel

    The sea ice cover of the Arctic Ocean has changed dramatically in the last decades, and the resulting consequences for the sea-ice-associated ecosystem remain difficult to assess. Algal aggregates underneath sea ice are of great importance for the ice-associated ecosystem and the pelagic-benthic coupling. However, the frequency and distribution of their occurrence is not well quantified. During the IceArc expedition (ARK-27/3) of RV Polarstern in late summer 2012, we observed different types of algal aggregates floating underneath various ice types in the Central Arctic basins. We investigated the spatial distribution of ice algal aggregates and quantified their biomass, using under-ice image surveys obtained by an upward-looking camera on a remotely operated vehicle. On basin scale, filamentous aggregates of Melosira arctica are more frequently found in the inner part of the Central Arctic pack ice, while rounded aggregates mainly formed by pennate diatoms are found closer to the ice edge, under melting sea ice. On the scale of an ice floe, the distribution of algal aggregates in late summer is mainly regulated by the topography of the ice underside, with aggregates accumulating in dome-shaped structures and at the edges of pressure ridges. The average biomass of the aggregates from our sites and season was 0.1-6.0 mg C m(-2). However, depending on the approach used, differences in orders of magnitude for biomass estimates may occur. This highlights the difficulties of upscaling observations and comparing results from surveys conducted using different methods or on different spatial scales.

  19. Ice-Free Arctic Ocean? (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005


    The current warming trends in the Arctic may shove the Arctic system into a seasonally ice-free state not seen for more than one million years, according to a new report. The melting is accelerating, and researchers were unable to identify any natural processes that might slow the deicing of the Arctic. "What really makes the Arctic different…

  20. Indução de calos friáveis em explantes foliares de Salix (Salyx humboldtiana Willd)


    Santos,Breno Régis; Paiva,Renato; Martinotto,Cristiano; Nogueira,Raírys Cravo; Paiva,Patrícia Duarte de Oliveira


    O salix é uma árvore ornamental adaptada a terrenos úmidos, sendo considerada uma espécie importante para a recomposição de áreas ciliares degradadas. A madeira pode ser empregada na indústria em geral. Apesar de produzir grande quantidade de sementes, estas não possuem alta percentagem de germinação. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo realizar o estabelecimento in vitro de salix através da indução e formação de calos friáveis em explantes foliares, visando a uma posterior regeneração de ...

  1. Arctic Sea Level Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde

    method.For oceanographic purposes, the altimetric record over the Arctic Ocean is inferiorin quality to that of moderate latitudes, but nonetheless an invaluable set of observations. During this project, newly processed Arctic altimetry from the ERS-1/-2 and Envisat missions has become available......Reconstruction of historical Arctic sea level is very difficult due to the limited coverage and quality of tide gauge and altimetry data in the area. This thesis addresses many of these issues, and discusses strategies to help achieve a stable and plausible reconstruction of Arctic sea level from...... 1950 to today.The primary record of historical sea level, on the order of several decades to a few centuries, is tide gauges. Tide gauge records from around the world are collected in the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) database, and includes data along the Arctic coasts. A reasonable...

  2. Soil Warming and Fertilization Effects on Growth Ring Widths of Arctic Shrubs - Application of a Novel Dendroecological Approach. (United States)

    Iturrate Garcia, M.; Heijmans, M.; Schweingruber, F. H.; Niklaus, P. A.; Schaepman-Strub, G.


    Climate warming is suggested as the main driver of shrub expansion in arctic tundra regions. Shrub expansion may have consequences on biodiversity and climate, especially through its feedbacks with the energy budget. A better understanding of shrub expansion mechanisms, including growth rate patterns and stem anatomy changes, and their sensitivity to climate is needed in order to quantify related feedbacks. We present a novel dendroecological approach to determine the response of three arctic shrub species to increased soil temperature and nutrients. A full factorial block-design experiment was run for four years with a total of thirty plots. Six individuals of each species were sampled from each plot to test for treatment effects on growth rate and stem anatomy. We compared the ring width of the four years of experiment with the one of the four previous years. The preliminary results for Betula nana and Salix pulchra suggest a significant effect of the treatments on the growth ring width. The response is stronger in Salix pulchra than in Betula nana individuals. And, while Salix pulchra is more sensitive to the combined soil warming and fertilization treatment, Betula nana is to the fertilization treatment. We could not observe an effect of treatment on the stem anatomy, likely because bark thickness co-varies with age. We found significant positive correlations of cork, cortex and phloem thickness with xylem thickness (used as a proxy of age), and a significant difference in stem anatomy between species. The results suggest species-specific growth sensitivity to soil warming and nutrient enhancement. The use of experimental dendroecology by manipulating environmental conditions according to future climate scenarios and testing effects on shrub anatomy and annual growth will increase our understanding on shrub expansion mechanisms. Ongoing plant trait analysis and consecutive application in a 3D radiative transfer model will allow to quantify the feedback of

  3. A late Holocene paleo-productivity record in the western Gulf of Maine, USA, inferred from growth histories of the long-lived ocean quahog ( Arctica islandica) (United States)

    Wanamaker, Alan D.; Kreutz, Karl J.; Schöne, Bernd R.; Maasch, Kirk A.; Pershing, Andrew J.; Borns, Harold W.; Introne, Douglas S.; Feindel, Scott


    To investigate environmental variability during the late Holocene in the western Gulf of Maine, USA, we collected a 142-year-old living bivalve ( Arctica islandica) in 2004, and three fossil A. islandica shells of the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) and late MWP / Little Ice Age (LIA) period (corrected 14CAMS = 1030 ± 78 ad; 1320 ± 45 ad; 1357 ± 40 ad) in 1996. We compared the growth record of the modern shell with continuous plankton recorder (CPR) time-series (1961-2003) from the Gulf of Maine. A significant correlation ( r 2 = 0.55; p < 0.0001) exists between the standardized annual growth index (SGI) of the modern shell and the relative abundance of zooplankton species Calanus finmarchicus. We therefore propose that SGI data from A. islandica is a valid proxy for paleo-productivity of at least one major zooplankton taxa. SGIs from these shells reveal significant periods of 2-6 years (NAO-like) based on wavelet analysis, multitaper method (MTM) analysis and singular spectrum analysis (SSA) during the late Holocene. Based on established physical oceanographic observation in the Gulf of Maine, we suggest that slope water variability coupled with North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) dynamics is primarily responsible for the observed SGI variability.

  4. Spatial and temporal variation of an ice-adapted predator's feeding ecology in a changing Arctic marine ecosystem. (United States)

    Yurkowski, David J; Ferguson, Steven H; Semeniuk, Christina A D; Brown, Tanya M; Muir, Derek C G; Fisk, Aaron T


    Spatial and temporal variation can confound interpretations of relationships within and between species in terms of diet composition, niche size, and trophic position (TP). The cause of dietary variation within species is commonly an ontogenetic niche shift, which is a key dynamic influencing community structure. We quantified spatial and temporal variations in ringed seal (Pusa hispida) diet, niche size, and TP during ontogeny across the Arctic-a rapidly changing ecosystem. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis was performed on 558 liver and 630 muscle samples from ringed seals and on likely prey species from five locations ranging from the High to the Low Arctic. A modest ontogenetic diet shift occurred, with adult ringed seals consuming more forage fish (approximately 80 versus 60 %) and having a higher TP than subadults, which generally decreased with latitude. However, the degree of shift varied spatially, with adults in the High Arctic presenting a more restricted niche size and consuming more Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) than subadults (87 versus 44 %) and adults at the lowest latitude (29 %). The TPs of adult and subadult ringed seals generally decreased with latitude (4.7-3.3), which was mainly driven by greater complexity in trophic structure within the zooplankton communities. Adult isotopic niche size increased over time, likely due to the recent circumpolar increases in subarctic forage fish distribution and abundance. Given the spatial and temporal variability in ringed seal foraging ecology, ringed seals exhibit dietary plasticity as a species, suggesting adaptability in terms of their diet to climate change.

  5. Mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for production, resistance and tolerance traits in Salix. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennberg-Waestljung, Ann Christin; Bertholdsson, Nils-Ove; Glynn, Carolyn; Weih, Martin; Aahman, Inger [SLU, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Plant Biology and Forest Genetics


    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for growth traits, water use efficiency and tolerance/resistance against metals and herbivores have been identified. A hybrid F2 population originating from a cross between a Salix dasyclados-clone (SW901290) and a S. viminalis-clone ('Jorunn') was used for the different studies in this project. The growth response was analyzed in a greenhouse experiment with two water treatments, normal and drought. In addition, three field experiments with contrasting soils and climates were established. QTL specific for each treatment or field environment but also QTL stable over the treatments or field environments were detected. Each QTL explained from 8 to 29 % of the phenotypic variation depending on trait, treatment or field environment. Clusters of QTL for different traits were mapped indicating a common genetic base or tightly-linked QTL. Stable QTL identified for dryweight can be useful tools for early selection in Salix. In a separate greenhouse experiment, with a subset of ten genotypes from the F2 population, we show that genotype is more important than irrigation treatment for production of phenolic substances as well as for resistance to herbivory by P vulgatissima.

  6. Evaluation of the phytoremediation potential of the Salix caprea in tailing ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The goat willow (Salix caprea belongs to the typical pioneer vegetation at former ore mining sites in East and Middle Europe as a result of its high metal-tolerance. Ectomycorrhizal (EM fungi are known to contribute essentially to the tolerance of plants against abiotic stress. We have determined the absorption/ accretion potential of the goat willow related to heavy metals, as well as the growth rhythm of this species in conditions offered by polluted sites, correlated to the presence/ absence of the microbiota in the soil attached to the root. The research unravels how the goat willow (Salix caprea, as a native species can be used in remediation actions of polluted sites based on its high adaptive potential, as well as on its capacity to absorb and accumulate heavy metals. In terms of survival strategy, mycorhrised fungi attached to the polluted soil play a significant part, since they induce plants a certain resistance by diminishing the absorption of heavy metals by the host plant. We suppose that the majority of EM associations of S. caprea, in combination with high portions of metal-chelating organic acids containing fungal partners, contributes essentially to the high tolerance of this species against high metal concentrations in the soil.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Sannikova


    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to develop new methods of identification and quantitative determination of rutin in the leaves of Salix triandra L. with thin-layer chromatography. The digital processing of the chromatograms was performed using «Sorbfil Videodensitometer» computer program (Krasnodar. For the chromatography analysis we used plates «Sorbfil» PTSH-P-A-UV, mobile phase: n-butanol-glacial acetic acid-water (4:1:1, detecting reagent – ammonia vapors. The rutin is detected as yellow spots with Rf 0.64±0.02. The detection limit is 0.5 μg/μl. The regression equation has the form: S=4.75×103 m. With the use of this method we found that the composition of rutin in leaves of Salix triandra was in the range 1.81±0.06% on the air-dry raw material (relative standard deviation RSD%=2.5%; the measurement error E=3.12%. The method is sensitive, linear, has a small error, and does not require expensive equipment.

  8. Magnesium and iron deficiencies alter Cd accumulation in Salix viminalis L. (United States)

    Borišev, M; Pajević, S; Nikolić, N; Orlović, S; Župunski, M; Pilipović, A; Kebert, M


    Evidence exists that Cd and certain nutrient elements, such as Fe and Mg, could share similar mechanisms of plant uptake and accumulation. Here we report that Mg and Fe deficiency in mature plants of Salix viminalis, grown in hydroponic solutions containing 5 µg ml(-1) of Cd, caused a significant increase in Cd accumulation in roots, stems and leaves. Cd (µg g(-1) dry weight) was determined following three treatments: 1) Cd treatment in complete nutrient solution; 2) Cd treatment with Fe deficiency; and 3) Cd treatment with Mg deficiency, yielding, respectively: in young leaves (65.3, 76.1, and 92.2), mature leaves (51.5 to 76.3 and 87.1), upper stems (80.6, 116.8, and 130.6) lower stems (67.2, 119, and 102.3), roots (377.1, 744.8, and 442,5). Our results suggest that Cd utilizes the same uptake and transport pathways as Mg and Fe. Evidence exists that Mg and Fe uptake and translocation could be further facilitated by plants as an adaptive response to deficiency of these elements. Such physiological reaction could additionally stimulate Cd accumulation. Although Cd uptake was mostly confined in roots, high Cd content in aerial plant parts (51.5-130.6 µg g(-1)) indicates that the analysed Salix viminalis genotype is suitable for phytoextraction.

  9. Arctic ice management (United States)

    Desch, Steven J.; Smith, Nathan; Groppi, Christopher; Vargas, Perry; Jackson, Rebecca; Kalyaan, Anusha; Nguyen, Peter; Probst, Luke; Rubin, Mark E.; Singleton, Heather; Spacek, Alexander; Truitt, Amanda; Zaw, Pye Pye; Hartnett, Hilairy E.


    As the Earth's climate has changed, Arctic sea ice extent has decreased drastically. It is likely that the late-summer Arctic will be ice-free as soon as the 2030s. This loss of sea ice represents one of the most severe positive feedbacks in the climate system, as sunlight that would otherwise be reflected by sea ice is absorbed by open ocean. It is unlikely that CO2 levels and mean temperatures can be decreased in time to prevent this loss, so restoring sea ice artificially is an imperative. Here we investigate a means for enhancing Arctic sea ice production by using wind power during the Arctic winter to pump water to the surface, where it will freeze more rapidly. We show that where appropriate devices are employed, it is possible to increase ice thickness above natural levels, by about 1 m over the course of the winter. We examine the effects this has in the Arctic climate, concluding that deployment over 10% of the Arctic, especially where ice survival is marginal, could more than reverse current trends of ice loss in the Arctic, using existing industrial capacity. We propose that winter ice thickening by wind-powered pumps be considered and assessed as part of a multipronged strategy for restoring sea ice and arresting the strongest feedbacks in the climate system.

  10. Arctic Climate Systems Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivey, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robinson, David G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boslough, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Backus, George A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peterson, Kara J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); van Bloemen Waanders, Bart G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swiler, Laura Painton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Desilets, Darin Maurice [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reinert, Rhonda Karen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This study began with a challenge from program area managers at Sandia National Laboratories to technical staff in the energy, climate, and infrastructure security areas: apply a systems-level perspective to existing science and technology program areas in order to determine technology gaps, identify new technical capabilities at Sandia that could be applied to these areas, and identify opportunities for innovation. The Arctic was selected as one of these areas for systems level analyses, and this report documents the results. In this study, an emphasis was placed on the arctic atmosphere since Sandia has been active in atmospheric research in the Arctic since 1997. This study begins with a discussion of the challenges and benefits of analyzing the Arctic as a system. It goes on to discuss current and future needs of the defense, scientific, energy, and intelligence communities for more comprehensive data products related to the Arctic; assess the current state of atmospheric measurement resources available for the Arctic; and explain how the capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories can be used to address the identified technological, data, and modeling needs of the defense, scientific, energy, and intelligence communities for Arctic support.

  11. Long-term experimental warming, shading and nutrient addition affect the concentration of phenolic compounds in arctic-alpine deciduous and evergreen dwarf shrubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anja Hoff; Jonasson, Sven Evert; Michelsen, Anders


    . herbacea × polaris than in the corresponding current year's leaf cohort of the evergreen C. tetragona. The changes were also much higher than in the 1-year-old leaves of the two evergreens probably due to differences in dilution and turnover of CBSC in growing and mature leaves paired with different rates......-arctic, alpine ecosystem, we investigated the effects on carbon based secondary compounds (CBSC) and nitrogen in one dominant deciduous dwarf shrub, Salix herbacea × polaris and two dominant evergreen dwarf shrubs, Cassiope tetragona and Vaccinium vitis-idaea throughout one growing season. The main aims were...

  12. Response of three shrub willow varieties (Salix spp.) to storm water treatments with different concentrations of salts. (United States)

    Mirck, Jaconette; Volk, Timothy A


    The effect of recycling storm water with high chloride concentrations on shrub willow growth was examined in a ten-week greenhouse study. Three willow varieties Salix miyabeana (SX64), Salix purpurea (9882-34), and Salix sachalinensisxSalix miyabeana (9870-40) were grown in organically-amended Solvay waste, and irrigated with five storm water concentrations containing 163, 325, 813, 1625, and 8125mgCl(-)L(-1) and a tap water control. Stomatal conductance values responded most rapidly to stress (after 4.5weeks), but height and leaf length measurements, which revealed signs of stress after 6 and 7weeks, might be more practical stress indicators for large-scale plantations. Even though variety 9870-40 was most sensitive with increasing concentrations of Solvay storm water, this variety had the greatest ET values during the ten-week trial. Storm water with concentrations up to 1625mgCl(-)L(-1) had no short-term effects on biomass accumulation and evapotranspiration.

  13. Arctic survey, 1957 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a survey and game patrol conducted to twelve villages in the Arctic from April 24 to May 2 1957. The report covers animals take for income and...

  14. Arctic Bathymetry (batharcst) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The digitally compiled map includes geology, oil and gas field centerpoints, and geologic provinces of the Arctic (North Pole area encircled by 640 N Latitude). The...

  15. Arctic Geology (geoarcst) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The digitally compiled map includes geology, oil and gas field centerpoints, and geologic provinces of the Arctic (North Pole area encircled by 640 N Latitude). The...

  16. Arctic_Bathymetry (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Models project the Arctic Ocean will become undersaturated with respect to carbonate minerals in the next decade. Recent field results indicate parts may already be...

  17. De novo transcriptome and small RNA analysis of two Chinese willow cultivars reveals stress response genes in Salix matsudana. (United States)

    Rao, Guodong; Sui, Jinkai; Zeng, Yanfei; He, Caiyun; Duan, Aiguo; Zhang, Jianguo


    Salix matsudana Koidz. is a deciduous, rapidly growing, and drought resistant tree and is one of the most widely distributed and commonly cultivated willow species in China. Currently little transcriptomic and small RNAomic data are available to reveal the genes involve in the stress resistant in S. matsudana. Here, we report the RNA-seq analysis results of both transcriptome and small RNAome data using Illumina deep sequencing of shoot tips from two willow variants(Salix. matsudana and Salix matsudana Koidz. cultivar 'Tortuosa'). De novo gene assembly was used to generate the consensus transcriptome and small RNAome, which contained 106,403 unique transcripts with an average length of 944 bp and a total length of 100.45 MB, and 166 known miRNAs representing 35 miRNA families. Comparison of transcriptomes and small RNAomes combined with quantitative real-time PCR from the two Salix libraries revealed a total of 292 different expressed genes(DEGs) and 36 different expressed miRNAs (DEMs). Among the DEGs and DEMs, 196 genes and 24 miRNAs were up regulated, 96 genes and 12 miRNA were down regulated in S. matsudana. Functional analysis of DEGs and miRNA targets showed that many genes were involved in stress resistance in S. matsudana. Our global gene expression profiling presents a comprehensive view of the transcriptome and small RNAome which provide valuable information and sequence resources for uncovering the stress response genes in S. matsudana. Moreover the transcriptome and small RNAome data provide a basis for future study of genetic resistance in Salix.

  18. Accumulation of Elements in Salix and Other Species Used in Vegetation Filters with Focus on Wood Fuel Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, Anneli


    Woody or herbaceous perennials used as vegetation filters for treatment of different types of wastes can be suitable for production of solid biofuels when their above ground harvestable biomass yield is sufficiently high and when biomass contains appropriate concentrations of minerals with regard to fuel combustion processes. The concentrations of nitrogen (N), potassium (K) and heavy metals (especially Zn and Cd) in fuel should be low and calcium (Ca) concentrations high to avoid technical problems and environmentally harmful emissions during combustion. Since soil supplementation with essential elements improves biomass yield, a conflict might arise between yield and quality aims. There are various possibilities to influence fuel quality during the growing phase of the life cycle of perennial biomass crops. This study assessed the suitability of two deciduous woody perennials (Salix and Populus) and two summer green herbaceous perennials (Phragmites and Urtica) for phytoremediation in terms of growth and nutrient allocation patterns. Salix and Populus proved suitable as vegetation filters when nutrients were available to plants in near-optimal proportions, but when unbalanced nutrient solutions (wastewater) were applied, stem biomass fraction was strongly reduced. Phragmites was more tolerant to wastewater treatment in terms of plant biomass production and nutrient allocation patterns, so if the N:P ratio of the wastewater is suboptimal, a vegetation filter using Phragmites could be considered. In further studies, a method was developed to determine the proportions of nutrient-rich bark in coppiced Salix, while heavy metal phytoextraction capacity was assessed in two Salix vegetation filters. The relevance of proportion of bark on wood fuel quality and element removal from vegetation filters was also investigated. The concentrations of the elements studied in harvestable Salix shoot biomass were higher, meaning lower wood fuel quality, in plantations where

  19. De novo transcriptome and small RNA analysis of two Chinese willow cultivars reveals stress response genes in Salix matsudana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Rao

    Full Text Available Salix matsudana Koidz. is a deciduous, rapidly growing, and drought resistant tree and is one of the most widely distributed and commonly cultivated willow species in China. Currently little transcriptomic and small RNAomic data are available to reveal the genes involve in the stress resistant in S. matsudana. Here, we report the RNA-seq analysis results of both transcriptome and small RNAome data using Illumina deep sequencing of shoot tips from two willow variants(Salix. matsudana and Salix matsudana Koidz. cultivar 'Tortuosa'. De novo gene assembly was used to generate the consensus transcriptome and small RNAome, which contained 106,403 unique transcripts with an average length of 944 bp and a total length of 100.45 MB, and 166 known miRNAs representing 35 miRNA families. Comparison of transcriptomes and small RNAomes combined with quantitative real-time PCR from the two Salix libraries revealed a total of 292 different expressed genes(DEGs and 36 different expressed miRNAs (DEMs. Among the DEGs and DEMs, 196 genes and 24 miRNAs were up regulated, 96 genes and 12 miRNA were down regulated in S. matsudana. Functional analysis of DEGs and miRNA targets showed that many genes were involved in stress resistance in S. matsudana. Our global gene expression profiling presents a comprehensive view of the transcriptome and small RNAome which provide valuable information and sequence resources for uncovering the stress response genes in S. matsudana. Moreover the transcriptome and small RNAome data provide a basis for future study of genetic resistance in Salix.

  20. Wood characterization of Salix. 2: Relationships between optical and other wood properties; Caracterizacion de la madera de Salix. 2: Relaciones entre propiedades opticas y otros atributos del leno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villegas, M. S.; Area, M. C.


    The objective of this study was to establish relationships between some characteristics of the wood of Salix and their possible influence on its optical properties. In both willow clones, the presence of stains caused the decrease of brightness, L*, and b*. This effect was intensified in the more deteriorated areas. Tylose increased with the presence of such stains. The whiter wood showed the highest values of L*, being more yellow and less red, except for the dark zone in the American willow, and the brown stains and the blue stain in the hybrid willow, in which the parameters a* and b* correlated positively. The presence of defects in the wood was related to the decrease of density in both clones, except for the dark-brown stain in the American willow, which caused the increase of disks density when present. The content of insoluble and total lignin correlated negatively with brightness and L* in American willow, and with basic density in the hybrid. In the last clone, the extractives in hot water and alcohol-benzene, correlated with the alkali soluble substances content (frequently used as a measure of decay degree), and also played an important role in determining the tendency to blue color in the stains of the wood. (Author) 22 refs.

  1. Arctic Collaborative Environment (ACE) (United States)


    distribution is unlimited. Key Data Requirements • Sea Ice – Location: Area, Onset, Growth, Drift, and Decay – Characterization: % Coverage, Thickness...Cloud ACE Developmental Server hosted at UAHuntsville ACE User Community Public Internet Tailored Ice Product Generation (NIC) Arctic Research...distribution is unlimited. Arctic Map 26 July 2012 13 Multi-sensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent; National Data Buoy Center DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A

  2. Experimental response of Salix cuttings to different flow regimes due to human activities (United States)

    Gorla, Lorenzo; Signarbieux, Constant; Turberg, Pascal; Buttler, Alexandre; Perona, Paolo


    Hydropower production and other human activities change the natural flow regime of rivers, in turn impacting the riparian environment. The main challenge in order to define eco-sustainable flows is to quantify the effects in terms of geomorphology and ecosystem adaptation. We present 2-years controlled experiments to investigate riparian vegetation (Salix Viminalis) response to forced water table changing dynamics, from one water regime to another, in a temperate region (Switzerland). Three synthetic flow regimes have been simulated and applied to three batteries of Salix cuttings growing outdoor within plastic pots, each about 1 meter tall. In 2012 one treatment simulated a minimal flow policy for small run-of-river hydropower plants, which drastically impacts the low and the medium-low components of the hydrograph, but not the extremes. In 2013 we confirmed and completed some of 2012 results, by reproducing typical hydropeaking effects due to dam management and focusing on daily water table variations and offsets. For both the seasons, after an initial period where all pots undergone the same oscillations in order to uniform the plants initial conditions, the experiment started, and the water dynamic was changed. Cuttings transitory response dynamics has been quantified by continuous sap flow and water potential measurements, and by regularly collecting growth parameters, as well as leaves photosynthesis, fluorescence, and pictures of each plant. At the end of the experiment, all cuttings were carefully removed and the both above and below ground biomass analyzed in detail. Particularly, the 3D root structure was obtained by High Resolution Computer Tomography. Our analyses revealed a clear dependence between roots distribution and water regime reflecting the need for adaptation, in agreement with field observations of Pasquale et al. (2012). In particular, an initial strong difference in terms of stress and growth performances was then followed by a later

  3. Arctic freshwater synthesis: Introduction (United States)

    Prowse, T.; Bring, A.; Mârd, J.; Carmack, E.


    In response to a joint request from the World Climate Research Program's Climate and Cryosphere Project, the International Arctic Science Committee, and the Arctic Council's Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program, an updated scientific assessment has been conducted of the Arctic Freshwater System (AFS), entitled the Arctic Freshwater Synthesis (AFSΣ). The major reason for joint request was an increasing concern that changes to the AFS have produced, and could produce even greater, changes to biogeophysical and socioeconomic systems of special importance to northern residents and also produce extra-Arctic climatic effects that will have global consequences. Hence, the key objective of the AFSΣ was to produce an updated, comprehensive, and integrated review of the structure and function of the entire AFS. The AFSΣ was organized around six key thematic areas: atmosphere, oceans, terrestrial hydrology, terrestrial ecology, resources and modeling, and the review of each coauthored by an international group of scientists and published as separate manuscripts in this special issue of Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences. This AFSΣ—Introduction reviews the motivations for, and foci of, previous studies of the AFS, discusses criteria used to define the domain of the AFS, and details key characteristics of the definition adopted for the AFSΣ.

  4. Micro-halocline enabled nutrient recycling may explain extreme Azolla event in the Eocene Arctic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique M L van Kempen

    Full Text Available In order to understand the physicochemical mechanisms that could explain the massive growth of Azolla arctica in the Eocene Arctic Ocean, we carried out a laboratory experiment in which we studied the interacting effects of rain and wind on the development of salinity stratification, both in the presence and in the absence of a dense Azolla cover. Additionally, we carried out a mesocosm experiment to get a better understanding of the nutrient cycling within and beneath a dense Azolla cover in both freshwater and brackish water environments. Here we show that Azolla is able to create a windproof, small-scale salinity gradient in brackish waters, which allows for efficient recycling of nutrients. We suggest that this mechanism ensures the maintenance of a large standing biomass in which additional input of nutrients ultimately result in a further expansion of an Azolla cover. As such, it may not only explain the extent of the Azolla event during the Eocene, but also the absence of intact vegetative Azolla remains and the relatively low burial efficiency of organic carbon during this interval.

  5. Russian Arctic warming and ‘greening’ are closely tracked by tundra shrub willows (United States)

    Forbes, B. C.; Macias Fauria, M.; Zetterberg, P.


    Growth in arctic vegetation is generally expected to increase under a warming climate, particularly among deciduous shrubs. We analyzed annual ring growth for an abundant and nearly circumpolar erect willow (Salix lanata L.) from the coastal zone of the northwest Russian Arctic (Nenets Autonomous Okrug). The resulting chronology is strongly related to summer temperature for the period 1942-2005. Remarkably high correlations occur at long distances (>1600 km) across the tundra and taiga zones of West Siberia and Eastern Europe. We also found a clear relationship with photosynthetic activity for upland vegetation at a regional scale for the period 1981-2005, confirming a parallel ‘greening’ trend reported for similarly warming North American portions of the tundra biome. The standardized growth curve suggests a significant increase in shrub willow growth over the last six decades. These findings are in line with field and remote sensing studies that have assigned a strong shrub component to the reported greening signal since the early 1980s. Furthermore, the growth trend agrees with qualitative observations by nomadic Nenets reindeer herders of recent increases in willow size in the region. The quality of the chronology as a climate proxy is exceptional. Given its wide geographic distribution and the ready preservation of wood in permafrost, S. lanata L. has great potential for extended temperature reconstructions in remote areas across the Arctic.

  6. Importance of Marine-Derived Nutrients Supplied by Planktivorous Seabirds to High Arctic Tundra Plant Communities (United States)

    Zwolicki, Adrian; Zmudczyńska-Skarbek, Katarzyna; Richard, Pierre; Stempniewicz, Lech


    We studied the relative importance of several environmental factors for tundra plant communities in five locations across Svalbard (High Arctic) that differed in geographical location, oceanographic and climatic influence, and soil characteristics. The amount of marine-derived nitrogen in the soil supplied by seabirds was locally the most important of the studied environmental factors influencing the tundra plant community. We found a strong positive correlation between δ15N isotopic values and total N content in the soil, confirming the fundamental role of marine-derived matter to the generally nutrient-poor Arctic tundra ecosystem. We also recorded a strong correlation between the δ15N values of soil and of the tissues of vascular plants and mosses, but not of lichens. The relationship between soil δ15N values and vascular plant cover was linear. In the case of mosses, the percentage ground cover reached maximum around a soil δ 15N value of 8‰, as did plant community diversity. This soil δ15N value clearly separated the occurrence of plants with low nitrogen tolerance (e.g. Salix polaris) from those predominating on high N content soils (e.g. Cerastium arcticum, Poa alpina). Large colonies of planktivorous little auks have a great influence on Arctic tundra vegetation, either through enhancing plant abundance or in shaping plant community composition at a local scale. PMID:27149113

  7. Mechanism of seasonal Arctic sea ice evolution and Arctic amplification


    Kim, Kwang-Yul; Hamlington, Benjamin D.; Na, Hanna; Kim, Jinju


    Sea ice loss is proposed as a primary reason for the Arctic amplification, although the physical mechanism of the Arctic amplification and its connection with sea ice melting is still in debate. In the present study, monthly ERA-Interim reanalysis data are analyzed via cyclostationary empirical orthogonal function analysis to understand the seasonal mechanism of sea ice loss in the Arctic Ocean and the Arctic amplification. While sea ice loss is widespread over much of the p...

  8. Variability of physiological and growth characteristics of white willow (Salix alba L. clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Saša


    Full Text Available The samples from field experiment on five clones of white willow (Salix alba L. in the adult phase, was investigated as follows: net photosynthesis and dark respiration, content of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls a, b and carotenoids, number and size of stornata and elements of growth (tree diameters and heights. The aim of the research is to determine if there are any relations between these physiological characters and the elements of growth, i.e. if any of them can be utilized in the early selection for growth vigor. The results show that all the characters are characterized by low coefficients of variation, statistically highly significant differences and high coefficients of heritability in a broad sense. As for the net of photosynthesis, the number of stornata on the adaxial and abaxial sides of the leaf are in high correlation with the elements of growth, which indicates that they can be used in the early selection for growth vigor.

  9. Biogas production and saccharification of Salix pretreated at different steam explosion conditions. (United States)

    Horn, Svein J; Estevez, Maria M; Nielsen, Henrik K; Linjordet, Roar; Eijsink, Vincent G H


    Different steam explosion conditions were applied to Salix chips and the effect of this pretreatment was evaluated by running both enzymatic hydrolysis and biogas tests. Total enzymatic release of glucose and xylose increased with pretreatment harshness, with maximum values being obtained after pretreatment for 10 min at 210°C. Harsher pretreatment conditions did not increase glucose release, led to degradation of xylose and to formation of furfurals. Samples pretreated at 220 and 230°C initially showed low production of biogas, probably because of inhibitors produced during the pretreatment, but the microbial community was able to adapt and showed high final biogas production. Interestingly, final biogas yields correlated well with sugar yields after enzymatic hydrolysis, suggesting that at least in some cases a 24h enzymatic assay may be developed as a quick method to predict the effects of pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass on biogas yields.

  10. Significance of stigma receptivity in intergeneric cross-pollination of Salix × Populus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Zenkteler


    Full Text Available The pollen–stigma interaction plays an important role in reproductive process and has been continuously studied in many interspecific and intergeneric crossing experiments. The aim of this study was to investigate stigma receptivity (SR of willow in order to determine the most suitable period for its pollination with poplar pollen and improve the effectiveness of Salix × Populus crosses. Tissue samples were examined histologically using light, epifluorescent, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Willow SR was determined by stigma morphological traits, test of pollen germination rate, Peroxtesmo test of peroxidase and esterase activity on stigma surface as well as papilla ultrastructure at anthesis. We have ascertained that the SR duration in willow is short, lasting from 1 to 2 DA. The poplar pollen germination rate on willow stigmas on 1 DA ranged from 26.3 to 11.2%.

  11. New Rust Disease of Korean Willow (Salix koreensis) Caused by Melampsora yezoensis, Unrecorded Pathogen in Korea. (United States)

    Yun, Yeo Hong; Ahn, Geum Ran; Yoon, Seong Kwon; Kim, Hoo Hyun; Son, Seung Yeol; Kim, Seong Hwan


    During the growing season of 2015, leaf specimens with yellow rust spots were collected from Salix koreensis Andersson, known as Korean willow, in riverine areas in Cheonan, Korea. The fungus on S. koreensis was identified as the rust species, Melampsora yezoensis, based on the morphology of urediniospores observed by light and scanning electron microscopy, and the molecular properties of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA region. Pathogenicity tests confirmed that the urediniospores are the causal agent of the rust symptoms on the leaves and young stems of S. koreensis. Here, we report a new rust disease of S. koreensis caused by the rust fungus, M. yezoensis, a previously unrecorded rust pathogen in Korea.

  12. Root anatomy and element distribution vary between two Salix caprea isolates with different Cd accumulation capacities. (United States)

    Vaculík, Marek; Konlechner, Cornelia; Langer, Ingrid; Adlassnig, Wolfram; Puschenreiter, Markus; Lux, Alexander; Hauser, Marie-Theres


    The understanding of the influence of toxic elements on root anatomy and element distribution is still limited. This study describes anatomical responses, metal accumulation and element distribution of rooted cuttings of Salix caprea after exposure to Cd and/or Zn. Differences in the development of apoplastic barriers and tissue organization in roots between two distinct S. caprea isolates with divergent Cd uptake and accumulation capacities in leaves might reflect an adaptive predisposition based on different natural origins. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) revealed that Cd and Zn interfered with the distribution of elements in a tissue- and isolate-specific manner. Zinc, Ca, Mg, Na and Si were enriched in the peripheral bark, K and S in the phloem and Cd in both vascular tissues. Si levels were lower in the superior Cd translocator. Since the cuttings originated from stocks isolated from polluted and unpolluted sites we probably uncovered different strategies against toxic elements.

  13. Association mapping in Salix viminalis L. (Salicaceae) - identification of candidate genes associated with growth and phenology. (United States)

    Hallingbäck, Henrik R; Fogelqvist, Johan; Powers, Stephen J; Turrion-Gomez, Juan; Rossiter, Rachel; Amey, Joanna; Martin, Tom; Weih, Martin; Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Karp, Angela; Lagercrantz, Ulf; Hanley, Steven J; Berlin, Sofia; Rönnberg-Wästljung, Ann-Christin


    Willow species (Salix) are important as short-rotation biomass crops for bioenergy, which creates a demand for faster genetic improvement and breeding through deployment of molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS). To find markers associated with important adaptive traits, such as growth and phenology, for use in MAS, we genetically dissected the trait variation of a Salix viminalis (L.) population of 323 accessions. The accessions were sampled throughout northern Europe and were established at two field sites in Pustnäs, Sweden, and at Woburn, UK, offering the opportunity to assess the impact of genotype-by-environment interactions (G × E) on trait-marker associations. Field measurements were recorded for growth and phenology traits. The accessions were genotyped using 1536 SNP markers developed from phenology candidate genes and from genes previously observed to be differentially expressed in contrasting environments. Association mapping between 1233 of these SNPs and the measured traits was performed taking into account population structure and threshold selection bias. At a false discovery rate (FDR) of 0.2, 29 SNPs were associated with bud burst, leaf senescence, number of shoots or shoot diameter. The percentage of accession variation (Radj2) explained by these associations ranged from 0.3% to 4.4%, suggesting that the studied traits are controlled by many loci of limited individual impact. Despite this, a SNP in the EARLY FLOWERING 3 gene was repeatedly associated (FDR < 0.2) with bud burst. The rare homozygous genotype exhibited 0.4-1.0 lower bud burst scores than the other genotype classes on a five-grade scale. Consequently, this marker could be promising for use in MAS and the gene deserves further study. Otherwise, associations were less consistent across sites, likely due to their small Radj2 estimates and to considerable G × E interactions indicated by multivariate association analyses and modest trait accession correlations across sites (0.32-0.61).

  14. Defining leaf traits linked to yield in short-rotation coppice Salix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, K.M.; Taylor, Gail [Southampton Univ., School of Biological Sciences, Southampton (United Kingdom); Karp, A. [Bristol Univ., Long Ashton Research Station, Dept. of Agricultural Sciences, Bristol (United Kingdom)


    Short-rotation coppice Salix genotypes of differing biomass yields were studied over two growing seasons with the long-term aim of identifying traits definitive of high yield for the breeding of elite energy crops. In the first season, basic leaf and stem traits were measured in six Salix genotypes, to identify morphological characteristics associated with high biomass yields. Thereafter, S. viminalis L. 'L78183' (low yield) and the hybrid genotype S. schwerinii E. Wolf x S. viminalis L. 'Tora' (high yield) were compared. Maximum stem heights and stem diameters increased with biomass yield. 'Tora' produced more sylleptic branches on the leading stems than 'L78183'. Leaf traits differed significantly between the two genotypes: individual leaf area and cell number per leaf was greater in 'Tora' whereas cell area was greater in 'L78183' suggesting that final leaf areas were attained in 'Tora' through the production of many, small cells, and in 'L78183' through fewer, large cells. Leaf extension rates were higher in 'Tora' than 'L78183'. This result was mirrored for leaf production rate. Leaf area index, examined at two coppice stages, was higher in 'L78183' (values of 2.06 and 1.67) than in 'Tora' (maximum value 1.43) which had a very open canopy. Furthermore, A/C{sub i} analysis revealed the low-yielding genotype as the most photosynthetically efficient at the individual leaf level whereas light response curves suggest that 'Tora' utilised light more efficiently. The results presented in this study suggest that leaf extension rate, final leaf size and cell number per leaf may be indicative of yield, and may be useful as selection criteria for potentially high-yielding hybrids for biomass use. (Author)

  15. Arctic Rabies – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prestrud Pål


    Full Text Available Rabies seems to persist throughout most arctic regions, and the northern parts of Norway, Sweden and Finland, is the only part of the Arctic where rabies has not been diagnosed in recent time. The arctic fox is the main host, and the same arctic virus variant seems to infect the arctic fox throughout the range of this species. The epidemiology of rabies seems to have certain common characteristics in arctic regions, but main questions such as the maintenance and spread of the disease remains largely unknown. The virus has spread and initiated new epidemics also in other species such as the red fox and the racoon dog. Large land areas and cold climate complicate the control of the disease, but experimental oral vaccination of arctic foxes has been successful. This article summarises the current knowledge and the typical characteristics of arctic rabies including its distribution and epidemiology.

  16. Arctic dimension of global warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Alekseev


    Full Text Available A brief assessment of the global warming in the Arctic climate system with the emphasis on sea ice is presented. The Arctic region is coupled to the global climate system by the atmosphere and ocean circulation that providesa major contribution to the Arctic energy budget. On this basis using of special indices it is shown that amplification of warming in the Arctic is associated with the increasing of meridional heat transport from the low latitudes.

  17. Acquatorialities of the Arctic Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm


    In order to describe the Arctic system I propose using a concept functionally equivalent to territoriality, namely aquatoriality. Whether communicating about territoriality or aquatoriality, concepts and delimitations are both contingent to forms of communication systems. I will distinguish betwe...... coding of the Arctic. These codes could then appear structurally coupled to a political system that in an organizational way appears in the Arctic Council...

  18. Arctic security and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamnes, Rolf


    Global warming is one of the most serious threats facing mankind. Many regions and countries will be affected, and there will be many losers. The earliest and most intense climatic changes are being experienced in the Arctic region. Arctic average temperature has risen at twice the rate of the global average in the past half century. These changes provide an early indication for the world of the environmental and societal significance of global warming. For that reason, the Arctic presents itself as an important scientific laboratory for improving our understanding of the causes and patterns of climate changes. The rapidly rising temperature threatens the Arctic ecosystem, but the human consequences seem to be far less dramatic there than in many other places in the world. According to the U.S. National Intelligence Council, Russia has the potential to gain the most from increasingly temperate weather, because its petroleum reserves become more accessible and because the opening of an Arctic waterway could provide economic and commercial advantages. Norway might also be fortunate. Some years ago, the Financial Times asked: #Left Double Quotation Mark#What should Norway do about the fact that global warming will make their climate more hospitable and enhance their financial situation, even as it inflicts damage on other parts of the world?#Right Double Quotation Mark#(Author)

  19. More Arctic research needed (United States)

    Bush, Susan

    The desire to achieve a balance between Arctic and Antarctic study was the message of the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, which heard testimony on the need for more Arctic research on April 24. Ted Stevens (R-Alaska) noted that since 1986, study in the area has not increased as the National Science Foundation has claimed, but rather, owing to inflation, has merely kept pace. Robert Correll, assistant director of geosciences at NSF and chair of the Interagency Arctic Oceans Working Group, gave several reasons why the Arctic is an important area for study by the scientific community. Its unique environment, he said, makes it a natural laboratory. And due to its environmental sensitivity, it may provide one of the earliest indicators of global climate change. Also, its geographic location makes it a “window on space,” some of the world's largest mineral and petroleum resources are in the Arctic, and the region has great strategic and military importance.

  20. Deciduous shrub growth and the greening of the Arctic in West Siberia (United States)

    Forbes, B. C.; Macias Fauria, M.; Zetterberg, P.; Kumpula, T.


    Salix lanata and Alnus fruticosa are common and widespread shrub species in the low arctic tundra zone of West Siberia. They often occur in similar local habitats with the live portions of genets up to 100 years old. We have recently established that growth rings of S. lanata provide an excellent proxy for summer temperature. In that study our data were derived from shrubs growing on organic soils near the arctic coast of the Nenets Autonomous Okrug (NAO), west of the Ural Mountains. East of the Urals, in the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (YNAO), climate is more continental and sandy soils provide a relatively nutrient-poor substrate for plant growth. By sampling two different species side by side on the Yamal Peninsula, we shed light on the relationship between deciduous shrubs and growing season temperatures in the last half century or so, a period of pronounced regional warming. We discern differences in the climate signal within a single species (S. lanata) as well as between it and a neighboring species with a strongly overlapping ecological amplitude (A. fruticosa). July is the main month for temperature correlation in Alnus, whereas Salix responds to June-July-August temperatures in both regions. The high correlations of shrub growth with summer temperature (r > 0.7 over the period 1956-2004) strongly suggest a link between increased shrub growth and recent decadal warming in both regions (~2°C). Both species showed significant correlation with the regional Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), although it was somewhat lower in YNAO compared to NAO, probably due to the relative land cover (10% vs. 20%, respectively) of erect shrubs in both areas, which affects their overall contribution to the NDVI. In both regions Salix lanata biomass peaks in the second half of July. Hand-held leaf area index data from Yamal indicate a significant difference between loamy/clayey and sandy sites. We hypothesized that this same variation would be evident at the

  1. Human-induced Arctic moistening. (United States)

    Min, Seung-Ki; Zhang, Xuebin; Zwiers, Francis


    The Arctic and northern subpolar regions are critical for climate change. Ice-albedo feedback amplifies warming in the Arctic, and fluctuations of regional fresh water inflow to the Arctic Ocean modulate the deep ocean circulation and thus exert a strong global influence. By comparing observations to simulations from 22 coupled climate models, we find influence from anthropogenic greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosols in the space-time pattern of precipitation change over high-latitude land areas north of 55 degrees N during the second half of the 20th century. The human-induced Arctic moistening is consistent with observed increases in Arctic river discharge and freshening of Arctic water masses. This result provides new evidence that human activity has contributed to Arctic hydrological change.

  2. A High-Density Genetic Map of Tetraploid Salix matsudana Using Specific Length Amplified Fragment Sequencing (SLAF-seq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    Full Text Available As a salt-tolerant arbor tree species, Salix matsudana plays an important role in afforestation and greening in the coastal areas of China. To select superior Salix varieties that adapt to wide saline areas, it is of paramount importance to understand and identify the mechanisms of salt-tolerance at the level of the whole genome. Here, we describe a high-density genetic linkage map of S. matsudana that represents a good coverage of the Salix genome. An intraspecific F1 hybrid population was established by crossing the salt-sensitive "Yanjiang" variety as the female parent with the salt-tolerant "9901" variety as the male parent. This population, along with its parents, was genotyped by specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq, leading to 277,333 high-quality SLAF markers. By marker analysis, we found that both the parents and offspring were tetraploid. The mean sequencing depth was 53.20-fold for "Yanjiang", 47.41-fold for "9901", and 11.02-fold for the offspring. Of the SLAF markers detected, 42,321 are polymorphic with sufficient quality for map construction. The final genetic map was constructed using 6,737 SLAF markers, covering 38 linkage groups (LGs. The genetic map spanned 5,497.45 cM in length, with an average distance of 0.82 cM. As a first high-density genetic map of S. matsudana constructed from salt tolerance-varying varieties, this study will provide a foundation for mapping quantitative trait loci that modulate salt tolerance and resistance in Salix and provide important references for molecular breeding of this important forest tree.

  3. A High-Density Genetic Map of Tetraploid Salix matsudana Using Specific Length Amplified Fragment Sequencing (SLAF-seq). (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Yuan, Huwei; Li, Min; Li, Yujuan; Wang, Ying; Ma, Xiangjian; Zhang, Yuan; Tan, Feng; Wu, Rongling


    As a salt-tolerant arbor tree species, Salix matsudana plays an important role in afforestation and greening in the coastal areas of China. To select superior Salix varieties that adapt to wide saline areas, it is of paramount importance to understand and identify the mechanisms of salt-tolerance at the level of the whole genome. Here, we describe a high-density genetic linkage map of S. matsudana that represents a good coverage of the Salix genome. An intraspecific F1 hybrid population was established by crossing the salt-sensitive "Yanjiang" variety as the female parent with the salt-tolerant "9901" variety as the male parent. This population, along with its parents, was genotyped by specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq), leading to 277,333 high-quality SLAF markers. By marker analysis, we found that both the parents and offspring were tetraploid. The mean sequencing depth was 53.20-fold for "Yanjiang", 47.41-fold for "9901", and 11.02-fold for the offspring. Of the SLAF markers detected, 42,321 are polymorphic with sufficient quality for map construction. The final genetic map was constructed using 6,737 SLAF markers, covering 38 linkage groups (LGs). The genetic map spanned 5,497.45 cM in length, with an average distance of 0.82 cM. As a first high-density genetic map of S. matsudana constructed from salt tolerance-varying varieties, this study will provide a foundation for mapping quantitative trait loci that modulate salt tolerance and resistance in Salix and provide important references for molecular breeding of this important forest tree.

  4. A High-Density Genetic Map of Tetraploid Salix matsudana Using Specific Length Amplified Fragment Sequencing (SLAF-seq) (United States)

    Li, Min; Li, Yujuan; Wang, Ying; Ma, Xiangjian; Zhang, Yuan; Tan, Feng; Wu, Rongling


    As a salt-tolerant arbor tree species, Salix matsudana plays an important role in afforestation and greening in the coastal areas of China. To select superior Salix varieties that adapt to wide saline areas, it is of paramount importance to understand and identify the mechanisms of salt-tolerance at the level of the whole genome. Here, we describe a high-density genetic linkage map of S. matsudana that represents a good coverage of the Salix genome. An intraspecific F1 hybrid population was established by crossing the salt-sensitive “Yanjiang” variety as the female parent with the salt-tolerant “9901” variety as the male parent. This population, along with its parents, was genotyped by specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq), leading to 277,333 high-quality SLAF markers. By marker analysis, we found that both the parents and offspring were tetraploid. The mean sequencing depth was 53.20-fold for “Yanjiang”, 47.41-fold for “9901”, and 11.02-fold for the offspring. Of the SLAF markers detected, 42,321 are polymorphic with sufficient quality for map construction. The final genetic map was constructed using 6,737 SLAF markers, covering 38 linkage groups (LGs). The genetic map spanned 5,497.45 cM in length, with an average distance of 0.82 cM. As a first high-density genetic map of S. matsudana constructed from salt tolerance-varying varieties, this study will provide a foundation for mapping quantitative trait loci that modulate salt tolerance and resistance in Salix and provide important references for molecular breeding of this important forest tree. PMID:27327501

  5. Experimental response of Salix cuttings to sudden water table changing dynamics (United States)

    Gorla, L.; Signarbieux, C.; Turberg, P.; Buttler, A.; Perona, P.


