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Sample records for arctic region baltic

  1. Molecular epidemiological study of Arctic rabies virus isolates from Greenland and comparison with isolates from throughout the Arctic and Baltic regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansfield, K.L.; Racloz, V.; McElhinney, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    We report a Molecular epidemiological study of rabies in Arctic Countries by comparing a panel of novel Greenland isolates to a larger cohort of viral sequences from both Arctic and Baltic regions. Rabies Virus isolates originating from wildlife (Arctic/red foxes, raccoon-dogs and reindeer), from...... Was differentiated into two lineages, Arctic 1 and Arctic 2, with good bootstrap Support. Arctic I is mainly comprised of Canadian isolates with a single fox isolate front Maine in the USA. Arctic 2 was further divided into sub-lineages: 2a/2b. Arctic 2a comprises isolates from the Arctic regions of Yakutia...

  2. Arctic Oscillation impact on thermal regime of the Baltic region Eastern part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gecaite, Indre; Pogoreltsev, Aleksandr; Ugryumov, Aleksandr

    2016-04-01

    Statistical estimations of Arctic Oscillation (AO) impact on air temperature regime in the Eastern part of Baltic region are presented. The region is characterized by high inter-annual and inter-seasonal variabilities. It is important to note that in the region of global warming extremely low winter temperatures can be observed on the European territory of Russia. AO is one of large-scale global structures of atmospheric circulation closely associated with weather variability in Northern Europe. AO anomalies occur in the upper atmosphere (stratosphere) and only then transferred to tropospheric lower layers. The anomalies can be preserved during long period up to two months, so they can be predictors in long-range weather forecast. In turn, changes in stratospheric polar vortex and sudden stratospheric warmings can be related to the geomagnetic activity. Perhaps, the geomagnetic activity influences the meridional temperature gradient and then changes in the structure of the stratospheric zonal wind. In turn, the changes have an impact on the tropospheric circulation. The stratosphere-troposphere connection occurs during winter months. Therefore, the paper presents the analysis of extremely cold winter anomalies in the Eastern part of Baltic Sea region. At the same time, we considered atmospheric circulation peculiarities related to AO phase change. The analyzable time interval covers 1951-2014.

  3. Baltic Earth - Earth System Science for the Baltic Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Markus; Rutgersson, Anna; Lehmann, Andreas; Reckermann, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    The Baltic Sea region, defined as its river catchment basin, spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It encompasses most of the Scandinavian Peninsula in the west; most of Finland and parts of Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic states in the east; and Poland and small parts of Germany and Denmark in the south. The region represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. Preliminary grand challenges and topics for which Working Groups have been installed include: • Salinity dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Land-Sea biogeochemical feedbacks in the Baltic Sea region • Natural hazards and extreme events in the Baltic Sea region • Understanding sea level dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Understanding regional variability of water and energy exchange • Utility of Regional Climate Models • Assessment of Scenario Simulations

  4. Migration waves to the Baltic Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, T; Laitinen, V; Salmela, E; Andersen, P; Huoponen, K; Savontaus, M-L; Lahermo, P

    2008-05-01

    In this study, the population history of the Baltic Sea region, known to be affected by a variety of migrations and genetic barriers, was analyzed using both mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal data. Over 1200 samples from Finland, Sweden, Karelia, Estonia, Setoland, Latvia and Lithuania were genotyped for 18 Y-chromosomal biallelic polymorphisms and 9 STRs, in addition to analyzing 17 coding region polymorphisms and the HVS1 region from the mtDNA. It was shown that the populations surrounding the Baltic Sea are genetically similar, which suggests that it has been an important route not only for cultural transmission but also for population migration. However, many of the migrations affecting the area from Central Europe, the Volga-Ural region and from Slavic populations have had a quantitatively different impact on the populations, and, furthermore, the effects of genetic drift have increased the differences between populations especially in the north. The possible explanations for the high frequencies of several haplogroups with an origin in the Iberian refugia (H1, U5b, I1a) are also discussed.

  5. ESPC Regional Arctic Prediction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    the Navy the capability to conduct short-term (1 week) to extended (2 weeks) coupled weather forecasts for the Arctic region. APPROACH To...sensitivity of the Arctic weather forecast to key numerical parameters; and 5) conduct extensive validation and verification of the coupled system and...SEP 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ESPC Regional Arctic Prediction System 5a. CONTRACT

  6. Attributing causes of regional climate change in the Baltic Sea area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhend, Jonas; Gaillard-Lemdahl, Marie-José; Hansson, Hans-Christen

    2015-04-01

    Here we assess to what extent the effect of forcing mechanisms on the observed climate change in the Baltic Sea area can be detected. In particular, we assess the effect of factors causing large-scale warming (mainly anthropogenic greenhouse gases) and the regional effect of atmospheric aerosols and land-cover and land-use changes. Unfortunately, only very few targeted analyses for the Baltic catchment area are available at the moment, but findings at the regional scale are generally qualitatively consistent with global or hemispheric analyses. The observed warming in summer cannot be explained without human influence (in particular the warming effect of increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations). In other seasons and for other aspects of regional warming, findings are mixed or not significant as of yet. In addition, large-scale circulation and rainfall changes in the northern hemisphere and the Arctic have been detected to exceed natural internal variability. Other aspects of regional climate change including changes in storminess, snow properties, runoff and the changing physical properties of the Baltic Sea have not been formally attributed to human influence yet. Scientific understanding of the effect of aerosols on regional climate is still accumulating. It is likely that the major emission changes in Europe have had an effect on the climate in the Baltic region, the magnitude of which, however, is still unknown. Development of the modelling capability and targeted analyses are urgently needed to reduce the uncertainties related to the effect of aerosol changes on regional observed climate change. Historic deforestation and recent reforestation are the major anthropogenic land-cover changes affecting the Baltic Sea area. From all studies at hand it can be concluded that there is no evidence that anthropogenic land-cover change would be one of the forcings behind the recent warming in the Baltic region. However, past anthropogenic land-cover change

  7. Transborder corporate integration in the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Alexei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines flows of foreign direct investment within the Baltic region. The author demonstrates close investment ties among the EU members, which are of special importance for Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Transborder corporate integration in the region is characterized by significant imbalances. In many aspects, it can be viewed as Sweden’s economic expansion or development of domestic markets for northern European companies. Although many German, Polish and Russian companies are involved in corporate integration in the Baltic region, other vectors of their foreign economic relations are still more important for them. As a result, the integration of Russian business in the Baltic part of the European integration area is still rather weak despite Russia’s considerable foreign direct investment in the Baltic States.

  8. Innovative economy in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich N. M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovative activity is carried out at three levels — those of the state, region and a company or a university. This article considers the level of development of knowledge-based economy in Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland at each of the three levels, as well as descripes the spatial differentiation of innovative activity within the Baltic region. The analysis is done on the basis of national and international research, as well as statistical data on the intensity of research and development, structure of research expenditure, human capital in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of institutional support for innovative activity. The authors characterise the role of business, university, and authorities — which constitute the «triple helix» — in national innovative systems. The article also analyses such important factors as the intensity of research and development, the share of employees in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of public support. Examples of private-public infrastructure for the implementation of innovative projects are offered.

  9. Innovative economy in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich Nikolay

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Innovative activity is carried out at three levels — those of the state, region and a company or a university. This article considers the level of development of knowledge-based economy in Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland at each of the three levels, as well as descripes the spatial differentiation of innovative activity within the Baltic region. The analysis is done on the basis of national and international research, as well as statistical data on the intensity of research and development, structure of research expenditure, human capital in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of institutional support for innovative activity. The authors characterise the role of business, university, and authorities — which constitute the «triple helix» — in national innovative systems. The article also analyses such important factors as the intensity of research and development, the share of employees in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of public support. Examples of private-public infrastructure for the implementation of innovative projects are offered.

  10. Russia’s energy geostrategy in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeleneva Irina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores Russian energy policy in the Baltic Sea region in the context of the world energy market globalization. The study focuses on the three Baltic States — Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia — which have a similar geographical location and history. The dynamic development of the region as a whole is strongly influenced by the stability of energy supply in each state. The article analyses the role Russia plays in the energy policy of the region from both geopolitical and geostrategic viewpoints. The author identifies the main characteristics of the Russian energy policy in these countries, and provides with a forecast for energy policy development in the region. A geostrategic approach dictates any successful energy policy in the Baltic Sea region to bring in line Russian interests with those of the European states.

  11. BALTEX - A science broker for the Baltic Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckermann, M.; von Storch, H.; Langner, J.; Omstedt, A. T.