    Hydropower production, agriculture and other human activities change the natural flow regime of rivers, in turn impacting the riparian environment. Inadequate flow rules (e.g., minimal or residual flows) reflecting our limited understanding of eco-hydrological processes have thus been applied since decades. The main challenge for an eco-sustainable water management is to quantify the effects of flow regulation on channel morphodynamics and biological processes. We present a controlled laboratory experiment to investigate riparian vegetation (Salix Viminalis) response to forced water table changing dynamics, from one water regime to another, in a temperate region (Switzerland). Three synthetic flow regimes have been simulated and applied to three batteries of Salix cuttings (60 in total) growing outdoor within plastic pots, each about 1 meter tall. After an initial period where all pots undergone the same oscillations in order to uniform the plants initial conditions, the experiment started, and the water dynamic was changed for two out of three batteries. In particular, one treatment simulated a minimal flow policy, which drastically impacts the low and the medium-low components of the hydrograph, but not the extremes. The other treatment reproduced only the low frequencies corresponding to the seasonal trend of the natural flow regime, still applied on the third battery. Cuttings transitory response dynamics has been quantified by continuous sap flow and water potential measurements, and by regularly collecting growth parameters, as well as leaves photosynthesis, fluorescence, and pictures of each plant. At the end of the experiment, all cuttings were carefully removed and the both above and below ground biomass analyzed in detail. Particularly, the 3D root structure was obtained by High Resolution Computer Tomography. Our analyses reveal a clear dependence between roots distribution and water regime reflecting the need for adaptation, which are also in agreement

  6. Globalising the Arctic Climate:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf


    This chapter uses an object-oriented approach to explore how the Arctic is being constituted as an object of global governance within an emerging ‘global polity’, partly through geoengineering plans and political visions ('imaginaries'). It suggests that governance objects—the socially constructe...... on world politics. The emergence of the Arctic climate as a potential target of governance provides a case in point. The Arctic climate is becoming globalised, pushing it up the political agenda but drawing it away from its local and regional context.......This chapter uses an object-oriented approach to explore how the Arctic is being constituted as an object of global governance within an emerging ‘global polity’, partly through geoengineering plans and political visions ('imaginaries'). It suggests that governance objects—the socially constructed...... targets of political operations and contestations—are not simple ‘issues’ or ‘problems’ given to actors to deal with. Governance-objects emerge and are constructed through science, technology and politics, and rather than slotting neatly into existing structures, they have their own structuring effects...

  7. Communicating Arctic Change (Invited) (United States)

    Serreze, M.


    Nowhere on the planet are emerging signals of climate change more visible than in the Arctic. Rapid warming, a quickly shrinking summer sea ice cover, and thawing permafrost, will have impacts that extend beyond the Arctic and may reverberate around the globe. The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) of the University of Colorado has taken a leading role in trying to effectively communicate the science and importance of Arctic change. Our popular “Sea Ice News and Analysis” web site tracks the Arctic’s shrinking ice cover and provides scientific analysis with language that is accurate yet accessible to a wide audience. Our Education Center provides accessible information on all components of the Earth’s cryosphere, the changes being seen, and how scientists conduct research. A challenge faced by NSIDC is countering the increasing level of confusion and misinformation regarding Arctic and global change, a complex problem that reflects the low level of scientific literacy by much of the public, the difficulties many scientists face in communicating their findings in accurate but understandable terms, and efforts by some groups to deliberately misrepresent and distort climate change science. This talk will outline through examples ways in which NSIDC has been successful in science communication and education, as well as lessons learned from failures.

  8. Arctic Aerosols and Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ingeborg Elbæk


    Since the Industrial Revolution, the anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases has been increasing, leading to a rise in the global temperature. Particularly in the Arctic, climate change is having serious impact where the average temperature has increased almost twice as much as the global during...

  9. The Arctic Circle (United States)

    McDonald, Siobhan


    My name is Siobhan McDonald. I am a visual artist living and working in Dublin. My studio is based in The School of Science at University College Dublin where I was Artist in Residence 2013-2015. A fascination with time and the changeable nature of landmass has led to ongoing conversations with scientists and research institutions across the interweaving disciplines of botany, biology and geology. I am developing a body of work following a recent research trip to the North Pole where I studied the disappearing landscape of the Arctic. Prompted by my experience of the Arctic shelf receding, this new work addresses issues of the instability of the earth's materiality. The work is grounded in an investigation of material processes, exploring the dynamic forces that transform matter and energy. This project combines art and science in a fascinating exploration of one of the Earth's last relatively untouched wilderness areas - the High Arctic to bring audiences on journeys to both real and artistically re-imagined Arctic spaces. CRYSTALLINE'S pivotal process is collaboration: with The European Space Agency; curator Helen Carey; palaeontologist Prof. Jenny McElwain, UCD; and with composer Irene Buckley. CRYSTALLINE explores our desire to make corporeal contact with geological phenomena in Polar Regions. From January 2016, in my collaboration with Jenny McElwain, I will focus on the study of plants and atmospheres from the Arctic regions as far back as 400 million years ago, to explore the essential 'nature' that, invisible to the eye, acts as imaginary portholes into other times. This work will be informed by my arctic tracings of sounds and images recorded in the glaciers of this disappearing frozen landscape. In doing so, the urgencies around the tipping of natural balances in this fragile region will be revealed. The final work will emerge from my forthcoming residency at the ESA in spring 2016. Here I will conduct a series of workshops in ESA Madrid to work with

  10. Some discussions on Arctic vortex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hai; Sun Lantao; Wu Huiding; Li Xiang


    The Arctic vortex is a persistent large-scale cyclonic circulation in the middle and upper troposphere and the stratosphere. Its activity and variation control the semi-permanent active centers of Pan-Arctic and the short-time cyclone activity in the subarctic areas. Its strength variation, which directly relates to the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice and ecosystem of the Arctic, can affect the lower atmospheric circulation, the weather of subarctic area and even the weather of middle latitude areas. The 2003 Chinese Second Arctic Research Expedition experienced the transition of the stratosphereic circulation from a warm anticyclone to a cold cyclone during the ending period of Arctic summertime, a typical establishing process of the polar vortex circulation. The impact of the polar vortex variation on the low-level circulation has been investigated by some scientists through studying the coupling mechanisms of the stratosphere and troposphere. The impact of the Stratospheric Sudden Warming (SFW) events on the polar vortex variation was drawing people's great attention in the fifties of the last century. The Arctic Oscillation (AO) , relating to the variation of the Arctic vortex, has been used to study the impact of the Arctic vortex on climate change. The recent Arctic vortex studies are simply reviewed and some discussions on the Arctic vertex are given in the paper. Some different views and questions are also discussed.

  11. Arctic ice islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.


    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  12. Islands of the Arctic (United States)

    Dowdeswell, Julian; Hambrey, Michael


    The Arctic islands are characterized by beautiful mountains and glaciers, in which the wildlife lives in delicate balance with its environment. It is a fragile region with a long history of exploration and exploitation that is now experiencing rapid environmental change. All of these themes are explored in Islands of the Arctic, a richly illustrated volume with superb photographs from the Canadian Arctic archipelago, Greenland, Svalbard and the Russian Arctic. It begins with the various processes shaping the landscape: glaciers, rivers and coastal processes, the role of ice in the oceans and the weather and climate. Julian Dowdeswell and Michael Hambrey describe the flora and fauna in addition to the human influences on the environment, from the sustainable approach of the Inuit, to the devastating damage inflicted by hunters and issues arising from the presence of military security installations. Finally, they consider the future prospects of the Arctic islands Julian Dowdeswell is Director of the Scott Polar Research Institute and Professor of Physical Geography at 0he University of Cambridge. He received the Polar Medal from Queen Elizabeth for his contributions to the study of glacier geophysics and the Gill Memorial Award from the Royal Geographical Society. He is chair of the Publications Committee of the International Glaciological Society and head of the Glaciers and Ice Sheets Division of the International Commission for Snow and Ice. Michael Hambrey is Director of the Centre for Glaciology at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. A past recipient of the Polar Medal, he was also given the Earth Science Editors' Outstanding Publication Award for Glaciers (Cambridge University Press). Hambrey is also the author of Glacial Environments (British Columbia, 1994).

  13. Interactive effects of substrate, hydroperiod, and nutrients on seedling growth of Salix nigra and Taxodium distichum (United States)

    Day, R.H.; Doyle, T.W.; Draugelis-Dale, R. O.


    The large river swamps of Louisiana have complex topography and hydrology, characterized by black willow (Salix nigra) dominance on accreting alluvial sediments and vast areas of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) deepwater swamps with highly organic substrates. Seedling survival of these two wetland tree species is influenced by their growth rate in relation to the height and duration of annual flooding in riverine environments. This study examines the interactive effects of substrate, hydroperiod, and nutrients on growth rates of black willow and baldcypress seedlings. In a greenhouse experiment with a split-split-plot design, 1-year seedlings of black willow and baldcypress were subjected to two nutrient treatments (unfertilized versus fertilized), two hydroperiods (continuously flooded versus twice daily flooding/draining), and two substrates (sand versus commercial peat mix). Response variables included height, diameter, lateral branch count, biomass, and root:stem ratio. Black willow growth in height and diameter, as well as all biomass components, were significantly greater in peat substrate than in sand. Black willow showed a significant hydroperiod-nutrient interaction wherein fertilizer increased stem and root biomass under drained conditions, but flooded plants did not respond to fertilization. Baldcypress diameter and root biomass were higher in peat than in sand, and the same two variables increased with fertilization in flooded as well as drained treatments. These results can be used in Louisiana wetland forest models as inputs of seedling growth and survival, regeneration potential, and biomass accumulation rates of black willow and baldcypress.

  14. Potential of willow (Salix) as a resource of bioenergy in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viglasky, J.; Suchomel, J. (Technical Univ. of Zvolen, Zvolen (Slovakia)), e-mail:; Polak, M. (Univ. of Economics in Bratislawa, Kapusary (Slovakia)), e-mail:, e-mail:


    Short Rotation Plantations (SRPs) represent a perspective source of biomass for energy purposes. These plantations can be established on soils suitable for their growing, but also on contaminated soils, which cannot be used for food production. The present state of fuel and energy basis in the world as well as in Slovakia urges on the need for radical intervention to the energy sector. Biomass from fast growing tree species cultivated on SRPs or 'energy forests' has the potential to substantially contribute to the achievement of ambitious EU and national goals of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Agricultural production zones in Slovakia suitable for willow cultivation are corn, beet, potato and upland production zones with soils containing high groundwater table. It does not have high demands for soil quality, but it is intolerant to soils being flooded by backwater. It is also intolerant to dry or peat soils. Therefore, the most suitable soils for energy forests cultivation are heavy loam and clay soils with high groundwater table, eventually soils occasionally being flooded. This paper deals with development of SRP implementation in Slovakia. The results of energy balance evaluation of biomass gained from short rotation coppice willow (Salix spp.) carried out in recent years. (orig.)

  15. Genetic strategies for dissecting complex traits in biomass willows (Salix spp.). (United States)

    Hanley, Steven J; Karp, Angela


    Willows are highly diverse catkin-bearing trees and shrubs of the genus Salix. They occur in many growth forms, from tall trees to creeping alpines, and successfully occupy a wide variety of ecological niches. Shrubby willows (sub-genus Vetrix) have many characteristics that render them suited to cultivation in much faster growth cycles than conventional forestry. They respond well to coppicing, can be propagated vegetatively as cuttings and achieve rapid growth with low fertilizer inputs. As a result, willows grown as short rotation coppice are now among the leading commercially grown biomass crops in temperate regions. However, although willows have a long history of cultivation for traditional uses, their industrial use is relatively recent and, compared with major arable crops, they are largely undomesticated. Breeding programmes initiated to improve willow as a biomass crop achieved a doubling of yields within a period of coppicing response (shoot number and shoot vigour), as well as resistance to pests, diseases and environmental stress, with little or no knowledge of the genetic basis of these traits. Genetics and genomics, combined with extensive phenotyping, have substantially improved our understanding of the basis of biomass traits in willow for more targeted breeding via marker-assisted selection. Here, we present the strategy we have adopted in which a genetic-based approach was used to dissect complex traits into more defined components for molecular breeding and gene discovery.

  16. Removal of 4-chlorobenzoic acid from spiked hydroponic solution by willow trees (Salix viminalis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deavers, K.; Macek, T.; Karlson, U.


    Abstract Background Chlorobenzoic acids (CBA) are intermediate products of the aerobic microbial degradation of PCB and several pesticides. This study explores the feasibility of using basket willows, Salix viminalis, to remove 4-CBA from polluted sites, which also might stimulate PCB degradation....... Methods The removal of 4-CBA by willow trees was investigated with intact, septic willow trees growing in hydroponic solution and with sterile cell suspensions at concentrations of 5 mg/L and 50 mg/L 4-CBA. Nutrient solutions with different levels of ammonium and nitrate were prepared to achieve different...... pH levels. The concentration of 4-CBA was tracked over time and quantified by HPLC. Results and discussion At the low level of 4-CBA (5 mg/L), willows removed 70% (pH 4.2) to 90% (pH 6.8), while 48% (pH 4.2) to 52% (pH 6.8) of the water was transpired. At the high 4-CBA level (50 mg/L), the p...

  17. Model selection as a tool for phylogeographic inference: an example from the willow Salix melanopsis. (United States)

    Carstens, Bryan C; Brennan, Reid S; Chua, Vivien; Duffie, Caroline V; Harvey, Michael G; Koch, Rachel A; McMahan, Caleb D; Nelson, Bradley J; Newman, Catherine E; Satler, Jordan D; Seeholzer, Glenn; Posbic, Karine; Tank, David C; Sullivan, Jack


    Phylogeographic inference has typically relied on analyses of data from one or a few genes to provide estimates of demography and population histories. While much has been learned from these studies, all phylogeographic analysis is conditioned on the data, and thus, inferences derived from data that represent a small sample of the genome are unavoidably tenuous. Here, we demonstrate one approach for moving beyond classic phylogeographic research. We use sequence capture probes and Illumina sequencing to generate data from >400 loci in order to infer the phylogeographic history of Salix melanopsis, a riparian willow with a disjunct distribution in coastal and the inland Pacific Northwest. We evaluate a priori phylogeographic hypotheses using coalescent models for parameter estimation, and the results support earlier findings that identified post-Pleistocene dispersal as the cause of the disjunction in S. melanopsis. We also conduct a series of model selection exercises using IMa2, Migrate-n and ∂a∂i. The resulting ranking of models indicates that refugial dynamics were complex, with multiple regions in the inland regions serving as the source for postglacial colonization. Our results demonstrate that new sources of data and new approaches to data analysis can rejuvenate phylogeographic research by allowing for the identification of complex models that enable researchers to both identify and estimate the most relevant parameters for a given system.

  18. Assembly and comparative analysis of complete mitochondrial genome sequence of an economic plant Salix suchowensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Ye


    Full Text Available Willow is a widely used dioecious woody plant of Salicaceae family in China. Due to their high biomass yields, willows are promising sources for bioenergy crops. In this study, we assembled the complete mitochondrial (mt genome sequence of S. suchowensis with the length of 644,437 bp using Roche-454 GS FLX Titanium sequencing technologies. Base composition of the S. suchowensis mt genome is A (27.43%, T (27.59%, C (22.34%, and G (22.64%, which shows a prevalent GC content with that of other angiosperms. This long circular mt genome encodes 58 unique genes (32 protein-coding genes, 23 tRNA genes and 3 rRNA genes, and 9 of the 32 protein-coding genes contain 17 introns. Through the phylogenetic analysis of 35 species based on 23 protein-coding genes, it is supported that Salix as a sister to Populus. With the detailed phylogenetic information and the identification of phylogenetic position, some ribosomal protein genes and succinate dehydrogenase genes are found usually lost during evolution. As a native shrub willow species, this worthwhile research of S. suchowensis mt genome will provide more desirable information for better understanding the genomic breeding and missing pieces of sex determination evolution in the future.

  19. Single locus sex determination and female heterogamety in the basket willow (Salix viminalis L.). (United States)

    Pucholt, P; Rönnberg-Wästljung, A-C; Berlin, S


    Most eukaryotes reproduce sexually and a wealth of different sex determination mechanisms have evolved in this lineage. Dioecy or separate sexes are rare among flowering plants but have repeatedly evolved from hermaphroditic ancestors possibly involving male or female sterility mutations. Willows (Salix spp.) and poplars (Populus spp.) are predominantly dioecious and are members of the Salicaceae family. All studied poplars have sex determination loci on chromosome XIX, however, the position differs among species and both male and female heterogametic system exists. In contrast to the situation in poplars, knowledge of sex determination mechanisms in willows is sparse. In the present study, we have for the first time positioned the sex determination locus on chromosome XV in S. viminalis using quantitative trait locus mapping. All female offspring carried a maternally inherited haplotype, suggesting a system of female heterogamety or ZW. We used a comparative mapping approach and compared the positions of the markers between the S. viminalis linkage map and the physical maps of S. purpurea, S. suchowensis and P. trichocarpa. As we found no evidence for chromosomal rearrangements between chromosome XV and XIX between S. viminalis and P. trichocarpa, it shows that the sex determination loci in the willow and the poplar most likely do not share a common origin and has thus evolved separately. This demonstrates that sex determination mechanisms in the Salicaceae family have a high turnover rate and as such it is excellent for studies of evolutionary processes involved in sex chromosome turnover.

  20. The potential of biomonitoring of air quality using leaf characteristics of white willow (Salix alba L.). (United States)

    Wuytack, Tatiana; Verheyen, Kris; Wuyts, Karen; Kardel, Fatemeh; Adriaenssens, Sandy; Samson, Roeland


    In this study, we assess the potential of white willow (Salix alba L.) as bioindicator for monitoring of air quality. Therefore, shoot biomass, specific leaf area, stomatal density, stomatal pore surface, and stomatal resistance were assessed from leaves of stem cuttings. The stem cuttings were introduced in two regions in Belgium with a relatively high and a relatively low level of air pollution, i.e., Antwerp city and Zoersel, respectively. In each of these regions, nine sampling points were selected. At each sampling point, three stem cuttings of white willow were planted in potting soil. Shoot biomass and specific leaf area were not significantly different between Antwerp city and Zoersel. Microclimatic differences between the sampling points may have been more important to plant growth than differences in air quality. However, stomatal pore surface and stomatal resistance of white willow were significantly different between Zoersel and Antwerp city. Stomatal pore surface was 20% lower in Antwerp city due to a significant reduction in both stomatal length (-11%) and stomatal width (-14%). Stomatal resistance at the adaxial leaf surface was 17% higher in Antwerp city because of the reduction in stomatal pore surface. Based on these results, we conclude that stomatal characteristics of white willow are potentially useful indicators for air quality.

  1. Hydroponic screening of shrub willow (Salix spp.) for arsenic tolerance and uptake. (United States)

    Purdy, Jason J; Smart, Lawrence B


    Shrub willows have demonstrated potential in many types of phytoremediation applications. Hydroponic culture was used to assess arsenic (As) tolerance and uptake by four shrub willow clones and to determine the effects of phosphate on As accumulation. After 4 weeks of growth in the absence of As, plants received one of four treatments: 0.25X Hoagland's minus P (-P), 0.25X Hoagland's minus P plus 100 microM arsenate (As100(-P)), 0.25X Hoagland's minus P plus 250 microM arsenate (As250(-P)), and 0.25X Hoagland's plus 250 IM arsenate (As250(+P)). Except for treatment As250(+P), phosphate was excluded due to its tendency to interfere with As uptake. After 3 weeks of treatment, plants were separated into root, leaf, and stem tissues. Biomass production and transpiration were used to quantify As tolerance. There was wide variation among clones in As tolerance and uptake. The presence of phosphate in solution alleviated the negative impacts of As on biomass and transpiration and also increased above ground As accumulation, suggesting that phosphate may play a role in reducing toxicity and enhancing As uptake by willow shrubs. These findings offer insight into As tolerance and uptake in Salix spp. and add to the growing body of evidence supporting the use of shrub willow for phytoremediation.

  2. Are hermaphrodites better adapted to the colonization process in trioecious populations of Salix myrsinifolia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Mirski


    Full Text Available In trioecious plant populations, the role of hermaphroditism is often uncertain. We investigated the advantages of hermaphroditism in the dioecious shrub Salix myrsinifolia. The sex ratio of 30 S. myrsinifolia populations in northeastern Poland (secondary range and Lithuania (primary range was investigated in 2010–2011. Measures of reproductive (number of catkins, number of flowers in catkins and vegetative traits (height, diameter, number of shoots, vitality were taken and compared among sexual morphs. In two populations, measurements collected 14 years prior on marked individuals were used to determine the rate of changes in height, crown diameter and survivorship rates. We found trioecy mostly in the secondary part of the range with an average share of hermaphrodites reaching 21% in the trioecious populations. The sex ratio varied between populations, but tended mostly towards female domination. Several traits differed significantly among sexes. The characteristics of hermaphrodites were often intermediate between males and females and provided no evidence for the higher competitive abilities of hermaphrodites. We concluded that the possible gain of hermaphroditism in the colonization process is restricted to reproduction. We consider hermaphroditism in S. myrsinifolia as an equilibrium between the allocation of resources for growth and reproduction in unstable conditions on the margins of the range.

  3. Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.

    The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), the biodiversity working group of the Arctic Council, established the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP) to address the need for coordinated and standardized monitoring of Arctic environments. The CBMP includes an international...... network of scientists, conservation organizations, government agencies, Permanent Participants Arctic community experts and leaders. Using an ecosystem-based monitoring approach which includes species, ecological functions, ecosystems, their interactions, and potential drivers, the CBMP focuses...... on developing and implementing long-term plans for monitoring the integrity of Arctic biomes: terrestrial, marine, freshwater, and coastal (under development) environments. The CBMP Terrestrial Expert Monitoring Group (CBMP-TEMG) has developed the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan (CBMP...

  4. The potential of two Salix genotypes for radionuclide/heavy metal accumulation. A case study of Rovinari ash pit (Gorj District, Romania) (United States)

    Hernea, Cornelia; Neţoiu, Constantin; Corneanu, Gabriel; Crăciun, Constantin; Corneanu, Mihaela; Cojocaru, Luminiţa; Rovena Lăcătuşu, Anca; Popescu, Ion


    Thermo Electric Power Plants (TEPP) produce a high amount of ash, that contains heavy metals and radionuclides. Ash is usually stored in ash-pits, in mixture with water and contains U235, Th 234 and their decay products, that are released from the coal matrix, during combustion, as well as heavy metals. Warm weather dried the ash and it can be spread by the wind in surrounded area. This paper presents the results of an experiment with two Salix genotypes, cultivated on an old closed ash-pit, nearby the Rovinari TEPP, in the middle Jiu valley (Gorj District, Romania), in order to evaluate its tolerance to heavy metals and radionuclides. Ash analysis revealed the presence of natural radionuclides, beloging from ash and coal dust, as well as of Cs 137, of Chernobil provenance. Radionuclides content over the normal limits for Romania were registered for Th 234, Pb210, U235 and Ra226. The heavy metals level in ash was over the normal limits, but under the alerts limits. In order to establish the woody plants tolerance to heavy metals and radionuclides, it is important to study the seedlings behavior. In this respect Salix alba and Salix viminalis whips and cuttings culture have been establish on Rovinari ash-pit. The observations made on survival and growth rate pointed out the superiority of Salix viminalis behaviour. After a period of three years Salix viminalis registered a 96% survival rate, while in Salix alba annual decreases, reaching to 14%. These results are supported by the radionuclides content in leaves and by the electron microscopy studies. In Salix alba the leaves parenchimatic cells present a low sinthesis activity. The exogenous particles are accumulated in parenchima cells vacuola, the chloroplasts are usually agranal, with few starch grains and mitocondria presents slightly dillated crista. The ultrastructural features of the mature leaf cells, evidenced the natural adaptation of Salix viminalins for development in an environment with a big amount of

  5. Exopolymer alteration of physical properties of sea ice and implications for ice habitability and biogeochemistry in a warmer Arctic. (United States)

    Krembs, Christopher; Eicken, Hajo; Deming, Jody W


    The physical properties of Arctic sea ice determine its habitability. Whether ice-dwelling organisms can change those properties has rarely been addressed. Following discovery that sea ice contains an abundance of gelatinous extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), we examined the effects of algal EPS on the microstructure and salt retention of ice grown from saline solutions containing EPS from a culture of the sea-ice diatom, Melosira arctica. We also experimented with xanthan gum and with EPS from a culture of the cold-adapted bacterium Colwellia psychrerythraea strain 34H. Quantitative microscopic analyses of the artificial ice containing Melosira EPS revealed convoluted ice-pore morphologies of high fractal dimension, mimicking features found in EPS-rich coastal sea ice, whereas EPS-free (control) ice featured much simpler pore geometries. A heat-sensitive glycoprotein fraction of Melosira EPS accounted for complex pore morphologies. Although all tested forms of EPS increased bulk ice salinity (by 11-59%) above the controls, ice containing native Melosira EPS retained the most salt. EPS effects on ice and pore microstructure improve sea ice habitability, survivability, and potential for increased primary productivity, even as they may alter the persistence and biogeochemical imprint of sea ice on the surface ocean in a warming climate.

  6. ESPC Regional Arctic Prediction System (United States)


    the Navy the capability to conduct short-term (1 week) to extended (2 weeks) coupled weather forecasts for the Arctic region. APPROACH To...sensitivity of the Arctic weather forecast to key numerical parameters; and 5) conduct extensive validation and verification of the coupled system and...SEP 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ESPC Regional Arctic Prediction System 5a. CONTRACT

  7. "Recent" macrofossil remains from the Lomonosov Ridge, central Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Le Duc, Cynthia; de Vernal, Anne; Archambault, Philippe; Brice, Camille; Roberge, Philippe


    The examination of surface sediment samples collected from 17 sites along the Lomonosov Ridge at water depths ranging from 737 to 3339 meters during Polarstern Expedition PS87 in 2014 (Stein, 2015), indicates a rich biogenic content almost exclusively dominated by calcareous remains. Amongst biogenic remains, microfossils (planktic and benthic foraminifers, pteropods, ostracods, etc.) dominate but millimetric to centrimetric macrofossils occurred frequently at the surface of the sediment. The macrofossil remains consist of a large variety of taxa, including gastropods, bivalvia, polychaete tubes, scaphopods, echinoderm plates and spines, and fish otoliths. Among the Bivalvia, the most abundant taxa are Portlandia arctica, Hyalopecten frigidus, Cuspidaria glacilis, Policordia densicostata, Bathyarca spp., and Yoldiella spp. Whereas a few specimens are well preserved and apparently pristine, most mollusk shells displayed extensive alteration features. Moreover, most shells were covered by millimeter scale tubes of the serpulid polychaete Spirorbis sp. suggesting transport from low intertidal or subtidal zone. Both the ecological affinity and known geographic distribution of identified bivalvia as named above support the hypothesis of transportation rather than local development. In addition to mollusk shells, more than a hundred fish otoliths were recovered in surface sediments. The otoliths mostly belong to the Gadidae family. Most of them are well preserved and without serpulid tubes attached to their surface, suggesting a local/regional origin, unlike the shell remains. Although recovered at the surface, the macrofaunal assemblages of the Lomonosov Ridge do not necessarily represent the "modern" environments as they may result from reworking and because their occurrence at the surface of the sediment may also be due to winnowing of finer particles. Although the shells were not dated, we suspect that their actual ages may range from modern to several thousands of

  8. A short-term study to evaluate the uptake and accumulation of arsenic in Asian willow (Salix sp.) from arsenic-contaminated water. (United States)

    Chen, Guangcai; Zou, Xiaoli; Zhou, Yuan; Zhang, Jianfeng; Owens, Gary


    Five Asian willow species (Salix jiangsuensis J172, Salix matsudana, Salix integra Yizhibi, Salix integra Weishanhu, and Salix mongolica) were evaluated for their potential for phytofiltration of arsenic (As) from synthetically contaminated waters. Arsenic accumulation, tolerance, uptake influx, and phytofiltration ability of the five willow species were examined under hydroponic conditions in a glasshouse. Short-term exposure (2 weeks) to solutions containing 80 μmol L(-1) arsenate (As(V)), resulted in significant accumulation of As in all willow species. Arsenic concentration in plant roots ranged from 322 mg kg(-1) dry weight (DW) for S. matsudana to 604 mg kg(-1) (DW) for S. integra Yizhibi. S. integra Yizhibi decreased As(V) concentration in water from 3.87 to 1.89 μmol L(-1) (290 to 142 μg L(-1)) over 168 h, which is 50 % of the total As(V) in the solution. The results suggested that even though Asian willow was not a traditional aquatic species, it still had significant potential for phytofiltration of As from contaminated waters. Of the five willow species studied, S. integra Yizhibi had the greatest capacity to remove As from As-contaminated waters. Thus, Asian willow has significant potential for the phytofiltration of As and may also be suitable for practical phytoremediation of As in highly water-logged areas.

  9. Japan’s arctic policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry V. Streltsov


    Full Text Available Abstract: The article is devoted to the public policy of modern Japan in the Arctic. The Japanese government has put forward clear and well-specifi ed targets of the intensifi cation of Japan’s efforts in the economic development of the Arctic region. Among the priorities of the Arctic policy one should mention such areas as the development of maritime transportation, development of hydrocarbon deposits of the Arctic shelf, sea fi shing, as well as the preservation and increase of the sea bioresources.

  10. Arctic River organic matter transport (United States)

    Raymond, Peter; Gustafsson, Orjan; Vonk, Jorien; Spencer, Robert; McClelland, Jim


    Arctic Rivers have unique hydrology and biogeochemistry. They also have a large impact on the Arctic Ocean due to the large amount of riverine inflow and small ocean volume. With respect to organic matter, their influence is magnified by the large stores of soil carbon and distinct soil hydrology. Here we present a recap of what is known of Arctic River organic matter transport. We will present a summary of what is known of the ages and sources of Arctic River dissolved and particulate organic matter. We will also discuss the current status of what is known about changes in riverine organic matter export due to global change.

  11. The Arctic Circle Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Colomo, F


    The problem of limit shapes in the six-vertex model with domain wall boundary conditions is addressed by considering a specially tailored bulk correlation function, the emptiness formation probability. A closed expression of this correlation function is given, both in terms of certain determinant and multiple integral, which allows for a systematic treatment of the limit shapes of the model for full range of values of vertex weights. Specifically, we show that for vertex weights corresponding to the free-fermion line on the phase diagram, the emptiness formation probability is related to a one-matrix model with a triple logarithmic singularity, or Triple Penner model. The saddle-point analysis of this model leads to the Arctic Circle Theorem, and its generalization to the Arctic Ellipses, known previously from domino tilings.

  12. Research with Arctic peoples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, H Sally; Bjerregaard, Peter; Chan, Hing Man


    of environmental and health issues that are unique to the Arctic regions, and research exploring these issues offers significant opportunities, as well as challenges. On July 28-29, 2004, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research co-sponsored a working group...... entitled "Research with Arctic Peoples: Unique Research Opportunities in Heart, Lung, Blood and Sleep Disorders". The meeting was international in scope with investigators from Greenland, Iceland and Russia, as well as Canada and the United States. Multiple health agencies from Canada and the United States...... sent representatives. Also attending were representatives from the International Union for Circumpolar Health (IUCH) and the National Indian Health Board. The working group developed a set of ten recommendations related to research opportunities in heart, lung, blood and sleep disorders; obstacles...

  13. Green Arctic Patrol Vessel (United States)


    Search Radar (2D) Non-rotating IFF system Electro- Optical security system Naval Surface Warfare Center Carderock Division Green Arctic Patrol...Speed Endurance Modular Systems and Capabilities UUV Bluefin 21 4.93 0.53 750 kg 4,500 m 25 hours Side scan sonar, multibeam ...sensors, 256 Mb flash card USV ASV 6300 6.30 Beam: 0.65 Height: 3.50 2.0 tonnes 8 kt 96 hours @ 4 kt Multibeam , sidescan sonars, CTD

  14. Disparities in Arctic Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Life at the top of the globe is drastically different. Harsh climate devoid of sunlight part of the year, pockets of extreme poverty, and lack of physical infrastructure interfere with healthcare and public health services. Learn about the challenges of people in the Arctic and how research and the International Polar Year address them.  Created: 2/4/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 2/20/2008.

  15. Summer Arctic sea fog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Synchronous or quasi-synchronous sea-land-air observations were conducted using advanced sea ice, atmospheric and marine instruments during China' s First Arctic Expedition. Based on the Precious data from the expedition, it was found that in the Arctic Ocean, most part of which is covered with ice or is mixed with ice, various kinds of sea fog formed such as advection fog, radiation fog and vapor fog. Each kind has its own characteristic and mechanics of creation. In the southern part of the Arctic Ocean, due to the sufficient warm and wet flow there, it is favorable for advection fog to form,which is dense and lasts a long time. On ice cap or vast floating ice, due to the strong radiation cooling effect, stable radiating fog is likely to form. In floating ice area there forms vapor fog with the appearance of masses of vapor from a boiling pot, which is different from short-lasting land fog. The study indicates that the reason why there are many kinds of sea fog form in the Arctic Ocean is because of the complicated cushion and the consequent sea-air interaction caused by the sea ice distribution and its unique physical characteristics. Sea fog is the atmospheric phenomenon of sea-air heat exchange. Especially, due to the high albedo of ice and snow surface, it is diffcult to absorb great amount of solar radiation during the polar days. Besides, ice is a poor conductor of heat; it blocks the sea-air heat exchange.The sea-air exchange is active in floating ice area where the ice is broken. The sea sends heat to the atmosphere in form of latent heat; vapor fog is a way of sea-air heat exchange influencing the climate and an indicator of the extent of the exchange. The study also indicates that the sea also transports heat to the atmosphere in form of sensible heat when vapor fog occurs.

  16. Green Arctic Patrol Vessel (United States)


    design with a full load displacement of 6,480 long tons. The vessel was outfitted with a towed sonary array, surface and air radar, and a small...and system complexity. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Arctic patrol, green technology, environment, polution , ship design, CISD, fuel cell 16. SECURITY...was outfitted with a towed sonary array, surface and air radar, and a small interdiction and rescue craft. In anticipation of more stringent

  17. Russia in the Arctic (United States)


    international energy mar- kets determines, in many ways, its geopolitical influ- ence.”63 As the late Roman Kupchinksy pointed out, the view that...available from www.scrf. 63. Roman Kupchinsky, “Energy and the Russian National Security Strategy,” Jamestown Foundation... Jakobson , Linda, “China prepares for an ice-free Arctic,” SIPRI Insights on Peace and Security, No. 2010/2, March 2010, Stockholm International Peace

  18. International Arctic Research Programs (United States)


    our re- 27 Demand for multi-disciplinary of the boreal forest zone -, should discuss the feazibility of establishing a mechanism Scientific Cooperation...interactions, very low frequency waves, auroras , and precipitation of energetic particles from the mag- netosphere. Ocean Sciences research has...vestigating the aurora phenomenon, which can have a severe impact on communications, and the dynamics of the upper atmosphere, including the arctic

  19. Influence of oral administration of Salix babylonica extract on milk production and composition in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfattah Z.M. Salem


    Full Text Available A 3×3 Latin Square design was used to evaluate effects of 0, 150 and 300 mL of Salix babylonica (SB extract mixed into the diet on daily milk production and composition in cows. Three Brown Swiss dairy cows (420±30.3 kg body weight, at late lactation (220±25.1 d in milk, were fed a diet with a restricted amount of concentrate and oat hay ad libitum twice daily in equal amounts. The SB extract was mixed daily with a small amount of concentrate and fed to the cows. In vitro gas production of the diet fed to the cows was recorded at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h of incubation with 0, 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8 mL SB/g DM. Intake of oat hay was increased (P<0.05 by 11.5% with the SB addition at 150 mL/d. Milk production was also increased with extract addition at 150 or 300 mL/d by about 13.3 and 8.9% respectively, compared with control. Milk fat was lower (P<0.05 with SB addition, while milk protein and lactose were not affected by the extract addition. Milk efficiency was improved (P<0.05 with extract addition versus control. In vitro gas production of the diet increased (P<0.05 dramatically with increasing levels of extract addition with a short lag time and high rate of gas production per hour vs control. Addition of SB extract at 150 mL/d improved milk production by 13.3%, while it decreased its fat content and improved milk efficiency.

  20. Biomonitoring of atmospheric particulate matter using magnetic properties of Salix matsudana tree ring cores. (United States)

    Zhang, Chunxia; Huang, Baochun; Piper, John D A; Luo, Rensong


    Magnetic properties of atmospheric particulate matter collected by both natural and artificial dust receptors are increasingly being used as proxy parameters for environmental analyses. This study reports the first investigation of the relationship between smelting factory activity and the impact on the environment as recorded by the magnetic signature in Salix matsudana tree rings. Magnetic techniques including low-temperature experiments, successive acquisition of isothermal remanent magnetisation (IRM), hysteresis loops and measurements of saturated IRM (SIRM) indicated that magnetic particles were omnipresent in tree bark and trunk wood, and that these particles were predominantly magnetite with multidomain properties. The magnetic properties of tree trunk and branch cores sampled from different directions and heights implied that the acquisition of magnetic particles by a tree depends on both orientation and height. The differences of SIRM values of tree ring cores indicated that pollution source-facing tree trunk wood contained significantly more magnetic particles than other faces. The results indicated that magnetic particles are most likely to be intercepted and collected by tree bark and then enter into tree xylem tissues during the growing season to become finally enclosed into the tree ring by lignification. There was a significant correlation between time-dependent SIRM values of tree ring cores and the annual iron production of the smelting factory. From the dependence of magnetic properties with sampling direction and height, it is argued that magnetic particles in the xylem cannot move between tree rings. Accordingly, the SIRM of tree ring cores from the source-facing side can contribute to historic studies of atmospheric particulate matter produced by heavy metal smelting activities.

  1. Anthelmintic effects of Salix babylonica L. and Leucaena leucocephala Lam. extracts in growing lambs. (United States)

    Hernandez, Pablo Mejia; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Elghandour, Mona M M Y; Cipriano-Salazar, Moisés; Cruz-Lagunas, Blas; Camacho, Luis Miguel


    Twenty Katahdin × Pelibuey crossbreed male lambs, 3 to 4 months of age and 24 ± 0.3 kg of body weight, were used to study the anthelmintic effects of administering extracts of Salix babylonica L. (SB) and Leucaena leucocephala Lam. (LL). Lambs had not been treated with anthelmintics previously and were randomly allocated into four groups of five lambs each in a completely randomized design. Treatments were as follows: control (lambs fed on total mixed ration without extracts), SB (as control plus S. babylonica L. extract at 30 ml/day), LL (as control plus L. leucocephala Lam. extract at 30 ml/day), and SBLL (as control plus 30 ml/day of S. babylonica L. and L. leucocephala Lam. extracts in a 1:1 (v/v) mixture) for 63 days. Extracts were orally administered before the 8:00 a.m. feeding to each lamb. Rectal fecal samples were collected from each lamb at day 22 (P1), day 43 (P2), and day 63 (P3) of the experiment. Adult worm and egg counts were determined in each fecal sample immediately after collection. Plant secondary metabolites of total phenolics, saponins, and the aqueous fraction were 50 % lower in the SB versus LL extracts. Overall, the oral administration of extracts has improved the egg and worm count reductions in lamb feces by 54, 47, and 40 % for LL, SB, and SBLL, respectively, versus the control lambs. Reductions of worm egg counts in lamb feces were higher (P < 0.05) in P2 and P3 versus P1. Extracts of SB and LL or possibly isolated bioactive compounds could be a promising alternative to conventional anthelmintics to treat gastrointestinal parasites of small ruminants. Such treatments could be used in control strategies against gastrointestinal nematodes in organic and conventional production systems.

  2. Removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol in hydroponic solution by four Salix matsudana clones. (United States)

    Shi, Xiang; Leng, Huani; Hu, Yunxue; Liu, Yihua; Duan, Hongping; Sun, Haijing; Chen, Yitai


    Using plants to treat polluted sites and groundwater is an approach called phytoremediation. The aim of the present study was to investigated the toxicity, uptake, accumulation, and removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) in four Salix matsudana clones and to screen the feasibility of phytoremediation using S. matsudana clones. Willows were exposed to 2,4-DCP in hydroponic solution with the concentrations of 10, 20 and 30mg L(-1) for 96h. The biomass of shoots and roots were reduced. Chlorophyll content decreased significantly compared with the control. All root morphology values were different between clones and different concentrations. The 2,4-DCP endurance of four S. matsudana clones was gauged as follows: clone 18> clone 22> clone 8> clone 10. S. matsudana was found to promote 2,4-DCP removal relative to the contaminated solution without plants. From 52.2% to 73.7% of 2,4-DCP were removed by all treatments after 96h exposure. 2,4-DCP was mainly accumulated in roots than in shoots. Clone 22 was the most efficient for the accumulation of 2,4-DCP in plant tissues. The removal of 2,4-DCP from the media may result from its degradation or polymerized in the root zone by the plant enzymes. Phytoremediation of 2,4-DCP with S. matsudana clone 8, 18 and 22 seem to be a viable option, especially at lower concentrations. These clones could remove 2,4-DCP from aquatic environment rapidly and efficiently. In addition, the toxic effect on trees during the removal process is not lethal.

  3. The effect of sewage sludge application on soil properties and willow (Salix sp.) cultivation. (United States)

    Urbaniak, Magdalena; Wyrwicka, Anna; Tołoczko, Wojciech; Serwecińska, Liliana; Zieliński, Marek


    The aim of the study was to determine the impact of sewage sludge from three wastewater treatment plants of different sizes (small, medium and large) applied in two doses (3 and 9 tons per hectare) on soil properties, determined as the content of organic carbon and humus fractions, bacterial abundance, phytotoxicity and PCDD/PCDF TEQ concentrations. The study also evaluated the impact of this sewage sludge on the biometric and physiological parameters and detoxification reaction of willow (Salix sp.) as a typical crop used for the remediation of soil following sludge application. The cultivation of willow on soil treated with sludge was found to result in a gradual increase of humus fractions, total organic carbon content and bacterial abundance as well as soil properties measured using Lepidium sativum. However, it also produced an initial increase of soil phytotoxicity, indicated by Sinapis alba and Sorghum sacharatum, and PCDD/PCDF Toxic Equivalent (TEQ) concentrations, which then fell during the course of the experiment, particularly in areas planted by willow. Although the soil phytotoxicity and PCDD/PCDF TEQ content of the sewage sludge-amended soil initially increased, sludge application was found to have a positive influence on willow, probably due to its high nutrient and carbon content. The obtained results reveal increases in willow biomass, average leaf surface area and leaf length as well as chlorophyll a+b content. Moreover, a strong decline was found in the activity of the detoxifying enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GSTs), a multifunctional enzyme involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in plants, again demonstrating the used sludge had a positive influence on willow performance.

  4. Songbird response to increased willow (Salix spp.) growth in Yellowstone's northern range. (United States)

    Baril, Lisa M; Hansen, Andrew J; Renkin, Roy; Lawrence, Rick


    After nearly a century of height suppression, willows (Salix spp.) in the northern range of Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A., are increasing in height growth as a possible consequence of wolf (Canis lupus) restoration, climate change, or other factors. Regardless of the drivers, the recent release of this rare but important habitat type could have significant implications for associated songbirds that are exhibiting declines in the region. Our objective was to evaluate bird response to releasing willows by comparing willow structure and bird community composition across three willow growth conditions: height suppressed, recently released, and previously tall (i.e., tall prior to the height increase of released willows). Released and previously tall willows exhibited high and similar vertical structure, but released willows were significantly lower in horizontal structure. Suppressed willows were significantly shorter and lower in horizontal cover than released or previously tall willows. Bird richness increased along a gradient from lowest in suppressed to highest in previously tall willows, but abundance and diversity were similar between released and previously tall willows, despite lower horizontal cover in the released condition. Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas) and Lincoln's Sparrow (Melospiza lincolnii) were found in all three growth conditions; however, Yellow Warbler (Dendroica petechia), Warbling Vireo (Vireo gilvus), Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii), and Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodii) were present in released and previously tall willows only. Wilson's Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla) was found in previously tall willows only, appearing to specialize on tall, dense willows. The results of our a priori habitat models indicated that foliage height diversity was the primary driver of bird richness, abundance, and diversity. These results indicate that vertical structure was a more important driver of bird community variables than horizontal

  5. Secondary cell wall composition and candidate gene expression in developing willow (Salix purpurea) stems. (United States)

    Wan, Yongfang; Gritsch, Cristina; Tryfona, Theodora; Ray, Mike J; Andongabo, Ambrose; Hassani-Pak, Keywan; Jones, Huw D; Dupree, Paul; Karp, Angela; Shewry, Peter R; Mitchell, Rowan A C


    The properties of the secondary cell wall (SCW) in willow largely determine the suitability of willow biomass feedstock for potential bioenergy and biofuel applications. SCW development has been little studied in willow and it is not known how willow compares with model species, particularly the closely related genus Populus. To address this and relate SCW synthesis to candidate genes in willow, a tractable bud culture-derived system was developed in Salix purpurea, and cell wall composition and RNA-Seq transcriptome were followed in stems during early development. A large increase in SCW deposition in the period 0-2 weeks after transfer to soil was characterised by a big increase in xylan content, but no change in the frequency of substitution of xylan with glucuronic acid, and increased abundance of putative transcripts for synthesis of SCW cellulose, xylan and lignin. Histochemical staining and immunolabeling revealed that increased deposition of lignin and xylan was associated with xylem, xylem fibre cells and phloem fibre cells. Transcripts orthologous to those encoding xylan synthase components IRX9 and IRX10 and xylan glucuronyl transferase GUX1 in Arabidopsis were co-expressed, and showed the same spatial pattern of expression revealed by in situ hybridisation at four developmental stages, with abundant expression in proto-xylem, xylem fibre and ray parenchyma cells and some expression in phloem fibre cells. The results show a close similarity with SCW development in Populus species, but also give novel information on the relationship between spatial and temporal variation in xylan-related transcripts and xylan composition.

  6. Response of Organ Structure and Physiology to Autotetraploidization in Early Development of Energy Willow Salix viminalis. (United States)

    Dudits, Dénes; Török, Katalin; Cseri, András; Paul, Kenny; Nagy, Anna V; Nagy, Bettina; Sass, László; Ferenc, Györgyi; Vankova, Radomira; Dobrev, Petre; Vass, Imre; Ayaydin, Ferhan


    The biomass productivity of the energy willow Salix viminalis as a short-rotation woody crop depends on organ structure and functions that are under the control of genome size. Colchicine treatment of axillary buds resulted in a set of autotetraploid S. viminalis var. Energo genotypes (polyploid Energo [PP-E]; 2n = 4x = 76) with variation in the green pixel-based shoot surface area. In cases where increased shoot biomass was observed, it was primarily derived from larger leaf size and wider stem diameter. Autotetraploidy slowed primary growth and increased shoot diameter (a parameter of secondary growth). The duplicated genome size enlarged bark and wood layers in twigs sampled in the field. The PP-E plants developed wider leaves with thicker midrib and enlarged palisade parenchyma cells. Autotetraploid leaves contained significantly increased amounts of active gibberellins, cytokinins, salicylic acid, and jasmonate compared with diploid individuals. Greater net photosynthetic CO2 uptake was detected in leaves of PP-E plants with increased chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. Improved photosynthetic functions in tetraploids were also shown by more efficient electron transport rates of photosystems I and II. Autotetraploidization increased the biomass of the root system of PP-E plants relative to diploids. Sections of tetraploid roots showed thickening with enlarged cortex cells. Elevated amounts of indole acetic acid, active cytokinins, active gibberellin, and salicylic acid were detected in the root tips of these plants. The presented variation in traits of tetraploid willow genotypes provides a basis to use autopolyploidization as a chromosome engineering technique to alter the organ development of energy plants in order to improve biomass productivity.

  7. Floral reward, advertisement and attractiveness to honey bees in dioecious Salix caprea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Dötterl

    Full Text Available In dioecious, zoophilous plants potential pollinators have to be attracted to both sexes and switch between individuals of both sexes for pollination to occur. It often has been suggested that males and females require different numbers of visits for maximum reproductive success because male fertility is more likely limited by access to mates, whereas female fertility is rather limited by resource availability. According to sexual selection theory, males therefore should invest more in pollinator attraction (advertisement, reward than females. However, our knowledge on the sex specific investment in floral rewards and advertisement, and its effects on pollinator behaviour is limited. Here, we use an approach that includes chemical, spectrophotometric, and behavioural studies i to elucidate differences in floral nectar reward and advertisement (visual, olfactory cues in dioecious sallow, Salix caprea, ii to determine the relative importance of visual and olfactory floral cues in attracting honey bee pollinators, and iii to test for differential attractiveness of female and male inflorescence cues to honey bees. Nectar amount and sugar concentration are comparable, but sugar composition varies between the sexes. Olfactory sallow cues are more attractive to honey bees than visual cues; however, a combination of both cues elicits the strongest behavioural responses in bees. Male flowers are due to the yellow pollen more colourful and emit a higher amount of scent than females. Honey bees prefer the visual but not the olfactory display of males over those of females. In all, the data of our multifaceted study are consistent with the sexual selection theory and provide novel insights on how the model organism honey bee uses visual and olfactory floral cues for locating host plants.

  8. Floral reward, advertisement and attractiveness to honey bees in dioecious Salix caprea. (United States)

    Dötterl, Stefan; Glück, Ulrike; Jürgens, Andreas; Woodring, Joseph; Aas, Gregor


    In dioecious, zoophilous plants potential pollinators have to be attracted to both sexes and switch between individuals of both sexes for pollination to occur. It often has been suggested that males and females require different numbers of visits for maximum reproductive success because male fertility is more likely limited by access to mates, whereas female fertility is rather limited by resource availability. According to sexual selection theory, males therefore should invest more in pollinator attraction (advertisement, reward) than females. However, our knowledge on the sex specific investment in floral rewards and advertisement, and its effects on pollinator behaviour is limited. Here, we use an approach that includes chemical, spectrophotometric, and behavioural studies i) to elucidate differences in floral nectar reward and advertisement (visual, olfactory cues) in dioecious sallow, Salix caprea, ii) to determine the relative importance of visual and olfactory floral cues in attracting honey bee pollinators, and iii) to test for differential attractiveness of female and male inflorescence cues to honey bees. Nectar amount and sugar concentration are comparable, but sugar composition varies between the sexes. Olfactory sallow cues are more attractive to honey bees than visual cues; however, a combination of both cues elicits the strongest behavioural responses in bees. Male flowers are due to the yellow pollen more colourful and emit a higher amount of scent than females. Honey bees prefer the visual but not the olfactory display of males over those of females. In all, the data of our multifaceted study are consistent with the sexual selection theory and provide novel insights on how the model organism honey bee uses visual and olfactory floral cues for locating host plants.