    2010-12-01

    BALTEX (the Baltic Sea Experiment) is an interdisciplinary research network of scientists involved in environmental research dedicated to the Baltic Sea drainage basin (including disciplines such as meteorology, hydrology, oceanography, biogeochemistry and climate research). Originally founded in 1992 as a Continental Scale Experiment in GEWEX (the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment within the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) of the World Meteorological Organization, WMO), it was intended to form a common science, communication and data platform with the overall goal to integrate efforts to gain a better understanding of the water and energy cycle in the Baltic Sea basin. BALTEX Phase II (since 2003) has extended the scope to research on regional climate change and variability, climate change impacts on biogeochemistry and water management, but also made first steps towards overarching social and political issues as cross-cutting activities in the context of the scientific objectives. An important aspect of BALTEX Phase II is a more holistic approach towards observing, understanding and modelling major environmental relevant for the entire Baltic Sea region. Parts of the BALTEX Phase II research activities thus contribute to the establishment of a high resolution integrated modelling system for Northern Europe, embedded in an Earth System Model. An outstanding product of BALTEX as a “knowledge broker” for regional political institutions is the BACC report. Following to a large extent the method of IPCC, a regional assessment report on climate change in the Baltic Sea basin was compiled, which summarizes the published scientifically legitimate knowledge on regional climate change in the Baltic Sea basin and its impacts. The assessment, known as the BACC report (BALTEX Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin; BACC author team 2008, Reckermann et al., 2008) was published in 2008 as a book. A survey among climate researchers in the area

  12. The transnational territorial transport system of the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumenyuk Ivan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on the structure and territorial borders of the Baltic Sea region, and examine the key structural elements of the transnational territorial transport system. In this respect, we clarify some terms used in transport geography. For the first time the transport system gets territorially localized, which allows for a broad range of new studies of transnational transportation in the Baltic Sea area. We also identify the main principles of development and operation of international territorial transport systems and present them taking the Baltic Sea region as an example. Our findings, we hope, will have a great practical application for researchers of transport geography, especially those studying international logistics.

  13. An international scope of the regional journal Baltic Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartasiute, Stanislava

    2015-08-01

    The internationalization of publishing has been progressing in most fields of science, including astronomy and physics in particular. Along with high quality journals having a completely international readership, national and regional journals represent a significant part in number, whereas their average impact is very diverse and not always competitive. Based mainly on the Web of Science data, we will give a comparative analysis of astronomy journals published in/for countries with relatively small astronomical communities, such as Baltic and some Eastern European. Bibliometric statistics will be presented of one of such journals, Baltic Astronomy, established in 1992 as a result of cooperation between astronomers of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia. Since the first years of publishing this journal has been evolving from regional to the more internationalized status. The list of countries of contributing authors has expanded to 54, while only 19% of the articles are from the three Baltic countries, mainly from Lithuania (14%) and, to a much lesser extent, from Estonia (3%) and Latvia (2%). Recognizing the inadequacies of national and regional bases for dissemination and exchange of scientific information, the Baltic astronomical communities themselves move, however, towards internationalization: in international journals Latvia publishes twice and Estonia nearly ten times more articles than they do in Baltic Astronomy. Meanwhile Lithuanian astronomers publish nearly the same number of articles both outside and inside the region. In the light of progress being made toward consolidation of scholarly publications, a choice between a national/regional and international basis for publishing is becoming more decisive for the future of national and regional astronomy journals.

  14. Sustainable manure management in the Baltic Sea Region - results, cases and project recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybirk, Knud; Luostarinen, S; Hamelin, Lorie;

    This magazine contains the major results, conclusions and recommendations of the project Baltic Forum for Innovative Technologies for Sustainable Manure Management (Baltic Manure) which via co-funding from Interreg Baltic Sea Region programme has been a Flagship project in the EU Strategy...... for the Baltic Sea Region from 2010-2013. The project has involved 18 partners from 8 countries with MTT Agrifood Research Finland as the Lead Partne...

  15. Use of bioenergy in the Baltic Sea region. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barz, M.; Ahlhaus, M. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    The actual situation in our world can shortly be characterized by growing population and increasing energy demand, mainly covered by fossil fuels. This results in environmental as well as climate change problems. Renewable energies offer many opportunities to overcome these problems - they can provide heat and electricity as well as automotive fuels in environmentally friendly systems and thus contribute to lower the fossil fuels dependency. Biomass as the oldest renewable energy of mankind is still playing a dominant role as an energy carrier in some African and Asian regions, where biofuels are still used in traditional ways - mainly for cooking. On the other hand biomass has a huge potential to become a more important energy resource even in industrialized countries. All over the world the opportunities of biomass are accepted and biomass has become a common term in politics resulting in new strategic analyses, political documents, legislative actions and funding programs. A lot of modern and new high-tech solutions for bioenergy systems are already developed and others are under research. Aims of the actual developments are new bioenergy systems on the basis of regional biomass potentials in rural regions. The Baltic Sea Region offers a high potential to produce biofuels for different applications to fit the growing demand of heat, electricity and fuels. In combination with its industry and engineering skills the Baltic Sea Region is predestinated as a nucleus for further development and demonstration of advanced bioenergy solutions. In the result of the conference ''Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production'', held in Tallinn, Estonia in October 2005 representatives from policy, economy and science identified a high potential and demand for bioenergy solutions and realized the necessity of establishment of an international network (Baltic Bioenergy Net - BaBEt) for information and know-how transfer between the Baltic States to foster

  16. Reinventing the Baltic Sea Region: From the Hansa to the Eu-Strategy of 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael North

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The political changes of 1989 stimulated a new perception and perspective of the Baltic Sea Region. And this gained momentum with the Eastern Enlargement of the EU. The new situation encouraged research as well. In this context the “Baltic Sea” is not an unchangeable physical setting, but also a construction of different actors or protagonists. People and powers continuously reinvent the Baltic Sea Region. That is why; the following paper focuses on the different notions of the Baltic Sea Region from the Middle Ages up to now and also examines the recent EU-Strategy of this region.

  17. Acquatorialities of the Arctic Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2013-01-01

    In order to describe the Arctic system I propose using a concept functionally equivalent to territoriality, namely aquatoriality. Whether communicating about territoriality or aquatoriality, concepts and delimitations are both contingent to forms of communication systems. I will distinguish betwe...... coding of the Arctic. These codes could then appear structurally coupled to a political system that in an organizational way appears in the Arctic Council...

  18. Innovacionnyj process v regione Baltijskogo morja [The innovative process in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäkinen Hanna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to maintain its global competitiveness in the future, the Baltic Sea region (BSR needs to preserve and improve its technological capability and innovativeness. This article focuses on innovations in the Baltic Sea region, particularly on external innovation drivers and innovation environments in the BSR and individual countries within the region. Firstly, some definitions of innovations, innovation drivers, and characteristics of a favourable innovation environment are presented. Secondly, the current condition of innovation environments in the BSR is described and the innovation performances of Baltic countries are compared. Finally, the research aims to conclude, as well as to analyse, the future innovation development of the BSR. The research material for this desk study is collected from various sources, including journal articles, statistics, media, research reports, and other publications.

  19. Assessing cumulative pressures and impacts in a regional scale: HELCOM Baltic Sea Impact Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korpinen, S.; Meski, L.; Andersen, Jesper;

    of identifying hot spots needs to be replaced by spatial high-resolution maps associated with estimated impacts on key ecosystem components. The Baltic Sea Marine Environment Protection Commission (HELCOM) took a first step towards an initial regional assessment of anthropogenic pressures in the Initial Holistic...... of macrozoobenthic communities in some Baltic sub-basins and the results have suggested that more specific selection of pressures is needed in order to assess anthropogenic impacts on benthic habitats. Such an adaptation of the tool has already been tested to assess the sea-floor integrity under the MSFD qualitative...... Assessment of the Baltic Sea by producing the Baltic Sea Pressure Index (BSPI) and the Baltic Sea Impact Index (BSII). The BSPI visualizes cumulative anthropogenic pressures in the Baltic Sea scale, whereas the BSII consists of potential impacts of anthropogenic pressures on key ecosystem components...

  20. Regional cost-effectiveness in transboundary water quality management for the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Berit; Smart, James Christopher Rudd; Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders;

    In 2007 HELCOM launched a plan for transboundary management of the Baltic Sea. This plan, called the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP), aims amongst other things, to reduce eutrophication in the different regions of the Baltic Sea by reducing incoming nutrient loads from all discharging drainage basins...... difficult to achieve, and that additional abatement measures are likely to be required to fulfil these targets. The minimised total cost of delivering the achievable load reductions across the 9 Baltic littoral countries is estimated to be 4.69 billion Euros, annually, with substantial differences...