  9. Frost-related dieback of Swedish and Estonian Salix plantations due to pathogenic and ice nucleation-active bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambours, M.A.


    During the past decade, important dieback has been observed in short-rotation forestry plantations of Salix viminalis and S. dasyclados in Sweden and Estonia, plantations from which the isolation of ice nucleation-active (INA) and pathogenic bacteria has also been reported. This thesis investigates the connection between bacterial infection and frost as a possible cause for such damage, and the role played by internal and external factors (e.g. plant frost sensitivity, fertilisation) in the dieback observed. Bacterial floras isolated from ten Salix clones growing on fertilised/unfertilised mineral soil or nitrogen-rich organic soil, were studied. Culturable bacterial communities present both in internal necrotic tissues and on the plant surface (i.e. epiphytes) were isolated on two occasions (spring and autumn). The strains were biochemically characterised (with gram, oxidase and fluorescence tests), and tested for ice nucleation-activity. Their pathogenic properties were studied with and without association to a freezing stress. Certain strains were eventually identified with BIOLOG plates and 16S rRNA analysis. A high number of culturable bacterial strains was found in the plant samplings, belonging mainly to Erwinia and Sphingomonas spp.; pathogenic and INA communities being mostly Erwinia-, Sphingomonas- and Xanthomonas-like. The generally higher plant dieback noted in the field on nutrient-rich soils and for frost sensitive clones was found connected to higher numbers of pathogenic and INA bacteria in the plants. We thus confirm Salix dieback to be related to a synergistic effect of frost and bacterial infection, possibly aggravated by fertilisation.

  10. Correspondence of ectomycorrhizal diversity and colonisation of willows (Salix spp.) grown in short rotation coppice on arable sites and adjacent natural stands. (United States)

    Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna; Toljander, Ylva K; Baum, Christel; Fransson, Petra M A; Taylor, Andy F S; Weih, Martin


    Willows (Salix spp.) are mycorrhizal tree species sometimes cultivated as short rotation coppice (SRC) on arable sites for energy purposes; they are also among the earliest plants colonising primary successional sites in natural stands. The objective of this study was to analyse the degree of colonisation and diversity of ectomycorrhizal (EM) communities on willows grown as SRC in arable soils and their adjacent natural or naturalized stands. Arable sites usually lack ectomycorrhizal host plants before the establishment of SRC, and adjacent natural or naturalized willow stands were hypothesized to be a leading source of ectomycorrhizal inoculum for the SRC. Three test sites including SRC stands (Salix viminalis, Salix dasyclados, and Salix schwerinii) and adjacent natural or naturalized (Salix caprea, Salix fragilis, and Salix × mollissima) stands in central Sweden were investigated on EM colonisation and morphotypes, and the fungal partners of 36 of the total 49 EM fungi morphotypes were identified using molecular tools. The frequency of mycorrhizas in the natural/naturalized stands was higher (two sites) or lower (one site) than in the corresponding cultivated stands. Correspondence analysis revealed that some EM taxa (e.g. Agaricales) were mostly associated with cultivated willows, while others (e.g. Thelephorales) were mostly found in natural/naturalized stands. In conclusion, we found strong effects of sites and willow genotype on EM fungi formation, but poor correspondence between the EM fungi abundance and diversity in SRC and their adjacent natural/naturalized stands. The underlying mechanism might be selective promotion of some EM fungi species by more effective spore dispersal.

  11. Effects of cutting characteristics on sprouting and early growth of willow; Effekter av sticklingsparametrar paa grobarhet och tillvaext hos salix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verwijst, Theo; Nordh, Nils-Erik; Lundkvist, Anneli


    In plantations of willow, the size- and weight variability of established plants is increasing over time. This size-hierarchy development is enforced by competition for resources between plants, and is preserved by root reserves and maintained over harvest. This long-term development causes mortality of entire willow plants, and thereby to gaps in the stand, and production losses under later cutting cycles. Variations in productivity across a field may be caused by soil fertility- and moisture gradients and by differences in weed pressure. Even difference between adjacent plants during the establishment phase may be caused by small scale differences in the biotic (weeds) and abiotic (moisture, nutrients) direct environment of the plants. But the central question here is whether differences between single cuttings may contribute to the development of a size- and weight hierarchy between willow plants during the early establishment phase? And if so, (i) to what degree do differences between cuttings contribute to the development of a hierarchy and (ii) are we able, in commercial practice, to modify cutting handling and selection to minimise the development of early size variations between plants? This research project aimed to quantify how cutting length and -origin and cutting handling during planting affects survival and growth of plants in a willow stand under establishment. The goal was to identify and quantify cutting characteristics which are of relevance for a high viability and for a fast and equal establishment of a willow stand, and thereby to be able to recommend advice which leads to a faster and more reliable establishment of willows. The study was performed by means of two box experiments under controlled conditions and by means of a field experiment during May 2008 - September 2009, on the Ultuna campus (SLU) nearby Uppsala. In all trials, the clones Tora (Salix schwerinii x S. viminalis), Jorr (Salix viminalis), Olof (Salix viminalis x (Salix

  12. Validated HPTLC methods for the determination of salicin in Salix sp. and of harpagoside in Harpagophytum [corrected] procumbens. (United States)

    Wagner, Steffen; Ureña, Abraham; Reich, Eike; Merfort, Irmgard


    Preparations of Harpagophytum procumbens and of Salix species are successfully used for the treatment of degenerative rheumatism and painful arthrosis. For the quality control of both drugs, rapid methods of quantification are desirable. Here we report the development of two HPTLC methods enabling the determination of harpagoside in Harpagophyti radix and of salicin in Salicis cortex. We focused on a standardized methodology and thorough validation including two laboratories. The methods allow the analyses of up to 16 samples in parallel demonstrating the proposed methods as very rapid and cost efficient.

  13. Potential of Igniscum sachalinensis L. and Salix viminalis L. for the Phytoremediation of Copper-Contaminated Soils


    Isong Godlove Tingwey; Seth Nii-Annang; Dirk Freese


    The potential of Salix viminalis L. and Igniscum sachalinensis L. for phytoremediation of copper- (Cu-) contaminated soils was studied under greenhouse conditions. Approximately 5 kg of potted agricultural and sewage amended soils sampled from the top 0 to 20 cm depth in Neuruppin, Germany, was treated with CuSO4 at concentrations 0 (control), 250, 750, and 1250 mg Cu kg−1 soil and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) at 1000 mg kg−1 soil, respectively. Each plant species was grown on four ...

  14. Mining in the European Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Kim; Scheepstra, Annette; Gille, Johan; Stępień, Adam; Koivurova, Timo


    The European Arctic is currently experiencing an upsurge in mining activities, but future developments will be highly sensitive to mineral price fluctuations. The EU is a major consumer and importer of Arctic raw materials. As the EU is concerned about the security of supply, it encourages domestic

  15. Arctic interests and policy of France


    Yuri I. Rubinsky


    The author considers scientific, economic and political activities of France for the development and exploration of the Arctic, providing security there. Along with some other non-Arctic countries, France is not ready to accept such a situation when eight members of the Arctic Council solve Arctic problems on behalf of all mankind.

  16. Technique for compressed bundles for harvest of whole straw willow. Pilot study; Teknik foer komprimerande helskottsskoerd av salix i buntform. Foerstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Hans (Vaesteraeng Lantbruk AB (Sweden))


    The pilot study was initiated by the need of a new technology that has been raised from the problem, and by the specifications of requirements, that has been described from the project 'Salix Maelardalen'. The need has been crystallized by the energy company Maelarenergi AB, Vaesteraas, in their handling of bio fuel, among many other fuels. The company Maelarenergi AB can see a potential in the use of Salix of a considerable volume. There is a special need by the means of the big volume handling of Salix, since the Salix raw material must be able to be delivered under a longer period or for intermediate storage. 8-9 months could be an adequate storage period. The possibility for intermediate storage could do the flow of fuel raw material to the combined power and heating plant is harmonized to the special requirements of fuel. The storage capability in chipped raw Salix chips is very short and that's why chipped Salix are not going to be a sustainable system combined with the handle of big volume together with portioned inflow to the plant. The production of Salix chips in a system of direct chipping is a very delicate system. The ground conditions with frozen and dry grounds are important for a system with heavy machines. The last years have not given such climate conditions. A big problem with practicability has been coming up. The number of days for contract work during the harvest period without interruption, because of hard conditions, has been decreased to the level that the capacity very considerably falls below what is economical defensible. The needs of larger areas for harvesting during fewer days under good conditions counteract each other. In the 'hot flow' during the harvest when the harvest machine will work with escort vehicles/container transports in the field can be impossible to realize because of for example the breakdown of the soil structure. The organization around 'hot flow system' is a very heavy programme

  17. Vascular plant biodiversity of the lower Coppermine River valley and vicinity (Nunavut, Canada): an annotated checklist of an Arctic flora (United States)

    Bull, Roger D.


    The Coppermine River in western Nunavut is one of Canada’s great Arctic rivers, yet its vascular plant flora is poorly known. Here, we report the results of a floristic inventory of the lower Coppermine River valley and vicinity, including Kugluk (Bloody Falls) Territorial Park and the hamlet of Kugluktuk. The study area is approximately 1,200 km2, extending from the forest-tundra south of the treeline to the Arctic coast. Vascular plant floristic data are based on a review of all previous collections from the area and more than 1,200 new collections made in 2014. Results are presented in an annotated checklist, including citation of all specimens examined, comments on taxonomy and distribution, and photographs for a subset of taxa. The vascular plant flora comprises 300 species (311 taxa), a 36.6% increase from the 190 species documented by previous collections made in the area over the last century, and is considerably more diverse than other local floras on mainland Nunavut. We document 207 taxa for Kugluk (Bloody Falls) Territorial Park, an important protected area for plants on mainland Nunavut. A total of 190 taxa are newly recorded for the study area. Of these, 14 taxa (13 species and one additional variety) are newly recorded for Nunavut (Allium schoenoprasum, Carex capitata, Draba lonchocarpa, Eremogone capillaris subsp. capillaris, Sabulina elegans, Eleocharis quinqueflora, Epilobium cf. anagallidifolium, Botrychium neolunaria, Botrychium tunux, Festuca altaica, Polygonum aviculare, Salix ovalifolia var. arctolitoralis, Salix ovalifolia var. ovalifolia and Stuckenia pectinata), seven species are newly recorded for mainland Nunavut (Carex gynocrates, Carex livida, Cryptogramma stelleri, Draba simmonsii, Festuca viviparoidea subsp. viviparoidea, Juncus alpinoarticulatus subsp. americanus and Salix pseudomyrsinites) and 56 range extensions are reported. The psbA-trnH and rbcL DNA sequence data were used to help identify the three Botrychium taxa recorded

  18. AMAP Assessment 2013: Arctic Ocean acidification (United States)


    This assessment report presents the results of the 2013 AMAP Assessment of Arctic Ocean Acidification (AOA). This is the first such assessment dealing with AOA from an Arctic-wide perspective, and complements several assessments that AMAP has delivered over the past ten years concerning the effects of climate change on Arctic ecosystems and people. The Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) is a group working under the Arctic Council. The Arctic Council Ministers have requested AMAP to: - produce integrated assessment reports on the status and trends of the conditions of the Arctic ecosystems;

  19. Arctic Ecosystem Integrated Survey (Arctic Eis): Marine ecosystem dynamics in the rapidly changing Pacific Arctic Gateway (United States)

    Mueter, Franz J.; Weems, Jared; Farley, Edward V.; Sigler, Michael F.


    Arctic Marine Ecosystems are undergoing rapid changes associated with ice loss and surface warming resulting from human activities (IPCC, 2013). The most dramatic changes include an earlier ice retreat and a longer ice-free season, particularly on Arctic inflow shelves such as the Barents Sea in the Atlantic Arctic and the northern Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea in the Pacific Arctic, the two major gateways into the Arctic (Danielson et al., 2016; Frey et al., 2015; Serreze et al., 2007; Wood et al., 2015). The retreat of Arctic sea ice has opened access to the Arctic marine environment and its resources, particularly during summer, and among other changes has brought with it increased research activities. For the Pacific Arctic region, these activities have led to several recent compendiums examining physical, biogeochemical, and biological patterns and trends in this rapidly changing environment (Arrigo, 2015, 2016; Arrigo et al., 2014; Bluhm et al., 2010; Dunton et al., 2014; Grebmeier and Maslowski, 2014; Hopcroft and Day, 2013; Moore and Stabeno, 2015).

  20. Marinomonas profundimaris sp. nov., isolated from deep-sea sediment sample of the Arctic Ocean. (United States)

    Bai, Xiuhua; Lai, Qiliang; Dong, Chunming; Li, Fuying; Shao, Zongze


    A taxonomic study was carried out on strain D104(T), which was isolated from deep-sea subsurface sediment sample from the Arctic Ocean. The bacterium was found to be Gram-negative, oxidase negative and catalase weakly positive, rod shaped, motile by means of polar flagellum. The organism grows between 4 and 37 °C (optimum 25-28 °C) and 0.5-6 % NaCl (optimum 3 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain D104(T) belongs to the genus Marinomonas, with highest sequence similarities of 97.7 % to Marinomonas ushuaiensis DSM 15871(T), followed by M. dokdonensis DSW10-10(T) (96.9 %), M. arenicola KMM 3893(T) (96.7 %), M. arctica 328(T) (96.6 %) and other 18 species of the genus Marinomonas (94.4-96.5 %). The average nucleotide identity and estimated DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain D104(T) and M. ushuaiensis DSM 15871(T) were 84.24 % and 20.80 ± 2.33 % respectively. The principal fatty acids were C16:0, sum in feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c/C16:1 ω6c), sum in feature 8 (C18:1 ω7c/C18:1 ω6c) and C12:1 3OH. The G + C content of the chromosomal DNA was determined to be 44.8 mol%. The respiratory quinone was found to be Q8 (100 %). Polar lipids include phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine as major phospholipids and aminolipid and phospholipid as minor components. The results of the genotypic and phenotypic analyses indicate that strain D104(T) represents a novel species of the genus Marinomonas, for which the name Marinomonas profundimaris sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain D104(T) (=MCCC 1A07573(T) = LMG 27696(T)).

  1. Assembling an Arctic Ocean Boundary Monitoring Array


    Tsubouchi, T.


    The Arctic Ocean boundary monitoring array has been maintained over many years by six research institutes located worldwide. Our approach to Arctic Ocean boundary measurements is generating significant scientific outcomes. However, it is not always easy to access Arctic data. On the basis of our last five years’ experience of assembling pan-Arctic boundary data, and considering the success of Argo, I propose that Arctic data policy should be driven by specific scientific-based requirements. O...

  2. Nitrogen accumulation and partitioning in a High Arctic tundra ecosystem from extreme atmospheric N deposition events. (United States)

    Choudhary, Sonal; Blaud, Aimeric; Osborn, A Mark; Press, Malcolm C; Phoenix, Gareth K


    Arctic ecosystems are threatened by pollution from recently detected extreme atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition events in which up to 90% of the annual N deposition can occur in just a few days. We undertook the first assessment of the fate of N from extreme deposition in High Arctic tundra and are presenting the results from the whole ecosystem (15)N labelling experiment. In 2010, we simulated N depositions at rates of 0, 0.04, 0.4 and 1.2 g Nm(-2)yr(-1), applied as (15)NH4(15)NO3 in Svalbard (79(°)N), during the summer. Separate applications of (15)NO3(-) and (15)NH4(+) were also made to determine the importance of N form in their retention. More than 95% of the total (15)N applied was recovered after one growing season (~90% after two), demonstrating a considerable capacity of Arctic tundra to retain N from these deposition events. Important sinks for the deposited N, regardless of its application rate or form, were non-vascular plants>vascular plants>organic soil>litter>mineral soil, suggesting that non-vascular plants could be the primary component of this ecosystem to undergo measurable changes due to N enrichment from extreme deposition events. Substantial retention of N by soil microbial biomass (70% and 39% of (15)N in organic and mineral horizon, respectively) during the initial partitioning demonstrated their capacity to act as effective buffers for N leaching. Between the two N forms, vascular plants (Salix polaris) in particular showed difference in their N recovery, incorporating four times greater (15)NO3(-) than (15)NH4(+), suggesting deposition rich in nitrate will impact them more. Overall, these findings show that despite the deposition rates being extreme in statistical terms, biologically they do not exceed the capacity of tundra to sequester pollutant N during the growing season. Therefore, current and future extreme events may represent a major source of eutrophication.

  3. Herbivores influence the growth, reproduction, and morphology of a widespread Arctic willow. (United States)

    Christie, Katie S; Ruess, Roger W; Lindberg, Mark S; Mulder, Christa P


    Shrubs have expanded in Arctic ecosystems over the past century, resulting in significant changes to albedo, ecosystem function, and plant community composition. Willow and rock ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus, L. muta) and moose (Alces alces) extensively browse Arctic shrubs, and may influence their architecture, growth, and reproduction. Furthermore, these herbivores may alter forage plants in such a way as to increase the quantity and accessibility of their own food source. We estimated the effect of winter browsing by ptarmigan and moose on an abundant, early-successional willow (Salix alaxensis) in northern Alaska by comparing browsed to unbrowsed branches. Ptarmigan browsed 82-89% of willows and removed 30-39% of buds, depending on study area and year. Moose browsed 17-44% of willows and browsed 39-55% of shoots. Browsing inhibited apical dominance and activated axillary and adventitious buds to produce new vegetative shoots. Ptarmigan- and moose-browsed willow branches produced twice the volume of shoot growth but significantly fewer catkins the following summer compared with unbrowsed willow branches. Shoots on browsed willows were larger and produced 40-60% more buds compared to unbrowsed shoots. This process of shoot production at basal parts of the branch is the mechanism by which willows develop a highly complex "broomed" architecture after several years of browsing. Broomed willows were shorter and more likely to be re-browsed by ptarmigan, but not moose. Ptarmigan likely benefit from the greater quantity and accessibility of buds on previously browsed willows and may increase the carrying capacity of their own habitat. Despite the observed tolerance of willows to browsing, their vertical growth and reproduction were strongly inhibited by moose and ptarmigan. Browsing by these herbivores therefore needs to be considered in future models of shrub expansion in the Arctic.

  4. Effects of increased snow on growth response and allocation patterns of arctic plants (United States)

    Addis, C. E.; Bret-Harte, M. S.


    Warming in the Arctic has led to an increase in shrub cover on the tundra that has been well documented in arctic Alaska. Fall and winter precipitation are also predicted to increase in arctic regions under continued climate change, resulting in greater snow depths and insulating winter soil, thus facilitating overwinter nitrogen mineralization by microbes. We predict that this increased microbial activity will enhance plant growth because more nutrients will be available for plant uptake at spring thaw. We studied the effect of increased snow on plant growth and nutrient allocation patterns using snow fences located across a gradient of shrub height and density at Toolik Field Station on the north slope of Alaska's Brooks Range. We compared growth and nutrient content of deciduous shrubs, evergreen shrubs, and graminoids on either side of the fences. Species behaved individualistically, with some showing increased growth with snow addition, others showing decreased growth, and some showing no effect of snow at all. The biggest increases in growth were seen in deciduous shrubs, particularly Salix pulchra, due to increases in secondary, or radial, growth which allowed plants to support more branches and thus more leaves. This provides a preliminary mechanistic explanation for the widespread increase in shrub cover across the northern latitudes. In addition, species that experienced increases in biomass due to snow also generally displayed increased nitrogen and carbon content in both leaves and stems, indicating that plants which got bigger were also better able to capture available resources. We conclude that faster growing species with the ability to respond rapidly to changes in nutrient availability will likely dominate under continued climate change, and may alter important ecosystem processes such as carbon and nitrogen storage.

  5. Arctic Summer Ice Processes (United States)

    Holt, Benjamin


    The primary objective of this study is to estimate the flux of heat and freshwater resulting from sea ice melt in the polar seas. The approach taken is to examine the decay of sea ice in the summer months primarily through the use of spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery. The improved understanding of the dynamics of the melt process can be usefully combined with ice thermodynamic and upper ocean models to form more complete models of ice melt. Models indicate that more heat is absorbed in the upper ocean when the ice cover is composed of smaller rather than larger floes and when there is more open water. Over the course of the summer, floes disintegrate by physical forcing and heating, melting into smaller and smaller sizes. By measuring the change in distribution of floes together with open water over a summer period, we can make estimates of the amount of heating by region and time. In a climatic sense, these studies are intended to improve the understanding of the Arctic heat budget which can then be eventually incorporated into improved global climate models. This work has two focus areas. The first is examining the detailed effect of storms on floe size and open water. A strong Arctic low pressure storm has been shown to loosen up the pack ice, increase the open water concentration well into the pack ice, and change the distribution of floes toward fewer and smaller floes. This suggests episodic melting and the increased importance of horizontal (lateral) melt during storms. The second focus area is related to an extensive ship-based experiment that recently took place in the Arctic called Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA). An icebreaker was placed purposely into the older pack ice north of Alaska in September 1997. The ship served as the base for experimenters who deployed extensive instrumentation to measure the atmosphere, ocean, and ice during a one-year period. My experiment will be to derive similar measurements (floe size, open

  6. Arctic hydrology and meteorology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, D.L.


    During 1990, we have continued our meteorological and hydrologic data collection in support of our process-oriented research. The six years of data collected to data is unique in its scope and continuity in a North Hemisphere Arctic setting. This valuable data base has allowed us to further our understanding of the interconnections and interactions between the atmosphere/hydrosphere/biosphere/lithosphere. The increased understanding of the heat and mass transfer processes has allowed us to increase our model-oriented research efforts.

  7. Psychrophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria isolated from permanently cold Arctic marine sediments: description of Desulfofrigrus oceanense gen. nov., sp nov., Desulfofrigus fragile sp nov., Desulfofaba gelida gen. nov., sp nov., Desulfotalea psychrophila gen. nov., sp nov and Desulfotalea arctica sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoblauch, C.; Sahm, K.; Jørgensen, BB


    Five psychrophilic, Gram-negative, sulfate-reducing bacteria were isolated from marine sediments off the coast of Svalbard. All isolates grew at the in situ temperature of -1.7 degrees C. In batch cultures, strain PSv29(T) had the highest growth rate at 7 degrees C, strains ASv26(T) and LSv54(T...

  8. Changes in Salix viminalis L. cv. 'Cannabina' morphology and physiology in response to nickel ions--hydroponic investigations. (United States)

    Drzewiecka, Kinga; Mleczek, Mirosław; Gąsecka, Monika; Magdziak, Zuzanna; Goliński, Piotr


    The aim of the study was to assess the ability of 'basket willow' to bioaccumulate nickel with simultaneous analysis of biomass parameters and biomarkers of plants physiological reaction to the metal. Cuttings of Salix viminalis L. cv. 'Cannabina' were cultivated in Knop's medium containing nickel at 0-3mM stabilized with quartz sand. Higher nickel contents were observed in Salix rods and roots (~15), and lower for leaves and shoots (~3 mg kg(-1)DW) after 14 days at 3 mM Ni. The strongest inhibition was observed for root biomass, weaker for shoot, root and leaf elongation, and the weakest for the photosynthetic area (4, 24, 36, 55 and 70% of control, respectively). Soluble carbohydrates in leaves reached 340% of control at 3.0mM Ni. Phenolics content increased four-fold at 3mM Ni versus control, while salicylic acid content at 2.5 mM Ni was nearly 68 times higher than for Ni-untreated plants. The exudation of low molecular weight organic acids increased from ~40 to 130 μM kg(-1)DW at 3 mM. The investigated cultivar exhibits sufficient resistance to nickel and can be cultivated at heavily contaminated sites. Nevertheless, strong inhibition of plant growth was observed resulting probably from Ni-induced disturbances in nutrient uptake accompanied by oxidative stress.

  9. Projected benefit-cost analysis of agri-silvicultural system: vegetable crops intercropping with Salix alba (Willow)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aijaz Hussain Mir; M.A. Khan


    An experiment upon an agri-silvicultural system involving Willow (Salix alba) tree,Kale (Brassica oleracea var.acephala) and Knol khol (Brassica oleracea var.caularapa) was laid in randomized block designed at farmers' willow field at Shalimar near Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir,Srinagar India during 2005 and 2006.The main plot was divided into sub-spots with 8 m ( 2 m in size each in which four two-year-old willow (Salix alba) trees were at a spacing of 2 m ( 2 m in a sub-spot.The intercrops were maintained at recommended spacing and supplied with recommended doses of fertilizers.The benefit-cost ratio in willow plantation intercropped with vegetable crops of Kale and Knol Khol was analyzed and compared with the benefit-cost ratio of sole willow tree forestry.The results showed that every rupee invested in plantation of agri-silvicultural system generates benefit-cost ratio of 2.78 and 2.79 in case of Willow intercropping with Kale and Willow with Knol khol,respectively,while as for sole crop of willows benefit-cost ratio was calculated to be 2.66.These results provided circumstantial evidence in favour of adopting agroforestry involving willow instead of Sole tree forestry.

  10. Physiological and proteomic responses of different willow clones (Salix fragilis x alba) exposed to dredged sediment contaminated by heavy metals. (United States)

    Evlard, Aricia; Sergeant, Kjell; Ferrandis, Salvador; Printz, Bruno; Renaut, Jenny; Guignard, Cedric; Paul, Roger; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Campanella, Bruno


    High biomass producing species are considered as tools for remediation of contaminated soils. Willows (Salix spp.) are prominent study subjects in this regard. In this study, different willow clones (Salix fragilis x alba) were planted on heavy-metal polluted dredging sludge. A first objective was assessment of the biomass production for these clones. Using a Gupta statistic, four clones were identified as high biomass producers (HBP). For comparison, a group of four clones with lowest biomass production were selected (LBP). A second objective was to compare metal uptake as well as the physiological and proteomic responses of these two groups. All these complementary data's allow us to have a better picture of the health of the clones that would be used in phytoremediation programs. Cd, Zn, and Ni total uptake was higher in the HBPs but Pb total uptake was higher in LBPs. Our proteomic and physiological results showed that the LBPs were able to maintain cellular activity as much as the HBPs although the oxidative stress response was more pronounced in the LBPs. This could be due to the high Pb content found in this group although a combined effect of the other metals cannot be excluded.

  11. High-density linkage mapping and evolution of paralogs and orthologs in Salix and Populus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öst Torbjörn


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salix (willow and Populus (poplar are members of the Salicaceae family and they share many ecological as well as genetic and genomic characteristics. The interest of using willow for biomass production is growing, which has resulted in increased pressure on breeding of high yielding and resistant clones adapted to different environments. The main purpose of this work was to develop dense genetic linkage maps for mapping of traits related to yield and resistance in willow. We used the Populus trichocarpa genome to extract evenly spaced markers and mapped the orthologous loci in the willow genome. The marker positions in the two genomes were used to study genome evolution since the divergence of the two lineages some 45 mya. Results We constructed two linkage maps covering the 19 linkage groups in willow. The most detailed consensus map, S1, contains 495 markers with a total genetic distance of 2477 cM and an average distance of 5.0 cM between the markers. The S3 consensus map contains 221 markers and has a total genetic distance of 1793 cM and an average distance of 8.1 cM between the markers. We found high degree of synteny and gene order conservation between willow and poplar. There is however evidence for two major interchromosomal rearrangements involving poplar LG I and XVI and willow LG Ib, suggesting a fission or a fusion in one of the lineages, as well as five intrachromosomal inversions. The number of silent substitutions were three times lower (median: 0.12 between orthologs than between paralogs (median: 0.37 - 0.41. Conclusions The relatively slow rates of genomic change between willow and poplar mean that the genomic resources in poplar will be most useful in genomic research in willow, such as identifying genes underlying QTLs of important traits. Our data suggest that the whole-genome duplication occurred long before the divergence of the two genera, events which have until now been regarded as contemporary

  12. Determination of the Annual Shading Potential of Salix Purpurea Coppice using Hemispherical Photographs (United States)

    Holzapfel, G.; Weihs, P.; Stockreiter, L.; Hoffmann, E.


    densities in terms of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and the corresponding incident solar radiation energy reaching a shaded water surface (Global Site Factor). Responding to these questions a two year old natural stand of Salix purpurea was monitored. The growth of riparian vegetation and the correlation to solar transmission during different phenological phases are measured periodically with radiation sensors. LAI is investigated using hemispherical photographs. Analysis is done with the software Hemiview and Gap Light Analyser (GLA). Results show discrepancies between analysis with the software programs and measurements. Altogether, the variability and the trends of both are similar: the same daily and annual changes can be seen.

  13. The Arctic lithosphere: an overview (United States)

    Drachev, S.; Pease, V.; Stephenson, R.


    The Arctic is comprised of three deepwater oceanic basins, the Norwegian-Greenland, Eurasia, and Amerasia basins, surrounded by continental masses of the Achaean to Early Proterozoic North American, Baltica and Siberian cratons and intervening Neoproterozoic and Phanerozoic fold belts. Though the tectonic history of the Arctic continental realm spans almost three billions of years, the formation of the Arctic began with the creation of Pangaea-II supercontinent at end of Permian epoch. Between 250 and 150 Ma the Proto-Arctic was represented by the Anyui Ocean, or Angayuchum Sea - a Paleo-Pacific embayment into Pangaea II. During the Mesozoic Pangaea II was destroyed and the Anyi Ocean was isolated from the Paleo-Pacific, finally leading to the separation of Arctic Alaska-Chukchi Microcontinent from the North American side of Laurasia; the collision of this microplate with the Siberian margin occurred at ca. 125 Ma in association with the opening of the Canada Basin. The final stage of the Arctic formation took place in the Cenozoic, and was related to the propagation of the divergent Atlantic lithospheric plate boundary between North America and Baltica with the separation of the Lomonosov continental sliver from the Eurasian margin and opening of the Eurasia oceanic basin between 56 and 0 Ma. The present-day Arctic, especially its shelves and oceanic basins, is one of the least studied places on the Earth. Though we know the geology of the surrounding continental masses, there are still many questions remaining about major lithospheric divides beneath the Arctic seas, such as: • Where are the plate boundaries associated with the Amerasia Basin? • How and when did the Canada Basin open? • What was the pre-drift setting of the Chukchi Borderland? • Which tectonic processes formed the East Siberian shelves? • How and when did the major ridges in the Amerasia Basin form? • Where are the Early Tertiary plate boundaries in the Arctic? • What is the

  14. The effect of pH on the uptake and toxicity of the bivalent weak base chloroquine tested on Salix viminalis and Daphnia magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendal, Cecilie; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Trapp, Stefan


    , and therefore a higher toxicity can be expected. The current study examines the pHdependent toxicity and bioaccumulation of the bivalent weak base chloroquine (pKa: 10.47 and 6.33, log KOW 4.67) tested on Salix viminalis (basket willow) and Daphnia magna (water flea). The transpiration rates of hydroponically...

  15. SCICEX: Submarine Arctic Science Program (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submarine Arctic Science Program, SCICEX, is a federal interagency collaboration among the operational Navy, research agencies, and the marine research community...

  16. Development of arctic wind technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M.; Antikainen, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)


    The climatic conditions of Lapland set special technical requirements for wind power production. The most difficult problem regarding wind power production in arctic regions is the build-up of hard and rime ice on structures of the machine

  17. Interaction webs in arctic ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Niels M.; Hardwick, Bess; Gilg, Olivier;


    How species interact modulate their dynamics, their response to environmental change, and ultimately the functioning and stability of entire communities. Work conducted at Zackenberg, Northeast Greenland, has changed our view on how networks of arctic biotic interactions are structured, how they ...... that the combination of long-term, ecosystem-based monitoring, and targeted research projects offers the most fruitful basis for understanding and predicting the future of arctic ecosystems....

  18. Indução de calos friáveis em explantes foliares de Salix (Salyx humboldtiana Willd Induction of friable callus in leaf explants of Salix (Salyx humboldtiana Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Régis Santos


    Full Text Available O salix é uma árvore ornamental adaptada a terrenos úmidos, sendo considerada uma espécie importante para a recomposição de áreas ciliares degradadas. A madeira pode ser empregada na indústria em geral. Apesar de produzir grande quantidade de sementes, estas não possuem alta percentagem de germinação. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo realizar o estabelecimento in vitro de salix através da indução e formação de calos friáveis em explantes foliares, visando a uma posterior regeneração de plantas para a propagação massal desta espécie. Explantes foliares foram inoculados em meio de cultura MS (MURASHIGE & SKOOG, 1962, acrescido de diferentes concentrações de ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético (0; 1,0; 2,0; 4,0; 6,0; 8,0; 10,0 e 12,0mg L-1 e combinações entre ácido naftalenoacético e benzilaminopurina, ambos em concentrações de 0,0; 1,0; 2,0; 4,0; 6,0 e 8,0mg L-1. Os resultados demonstram que explantes inoculados na ausência de reguladores de crescimento não apresentam a formação de calos friáveis. Significativa produção de calos friáveis (90% é obtida utilizando-se 6,0mg L-1 de ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético. A utilização de concentração individual de ácido naftalenoacético ou benzilaminopurina, além de induzir a calogênese também foi capaz de promover rizogênese.Salix is an ornamental tree adapted to humid soils being considered an important species used in depleted areas. Its wood may be used in all kinds of industries. Although the production of seeds is large, the germination is reduced. The objective of this work was to establish salix in vitro through the induction and formation of friable callus of leaf explants to provide future regeneration of plants for mass propagation of the species. Leaf explants were inoculated in MS medium (MURASHIGE & SKOOG, 1962 supplemented with different concentrations of 2-4-diclorofenoxiacetic acid (0; 1.0; 2.0; 4.0; 6.0; 8.0 and 12.0mg L-1 and combinations

  19. Arctic species resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lars O.; Forchhammer, Mads C.; Jeppesen, Erik

    The peak of biological activities in Arctic ecosystems is characterized by a relative short and intense period between the start of snowmelt until the onset of frost. Recent climate changes have induced larger seasonal variation in both timing of snowmelt as well as changes mean temperatures...... and precipitation. Concurrently, phenological change has been recorded in a wide range of plants and animals, with climate change seemingly being the primary driver of these changes. A major concern is whether species and biological systems embrace the plasticity in their phenological responses needed for tracking...... the predicted increase in climate variability. Whereas species may show relatively high phenological resilience to climate change per se, the resilience of systems may be more constrained by the inherent dependence through consumer-resource interactions across trophic levels. During the last 15 years...

  20. 77 FR 31677 - Request for Public Comment on Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC) Arctic... (United States)


    ... TECHNOLOGY POLICY Request for Public Comment on Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC) Arctic... and Policy Act of 1984 (ARPA), Public Law 98-373, established the Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC) to develop national Arctic research policy five-year Federal research plans to...

  1. First Record Of Clytra Laeviuscula Ratzeburg As Potential Insect Pest Of Energy Willow (Salix Viminalis L. In Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanovska Tatyana


    Full Text Available Cultivation of short rotation coppice energy willow (SRC EW, Salix viminalis L., has a great potential in Ukraine as a source of biomass for biofuel production. Commercial production of this species was recently initiated in the country. The growing of SRC EW in Western and Northern Europe for a long time showed that leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae are key pests causing significant biomass reduction. However, data about the pest complex for energy willow growing in Ukraine is not available. Our three-year experiment in Poltava region, Ukraine showed that foliar damage caused by Clytra laeviuscula Ratzeburg (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae occurred at energy willow plantations in the second year of production, which could have an effect on commercial production. Accordingly, information about seasonal activity, population dynamics, host range and the role of natural enemies in pest regulation are requested for developing pest control program.

  2. Expression of zinc and cadmium responsive genes in leaves of willow (Salix caprea L.) genotypes with different accumulation characteristics. (United States)

    Konlechner, Cornelia; Türktaş, Mine; Langer, Ingrid; Vaculík, Marek; Wenzel, Walter W; Puschenreiter, Markus; Hauser, Marie-Theres


    Salix caprea is well suited for phytoextraction strategies. In a previous survey we showed that genetically distinct S. caprea plants isolated from metal-polluted and unpolluted sites differed in their zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) tolerance and accumulation abilities. To determine the molecular basis of this difference we examined putative homologues of genes involved in heavy metal responses and identified over 200 new candidates with a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) screen. Quantitative expression analyses of 20 genes in leaves revealed that some metallothioneins and cell wall modifying genes were induced irrespective of the genotype's origin and metal uptake capacity while a cysteine biosynthesis gene was expressed constitutively higher in the metallicolous genotype. The third and largest group of genes was only induced in the metallicolous genotype. These data demonstrate that naturally adapted woody non-model species can help to discover potential novel molecular mechanisms for metal accumulation and tolerance.

  3. Copper and cadmium tolerance, uptake and effect on chloroplast ultrastructure. Studies on Salix purpurea and Phragmites australis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakmaoui, A.; Ater, A. [Abdelmalek Essaadi Univ., Tetouan (Morocco). Dept. of Biology; Boka, K. [Eoetvoes Lorand Univ., Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Plant Anatomy; Baron, M. [Granada Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Biochemistry and Cell and Molecular Biology of Plants


    We have compared the effect of toxic Cu and Cd concentrations on growth, metal accumulation, and chloroplast ultrastructure of willow (Salix purpurea L.) and reed [Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.]. After a 10-day treatment, both species have tolerated to some extent the lowest concentration of both metals; however, plant growth was strongly reduced at the highest Cu and Cd concentrations. These plants could be described as Cu-tolerant at the lowest concentration tested, showing a higher tolerance index in reed than in willow; in contrast, willow exhibited higher tolerance against Cd. Both plants appeared to be moderate root accumulators of Cu and Cd. Ultrastructural studies revealed special features that can provide some protection against heavy metals stress, such as ferritin aggregates in the stroma. In addition, Cu and Cd induced distortion of thylakoids, reduction of grana stacks, as well as an increased number and size of plastoglobuli and peripheral vesicles. (orig.)

  4. Development of AFLP and RAPD markers linked to a locus associated with twisted growth in corkscrew willow (Salix matsudana 'Tortuosa'). (United States)

    Lin, Juan; Gunter, Lee E; Harding, Scott A; Kopp, Richard F; McCord, Rachel P; Tsai, Chung-Jui; Tuskan, Gerald A; Smart, Lawrence B


    Salix matsudana Koidz. cultivar 'Tortuosa' (corkscrew willow) is characterized by extensive stem bending and curling of leaves. To investigate the genetic basis of this trait, controlled crosses were made between a corkscrew female (S. matsudana 'Tortuosa') and a straight-stemmed, wild-type male (Salix alba L. Clone 99010). Seventy-seven seedlings from this family (ID 99270) were grown in the field for phenotypic observation. Among the progeny, 39 had straight stems and leaves and 38 had bent stems and curled leaves, suggesting that a dominant allele at a single locus controls this phenotype. As a first step in characterizing the locus, we searched for amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to the tortuosa allele using bulked segregant analysis. Samples of DNA from 10 corkscrew individuals were combined to produce a corkscrew pool, and DNA from 10 straight progeny was combined to make a wild-type pool. Sixty-four AFLP primer combinations and 640 RAPD primers were screened to identify marker bands amplified from the corkscrew parent and progeny pool, but not from the wild-type parent or progeny pool. An AFLP marker and a RAPD marker linked to and flanking the tortuosa locus were placed on a preliminary linkage map constructed based on segregation among the 77 progeny. Sectioning and analysis of shoot tips revealed that the corkscrew phenotype is associated with vascular cell collapse, smaller cell size in regions near the cambium and less developed phloem fibers than in wild-type progeny. Identification of a gene associated with this trait could lead to greater understanding of the control of normal stem development in woody plants.

  5. The Arctic policy of China and Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki


    At the May 2013 Arctic Council Ministerial Meeting, five Asian states, namely China, Japan, India, Singapore and South Korea, were accepted to become new Permanent Observers at the Arctic Council. Nonetheless, little attention has been paid to the Asian states and their interest in the Arctic. Most...... discussions have focused on China and the assessment of China’s interest in the Arctic is divided. This paper attempts to fill this gap by presenting and comparing the various components of the Arctic policies of China and Japan. Referring to Putnam’s model of the “two-level game” and Young’s categorization...... of Arctic stakeholders’ interests, data from policy documents and interviews with relevant stakeholders were analysed. This analysis shows the Chinese and Japanese governments are in the gradual process of consolidating their Arctic policies, but both China and Japan see the Arctic less as a strategically...

  6. Time varying arctic climate change amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chylek, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dubey, Manvendra K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lesins, Glen [DALLHOUSIE U; Wang, Muyin [NOAA/JISAO


    During the past 130 years the global mean surface air temperature has risen by about 0.75 K. Due to feedbacks -- including the snow/ice albedo feedback -- the warming in the Arctic is expected to proceed at a faster rate than the global average. Climate model simulations suggest that this Arctic amplification produces warming that is two to three times larger than the global mean. Understanding the Arctic amplification is essential for projections of future Arctic climate including sea ice extent and melting of the Greenland ice sheet. We use the temperature records from the Arctic stations to show that (a) the Arctic amplification is larger at latitudes above 700 N compared to those within 64-70oN belt, and that, surprisingly; (b) the ratio of the Arctic to global rate of temperature change is not constant but varies on the decadal timescale. This time dependence will affect future projections of climate changes in the Arctic.

  7. Mechanism of seasonal Arctic sea ice evolution and Arctic amplification (United States)

    Kim, Kwang-Yul; Hamlington, Benjamin D.; Na, Hanna; Kim, Jinju


    Sea ice loss is proposed as a primary reason for the Arctic amplification, although the physical mechanism of the Arctic amplification and its connection with sea ice melting is still in debate. In the present study, monthly ERA-Interim reanalysis data are analyzed via cyclostationary empirical orthogonal function analysis to understand the seasonal mechanism of sea ice loss in the Arctic Ocean and the Arctic amplification. While sea ice loss is widespread over much of the perimeter of the Arctic Ocean in summer, sea ice remains thin in winter only in the Barents-Kara seas. Excessive turbulent heat flux through the sea surface exposed to air due to sea ice reduction warms the atmospheric column. Warmer air increases the downward longwave radiation and subsequently surface air temperature, which facilitates sea surface remains to be free of ice. This positive feedback mechanism is not clearly observed in the Laptev, East Siberian, Chukchi, and Beaufort seas, since sea ice refreezes in late fall (November) before excessive turbulent heat flux is available for warming the atmospheric column in winter. A detailed seasonal heat budget is presented in order to understand specific differences between the Barents-Kara seas and Laptev, East Siberian, Chukchi, and Beaufort seas.

  8. 黄柳地上生物量估测模型的构建%Construction of Aboveground Biomass Estimation Models of Salix gorde j evii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤军; 秦富仓; 王娟; 高玉寒; 张美丽; 姚云峰


    In order to screening out optimal aboveground biomass estimation model with biomass significantly correlated ,the highest accuracy and the best fitting degree ,taking typical shrubs Salix gordejevii in Chifeng Aohan as research object ,the individual Salix gordejevii aboveground biomass estimation model was construc‐ted using 6 kinds of functions and different independent variables .The results showed that there was the most significant correlation between DH (longitudinal section girth ) complex variables and Salix gordejevii aboveground biomass .Testing of the accuracy (RS <30% ;RM .A <20% ) obtained the best biomass estimation model was also based on DH as the independent variable power function model y=2 .193 x1 .291 (R2 =0 .915 ,P<0 .001) which hasd high accuracy compared to used independent variables D2 H (longitudinal section area) shrub biomass models .Ensuring the accuracy of Salix gordejevii estimation model ,D was recommended as the independent variable to build Salix gordejevii aboveground biomass model in practical applications ,.%为筛选出与生物量相关性显著、精度最高且拟合度最好的最优地上生物量估测模型,以赤峰敖汉旗北部沙地典型灌木黄柳(Salix gordejevii)为研究对象,利用6种函数和不同自变量来构建黄柳个体的地上生物量估测模型。结果表明:D H (纵断面周长)复合变量与黄柳地上生物量的相关性最显著,经精度检验(RS <30%;RM .A <20%)得出生物量的最优估测模型也是以D H 为自变量的幂函数模型 y=2.193 x1.291(R2=0.915,P<0.001),与灌木常用的自变量D2 H (纵断面面积)作为生物量模型相比,精度较高。实际的应用中,在保证黄柳估测模型精度的情况下,建议以D为自变量对黄柳地上生物量模型进行构建。

  9. In Brief: Arctic Report Card (United States)

    Showstack, Randy


    The 2009 annual update of the Arctic Report Card, issued on 22 October, indicates that “warming of the Arctic continues to be widespread, and in some cases dramatic. Linkages between air, land, sea, and biology are evident.” The report, a collaborative effort of 71 national and international scientists initiated in 2006 by the Climate Program Office of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), highlights several concerns, including a change in large-scale wind patterns affected by the loss of summer sea ice; the replacement of multiyear sea ice by first-year sea ice; warmer and fresher water in the upper ocean linked to new ice-free areas; and the effects of the loss of sea ice on Arctic plant, animal, and fish species. “Climate change is happening faster in the Arctic than any other place on Earth-and with wide-ranging consequences,” said NOAA administrator Jane Lubchenco. “This year“s Arctic Report Card underscores the urgency of reducing greenhouse gas pollution and adapting to climate changes already under way.”

  10. Nitrogen accumulation and partitioning in a High Arctic tundra ecosystem from extreme atmospheric N deposition events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, Sonal, E-mail: [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Management School, University of Sheffield, Conduit Road, Sheffield S10 1FL (United Kingdom); Blaud, Aimeric [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Osborn, A. Mark [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Press, Malcolm C. [School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, M15 6BH (United Kingdom); Phoenix, Gareth K. [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom)


    Arctic ecosystems are threatened by pollution from recently detected extreme atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition events in which up to 90% of the annual N deposition can occur in just a few days. We undertook the first assessment of the fate of N from extreme deposition in High Arctic tundra and are presenting the results from the whole ecosystem {sup 15}N labelling experiment. In 2010, we simulated N depositions at rates of 0, 0.04, 0.4 and 1.2 g N m{sup −2} yr{sup −1}, applied as {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup 15}NO{sub 3} in Svalbard (79{sup °}N), during the summer. Separate applications of {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup −} and {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} were also made to determine the importance of N form in their retention. More than 95% of the total {sup 15}N applied was recovered after one growing season (~ 90% after two), demonstrating a considerable capacity of Arctic tundra to retain N from these deposition events. Important sinks for the deposited N, regardless of its application rate or form, were non-vascular plants > vascular plants > organic soil > litter > mineral soil, suggesting that non-vascular plants could be the primary component of this ecosystem to undergo measurable changes due to N enrichment from extreme deposition events. Substantial retention of N by soil microbial biomass (70% and 39% of {sup 15}N in organic and mineral horizon, respectively) during the initial partitioning demonstrated their capacity to act as effective buffers for N leaching. Between the two N forms, vascular plants (Salix polaris) in particular showed difference in their N recovery, incorporating four times greater {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup −} than {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +}, suggesting deposition rich in nitrate will impact them more. Overall, these findings show that despite the deposition rates being extreme in statistical terms, biologically they do not exceed the capacity of tundra to sequester pollutant N during the growing season. Therefore, current and future extreme events

  11. Arctic Landscape Within Reach (United States)


    This image, one of the first captured by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander, shows flat ground strewn with tiny pebbles and marked by small-scale polygonal cracking, a pattern seen widely in Martian high latitudes and also observed in permafrost terrains on Earth. The polygonal cracking is believed to have resulted from seasonal contraction and expansion of surface ice. Phoenix touched down on the Red Planet at 4:53 p.m. Pacific Time (7:53 p.m. Eastern Time), May 25, 2008, in an arctic region called Vastitas Borealis, at 68 degrees north latitude, 234 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired at the Phoenix landing site by the Surface Stereo Imager on day 1 of the mission on the surface of Mars, or Sol 0, after the May 25, 2008, landing. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Arctic hydrology and meteorology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, D.L.


    The behavior of arctic ecosystems is directly related to the ongoing physical processes of heat and mass transfer. Furthermore, this system undergoes very large fluctuations in the surface energy balance. The buffering effect of both snow and the surface organic soils can be seen by looking at the surface and 40 cm soil temperatures. The active layer, that surface zone above the permafrost table, is either continually freezing or thawing. A large percentage of energy into and out of a watershed must pass through this thin veneer that we call the active layer. Likewise, most water entering and leaving the watershed does so through the active layer. To date, we have been very successful at monitoring the hydrology of Imnavait Creek with special emphasis on the active layer processes. The major contribution of this study is that year-round hydrologic data are being collected. An original objective of our study was to define how the thermal and moisture regimes within the active layer change during an annual cycle under natural conditions, and then to define how the regime will be impacted by some imposed terrain alteration. Our major analysis of the hydrologic data sets for Imnavait Creek have been water balance evaluations for plots during snowmelt, water balance for the watershed during both rainfall and snowmelt, and the application of a hydrologic model to predict the Imnavait Creek runoff events generated by both snowmelt and rainfall.

  13. Arctic hydrology and meteorology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, D.L.


    To date, five years of hydrologic and meteorologic data have been collected at Imnavait Creek near Toolik Lake, Alaska. This is the most complete set of field data of this type collected in the Arctic of North America. These data have been used in process-oriented research to increase our understanding of atmosphere/hydrosphere/biosphere/lithosphere interactions. Basically, we are monitoring heat and mass transfer between various spheres to quantify rates. These could be rates of mass movement such as hillslope flow or rates of heat transfer for active layer thawing or combined heat and mass processes such as evapotranspiration. We have utilized a conceptual model to predict hydrologic processes. To test the success of this model, we are comparing our predicted rates of runoff and snowmelt to measured valves. We have also used a surface energy model to simulate active layer temperatures. The final step in this modeling effort to date was to predict what impact climatic warming would have on active layer thicknesses and how this will influence the hydrology of our research watershed by examining several streambeds.