  1. Construction of transport and energy networks in the Baltic region as an impetus for regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Alexey

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In light of some new aspects of the EU functioning, particularly, the recovery from the 2008-2009 global crisis, transportation and energy development projects are coming to the forefront in the Baltic region. At the same time, there is a need to consider EU’s recent adoption of a common seven-year financial program (2014—2020, which serves, in effect, as the Union’s budget. Given that, one may conclude that the countries of the Baltic region are entering a new stage of development. We look at the role and significance of transportation and energy projects as an instrument of economic development. Having studied the largest transport and energy projects in the Baltic region, we were able to show that the new infrastructure networks supported the investment expansion of Swedish and Finnish companies into the post-communist countries of the Baltic Region. Which, in its turn, allowed the Nordic investors to expand their domestic markets. The analysis also shows that the experience of private businesses proves a recent theoretical concept — the pyramid of regional development factors. As a result, the actual regional policy of the EU cannot be considered in the narrow sense of the Cohesion Policy alone.

  2. Construction of transport and energy networks in the Baltic region as an impetus for regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Alexey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In light of some new aspects of the EU functioning, particularly, the recovery from the 2008-2009 global crisis, transportation and energy development projects are coming to the forefront in the Baltic region. At the same time, there is a need to consider EU’s recent adoption of a common seven-year financial program (2014—2020, which serves, in effect, as the Union’s budget. Given that, one may conclude that the countries of the Baltic region are entering a new stage of development. We look at the role and significance of transportation and energy projects as an instrument of economic development. Having studied the largest transport and energy projects in the Baltic region, we were able to show that the new infrastructure networks supported the investment expansion of Swedish and Finnish companies into the post-communist countries of the Baltic Region. Which, in its turn, allowed the Nordic investors to expand their domestic markets. The analysis also shows that the experience of private businesses proves a recent theoretical concept — the pyramid of regional development factors. As a result, the actual regional policy of the EU cannot be considered in the narrow sense of the Cohesion Policy alone.

  3. Construction of transport and energy networks in the Baltic region as an impetus for regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Alexey

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In light of some new aspects of the EU functioning, particularly, the recovery from the 2008-2009 global crisis, transportation and energy development projects are coming to the forefront in the Baltic region. At the same time, there is a need to consider EU’s recent adoption of a common seven-year financial program (2014—2020, which serves, in effect, as the Union’s budget. Given that, one may conclude that the countries of the Baltic region are entering a new stage of development. We look at the role and significance of transportation and energy projects as an instrument of economic development. Having studied the largest transport and energy projects in the Baltic region, we were able to show that the new infrastructure networks supported the investment expansion of Swedish and Finnish companies into the post-communist countries of the Baltic Region. Which, in its turn, allowed the Nordic investors to expand their domestic markets. The analysis also shows that the experience of private businesses proves a recent theoretical concept — the pyramid of regional development factors. As a result, the actual regional policy of the EU cannot be considered in the narrow sense of the Cohesion Policy alone.

  4. Regional higher education co-operation: a research proposal to compare the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Ewert

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available While the Baltic Sea Region is considered to be a pioneer region in the development of regional integration and identity, the Black Sea Region is regarded to be a laggard in terms of regionali¬zation and region building. My paper summarizes the role of regional higher education co-operation in the Baltic Sea regionalization process in theory and analyzes the empirical background of these assumptions. Yet, inasmuch an evaluation of the regions` status as a pioneer is possible only in a comparative perspective, I propose to compare the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea Region regarding their higher education networks systematically. My paper asks for the transferability of arguments in favor of a strong regional higher education co-operation in the Baltic Sea Region since the 1990s to today’s situation of the Black Sea Region. It concludes with some fundamental considerations on a comparative research project.

  5. Electric energy cooperation in the Baltic Sea region and the role of Russia in it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zverev Yuri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines cooperation in the electric energy sector in the Baltic region. The author explores the existing undersea HVDC power exchange projects. It is emphasised that cooperation in the electric energy sector is concentrated largely in the EU member states despite earlier plans to establish the Baltic energy ring, which would also include Russia and Belarus. The author stresses that one of the most acute problems for the EU today is overcoming isolation of the energy systems of the Baltic States (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia from that of the major part of the EU. This task has become especially relevant after the closing of the Ignalina NPP (Lithuania, which used to be the primary energy source for the three Baltic States. The article examines key projects of the construction of new international power transmission lines in the framework of the Baltic Energy Market Interconnection Plan (BEMIP and the prospects of the Visaginas NPP (Lithuania in solving energy problems of the Baltic States. The author analyses Russia’s role in the electric energy market and focuses on a possible increase of the country’s energy market share following the construction of the Baltic NPP and the export of generated electric energy to Poland, Lithuania, Germany, and Sweden. The author concludes that the prospects of Russia’s energy export to the Baltic Sea region will be determined not only by technological, economic and market factors, but rather by the general state of relations between Russia and the EU. Moreover, a lot depends on Lithuania’s decision on the construction of the Visaginas NPP, as well as the way the EU and the Baltic States solve the problem of energy supply in case the NPP project is terminated.

  6. Changing geo-political realities in the Arctic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Camilla T. N.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes and discusses how Denmark seeks to manage the changing geopolitical realities in the Arctic region specifically focusing on how Denmark seeks to manage its relations with China in the Arctic region.......This article analyzes and discusses how Denmark seeks to manage the changing geopolitical realities in the Arctic region specifically focusing on how Denmark seeks to manage its relations with China in the Arctic region....

  7. South Baltic wind atlas. South Baltic offshore wind energy regions project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A.; Hahmann, A.; Hasager, C.B.; Bingoel, F.; Karagali, I.; Badger, J.; Badger, M.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2011-05-15

    A first version of a wind atlas for the South Baltic Sea has been developed using the WRF mesoscale model and verified by data from tall Danish and German masts. Six different boundary-layer parametrization schemes were evaluated by comparing the WRF results to the observed wind profiles at the masts. The WRF modeling was done in a nested domain of high spatial resolution for 4 years. In addition the long-term wind statistics using the NCAR-NCEP reanalysis data were performed during 30 years to provide basis for a long-term adjustment of the results and the final WRF results include a weighting for the long-term trends variability in the South Baltic Sea. Observations from Earth observing satellites were used to evaluate the spatial resolution of the WRF model results near the surface. The QuikSCAT and the WRF results compared well whereas the Envisat ASAR mean wind map showed some variation to the others. The long-term analysis revealed that the South Baltic Sea has a spatially highly variable wind climate during the 30-years. (Author)

  8. Trichinella in arctic, subarctic and temperate regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, C. M O

    1997-01-01

    The transmission and occurrence of Trichinella spp according to the zoogeography of different climatic conditions, socioeconomy and human activity are discussed. Comparing arctic, subarctic and temperate regions, it appears that the species of Trichinella present, the composition of the fauna and...

  9. [The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2010-01-01

    Arvustus: The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008. Vienna, 2009

  10. The Arctic Regional Communications Small SATellite (ARCSAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Joseph; Kress, Martin; Sims, William; Spehn, Stephen; Jaeger, Talbot; Sanders, Devon

    2013-01-01

    Traditional satellite missions are extremely complex and expensive to design, build, test, launch and operate. Consequently many complementary operational, exploration and research satellite missions are being formulated as a growing part of the future space community capabilities using formations of small, distributed, simple to launch and inexpensive highly capable small scale satellites. The Arctic Regional Communications small SATellite (ARCSAT) initiative would launch a Mini-Satellite "Mothership" into Polar or Sun Sync low-earth-orbit (LEO). Once on orbit, the Mothership would perform orbital insertion of four internally stored independently maneuverable nanosatellites, each containing electronically steerable antennas and reconfigurable software-defined radios. Unlike the traditional geostationary larger complex satellite communication systems, this LEO communications system will be comprised of initially a five small satellite formation that can be later incrementally increased in the total number of satellites for additional data coverage. ARCSAT will provide significant enabling capabilities in the Arctic for autonomous voice and data communications relay, Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA), data-extraction from unattended sensors, and terrestrial Search & Rescue (SAR) beacon detection missions throughout the "data starved desert" of the Arctic Region.

  11. Wang Jinzhen Attended the Forum on Cooperation & Development between Yangtze River Delta and Baltic Sea Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On October 17,on behalf of CCPIT,Vice-Chairman Wang Jinzhen attended the opening ceremony of the 3rd Forum on Cooperation & Development between Yangtze River Delta Region of China and Baltic Sea Region of Europe,where he delivered a speech.