  14. Uncertainties in Arctic Precipitation (United States)

    Majhi, I.; Alexeev, V. A.; Cherry, J. E.; Cohen, J. L.; Groisman, P. Y.


    Arctic precipitation is riddled with measurement biases; to address the problem is imperative. Our study focuses on comparison of various datasets and analyzing their biases for the region of Siberia and caution that is needed when using them. Five sources of data were used ranging from NOAA's product (RAW, Bogdanova's correction), Yang's correction technique and two reanalysis products (ERA-Interim and NCEP). The reanalysis dataset performed better for some months in comparison to Yang's product, which tends to overestimate precipitation, and the raw dataset, which tends to underestimate. The sources of bias vary from topography, to wind, to missing data .The final three products chosen show higher biases during the winter and spring season. Emphasis on equations which incorporate blizzards, blowing snow and higher wind speed is necessary for regions which are influenced by any or all of these factors; Bogdanova's correction technique is the most robust of all the datasets analyzed and gives the most reasonable results. One of our future goals is to analyze the impact of precipitation uncertainties on water budget analysis for the Siberian Rivers.

  15. Short-term herbivory has long-term consequences in warmed and ambient high Arctic tundra (United States)

    Little, Chelsea J.; Cutting, Helen; Alatalo, Juha; Cooper, Elisabeth


    Climate change is occurring across the world, with effects varying by ecosystem and region but already occurring quickly in high-latitude and high-altitude regions. Biotic interactions are important in determining ecosystem response to such changes, but few studies have been long-term in nature, especially in the High Arctic. Mesic tundra plots on Svalbard, Norway, were subjected to grazing at two different intensities by captive Barnacle geese from 2003–2005, in a factorial design with warming by Open Top Chambers. Warming manipulations were continued through 2014, when we measured vegetation structure and composition as well as growth and reproduction of three dominant species in the mesic meadow. Significantly more dead vascular plant material was found in warmed compared to ambient plots, regardless of grazing history, but in contrast to many short-term experiments no difference in the amount of living material was found. This has strong implications for nutrient and carbon cycling and could feed back into community productivity. Dominant species showed increased flowering in warmed plots, especially in those plots where grazing had been applied. However, this added sexual reproduction did not translate to substantial shifts in vegetative cover. Forbs and rushes increased slightly in warmed plots regardless of grazing, while the dominant shrub, Salix polaris, generally declined with effects dependent on grazing, and the evergreen shrub Dryas octopetala declined with previous intensive grazing. There were no treatment effects on community diversity or evenness. Thus despite no changes in total live abundance, a typical short-term response to environmental conditions, we found pronounced changes in dead biomass indicating that tundra ecosystem processes respond to medium- to long-term changes in conditions caused by 12 seasons of summer warming. We suggest that while high arctic tundra plant communities are fairly resistant to current levels of climate warming

  16. Late snowmelt delays plant development and results in lower reproductive success in the High Arctic. (United States)

    Cooper, Elisabeth J; Dullinger, Stefan; Semenchuk, Philipp


    In tundra areas where the growing season is short, any delay in the start of summer may have a considerable effect on plant development, growth and reproductive success. Climate models suggest long-term changes in winter precipitation in the Arctic, which may lead to deeper snow cover and a resultant delay in date of snow melt. In this paper, we investigated the role of snow depth and melt out date on the phenological development and reproductive success of vascular plants in Adventdalen, Svalbard (78° 10'N, 16° 06'E). Effects of natural variations in snow accumulation were demonstrated using two vegetation types (snow depth: meadow 21 cm, heath 32 cm), and fences were used to experimentally increase snow depth by over 1m. Phenological delay was greatest directly after snowmelt in the earlier phenological phases, and had the largest effect on the early development of those species which normally green-up early (i.e. Dryas, Papaver, Salix, Saxifraga). Compressed growing seasons and length of the reproductive period led to a reduced reproductive success in some of the study species. There were fewer flowers, fewer plots with dispersing seeds, and lower germination rates. This can have consequences for plant establishment and community composition in the long-term.

  17. Circum-Arctic Map Compilation (United States)

    Saltus, Richard W.; Gaina, Carmen


    Second Workshop of the Circum-Arctic Geophysical Maps Project, Trondheim, Norway, 12-13 February 2007 The eyes of the world are increasingly focused on the polar regions. Exploration and assessment of energy and mineral resources for the growing world economy are moving to high-latitude frontier areas. The effects of climatic changes are particularly pronounced at these ends of the Earth and have already attracted worldwide attention and concern. Many recent articles related to the International Polar Year underscore the importance of even basic mapping of the Arctic and Antarctic.

  18. The growth of shrubs on high Arctic tundra at Bylot Island: impact on snow physical properties and permafrost thermal regime (United States)

    Domine, Florent; Barrere, Mathieu; Morin, Samuel


    With climate warming, shrubs have been observed to grow on Arctic tundra. Their presence is known to increase snow height and is expected to increase the thermal insulating effect of the snowpack. An important consequence would be the warming of the ground, which will accelerate permafrost thaw, providing an important positive feedback to warming. At Bylot Island (73° N, 80° W) in the Canadian high Arctic where bushes of willows (Salix richardsonii Hook) are growing, we have observed the snow stratigraphy and measured the vertical profiles of snow density, thermal conductivity and specific surface area (SSA) in over 20 sites of high Arctic tundra and in willow bushes 20 to 40 cm high. We find that shrubs increase snow height, but only up to their own height. In shrubs, snow density, thermal conductivity and SSA are all significantly lower than on herb tundra. In shrubs, depth hoar which has a low thermal conductivity was observed to grow up to shrub height, while on herb tundra, depth hoar only developed to 5 to 10 cm high. The thermal resistance of the snowpack was in general higher in shrubs than on herb tundra. More signs of melting were observed in shrubs, presumably because stems absorb radiation and provide hotspots that initiate melting. When melting was extensive, thermal conductivity was increased and thermal resistance was reduced, counteracting the observed effect of shrubs in the absence of melting. Simulations of the effect of shrubs on snow properties and on the ground thermal regime were made with the Crocus snow physics model and the ISBA (Interactions between Soil-Biosphere-Atmosphere) land surface scheme, driven by in situ and reanalysis meteorological data. These simulations did not take into account the summer impact of shrubs. They predict that the ground at 5 cm depth at Bylot Island during the 2014-2015 winter would be up to 13 °C warmer in the presence of shrubs. Such warming may however be mitigated by summer effects.

  19. Greening of the Arctic: Partitioning Warming Versus Reindeer Herbivory for Willow Populations on Yamal Peninsula, Northwest Siberia (United States)

    Forbes, B. C.; Macias-Fauria, M.; Zetterberg, P.; Kumpula, T.


    Arctic warming has been linked to observed increases in tundra shrub cover and growth in recent decades on the basis of significant relationships between deciduous shrub growth/biomass and temperature. These vegetation trends have been linked to Arctic sea-ice decline and thus to the sea-ice/albedo feedback known as Arctic amplification. However, the interactions between climate, sea ice, tundra vegetation and herbivores remain poorly understood. Recently we revealed a 50-year growth response over a >100,000 km2 area to a rise in summer temperature for willow (Salix lanata), one the most abundant shrub genera at and north of the continental treeline and an important source of reindeer forage in spring, summer and autumn. We demonstrated that whereas plant productivity is related to sea ice in late spring, the growing season peak responds to persistent synoptic-scale air masses over West Siberia associated with Fennoscandian weather systems through the Rossby wave train. Substrate was important for biomass accumulation, yet a strong correlation between growth and temperature encompasses all observed soil types. Vegetation was especially responsive to temperature in early summer. However, the role of herbivory was not addressed. The present data set explores the relationship between long-term herbivory and growth trends of shrubs experiencing warming in recent decades. Semi-domestic reindeer managed by indigenous Nenets nomads occur at high densities in summer on exposed ridge tops and graze heavily on prostrate and low erect willows. A few meters away in moderately sloped landslides tall willows remain virtually ungrazed as their canopies have grown above the browse line of ca. 180 cm. Here we detail the responses of neighboring shrub populations with and without intensive herbivory yet subject to the same decadal warming trend.

  20. Selective Extraction of Bio-oil from Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Salix psammophila by Organic Solvents with Different Polarities through Multistep Extraction Separation


    Xiao Yang; Hang Lyu; Kaifei Chen; Xiangdong Zhu; Shicheng Zhang; Jianmin Chen


    Bio-oil obtained from hydrothermal liquefaction of Salix psammophila is a very complicated mixture with some highly valued chemicals. In order to separate the chemicals from bio-oil, solvent extraction using nine solvents with different polarities were investigated in detail. The bio-oil extraction yield of the nine solvents were from high to low: tetrahydrofuran > toluene > ethyl acetate > acetone > ether > methylene chloride > methanol > petroleum ether > n-hexane. Based on their extraction...

  1. Arctic Glass: Innovative Consumer Technology in Support of Arctic Research (United States)

    Ruthkoski, T.


    The advancement of cyberinfrastructure on the North Slope of Alaska is drastically limited by location-specific conditions, including: unique geophysical features, remoteness of location, and harsh climate. The associated cost of maintaining this unique cyberinfrastructure also becomes a limiting factor. As a result, field experiments conducted in this region have historically been at a technological disadvantage. The Arctic Glass project explored a variety of scenarios where innovative consumer-grade technology was leveraged as a lightweight, rapidly deployable, sustainable, alternatives to traditional large-scale Arctic cyberinfrastructure installations. Google Glass, cloud computing services, Internet of Things (IoT) microcontrollers, miniature LIDAR, co2 sensors designed for HVAC systems, and portable network kits are several of the components field-tested at the Toolik Field Station as part of this project. Region-specific software was also developed, including a multi featured, voice controlled Google Glass application named "Arctic Glass". Additionally, real-time sensor monitoring and remote control capability was evaluated through the deployment of a small cluster of microcontroller devices. Network robustness was analyzed as the devices delivered streams of abiotic data to a web-based dashboard monitoring service in near real time. The same data was also uploaded synchronously by the devices to Amazon Web Services. A detailed overview of solutions deployed during the 2015 field season, results from experiments utilizing consumer sensors, and potential roles consumer technology could play in support of Arctic science will be discussed.

  2. Changing Arctic ecosystems: ecology of loons in a changing Arctic (United States)

    Uher-Koch, Brian; Schmutz, Joel; Whalen, Mary; Pearce, John M.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Changing Arctic Ecosystems (CAE) initiative informs key resource management decisions for Arctic Alaska by providing scientific information on current and future ecosystem response to a changing climate. From 2010 to 2014, a key study area for the USGS CAE initiative has been the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska. This region has experienced rapid warming during the past 30 years, leading to the thawing of permafrost and changes to lake and river systems. These changes, and projections of continued change, have raised questions about effects on wildlife populations that rely on northern lake ecosystems, such as loons. Loons rely on freshwater lakes for nesting habitat and the fish and invertebrates inhabiting the lakes for food. Loons live within the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPR-A) on Alaska’s northern coast, where oil and gas development is expected to increase. Research by the USGS examines how breeding loons use the Arctic lake ecosystem and the capacity of loons to adapt to future landscape change.

  3. The effect of limited availability of N or water on C allocation to fine roots and annual fine root turnover in Alnus incana and Salix viminalis. (United States)

    Rytter, Rose-Marie


    The effect of limited nitrogen (N) or water availability on fine root growth and turnover was examined in two deciduous species, Alnus incana L. and Salix viminalis L., grown under three different regimes: (i) supply of N and water in amounts which would not hamper growth, (ii) limited N supply and (iii) limited water supply. Plants were grown outdoors during three seasons in covered and buried lysimeters placed in a stand structure and filled with quartz sand. Computer-controlled irrigation and fertilization were supplied through drip tubes. Production and turnover of fine roots were estimated by combining minirhizotron observations and core sampling, or by sequential core sampling. Annual turnover rates of fine roots organic carbon increased by ca. 20% at N limitation in Salix. However, future studies on fine root decomposition under various environmental conditions are required. Fine root growth responses to N or water limitation were less pronounced in Alnus, thus indicating species differences caused by N-fixing capacity and slower initial growth in Alnus, or higher fine root plasticity in Salix. A similar seasonal growth pattern across species and treatments suggested the influence of outer stimuli, such as temperature and light.

  4. Influence of Ca/Mg ratio on phytoextraction properties of Salix viminalis I. The effectiveness of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn bioaccumulation and plant growth. (United States)

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Kozlowska, Monika; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Chadzinikolau, Tamara; Golinski, Piotr


    Phytoremediation and its efficiency--influenced by several factors-is prime concern in reduction of environment contamination with heavy metals. The aim of the study was to estimate in controlled conditions--in relation to the natural Ca/Mg ratio 4:1--the influence of different Ca/Mg ratios (1:1/4, 20:1, 1:10) on selected heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) accumulation efficiency shown by three morphological parts of Salix viminalis 'Cinamomea' (cane bark, shoots and roots). Accumulation of heavy metals in experimental conditions was significantly Ca/Mg ratio dependent, and occurred in the following order: 1:10 > 4:1 > 20:1 > 1:1/4. The highest accumulation under 0.5 mM solutions (as compared to 0.1 mM) was noted for copper and zinc, and the lowest for cadmium. Biometric parameters of Salix viminalis cuttings revealed the highest biomass productivity under 20:1 and 4:1 Ca/Mg ratios. In the case of shoot length increase, both metal concentration and kind of metal present in the solution were important. The results indicate that higher calcium ion concentration in solution (Ca/Mg 20:1) stimulates Salix viminalis growth by 3 fold when compared to other Ca/Mg ratio. It can be an important factor in remediation of the environment with this plant.

  5. Evolutionary potential in the Alpine: trait heritabilities and performance variation of the dwarf willow Salix herbacea from different elevations and microhabitats. (United States)

    Sedlacek, Janosch; Cortés, Andrés J; Wheeler, Julia; Bossdorf, Oliver; Hoch, Guenter; Klápště, Jaroslav; Lexer, Christian; Rixen, Christian; Wipf, Sonja; Karrenberg, Sophie; van Kleunen, Mark


    Alpine ecosystems are seriously threatened by climate change. One of the key mechanisms by which plants can adapt to changing environmental conditions is through evolutionary change. However, we still know little about the evolutionary potential in wild populations of long-lived alpine plants. Here, we investigated heritabilities of phenological traits, leaf size, and performance traits in natural populations of the long-lived alpine dwarf shrub Salix herbacea using relatedness estimates inferred from SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) markers. Salix herbacea occurs in early- and late-snowmelt microhabitats (ridges and snowbeds), and we assessed how performance consequences of phenological traits and leaf size differ between these microhabitats in order to infer potential for evolutionary responses. Salix herbacea showed low, but significant, heritabilities of leaf size, clonal and sexual reproduction, and moderate heritabilities of phenological traits. In both microhabitats, we found that larger leaves, longer intervals between snowmelt and leaf expansion, and longer GDD (growing-degree days) until leaf expansion resulted in a stronger increase in the number of stems (clonal reproduction). In snowbeds, clonal reproduction increased with a shorter GDD until flowering, while the opposite was found on ridges. Furthermore, the proportion of flowering stems increased with GDD until flowering in both microhabitats. Our results suggest that the presence of significant heritable variation in morphology and phenology might help S. herbacea to adapt to changing environmental conditions. However, it remains to be seen if the rate of such an evolutionary response can keep pace with the rapid rate of climate change.

  6. Mining in the European Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Karin; Scheepstra, Adriana; Gille, Johan; Stepien, Adam; Koivurova, Timo; Stepien, Adam; Koivurova, Timo; Kankaanpää, Paula


    The European Arctic has been recently experiencing an upsurge in mining activities. This is reflected in an on-going interest from the industry, regulators and the public. However, current and future prospects are highly sensitive to mineral price fluctuations. The EU is a major consumer and importe

  7. Arctic Basemaps In Google Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muggah, J.; Mioc, Darka


    The Ocean Mapping Group has been collecting data in the Arctic since 2003 and there are approximately 2,000 basemaps. In the current online storage format used by the OMG, it is difficult to view the data and users cannot easily pan and zoom. The purpose of this research is to investigate the adv...

  8. Arctic resources : a mechatronics opportunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKean, M.; Baiden, G. [Penguin Automated Systems Inc., Naughton, ON (Canada)


    This paper discussed the telerobotic mechatronics opportunities that exist to access mineral resources in the Arctic. The Mining Automation Project (MAP) determined that telerobotics could contribute to productivity gains while providing increased worker safety. The socio-economic benefits of advanced mechatronics for Arctic resource development are particularly attractive due to reduced infrastructure needs; operating costs; and environmental impacts. A preliminary analysis of mining transportation options by the authors revealed that there is a case for in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) for oil and gas processing to address resource development. The ISRU options build on concepts developed to support space exploration and were proposed to reduce or modify transportation loads to allow more sustainable and efficient Arctic resource development. Many benefits in terms of efficiency could be achieved by combining demonstrated mechatronics with ISRU because of the constrained transportation infrastructure in the Arctic. In the context of harsh environment operations, mechatronics may provide an opportunity for undersea resource facilities. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Wood characterization of Salix. 1. Influence of the site, clone, age and sampling height; Caracterizacion de la madera de Salix. 1: Influencia del sitio, clon, edad y altura de muestreo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villegas, M. S.; Area, M. C.; Marlats, R. M.


    The wood of two Salix clones cultivated in the Delta of Parana River in Argentina was characterized according to their optical properties, chemical composition, basic density, tylose content and health condition, analysing variations in terms of site, clone, age and sampling height. American willow showed more cellulose content, higher density and less lignin, extractives and tylose than the 131/27 hybrid. The wood of the last one had the smallest damaged area in the disks and the highest brightness values. The most appropriate site for both clones was the one less affected by flood. Brightness, L* and basic density increased, whereas deteriorated area decreased from bottom to tip within each tree. The tally's percentage also decreased, both in vertical and horizontal directions. Six different types of wood were defined. Between them, grey-coloured rings, result of flood, and dark zone, may be considered similar to healthy wood. Three types of stains were responsible for the main changes in the wood analysed. The brown stains showed low brightness and high tylose, but the darkest one showed high lignin and low cellulose contents. The light-brown stain had the highest alkali-soluble substances content. The blue stain showed low brightness and high extractives content. (Author) 32 refs.

  10. Changing Arctic Ocean freshwater pathways. (United States)

    Morison, James; Kwok, Ron; Peralta-Ferriz, Cecilia; Alkire, Matt; Rigor, Ignatius; Andersen, Roger; Steele, Mike


    Freshening in the Canada basin of the Arctic Ocean began in the 1990s and continued to at least the end of 2008. By then, the Arctic Ocean might have gained four times as much fresh water as comprised the Great Salinity Anomaly of the 1970s, raising the spectre of slowing global ocean circulation. Freshening has been attributed to increased sea ice melting and contributions from runoff, but a leading explanation has been a strengthening of the Beaufort High--a characteristic peak in sea level atmospheric pressure--which tends to accelerate an anticyclonic (clockwise) wind pattern causing convergence of fresh surface water. Limited observations have made this explanation difficult to verify, and observations of increasing freshwater content under a weakened Beaufort High suggest that other factors must be affecting freshwater content. Here we use observations to show that during a time of record reductions in ice extent from 2005 to 2008, the dominant freshwater content changes were an increase in the Canada basin balanced by a decrease in the Eurasian basin. Observations are drawn from satellite data (sea surface height and ocean-bottom pressure) and in situ data. The freshwater changes were due to a cyclonic (anticlockwise) shift in the ocean pathway of Eurasian runoff forced by strengthening of the west-to-east Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation characterized by an increased Arctic Oscillation index. Our results confirm that runoff is an important influence on the Arctic Ocean and establish that the spatial and temporal manifestations of the runoff pathways are modulated by the Arctic Oscillation, rather than the strength of the wind-driven Beaufort Gyre circulation.

  11. The Submarine -- The Key to Winning an Arctic Conflict (United States)


    Cold Horizons: Arctic Maritime Security Challenges.” 17 Franklyn Griffiths, Rob Huebert, and P. Whitney Lackenbauer, Canada and the Changing Arctic... Franklyn , Rob Huebert, and P. Whitney Lackenbauer. Canada and the Changing Arctic: Sovereignty, Security, and Stewardship. Waterloo, Ontario

  12. Geologic Provinces of the Circum-Arctic, 2008 (north of the Arctic Circle) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile includes arcs and polygons that describe U.S. Geological Survey defined 33 geologic provinces of the Circum-Arctic (north of the Arctic Circle). Each...

  13. Holocene stratigraphy and vegetation history in the Scoresby Sund area, East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Svend Visby


    areas, and a 'poor' heath dominated by the high arctic Salix Arctica and Cassiope tetragona expanded. These two species, which are now extremely common, apparently did not grow in the area until c. 6000 yrBP. In lakes in the coastal area minerogenic sedimentation at c. 2800 yr BP, reflecting the general......The Holocene stratigraphy in Scoresby Sund is based on climatic change as reflected by fluctuations in fjord and valley glaciers, immigration and extinction of marine molluscs, and the vegetation history recorded in pollen diagrams from five lakes. The histories are dated by C-14, and indirectly...... into the area, and in the period until 5000 yr BP dense dwarf shrub heath grew in areaS where it is now absent. In the fjords the subarctic Mytilus edulis and Pecten islandica lived, suggesting a climate warmer than the present. From c. 5000 yr BP the dense dwarf shrub heath began to disappear in the coastal...

  14. Gender differences in Salix myrsinifolia at the pre-reproductive stage are little affected by simulated climatic change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nybakken, L.; Julkunen-Tiitto, R. [Univ. of Eastern Finland. Dept. of Biology, Joensuu (Finland)


    Females of dioecious species are known often to prioritize defense, while males grow faster. As climatic change is known to influence both growth and defense in plants, it would be important to know whether it affects the sexes of dioecious species differently. This could have impacts on future sex ratios in nature. We grew four clones of each sex of Salix myrsinifolia in greenhouse chambers under ambient conditions, enhanced temperature, enhanced CO{sub 2} or enhanced temperature? + enhanced CO{sub 2}. The females had the greatest growth and also the highest levels of phenolic compounds in twigs, while in leaves some compounds were higher in males, some in females. Enhanced CO{sub 2} increased growth equally in both sexes, while growth was not affected by elevated temperature. Phenolic compounds in twigs were, however, lowered under elevated temperature. The gender differences were not strongly affected by the simulated climatic changes, but the effects seen on some highly concentrated compounds may be important. We interpret the intensive growth at pre-reproductive phase as a strategy in females to get an initial advantage before later periods with fewer resources available for growth. (Author)

  15. Electrical capacitance as a predictor of root dry weight in shrub willow (Salix; Salicaceae) parents and progeny1 (United States)

    Carlson, Craig H.; Smart, Lawrence B.


    Premise of the study: Root biomass is an important trait often disregarded in woody perennial selection due to the challenge and expense of accurately and efficiently measuring large populations. In this study, we aim to develop a simple method that can predict root dry weight within a diverse shrub willow (Salix) breeding population representing species hybrids and their parents using root electrical capacitance (REC). Methods: The REC method was tested on plants started from cuttings and grown in pots with potting mix in the greenhouse for 11 wk to assess the relationship of REC with 24 biomass traits and its usefulness in allometric models for root and stem dry biomass. Results: Strong linear and positive correlations were found between REC and root dry biomass (r = 0.88). The total proportion of variance of root and stem dry biomass explained by predictors in multiple regression was 85% and 69%, respectively. The relative importance of predictor variables in allometric models was dominated by the contribution of REC. Discussion: This work provides an efficient and nondestructive technique to indirectly quantify root biomass of genetically diverse shrub willow progeny, which has great promise for selection of genotypes with varying root biomass and for the accurate estimation of belowground carbon sequestration. PMID:27610275

  16. Gender differences in Salix myrsinifolia at the pre-reproductive stage are little affected by simulated climatic change. (United States)

    Nybakken, Line; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta


    Females of dioecious species are known often to prioritize defense, while males grow faster. As climatic change is known to influence both growth and defense in plants, it would be important to know whether it affects the sexes of dioecious species differently. This could have impacts on future sex ratios in nature. We grew four clones of each sex of Salix myrsinifolia in greenhouse chambers under ambient conditions, enhanced temperature, enhanced CO2 or enhanced temperature  +  enhanced CO2 . The females had the greatest growth and also the highest levels of phenolic compounds in twigs, while in leaves some compounds were higher in males, some in females. Enhanced CO2 increased growth equally in both sexes, while growth was not affected by elevated temperature. Phenolic compounds in twigs were, however, lowered under elevated temperature. The gender differences were not strongly affected by the simulated climatic changes, but the effects seen on some highly concentrated compounds may be important. We interpret the intensive growth at pre-reproductive phase as a strategy in females to get an initial advantage before later periods with fewer resources available for growth.

  17. Influence of sewage sludge on the yield and biometric traits of selected clones of willow (Salix viminalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jama


    Full Text Available Willow gives us a lot of possibilities of using it in the protection of the environment. Nowadays this plant is an object as an energetic plant and the plant used in phytoremediation and is characterized by fast growth, high production of wood and high tolerance to accumulate heavy metals. The influence of sewage sludge on the growth, morphological traits and yield of four selected clones of Salix viminalis and its halfbreeds is presented in the paper. The experiment with willow and sewage sludge was carried out at the Experimental-Didactic Station in Wrocław in 2008-2010. The experiment with the clones of willow was established in 2003. Split-plot method was applied in three repetitions with two changeable factors. Analysis showed a significant influence of weather conditions, various doses of sewage sludge and genetic properties of clones on yield, the number and length of shoots and diameter. The highest productivity of clones concerned the object with a double dose of sewage sludge. Clone 1054 was characterized by the highest productivity and was the best biometric traits.  

  18. Pertumbuhan dan kelangsungan hidup benih ikan nila (Oreochromis niloticus pada beberapa konsentrasi tepung daun jaloh (Salix tetrasperma dalam pakan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuraidha Yanti


    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possibility of jaloh (Salix tetrasperma leaf powders as alternative raw material for tilapia fish feed. Four concentrations of jaloh leafe powders (0%, 5%, 10% and 15% were examined in this study. The experimental fish were fed three times a day on 08.00 AM, 12.00 AM and 17.00 PM. with feeding ration of 5% of body weight for 42 days. The one-way Anova test showed that the different concentrations of jaloh leaf powders gave a significantly effect on growth performance of tilapia larvae (p0.05. The Duncans test showed that the higher growth performace and survival rate were found at 5-10% of jaloh leaf powders, it was indicated that diet with 5-10% jaloh leaf powders were better than control (without jaloh leaf powders. Therefore, it is concluded that the jaloh leaf powders is suitable as alternative raws material for tilapia formulated diet at concentration of 5-10%.

  19. Effect of Rock Phosphate on Zn and Fe Bioavailability and Accumulation by Salix smithiana in Heavily Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vondrackova S.


    Full Text Available High biomass production Salix smithiana was proved as the plant able to accumulate substantial amount of Cd and Zn in aboveground biomass. Nevertheless, in heavily contaminated soils (mainly by Zn willows can suffer from chlorosis because of Fe deficiency induced by excess of Zn amount. Method such as chemophytostabilization seems like very good measure for planting willows in such heavily contaminated soil. In our experiments we evaluated effect of rock phosphate on changes in Zn and Fe bioavailability and accumulation of these elements by willows together with the willows growth on heavily contaminated soil. Addition of rock phosphate reduced plant-available Zn concentrations in soils resulting in significant decrease of Zn content in leaves. In the case of Fe, however, its contents in the leaves significantly decreased as well, although the mobile portion of Fe in soil remained unchanged. Yield of aboveground biomass in rock phosphate treatment was not significantly different in comparison to the control. After the first vegetation period, we can conclude that reduction of Zn contents in willows after rock phosphate application did not lead to suppress of Fe deficiency and improvement of willow growth in heavily contaminated soil.

  20. Phytochemical and physical-chemical analysis of Polish willow (Salix spp.) honey: identification of the marker compounds. (United States)

    Jerković, Igor; Kuś, Piotr Marek; Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Šarolić, Mladenka


    The case study of Polish Salix spp. honey was compared with published data on willow honey from other regions. GC-FID/MS (after HS-SPME and ultrasonic solvent extraction) and targeted HPLC-DAD were applied. Phenolic content, FRAP/DPPH assays and the colour coordinates were determined spectrophotometrically. Beside ubiquitous linalool derivatives, borneol (up to 10.9%), bicyclic monoterpenes with pinane skeleton (pinocarvone up to 10.6%, myrtenal up to 4.8% and verbenone up to 3.4%) and trans-β-damascenone (up to 13.0%) dominated in the headspace. The main compounds of the extractives were vomifoliol (up to 39.6%) and methyl syringate (up to 16.5%) along with not common 4-hydroxy-3-(1-methylethyl)benzaldehyde (up to 11.1%). Abscisic acid (ABA) was found (up to 53.7 mg/kg) with the isomeric ratio (Z,E)-ABA:(E,E)-ABA=1:2. The honey exhibited low antioxidant potential with pale yellow colour. The composition of Polish willow honey is similar to Mediterranean willow honeys with several relevant differences.

  1. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) analyses of nutrient composition and condensed tannin concentrations in carolina willow (Salix caroliniana). (United States)

    Lavin, Shana R; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Wooley, Stuart C; Stone, Koni; Russell, Scott; Valdes, Eduardo V


    Iron overload disorder has been described in a number of zoo-managed species, and it has been recommended to increase the tannin composition of the diet as a safe way to minimize iron absorption in these iron-sensitive species. The goal of this study was to examine the potential of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) as a rapid and simple screening tool to assess willow (Salix caroliniana) nutrient composition (crude protein: CP; acid detergent fiber: ADF; neutral detergent fiber: NDF; lignin, gross energy: GE) and condensed tannin (CT) concentrations. Calibration equations were developed by regression of the lab values from 2 years using partial least squares on n = 144 NIRS spectra to predict n = 20 independent validation samples. Using the full 2-year dataset, good prediction statistics were obtained for CP, ADF, NDF, and GE in plant leaves and stems (r(2 ) > 0.75). NIRS did not predict lignin concentrations reliably (leaves r(2)  = 0.52, stems r(2)  = 0.33); however, CTs were predicted moderately well (leaves r(2)  = 0.72, stems r(2)  = 0.67). These data indicate that NIRS can be used to quantify several key nutrients in willow leaves and stems including concentrations of plant secondary compounds which, depending on the bioactivity of the compound, may be targeted to feed iron-sensitive browsing animals.

  2. Potential of Igniscum sachalinensis L. and Salix viminalis L. for the Phytoremediation of Copper-Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isong Godlove Tingwey


    Full Text Available The potential of Salix viminalis L. and Igniscum sachalinensis L. for phytoremediation of copper- (Cu- contaminated soils was studied under greenhouse conditions. Approximately 5 kg of potted agricultural and sewage amended soils sampled from the top 0 to 20 cm depth in Neuruppin, Germany, was treated with CuSO4 at concentrations 0 (control, 250, 750, and 1250 mg Cu kg−1 soil and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA at 1000 mg kg−1 soil, respectively. Each plant species was grown on four replicates of each soil treatment. Copper accumulated in aboveground tissues tends to increase with increasing soil Cu concentration and was the lowest in stem and leaf of both plant species grown on control soils. At 750 and 1250 mg Cu kg−1 soil, Cu accumulated in stem and leaf of I. sachalinensis increased by over 12- and 20-fold, respectively, whereas there was no vegetative growth in S. viminalis beyond 250 mg Cu kg−1 soil. Application of EDTA to sewage amended soils increased Cu accumulated in the stem and leaf, especially in I. sachalinensis. In general, I. sachalinensis seems to have the potential to tolerate high soil Cu content and simultaneously bioaccumulate Cu in tissues and thus may have better prospects for phytoremediation.

  3. Effects of reindeer on the re-establishment of Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii and Salix phylicifolia in a subarctic meadow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael den Herder


    Full Text Available The effect of reindeer browsing on the regeneration of Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii and Salix phylicifolia was studied in a subarctic meadow in Finnish Lapland. The aim of the study was to see whether tree recovery from seeds is possible under heavy reindeer-browsing pressure. After removal of the ground and field layer vegetation in 1986, two exclosures were established so that the effect of reindeer on the secondary succession, starting from seeds, could be studied. The size and the number of B. pubescens and S. phylicifolia were recorded in 1994, 1996, 1997 and 1999. Reindeer significantly reduced the height and the number of saplings (plants > 10 cm high of B. pubescens and S. phylicifolia but the number of seedlings (plants < 10 cm high did not differ between browsed and unbrowsed plots. Furthermore the heightclass distribution of saplings was different inside the exlosures compared to control areas. Over time browsed plots continued to have high densities of small saplings while in protected plots an increasing number of larger saplings appeared. In our study site, regeneration from seeds seemed possible although the height of B. pubescens and S. phylicifolia was limited by reindeer. 

  4. Wood fuel quality of two Salix viminalis stands fertilised with sludge, ash and sludge-ash mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, Anneli [Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 7043, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Riia 181, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Dimitriou, Ioannis; Aronsson, Paer; Verwijst, Theo; Weih, Martin [Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 7043, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)


    This study assessed the effects of stand structure and fertilisation with wood ash and/or sludge on wood fuel quality of Salix viminalis. The relative proportions of bark and wood in 1-, 2- and 3-year-old shoot populations were determined. The concentrations of essential elements (N, P, K) and heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni) in bark and wood were used to assess the wood fuel quality in harvestable shoot biomass. Controlled field experiments were conducted on two newly harvested commercial short-rotation willow coppice fields. Five treatments were applied: sewage sludge at the maximum legally permitted amount; ash; two sludge-ash mixtures supplying the maximum and twice the maximum permitted sludge-ash amount; and a control receiving mineral nutrients only. The proportion of bark in the willow stands was decreasing with the age of the shoot population. The shoot population with few large stems, compared to that with many small stems, had a lower proportion of element-rich bark in the harvestable shoot biomass, meaning better quality of the wood fuel. Overall, wood fuel quality in terms of mineral concentrations was influenced by the age of the shoot population at harvest, stand structure, management practices (e.g. planting density, fertilisation) and site conditions (soil type, element availability). Our results imply that harvestable shoot biomass of willows grown as few large stems have better wood fuel quality, compared to harvestable shoot biomass of many small stems. Increased length of cutting cycle improves the wood fuel quality. (author)

  5. Phytoremediation of soils contaminated with phenanthrene and cadmium by growing willow (Salix × aureo-pendula CL 'j1011'). (United States)

    Sun, Y Y; Xu, H X; Li, J H; Shi, X Q; Wu, J C; Ji, R; Guo, H Y


    To assess the phytoremediation potential of an autochthonous willow (Salix × aureo-pendula CL 'J1011') for phenanthrene (PHE)-contaminated soils and PHE-cadmium (PHE-Cd) co-contaminated soils, we conducted field experiments in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and ethyl lactate were tested for individual and combined effects on the phytoremediation efficiency. For PHE-contaminated soils, willow plus ethyl lactate resulted in significant removal of PHE from soils after 45 days, and the PHE concentration in the shoots was significantly higher with than without ethyl lactate. For PHE-Cd co-contaminated soils, both willow plus EDTA and willow plus EDTA and ethyl lactate led to a significant decrease in the concentrations of PHE and Cd in the soils after 45 days, whereas willow alone did not. The PHE and Cd concentrations in the willow shoots were significantly enhanced in the presence of EDTA alone and with ethyl lactate, except for the PHE concentration in stems with EDTA alone. Under the same treatment, the presence of Cd had no significant influence on the PHE removal from soils. The results indicate the feasibility of using this willow together with both EDTA and ethyl lactate for the simultaneous removal of PHE and Cd from soils.

  6. The Evolving Arctic: Current State of U.S. Arctic Policy (United States)


    allow for an “Arctic Treaty ” akin to the Antarctic Treaty .50 There has been some dissent on this issue among some critics who believe an “Arctic... Treaty ” should be signed, and like the Antarctic Treaty , should ban military activities and commercial fishing.51 Unlike the Arctic that contains the...scientific research and not the sovereign territory of any one nation. An Antarctic -type treaty in the Arctic would require the nations signing it to give up

  7. Domesticating the Arctic: A Discourse Analysis of Canada's Arctic Foreign Policy


    Aaser, Agnes Viktoria


    This thesis investigates how the concept the Arctic is utilized in a Canadian Arctic foreign policy context today. The thesis main argument is that the Canadian government discursively represents the Arctic as a domestic space by drawing on cultural references, historical analogies, geopolitical identity and representation of danger and external threats. This argument is based on a qualitative study of key Arctic policy documents produced by the Harper government since 2009. The study is...

  8. Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress (United States)


    established the U.S. Arctic Research Commission (USARC) to promote Arctic research and recommend Arctic research policy ; • designated the National Science...Foundation (NSF) as the lead federal agency for implementing Arctic research policy ; • established the Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee...IARPC) to develop a national Arctic research policy and a five-year plan to implement that policy, and designated the NSF representative on the IARPC

  9. History of sea ice in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyak, Leonid; Alley, Richard B.; Andrews, John T.


    Arctic sea-ice extent and volume are declining rapidly. Several studies project that the Arctic Ocean may become seasonally ice-free by the year 2040 or even earlier. Putting this into perspective requires information on the history of Arctic sea-ice conditions through the geologic past....... This information can be provided by proxy records fromthe Arctic Ocean floor and from the surrounding coasts. Although existing records are far from complete, they indicate that sea ice became a feature of the Arctic by 47 Ma, following a pronounced decline in atmospheric pCO2 after the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal...... Optimum, and consistently covered at least part of the Arctic Ocean for no less than the last 13–14 million years. Ice was apparently most widespread during the last 2–3 million years, in accordance with Earth’s overall cooler climate. Nevertheless, episodes of considerably reduced sea ice or even...

  10. Strategic metal deposits of the Arctic Zone (United States)

    Bortnikov, N. S.; Lobanov, K. V.; Volkov, A. V.; Galyamov, A. L.; Vikent'ev, I. V.; Tarasov, N. N.; Distler, V. V.; Lalomov, A. V.; Aristov, V. V.; Murashov, K. Yu.; Chizhova, I. A.; Chefranov, R. M.


    Mineral commodities rank high in the economies of Arctic countries, and the status of mineral resources and the dynamics of their development are of great importance. The growing tendency to develop strategic metal resources in the Circumarctic Zone is outlined in a global perspective. The Russian Arctic Zone is the leading purveyor of these metals to domestic and foreign markets. The comparative analysis of tendencies in development of strategic metal resources of the Arctic Zone in Russia and other countries is crucial for the elaboration of trends of geological exploration and research engineering. This paper provides insight into the development of Arctic strategic metal resources in global perspective. It is shown that the mineral resource potential of the Arctic circumpolar metallogenic belt is primarily controlled by large and unique deposits of nonferrous, noble, and rare metals. The prospective types of economic strategic metal deposits in the Russian Arctic Zone are shown.

  11. History of sea ice in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyak, Leonid; Alley, Richard B.; Andrews, John T.


    -scale) and lower-magnitude variability. The current reduction in Arctic ice cover started in the late 19th century, consistent with the rapidly warming climate, and became very pronounced over the last three decades. This ice loss appears to be unmatched over at least the last few thousand years and unexplainable......Arctic sea-ice extent and volume are declining rapidly. Several studies project that the Arctic Ocean may become seasonally ice-free by the year 2040 or even earlier. Putting this into perspective requires information on the history of Arctic sea-ice conditions through the geologic past....... This information can be provided by proxy records fromthe Arctic Ocean floor and from the surrounding coasts. Although existing records are far from complete, they indicate that sea ice became a feature of the Arctic by 47 Ma, following a pronounced decline in atmospheric pCO2 after the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal...

  12. Arctic tipping points: governance in turbulent times. (United States)

    Young, Oran R


    Interacting forces of climate change and globalization are transforming the Arctic. Triggered by a non-linear shift in sea ice, this transformation has unleashed mounting interest in opportunities to exploit the region's natural resources as well as growing concern about environmental, economic, and political issues associated with such efforts. This article addresses the implications of this transformation for governance, identifies limitations of existing arrangements, and explores changes needed to meet new demands. It advocates the development of an Arctic regime complex featuring flexibility across issues and adaptability over time along with an enhanced role for the Arctic Council both in conducting policy-relevant assessments and in promoting synergy in interactions among the elements of the emerging Arctic regime complex. The emphasis throughout is on maximizing the fit between the socioecological features of the Arctic and the character of the governance arrangements needed to steer the Arctic toward a sustainable future.

  13. Arctic whaling : proceedings of the International Symposium Arctic Whaling February 1983

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacob, H.K. s'; Snoeijing, K


    Contents: D.M. Hopkins and Louie Marincovich Jr. Whale Biogeography and the history of the Arctic Basin P.M. Kellt, J.H.W. Karas and L.D. Williams Arctic Climate: Past, Present and Future Torgny E. Vinje On the present state and the future fate of the Arctic sea ice cover P.J.H. van Bree On the biol

  14. The motives and interests of non-Arctic states on Arctic development


    Sergey N. Grinyaev


    The article summarizes the work of the Center for Strategic Assessments and Forecasts on the study of strategy and policy of the Arctic Council observer countries. It is proposed in the number of the Arctic Council observer organizations include the Russian Geographical Society — internationally recognized and oldest scientific community, which has made a significant contribution to the development of the Arctic.

  15. Multiscale Models of Melting Arctic Sea Ice (United States)


    1 Multiscale Models of Melting Arctic Sea Ice Kenneth M. Golden University of Utah, Department of Mathematics phone: (801) has played a major role in the recent declines of the summer Arctic sea ice pack. However, understanding the evolution of melt ponds and sea...Models of Melting Arctic Sea Ice 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER

  16. Yield Mapping in Salix; Skoerdekartering av salix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Christoffer; Gilbertsson, Mikael; Rogstrand, Gustav; Thylen, Lars


    The most common species for energy forest production is willow. Willow is able to produce a large amount of biomass in a short period of time. Growing willow has a potential to render a good financial result for the farmer if cultivated on fields with the right conditions and plenty of water. Under the right conditions growing willow can give the farmer a net income of 3,000 SEK (about 430 USD) per hectare and year, which is something that common cereal crops cannot compete with. However, this is not the common case since willow is often grown as a substitute crop on fields where cereal crop yield is low. The aim of this study was to reveal if it is possible to measure yield variability in willow, and if it is possible to describe the reasons for yield variation both within the field but also between different fields. Yield mapping has been used in conventional farming for about a decade. The principles for yield mapping are to continuously measure the yield while registering location by the use of GPS when harvesting the field. The collected data is then used to search for spatial variations within the field, and to try to understand the reasons for this variation. Since there is currently no commercial equipment for yield mapping in willow, a yield mapping system had to be developed within this project. The new system was installed on a Claas Jaguar harvester. The principle for yield mapping on the Claas Jaguar harvester is to measure the distance between the feeding rollers. This distance is correlated to the flow through the harvester. The speed and position of the machine was registered using GPS. Knowing the working width of the harvester this information was used to calculate the yield. All collected data was stored on a PDA computer. Soil samples were also collected from the yield mapped fields. This was to be able to test yield against both physical and chemical soil parameters. The result shows that it is possible to measure spatial variations of yield in willow. It is also possible to measure variations between fields. From the physical and chemical parameters in the soil it is difficult to get a decisive picture of which parameters actually have an effect on the yield, especially if you look at one parameter at time. It is often the interplay between many parameters that results in yield variability. One thing that is evident is that if one parameter is critically low or high, for example extremely dry soil, it effects the yield negatively. Because of problems with the equipment, data could only be collected from five fields in order to make this analysis.

  17. Arctic tides from GPS on sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard Rose, Stine; Skourup, Henriette; Forsberg, René

    The presence of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean plays a significant role in the Arctic climate. Sea ice dampens the ocean tide amplitude with the result that global tidal models which use only astronomical data perform less accurately in the polar regions. This study presents a kinematic processing...... of Global Positioning System (GPS) buoys placed on sea-ice at five different sites north of Greenland for the study of sea level height and tidal analysis to improve tidal models in the Central Arctic. The GPS measurements are compared with the Arctic tidal model AOTIM-5, which assimilates tide...

  18. Plate tectonic history of the Arctic (United States)

    Burke, K.


    Tectonic development of the Arctic Ocean is outlined, and geological maps are provided for the Arctic during the mid-Cenozoic, later Cretaceous, late Jurassic, early Cretaceous, early Jurassic and late Devonian. It is concluded that Arctic basin history is moulded by the events of the following intervals: (1) continental collision and immediately subsequent rifting and ocean formation in the Devonian, and continental rifting ocean formation, rapid rotation of microcontinents, and another episode of collision in the latest Jurassic and Cretaceous. It is noted that Cenozoic Arctic basin formation is a smaller scale event superimposed on the late Mesozoic ocean basin.

  19. Rossby Waves in the Arctic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Schmith, Torben

    The Arctic Ocean has a characteristic stable stratification with fresh and cold water occupying the upper few hundred meters and the warm and more saline Atlantic waters underneath. These water masses are separated by the cold halocline. The stability of the cold halocline regulates the upward...... directed turbulent heat flux from the Atlantic water to the Arctic water. This heat flux is a part of the arctic energy budget and is important for large scale sea ice formation and melting. Due to the strong vertical stratification combined with its almost circular boundary, the Arctic Ocean supports...

  20. Aerosols indirectly warm the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mauritsen


    Full Text Available On average, airborne aerosol particles cool the Earth's surface directly by absorbing and scattering sunlight and indirectly by influencing cloud reflectivity, life time, thickness or extent. Here we show that over the central Arctic Ocean, where there is frequently a lack of aerosol particles upon which clouds may form, a small increase in aerosol loading may enhance cloudiness thereby likely causing a climatologically significant warming at the ice-covered Arctic surface. Under these low concentration conditions cloud droplets grow to drizzle sizes and fall, even in the absence of collisions and coalescence, thereby diminishing cloud water. Evidence from a case study suggests that interactions between aerosol, clouds and precipitation could be responsible for attaining the observed low aerosol concentrations.

  1. Stories from the Arctic field (United States)

    Cain, Michelle


    I will discuss my experience co-ordinating a range of communication activities for a multi-university research programme called Methane in the Arctic: Measurements and Modelling. The project included ground- and aircraft-based fieldwork in the European Arctic, as well as computer modelling. Our communication activities included: our own field blog (, which was syndicated to the Scientific American Expeditions blog; writing articles for other blogs with a wider audience than our own; use of twitter; and podcasting our field work. The grand finale to our communications work was a live event at a science festival, in which we took the audience along with us on a recreated research flight, complete with a life-size mock up of a section of our research aircraft. I will discuss my experiences of these forms of communication, and give an evaluation of their successes and failures.

  2. Extrapolating future Arctic ozone losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Knudsen


    Full Text Available Future increases in the concentration of greenhouse gases and water vapour are likely to cool the stratosphere further and to increase the amount of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs. Future Arctic PSC areas have been extrapolated using the highly significant trends in the temperature record from 1958–2001. Using a tight correlation between PSC area and the total vortex ozone depletion and taking the decreasing amounts of ozone depleting substances into account we make empirical estimates of future ozone. The result is that Arctic ozone losses increase until 2010–2020 and only decrease slightly up to 2030. This approach is an alternative method of prediction to that based on the complex coupled chemistry-climate models (CCMs.

  3. Leaf degradation of Salix humboldtiana Willd: (Salicaceae and invertebrate colonization in a subtropical lake (Brazil Degradação foliar de Salix humboldtiana Willd: (Salicaceae e colonização por invertebrados em um lago subtropical (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franko Telöken


    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate leaf degradation and invertebrate colonization of Salix humboldtiana Willd. in a subtropical shallow lake on the coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; METHODS: Litter bags containing 6.85 g of leaves were incubated in the superficial layer of sediment in the littoral region for 1, 4, 7, 14, 32, 47 and 71 days; RESULTS: After 71 days, a loss of 51% of the initial leaf weight was observed (k = 0.0100 d-1. We estimated that it would take 300 days to lose 95% of the initial weight. A total of 16040 organisms and 35 taxa were identified. Caenidae (25.9%, Oligochaeta (19%, Ostracoda (13.8%, Hydracarina (9.8%, Tanypodinae (9.7% and Coenagrionidae (7.7% were the most highly represented taxa. We observed increases in density, richness and diversity of taxa over time, with a stabilizing trend noted in the taxa diversity. Regarding the functional trophic groups (FTGs, gathering-collectors accounted for 57.6% of the community, while predators (25%, scrapers (15.8%, filtering-collectors (0.88% and shredders (0.73% were also represented. The diversity and evenness of the FTGs had stabilized by day 14; CONCLUSIONS: S. humboldtiana detritus provides a favorable habitat for a sufficient duration to support a high density and diversity of aquatic invertebrates. The small percentage of shredders indicates the minor influence of the invertebrate community on the rate of detrital degradation. The main contribution of invertebrates to detrital processing comes from the consumption of fine particulate organic matter by gathering-collectors.OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a degradação foliar de Salix humboldtiana Willd. e a colonização pela comunidade de invertebrados aquáticos em um lago raso subtropical, planície costeira do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil; MÉTODOS: Bolsas de decomposição contendo 6,85 g de folhas foram incubadas na região litorânea, na superfície do sedimento, e retiradas após 1, 4, 7, 14, 32, 47 e 71 dias de decomposi

  4. Building Materials in Arctic Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede


    Building in the artic requires special attention on the appropriateness of building materials. The harsh climate makes execution difficult and sets unusual requirements for the pure material properties. In addition, there is a lack of choice of good, natural building materials in the arctic....... This results in high transport costs. The building materials situation in Greenland may potentially be improved by intensifying the reuse of building materials or by promoting the local production of building materials....

  5. Can Canada Avoid Arctic Militarization? (United States)


    Passage is considered an international strait because it joins two high-seas areas used for international navigations.28 Geography is the key to the...2014). 42Roger Howard, 54. 43Sian Griffith, “US-Canada Arctic Border Dispute Key to Maritime Riches,” BBC News , August 2, 2010,, Deputy Chairman of the Russian Duma and a famous Polar scientist, directed a submarine expedition to the North Pole and planted a Russian flag

  6. Arctic bioremediation -- A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smallbeck, D.R.; Ramert, P.C. (Harding Lawson Associates, Novato, CA (United States)); Liddell, B.V.


    This paper discusses the use of bioremediation as an effective method to clean up diesel-range hydrocarbon spills in northern latitudes. The results of a laboratory study of microbial degradation of hydrocarbons under simulated arctic conditions showed that bioremediation can be effective in cold climates and led to the implementation of a large-scale field program. The results of 3 years of field testing have led to a significant reduction in diesel-range hydrocarbon concentrations in the contaminated area.

  7. The Arctic: The Physical Environment (United States)


    canadienne est de planifier , de mettre sur pied et de maintenir des forces maritimes polyvalentes, souples et aptes au combat pour atteindre les objectifs...implications could be wide ranging. As one scholar notes: “The net effect [of climate change] is an overall warming process that is now beginning a...scientific research and study. Arctic nations have also begun the process of extending their exclusive economic rights under the 1982 United Nations

  8. Particle size distribution of ashes and the behaviour of metals when firing Salix in a circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFB); Askans partikelfraktionsfoerdelning och metallernas beteende vid eldning av Salix i en CFB-panna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sfiris, G.; Johansson, A. [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Valmari, T.; Kauppinen, E.; Pyykoenen, J.; Lyyraenen, J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)


    This project is part of the Ash Recovery Programme aimed at establishing the environmental, technical and financial preconditions for returning wood ash to the forest. The programme is funded jointly by NUTEK, Sydkraft and Vattenfall. This report summarises the results of the experimental and modelling work to study the behaviour of the metals (especially Cd and K), after burning Salix in a 3-12 MW Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler. The purpose of the study was to determine, using the experimental data, where cadmium and potassium condense, on what size particles they condense, and the decisive parameters governing these processes. Measurements of the fly ash particle size distribution carried out with a Berner Low Pressure Impactor (BLPI), coupled to a pre-cyclone. Samples were collected from three points: in the convection path at 650 deg C, after the convection path but before the secondary cyclone (160 deg C), and after the bag house (150 deg C). Wet chemical sampling was made for Cd, K, Zn and Pb, with three types of sampling equipment: collection of both particles and gas, collection of particles only, and analysis of the gas phase only. Analysis was made of samples from two places in the convection path (650 deg C and 250 deg C). Samples of bed material, bottom ash and fly ash have been subjected to scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and in addition a few fly ash particles, sampled after the convection path, were subjected to energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Based on experimental results, modelling work was carried out with an equilibrium model and with a general aerosol computer model ABC (Aerosol Behaviour in Combustion)

  9. Arctic Change Information for a Broad Audience (United States)

    Soreide, N. N.; Overland, J. E.; Calder, J.


    Demonstrable environmental changes have occurred in the Arctic over the past three decades. NOAA's Arctic Theme Page is a rich resource web site focused on high latitude studies and the Arctic, with links to widely distributed data and information focused on the Arctic. Included is a collection of essays on relevant topics by experts in Arctic research. The website has proven useful to a wide audience, including scientists, students, teachers, decision makers and the general public, as indicated through recognition by USA Today, Science magazine, etc. ( Working jointly with NSF and the University of Washington's Polar Science Center as part of the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) program, NOAA has developed a website for access to pan-Arctic time series spanning diverse data types including climate indices, atmospheric, oceanic, sea ice, terrestrial, biological and fisheries. Modest analysis functions and more detailed analysis results are provided. ( This paper will describe development of an Artic Change Detection status website to provide a direct and comprehensive view of previous and ongoing change in the Arctic for a broad climate community. For example, composite metrics are developed using principal component analysis based on 86 multivariate pan-Arctic time series for seven data types. Two of these metrics can be interpreted as a regime change/trend component and an interdecadal component. Changes can also be visually observed through tracking of 28 separate biophysical indicators. Results will be presented in the form of a web site with relevant, easily understood, value-added knowledge backed by peer review from Arctic scientists and scientific journals.

  10. Combined enhancements of temperature and UVB influence growth and phenolics in clones of the sexually dimorphic Salix myrsinifolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nybakken, L.; Hoerkkae, R.; Julkunen-Tiitto, R. (Univ. of Eastern Finland. Dept. of Biology, Joensuu (Finland))


    Although several climatic factors are expected to change simultaneously in the future, the effect of such combined changes on plants have seldom been tested under field conditions. We report on a field experiment with dark-leaved willow, Salix myrsinifolia, subjected to enhancements in ultraviolet-A (UVA), UVB radiation and temperature, setup in Joensuu, Eastern Finland. S. myrsinifolia is a dioecious species, known as an important food plant for many herbivores. Cuttings of eight clones, four of each sex, of dark-leaved willow were planted in the field in spring 2009. In both 2009 and 2010, the total biomass increased significantly with temperature, and in 2010 there was an additive effect of UVB radiation. Both height and diameter increased with temperature in 2009, while the effect on height growth ceased in 2010. Males had greater diameter growth than females in 2010. Most phenolic compounds in the leaves decreased under enhanced temperature in both growing seasons. In 2010, four of six salicylates increased in response to enhanced temperature. Some quercetin derivatives increased under enhanced UVB radiation. Females had higher concentrations of chlorogenic acids than males, and while enhanced temperature reduced chlorogenic acid in females only, luteolins were reduced only in males. In summary, the combined enhancements gave no effects in addition to those that appeared under the single-factor treatments, except for the additive effect of UVB on temperature-increased biomass. The few gender-related differences found in response to climate change do not allow any marked expectations of future climate-induced changes in sex ratios. (Author)

  11. Stemflow of a xerophytic shrub (Salix psammophila) in northern China: Implication for beneficial branch architecture to produce stemflow (United States)

    Yuan, Chuan; Gao, Guangyao; Fu, Bojie


    Stemflow is an important mechanism to replenish soil water for xerophytic shrubs in water-stressed ecosystems, whereas the biotic influences of leaf and branch on shrub stemflow were not completely investigated. In this study, the stemflow of 98 branches with various basal diameter under 42 rainfall events was measured for Salix psammophila in northern China during the rainy seasons of 2014 and 2015. The effects of rainfall characteristics, and plant traits of leaf and branch on stemflow were detected. Stemflow productivity (branch stemflow production of unit biomass) was proposed to determine the beneficial branch architecture for efficient stemflow production. The developed allometric equations by expressing the plant traits as a power function of branch basal diameter could satisfactorily estimate the leaf traits and biomass. There were significant differences of branch stemflow between different basal diameter and precipitation classes. The average shrub stemflow depth and percentage was 0.77 mm (0.004-3.32 mm) and 5.54% (0.70-7.92%), respectively. The precipitation amount and leaf fresh biomass were identified as the most influential rainfall characteristic and plant trait of stemflow, respectively. The stemflow production increased linearly with precipitation amount, and stemflow percentage increased with precipitation amount to approach the asymptotic value of 7.61%. The threshold precipitation amount of 2.1 mm was required to initiate shrub stemflow. The stemflow productivity decreased with basal diameter of branches and increased with precipitation amount. Allocating aboveground biomass to grow new branches and develop small ones was an energy-conserving strategy to ensure stemflow production. The branch architecture with more small branches, higher leaf biomass, and larger branch angle was more efficient for stemflow production.

  12. Quantitative changes in secondary metabolites of dark-leave willow (Salix myrsinifolia) exposed to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegelberg, R.; Julkunen-Tiitto, R. [Univ. of Joensuu, Dept. of Biology, Joensuu (Finland)


    This is a study of the impact of increased ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on the secondary chemistry of Salix myrsinifolia (dark-leave willow). For nearly two decades, the loss of stratospheric ozone above the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere has increased UV-B radiation (280-320 nm) over the long-term mean. Willows (Salicaceae) are widely distributed in these northern regions. To determine the effects of increased UV-B radiation on willows, the plantlets of three clones of S. myrsinifolia were grown under ambient (3.6 kJ m{sup -2} day{sup -1}) or enhanced (7.18 kJ m{sup -2} day{sup -1}) UV-B irradiance. After the 2-week indoor experiment, the concentrations of UV-B-screening phenolics (flavonoids and phenolic acids) and low-UV-B-screening phenolics (salicylates and condensed tannins) in fresh leaves were investigated and the biomass of leaves, stems and roots was determined. As expected, the total amount of flavonoids in willow leaves clearly increased when plantlets were exposed to higher UV-B irradiation. However, the degree of increase of individual compounds varied: luteolin-7-glucoside, monomethyl-monocoumaryl-luteolin-7-glucoside and one myricetin derivative increased significantly, while the apigenin-7-glucuronide increased only slightly. The enhanced UV-B also increased the amount of p-hydroxycinnamic acid derivative. The UV-B effects on other phenolic acids and tannins were minor. In contrast to the other phenolics, the amounts of two salicylates, salicin and saligenin, decreased under enhanced UV-B irradiation. Our results indicate that the concentrations of both UV-B-screening and low-UV-B-screening phenolic compounds in leaves of S. myrsinifolia may vary in response to elevated UV-B radiation. However, while the UV-B protective flavonoids and phenolic acids accumulate during UV-B exposure, the concentrations of certain salicylates decrease. (au)

  13. Characterization of cadmium-resistant endophytic fungi from Salix variegata Franch. in Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China. (United States)

    An, Hongmei; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Xinfei; Huang, Qian; Yuan, Shenhong; Yang, Xingyong; Dong, Jinyan


    The community and Cd-resistance of endophytic fungi from roots of Salix variegata Franch. collected from the water-level-fluctuation zone of Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China, were investigated. A total of 53 strains were isolated and identified to 13 morphotaxa, in which Chromosporium, Fusarium and Gonatobotrys were dominant genera. Among them, 27 isolates were selected to measure their resistance to 0.02 mg ml(-1) Cd(2+) and 11 were growth stimulated (Tolerance index>100%). Of these active isolates, four dark septate endophyte (DSE) isolates (Paraphaeosphaeria sp. SR46, Pyrenochaeta sp. SR35, Rhizopycnis vagum SR37 and R. vagum SR44) were further tested for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against Cd and SR46 was found to be the most tolerant isolate with MIC of 0.39 mg ml(-1). Additionally, the maximum uptake values of these DSEs ranged from 3.01 to 7.89 mg g(-1), but there was no significant correlation between metal uptake with fungal biomass and metal tolerance. Subsequently, a pot experiment was conducted for investigating the impact of SR46 on corn seedlings in Cd-enriched soil. The results obtained suggested that SR46 reduced the Cd bioaccumulation of plant under low (100 mg kg(-1)) Cd stress and enhanced the Cd translocation from root zone to aerial parts under high (200 mg kg(-1)) Cd stress. Besides, it promoted plant growth without Cd stress. These findings indicated S. variegata harbors an endophytic fungal flora showing a high genetic diversity as well as a high level of metal resistance to Cd that has potential values in cadmium cycling and restoration of plant, soil and water system.

  14. Assessment of willow (Salix sp.) as a woody heavy metal accumulator: field survey and in vivo X-ray analyses. (United States)

    Harada, Emiko; Hokura, Akiko; Nakai, Izumi; Terada, Yasuko; Baba, Kei'ichi; Yazaki, Kazufumi; Shiono, Masamichi; Mizuno, Naoharu; Mizuno, Takafumi


    Trees that accumulate metals are important plants for restoring contaminated soil because of their high biomass. In our previous study, we discovered that Salix miyabeana has the capability to take up high levels of Cd, and identified the several accumulation sites of the endogenous metals in the leaf parts of plants. To analyze the detailed localization of Cd in apoplastic and symplastic compartments in S. miyabeana, synchrotron radiation-based micro X-ray fluorescence (SR-μ-XRF) analysis and micro X-ray absorption near edge structure (μ-XANES) measurements were performed on beam line 37XU of the SPring-8 (Hyogo, Japan). The two-dimensional metal distribution of segments of young stems was obtained by μ-XRF with approximately 2 μm(2) X-ray beams and showed the predominant localization of Cd in the apoplastic region. μ-XANES analyses suggest that the apoplastic detoxification of Cd in willow depends on Cd-oxygen, but not on Cd-sulfur, interaction. S. miyabeana growing near an old mining site in Japan was then examined to evaluate the metal accumulating ability of this plant in the field. The metal concentration in the leaves of the plants was compared to that in the soil and enrichment factors (EFs) were calculated for Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb. Results showed efficient removal of Cd and Zn from the contaminated sites by the willow plants. In order to discuss the combined and long-term effect of multiple heavy metals on S. miyabeana grown in soil, variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy fitted with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (VPSEM-EDX) and SR-μ-XRF was used to characterize the serration of leaves. The combination of 2D elemental images revealed metal accumulation in the tip cells in serrations without any exudation of heavy metals from the hydathodes.

  15. Stage-dependent patterns of drought tolerance and gas exchange vary between sexes in the alpine willow, Salix glauca. (United States)

    Dudley, Leah S; Galen, Candace


    Females and males of sexually dimorphic species have distinct resource demands due to differential allocation to reproduction. Sexual allocation theory predicts that functional traits will diverge between sexes to support these demands. However, such dimorphism may be masked by the impact of current reproduction on source-sink interactions between vegetative and reproductive organs. We ask whether natural selection has led to genetic dimorphism in homologous physiological traits between sexes of the dioecious willow shrub, Salix glauca. In a common garden experiment we compared physiological responses to drought stress by male and female ramets in the absence of confounding demands from reproductive structures. Ramets experienced similar pre-dawn leaf water status (Psi(l)) as parental genets in flower within the natural population, indicating that experimental dry-down mirrored environmental conditions in nature. Male and female ramets achieved similar instantaneous water use efficiency, based on the ratio of carbon gain to water loss, under wet and dry conditions. However, female ramets experienced greater water stress (i.e., more negative Psi(l)) than males under dry conditions. Lower Psi(l) for female ramets may partly reflect the maintenance of conductance under drought; males, in contrast, maintain Psi(l) under drought by reducing conductance. Differences between sexes in terms of conductance and leaf water status of the vegetative ramets were absent in a concomitant comparison of parental flowering plants. Our results show (1) genetic divergence in physiology between sexes of S. glauca occurs in the absence of gender-specific reproductive sinks, (2) males are the more physiologically plastic sex with respect to water use, and (3) paradoxically, divergence in water relations between sexes is not detectable at sexual maturity under natural conditions.

  16. Selection of Reliable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Analysis under Abiotic Stresses in the Desert Biomass Willow, Salix psammophila. (United States)

    Li, Jianbo; Jia, Huixia; Han, Xiaojiao; Zhang, Jin; Sun, Pei; Lu, Mengzhu; Hu, Jianjun


    Salix psammophila is a desert shrub willow that has extraordinary adaptation to abiotic stresses and plays an important role in maintaining local ecosystems. Moreover, S. psammophila is regarded as a promising biomass feedstock because of its high biomass yields and short rotation coppice cycle. However, few suitable reference genes (RGs) for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) constrain the study on normalization of gene expression in S. psammophila until now. Here, we investigated the expression stabilities of 14 candidate RGs across tissue types and under four abiotic stress treatments, including heat, cold, salt, and drought treatments. After calculation of PCR efficiencies, three different software, NormFinder, geNorm, and BestKeeper were employed to analyze systematically the qRT-PCR data, and the outputs were merged by RankAggreg software. The optimal RGs selected for gene expression analysis were EF1α (Elongation factor-1 alpha) and OTU (OTU-like cysteine protease family protein) for different tissue types, UBC (Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2) and LTA4H (Leukotriene A-4 hydrolase homolog) for heat treatment, HIS (Histone superfamily protein H3) and ARF2 (ADP-ribosylation factor 2) for cold treatment, OTU and ACT7 (Actin 7) for salt treatment, UBC and LTA4H for drought treatment. The expression of UBC, ARF2, and VHAC (V-type proton ATPase subunit C) varied the least across tissue types and under abiotic stresses. Furthermore, the relative genes expression profiles of one tissue-specific gene WOX1a (WUSCHEL-related homeobox 1a), and four stress-inducible genes, including Hsf-A2 (Heat shock transcription factors A2), CBF3 (C-repeat binding factor 3), HKT1 (High-Affinity K(+) Transporter 1), and GST (Glutathione S-transferase), were conducted to confirm the validity of the RGs in this study. These results provided an important RGs application guideline for gene expression characterization in S. psammophila.

  17. Variations in metal tolerance and accumulation in three hydroponically cultivated varieties of Salix integra treated with lead.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufeng Wang

    Full Text Available Willow species have been suggested for use in the remediation of contaminated soils due to their high biomass production, fast growth, and high accumulation of heavy metals. The tolerance and accumulation of metals may vary among willow species and varieties, and the assessment of this variability is vital for selecting willow species/varieties for phytoremediation applications. Here, we examined the variations in lead (Pb tolerance and accumulation of three cultivated varieties of Salix integra (Weishanhu, Yizhibi and Dahongtou, a shrub willow native to northeastern China, using hydroponic culture in a greenhouse. In general, the tolerance and accumulation of Pb varied among the three willow varieties depending on the Pb concentration. All three varieties had a high tolerance index (TI and EC50 value (the effective concentration of Pb in the nutrient solution that caused a 50% inhibition on biomass production, but a low translocation factor (TF, indicating that Pb sequestration is mainly restricted in the roots of S. integra. Among the three varieties, Dahogntou was more sensitive to the increased Pb concentration than the other two varieties, with the lowest EC50 and TI for root and above-ground tissues. In this respect, Weishanhu and Yizhibi were more suitable for phytostabilization of Pb-contaminated soils. However, our findings also indicated the importance of considering the toxicity symptoms when selecting willow varieties for the use of phytoremediation, since we also found that the three varieties revealed various toxicity symptoms of leaf wilting, chlorosis and inhibition of shoot and root growth under the higher Pb concentrations. Such symptoms could be considered as a supplementary index in screening tests.

  18. Fertility build-up in differently fertilized Salix stands. Final report; Boerdighetsuppbyggnad i differentierat goedslade Salixbestaand. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alriksson, Boerje; Granhall, U. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)


    In order to study the effects of intensively grown short rotation willow coppice on soil chemical and micro-biological properties, pH, C{sub tot}, N{sub tot}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, microbial-biomass (CFE), potential mineralisation (NH{sub 4}{sup +} conc. after anaerobic incubation) in differentially N-fertilised willow stands (Salix viminalis) were investigated. Especially fertilisation performed during the 2:nd rotation resulted in a reduction in pH in the upper 5acm. C{sub tot} in the upper 2 cm layer tended to increase with increasing total willow production, a relationship that was counteracted by fertilisation performed during the 2:nd rotation. The ratio C{sub tot}/N{sub tot} decreased in the upper 2 cm layer with increasing amounts of N-fertilisers supplied during the 2:nd rotation mainly due to a lower immobilisation of C in microbial-biomass. Stem-wood production during the 2:nd rotation was negatively or noncorrelated to fertilisation supplied in single years during the 2:nd rotation. The willow plants used only a smaller portion of the N supplied during the 2:nd rotation and the excess influenced negatively on soil parameters that are crucial for soil fertility (pH, N-mineralisation). Our results show that an intense supply of N-fertilisers during the last year of the list rotation and annual supplies higher than 50 kg N/ha, didn't lead to an increased willow production but instead resulted in a reduced soil fertility.

  19. The performance of cuttings of Salix humboldtiana depending on the ratio of parts driven into the soil / emerging above surface (United States)

    Rauch, H. P.; Sutili, F. J.; Aschbacher, M.; Müller, B.


    Whenever plants are used for soil bioengineering techniques as a part of civil engineering structures, they have to fulfil specific biological and technical qualification. The knowledge of these kinds of qualification is a precondition of successful soil bioengineering applications. In Central Europe the reference books are based on empirical applications of soil bioengineering techniques, however fundamental civil engineering standards are still missing. This is particularly true for areas, such as South America, where the application of soil bioengineering techniques is a young civil engineering discipline. Sutili has started research work systematically a few years ago in order to identify potential native available plant species for soil bioengineering techniques in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This paper shows some results from empirical research work focusing on problem of the application of cuttings: Is the performance of below and above biomass production subject to the proportion of soil cover In sum 110 specimens of Salix humboldtiana were used for field investigations. All cuttings were implemented with an angle of 45 degree under the same soil conditions and with a length of 50 cm. The variations of the ratio were 1:1 (25 cm driven into the soil and 25 emerging above surface), 1:2, 1:4, 1:8 and 1:16. After four months the plants were excavated and the data sets of all cuttings were collected and statistically analysed. The investigations are part of an integrated research project between the University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna and the Federal University of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil.

  20. International Regulation of Central Arctic Ocean Fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, E.J.


    Due in particular to the impacts of climate change, the adequacy of the international regulation of Central Arctic Ocean fisheries has come under increasing scrutiny in recent years. As shown in this article, however, international regulation of Central Arctic Ocean fisheries is by no means entirely

  1. Linking Arctic amplification and local feedbacks (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie


    Climate simulations show that as the Earth warms, the Arctic warms more than the average global warming. However, models differ on how much more the Arctic warms, and although scientists have proposed a variety of mechanisms to explain the Arctic warming amplification, there is no consensus on the main reasons for it. To shed light on this issue, Hwang et al. investigated the relationship between Arctic amplification and poleward energy transport and local Arctic feedbacks, such as changes in cloud cover or ice loss, across a group of models. The researchers noted that differences in atmospheric energy transport did not explain the ranges of polar amplification; rather, models with more amplification showed less energy transport into high latitudes. The authors found that decreasing energy transport is due to a coupled relationship between Arctic amplification and energy transport: Arctic amplification reduces the equator-to-pole temperature gradient, which strongly decreases energy transport. They suggest that this coupled relationship should be taken into account in studies of Arctic amplification. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL048546, 2011)

  2. Arctic freshwater export: Status, mechanisms, and prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haine, T.W.N.; Curry, B.; Gerdes, R.; Hansen, E.; Karcher, M.; Lee, C.; Rudels, B.; Spreen, G.; de Steur, L.; Stewart, K.D.; Woodgate, R.


    Large freshwater anomalies clearly exist in the Arctic Ocean. For example, liquid freshwater has accumulated in the Beaufort Gyre in the decade of the 2000s compared to 1980–2000, with an extra ˜ 5000 km3 — about 25% — being stored. The sources of freshwater to the Arctic from precipitation and runo

  3. Benefit-sharing arrangements in the Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tysyachnyouk, M.


    Can the interests of both the extractive industries and Indigenous communities in the Arctic be balanced through the implementation of benefit-sharing practices in the places of resource extraction? Most transnational corporations
    in the Arctic oil and gas sector have declared their commitment t

  4. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Alaska (ARCTIC) research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, W.C.; Eberhardt, L.E.


    The current program continues studies of arctic ecosystems begun in 1959 as part of the Cape Thompson Program. Specific ecosystem aspects include studies of the ecology of arctic and red foxes, small mammel and bird population studies, lichen studies, and radiation ecology studies. (ACR)

  5. Traditional Ecological Knowledge in Arctic EIA's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egede, Parnuna Petrina; Hansen, Anne Merrild


    The search for new oil and mineral reserves in the Arctic is increasing. This has called for both local and international concerns and opposition to the activities based on environmental apprehensions. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA’s) have been implemented in legislations by the Arctic...

  6. 78 FR 12033 - Programs and Research Projects Affecting the Arctic (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ARCTIC RESEARCH COMMISSION Programs and Research Projects Affecting the Arctic Notice is hereby given that the U.S. Arctic Research...) Commissioners and staff reports (4) Discussion and presentations concerning Arctic research activities The...

  7. Establishing Shared Knowledge about Globalization in Asia and the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Graczyk, Piotr


    We discuss the role of knowledge in relations between Arctic communities and Asia (the Arctic Council observer states: China, India, Japan, Singapore, South Korea). We argue that mutual and shared knowledge between Arctic communities and Asia is necessary for local benefits and comprehensively...... sustainable development for Arctic communities under globalization....

  8. Marine Transportation Implications of the Last Arctic Sea Ice Refuge (United States)

    Brigham, L. W.


    Marine access is increasing throughout the Arctic Ocean and the 'Last Arctic Sea Ice Refuge' may have implications for governance and marine use in the region. Arctic marine transportation is increasing due to natural resource developemnt, increasing Arctic marine tourism, expanded Arctic marine research, and a general linkage of the Arctic to the gloabl economy. The Arctic Council recognized these changes with the release of the Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment of 2009. This key study (AMSA)can be viewed as a baseline assessment (using the 2004 AMSA database), a strategic guide for a host of stakeholders and actors, and as a policy document of the Arctic Council. The outcomes of AMSA of direct relevance to the Ice Refuge are within AMSA's 17 recommendations provided under three themes: Enhancing Arctic Marine Safety, Protecting Arctic People and the Environment, and Building the Arctic Marine Infrastructure. Selected recommendations of importance to the Ice Refuge include: a mandatory polar navigation code; identifying areas of heightened ecological and cultural significance; potential designation of special Arctic marine areas; enhancing the tracking and monitoring of Arctic marine traffic; improving circumpolar environmental response capacity; developing an Arctic search and rescue agreement; and, assessing the effects of marine transportation on marine mammals. A review will be made of the AMSA outcomes and how they can influence the governance, marine use, and future protection of this unique Arctic marine environment.

  9. Tipping elements in the Arctic marine ecosystem. (United States)

    Duarte, Carlos M; Agustí, Susana; Wassmann, Paul; Arrieta, Jesús M; Alcaraz, Miquel; Coello, Alexandra; Marbà, Núria; Hendriks, Iris E; Holding, Johnna; García-Zarandona, Iñigo; Kritzberg, Emma; Vaqué, Dolors


    The Arctic marine ecosystem contains multiple elements that present alternative states. The most obvious of which is an Arctic Ocean largely covered by an ice sheet in summer versus one largely devoid of such cover. Ecosystems under pressure typically shift between such alternative states in an abrupt, rather than smooth manner, with the level of forcing required for shifting this status termed threshold or tipping point. Loss of Arctic ice due to anthropogenic climate change is accelerating, with the extent of Arctic sea ice displaying increased variance at present, a leading indicator of the proximity of a possible tipping point. Reduced ice extent is expected, in turn, to trigger a number of additional tipping elements, physical, chemical, and biological, in motion, with potentially large impacts on the Arctic marine ecosystem.

  10. Arctic ecosystem responses to a warming climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lars O.

    sheet, loss of multiannual sea-ice and significant advances in snowmelt days. The biotic components of the arctic ecosystem have also been affected by the rapid changes in climate, for instance resulting in the collapse of the collared lemming cycle, advances in spring flowering and changes in the intra...... is frozen solid for the main part of the year. However, in recent decades, arctic temperatures have in-creased between two and three times that of the global averages, which have had a substantial impact on the physical environment of the arctic ecosystem, such as deglaciation of the Greenland inland ice......The Arctic embraces one of the simplest terrestrial ecosystems in the world and yet it covers roughly 11% of the world’s surface. Summer temperatures rarely exceed 10°C and most of the limited precipitation falls as snow. The landmasses are predominantly polar tundra, while the Arctic Ocean...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Lež


    Full Text Available The existence of large quantities of hydrocarbons is supposed within the Arctic Circle. Assumed quantities are 25% of the total undiscovered hydrocarbon reserves on Earth, mostly natural gas. Over 500 major and minor gas accumulations within the Arctic Circle were discovered so far, but apart from Snøhvit gas field, there is no commercial exploitation of natural gas from these fields. Arctic gas projects are complicated, technically hard to accomplish, and pose a great threat to the return of investment, safety of people and equipment and for the ecosystem. Russia is a country that is closest to the realization of the Arctic gas projects that are based on the giant gas fields. The most extreme weather conditions in the seas around Greenland are the reason why this Arctic region is the least explored and furthest from the realization of any gas project (the paper is published in Croatian .

  12. Marine Arctic science capability making big strides (United States)

    Johnson, Leonard; Brass, Garrett

    The profound influence of the Arctic Ocean on global environment, the rapid variability of Arctic processes, and the unresolved geology of the ocean floor have led to growing scientific interest in this region. Ongoing studies are investigating recent historical processes and modern processes such as changes in ocean circulation and ice cover patterns. Sediments beneath the Arctic Ocean record long- and short-term waxing and waning of the cryosphere in the Northern Hemisphere and its linkages to bottom water renewal and faunal adaptation. Underlying basement rocks reflect the tectonic history of the ocean basin, including its ridges and plateaus, which are unsampled and of unknown composition and origin. The vulnerability of Arctic populations to environmental problems makes the need to understand the region even more compelling (see, for example, Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme, 1997; also see Web site

  13. The Arctic zone: possibilities and risks of development (United States)

    Sentsov, A.; Bolsunovskaya, Y.; Melnikovich, E.


    The authors analyze the Arctic region innovative possibilities from the perspective of political ideology and strategy. The Arctic region with its natural resources and high economic potential attracts many companies and it has become an important area of transnational development. At present, the Arctic region development is of great importance in terms of natural resource management and political system development. However, the most important development issue in the Arctic is a great risk of different countries’ competing interests in economic, political, and legal context. These are challenges for international partnership creating in the Arctic zone, Russian future model developing for the Arctic, and recognition of the Arctic as an important resource for the Russians. The Russian economic, military, and political expansion in the Arctic region has the potential to strengthen the national positions. The authors present interesting options for minimizing and eliminating political risks during the Arctic territories development and define an effective future planning model for the Russian Arctic.

  14. Source of and potential bio-indicator for the heavy metal pollution in Ny-(A)lesund, Arctic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Three kinds of tundra plant samples including Dicranum angnstum(a type of boreal bryophyte) , PuccineUia phryganodes (a type of fringy p/ant),Salix polaris (a type of vascular plant) and surface soil were samples in 200 at Ny-Alesund of the Arctic.The levels of eight heavy metal elements (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni, Fe and Mn) and three metal-like dements (As, Se, Sr) in the plant and soil samples of the areas within previous coal mining activities are significantly higher than those of other areas.The relative accumulation of these elements in these tundra plant samples is consistent with the one in the soft samples, especially in the areas affected by previous coal-mining activities.Thus, the pollution is apparently from local coal mining activity.Dicranum angustum has the highest concentrations among those elements, and it can be a good bio-indicator for heavy metal pollution in Ny(A)lesund.Though Ny(A)lesund is less polluted by heavy metal than nearby Northern European human living areas, but much more than the tundras of the Alaska, Greenland and the Antarctic.

  15. Arctic potential - Could more structured view improve the understanding of Arctic business opportunities? (United States)

    Hintsala, Henna; Niemelä, Sami; Tervonen, Pekka


    The increasing interest towards the Arctic has been witnessed during the past decades. However, the commonly shared definitions of the Arctic key concepts have not yet penetrated national and international arenas for political and economic decision making. The lack of jointly defined framework has made different analyses related to the Arctic quite limited considering the magnitude of economic potential embedded in Arctic. This paper is built on the key findings of two separate, yet connected projects carried out in the Oulu region, Finland. In this paper's approach, the Arctic context has been defined as a composition of three overlapping layers. The first layer is the phenomenological approach to define the Arctic region. The second layer is the strategy-level analysis to define different Arctic paths as well as a national level description of a roadmap to Arctic specialization. The third layer is the operationalization of the first two layers to define the Arctic business context and business opportunities. The studied case from Oulu region indicates that alternative futures for the Arctic competences and business activities are in resemblance with only two of the four identified strategic pathways. Introduction of other pathways to regional level actors as credible and attractive options would require additional, systematic efforts.

  16. Arctic sea ice and Eurasian climate: A review


    Gao, Yongqi; Sun, Jianqi; Li, Fei; He, Shengping; SANDVEN, Stein; Yan, Qing; Zhang, Zhongshi; LOHMANN, Katja; KEENLYSIDE, Noel; Furevik, Tore; Suo, Lingling


    The Arctic plays a fundamental role in the climate system and has shown significant climate change in recent decades, including the Arctic warming and decline of Arctic sea-ice extent and thickness. In contrast to the Arctic warming and reduction of Arctic sea ice, Europe, East Asia and North America have experienced anomalously cold conditions, with record snowfall during recent years. In this paper, we review current understanding of the sea-ice impacts on the Eurasian climate. Paleo, obser...

  17. The Arctic Region: A Requirement for New Security Architecture? (United States)


    the vast array of security challenges that will inevitably arise in the Arctic. In spite of the success of the Treaty of the Antarctic , the Arctic...Unlike Antarctica, there is no comprehensive treaty protecting the Arctic or its resources and many observers argue that innovative security...current international treaty (ex. UNCLOS) as a sufficient regulatory basis to deal with Arctic issues. Finland is open to expanding the Arctic

  18. Evolution of the Arctic Calanus complex: an Arctic marine avocado? (United States)

    Berge, Jørgen; Gabrielsen, Tove M.; Moline, Mark; Renaud, Paul E.


    Before man hunted the large baleen whales to near extinction by the end of the nineteenth century, Arctic ecosystems were strongly influenced by these large predators. Their main prey were zooplankton, among which the calanoid copepod species of the genus Calanus, long considered key elements of polar marine ecosystems, are particularly abundant. These herbivorous zooplankters display a range of adaptations to the highly seasonal environments of the polar oceans, most notably extensive energy reserves and seasonal migrations to deep waters where the non-feeding season is spent in diapause. Classical work in marine ecology has suggested that slow growth, long lifespan and large body size in zooplankton are specific adaptations to life in cold waters with short and unpredictable feeding seasons. Here, we challenge this understanding and, by using an analogy from the evolutionary and contemporary history of the avocado, argue that predation pressure by the now nearly extinct baleen whales was an important driving force in the evolution of life history diversity in the Arctic Calanus complex. PMID:22312184

  19. The ethanolic extract of bark from Salix aegyptiaca L. inhibits the metastatic potential and epithelial to mesenchymal transition of colon cancer cell lines. (United States)

    Enayat, Shabnam; Banerjee, Sreeparna


    Willow bark extracts have been used for centuries as a natural pain killer. Recently their potential as anticancer agents has been reported. We have shown the high antioxidant activity, phenolic and flavonoid content in the ethanolic extract of bark (EEB) from Salix aegyptiaca, a species endogenous to the Middle East. We have also reported that incubation with EEB resulted in a reduction in cell proliferation through the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest via the inhibition of phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase/Protein kinase B and mitogen activated protein kinases signaling pathways as strongly as commercial inhibitors. The current study demonstrates the robust inhibition of anchorage-independent growth, motility, migration, and adhesion of colon cancer cell lines HCT-116 and HT-29 by EEB. These in vitro functional changes were accompanied by a restoration of E-cadherin expression, a reduction in EGFR, SNAI1, SNAI2, and Twist1 and the matrix metalloproteases MMP9 and MMP2. Many of these proteins are involved in the process of epithelial to mesenchymal transition, which is considered as a critical step in the progression of noninvasive tumor cells into malignant, metastatic carcinomas. We therefore propose that EEB from Salix aegyptiaca is a potent nutraceutical causing cancer chemoprevention by inhibiting epithelial to mesenchymal transition and can be consumed for its health promoting effects.

  20. Anticarcinogenic effects of the ethanolic extract of Salix aegyptiaca in colon cancer cells: involvement of Akt/PKB and MAPK pathways. (United States)

    Enayat, Shabnam; Ceyhan, Müşerref Şeyma; Başaran, Arif Ahmet; Gürsel, Mayda; Banerjee, Sreeparna


    The bark from Salix species of plants has been traditionally consumed for its antiinflammatory properties. Because inflammation frequently accompanies the progress of colorectal cancer (CRC), we have evaluated the anticancer properties of the ethanolic extract from the bark (EEB) of S. aegyptiaca, a Salix species endogenous to the Middle East, using HCT-116 and HT29 CRC cell lines. Fresh bark from S. aegyptiaca was extracted with ethanol, fractionated by solvent-solvent partitioning and the fractions were analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. Catechin, catechol, and salicin were the most abundant constituents of the extract. Interestingly, EEB showed the highest anticancer effect in the colon cancer cells followed by its fractions in ethyl acetate and water, with catechin, catechol, and salicin showing the least efficacy. EEB could strongly reduce the proliferation of the cancer cells, but not of CCD-18Co, normal colon fibroblast cell line. Accompanying this was cell cycle arrest at G1/S independent of DNA damage in the cancer cells, induction of apoptosis through a p53 dependent pathway and an inhibition of PI3K/Akt and MAP Kinase pathways at levels comparable to known commercial inhibitors. We propose that the combination of the polyphenols and flavonoids in EEB contributes toward its potent anticarcinogenic effects. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Nutrition and Cancer for the following free supplemental resource(s): Supplementary Figure 1 and Supplementary Figure 2.].

  1. Microsatellite Markers of Willow Species and Characterization of 11 Polymorphic Microsatellites for Salix eriocephala (Salicaceae), a Potential Native Species for Biomass Production in Canada. (United States)

    Lauron-Moreau, Aurélien; Pitre, Frédéric E; Brouillet, Luc; Labrecque, Michel


    Biomass produced from dedicated plantations constitutes a source of renewable energy and is expected to play an important role in several countries in the coming decades. The cultivation of woody crops such as willows therefore raises several environmental issues. In North America, several native willows are potentially interesting for biomass producers. Willow trees are diverse but few species used for environmental applications have been the object of molecular genetic studies. Based on the sequenced poplar genome, 24 microsatellite markers were assayed on five native North American willow species: Salix amygdaloides, S. discolor, S. eriocephala, S. interior and S. nigra. Polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to characterize the allele data on the shrub Salix eriocephala, a North American species with economic potential. Eleven markers amplified and confirmed the potential of this species. Analysis of samples from six populations in eastern Canada showed that all markers were variable as well as polymorphic in at least one population. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 1 to 9 (mean 2.95) and showed that these microsatellite markers can be used to assess genetic diversity of North American willow species.

  2. Alternative growth and defensive strategies reveal potential and gender specific trade-offs in dioecious plants Salix paraplesia to nutrient availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Jiang


    Full Text Available Population sex ratios of many dioecious plants in nature are biased. This may be attributed to sexually different resource demands and adaptive capacity. In male-biased Populus, males often display stronger physiological adaptation than females. Interestingly, Populus and Salix, belonging to Salicaceae, display an opposite biased sex ratio, especially in nutrient-poor environmental conditions. Do female willows have a greater tolerance to nutrient deficiency than males? In this study, we investigated the growth and defensive strategies of Salix paraplesia cuttings, which were grown with high and low soil fertility for about 140 days over one growing season. Results suggest that different strategies for biomass allocation may result in sexually different defence capacities and trade-offs between growth and defence. Females are likely to adopt radical strategies, overdrawing on available resources to satisfy both growth and defence, which seems to be more like a gamble compared with males. It is also suggested that females may have an extra mechanism to compensate for the investment in growth under nutrient-poor conditions. In summary, the results may help focus restoration efforts on sex selection such that a moderate increase in female willow quantity could increase the resistance and resilience of willow populations to early sporadic desertification.

  3. Alternative Growth and Defensive Strategies Reveal Potential and Gender Specific Trade-Offs in Dioecious Plants Salix paraplesia to Nutrient Availability. (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Sheng; Lei, Yanbao; Xu, Gang; Zhang, Dan


    Population sex ratios of many dioecious plants in nature are biased. This may be attributed to sexually different resource demands and adaptive capacity. In male-biasedPopulus, males often display stronger physiological adaptation than females. Interestingly, Populus and Salix, belonging to Salicaceae, display an opposite biased sex ratio, especially in nutrient-poor environmental conditions. Do female willows have a greater tolerance to nutrient deficiency than males? In this study, we investigated the growth and defensive strategies of Salix paraplesia cuttings, which were grown with high and low soil fertility for about 140 days over one growing season. Results suggest that different strategies for biomass allocation may result in sexually different defense capacities and trade-offs between growth and defense. Females are likely to adopt radical strategies, overdrawing on available resources to satisfy both growth and defense, which seems to be more like a gamble compared with males. It is also suggested that females may have an extra mechanism to compensate for the investment in growth under nutrient-poor conditions. In summary, the results may help focus restoration efforts on sex selection such that a moderate increase in female willow quantity could increase the resistance and resilience of willow populations to early sporadic desertification.

  4. Frost-related dieback of willows. Comparison of epiphytically and endophytically isolated bacteria from different Salix clones, with emphasis on ice nucleation activity, pathogenic properties and seasonal variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambours, M.A.; Nejad, P.; Ramstedt, M. [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Plant Pathology and Biocontrol Unit; Granhall, U. [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Department of Microbiology


    Swedish Salix plantation for biomass production have been suffering severe dieback during the past 10 years, possibly due to the combination of frost and bacterial disease. As opposed to summer and winter, spring and autumn are periods when epiphytic populations of ice nucleation active (INA) bacteria are generally high. The culturable bacterial floras from stems of diseased plant of four Salix viminalis clones were compared in spring and autumn. Both epiphytic and endophytic bacteria were isolated (i.e. from plant surface and from tissues beneath the bark, respectively), characterised and tested for ice nucleating activity and pathogenicity. Some strains were also identified with BIOLOG and 16S rRNA. Endophytically isolated communities were generally more stable than epiphytes, both in number of isolates and type of bacteria. More types were found in autumn than in spring the same year, although the total number of strains isolated was rather constant. In contrast, more strains (and a higher percentage of the total community) expressed ice nucleating activity in spring than in autumn. The overall number of pathogenic strains remained stable but their proportion among the community tested on plants increased. A close relationship was observed between the dieback rates in the field and the percentage of pathogenic strains found in the different clones. The dominating bacterial type isolated, Sphingomonas spp., also contained the highest percentage of ice nucleation active pathogenic strains. (author)

  5. Diagnostic sea ice predictability in the pan-Arctic and U.S. Arctic regional seas (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, Edward; Bitz, Cecilia M.; Ladd, Carol; Stabeno, Phyllis J.


    This study assesses sea ice predictability in the pan-Arctic and U.S. Arctic regional (Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort) seas with a purpose of understanding regional differences from the pan-Arctic perspective and how predictability might change under changing climate. Lagged correlation is derived using existing output from the Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble (CESM-LE), Pan-Arctic Ice-Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System, and NOAA Coupled Forecast System Reanalysis models. While qualitatively similar, quantitative differences exist in Arctic ice area lagged correlation in models with or without data assimilation. On regional scales, modeled ice area lagged correlations are strongly location and season dependent. A robust feature in the CESM-LE is that the pan-Arctic melt-to-freeze season ice area memory intensifies, whereas the freeze-to-melt season memory weakens as climate warms, but there are across-region variations in the sea ice predictability changes with changing climate.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Mazurov


    Full Text Available In September 2010, Moscow hosted the International Arctic Forum “The Arctic—Territory of Dialogue.” The Arctic Forum focused its attention on elements of sustainable development in the Arctic region, i.e., ecology, economics, infrastructure, social services, security, and geopolitics. Many Russian experts and many well-known politicians and experts from leading research centers of the Arctic countries (Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and USA, as well as by participants from France, Germany, Netherlands, and other countries attended the forum. Scholars and public figures from the European countries, representatives of the NATO, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe and other institutions were also present at the conference. In his key-note speech the Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Russian Geographical Society (RGS, Prime Minister of the Russian Federation, Vladimir V. Putin formulated the principles of Russian national policy in the Arctic. Russian and foreign participants supported the idea of continuing dialogue on the Arctic under the RGS’s aegis and the transformation of the Arctic Forum into a permanent platform for discussions on the most urgent issues of the region.

  7. Impacts of ethylenediurea (EDU) soil drench and foliar spray in Salix sachalinensis protection against O3-induced injury. (United States)

    Agathokleous, Evgenios; Paoletti, Elena; Saitanis, Costas J; Manning, William J; Sugai, Tetsuto; Koike, Takayoshi


    It is widely accepted that elevated levels of surface ozone (O3) negatively affect plants. Ethylenediurea (EDU) is a synthetic substance which effectively protects plants against O3-caused phytotoxicity. Among other questions, the one still open is: which EDU application method is more appropriate for treating fast-growing tree species. The main aims of this study were: (i) to test if chronic exposure of Salix sachalinensis plants to 200-400mgEDUL(-1), the usually applied range for protection against O3 phytotoxicity, is beneficial to plants; (ii) to evaluate the effects of chronic exposure to elevated O3 on S. sachalinensis; (iii) to assess the efficacy of two methods (i.e. soil drench and foliar spray) of EDU application to plants; (iv) to investigate the appropriate concentration of EDU to protect against elevated O3-induced damage in S. sachalinensis; and (v) to compare the two methods of EDU application in terms of effectiveness and EDU consumption. Current-year cuttings grown in infertile soil free from organic matter were exposed either to low ambient O3 (AOZ, 10-h≈28.3nmolmol(-1)) or to elevated O3 (EOZ, 10-h≈65.8nmolmol(-1)) levels during daylight hours. Over the growing season, plants were treated every nine days with 200mL soil drench of 0, 200 or 400mgEDUL(-1) or with foliar spray of 0, 200 or 400mgEDUL(-1) (in two separate experiments). We found that EDU per se had no effects on plants exposed to AOZ. EOZ practically significantly injured S. sachalinensis plants, and the impact was indifferent between the experiments. EDU did not protect plants against EOZ impact when applied as soil drench but it did protect them when applied as 200-400mgL(-1) foliar spray. We conclude that EDU may be more effective against O3 phytotoxicity to fast-growing species when applied as a spray than when applied as a drench. Keymessage: Soil-drenched EDU was ineffective in protecting willow plants against O3-induced injury, whereas foliar-sprayed EDU was effective even

  8. Arctic Collaborative Environment: A New Multi-National Partnership for Arctic Science and Decision Support (United States)

    Laymon, Charles A,; Kress, Martin P.; McCracken, Jeff E.; Spehn, Stephen L.; Tanner, Steve


    The Arctic Collaborative Environment (ACE) project is a new international partnership for information sharing to meet the challenges of addressing Arctic. The goal of ACE is to create an open source, web-based, multi-national monitoring, analysis, and visualization decision-support system for Arctic environmental assessment, management, and sustainability. This paper will describe the concept, system architecture, and data products that are being developed and disseminated among partners and independent users through remote access.

  9. Survival strategies in arctic ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. C. Tyler


    Full Text Available Arctic ungulates usually neither freeze nor starve to death despite the rigours of winter. Physiological adaptations enable them to survive and reproduce despite long periods of intense cold and potential undernutrition. Heat conservation is achieved by excellent insulation combined with nasal heat exchange. Seasonal variation in fasting metabolic rate has been reported in several temperate and sub-arctic species of ungulates and seems to occur in muskoxen. Surprisingly, there is no evidence for this in reindeer. Both reindeer and caribou normally maintain low levels of locomotor activity in winter. Light foot loads are important for reducing energy expenditure while walking over snow. The significance and control of selective cooling of the brain during hard exercise (e.g. escape from predators is discussed. Like other cervids, reindeer and caribou display a pronounced seasonal cycle of appetite and growth which seems to have an intrinsic basis. This has two consequences. First, the animals evidently survive perfectly well despite enduring negative energy balance for long periods. Second, loss of weight in winter is not necessarily evidence of undernutrition. The main role of fat reserves, especially in males, may be to enhance reproductive success. The principal role of fat reserves in winter appears to be to provide a supplement to, rather than a substitute for, poor quality winter forage. Fat also provides an insurance against death during periods of acute starvation.

  10. Heat flow in the Arctic (United States)

    Lachenbruch, Arthur H.; Marshall, B. Vaughan


    Defines heat flow as the flux at the earth's solid surface of heat conducted from the interior; the heat-flow-unit (hfu) is on the order of 1-millionth calorie through each sq cm of the surface/sec, which is enough to melt a 4-mm layer of ice over the earth's surface/yr. Earth heat originates from radioactive decay of U, Th and K in the crust and mantle. Although land heat-flow measurements in the Arctic are too few for regional interpretation, those from Cape Thompson, Barrow and Cape Simpson, Northern Alaska are discussed and figured to show what they contribute to understanding of permafrost, climatic change and shoreline movements. Measuring thermal conductivity and gradient is much simpler in ocean basins than on land. Locations of such measurements are mapped, the results for the Alaskan quadrant in more detail. The sharp change in heat flow at the edge of the Alpha Cordillera, shown in a geothermal model, suggests that this feature is a huge accumulation of basalt, rather than mantle material or remnant of a foundering continent as previously postulated. Future Arctic heat flow studies are discussed.

  11. Methane from the East Siberian Arctic shelf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrenko...[], Vasilii V.; Etheridge, David M.


    that the release of Arctic CH4 was implied in previous climate shifts as well as in the recently renewed rise in atmospheric CH4. These claims are not supported by all the literature they cite. Their reference 5 (1) presents measurements of emissions only of carbon dioxide, not CH4. Their reference 8 (2), a study......In their Report “Extensive methane venting to the atmosphere from sediments of the East Siberian Arctic Shelf” (5 March, p. 1246), N. Shakhova et al. write that methane (CH4) release resulting from thawing Arctic permafrost “is a likely positive feedback to climate warming.” They add...

  12. Introduction: World Routes in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Leete


    Full Text Available The Arctic is associated in popular perception with a vast frozen snow covered empty place. Everybody who has been in the Arctic, whether in the Eurasian or North American part, knows that this stereotype is correct. Indeed, the Arctic is a place with lots of space that determines the lifestyle of the people in this area. All human activities – whether livelihood or mastering of the territory– are and always have been connected with substantial movement. Hunting, fishing, trading, the establishment of settlements and keeping them alive, all this needs the movement of goods and human resources.

  13. Politics of sustainability in the Arctic (POSUSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram; Jakobsen, Uffe; Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    The concept of sustainability is of central importance in Arctic politics. However, for different actors (governments, indigenious peoples, NGOs) the concept implies different sets of precautions and opportunities. Sustainability, therefore, is much more a fundamental concept to be further...... elaborated than a definable term with a specific meaning. This is the core hypothesis in a collective research project, the POSUSA project (Politics of Sustainability in the Arctic) that aims to map and analyse the role of sustainability in various political and economic strategies in the Arctic....

  14. Mycorrhizal associations of Salix repens L. communities in succession of dune ecosystems I Above-ground and below-ground views of ectomycorrhizal fungi in relation to soil chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der E.W.; Vries, de F.W.; Kuyper, T.W.


    The diversity of ectomycorrhizal (EcM) communities in 16 stands of Salix repens L. growing under a variety of environmental conditions was studied by repeated sampling of EcM sporocarps and ectomycorrhizas, to assess the possible correspondence between above- and below-ground views of fungal taxa. A

  15. Arctic Marine Transportation Program 1979-1986 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this program was to collect data relevant to developing year-round transportation capabilities in the Arctic Ocean. The US Maritime Administration...

  16. Geologic Provinces of the Arctic, 2000 (prvarcst) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons and polygon labels that describe Arctic portion of the U.S. Geological Survey defined geologic provinces of the World in 2000.

  17. Atmospheric dynamics: Arctic winds of change (United States)

    Notz, Dirk


    The Earth's climate evolves in response to both externally forced changes and internal variability. Now research suggests that both drivers combine to set the pace of Arctic warming caused by large-scale sea-ice loss.

  18. Loss of sea ice in the Arctic. (United States)

    Perovich, Donald K; Richter-Menge, Jacqueline A


    The Arctic sea ice cover is in decline. The areal extent of the ice cover has been decreasing for the past few decades at an accelerating rate. Evidence also points to a decrease in sea ice thickness and a reduction in the amount of thicker perennial sea ice. A general global warming trend has made the ice cover more vulnerable to natural fluctuations in atmospheric and oceanic forcing. The observed reduction in Arctic sea ice is a consequence of both thermodynamic and dynamic processes, including such factors as preconditioning of the ice cover, overall warming trends, changes in cloud coverage, shifts in atmospheric circulation patterns, increased export of older ice out of the Arctic, advection of ocean heat from the Pacific and North Atlantic, enhanced solar heating of the ocean, and the ice-albedo feedback. The diminishing Arctic sea ice is creating social, political, economic, and ecological challenges.

  19. Sea ice thickness and recent Arctic warming (United States)

    Lang, Andreas; Yang, Shuting; Kaas, Eigil


    The climatic impact of increased Arctic sea ice loss has received growing attention in the last years. However, little focus has been set on the role of sea ice thickness, although it strongly determines surface heat fluxes. Here ensembles of simulations using the EC-Earth atmospheric model (Integrated Forecast System) are performed and analyzed to quantify the atmospheric impacts of Arctic sea ice thickness change since 1982 as revealed by the sea ice model assimilation Global Ice-Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System. Results show that the recent sea ice thinning has significantly affected the Arctic climate, while remote atmospheric responses are less pronounced owing to a high internal atmospheric variability. Locally, the sea ice thinning results in enhancement of near-surface warming of about 1°C per decade in winter, which is most pronounced over marginal sea ice areas with thin ice. This leads to an increase of the Arctic amplification factor by 37%.

  20. Arctic parasitology: why should we care? (United States)

    Davidson, Rebecca; Simard, Manon; Kutz, Susan J; Kapel, Christian M O; Hamnes, Inger S; Robertson, Lucy J


    The significant impact on human and animal health from parasitic infections in tropical regions is well known, but parasites of medical and veterinary importance are also found in the Arctic. Subsistence hunting and inadequate food inspection can expose people of the Arctic to foodborne parasites. Parasitic infections can influence the health of wildlife populations and thereby food security. The low ecological diversity that characterizes the Arctic imparts vulnerability. In addition, parasitic invasions and altered transmission of endemic parasites are evident and anticipated to continue under current climate changes, manifesting as pathogen range expansion, host switching, and/or disease emergence or reduction. However, Arctic ecosystems can provide useful models for understanding climate-induced shifts in host-parasite ecology in other regions.

  1. Arctic Landfast Sea Ice 1953-1998 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The files in this data set contain landfast sea ice data (monthly means) gathered from both Russian Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) and Canadian Ice...

  2. Arctic climate change: Greenhouse warming unleashed (United States)

    Mauritsen, Thorsten


    Human activity alters the atmospheric composition, which leads to global warming. Model simulations suggest that reductions in emission of sulfur dioxide from Europe since the 1970s could have unveiled rapid Arctic greenhouse gas warming.

  3. Arctic and Southern Ocean Sea Ice Concentrations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly sea ice concentration for Arctic (1901 to 1995) and Southern oceans (1973 to 1990) were digitized on a standard 1-degree grid (cylindrical projection) to...

  4. Acoustic Resonance Reaction Control Thruster (ARCTIC) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop and demonstrate the innovative Acoustic Resonance Reaction Control Thruster (ARCTIC) to provide rapid and reliable in-space impulse...

  5. Arctic National Wildlife Range: Master plan (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the master plan for Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. This plan outlines refuge objectives, history, existing conditions, and proposed accomplishments for the...

  6. Narrative report 1970 : Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1970 calendar year. Wildlife- including migratory birds, upland game birds,...

  7. Revegetation techniques in arctic and subarctic environments (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the revegetation techniques in the arctic and subarctic environments. Background on the subject, as well as a literature reviews concerning...

  8. Boundary survey, Arctic National Wildlife Range (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is on the geology of the Arctic National Wildlife Range western boundary. The Canning River region and Southern Brooks range are both analyzed, including...

  9. Arctic and Aleutian terns, Amchitka Island, Alaska (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Baird (1980) has recently reported on the ecology of Arctic terns (Sterna paradisaea) and Aleutian terns (Sterna aleutica) from 4 areas of mainland Alaska. However,...

  10. The remote sensing needs of Arctic geophysics (United States)

    Campbell, W. J.


    The application of remote sensors for obtaining geophysical information of the Arctic regions is discussed. Two significant requirements are to acquire sequential, synoptic imagery of the Arctic Ocean during all weather and seasons and to measure the strains in the sea ice canopy and the heterogeneous character of the air and water stresses acting on the canopy. The acquisition of geophysical data by side looking radar and microwave sensors in military aircraft is described.

  11. Arctic Freshwater Ice and Its Climatic Role


    Prowse, Terry; Alfredsen, Knut; Beltaos, Spyros; Bonsal, Barrie; Duguay, Claude; Korhola, Atte; McNamara, Jim; Vincent, Warwick F.; Vuglinsky, Valery; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.


    Freshwater ice dominates the Arctic terrestrial environment and significantly impacts bio-physical and socio-economic systems. Unlike other major cryospheric components that either blanket large expanses (e.g., snow, permafrost, sea ice) or are concentrated in specific locations, lake and river ice are interwoven into the terrestrial landscape through major flow and storage networks. For instance, the headwaters of large ice-covered rivers extend well beyond the Arctic while many northern lak...

  12. Studying ocean acidification in the Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) partnership with the U.S. Coast Guard Ice Breaker Healey and its United Nations Convention Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) cruises has produced new synoptic data from samples collected in the Arctic Ocean and insights into the patterns and extent of ocean acidification. This framework of foundational geochemical information will help inform our understanding of potential risks to Arctic resources due to ocean acidification.

  13. Vertical structure of recent Arctic warming. (United States)

    Graversen, Rune G; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Tjernström, Michael; Källén, Erland; Svensson, Gunilla


    Near-surface warming in the Arctic has been almost twice as large as the global average over recent decades-a phenomenon that is known as the 'Arctic amplification'. The underlying causes of this temperature amplification remain uncertain. The reduction in snow and ice cover that has occurred over recent decades may have played a role. Climate model experiments indicate that when global temperature rises, Arctic snow and ice cover retreats, causing excessive polar warming. Reduction of the snow and ice cover causes albedo changes, and increased refreezing of sea ice during the cold season and decreases in sea-ice thickness both increase heat flux from the ocean to the atmosphere. Changes in oceanic and atmospheric circulation, as well as cloud cover, have also been proposed to cause Arctic temperature amplification. Here we examine the vertical structure of temperature change in the Arctic during the late twentieth century using reanalysis data. We find evidence for temperature amplification well above the surface. Snow and ice feedbacks cannot be the main cause of the warming aloft during the greater part of the year, because these feedbacks are expected to primarily affect temperatures in the lowermost part of the atmosphere, resulting in a pattern of warming that we only observe in spring. A significant proportion of the observed temperature amplification must therefore be explained by mechanisms that induce warming above the lowermost part of the atmosphere. We regress the Arctic temperature field on the atmospheric energy transport into the Arctic and find that, in the summer half-year, a significant proportion of the vertical structure of warming can be explained by changes in this variable. We conclude that changes in atmospheric heat transport may be an important cause of the recent Arctic temperature amplification.

  14. Speciation in arctic and alpine diploid plants


    Gustafsson, A Lovisa S


    The main objectives of this thesis are to study patterns and processes of plant speciation in arctic and alpine diploid plants. Cryptic species are here referred to as morphologically similar individuals belonging to the same taxonomic species but that are unable to produce fertile offspring (i.e. 'sibling' species). The arctic flora is considered as one of the most species-poor floras of the world, and the latitudinal gradient with decreasing diversity from low to high latitudes is likely...

  15. Coarse mode aerosols in the High Arctic (United States)

    Baibakov, K.; O'Neill, N. T.; Chaubey, J. P.; Saha, A.; Duck, T. J.; Eloranta, E. W.


    Fine mode (submicron) aerosols in the Arctic have received a fair amount of scientific attention in terms of smoke intrusions during the polar summer and Arctic haze pollution during the polar winter. Relatively little is known about coarse mode (supermicron) aerosols, notably dust, volcanic ash and sea salt. Asian dust is a regular springtime event whose optical and radiative forcing effects have been fairly well documented at the lower latitudes over North America but rarely reported for the Arctic. Volcanic ash, whose socio-economic importance has grown dramatically since the fear of its effects on aircraft engines resulted in the virtual shutdown of European civil aviation in the spring of 2010 has rarely been reported in the Arctic in spite of the likely probability that ash from Iceland and the Aleutian Islands makes its way into the Arctic and possibly the high Arctic. Little is known about Arctic sea salt aerosols and we are not aware of any literature on the optical measurement of these aerosols. In this work we present preliminary results of the combined sunphotometry-lidar analysis at two High Arctic stations in North America: PEARL (80°N, 86°W) for 2007-2011 and Barrow (71°N,156°W) for 2011-2014. The multi-years datasets were analyzed to single out potential coarse mode incursions and study their optical characteristics. In particular, CIMEL sunphotometers provided coarse mode optical depths as well as information on particle size and refractive index. Lidar measurements from High Spectral Resolution lidars (AHSRL at PEARL and NSHSRL at Barrow) yielded vertically resolved aerosol profiles and gave an indication of particle shape and size from the depolarization ratio and color ratio profiles. Additionally, we employed supplementary analyses of HYSPLIT backtrajectories, OMI aerosol index, and NAAPS (Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System) outputs to study the spatial context of given events.

  16. Thin-ice Arctic Acoustic Window (THAAW) (United States)


    STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Thin- ice Arctic Acoustic Window (THAAW) Peter F. Worcester Scripps Institution of...of the ice cover and extensive warming of the intermediate layers. The multiyear ice is melting . Ice keels are getting smaller. With more open water...determine the fundamental limits to signal processing in the Arctic imposed by ocean and ice processes. The hope is that these first few new steps will

  17. ONR Chair in Arctic Marine Science (United States)


    his measurements of ice thickness and heat/salt flux in Terra Nova Bay Polynya should pave the way for new parameterizations of ice growth/ melt in...SEP 1999 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1999 to 00-00-1999 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ONR Chair in Arctic Marine Science 5a. CONTRACT... Arctic Marine Science Robert H. Bourke Department of Oceanography Naval Postgraduate School 833 Dyer Road, Bldg. 232, Rm. 328 Monterey, CA 93943

  18. Redefining U.S. Arctic Strategy (United States)


    52 Xie, Kevin. Some BRICS in the Arctic: Developing Powers Look North, Harvard International Review, Vol 36, No. 3, Spring 2015. Accessed 11...May 2015 at < 411013832/some- brics -in-the-arctic-developing-powers-look-north> 18 Strategy for the...2013. Vego, Milan. Joint Operational Warfare, Theory and Practice. Newport, RI: U.S. Naval War College, 2009. Xie, Kevin. Some BRICS in the

  19. AFLP molecular marker of Salix spp.based on apillary electrophoresis%基于毛细管电泳的柳树AFLP分子标记研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕金辉; 胡建军; 卢孟柱


    为构建柳树遗传图谱、进行分子育种等奠定基础,以柳树为材料,基于毛细管电泳技术体系建立并优化了AFLP分子标记技术,简化了AFLP分析流程。首先提取高质量的柳树基因组DNA,对基因组进行酶切与接头连接、预扩增和选择性扩增,最后通过毛细管电泳分析各因素的影响。基因组DNA提取采用改进的CTAB法,酶切模板DNA用量450ng,EcoRⅠ酶切2h,MseⅠ酶切2h,接头过夜连接,选择性扩增时dNTP浓度0.3mmol/L,Mg2+浓度1.5mmol/L,引物浓度0.125μmol/L,DNA聚合酶浓度0.025U/μL,预扩增产物最适稀释倍数20倍。经过重复实验,证明建立的AFLP-毛细管反应体系适用于柳树AFLP分析。%In this paper,we established and optimized the AFLP molecular marker technology of Salix spp.based on capillary electrophoresis as well as simplify analysis flow of AFLP in order to construct Salix spp.linkage mapping and the implement of molecular breeding.First,the high-quality genomic DNA was extracted for AFLP analysis.Then the genomic DNA was completely digested by restriction enzyme and ligased with oligonucleotide adapters successfully.We got the products via pre-amplification and selective amplification.At last,the selective amplification products were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis.Results showed that improved CTAB method was selected to extract genomic DNA,450 ng of genomic DNA was used in digestion with EcoRⅠ and MseⅠ for 2 hours respectively,and ligased overnight.In selective amplification,0.3 mmol/L dNTP,1.5 mmol/L Mg2+,0.125 μmol/L primers,0.025 U/μL polymerase and 20 times dilution of pre-amplification products were desirable.Through many repeats,this system has been proved to be feasible in Salix spp.AFLP-capillary electrophoresis analysis.

  20. Arctic Ocean data in CARINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jutterström


    Full Text Available The paper describes the steps taken for quality controlling chosen parameters within the Arctic Ocean data included in the CARINA data set and checking for offsets between the individual cruises. The evaluated parameters are the inorganic carbon parameters (total dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity and pH, oxygen and nutrients: nitrate, phosphate and silicate. More parameters can be found in the CARINA data product, but were not subject to a secondary quality control. The main method in determining offsets between cruises was regional multi-linear regression, after a first rough basin-wide deep-water estimate of each parameter. Lastly, the results of the secondary quality control are discussed as well as applied adjustments.

  1. Arctic Ocean data in CARINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jutterström


    Full Text Available The paper describes the steps taken for quality controlling chosen parameters within the Arctic Ocean data included in the CARINA data set and checking for offsets between the individual cruises. The evaluated parameters are the inorganic carbon parameters (total dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity and pH, oxygen and nutrients: nitrate, phosphate and silicate. More parameters can be found in the CARINA data product, but were not subject to a secondary quality control. The main method in determining offsets between cruises was regional multi-linear regression, after a first rough basin-wide deep-water estimate of each parameter. Lastly, the results of the secondary quality control are discussed as well as suggested adjustments.

  2. Influence of sea ice on Arctic precipitation. (United States)

    Kopec, Ben G; Feng, Xiahong; Michel, Fred A; Posmentier, Eric S


    Global climate is influenced by the Arctic hydrologic cycle, which is, in part, regulated by sea ice through its control on evaporation and precipitation. However, the quantitative link between precipitation and sea ice extent is poorly constrained. Here we present observational evidence for the response of precipitation to sea ice reduction and assess the sensitivity of the response. Changes in the proportion of moisture sourced from the Arctic with sea ice change in the Canadian Arctic and Greenland Sea regions over the past two decades are inferred from annually averaged deuterium excess (d-excess) measurements from six sites. Other influences on the Arctic hydrologic cycle, such as the strength of meridional transport, are assessed using the North Atlantic Oscillation index. We find that the independent, direct effect of sea ice on the increase of the percentage of Arctic sourced moisture (or Arctic moisture proportion, AMP) is 18.2 ± 4.6% and 10.8 ± 3.6%/100,000 km(2) sea ice lost for each region, respectively, corresponding to increases of 10.9 ± 2.8% and 2.7 ± 1.1%/1 °C of warming in the vapor source regions. The moisture source changes likely result in increases of precipitation and changes in energy balance, creating significant uncertainty for climate predictions.

  3. The great challenges in Arctic Ocean paleoceanography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Ruediger, E-mail: [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, 27568 Bremerhaven (Germany)


    Despite the importance of the Arctic in the climate system, the data base we have from this area is still very weak, and large parts of the climate history have not been recovered at all in sedimentary sections. In order to fill this gap in knowledge, international, multidisciplinary expeditions and projects for scientific drilling/coring in the Arctic Ocean are needed. Key areas and approaches for drilling and recovering undisturbed and complete sedimentary sequences are depth transects across the major ocean ridge systems, i.e., the Lomonosov Ridge, the Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge, and the Chukchi Plateau/Northwind Ridge, the Beaufort, Kara and Laptev sea continental margins, as well as the major Arctic gateways towards the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The new detailed climate records from the Arctic Ocean spanning time intervals from the Late Cretaceous/Paleogene Greenhouse world to the Neogene-Quaternary Icehouse world and representing short- and long-term climate variability on scales from 10 to 10{sup 6} years, will give new insights into our understanding of the Arctic Ocean within the global climate system and provide an opportunity to test the performance of climate models used to predict future climate change. With this, studying the Arctic Ocean is certainly one of the major challenges in climate research for the coming decades.

  4. The Impact of Varied Fertilisation on the Concentration of Cadmium and Copper in Organs of Willow Trees (Salix Viminalis) / Wpływ Zróznicowanego Nawożenia Na Zawartość Kadmu I Miedzi W Wierzbie Wiciowej (Salix Viminalis ) (United States)

    Sieciechowicz, Aleksandra


    The paper presents the impact of varied fertilisation with sewage sludge on the concentration of cadmium and copper in willow organs during the first three years of cultivation. The lowest mean concentration of cadmium in Salix viminalis biomass was found in the plantation fertilised only with mineral fertilisers. The mean content of copper in the biomass of plants fertilised with mineral fertilisers was higher than the content of this metal in plants grown in non-fertilised soil by 23.4%. It has been shown that the method of fertilisation does not have an impact on the cadmium allocation in different organs. The highest content of cadmium and copper in the willow biomass was found in the foliage (1,76 mg/kgd.m. and 12,73 mg/kgd.m. respectively). W pracy określono wpływ zróżnicowanego nawożenia osadami ściekowymi na zmiany zawartości kadmu i miedzi w wierzbie wiciowej przez pierwsze trzy lata uprawy. Najmniejszą średnią zawartość kadmu w biomasie Salix viminalis wykazano dla plantacji nawożonej mineralnie. Średnia zawartość miedzi w biomasie roślin nawożonych mineralnie była o ok. 23,4% większa od zawartości tego metalu w roślinach uprawianych na glebie nienawożonej. Wykazano, że sposób nawożenia nie wpływa na miejsce kumulowania się kadmu w roślinie. Najwyższe zawartości kadmu i miedzi odnotowano w próbkach listowia Salix viminalis (odpowiednio 1,76 mg/kgs.m. i 12,73 mg/kgs.m.).

  5. Forging an Arctic Alliance: Canadian-U.S. JIATF-Arctic (United States)


    Kate. “NSTC to Coordinate Certain Arctic Research Policy Committee Activities,” Office of Science and Technology Policy, 23 August 2010. research - policy -committee-activities (accessed 11 October 2010). NASA. “A Snapshot of

  6. Trace element concentrations and gastrointestinal parasites of Arctic terns breeding in the Canadian High Arctic. (United States)

    Provencher, J F; Braune, B M; Gilchrist, H G; Forbes, M R; Mallory, M L


    Baseline data on trace element concentrations are lacking for many species of Arctic marine birds. We measured essential and non-essential element concentrations in Arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea) liver tissue and brain tissue (mercury only) from Canada's High Arctic, and recorded the presence/absence of gastrointestinal parasites during four different phases of the breeding season. Arctic terns from northern Canada had similar trace element concentrations to other seabird species feeding at the same trophic level in the same region. Concentrations of bismuth, selenium, lead and mercury in Arctic terns were high compared to published threshold values for birds. Selenium and mercury concentrations were also higher in Arctic terns from northern Canada than bird species sampled in other Arctic areas. Selenium, mercury and arsenic concentrations varied across the time periods examined, suggesting potential regional differences in the exposure of biota to these elements. For unknown reasons, selenium concentrations were significantly higher in birds with gastrointestinal parasites as compared to those without parasites, while bismuth concentrations were higher in Arctic terns not infected with gastrointestinal parasites.

  7. Molecular epidemiological study of Arctic rabies virus isolates from Greenland and comparison with isolates from throughout the Arctic and Baltic regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansfield, K.L.; Racloz, V.; McElhinney, L.M.


    We report a Molecular epidemiological study of rabies in Arctic Countries by comparing a panel of novel Greenland isolates to a larger cohort of viral sequences from both Arctic and Baltic regions. Rabies Virus isolates originating from wildlife (Arctic/red foxes, raccoon-dogs and reindeer), from...... Was differentiated into two lineages, Arctic 1 and Arctic 2, with good bootstrap Support. Arctic I is mainly comprised of Canadian isolates with a single fox isolate front Maine in the USA. Arctic 2 was further divided into sub-lineages: 2a/2b. Arctic 2a comprises isolates from the Arctic regions of Yakutia...

  8. Butanol production from detoxified Salix hydrolysate%预处理沙柳酶解液脱毒及其丁醇发酵

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林增祥; 李荣秀; 刘莉; 沈兆兵; 史吉平


    为了提高沙柳原料的丁醇发酵效果,考察沙柳原料经过蒸爆、超微粉碎+稀酸和超微粉碎+稀碱预处理后补料酶解的效果,优化了沙柳酶解液活性炭脱毒工艺参数,并对经过脱毒处理的酶解液进行了丁醇发酵研究,结果表明:预处理沙柳原料酶解底物质量浓度为200 g/mL时,3种预处理方法中蒸爆处理法水解效果最好,每克底物的滤纸酶酶加量15 U,酶解96 h后,酶解液总糖质量浓度达到57 g/L。活性炭脱毒处理的最优条件:pH 4�8,碳加量4%(质量分数)、温度70℃、1 h,该条件下的沙柳水解液脱色率达到97�4%、糖损失率3�1%。3种预处理沙柳原料的酶解液经活性炭脱毒后都可以被丁醇梭菌正常利用发酵产丁醇,发酵液总溶剂( ABE)质量浓度约为14 g/L。%In this study, we studied methods to improve butanol fermentation of Salix hydrolysates after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Salix samples were pretreated by steam explosion, ultrafine grind with dilute acid and ultrafine grind with dilute alkali, respectively. Before acetone⁃butanol⁃ethanol ( ABE) fermentation, we optimized the feeding enzyme hydrolysis and activated carbon detoxification. Steam explosion pretreated Salix samples had the highest sugar yield ( 57 g/L ) after enzymatic hydrolysis, with 200 g/mL substrate consistency, 15 FPU enzyme loading for 96 hours. The optimal condition of activated carbon detoxification was observed with 4% activated carbon loading at pH 4�8 and 70 ℃ for 1 hour. Under that condition, hydrolysate was decoloarated by 97�4% with 3�1% sugar loss. The detoxified Salix hydrolysates of three pretreatment methods could be fermented by Clostridium acetobutylicums, and the total product solvent ( ABE) was about 14 g/L.

  9. Correlation between air pollution and crystal pattern of calcium oxalate in plant leaves of street trees in Itami City. [Ginkgo biloba; Salix babylonica; Aphananthe aspera; Robinia pseudoacacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemoto, K.; Tatsumi, S.


    A characteristic difference in calcium oxalate crystal patterns in leaves of roadside trees planted in relatively unpolluted northern parts of Itami City and in parts of the city polluted by automobile exhaust was discovered. The species of trees examined were Ginkgo biloba, Salix babylonica, Aphananthe aspera, Robinia pseudoacacia, and Poplar. The leaves of trees grown in relatively less air polluted areas displayed crystal aggregates of calcium oxalate (50-80 micron) that were arranged in rows on both sides of the central vein; some scattered crystal aggregates between veins were observed. Trees grown in air polluted areas showed irregular crystal patterns and more scattering of the crystals between veins. The cause of the observed differences in the pattern of crystal aggregates was attributed to the difference in metabolism of trees under different environmental conditions. Air pollutants disturb the normal metabolism of the tree and cause hyperproduction of calcium oxalate.

  10. Influence of the root system of the Common Osier (Salix viminalis L.) on abundance of heterotrophic bacteria in the willow sewage treatment system. (United States)

    Lalke-Porczyk, Elzbieta; Brzezinska, Maria Swiontek; Donderski, Wojciech


    The impact of the Common Osier (Salix viminalis L.) root system on number (CFU) of heterotrophic bacteria and their production in a soil-willow filter was examined. The Osier rhizosphere was found to be suitable habitat for growth of the examined microbial group, and the root system stimulated development of heterotrophic bacteria. The rhizosphere bacteria to control soil bacteria (R:C) ratio oscillated between 2.48 and 2.75 depending on the location of sample collection. The highest abundance of bacteria as well as highest bacterial production was observed at location I, near sewage discharge onto the plot. There was a significant positive correlation between the number of heterotrophic bacteria and the bacterial production.

  11. Seasonality of global and Arctic black carbon processes in the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme models (United States)

    Mahmood, Rashed; Salzen, Knut; Flanner, Mark; Sand, Maria; Langner, Joakim; Wang, Hailong; Huang, Lin


    This study quantifies black carbon (BC) processes in three global climate models and one chemistry transport model, with focus on the seasonality of BC transport, emissions, wet and dry deposition in the Arctic. In the models, transport of BC to the Arctic from lower latitudes is the major BC source for this region. Arctic emissions are very small. All models simulated a similar annual cycle of BC transport from lower latitudes to the Arctic, with maximum transport occurring in July. Substantial differences were found in simulated BC burdens and vertical distributions, with Canadian Atmospheric Global Climate Model (CanAM) (Norwegian Earth System Model, NorESM) producing the strongest (weakest) seasonal cycle. CanAM also has the shortest annual mean residence time for BC in the Arctic followed by Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute Multiscale Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry model, Community Earth System Model, and NorESM. Overall, considerable differences in wet deposition efficiencies in the models exist and are a leading cause of differences in simulated BC burdens. Results from model sensitivity experiments indicate that convective scavenging outside the Arctic reduces the mean altitude of BC residing in the Arctic, making it more susceptible to scavenging by stratiform (layer) clouds in the Arctic. Consequently, scavenging of BC in convective clouds outside the Arctic acts to substantially increase the overall efficiency of BC wet deposition in the Arctic, which leads to low BC burdens and a more pronounced seasonal cycle compared to simulations without convective BC scavenging. In contrast, the simulated seasonality of BC concentrations in the upper troposphere is only weakly influenced by wet deposition in stratiform clouds, whereas lower tropospheric concentrations are highly sensitive.

  12. ArcticDEM; A Publically Available, High Resolution Elevation Model of the Arctic (United States)

    Morin, Paul; Porter, Claire; Cloutier, Michael; Howat, Ian; Noh, Myoung-Jong; Willis, Michael; Bates, Brian; Willamson, Cathleen; Peterman, Kennith


    A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the Arctic is needed for a large number of reasons, including: measuring and understanding rapid, ongoing changes to the Arctic landscape resulting from climate change and human use and mitigation and adaptation planning for Arctic communities. The topography of the Arctic is more poorly mapped than most other regions of Earth due to logistical costs and the limits of satellite missions with low-latitude inclinations. A convergence of civilian, high-quality sub-meter stereo imagery; petascale computing and open source photogrammetry software has made it possible to produce a complete, very high resolution (2 to 8-meter posting), elevation model of the Arctic. A partnership between the US National Geospatial-intelligence Agency and a team led by the US National Science Foundation funded Polar Geospatial Center is using stereo imagery from DigitalGlobe's Worldview-1, 2 and 3 satellites and the Ohio State University's Surface Extraction with TIN-based Search-space Minimization (SETSM) software running on the University of Illinois's Blue Water supercomputer to address this challenge. The final product will be a seemless, 2-m posting digital surface model mosaic of the entire Arctic above 60 North including all of Alaska, Greenland and Kamchatka. We will also make available the more than 300,000 individual time-stamped DSM strip pairs that were used to assemble the mosaic. The Arctic DEM will have a vertical precision of better than 0.5m and can be used to examine changes in land surfaces such as those caused by permafrost degradation or the evolution of arctic rivers and floodplains. The data set can also be used to highlight changing geomorphology due to Earth surface mass transport processes occurring in active volcanic and glacial environments. When complete the ArcticDEM will catapult the Arctic from the worst to among the best mapped regions on Earth.

  13. Cloning and Characterisation of Two H+ Translocating Organic Pyrophos-phatase Genes in Salix and Their Expression Differences in Two Willow Varieties with Different Salt Tolerances. (United States)

    Li, Min; Yu, Chunmei; Wang, Yaoyi; Li, Wentao; Wang, Ying; Yang, Yun; Liu, Huihui; Li, Yujuan; Tan, Feng; Zhang, Jian


    Willows are one of the most important tree species for landscaping, biofuel and raw timber. Screening salt-tolerant willow varieties is an effective approach to balance wood supply and demand. However, more salt-tolerant willow varieties are required and little is known regarding the mechanism of salt tolerance at the gene expression level. In this paper, two willow varieties were studies in terms of their differences in salt-tolerances and mechanism of salt tolerance at the level of VP1 gene expression. The results showed that Salix L0911 (L0911) had higher biomass than Salix matsudana (SM), and salt injuries were less severe in L0911 than in SM. The activities of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, as well as the contents of soluble protein and proline, were higher in L0911 than in SM, whereas the contents of Na(+) and K(+), as well as the Na(+)/K(+) ratio, were lower in L0911 than in SM. Two VP1 genes (VP1.1 and VP1.2) cloned in L0911 and SM had similar sequences and structures. VP1.1 and VP1.2 belonged to different subgroups. Total expression levels of the VP1.1 gene in both roots and leaves of L0911 were higher than that in SM under normal conditions. Under salt stress, expression of VP1 in SM roots initially increased and then decreased, whereas the expression of VP1 in leaves of L0911 and SM, as well as in roots of L0911, decreased with increasing salt concentrations. This study increased our understanding of the salt-tolerance mechanism of willow and may facilitate the selection of salt-tolerant willow resources.

  14. Socioeconomic and Cultural Changes in the European Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stepien, Adam; Banul, Karolina; Scheepstra, Adriana; van Dam, Karin; Latola, Kirsi; Koivurova, Timo; Stepien, Adam; Koivurova, Timo; Kankaanpää, Paula


    The chapter provides overview of the Arctic sociocultural landscape, highlighting innovative and growing Arctic cities, thinnig-out rural areas, demographic challenges, and dependence on extractive and primary industries. Indigenous peoples often experience these elements in distinct manners. The EU

  15. A quantitative assessment of Arctic shipping in 2010-2014. (United States)

    Eguíluz, Victor M; Fernández-Gracia, Juan; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M


    Rapid loss of sea ice is opening up the Arctic Ocean to shipping, a practice that is forecasted to increase rapidly by 2050 when many models predict that the Arctic Ocean will largely be free of ice toward the end of summer. These forecasts carry considerable uncertainty because Arctic shipping was previously considered too sparse to allow for adequate validation. Here, we provide quantitative evidence that the extent of Arctic shipping in the period 2011-2014 is already significant and that it is concentrated (i) in the Norwegian and Barents Seas, and (ii) predominantly accessed via the Northeast and Northwest Passages. Thick ice along the forecasted direct trans-Arctic route was still present in 2014, preventing transit. Although Arctic shipping remains constrained by the extent of ice coverage, during every September, this coverage is at a minimum, allowing the highest levels of shipping activity. Access to Arctic resources, particularly fisheries, is the most important driver of Arctic shipping thus far.

  16. A quantitative assessment of Arctic shipping in 2010–2014

    KAUST Repository

    Eguíluz, Victor M.


    Rapid loss of sea ice is opening up the Arctic Ocean to shipping, a practice that is forecasted to increase rapidly by 2050 when many models predict that the Arctic Ocean will largely be free of ice toward the end of summer. These forecasts carry considerable uncertainty because Arctic shipping was previously considered too sparse to allow for adequate validation. Here, we provide quantitative evidence that the extent of Arctic shipping in the period 2011–2014 is already significant and that it is concentrated (i) in the Norwegian and Barents Seas, and (ii) predominantly accessed via the Northeast and Northwest Passages. Thick ice along the forecasted direct trans-Arctic route was still present in 2014, preventing transit. Although Arctic shipping remains constrained by the extent of ice coverage, during every September, this coverage is at a minimum, allowing the highest levels of shipping activity. Access to Arctic resources, particularly fisheries, is the most important driver of Arctic shipping thus far.

  17. Hydrochemical Atlas of the Arctic Ocean (NODC Accession 0044630) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The present Hydrochemical Atlas of the Arctic Ocean is a description of hydrochemical conditions in the Arctic Ocean on the basis of a greater body of hydrochemical...

  18. Arctic shipping emissions inventories and future scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Corbett


    Full Text Available The Arctic is a sensitive region in terms of climate change and a rich natural resource for global economic activity. Arctic shipping is an important contributor to the region's anthropogenic air emissions, including black carbon – a short-lived climate forcing pollutant especially effective in accelerating the melting of ice and snow. These emissions are projected to increase as declining sea ice coverage due to climate change allows for increased shipping activity in the Arctic. To understand the impacts of these increased emissions, scientists and modelers require high-resolution, geospatial emissions inventories that can be used for regional assessment modeling. This paper presents 5 km×5 km Arctic emissions inventories of important greenhouse gases, black carbon and other pollutants under existing and future (2050 scenarios that account for growth of shipping in the region, potential diversion traffic through emerging routes, and possible emissions control measures. Short-lived forcing of ~4.5 gigagrams of black carbon from Arctic shipping may increase climate forcing; a first-order calculation of global warming potential due to 2030 emissions in the high-growth scenario suggests that short-lived forcing of ~4.5 gigagrams of black carbon from Arctic shipping may increase climate forcing due to Arctic ships by at least 17% compared to warming from these vessels' CO2 emissions (~42 000 gigagrams. The paper also presents maximum feasible reduction scenarios for black carbon in particular. These emissions reduction scenarios will enable scientists and policymakers to evaluate the efficacy and benefits of technological controls for black carbon, and other pollutants from ships.

  19. How does climate change influence Arctic mercury? (United States)

    Stern, Gary A; Macdonald, Robie W; Outridge, Peter M; Wilson, Simon; Chételat, John; Cole, Amanda; Hintelmann, Holger; Loseto, Lisa L; Steffen, Alexandra; Wang, Feiyue; Zdanowicz, Christian


    Recent studies have shown that climate change is already having significant impacts on many aspects of transport pathways, speciation and cycling of mercury within Arctic ecosystems. For example, the extensive loss of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean and the concurrent shift from greater proportions of perennial to annual types have been shown to promote changes in primary productivity, shift foodweb structures, alter mercury methylation and demethylation rates, and influence mercury distribution and transport across the ocean-sea-ice-atmosphere interface (bottom-up processes). In addition, changes in animal social behavior associated with changing sea-ice regimes can affect dietary exposure to mercury (top-down processes). In this review, we address these and other possible ramifications of climate variability on mercury cycling, processes and exposure by applying recent literature to the following nine questions; 1) What impact has climate change had on Arctic physical characteristics and processes? 2) How do rising temperatures affect atmospheric mercury chemistry? 3) Will a decrease in sea-ice coverage have an impact on the amount of atmospheric mercury deposited to or emitted from the Arctic Ocean, and if so, how? 4) Does climate affect air-surface mercury flux, and riverine mercury fluxes, in Arctic freshwater and terrestrial systems, and if so, how? 5) How does climate change affect mercury methylation/demethylation in different compartments in the Arctic Ocean and freshwater systems? 6) How will climate change alter the structure and dynamics of freshwater food webs, and thereby affect the bioaccumulation of mercury? 7) How will climate change alter the structure and dynamics of marine food webs, and thereby affect the bioaccumulation of marine mercury? 8) What are the likely mercury emissions from melting glaciers and thawing permafrost under climate change scenarios? and 9) What can be learned from current mass balance inventories of mercury in the Arctic? The

  20. Changing geo-political realities in the Arctic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Camilla T. N.


    This article analyzes and discusses how Denmark seeks to manage the changing geopolitical realities in the Arctic region specifically focusing on how Denmark seeks to manage its relations with China in the Arctic region.......This article analyzes and discusses how Denmark seeks to manage the changing geopolitical realities in the Arctic region specifically focusing on how Denmark seeks to manage its relations with China in the Arctic region....

  1. Simulation of Extreme Arctic Cyclones in IPCC AR5 Experiments (United States)


    emerge in the interior Arctic Ocean, especially over regions where sea ice loss exposes open water. However, this change is not effected by the...htm> Scientific American ("Warming Arctic spurs cyclones and sea ice loss "), < arctic -spurs...cyclones-and-sea- ice - loss /?&WT.mc_id=SA_DD_20140220> Nelson Institute of Environmental Studies at University of Wisconsin feature ("More extreme Arctic

  2. U.S. Government Perspective on Arctic Research (United States)


    Congress and Executive branch • Sets nation’s Arctic research goals and objectives • Develops an integrated national Arctic  research   policy • Arctic research,  both basic and applied USARC sets nation’s Arctic research goals USARC: establishes research goals & sets research policy IARPC

  3. International Disputes and Cultural Ideas in the Canadian Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Danita Catherine

    of the Canadian-Arctic relationship. Using Canada as the focus for the analysis, the purpose of this project is to contribute to the existing Arctic studies and international relations literature by examining how interests and disputes in the Canadian Arctic region have been affected by domestic cultural...

  4. India and the Arctic: environment, economy and politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana L. Shaumyan


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the main trends in the development of India and the development of the Arctic: the participation in the study of global warming and the state of the Arctic ice; the use of the Northern Sea Route for transportation; expansion of international cooperation in the Arctic direction, including with Russia.

  5. Establishing Shared Knowledge about Globalization in Asia and the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Graczyk, Piotr


    We discuss the role of knowledge in relations between Arctic communities and Asia (the Arctic Council observer states: China, India, Japan, Singapore, South Korea). We argue that mutual and shared knowledge between Arctic communities and Asia is necessary for local benefits and comprehensively...

  6. SubArctic Oceans and Global Climate (United States)

    Rhines, P. B.


    The passages connecting the Arctic Ocean with the Atlantic and Pacific, and their `mediterranean' basins, are focal points for the global meridional overturning circulation, and all of the climate impacts which this implies. It is also a difficult region to model accurately: the sensitivity of climate models to subpolar ocean dynamics is well-known. In this talk we stress the need to instrument and analyze the subpolar oceans, and some examples of sustained observations developing there. Results from satellite altimetry, recent Seaglider deployments from Greenland, and mooring arrays will be described. In particular we show the first Seaglider sections of hydrography and bio-optical profiles of the Labrador Sea (one of the first extended deployments of this autonomous undersea vehicle); we discuss the decline during the 1990s of the subpolar gyre circulation of the Atlantic from its great strength during the positive NAO period of the early 1990s, and its relevance to the salinity decline observed over a much longer period; we review observations of the flows at the Iceland-Scotland Ridge and Davis Strait, argued in terms of volume transport plots on the potential temperature/salinity plane; we display maps of the `convection resistance' (related to dynamic height) and its sensitivity to surface low-salinity water masses and their partition between shallow continental shelves and deep ocean. This is a particularly exciting time for climate studies, with fundamental properties of the atmosphere-ocean circulation under debate, even before one considers natural and human-induced variability. Is the four-decade long decline in subArctic salinity the result of increased hydrologic cycle, increased or altered Arctic outflow to the Atlantic, or slowing of the subpolar circulation? Is the basic intensity of the MOC more dependent on high-latitude buoyancy forcing, or wind- or tide-driven mixing in the upwelling branch, or possibly wind-stress at high latitude? Is the

  7. Spatio-temporal Distribution of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in the Rhizosphere of Salix psammophila from Inner Mongolia Desert%荒漠植物沙柳(Salix psammophila)根围AM真菌时空分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺学礼; 杨静; 郭辉娟; 赵丽莉


    To elucidate the spatio-temporal distribution of AM fungi associated with the common desert plant Saliax psammophila, we sampled, in May, August and October of 2009, at depth of 0~10,11~20,21~30,31~40 and 41~50 cm in the rhizosphere of S. psammophila from Inner Mongolia desert. The resuits showed that AM fungal average spore density and total colonization was 282 No/100g and 0. 642,The experiment separated 20 AMF species of 3 genera: Glomus, Acaulospora and Scutellospora, 15 species were Glomus, 4 species were Acaulospora , 1 specie was Scutellospora. respectivityly. Spore density, hyphal and arbuscular colonization increased initially and later decreased with sampling time, its highest value was in August. Vesicular colonization decreased initially and later increased to its highest value was in October. The highest spore density and colonization of AM fungi were found at 0~10 cm soil layer in October and decreased while soil depth increasing. Spore density had a significant positive correlation with soil temperature and pH, and a significant negative correlation with available P. Vesicular colonization had a positive correlation with available N. Arbuscular colonization had a significant positive correlation with soil temperature, soil moisture and pH, and a significant negative correlation with soil available N. Hyphal colonization had a significant positive correlation with easily extractable glomalin(EEG). Total glomalin (TG) and EEG were remarkably correlated with soil organic C and available N. Further research should concentrate on investigating the diversity and function of AM associations in the plant community units and using TG and EEG as parameters to monitor the development of AM fungal community, organic carbon dynamic and nutrition cycle in desert ecosystems.%为探明荒漠植物沙柳(Salix psammophila)根围AM真菌时空异质性,2009年5月、8月和10月分别从内蒙古荒漠植物沙柳根围分0~10,11~20,21~30,31~40

  8. Operational Arctic: The Potential for Crisis or Conflict in the Arctic Region and Application of Operational Art (United States)


    variables, driving factors and leading indicators related to shaping the near future of the Arctic region with the foreign policy approaches of...experts see the Arctic region as an area that may see more Russian aggressiveness. In Russia in the Arctic , a series of essays by Russian foreign policy ...87Government of Canada, “Canada’s Foreign Policy ,” (accessed on April 16, 2014). 25 the Canadian Arctic oil sands produce

  9. Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in arctic marine mammals. (United States)

    Norstrom, R J; Muir, D C


    By 1976, the presence of chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants (CHCs) had been demonstrated in fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus), walrus (Obdobenus rosmarus divergens), beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) in various parts of the Arctic. In spite of this early interest, very little subsequent research on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals was undertaken until the mid-1980s. Since that time, there has been an explosion of interest, resulting in a much expanded data base on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals. Except in the Russian Arctic, data have now been obtained on the temporospatial distribution of PCBs and other contaminants in ringed seal, beluga and polar bear. Contaminants in narwhal (Monodon monoceros) have also now been measured. On a fat weight basis, the sum of DDT-related compounds (S-DDT) and PCB levels are lowest in walrus (St. Lawrence and ringed seal in the Baltic Sea, indicate that overall contamination of the Arctic marine ecosystem is 10-50 times less than the most highly contaminated areas in the northern hemisphere temperate latitude marine environment. Geographic distribution of residue levels in polar bears indicates a gradual increase from Alaska east to Svalbard, except PCB levels are significantly higher in eastern Greenland and Svalbard. Information on temporal trends is somewhat contradictory.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  10. Arctic Ocean Scientific Drilling: The Next Frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruediger Stein


    Full Text Available The modern Arctic Ocean appears to be changing faster than any other region on Earth. To understand the potential extent of high latitude climate change, it is necessary to sample the history stored in the sediments filling the basins and covering the ridges of the Arctic Ocean. These sediments have been imaged with seismic reflection data, but except for the superficial record, which has been piston cored, they have been sampled only on the Lomonosov Ridge in 2004 during the Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX-IODP Leg 302; Backman et al., 2006 and in 1993 in the ice-free waters in the Fram Strait/Yermak Plateau area (ODP Leg 151; Thiede et al., 1996.Although major progress in Arctic Ocean research has been made during the last few decades, the short- and long-term paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic history as well as its plate-tectonic evolution are poorly known compared to the other oceans. Despite the importance of the Arctic in the climate system, the database we have from this area is still very weak. Large segments of geologic time have not been sampled in sedimentary sections. The question of regional variations cannot be addressed.

  11. Arctic shipping emissions inventories and future scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Corbett


    Full Text Available This paper presents 5 km×5 km Arctic emissions inventories of important greenhouse gases, black carbon and other pollutants under existing and future (2050 scenarios that account for growth of shipping in the region, potential diversion traffic through emerging routes, and possible emissions control measures. These high-resolution, geospatial emissions inventories for shipping can be used to evaluate Arctic climate sensitivity to black carbon (a short-lived climate forcing pollutant especially effective in accelerating the melting of ice and snow, aerosols, and gaseous emissions including carbon dioxide. We quantify ship emissions scenarios which are expected to increase as declining sea ice coverage due to climate change allows for increased shipping activity in the Arctic. A first-order calculation of global warming potential due to 2030 emissions in the high-growth scenario suggests that short-lived forcing of ~4.5 gigagrams of black carbon from Arctic shipping may increase global warming potential due to Arctic ships' CO2 emissions (~42 000 gigagrams by some 17% to 78%. The paper also presents maximum feasible reduction scenarios for black carbon in particular. These emissions reduction scenarios will enable scientists and policymakers to evaluate the efficacy and benefits of technological controls for black carbon, and other pollutants from ships.

  12. 2nd International Arctic Ungulate Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anonymous


    Full Text Available The 2nd International Arctic Ungulate Conference was held 13-17 August 1995 on the University of Alaska Fairbanks campus. The Institute of Arctic Biology and the Alaska Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit were responsible for organizing the conference with assistance from biologists with state and federal agencies and commercial organizations. David R. Klein was chair of the conference organizing committee. Over 200 people attended the conference, coming from 10 different countries. The United States, Canada, and Norway had the largest representation. The conference included invited lectures; panel discussions, and about 125 contributed papers. There were five technical sessions on Physiology and Body Condition; Habitat Relationships; Population Dynamics and Management; Behavior, Genetics and Evolution; and Reindeer and Muskox Husbandry. Three panel sessions discussed Comparative caribou management strategies; Management of introduced, reestablished, and expanding muskox populations; and Health risks in translocation of arctic ungulates. Invited lectures focused on the physiology and population dynamics of arctic ungulates; contaminants in food chains of arctic ungulates and lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident; and ecosystem level relationships of the Porcupine Caribou Herd.

  13. Consequences of future increased Arctic runoff on Arctic Ocean stratification, circulation, and sea ice cover (United States)

    Nummelin, Aleksi; Ilicak, Mehmet; Li, Camille; Smedsrud, Lars H.


    The Arctic Ocean has important freshwater sources including river runoff, low evaporation, and exchange with the Pacific Ocean. In the future, we expect even larger freshwater input as the global hydrological cycle accelerates, increasing high-latitude precipitation, and river runoff. Previous modeling studies show some robust responses to high-latitude freshwater perturbations, including a strengthening of Arctic stratification and a weakening of the large-scale ocean circulation; some idealized modeling studies also document a stronger cyclonic circulation within the Arctic Ocean itself. With the broad range of scales and processes involved, the overall effect of increasing runoff requires an understanding of both the local processes and the broader linkages between the Arctic and surrounding oceans. Here we adopt a more comprehensive modeling approach by increasing river runoff to the Arctic Ocean in a coupled ice-ocean general circulation model, and show contrasting responses in the polar and subpolar regions. Within the Arctic, the stratification strengthens, the halocline and Atlantic Water layer warm, and the cyclonic circulation spins up, in agreement with previous work. In the subpolar North Atlantic, the model simulates a colder and fresher water column with weaker barotropic circulation. In contrast to the estuarine circulation theory, the volume exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the surrounding oceans does not increase with increasing runoff. While these results are robust in our model, we require experiments with other model systems and more complete observational syntheses to better constrain the sensitivity of the climate system to high-latitude freshwater perturbations.

  14. Arctic in Rapid Transition: Priorities for the future of marine and coastal research in the Arctic (United States)

    Werner, Kirstin; Fritz, Michael; Morata, Nathalie; Keil, Kathrin; Pavlov, Alexey; Peeken, Ilka; Nikolopoulos, Anna; Findlay, Helen S.; Kędra, Monika; Majaneva, Sanna; Renner, Angelika; Hendricks, Stefan; Jacquot, Mathilde; Nicolaus, Marcel; O'Regan, Matt; Sampei, Makoto; Wegner, Carolyn


    Understanding and responding to the rapidly occurring environmental changes in the Arctic over the past few decades require new approaches in science. This includes improved collaborations within the scientific community but also enhanced dialogue between scientists and societal stakeholders, especially with Arctic communities. As a contribution to the Third International Conference on Arctic Research Planning (ICARPIII), the Arctic in Rapid Transition (ART) network held an international workshop in France, in October 2014, in order to discuss high-priority requirements for future Arctic marine and coastal research from an early-career scientists (ECS) perspective. The discussion encompassed a variety of research fields, including topics of oceanographic conditions, sea-ice monitoring, marine biodiversity, land-ocean interactions, and geological reconstructions, as well as law and governance issues. Participants of the workshop strongly agreed on the need to enhance interdisciplinarity in order to collect comprehensive knowledge about the modern and past Arctic Ocean's geo-ecological dynamics. Such knowledge enables improved predictions of Arctic developments and provides the basis for elaborate decision-making on future actions under plausible environmental and climate scenarios in the high northern latitudes. Priority research sheets resulting from the workshop's discussions were distributed during the ICARPIII meetings in April 2015 in Japan, and are publicly available online.

  15. The Arctic and Polar cells act on the Arctic sea ice variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihong Qian


    Full Text Available The Arctic sea ice has undergone a substantial long-term decline with superimposed interannual sea ice minimum (SIM events over the last decades. This study focuses on the relationship between atmospheric circulation and the SIM events in the Arctic region. Four reanalysis products and simulations of one climate model are first analysed to confirm the existence of the Arctic cell, a meridional circulation cell to the north of 80°N, by visualising through the mean streamline and mean mass stream function in the Northern Hemisphere. Dynamical analyses of zonally averaged stationary eddy heat and momentum fluxes as well as the global precipitation rate data further confirm its existence. Finally, we found that the change in the Arctic sea ice concentration lags the variations of the descending air flow intensity associated with the Polar and Arctic cells, by about 2 months for the climatic annual cycle and about 10 months for the interannual anomaly. Five Arctic SIM events during the last three decades support this relationship. These results have implications for understanding the relationship between atmospheric circulation and sea-ice variations, and for predicting the Arctic sea ice changes.

  16. Arctic megaslide at presumed rest (United States)

    Geissler, Wolfram H.; Gebhardt, A. Catalina; Gross, Felix; Wollenburg, Jutta; Jensen, Laura; Schmidt-Aursch, Mechita C.; Krastel, Sebastian; Elger, Judith; Osti, Giacomo


    Slope failure like in the Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide is one of the major geohazards in a changing Arctic environment. We analysed hydroacoustic and 2D high-resolution seismic data from the apparently intact continental slope immediately north of the Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide for signs of past and future instabilities. Our new bathymetry and seismic data show clear evidence for incipient slope instability. Minor slide deposits and an internally-deformed sedimentary layer near the base of the gas hydrate stability zone imply an incomplete failure event, most probably about 30000 years ago, contemporaneous to or shortly after the Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide. An active gas reservoir at the base of the gas hydrate stability zone demonstrate that over-pressured fluids might have played a key role in the initiation of slope failure at the studied slope, but more importantly also for the giant HYM slope failure. To date, it is not clear, if the studied slope is fully preconditioned to fail completely in future or if it might be slowly deforming and creeping at present. We detected widespread methane seepage on the adjacent shallow shelf areas not sealed by gas hydrates.

  17. Arctic Infrastructures: Tele Field Notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafico Ruiz


    Full Text Available This article contextualizes the conditions of rural “connectivity” in the Canadian Arctic. It examines the emergence of satellites, fibre optic cables, and intranets as modes of social infrastructure at the outset of the twenty-first century. At present, Nunavut, the Northwest Territories, and the Yukon are all at a complicated confluence in that their current and inadequate telecommunications infrastructures are in the process of being renegotiated, re-designed, and re-allotted across civic, governmental, and corporate interests. The article shows how it is at sites of friction that the overlapping if fading legacies of systems-based thinking are emerging: satellites orbiting over fibre optic cable lines; corporate actors competing rather than coordinating with government agencies; and neoliberal rationales of mapping, division, and speed creating disjointed local markets. More broadly, these sites also demonstrate how indigenous forms of “connection” across the globe are increasingly experiencing telecommunications’ lags and temporal disjunctures that are having very material effects on their supposedly post-colonial lives.

  18. AROME-Arctic: New operational NWP model for the Arctic region (United States)

    Süld, Jakob; Dale, Knut S.; Myrland, Espen; Batrak, Yurii; Homleid, Mariken; Valkonen, Teresa; Seierstad, Ivar A.; Randriamampianina, Roger


    In the frame of the EU-funded project ACCESS (Arctic Climate Change, Economy and Society), MET Norway aimed 1) to describe the present monitoring and forecasting capabilities in the Arctic; and 2) to identify the key factors limiting the forecasting capabilities and to give recommendations on key areas to improve the forecasting capabilities in the Arctic. We have observed that the NWP forecast quality is lower in the Arctic than in the regions further south. Earlier research indicated that one of the factors behind this is the composition of the observing system in the Arctic, in particular the scarceness of conventional observations. To further assess possible strategies for alleviating the situation and propose scenarios for a future Arctic observing system, we have performed a set of experiments to gain a more detailed insight in the contribution of the components of the present observing system in a regional state-of-the-art non-hydrostatic NWP model using the AROME physics (Seity et al, 2011) at 2.5 km horizontal resolution - AROME-Arctic. Our observing system experiment studies showed that conventional observations (Synop, Buoys) can play an important role in correcting the surface state of the model, but prove that the present upper-air conventional (Radiosondes, Aircraft) observations in the area are too scarce to have a significant effect on forecasts. We demonstrate that satellite sounding data play an important role in improving forecast quality. This is the case with satellite temperature sounding data (AMSU-A, IASI), as well as with the satellite moisture sounding data (AMSU-B/MHS, IASI). With these sets of observations, the AROME-Arctic clearly performs better in forecasting extreme events, like for example polar lows. For more details see presentation by Randriamampianina et al. in this session. The encouraging performance of AROME-Arctic lead us to implement it with more observations and improved settings into daily runs with the objective to

  19. Predictability of the Arctic sea ice edge (United States)

    Goessling, H. F.; Tietsche, S.; Day, J. J.; Hawkins, E.; Jung, T.


    Skillful sea ice forecasts from days to years ahead are becoming increasingly important for the operation and planning of human activities in the Arctic. Here we analyze the potential predictability of the Arctic sea ice edge in six climate models. We introduce the integrated ice-edge error (IIEE), a user-relevant verification metric defined as the area where the forecast and the "truth" disagree on the ice concentration being above or below 15%. The IIEE lends itself to decomposition into an absolute extent error, corresponding to the common sea ice extent error, and a misplacement error. We find that the often-neglected misplacement error makes up more than half of the climatological IIEE. In idealized forecast ensembles initialized on 1 July, the IIEE grows faster than the absolute extent error. This means that the Arctic sea ice edge is less predictable than sea ice extent, particularly in September, with implications for the potential skill of end-user relevant forecasts.

  20. Mean Dynamic Topography of the Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Farrell, Sinead Louise; Mcadoo, David C.; Laxon, Seymour W.; Zwally, H. Jay; Yi, Donghui; Ridout, Andy; Giles, Katherine


    ICESat and Envisat altimetry data provide measurements of the instantaneous sea surface height (SSH) across the Arctic Ocean, using lead and open water elevation within the sea ice pack. First, these data were used to derive two independent mean sea surface (MSS) models by stacking and averaging along-track SSH profiles gathered between 2003 and 2009. The ICESat and Envisat MSS data were combined to construct the high-resolution ICEn MSS. Second, we estimate the 5.5-year mean dynamic topography (MDT) of the Arctic Ocean by differencing the ICEn MSS with the new GOCO02S geoid model, derived from GRACE and GOCE gravity. Using these satellite-only data we map the major features of Arctic Ocean dynamical height that are consistent with in situ observations, including the topographical highs and lows of the Beaufort and Greenland Gyres, respectively. Smaller-scale MDT structures remain largely unresolved due to uncertainties in the geoid at short wavelengths.

  1. Arctic Ozone Depletion from UARS MLS Measurements (United States)

    Manney, G. L.


    Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) measurements of ozone during four Arctic winters are compared. The evolution of ozone in the lower stratosphere is related to temperature, chlorine monoxide (also measured by MLS), and the evolution of the polar vortex. Lagrangian transport calculations using winds from the United Kingdom Meteorological Office's Stratosphere-Troposphere Data Assimilation system are used to estimate to what extent the evolution of lower stratospheric ozone is controlled by dynamics. Observations, along with calculations of the expected dynamical behavior, show evidence for chemical ozone depletion throughout most of the Arctic lower stratospheric vortex during the 1992-93 middle and late winter, and during all of the 1994-95 winter that was observed by MLS. Both of these winters were unusually cold and had unusually cold and had unusually strong Arctic polar vortices compared to meteorological data over the past 17 years.

  2. Politics of sustainability in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram; Jacobsen, Uffe; Strandsbjerg, Jeppe


    The concept of sustainability has taken centre stage in Arctic politics. However, there is little agreement on what ‘sustainable’ means. For different actors (governments, indigenous people, NGOs, etc.) the concept implies different sets of opportunities and precautions. Sustainability, therefore......, is much more a fundamental idea to be further elaborated depending on contexts than a definable term with a specific meaning. The paper argues a research agenda that aims to map and analyse the role of sustainability in political and economic strategies in the Arctic. Sustainability has become...... a fundamental concept that orders the relationship between the environment (nature) and development (economy), however, in the process rearticulating other concepts such as identity (society) and security (state). Hence, we discuss, first, how sustainability when meeting the Arctic changes its meaning...

  3. Fate of mercury in the Arctic (FOMA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, H.; Christensen, J.; Asmund, G.

    This report is the final reporting of the project FONA, funded by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency with means from the MIKA/DANCEA funds for Environmental Support to the Arctic Region. The aim of the project is to study the intercompartment mercury transport chain in the arctic area. From...... atmospheric deposition of mercury on sea surfaces to uptake in marine organisms, bio-accumulation, and finally mercury levels in mammals. The studies in the project are focused on the behaviour of mercury during the spring period where special phenomena lead to an enhanced deposition of mercury in the Arctic...... environment, at a time where the marine ecosystem is particularly active. The studies also include a comprehensive time trend study of mercury in top carnivore species. Each of these studies contributes towards establishing the knowledge necessary to develop a general model for transport and uptake of mercury...

  4. Light-absorbing impurities in Arctic snow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Doherty


    Full Text Available Absorption of radiation by ice is extremely weak at visible and near-ultraviolet wavelengths, so small amounts of light-absorbing impurities in snow can dominate the absorption of solar radiation at these wavelengths, reducing the albedo relative to that of pure snow, contributing to the surface energy budget and leading to earlier snowmelt. In this study Arctic snow is surveyed for its content of light-absorbing impurities, expanding and updating the 1983–1984 survey of Clarke and Noone. Samples were collected in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Svalbard, Norway, Russia, and the Arctic Ocean during 2005–2009, on tundra, glaciers, ice caps, sea ice, frozen lakes, and in boreal forests. Snow was collected mostly in spring, when the entire winter snowpack is accessible for sampling. Sampling was carried out in summer on the Greenland ice sheet and on the Arctic Ocean, of melting glacier snow and sea ice as well as cold snow. About 1200 snow samples have been analyzed for this study.

    The snow is melted and filtered; the filters are analyzed in a specially designed spectrophotometer system to infer the concentration of black carbon (BC, the fraction of absorption due to non-BC light-absorbing constituents and the absorption Ångstrom exponent of all particles. The reduction of snow albedo is primarily due to BC, but other impurities, principally brown (organic carbon, are typically responsible for ~40% of the visible and ultraviolet absorption. The meltwater from selected snow samples was saved for chemical analysis to identify sources of the impurities. Median BC amounts in surface snow are as follows (nanograms of carbon per gram of snow: Greenland 3, Arctic Ocean snow 7, melting sea ice 8, Arctic Canada 8, Subarctic Canada 14, Svalbard 13, Northern Norway 21, Western Arctic Russia 26, Northeastern Siberia 17. Concentrations are more variable in the European Arctic than in Arctic Canada or the Arctic Ocean, probably because of the proximity

  5. Spatial and Temporal Variability in the Onset of the Growing Season on Svalbard, Arctic Norway — Measured by MODIS-NDVI Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Rune Karlsen


    Full Text Available The Arctic is among the regions with the most rapid changes in climate and has the expected highest increase in temperature. Changes in the timing of phenological phases, such as onset of the growing season observed from remote sensing, are among the most sensitive bio-indicators of climate change. The study area here is the High Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, located between 76°30ʹ and 80°50ʹN. The goal of this study was to use MODIS Terra data (the MOD09Q1 and MOD09A1 surface reflectance products, both with 8-day temporal composites to map the onset of the growing season on Svalbard for the 2000–2013 period interpreted from field observations. Due to a short and intense period with greening-up and frequent cloud cover, all the cloud free data is needed, which requires reliable cloud masks. We used a combination of three cloud removing methods (State QA values, own algorithms, and manual removal. This worked well, but is time-consuming as it requires manual interpretation of cloud cover. The onset of the growing season was then mapped by a NDVI threshold method, which showed high correlation (r2 = 0.60, n = 25, p < 0.001 with field observations of flowering of Salix polaris (polar willow. However, large bias was found between NDVI-based mapped onset and field observations in bryophyte-dominated areas, which indicates that the results in these parts must be interpreted with care. On average for the 14-year period, the onset of the growing season occurs after July 1st in 68.4% of the vegetated areas of Svalbard. The mapping revealed large variability between years. The years 2000 and 2008 were extreme in terms of late onset of the growing season, and 2002 and 2013 had early onset. Overall, no clear trend in onset of the growing season for the 2000–2013 period was found.

  6. Role of Greenland meltwater in the changing Arctic (United States)

    Dukhovskoy, Dmitry; Proshutinsky, Andrey; Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Myers, Paul; Platov, Gennady; Bamber, Jonathan; Curry, Beth; Somavilla, Raquel


    Observational data show that the Arctic ocean-ice-atmosphere system has been changing over the last two decades. Arctic change is manifest in the atypical behavior of the climate indices in the 21st century. Before the 2000s, these indices characterized the quasi-decadal variability of the Arctic climate related to different circulation regimes. Between 1948 and 1996, the Arctic atmospheric circulation alternated between anticyclonic circulation regimes and cyclonic circulation regimes with a period of 10-15 years. Since 1997, however, the Arctic has been dominated by an anticyclonic regime. Previous studies indicate that in the 20th century, freshwater and heat exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the sub-Arctic seas were self-regulated and their interactions were realized via quasi-decadal climate oscillations. What physical processes in the Arctic Ocean - sub-Arctic ocean-ice-atmosphere system are responsible for the observed changes in Arctic climate variability? The presented work is motivated by our hypothesis that in the 21st century, these quasi-decadal oscillations have been interrupted as a result of an additional freshwater source associated with Greenland Ice Sheet melt. Accelerating since the early 1990s, the Greenland Ice Sheet mass loss exerts a significant impact on thermohaline processes in the sub-Arctic seas. Surplus Greenland freshwater, the amount of which is about a third of the freshwater volume fluxed into the region during the 1970s Great Salinity Anomaly event, can spread and accumulate in the sub-Arctic seas influencing convective processes there. It is not clear, however, whether Greenland freshwater can propagate into the interior convective regions in the Labrador Sea and the Nordic Seas. In order to investigate the fate and pathways of Greenland freshwater in the sub-Arctic seas and to determine how and at what rate Greenland freshwater propagates into the convective regions, several numerical experiments using a passive tracer to

  7. Climate change and the ecology and evolution of Arctic vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilg, Olivier; Kovacs, Kit M.; Aars, J.


    Climate change is taking place more rapidly and severely in the Arctic than anywhere on the globe, exposing Arctic vertebrates to a host of impacts. Changes in the cryosphere dominate the physical changes that already affect these animals, but increasing air temperatures, changes in precipitation......, and ocean acidification will also affect Arctic ecosystems in the future. Adaptation via natural selection is problematic in such a rapidly changing environment. Adjustment via phenotypic plasticity is therefore likely to dominate Arctic vertebrate responses in the short term, and many such adjustments have...... immigration from the South, many Arctic vertebrates are expected to become increasingly threatened during this century....

  8. Arctic Warming as News - Perils and Possibilities (United States)

    Revkin, A. C.


    A science journalist in his 30th year covering human-driven climate change, including on three Arctic reporting trips, reflects on successes and setbacks as news media, environmentalists and Arctic communities have tried to convey the significance of polar change to a public for which the ends of the Earth will always largely be a place of the imagination.Novel challenges are arising in the 24/7 online media environment, as when a paper by a veteran climate scientist proposing a mechanism for abrupt sea-level rise became a big news story before it was accepted by the open-review journal to which it had been submitted. New science is digging in on possible connections between changing Arctic sea ice and snow conditions and disruptive winter weather in more temperate northern latitudes, offering a potential link between this distant region and the lives of ordinary citizens. As cutting-edge research, such work gets substantial media attention. But, as with all new areas of inquiry, uncertainty dominates - creating the potential for distracting the public and policymakers from the many aspects of anthropogenic climate change that are firmly established - but, in a way, boring because of that.With the challenges, there are unprecedented opportunities for conveying Arctic science. In some cases, researchers on expeditions are partnering with media, offering both scientists and news outlets fresh ways to convey the story of Arctic change in an era of resource constraints.Innovative uses of crittercams, webcams, and satellite observations offer educators and interested citizens a way to track and appreciate Arctic change. But more can be done to engage the public directly without the news media as an intermediary, particularly if polar scientists or their institutions test some of the established practices honed by more experienced communicators at NASA.

  9. Climate of the Arctic marine environment. (United States)

    Walsh, John E


    The climate of the Arctic marine environment is characterized by strong seasonality in the incoming solar radiation and by tremendous spatial variations arising from a variety of surface types, including open ocean, sea ice, large islands, and proximity to major landmasses. Interannual and decadal-scale variations are prominent features of Arctic climate, complicating the distinction between natural and anthropogenically driven variations. Nevertheless, climate models consistently indicate that the Arctic is the most climatically sensitive region of the Northern Hemisphere, especially near the sea ice margins. The Arctic marine environment has shown changes over the past several decades, and these changes are part of a broader global warming that exceeds the range of natural variability over the past 1000 years. Record minima of sea ice coverage during the past few summers and increased melt from Greenland have important implications for the hydrographic regime of the Arctic marine environment. The recent changes in the atmosphere (temperature, precipitation, pressure), sea ice, and ocean appear to be a coordinated response to systematic variations of the large-scale atmospheric circulation, superimposed on a general warming that is likely associated with increasing greenhouse gases. The changes have been sufficiently large in some sectors (e.g., the Bering/Chukchi Seas) that consequences for marine ecosystems appear to be underway. Global climate models indicate an additional warming of several degrees Celsius in much of the Arctic marine environment by 2050. However, the warming is seasonal (largest in autumn and winter), spatially variable, and closely associated with further retreat of sea ice. Additional changes predicted for 2050 are a general decrease of sea level pressure (largest in the Bering sector) and an increase of precipitation. While predictions of changes in storminess cannot be made with confidence, the predicted reduction of sea ice cover will

  10. ARCTIC MONKEYS:猴子凶猛!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 我不是成长于星条旗下的美利坚自由人民,所以英国乐队Arctic Monkeys在我跟前很能吃得开,打从我听到他们的第一个音符起.这或许是我从小看多了充满暴力的电视剧《西游记》,并对猴子产生了偏爱的缘故,而对Arctic Monkeys,来自北极的猴子,更是充满了好奇.

  11. Arctic health policy: contribution of scientific data. (United States)

    Berner, James E; Gilman, Andrew


    In Western Hemisphere arctic regions, scientific findings in humans, wildlife, and the environment have resulted in major governmental policy formulations. Government policy resulted in establishment of an effective international organization to address scientifically identified problems, including health disparities in arctic indigenous populations. Western scientific data and indigenous knowledge from initial international programs led to international agreements restricting certain persistent organic pollutants. In recent years, scientific data, and indigenous traditional knowledge, have resulted in governmental policy in the United States, Canada, and Nordic countries that includes the full participation of indigenous residents in defining research agendas, interpreting data, communicating information, and local community policy formulation.

  12. Temperature and precipitation history of the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, G.H.; Alley, R.B.; Anderson, L.;


    in the tilt of Earth’s axis, but for the past 700 ka, glacial cycles have been longer, lasting w100 ka, separated by brief, warm interglaciations, when sea level and ice volumes were close to present. The cause of the shift from 41 ka to 100 ka glacial cycles is still debated. During the penultimate...... interglaciation, w130 to w120 ka ago, solar energy in summer in the Arctic was greater than at any time subsequently. As a consequence, Arctic summers werew5 C warmer than at present, and almost all glaciers melted completely except for the Greenland Ice Sheet, and even it was reduced in size substantially from...

  13. Massive phytoplankton blooms under Arctic sea ice. (United States)

    Arrigo, Kevin R; Perovich, Donald K; Pickart, Robert S; Brown, Zachary W; van Dijken, Gert L; Lowry, Kate E; Mills, Matthew M; Palmer, Molly A; Balch, William M; Bahr, Frank; Bates, Nicholas R; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia; Bowler, Bruce; Brownlee, Emily; Ehn, Jens K; Frey, Karen E; Garley, Rebecca; Laney, Samuel R; Lubelczyk, Laura; Mathis, Jeremy; Matsuoka, Atsushi; Mitchell, B Greg; Moore, G W K; Ortega-Retuerta, Eva; Pal, Sharmila; Polashenski, Chris M; Reynolds, Rick A; Schieber, Brian; Sosik, Heidi M; Stephens, Michael; Swift, James H


    Phytoplankton blooms over Arctic Ocean continental shelves are thought to be restricted to waters free of sea ice. Here, we document a massive phytoplankton bloom beneath fully consolidated pack ice far from the ice edge in the Chukchi Sea, where light transmission has increased in recent decades because of thinning ice cover and proliferation of melt ponds. The bloom was characterized by high diatom biomass and rates of growth and primary production. Evidence suggests that under-ice phytoplankton blooms may be more widespread over nutrient-rich Arctic continental shelves and that satellite-based estimates of annual primary production in these waters may be underestimated by up to 10-fold.

  14. Unmanned Platforms Monitor the Arctic Atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Boer, Gijs; Ivey, Mark D.; Schmid, Beat; McFarlane, Sally A.; Petty, Rickey C.


    In the Arctic, drones and tethered balloons can make crucial atmospheric measurement to provide a unique perspective on an environment particularly vulnerable to climate change. Climate is rapidly changing all over the globe, but nowhere is that change faster than in the Arctic. The evidence from recent years is clear: Reductions in sea ice (Kwok and Unstersteiner, 2011) and permafrost (Romanovsky et al., 2002), in addition to modification of the terriestrial ecosystem through melting permafrost and shifting vegetation zones (burek et al., 2008; Sturm, et al., 2001), all point to a rapidly evolving.

  15. The role of the Arctic in future global petroleum supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholt, Lars; Glomsroed, Solveig


    The Arctic has a substantial share of global petroleum resources, but at higher costs than in most other petroleum provinces. Arctic states and petroleum companies are carefully considering the potential for future extraction in the Arctic. This paper studies the oil and gas supply from 6 arctic regions during 2010-2050 along with global economic growth and different assumptions regarding petroleum prices and resource endowments. Supply is calculated based on a global model of oil and gas markets. The data on undiscovered resources for the Arctic is based on the estimates by USGS. Sensitivity studies are carried out for two alternative price scenarios and for a 50 per cent reduction of arctic undiscovered resources compared with the USGS 2008 resource estimate. Although a major part of the undiscovered arctic petroleum resources is natural gas, our results show that the relative importance of the Arctic as a world gas supplier will decline, while its importance as a global oil producer may be maintained. We also show that less than full access to undiscovered oil resources will have minor effect on total arctic oil production and a marginal effect on arctic gas extraction. The reason is that Arctic Russia is an important petroleum producer with a sufficiently large stock of already discovered resources to support their petroleum production before 2050. (Author)

  16. Arctic security in an age of climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraska, James (ed.)


    Publisher review: This book examines Arctic defense policy and military security from the perspective of all eight Arctic states. In light of climate change and melting ice in the Arctic Ocean, Canada, Russia, Denmark (Greenland), Norway and the United States, as well as Iceland, Sweden and Finland, are grappling with an emerging Arctic security paradigm. This volume brings together the world's most seasoned Arctic political-military experts from Europe and North America to analyze how Arctic nations are adapting their security postures to accommodate increased shipping, expanding naval presence, and energy and mineral development in the polar region. The book analyzes the ascent of Russia as the first 'Arctic superpower', the growing importance of polar security for NATO and the Nordic states, and the increasing role of Canada and the United States in the region.(Author)

  17. Arctic Health Research Center report no. 101: Combating mosquitoes in arctic Alaska (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers combating mosquitoes in Arctic Alaska. The physiology and biology of mosquitoes is discussed, followed by techniques to combated mosquitoes.

  18. Arctic Synthesis Collaboratory: A Virtual Organization for Transformative Research and Education on a Changing Arctic (United States)

    Warnick, W. K.; Wiggins, H. V.; Hinzman, L.; Holland, M.; Murray, M. S.; Vörösmarty, C.; Loring, A. J.


    About the Arctic Synthesis Collaboratory The Arctic Synthesis Collaboratory concept, developed through a series of NSF-funded workshops and town hall meetings, is envisioned as a cyber-enabled, technical, organizational, and social-synthesis framework to foster: • Interactions among interdisciplinary experts and stakeholders • Integrated data analysis and modeling activities • Training and development of the arctic science community • Delivery of outreach, education, and policy-relevant resources Scientific Rationale The rapid rate of arctic change and our incomplete understanding of the arctic system present the arctic community with a grand scientific challenge and three related issues. First, a wealth of observations now exists as disconnected data holdings, which must be coordinated and synthesized to fully detect and assess arctic change. Second, despite great strides in the development of arctic system simulations, we still have incomplete capabilities for modeling and predicting the behavior of the system as a whole. Third, policy-makers, stakeholders, and the public are increasingly making demands of the science community for forecasts and guidance in mitigation and adaptation strategies. Collaboratory Components The Arctic Synthesis Collaboratory is organized around four integrated functions that will be established virtually as a distributed set of activities, but also with the advantage of existing facilities that could sponsor some of the identified activities. Community Network "Meeting Grounds:" The Collaboratory will link distributed individuals, organizations, and activities to enable collaboration and foster new research initiatives. Specific activities could include: an expert directory, social networking services, and virtual and face-to-face meetings. Data Integration, Synthesis, and Modeling Activities: The Collaboratory will utilize appropriate tools to enable the combination of data and models. Specific activities could include: a web

  19. Arctic Energy Technology Development Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Charles Chamberlin; Robert Chaney; Gang Chen; Godwin Chukwu; James Clough; Steve Colt; Anthony Covescek; Robert Crosby; Abhijit Dandekar; Paul Decker; Brandon Galloway; Rajive Ganguli; Catherine Hanks; Rich Haut; Kristie Hilton; Larry Hinzman; Gwen Holdman; Kristie Holland; Robert Hunter; Ron Johnson; Thomas Johnson; Doug Kame; Mikhail Kaneveskly; Tristan Kenny; Santanu Khataniar; Abhijeet Kulkami; Peter Lehman; Mary Beth Leigh; Jenn-Tai Liang; Michael Lilly; Chuen-Sen Lin; Paul Martin; Pete McGrail; Dan Miller; Debasmita Misra; Nagendra Nagabhushana; David Ogbe; Amanda Osborne; Antoinette Owen; Sharish Patil; Rocky Reifenstuhl; Doug Reynolds; Eric Robertson; Todd Schaef; Jack Schmid; Yuri Shur; Arion Tussing; Jack Walker; Katey Walter; Shannon Watson; Daniel White; Gregory White; Mark White; Richard Wies; Tom Williams; Dennis Witmer; Craig Wollard; Tao Zhu


    The Arctic Energy Technology Development Laboratory was created by the University of Alaska Fairbanks in response to a congressionally mandated funding opportunity through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), specifically to encourage research partnerships between the university, the Alaskan energy industry, and the DOE. The enabling legislation permitted research in a broad variety of topics particularly of interest to Alaska, including providing more efficient and economical electrical power generation in rural villages, as well as research in coal, oil, and gas. The contract was managed as a cooperative research agreement, with active project monitoring and management from the DOE. In the eight years of this partnership, approximately 30 projects were funded and completed. These projects, which were selected using an industry panel of Alaskan energy industry engineers and managers, cover a wide range of topics, such as diesel engine efficiency, fuel cells, coal combustion, methane gas hydrates, heavy oil recovery, and water issues associated with ice road construction in the oil fields of the North Slope. Each project was managed as a separate DOE contract, and the final technical report for each completed project is included with this final report. The intent of this process was to address the energy research needs of Alaska and to develop research capability at the university. As such, the intent from the beginning of this process was to encourage development of partnerships and skills that would permit a transition to direct competitive funding opportunities managed from funding sources. This project has succeeded at both the individual project level and at the institutional development level, as many of the researchers at the university are currently submitting proposals to funding agencies, with some success.

  20. Data Acquisition System for Russian Arctic Magnetometer Network (United States)

    Janzhura, A.; Troshichev, O. A.; Takahashi, K.


    Monitoring of magnetic activity in the auroral zone is very essential for space weather problem. The big part of northern auroral zone lies in the Russian sector of Arctica. The Russian auroral zone stations are located far from the proper infrastructure and communications, and getting the data from the stations is complicated and nontrivial task. To resolve this problem a new acquisition system for magnetometers was implemented and developed in last few years, with the magnetic data transmission in real time that is important for many forecasting purpose. The system, based on microprocessor modules, is very reliable in hush climatic conditions. The information from the magnetic sensors transmits to AARI data center by satellite communication system and is presented at AARI web pages. This equipment upgrading of Russian polar magnetometer network is supported by the international RapidMag program.

  1. Resprout and Survival of Willow ( Salix) Cuttings on Bioengineering Structures in Actively Eroding Gullies in Marls in a Mountainous Mediterranean Climate: A Large-Scale Experiment in the Francon Catchment (Southern Alps, France) (United States)

    Rey, F.; Labonne, S.


    Improving the understanding of the role of vegetation and bioengineering structures on erosion and sedimentation control, especially in torrent-prone catchments in a mountainous Mediterranean climate, has become a key issue today for the scientific community working in ecological engineering and restoration ecology. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of willow ( Salix) cuttings in resprouting and survival on bioengineering structures in actively eroding gullies in marls and to identify the factors influencing this performance. Measurements were taken from 2008 to 2011 on 336 bioengineering structures, namely brush layers on wooden sills (BL) and brush layers with brush mats on wooden sills (BLM), using 8890 cuttings of Salix purpurea and Salix incana. These structures were built in 18 gullies of the Francon Catchment in marls (73 ha) in the Southern French Alps. After four growing seasons, the results revealed a total cutting survival rate of 45 %. They also demonstrated that in BLM, brush mats provided better survival (56 %) than brush layers (37 %). In BL, brush layers alone showed 51 % cutting survival. Cutting resprout and survival were observed for all structure aspects. They were positively related to increasing gully size and vegetation cover on gully sides. The results of this large-scale experiment clarified previous data obtained on a limited sample of bioengineering structures, providing further detail and showing that it is possible to use such structures made of willow cuttings to revegetate actively eroding gullies in marls within a mountainous Mediterranean climate.

  2. Manufacture Technique of Salix-Based Composites for Concrete Forms%混凝土模板用沙柳重组复合板的制备工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李奇; 赵雪松; 高峰; 高志悦


    To explore new opportunities of utilizing salix (of the willow family) wood, the authors made salix-based composite panels, overlaid with PF impregnated paper faced veneer or PF impregnated fiberboard, for a concrete molding application. They investigated the effect of processing conditions on the composite's performance. The results showed that the optimal process conditions were: 12% adhesive and 160 ℃ press temperature for 0. 9 min/mm panel thickness. The salix panels produced under these optimal conditions had performance similar to the specifications of comparable products.%以三层结构的沙柳重组材为基材,用单板-酚醛树脂浸清纸或浸清酚醛树脂的硬质纤维板为覆面材料,制备沙柳重组复合混凝土模板.试验结果表明,在施胶量12%、热压温度160℃、热压时间0.9 min/mm的条件下制备基材,经过贴面处理,2种结构的复合板的耐水性比基材显著增强,纵向静曲强度和弹性模量降低,横向静曲强度和弹性模量提高,主要性能接近混凝土模板相关标准要求.

  3. U.S. National Arctic Strategy: Preparing Defensive Lines of Effort for the Arctic (United States)


    development in the Arctic and, due to limited abilities and financial resources to exploit the resources, international cooperation. Russia’s Arctic...the political agendas of Indonesia, Malaysia , and Singapore, but also to other nations protecting their own sea lines of communication. As such...presence, oversight, regulatory enforcement, and contingency response.55 Strategically, the Commandant of the Coast Guard recognizes the importance of

  4. The Useless Arctic: Exploiting Nature in the Arctic in the 1870s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Spring


    Full Text Available What is the discursive genealogy of an ecological approach to the Arctic? Building on distinctions suggested by Francis Spufford and Gísli Pálsson, this article examines a specific juncture in the history of European–Arctic interaction – the reception of the Austro-Hungarian Arctic Expedition in 1874 – and traces the potential for ecological and relational understandings in what seems to be an orientalist and exploitative material. Examining the medial reception in Austria and in Norway, along with certain key texts in which Arctic wildlife is described, we find that the Norwegian reception of the expedition emphasizes practical issues connected with resource exploitation in the Arctic, while the Austrian reception mostly sees the Arctic as a symbolic resource with which to negotiate issues of identity and modernity. The Austrian discourse revolves around a set of paradoxical contradictions, the most central being those between materialism and idealism and emptiness and fullness; we argue it is the instability of such ambiguities which produces the possibility of a future ecological discourse.

  5. Past and future range shifts and loss of diversity in dwarf willow (Salix herbaceae L.) inferred from genetics, fossils and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsos, Inger Greve; Alm, Torbjørn; Normand, Signe


    Aim  Climate change may cause loss of genetic diversity. Here we explore how a multidisciplinary approach can be used to infer effects of past climate change on species distribution and genetic diversity and also to predict loss of diversity due to future climate change. We use the arctic-alpine ...

  6. EU Engagement in the Arctic: Do the Policy Responses from the Arctic States Recognise the EU as a Legitimate Stakeholder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamrul Hossain


    Full Text Available The Arctic states are bound in an institutional relationship by means of their actions through the Arctic Council (AC—an organisation created by the eight Arctic states. Although a number of its European Union (EU states are both members and observers in the AC, the EU is not, despite its clear stake in the Arctic, for of a number of reasons. The AC twice postponed the application of the EU in 2013; however, it granted the EU the right to observe the AC meetings as an “observer in principle.” In addition to the significant resource and commercial interests of the EU in the Arctic, it assumes a stewardship role in the Arctic. As the leader in combating global climate change, for example, the EU is committed to assuming responsibility for protecting the Arctic environment given that climate change does have a devastating impact in the Arctic. Moreover, the EU is also concerned about its and continental Europe's only indigenous people, the Sámi, a significant proportion of whom live in its Arctic member states of Finland and Sweden. Thus, in recent years, the EU has endorsed a series of policy documents concerning the Arctic. Against the background of this development, this article examines whether the policy responses of the Arctic states with regard to the EU's increased ambition to engage in Arctic matters make it a legitimate actor or stakeholder. The article concludes that even though the Arctic states, as the primary actors, determine the region's governance approach, they see also a general partnership role for the EU with regard to the common goals of knowledge-based responsible governance and sustainable development of the Arctic.

  7. The Arctic Report Card: Communicating the State of the Rapidly Changing Arctic to a Diverse Audience via the Worldwide Web (United States)

    Jeffries, M. O.; Richter-Menge, J.; Overland, J. E.; Soreide, N. N.


    Rapid change is occurring throughout the Arctic environmental system. The goal of the Arctic Report Card is to communicate the nature of the many changes to a diverse audience via the Worldwide Web. First published in 2006, the Arctic Report Card is a peer-reviewed publication containing clear, reliable and concise scientific information on the current state of the Arctic environment relative to observational records. Available only online, it is intended to be an authoritative source for scientists, teachers, students, decision-makers, policy-makers and the general public interested in the Arctic environment and science. The Arctic Report Card is organized into five sections: Atmosphere; Sea Ice & Ocean; Marine Ecosystem; Terrestrial Ecosystem; Terrestrial Cryosphere. Arctic Report Card 2012, the sixth annual update, comprised 20 essays on physical and biological topics prepared by an international team of 141 scientists from 15 different countries. For those who want a quick summary, the Arctic Report Card home page provides highlights of key events and findings, and a short video that is also available on YouTube. The release of the Report Card each autumn is preceded by a NOAA press release followed by a press conference, when the Web site is made public. The release of Arctic Report Card 2012 at an AGU Fall Meeting press conference on 5 December 2012 was subsequently reported by leading media organizations. The NOAA Arctic Web site, of which the Report Card is a part, is consistently at the top of Google search results for the keyword 'arctic', and the Arctic Report Card Web site tops search results for keyword "arctic report" - pragmatic indications of a Web site's importance and popularity. As another indication of the Web site's impact, in December 2012, the month when the 2012 update was released, the Arctic Report Card Web site was accessed by 19,851 unique sites in 105 countries, and 4765 Web site URLs referred to the Arctic Report Card. The 2012 Arctic

  8. Methane and Root Dynamics in Arctic Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Imperio, Ludovica

    on the global climate. We investigated two aspects of arctic ecosystem dynamics which are not well represented in climatic models: i) soil methane (CH4) oxidation in dry heath tundra and barren soils and ii) root dynamics in wetlands. Field measurements were carried out during the growing season in Disko Island...

  9. Science Traverses in the Canadian High Arctic (United States)

    Williamson, Marie-Claude


    The presentation is divided into three parts. Part I is an overview of early expeditions to the High Arctic, and their political consequences at the time. The focus then shifts to the Geological Survey of Canada s mapping program in the North (Operation Franklin), and to the Polar Continental Shelf Project (PCSP), a unique organization that resides within the Government of Canada s Department of Natural Resources, and supports mapping projects and science investigations. PCSP is highlighted throughout the presentation so a description of mandate, budgets, and support infrastructure is warranted. In Part II, the presenter describes the planning required in advance of scientific deployments carried out in the Canadian High Arctic from the perspective of government and university investigators. Field operations and challenges encountered while leading arctic field teams in fly camps are also described in this part of the presentation, with particular emphasis on the 2008 field season. Part III is a summary of preliminary results obtained from a Polar Survey questionnaire sent out to members of the Arctic research community in anticipation of the workshop. The last part of the talk is an update on the analog program at the Canadian Space Agency, specifically, the Canadian Analog Research Network (CARN) and current activities related to Analog missions, 2009-2010.

  10. Arctic Glitters With Shades of Harbin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Chinese ice and snow art debuts in Finland Reindeer and panda stand side by side in front of a wall of bamboo paintings with flute and the cry of birds echoing nearby. Standing at the entrance of ICIUM-Wonderworld of Ice theme park, they greet visitors in a traditional Chinese way in the Arctic twilight.

  11. International arctic systems for observing the atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttal, Taneil; Starkweather, Sandra; Drummond, James R.;


    IASOA activities and partnerships were initiated as a part of the 2007-2009 International Polar Year (IPY) and are expected to continue for many decades as a legacy program. The IASOA focus is on coordinating intensive measurements of the Arctic atmosphere collected in the U.S., Canada, Russia, N...

  12. From Cold War to Arctic Battle?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Boris Brorman


    Greenland and the whole Arctic region is becoming a geopolitical hot spot. The opening of new potential sail routes to Asia and the possible exploitation of oil, gas and other natural resources like rare earth minerals are creating a window of opportunity for Greenland. What are the risks and who...

  13. Moving Facts in an Arctic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Kirsten Blinkenberg; Flora, Janne; Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck


    This article reflects on the merits of the expedition as an anthropological method on the basis of a recent cross-disciplinary experience, involving biologists, archaeologists and anthropologists working together in High Arctic Greenland. True to the term, the expedition had chartered a vessel from...

  14. Recent Arctic Sea Level Variations from Satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Piccioni, Gaia


    Sea level monitoring in the Arctic region has always been an extreme challenge for remote sensing, and in particular for satellite altimetry. Despite more than two decades of observations, altimetry is still limited in the inner Arctic Ocean. We have developed an updated version of the Danish...... Technical University's (DTU) Arctic Ocean altimetric sea level timeseries starting in 1993 and now extended up to 2015 with CryoSat-2 data. The time-series covers a total of 23 years, which allows higher accuracy in sea level trend determination. The record shows a sea level trend of 2.2 ± 1.1 mm....../y for the region between 66°N and 82°N. In particular, a local increase of 15 mm/y is found in correspondence to the Beaufort Gyre. An early estimate of the mean sea level trend budget closure in the Arctic for the period 2005–2015 was derived by using the Equivalent Water Heights obtained from GRACE Tellus...

  15. The Arctic Ocean Perennial Ice Zone (United States)

    Kwok, R.; Cunningham, G. F.; Yueh, S.


    This study shows that: 1) the NSCAT backscatter fields provide an estimate of the PIZ coverage of the Arctic Ocean; and, 2) the decrease in PIZ area over the winter gives an indication of the PIZ area exported through Fram Strait.

  16. Conflict Resolution Practices of Arctic Aboriginal Peoples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gendron; C. Hille


    This article presents an overview of the conflict resolution practices of indigenous populations in the Arctic. Among the aboriginal groups discussed are the Inuit, the Aleut, and the Saami. Having presented the conflict resolution methods, the authors discuss the types of conflicts that are current

  17. Contrasts between Antarctic and Arctic ozone depletion. (United States)

    Solomon, Susan; Portmann, Robert W; Thompson, David W J


    This work surveys the depth and character of ozone depletion in the Antarctic and Arctic using available long balloon-borne and ground-based records that cover multiple decades from ground-based sites. Such data reveal changes in the range of ozone values including the extremes observed as polar air passes over the stations. Antarctic ozone observations reveal widespread and massive local depletion in the heart of the ozone "hole" region near 18 km, frequently exceeding 90%. Although some ozone losses are apparent in the Arctic during particular years, the depth of the ozone losses in the Arctic are considerably smaller, and their occurrence is far less frequent. Many Antarctic total integrated column ozone observations in spring since approximately the 1980s show values considerably below those ever observed in earlier decades. For the Arctic, there is evidence of some spring season depletion of total ozone at particular stations, but the changes are much less pronounced compared with the range of past data. Thus, the observations demonstrate that the widespread and deep ozone depletion that characterizes the Antarctic ozone hole is a unique feature on the planet.

  18. The European Arctic policy in progress (United States)

    Conde Pérez, Elena; Yaneva, Zhaklin Valerieva


    The geostrategic, political, economic, and scientific relevance of the Arctic is constantly growing due to the complex process of climate change. Accordingly, the European Union-as a global political actor-, is already taking steps to ensure and strengthen its influence in the region while demonstrating readiness to face the many opportunities and challenges ahead in cooperation with the traditional stakeholders. Therefore, in order to reflect the renewed importance of the Arctic transformation, the Union has been designing its Arctic Policy focusing on climate change mitigation and multilateral cooperation as its main strengths. Unfortunately, despite the diligence and impetus that has been invested, this process has been delayed in several occasions as the Union had to deal with internal and external destabilizing factors, such as the later immigration crisis or the lack of uniformity among its member states' foreign policy interests. These factors will be analyzed along with the process of creation and development of the EU's Arctic policy. Despite some delays, on 27 April 2016, the long-awaited third communication was issued and progress has been made: even if, in general terms, the new document remains a political statement, there is also a clear commitment to action.

  19. Ocean acidification in the Western Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Cai, W.; Chen, B.; Chen, L.


    We report carbonate chemistry and ocean acidification status in the western Arctic Ocean from 65-88οN based on data collected in summer 2008 and 2010. In the marginal seas, surface waters have high pH and high carbonate saturation state (Ω) due to intensive biological uptake of CO2. In the southern Canada Basin, surface waters have low pH and low Ω due to the uptake of atmospheric CO2 and sea-ice melt. In the northern Arctic Ocean basin, there is no serious ocean acidification in surface water due to heavy ice-coverage but pH and Ω in the subsurface waters at the oxygen minimum and nutrient maximum zone (at 100-150 m) are low due mostly to respiration-derived CO2 and an increased biological production and export in surface waters. Such multitude responses of ocean carbonate chemistry (northern vs. southern basin, basins vs. margins, and surface vs. subsurface) to climate changes are unique to the Arctic Ocean system. We will explore biogeochemical control mechanisms on carbonate chemistry and ocean acidification in the Arctic Ocean environments in the context of recent warming and sea-ice retreat.

  20. Do Arctic waders use adaptive wind drift?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, M; Alerstam, T; Gudmundsson, GA; Hedenstrom, A; Piersma, T; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur A.; Hedenström, Anders


    We analysed five data sets of night directions of migrating arctic waders ill relation to,winds, recorded by tracking radar and optical range finder, in order to find out if these birds compensate for wind drift, or allow themselves to be drifted by winds. Our purpose was to investigate whether arct

  1. Life Found Lurking under Arctic Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarah Graham; 刘晓


    @@ The Arctic tundra② would not appear a welcoming environment for life. But a paper published today in the journal Nature suggests that polar deserts may house photosynthetic③ organisms in a very unlikely place--under rocks. The discovery of the photosynthetic cyanobacteria④ could potentially double estimates of the carbon sequestration⑤ potential in these extreme environments.

  2. Shallow freshwater ecosystems of the circumpolar Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rautio, Milla; Dufresne, France; Laurion, Isabelle


    This review provides a synthesis of limnological data and conclusions from studies on ponds and small lakes at our research sites in Subarctic and Arctic Canada, Alaska, northern Scandinavia, and Greenland. Many of these water bodies contain large standing stocks of benthic microbial mats that gr...

  3. Trichinella in arctic, subarctic and temperate regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, C. M O


    The transmission and occurrence of Trichinella spp according to the zoogeography of different climatic conditions, socioeconomy and human activity are discussed. Comparing arctic, subarctic and temperate regions, it appears that the species of Trichinella present, the composition of the fauna and...

  4. Global View of the Arctic Ocean (United States)


    NASA researchers have new insights into the mysteries of Arctic sea ice, thanks to the unique abilities of Canada's Radarsat satellite. The Arctic is the smallest of the world's four oceans, but it may play a large role in helping scientists monitor Earth's climate shifts.Using Radarsat's special sensors to take images at night and to peer through clouds, NASA researchers can now see the complete ice cover of the Arctic. This allows tracking of any shifts and changes, in unprecedented detail, over the course of an entire winter. The radar-generated, high-resolution images are up to 100 times better than those taken by previous satellites.Using this new information, scientists at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, Calif., can generate comprehensive maps of Arctic sea ice thickness for the first time. 'Before we knew only the extent of the ice cover,' said Dr. Ronald Kwok, JPL principal investigator of a project called Sea Ice Thickness Derived From High Resolution Radar Imagery. 'We also knew that the sea ice extent had decreased over the last 20 years, but we knew very little about ice thickness.''Since sea ice is very thin, about 3 meters (10 feet) or less,'Kwok explained, 'it is very sensitive to climate change.'Until now, observations of polar sea ice thickness have been available for specific areas, but not for the entire polar region.The new radar mapping technique has also given scientists a close look at how the sea ice cover grows and contorts over time. 'Using this new data set, we have the first estimates of how much ice has been produced and where it formed during the winter. We have never been able to do this before, ' said Kwok. 'Through our radar maps of the Arctic Ocean, we can actually see ice breaking apart and thin ice growth in the new openings. 'RADARSAT gives researchers a piece of the overall puzzle every three days by creating a complete image of the Arctic. NASA scientists then put those puzzle pieces together to create a time

  5. Changing Export of Dissolved Black Carbon from Arctic Rivers (United States)

    Stubbins, A.; Spencer, R. G.; Mann, P. J.; Dittmar, T.; Niggemann, J.; Holmes, R. M.; McClelland, J. W.


    Arctic rivers carry black carbon (BC) from Arctic soils to the ocean, linking two of the largest carbon stores on Earth. Wildfires have charred biomass since land plants emerged. BC, a refractory component of char, has accumulated in soils. In the oceans, dissolved BC (DBC) has also accumulated. Here we use samples and data collected as part of the long-term, high temporal resolution Arctic Great Rivers Observatory to model export of DBC from the six largest Arctic Rivers. Scaling to the pan-Arctic catchment, we report that ~3 million tons of DBC are delivered to the Arctic Ocean each year, which is ~8% of dissolved organic carbon loads to the Arctic Ocean. We suggest the transfer of Arctic river DBC to areas of deep water formation is a major source of DBC to the deep ocean carbon store. As the Arctic warms, greater wildfire occurrence is expected to produce more BC and changing hydrology and permafrost thaw to promote DBC export. Thus, the transfer of BC from Arctic soils to the ocean is predicted to increase.

  6. Arctic and Antarctic sea ice and climate (United States)

    Barreira, S.


    Principal Components Analysis in T-Mode Varimax rotated was performed on Antarctic and Arctic monthly sea ice concentration anomalies (SICA) fields for the period 1979-2014, in order to investigate which are the main spatial characteristics of sea ice and its relationship with atmospheric circulation. This analysis provides 5 patterns of sea ice for inter-spring period and 3 patterns for summer-autumn for Antarctica (69,2% of the total variance) and 3 different patterns for summer-autumn and 3 for winter-spring season for the Arctic Ocean (67,8% of the total variance).Each of these patterns has a positive and negative phase. We used the Monthly Polar Gridded Sea Ice Concentrations database derived from satellite information generated by NASA Team algorithm. To understand the links between the SICA and climate trends, we extracted the mean pressure and, temperature field patterns for the months with high loadings (positive or negative) of the sea ice patterns that gave distinct atmospheric structures associated with each one. For Antarctica, the first SICA spatial winter-spring pattern in positive phase shows a negative SICA centre over the Drake Passage and north region of Bellingshausen and Weddell Seas together with another negative SICA centre over the East Indian Ocean. Strong positive centres over the rest of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans basins and the Amundsen Sea are also presented. A strong negative pressure anomaly covers most of the Antarctic Continent centered over the Bellingshausen Sea accompanied by three positive pressure anomalies in middle-latitudes. During recent years, the Arctic showed persistent associations of sea-ice and climate patterns principally during summer. Our strongest summer-autumn pattern in negative phase showed a marked reduction on SICA over western Arctic, primarily linked to an overall increase in Arctic atmospheric temperature most pronounced over the Beaufort, Chukchi and East Siberian Seas, and a positive anomaly of

  7. Report on the Arctic ozone loss workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rex, M. [Alfred Wegener Institute, Potsdam, (Germany); Toohey, D. [University of Colorado, Boulder (United States); Harris, N.R.P. [EORCU, Cambridge (United Kingdom)


    Over the past decade tremendous progress has been made toward quantifying and understanding ozone loss in the Arctic stratosphere. Today a variety of approaches exist to quantify the degree of chemical loss over the course of an Arctic winter. Some have been used in a consistent way for many years and have produced a record of the inter-annual variability. On the other hand, a wide range of chemical models have been used to understand the processes in the wintertime Arctic stratosphere and to calculate the degree of ozone loss. An active scientific discussion has started about the level of maturity of up to date chemical models of the polar stratospheric chemistry. How well are observations of the ozone loss rate reproduced? How complete is our current quantitative understanding of the involved chemical and micro-physical processes? Are discrepancies between model results and observations larger than the combined known uncertainties? In the published literature the answers to these questions are controversial. Over the next few years one of the major challenges for the stratospheric research community will be to predict the future of the Arctic ozone layer in a scenario of decreasing stratospheric halogen loading and possible changes in climate. A solid assessment of our ability to reproduce currently observed ozone losses with model calculations is indispensable to determine the requirements for future research and to correctly interpret the reliability of model based predictions. To address these issues, the Arctic Ozone Loss Workshop was held on 4-6 March in Potsdam, Germany, hosted by the Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research. About 70 scientists from Europe, the US, Japan, Russia and New Zealand have participated. The workshop covered five sessions that are summarised in the following. (authors)

  8. Modeling the summertime Arctic cloudy boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, J.A.; Pinto, J.O. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); McInnes, K.L. [CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Mordialloc (Australia)


    Global climate models have particular difficulty in simulating the low-level clouds during the Arctic summer. Model problems are exacerbated in the polar regions by the complicated vertical structure of the Arctic boundary layer. The presence of multiple cloud layers, a humidity inversion above cloud top, and vertical fluxes in the cloud that are decoupled from the surface fluxes, identified in Curry et al. (1988), suggest that models containing sophisticated physical parameterizations would be required to accurately model this region. Accurate modeling of the vertical structure of multiple cloud layers in climate models is important for determination of the surface radiative fluxes. This study focuses on the problem of modeling the layered structure of the Arctic summertime boundary-layer clouds and in particular, the representation of the more complex boundary layer type consisting of a stable foggy surface layer surmounted by a cloud-topped mixed layer. A hierarchical modeling/diagnosis approach is used. A case study from the summertime Arctic Stratus Experiment is examined. A high-resolution, one-dimensional model of turbulence and radiation is tested against the observations and is then used in sensitivity studies to infer the optimal conditions for maintaining two separate layers in the Arctic summertime boundary layer. A three-dimensional mesoscale atmospheric model is then used to simulate the interaction of this cloud deck with the large-scale atmospheric dynamics. An assessment of the improvements needed to the parameterizations of the boundary layer, cloud microphysics, and radiation in the 3-D model is made.

  9. The Arctic Ocean's seasonal cycle must change (United States)

    Carton, James; Ding, Yanni


    This paper discusses anticipated changes to the seasonal cycle of the Arctic Ocean along with Arctic surface climate due to the reduction of seasonal sea ice cover expected in the 21st century. Net surface shortwave radiation is a function of surface reflectivity and atmospheric transparency as well as solar declination. Recent observational studies and modeling results presented here strongly suggest that this excess heat in the summer is currently being stored locally in the form of ocean warming and sea ice melt. This heat is lost in winter/spring through surface loss through longwave and turbulent processes causing ocean cooling and the refreezing of sea ice. A striking feature of Arctic climate during the 20th century has been the enhanced warming experienced during winter in response to increases in anthropogenic greenhouse gasses. The amplitude of the seasonal cycle of surface air temperature is declining by gradually warming winter temperatures relative to summer temperatures. Bintanja and van der Linden (2013) show this process will eventually cause the 30C seasonal change in air temperature to reduce by half as seasonal sea ice disappears. The much weaker seasonal cycle of ocean temperature, which is controlled by the need to store excess surface heat seasonally, is also going to be affected by the loss of sea ice but in quite different ways. In particular the ocean will need to compensate for the loss of seasonal heat storage by the ice pack. This study examines consequences for the Arctic Ocean stratification and circulation in a suite of CMIP5 models under future emissions scenarios relative to their performance during the 20th century and to explore a range of model ocean responses to declining sea ice cover on the Arctic Ocean.

  10. The Impact of Varied Fertilisation on the Concentration of Cadmium and Copper in Organs of Willow Trees (Salix Viminalis / Wpływ Zróznicowanego Nawożenia Na Zawartość Kadmu I Miedzi W Wierzbie Wiciowej (Salix Viminalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sieciechowicz Aleksandra


    Full Text Available W pracy określono wpływ zróżnicowanego nawożenia osadami ściekowymi na zmiany zawartości kadmu i miedzi w wierzbie wiciowej przez pierwsze trzy lata uprawy. Najmniejszą średnią zawartość kadmu w biomasie Salix viminalis wykazano dla plantacji nawożonej mineralnie. Średnia zawartość miedzi w biomasie roślin nawożonych mineralnie była o ok. 23,4% większa od zawartości tego metalu w roślinach uprawianych na glebie nienawożonej.

  11. Pan-Arctic observations in GRENE Arctic Climate Change Research Project and its successor (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Takashi


    We started a Japanese initiative - "Arctic Climate Change Research Project" - within the framework of the Green Network of Excellence (GRENE) Program, funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (MEXT), in 2011. This Project targeted understanding and forecasting "Rapid Change of the Arctic Climate System and its Global Influences." Four strategic research targets are set by the Ministry: 1. Understanding the mechanism of warming amplification in the Arctic; 2. Understanding the Arctic climate system for global climate and future change; 3. Evaluation of the impacts of Arctic change on the weather and climate in Japan, marine ecosystems and fisheries; 4. Projection of sea ice distribution and Arctic sea routes. Through a network of universities and institutions in Japan, this 5-year Project involves more than 300 scientists from 39 institutions and universities. The National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR) works as the core institute and The Japan Agency for Marine- Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) joins as the supporting institute. There are 7 bottom up research themes approved: the atmosphere, terrestrial ecosystems, cryosphere, greenhouse gases, marine ecology and fisheries, sea ice and Arctic sea routes and climate modeling, among 22 applications. The Project will realize multi-disciplinal study of the Arctic region and connect to the projection of future Arctic and global climatic change by modeling. The project has been running since the beginning of 2011 and in those 5 years pan-Arctic observations have been carried out in many locations, such as Svalbard, Russian Siberia, Alaska, Canada, Greenland and the Arctic Ocean. In particular, 95 GHz cloud profiling radar in high precision was established at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, and intensive atmospheric observations were carried out in 2014 and 2015. In addition, the Arctic Ocean cruises by R/V "Mirai" (belonging to JAMSTEC) and other icebreakers belonging to other

  12. Ozone variability and halogen oxidation within the Arctic and sub-Arctic springtime boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Gilman


    Full Text Available The influence of halogen oxidation on the variabilities of ozone (O3 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs within the Arctic and sub-Arctic atmospheric boundary layer was investigated using field measurements from multiple campaigns conducted in March and April 2008 as part of the POLARCAT project. For the ship-based measurements, a high degree of correlation (r = 0.98 for 544 data points collected north of 68° N was observed between the acetylene to benzene ratio, used as a marker for chlorine and bromine oxidation, and O3 signifying the vast influence of halogen oxidation throughout the ice-free regions of the North Atlantic. Concurrent airborne and ground-based measurements in the Alaskan Arctic substantiated this correlation and were used to demonstrate that halogen oxidation influenced O3 variability throughout the Arctic boundary layer during these springtime studies. Measurements aboard the R/V Knorr in the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans provided a unique view of the transport of O3-poor air masses from the Arctic Basin to latitudes as far south as 52° N. FLEXPART, a Lagrangian transport model, was used to quantitatively determine the exposure of air masses encountered by the ship to first-year ice (FYI, multi-year ice (MYI, and total ICE (FYI+MYI. O3 anti-correlated with the modeled total ICE tracer (r = −0.86 indicating that up to 73% of the O3 variability measured in the Arctic marine boundary layer could be related to sea ice exposure.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tássio Dresch Rech


    Full Text Available A intensidade de dormência e o requerimento em frio do vimeiro (Salix x rubens Shrank foram avaliados pelo método de estacas de gema isolada. As observações foram realizadas em ramos coletados em Lages, SC, a intervalos regulares de 21 dias, de 29/03/2004 a 2/08/2004. A brotação de gemas dos segmentos basal, mediano e distal de ramos do ano foi avaliada na ausência ou após suplementação de frio (500 ou de 1000 horas a 5  3ºC. A brotação de gemas foi avaliada nos estádios: a gemas inchadas; b início da abertura das gemas; c broto alongado e; d broto alongado com folha aberta. A intensidade de dormência das gemas foi crescente da base para a ponta dos ramos e foi máxima em 10 de maio, para todas as regiões do ramo. O tratamento com 500 horas de frio foi efetivo em reduzir o tempo para a brotação, em todas as épocas e posições das gemas no ramo. A avaliação até o aparecimento de folhas abertas foi importante para identificar a real capacidade de brotação das gemas.

  14. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Bark Extract of Salix Alba and Its Antimicrobial Effect Against Bacteria Isolated from Dental Plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Majeed


    Full Text Available Now a days oral infections are major concern for the researchers due to chewing large amount of Tabacco, poor hygiene of mouth as well as smoking. These common life styles can enhance the oral infection as well as can play an important role in enhancing the bacterial resistance by the accumulation of antibiotics. Hence my present work was to focused on the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Salix alba bark extract. The color of the plant extract changes in to dark brown upon addition of silver nitrate indicates the formation of silver nanoparticles which completes the reaction after 24 hours.. These nanoparticles were characterized by different microscopic techniques like UV- Vis spectrophotometry which showed the absorption peak at 440 nm specific for silver nanoparticles. HR-TEM showed average size was between 29-35 nm and the tiny particles were seemed to be spherical in morphology. Zeta potential showed silver nanoparticles were stable due to the electrostatic repulsion without adding a different physical or chemical capping agent. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM showed nanoparticles size was 30-50 nm and were stable. . The dental caries forming bacteria were isolated from plaque samples like Lactobacillus sp, Streptococcus sp. and Staphylococcus sp. and compare with different reference strains. Antibacterial activity of these biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles was evaluated by disc diffusion. These synthesized silver nanoparticles showed a good antibacterial activity against the bacteria isolates. . Furthermore these nanoparticles showed quite significant activity along with different antibiotics like Amoxicillin, Tetracycline and Ciprofloxacin during the present study.

  15. Ethanolic Extract of Bark from Salix aegyptiaca Ameliorates 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced Colon Carcinogenesis in Mice by Reducing Oxidative Stress. (United States)

    Bounaama, Abdelkader; Enayat, Shabnam; Ceyhan, Muserref Seyma; Moulahoum, Hichem; Djerdjouri, Bahia; Banerjee, Sreeparna


    We have previously shown that ethanolic extract from bark (EEB) of Salix aegyptiaca (Musk Willow) can inhibit proliferation and motility and induce apoptosis in colon cancer cells. Tandem mass spectrometry revealed EEB to be rich in catechin, catechol, and salicin. The present study investigated the chemopreventive effect of HPLC-fingerprinted EEB on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation in mice. DMH (20 mg/kg body weight) was weekly injected subcutaneously to mice for the first 2 weeks. EEB (100 and 400 mg/kg body weight) was provided orally from the 7th to 14th week, after which colon tissues were evaluated histologically and biochemically. DMH treatment induced high number of ACF; EEB significantly reduced the number and multiplicity of ACF, along with a restoration in goblet cells and mucin accumulation. EEB supplementation improved the markers of inflammation (myeloperoxidase and neutrophil infiltration) and oxidative stress. More importantly, EEB amplified apoptosis of neoplastic cells in the colon mucosa of DMH-treated mice. It also lowered levels of markers for early transformation events such as EGFR, nuclear β-catenin, and COX-2 in colon cancer cell lines HT-29 and HCT-116. The innocuity of EEB (up to 1600 mg/kg) to mice reinforces its potential as a chemopreventive agent.

  16. A physiological and biophysical model of coppice willow (Salix spp.) production yields for the contiguous USA in current and future climate scenarios. (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Jaiswal, Deepak; LeBauer, David S; Wertin, Timothy M; Bollero, Germán A; Leakey, Andrew D B; Long, Stephen P


    High-performance computing has facilitated development of biomass production models that capture the key mechanisms underlying production at high spatial and temporal resolution. Direct responses to increasing [CO2 ] and temperature are important to long-lived emerging woody bioenergy crops. Fast-growing willow (Salix spp.) within short rotation coppice (SRC) has considerable potential as a renewable biomass source, but performance over wider environmental conditions and under climate change is uncertain. We extended the bioenergy crop modeling platform, BioCro, to SRC willow by adding coppicing and C3 photosynthesis subroutines, and modifying subroutines for perennation, allocation, morphology, phenology and development. Parameterization with measurements of leaf photosynthesis, allocation and phenology gave agreement of modeled with measured yield across 23 sites in Europe and North America. Predictions for the continental USA suggest yields of ≥17 Mg ha(-1)  year(-1) in a 4 year rotation. Rising temperature decreased predicted yields, an effect partially ameliorated by rising [CO2 ]. This model, based on over 100 equations describing the physiological and biophysical mechanisms underlying production, provides a new framework for utilizing mechanism of plant responses to the environment, including future climates. As an open-source tool, it is made available here as a community resource for further application, improvement and adaptation.

  17. Nitrogen-controlled intra- and interspecific competition between Populus purdomii and Salix rehderiana drive primary succession in the Gongga Mountain glacier retreat area. (United States)

    Song, Mengya; Yu, Lei; Jiang, Yonglei; Lei, Yanbao; Korpelainen, Helena; Niinemets, Ülo; Li, Chunyang


    In this study, intra- and interspecific competition were investigated in early successional Salix rehderiana Schneider and later-appearing Populus purdomii Rehder under non-fertilized (control) and nitrogen (N)-fertilized conditions in the Hailuogou glacier retreat area. Our aim was to discover whether N is a key factor in plant-plant competition and whether N drives the primary succession process in a glacier retreat area. We analyzed differences in responses to intra- and interspecific competition and N fertilization between P. purdomii and S. rehderiana, including parameters such as biomass accumulation, nutrient absorption, non-structural carbohydrates, photosynthetic capacity, hydrolysable amino acids and leaf ultrastructure. In the control treatments, S. rehderiana individuals subjected to interspecific competition benefited from the presence of P. purdomii plants, as indicated by higher levels of biomass accumulation, photosynthetic capacity, N absorption, amino acid contents and photosynthetic N-use efficiency. However, in the N-fertilized treatments, P. purdomii individuals exposed to interspecific competition benefited from the presence of S. rehderiana plants, as shown by a higher growth rate, enhanced carbon gain capacity, greater amino acid contents, and elevated water-use efficiency, whereas the growth of S. rehderiana was significantly reduced. Our results demonstrate that N plays a pivotal role in determining the asymmetric competition pattern among Salicaceae species during primary succession. We argue that the interactive effects of plant-plant competition and N availability are key mechanisms that drive primary succession in the Gongga Mountain glacier retreat area.

  18. Chemical composition of desert willow (Salix psammophila) grown in the Kubuqi Desert, Inner Mongolia, China: bark extracts associated with environmental adaptability. (United States)

    Kubo, Satoshi; Hashida, Koh; Makino, Rei; Magara, Kengo; Kenzo, Tanaka; Kato, Atsushi; Aorigele


    Bark of desert willow (Salix psammophila, Spsa) grown in Inner Mongolia was successively extracted with n-hexane, diethyl ether, acetone, methanol, and hot water to examine chemical components associated with its environmental adaptability to desert conditions. The yield of n-hexane extract (5.0% based on dry bark), mainly composed of wax, was higher than those of acetone and methanol extracts (3.7% and 4.2%, respectively), whereas the yields of n-hexane extract (1.4%) from willow bark grown in humid areas were much lower than those of acetone (17.4% and 19.9%) and methanol (12.5% and 14.0%) extracts. Unlike other willow bark samples, Spsa bark contained a certain amount of sugar alcohols. In particular, we identified arabinitol (0.21%), which has not previously been reported as a major component of extracts of willow bark. The high content of wax and sugar alcohol would be associated with the ability of Spsa to survive in desert conditions. Accumulation of wax on the outer bark surface would reduce water loss, while sugar alcohols might improve freezing tolerance.

  19. Dark-leaved willow (Salix myrsinifolia) is resistant to three-factor (elevated CO2, temperature and UV-B-radiation) climate change. (United States)

    Paajanen, Ria; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Nybakken, Line; Petrelius, Mari; Tegelberg, Riitta; Pusenius, Jyrki; Rousi, Matti; Kellomäki, Seppo


    Elevated carbon dioxide (CO2 ), temperature (T) and ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation may affect plant growth and secondary chemistry in different directions, but the effect of the combination of the three factors has seldom been tested. Here, we grew four dark-leaved willow (Salix myrsinifolia) clones under combinations of ambient or elevated CO2, T and UV-B radiation in top-closed chambers for 7 wk. Elevated UV-B had no effects on growth or phenolic compounds, and there were no significant interactions between UV-B, CO2 and T. CO2 alone increased most growth parameters, but the magnitude of the effect varied among the clones. Total phenolics increased at elevated CO2 , whereas they decreased at elevated T. The responses varied between the clones. The results imply that dark-leaved willow are fairly resistant to the applied three-factor climate change, probably because of high constitutive defense. However, the interactions between clone and climate change factors implies that some clones are more susceptible than the species as a whole.

  20. On the irrigation requirements of cottonwood (Populus fremontii and Populus deltoides var. wislizenii) and willow (Salix gooddingii) grown in a desert environment (United States)

    Hartwell, S.; Morino, K.; Nagler, P.L.; Glenn, E.P.


    Native tree plots have been established in river irrigation districts in the western U.S. to provide habitat for threatened and endangered birds. Information is needed on the effective irrigation requirements of the target species. Cottonwood (Populus spp.) and willow (Salix gooddingii) trees were grown for seven years in an outdoor plot in a desert environment in Tucson, Arizona. Plants were allowed to achieve a nearly complete canopy cover over the first four years, then were subjected to three daily summer irrigation schedules of 6.20??mm??d-1; 8.26??mm??d-1 and 15.7??mm??d-1. The lowest irrigation rate was sufficient to maintain growth and high leaf area index for cottonwoods over three years, while willows suffered considerable die-back on this rate in years six and seven. These irrigation rates were applied April 15-September 15, but only 0.88??mm??d-1 was applied during the dormant period of the year. Expressed as a fraction of reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo), recommended annual water applications plus precipitation (and including some deep drainage) were 0.83 ETo for cottonwood and 1.01 ETo for willow. Current practices tend to over-irrigate restoration plots, and this study can provide guidelines for more efficient water use. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Willow (Salix fragilis Linn.): A multipurpose tree species under pest attack in the cold desert of Lahaul valley, northwestern Himalaya, India. (United States)

    Rawat, Yashwant S; Oinam, Santaram S; Vishvakarma, Subhash C R; Kuniyal, Chandra P; Kuniyal, Jagdish C


    Salix fragilis is the most common willow species grown extensively under the indigenous agroforestry system in the cold desert of Lahaul valley located in the northwestern Himalayas, India. Presently, this tree is under severe pest attack, and other infections have made its survival in the area questionable. This deciduous multipurpose tree species provides vegetation cover to the barren landscape of Lahaul and is a significant contributor of fuel and fodder to the region. This study is a detailed profile of the plant in three villages within this region: Khoksar, Jahlma, and Hinsa. The willow provided 69.5%, 29%, and 42% of the total fuelwood requirements of Jahlma, Khoksar, and Hinsa respectively. A striking observation was that only 30.0 +/- 20.1% trees were healthy: 55.2 +/- 16.1% of the willows have dried up and 14.8 +/- 6.1% were in drying condition due to a combination of pest infestation and infection. To sustain this cultivation of willow under the existing agroforestry system in the region, we recommend that locally available wild species and other established varieties of willow growing in similar regions of the Himalayas be introduced on a trial basis.

  2. De novo transcriptome assembly, development of EST-SSR markers and population genetic analyses for the desert biomass willow, Salix psammophila. (United States)

    Jia, Huixia; Yang, Haifeng; Sun, Pei; Li, Jianbo; Zhang, Jin; Guo, Yinghua; Han, Xiaojiao; Zhang, Guosheng; Lu, Mengzhu; Hu, Jianjun


    Salix psammophila, a sandy shrub known as desert willow, is regarded as a potential biomass feedstock and plays an important role in maintaining local ecosystems. However, a lack of genomic data and efficient molecular markers limit the study of its population evolution and genetic breeding. In this study, chromosome counts, flow cytometry and SSR analyses indicated that S. psammophila is tetraploid. A total of 6,346 EST-SSRs were detected based on 71,458 de novo assembled unigenes from transcriptome data. Twenty-seven EST-SSR markers were developed to evaluate the genetic diversity and population structure of S. psammophila from eight natural populations in Northern China. High levels of genetic diversity (mean 10.63 alleles per locus; mean HE 0.689) were dectected in S. psammophila. The weak population structure and little genetic differentiation (pairwise FST = 0.006-0.016) were found among Population 1-Population 7 (Pop1-Pop7; Inner Mongolia and Shaanxi), but Pop8 (Ningxia) was clearly separated from Pop1-Pop7 and moderate differentiation (pairwise FST = 0.045-0.055) was detected between them, which may be influenced by local habitat conditions. Molecular variance analyses indicated that most of the genetic variation (94.27%) existed within populations. These results provide valuable genetic informations for natural resource conservation and breeding programme optimisation of S. psammophila.

  3. Selective Extraction of Bio-oil from Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Salix psammophila by Organic Solvents with Different Polarities through Multistep Extraction Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Yang


    Full Text Available Bio-oil obtained from hydrothermal liquefaction of Salix psammophila is a very complicated mixture with some highly valued chemicals. In order to separate the chemicals from bio-oil, solvent extraction using nine solvents with different polarities were investigated in detail. The bio-oil extraction yield of the nine solvents were from high to low: tetrahydrofuran > toluene > ethyl acetate > acetone > ether > methylene chloride > methanol > petroleum ether > n-hexane. Based on their extraction yield, an efficient solvent combination of n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and tetrahydrofuran was used to separate the bio-oil through multistep extraction into three parts: light oil (26.13%, mid-weight oil (54.19%, and heavy oil (19.68%. These fractions were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed that most of the highly valued chemicals were contained in the light oil; the mid-weight oil consisted of aromatic oligomer derived from the decomposition of lignin, which could be a promising candidate for partial substitute for petroleum-asphalt binder; the heavy oil was rich in alkanes.

  4. [Effects of simulated warming on the growth, leaf phenology, and leaf traits of Salix eriostachya in sub-alpine timberline ecotone of western Sichuan, China]. (United States)

    Xu, Zhen-feng; Hu, Ting-xing; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yuan-bin; Xian, Jun-ren; Wang, Kai-yun


    By using open-top chamber (OTC), the effects of simulated warming on the growth, leaf phenology, and leaf traits of Salix eriostachya in sub-alpine timberline ecotone of Western Sichuan were studied. The results showed that comparing with the control, the mean air temperature at 1.2 m above the ground throughout S. eriostachya growth season in OTC increased by 2.9 degrees C, while the soil temperature at the depth of 5 cm only increased by 0.4 degrees C. The temperature increase in OTC made S. eriostachya budding advanced and defoliation postponed obviously, and the leaf life-span longer. The leaf and branch growth rates as well as the specific leaf area in OTC increased obviously, whereas the leaf nitrogen concentration decreased significantly. In OTC, the stomata conductance, net photosynthetic rate, photorespiration, and dark respiration rate of S. eriostachya all exhibited an increasing trend. It was suggested that S. eriostachya had stronger capability to adapt to warming, and, under the background of future global climate change, the elevation of S. eriostachya distribution in the timberline ecotone would be likely to ascend.

  5. Research of legal status and navigation regime of arctic shipping lanes


    Yu, Yue


    As the thawing of the sea ice within the Arctic Ocean, the Arctic is facing tremendous changes, including environment, economy, industry, culture and many other areas. As the sea ice decreasing, the Arctic region is becoming a “new world” opening its gate to the whole world. The most obvious aspect is about Arctic shipping issues. The Arctic Ocean is locating on special geographical point which closely connecting the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean. Furthermore, the Arctic Ocean has shorter ...

  6. Sea ice occurrence predicts genetic isolation in the Arctic fox. (United States)

    Geffen, Eli; Waidyaratne, Sitara; Dalén, Love; Angerbjörn, Anders; Vila, Carles; Hersteinsson, Pall; Fuglei, Eva; White, Paula A; Goltsman, Michael; Kapel, Christian M O; Wayne, Robert K


    Unlike Oceanic islands, the islands of the Arctic Sea are not completely isolated from migration by terrestrial vertebrates. The pack ice connects many Arctic Sea islands to the mainland during winter months. The Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus), which has a circumpolar distribution, populates numerous islands in the Arctic Sea. In this study, we used genetic data from 20 different populations, spanning the entire distribution of the Arctic fox, to identify barriers to dispersal. Specifically, we considered geographical distance, occurrence of sea ice, winter temperature, ecotype, and the presence of red fox and polar bear as nonexclusive factors that influence the dispersal behaviour of individuals. Using distance-based redundancy analysis and the BIOENV procedure, we showed that occurrence of sea ice is the key predictor and explained 40-60% of the genetic distance among populations. In addition, our analysis identified the Commander and Pribilof Islands Arctic populations as genetically unique suggesting they deserve special attention from a conservation perspective.

  7. Can regional climate engineering save the summer Arctic sea ice? (United States)

    Tilmes, S.; Jahn, Alexandra; Kay, Jennifer E.; Holland, Marika; Lamarque, Jean-Francois


    Rapid declines in summer Arctic sea ice extent are projected under high-forcing future climate scenarios. Regional Arctic climate engineering has been suggested as an emergency strategy to save the sea ice. Model simulations of idealized regional dimming experiments compared to a business-as-usual greenhouse gas emission simulation demonstrate the importance of both local and remote feedback mechanisms to the surface energy budget in high latitudes. With increasing artificial reduction in incoming shortwave radiation, the positive surface albedo feedback from Arctic sea ice loss is reduced. However, changes in Arctic clouds and the strongly increasing northward heat transport both counteract the direct dimming effects. A 4 times stronger local reduction in solar radiation compared to a global experiment is required to preserve summer Arctic sea ice area. Even with regional Arctic dimming, a reduction in the strength of the oceanic meridional overturning circulation and a shut down of Labrador Sea deep convection are possible.

  8. Biodiversity of Arctic marine ecosystems and responses to climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, C.; Bluhm, B.; Gallucci, V.


    The Arctic Ocean is undergoing major changes in many of its fundamental physical constituents, from a shift from multi- to first-year ice, shorter ice-covered periods, increasing freshwater runoff and surface stratification, to warming and alteration in the distribution of water masses...... that structure ecosystem biodiversity in the Arctic Ocean. We also discuss climateassociated effects on the biodiversity of Arctic marine ecosystems and discuss implications for the functioning of Arctic marine food webs. Based on the complexity and regional character of Arctic ecosystem reponses....... These changes have important impacts on the chemical and biological processes that are at the root of marine food webs, influencing their structure, function and biodiversity. Here we summarise current knowledge on the biodiversity of Arctic marine ecosystems and provide an overview of fundamental factors...

  9. Future-Proofing Japan’s Interests in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki


    credentials Japan has to be involved in the leading Arctic forum. However, a closer look at its engagement in the Arctic indicates that Japan has genuine interests in political, economic, and environmental developments there. This essay examines Japan’s interests in the Arctic, its new role as an observer......In May 2013 the Arctic states convened in Kiruna, Sweden, in part to decide on whether six new states should be admitted as observers to the Arctic Council. Japan’s application was accepted along with those of China,India, Italy, Singapore, and South Korea. At a glance, one might ask what...... to the Arctic Council, and the international relationships that will affect Japan’s engagement in the region....

  10. The Future of the Arctic: A Key to Global Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Stipo


    Full Text Available The USACOR Report forecasts that by 2050 the Arctic will become the major supplier of energy to the world, in particular oil and natural gas, and natural resources such as mineral water. In the coming decades, the population in the Arctic region is projected to increase significantly due to the expansion of exploration for resources. The Report recommends that a Zero emission policy be implemented throughout the Arctic area for water emissions into the seas, rivers, or estuaries and oceans. The Report recommends that the Arctic Council guarantees safe navigation and environmental protection, establishing a Fund to cover expenses to purchase icebreakers and towards the cost of the personnel in order to assist commercial navigation in the Arctic region. The Arctic Council shall also issue environmental rules to regulate the mineral exploitation in the region and ensure that the wildlife is protected and that the exploitation of resources is conducted in a sustainable manner.

  11. Leading By Example: Canada and its Arctic Stewardship Role

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Danita Catherine


    . This paper explores the origins of Canada’s image as the steward of the Arctic environment which started with the 1970 Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act legislation and addresses the central research questions, how did Canada’s role as the steward of the Arctic environment begin and evolve and how...... to examine the circumstances which led to the creation and success of Canada’s stewardship role and its implications for Canadian and international shipping in the Arctic region before any changes are made to the governance of the region through unilateral legislation changes or new international agreements...... important is the Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act for international acceptance of Canada’s stewardship role and maritime jurisdiction in the Arctic region?...

  12. Arctic Operations: Don’t Forget Cultural Intelligence (United States)


    U.S. has been an Arctic nation since it purchased Alaska from Russia in 1867 and the DOS has been an integral part of making sure national policy ...FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Arctic Operations: Don’t Forget Cultural Intelligence 5a...NWC or the Department of the Navy. 14. ABSTRACT The rush for Arctic natural resources and their economic benefits, combined with disputed claims

  13. The emergence of surface-based Arctic amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Serreze


    Full Text Available Rises in surface and lower troposphere air temperatures through the 21st century are projected to be especially pronounced over the Arctic Ocean during the cold season. This Arctic amplification is largely driven by loss of the sea ice cover, allowing for strong heat transfers from the ocean to the atmosphere. Consistent with observed reductions in sea ice extent, fields from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis suggest emergence of surface-based Arctic amplification in the last decade.

  14. SWIFT Observations in the Arctic Sea State DRI (United States)


    OBJECTIVES The objectives are to: develop a sea state climatology for the Arctic Ocean , improve wave forecasting in the presence of sea ice , improve...theory of wave attenuation/scattering in the sea ice cover , apply wave– ice interactions directly in integrated arctic system models, and understand...heat and mass fluxes in the air–sea– ice system. APPROACH The technical approach is to measure waves, winds, and turbulence in the Arctic Ocean

  15. Impact of declining Arctic sea ice on winter snowfall


    Liu, Jiping; Curry, Judith A.; Wang, Huijun; Song, Mirong; Radley M. Horton


    While the Arctic region has been warming strongly in recent decades, anomalously large snowfall in recent winters has affected large parts of North America, Europe, and east Asia. Here we demonstrate that the decrease in autumn Arctic sea ice area is linked to changes in the winter Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation that have some resemblance to the negative phase of the winter Arctic oscillation. However, the atmospheric circulation change linked to the reduction of sea ice shows mu...

  16. Possibilities and prospects of tourism development in the Russian Arctic


    Lubov Larchenko


    Abstract. The article deals with necessity and possibility of tourism industry development as the leading sector of territorial specialization of Arctic regions. The problems are considered and strategic directions are defined for the formation and development of the tourism industry in the Arctic regions of Russia. Analysis of foreign experience in tourism development in the Arctic Regions allows to claim that it could be a powerful instrument in the economic development of Russia's Far Nort...

  17. Selling Energy to China: Chinese Energy Politics in the Arctic


    Nguyen, Ly Kieu Le


    Abstract Until recently, the Arctic including the Arctic Ocean was only mentioned in the context of global warming. However, global warming has led to a thawing of ice that unveiled great findings of natural resources. The Arctic is now in the middle of a rapid environmental, geopolitical and economic transformation. The planting of the Russian flag by Russian researchers in 2007 on the bottom of the Artic Ocean triggered an overwhelming attention from other actors and states outside the regi...

  18. Arctic glacier movement monitoring with GPS method on 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai Songtao; E Dongchen; Yan Ming; Ren Jiawen


    During the 2005 Arctic Yellow River Station expedition, the research on monitoring the movement and mass balance of two glaciers around Ny-Alesund,Station expedition were conducted. This paper analyzes the feasibility and advantage in using GPS method to monitor the Arctic glaciers'movement, estimates the precision of first time measured GPS data and discusses the relevant problems in surveying on the Arctic Glaciers with GPS.

  19. The emergence of surface-based Arctic amplification


    SERREZE, M. C.; A. P. Barrett; J. C. Stroeve; Kindig, D. N.; Holland, M. M.


    Rises in surface and lower troposphere air temperatures through the 21st century are projected to be especially pronounced over the Arctic Ocean during the cold season. This Arctic amplification is largely driven by loss of the sea ice cover, allowing for strong heat transfers from the ocean to the atmosphere. Consistent with observed reductions in sea ice extent, fields from both the NCEP/NCAR and JRA-25 reanalyses point to emergence of surface-based Arctic amplification in the last decade.

  20. Covering Kiruna : a natural experiment in Arctic awareness.



    At a time when the Arctic is attracting increasing international attention and a variety of actors are positioning themselves in anticipation of future developments, news reporters across the world face the challenge of explaining why the Arctic is relevant to the lives and realities of audiences, some of whom are far from the region itself. This challenge was felt particularly profoundly in May 2013, when events and controversies surrounding the Kiruna Arctic Council meeting tasked journalis...

  1. Arctic Technology Evaluation 2014 Oil-in-Ice Demonstration Report (United States)


    USCGC Healy and evaluated their performance in the cold weather environment as part of Arctic Shield. Based on lessons learned in 2013, the RDC...servicing. Additional bottles were provided for cold weather . Figure 3. Aerostat and LRS (left) and aerostat deployed (right). Arctic Technology...long durations through all weather conditions; and communicate real-time data from the surface of the ocean. The model used in Arctic Shield 2014 was

  2. RADARSAT-1 Background Mission Monitoring of the Arctic (United States)


    coverage of the Arctic would result into valuable temporal records of a part of the world that is particularly sensitive to global climate change...used to define the boundary: The Arctic Circle, a climatic marker, or a vegetational marker. The Arctic Circle is simply the area of mid-night sun...boundary, delineated by the treeline , or the boundary between the Tundra and the (Boreal) forest alone is not appropriate as it is subject to

  3. Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress (United States)


    and tourism (cruise ships) in the Arctic increase the risk of pollution in the region. Cleaning up oil spills in ice-covered waters will be more...resources, and expanded fishing and tourism (Figure 3). More broadly, physical changes in the Arctic include warming ocean, soil, and air temperatures...Alaska, and the Gulf of Mexico that had been in place since 1982 had not been restored in 2009 appropriations measures. Changes in the Arctic

  4. Spatial Distribution of Methanesulphonic Acid in the Arctic Aerosol Collected during the Chinese Arctic Research Expedition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peipei Ye


    Full Text Available Methanesulphonic acid (MSA, mainly derived from marine biogenic emissions has been frequently used to estimate the marine biogenic contribution. However, there are few reports on MSA over the Arctic Ocean, especially the central Arctic Ocean. Here, we analyzed MSA in aerosol samples collected over the ocean and seas during the Chinese Arctic Research Expedition (CHINARE 2012 using ion chromatography. The aerosol MSA concentrations over the Arctic Ocean varied considerably and ranged from non-detectable (ND to 229 ng/m3, with an average of 27 ± 54 ng/m3 (median: 10 ng/m3. We found the distribution of aerosol MSA exhibited an obvious regional variation, which was affected by biotic and abiotic factors. High values were generally observed in the Norwegian Sea; this phenomenon was attributed to high rates of phytoplankton primary productivity and dimethylsulfide (DMS fluxes in this region. Concentrations over the pack ice region in the central Arctic Ocean were generally lower than over the open waters at the ice edge in the Chukchi Sea. This difference was the mainly caused by sea ice. In addition, we found that higher MSA concentrations were associated with warmer sea surface temperature (SST.

  5. On the atmospheric response experiment to a Blue Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Nakamura, Tetsu; Yamazaki, Koji; Honda, Meiji; Ukita, Jinro; Jaiser, Ralf; Handorf, Dörthe; Dethloff, Klaus


    We demonstrated atmospheric responses to a reduction in Arctic sea ice via simulations in which Arctic sea ice decreased stepwise from the present-day range to an ice-free range. In all cases, the tropospheric response exhibited a negative Arctic Oscillation (AO)-like pattern. An intensification of the climatological planetary-scale wave due to the present-day sea ice reduction on the Atlantic side of the Arctic Ocean induced stratospheric polar vortex weakening and the subsequent negative AO. Conversely, strong Arctic warming due to ice-free conditions across the entire Arctic Ocean induced a weakening of the tropospheric westerlies corresponding to a negative AO without troposphere-stratosphere coupling, for which the planetary-scale wave response to a surface heat source extending to the Pacific side of the Arctic Ocean was responsible. Because the resultant negative AO-like response was accompanied by secondary circulation in the meridional plane, atmospheric heat transport into the Arctic increased, accelerating the Arctic amplification.

  6. How predictable is a summer-ice free Arctic? (United States)

    Jahn, Alexandra


    There is large interest from different stakeholders in when we will first see a summer ice-free Arctic Ocean. However, while the CMIP5 models agree that we will see a further decline of the Arctic sea ice cover over the 21st century, their projections of when an ice-free Arctic will occur has a range of over 100 years for even the strongest forcing scenario, the RCP8.5. A large part of this uncertainty stems from model biases in the simulation of Arctic sea ice in some models. But apart from this bias, how predictable is the Arctic sea ice extent and the timing of the first ice-free Arctic summer in general? Using the Community Earth System Model (CESM) large ensemble with 40+ members for RCP8.5 and the CESM medium ensemble with 15 members for RCP4.5, we will show that internal variability leads to a range of ~20 years for predictions of threshold crossing of Arctic sea ice, limiting the long-term predictability of when an ice-free Arctic Ocean can first be expected. A detailed analysis of the trajectories of the individual ensemble members will reveal whether there are features of the climate system that allow an improvement of this predictability as we get closer to a summer ice-free Arctic.

  7. Exploring Arctic Transpolar Drift During Dramatic Sea Ice Retreat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gascard, J.C.; Festy, J.; le Goff, H.


    The Arctic is undergoing significant environmental changes due to climate warming. The most evident signal of this warming is the shrinking and thinning of the ice cover of the Arctic Ocean. If the warming continues, as global climate models predict, the Arctic Ocean will change from a perennially...... ice-covered to a seasonally ice-free ocean. Estimates as to when this will occur vary from the 2030s to the end of this century. One reason for this huge uncertainty is the lack of systematic observations describing the state, variability, and changes in the Arctic Ocean....

  8. PMEL EcoFOCI Early Arctic Data, 1986-1991 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) Fisheries-Oceanography Cooperative Investigations (FOCI) Early Arctic Data, 1987 - 1991

  9. China in the Arctic: interests, actions and challenges



    This article gives an overview of China’s interest in and approach to the Arctic region. The following questions are raised: 1.Why is China getting involved in the Arctic, 2. How is China’s engagement in the Arctic playing out? 3, What are the most important issues that need to be solved in order for China to increase its relevance and importance as a political actor and partner in the Arctic. In applying a rationalist approach when answering the research questions, I identify how China in th...

  10. Arctic air pollution: Challenges and opportunities for the next decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Arnold


    Full Text Available Abstract The Arctic is a sentinel of global change. This region is influenced by multiple physical and socio-economic drivers and feedbacks, impacting both the natural and human environment. Air pollution is one such driver that impacts Arctic climate change, ecosystems and health but significant uncertainties still surround quantification of these effects. Arctic air pollution includes harmful trace gases (e.g. tropospheric ozone and particles (e.g. black carbon, sulphate and toxic substances (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that can be transported to the Arctic from emission sources located far outside the region, or emitted within the Arctic from activities including shipping, power production, and other industrial activities. This paper qualitatively summarizes the complex science issues motivating the creation of a new international initiative, PACES (air Pollution in the Arctic: Climate, Environment and Societies. Approaches for coordinated, international and interdisciplinary research on this topic are described with the goal to improve predictive capability via new understanding about sources, processes, feedbacks and impacts of Arctic air pollution. Overarching research actions are outlined, in which we describe our recommendations for 1 the development of trans-disciplinary approaches combining social and economic research with investigation of the chemical and physical aspects of Arctic air pollution; 2 increasing the quality and quantity of observations in the Arctic using long-term monitoring and intensive field studies, both at the surface and throughout the troposphere; and 3 developing improved predictive capability across a range of spatial and temporal scales.

  11. Identifying Priorities for International Arctic Research and Policy (United States)

    Rachold, V.; Hik, D.; Barr, S.


    The International Arctic Science Committee (IASC) is a non-governmental, international scientific organization, founded in 1990 by representatives of national scientific organizations of the eight Arctic countries - Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia (at that time Union of Soviet Socialist Republics), Sweden and the United States of America. Over the past 25 years, IASC has evolved into the leading international science organization of the North and its membership today includes 23 countries involved in all aspects of Arctic research, including 15 non-Arctic countries (Austria, China, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland and the UK). The Founding Articles committed IASC to pursue a mission of encouraging and facilitating cooperation in all aspects of Arctic research, in all countries engaged in Arctic research and in all areas of the Arctic region. IASC promotes and supports leading-edge multi-disciplinary research in order to foster a greater scientific understanding of the Arctic region and its role in the Earth system. IASC has organized three forward-looking conferences focused on international and interdisciplinary perspectives for advancing Arctic research cooperation and applications of Arctic knowledge. Indeed, the IASC Founding Articles call for IASC to host these conferences periodically in order to "review the status of Arctic science, provide scientific and technical advice, and promote cooperation and links with other national and international organizations." Through its members, including national science organizations and funding agencies from all countries engaged in Arctic research, IASC is uniquely placed to undertake this task. As an accredited observer on the Arctic Council, IASC is also in the position to introduce the outcome of its science planning efforts into the Arctićs main political body and to liaise with the Arctic Council Permanent

  12. Cartopolitics, Geopolitics and Boundaries in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe


    Critical Border Studies emphasise how distinct political spaces are produced by borders. In this article I suggest that the order of this relationship should be reversed. I argue that space precedes and conditions the manifestation of borders. The argument is based on an understanding of cartogra......Critical Border Studies emphasise how distinct political spaces are produced by borders. In this article I suggest that the order of this relationship should be reversed. I argue that space precedes and conditions the manifestation of borders. The argument is based on an understanding...... in the Arctic, the term cartopolitics captures how the relationship between the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and cartography is shaping the attempts by Arctic states to expand sovereign rights into the sea. The key is the continental shelf and how it is defined in law. In this process...

  13. The effectiveness of the Arctic Council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Kankaanpää


    Full Text Available Created in 1996, the Arctic Council has now been in operation long enough to justify a systematic effort to assess its effectiveness. To explore this topic, we created a questionnaire and circulated it to a large number of individuals who have participated in the work of the council in one capacity or another or who have followed the work of the council closely. This article analyses the quantitative and the qualitative input of those who responded to the questionnaire. The main conclusions are that: (1 the council has achieved considerable success in identifying emerging issues, framing them for consideration in policy venues and raising their visibility on the policy agenda and (2 changes now occurring in the Arctic will require significant adjustments to maintain the effectiveness of the council during the foreseeable future.

  14. Record Arctic Sea Ice Loss in 2007 (United States)


    This image of the Arctic was produced from sea ice observations collected by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) Instrument on NASA's Aqua satellite on September 16, overlaid on the NASA Blue Marble. The image captures ice conditions at the end of the melt season. Sea ice (white, image center) stretches across the Arctic Ocean from Greenland to Russia, but large areas of open water were apparent as well. In addition to record melt, the summer of 2007 brought an ice-free opening though the Northwest Passage that lasted several weeks. The Northeast Passage did not open during the summer of 2007, however, as a substantial tongue of ice remained in place north of the Russian coast. According to the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), on September 16, 2007, sea ice extent dropped to 4.13 million square kilometers (1.59 million square miles)--38 percent below average and 24 percent below the 2005 record.

  15. Eurasian Arctic abyssal waters are warming (United States)

    Schauer, Ursula; von Appen, Wilken-Jon; Somavilla Cabrillo, Raquel; Behrendt, Axel; Rabe, Benjamin


    In the past decades, not only the upper water layers, but also the deepest layers of the Arctic Ocean have been warming. Observations show that the rate of warming varies markedly in the different basins with the fastest warming in the deep Greenland Sea (ca. 0.11°C per decade) and the Eurasian Basin featuring an average rate of ca. 0.01°C per decade. While the warming in the Greenland Sea is attributed to ongoing export of relatively warmer deep waters from the Arctic Ocean in combination with the halt of deep convection, the reason of Eurasian Basin deep warming is less clear. We discuss possible causes such as changes in the abyssal ventilation through slope convection, advection from other basins and/or geothermal heating through various sources.

  16. Air cushion vehicles for arctic operation (United States)

    Koleser, J.; Lavis, D. R.


    Attention is given to the results of the NAVSEA FY85 Surface Ship Concept Formulation Design Study for an initial operational capability year-2000 air cushion vehicle (ACV) suitable for logistics and general search/rescue duties in the Arctic. Two designs were developed during the study; the first utilized an ACV design synthesis math model while the second evolved as a derivative of an existing U.S. production craft. Both are regarded as feasible from an engineering and naval architectural standpoint. Results of performance and cost trade-off studies suggest that, for an Arctic ACV, gas turbines are the preferred power plant choice and an aluminum alloy is the preferred hull structural material choice. The most appropriate skirt height is approximately 12 ft.

  17. Dipole anomaly in the Arctic atmosphere and winter Arctic sea ice motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Bingyi; ZHANG; Renhe


    This paper investigates a previously-ignored atmospheric circulation anomaly-di- pole structure anomaly in the arctic atmosphere, and its relationship with the winter sea ice motion, based on analyses of the International Arctic Buoy Programme Data (1979-1998) and datasets from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) for the period of 1960-2002. The dipole structure anomaly is the second-leading mode of EOF of monthly mean SLP north of 70(N during the winter season (Oct.-Mar.), which accounts for 13% of the variance. One of its two anomaly centers is over the Canadian Archipelago; the other is situated over northern Eurasia and the Siberian marginal seas. Due to the dipole structure anomaly's strong meridionality, it becomes an important mechanism to drive both anomalous sea ice export out of the Arctic Basin and cold air outbreaks into the Barents Sea, the Nordic Seas and northern Europe.

  18. Chemical pollution in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic marine ecosystems: an overview of current knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savinova, T.N.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Falk-Petersen, S.


    This report is part of a research project in the framework of the Norwegian-Russian Environmental Cooperation, which was initiated in 1991 to elucidate the present status of environmental contaminants in the highly sensitive Arctic aquatic ecosystem, with special focus on sea birds. Although these ecosystems are the least polluted areas in the world, they are contaminated. The main pathways of contamination into Arctic and sub-Arctic marine ecosystems are atmospheric transport, ocean currents and rivers and in some areas, dumping and ship accidents. A literature survey reveals: (1) there is a lack of data from several trophic levels, (2) previous data are difficult to compare with recent data because of increased quality requirement, (3) not much has been done to investigate the effects of contaminants on the cellular level, at individual or population levels. 389 refs., 7 figs., 32 tabs.

  19. Quantifying transport into the Arctic lowermost stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Werner


    Full Text Available In-situ measurements of the long-lived trace gases N2O, CFC-11 (CCl3F, H-1211 (CBrClF2, CH4, O3 and H2O performed in the Arctic winter 2003 on board the high-altitude aircraft M55 Geophysica are presented and used to study transport into the lowermost stratosphere (LMS. Fractions of air in the LMS originating in i the troposphere, ii the extra-vortex stratosphere above 400 K and iii the Arctic vortex above 400 K are determined using a simple mass balance calculation. The analysis exhibits a strong tropospheric influence of 50% or more in the lowest 20 K of the high-latitude LMS. Above this region the LMS is dominated by air masses having descended from above 400 K. Below the Arctic vortex region at potential temperatures above 360 K, air in the LMS is a mixture of extra-vortex stratospheric and vortex air masses. The vortex fraction increases from about 40% at 360 K to 100% at 400 K for equivalent latitudes >70° N. This influence of air masses descending through the bottom of the polar vortex increases over the course of the winter. By the end of winter a significant fraction of 30% vortex air in the LMS is found even at an equivalent latitude of 40° N. Since the chemical and dynamical history of vortex air is distinct from that of mid-latitude stratospheric air masses, this study implies that the composition of the mid- to high-latitude LMS during late winter and spring is significantly influenced by the Arctic vortex.

  20. Climate-derived tensions in Arctic security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Strickland, James Hassler


    Globally, there is no lack of security threats. Many of them demand priority engagement and there can never be adequate resources to address all threats. In this context, climate is just another aspect of global security and the Arctic just another region. In light of physical and budgetary constraints, new security needs must be integrated and prioritized with existing ones. This discussion approaches the security impacts of climate from that perspective, starting with the broad security picture and establishing how climate may affect it. This method provides a different view from one that starts with climate and projects it, in isolation, as the source of a hypothetical security burden. That said, the Arctic does appear to present high-priority security challenges. Uncertainty in the timing of an ice-free Arctic affects how quickly it will become a security priority. Uncertainty in the emergent extreme and variable weather conditions will determine the difficulty (cost) of maintaining adequate security (order) in the area. The resolution of sovereignty boundaries affects the ability to enforce security measures, and the U.S. will most probably need a military presence to back-up negotiated sovereignty agreements. Without additional global warming, technology already allows the Arctic to become a strategic link in the global supply chain, possibly with northern Russia as its main hub. Additionally, the multinational corporations reaping the economic bounty may affect security tensions more than nation-states themselves. Countries will depend ever more heavily on the global supply chains. China has particular needs to protect its trade flows. In matters of security, nation-state and multinational-corporate interests will become heavily intertwined.