  12. Geostrategija Rossii v jenergeticheskoj sfere v regione Baltijskogo morja [Russia’s energy geostrategy in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeleneva Irina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores Russian energy policy in the Baltic Sea region in the context of the world energy market globalization. The study focuses on the three Baltic States — Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia — which have a similar geographical location and history. The dynamic development of the region as a whole is strongly influenced by the stability of energy supply in each state. The article analyses the role Russia plays in the energy policy of the region from both geopolitical and geostrategic viewpoints. The author identifies the main characteristics of the Russian energy policy in these countries, and provides with a forecast for energy policy development in the region. A geostrategic approach dictates any successful energy policy in the Baltic Sea region to bring in line Russian interests with those of the European states.

  13. Diagnostic sea ice predictability in the pan-Arctic and U.S. Arctic regional seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, Edward; Bitz, Cecilia M.; Ladd, Carol; Stabeno, Phyllis J.

    2016-11-01

    This study assesses sea ice predictability in the pan-Arctic and U.S. Arctic regional (Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort) seas with a purpose of understanding regional differences from the pan-Arctic perspective and how predictability might change under changing climate. Lagged correlation is derived using existing output from the Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble (CESM-LE), Pan-Arctic Ice-Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System, and NOAA Coupled Forecast System Reanalysis models. While qualitatively similar, quantitative differences exist in Arctic ice area lagged correlation in models with or without data assimilation. On regional scales, modeled ice area lagged correlations are strongly location and season dependent. A robust feature in the CESM-LE is that the pan-Arctic melt-to-freeze season ice area memory intensifies, whereas the freeze-to-melt season memory weakens as climate warms, but there are across-region variations in the sea ice predictability changes with changing climate.

  14. 77 FR 76706 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Threatened Status for the Arctic, Okhotsk, and Baltic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ..., primarily due to concerns about threats to their habitat from climate warming and loss of sea ice. The... review by five scientists with expertise in ringed seal biology, Arctic sea ice, climate change, and... projections and analysis of future sea ice, and in particular snow cover, for Arctic ringed seals (76 FR...

  15. CLIMATE CHANGES AND ADAPTATION POLICIES IN THE BALTIC AND THE ADRIATIC REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Bosnjakovic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of differences and similarities of the current climate changes in the Baltic and Adriatic coastal regions and appropriate adaptation policies on national, regional and European level. All reparian countries are at different stages of developing and implementing national adaptation strategies. The proposal for an overall BSR wide Climate Change Adaptation Strategy and Action Plan has been launched with the aim to recommend actions for climate change adaptation in the Baltic region. No similar agreement has been concluded yet on the protection of the semi-closed Adriatic Sea, the surface of which is about 1/2 of that of the Baltic Sea, and whose coastal region is home to about 1/4 of that of the Baltic Sea. The differences in the socio-economic characteristics and indicators may be partly responsible for the differring attitudes, actions and reporting concerning the adaptation to climate change, both between individual countries, as well as between the two regions as a whole

  16. [The Baltic countries as the birthplace of embryology. Contingencies of a transnational region of science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riha, Ortrun; Schmuck, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Modern embryology is grounded on the research of Pander (theory of germ-layers), von Baer (human egg) and Rathke (branchial arches in mammals). All these scientists lived and worked in the Baltic region. They held professorships at the universities of Koenigsberg and Dorpat and at the Imperial Academy of St. Petersburg, thus moving between the Kingdom of Prussia and the Russian Czardom. Since the Baltic countries are not commonly considered to be predestined as a birthplace of embryology, special attention is turned to the coincidences that, there of all places, made those people focus on that special field of research. Considering the peripheral position of the Baltic, the paper examines personal relations, national identities, cultural exchange, and local working conditions, including room for development as well as formidable obstacles.

  17. Mezhdunarodnoe nauchnoe sotrudnichestvo v Baltijskom regione: naukometricheskij analiz [International research cooperation in the Baltic region: a scientometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsova Tatyana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the processes of international research cooperation in the Baltic Sea region. It focuses on research works published in the leading periodicals in 1993—2012. The empirical material is collected from the world’s largest abstract and citation database, SciVerse Scopus, which makes it possible to evaluate macroindicators at the national and global levels as well as the contribution of scholars to the global progress. The article also offers an assessment of the efficiency of research activities in the Baltic Sea region countries. It is based on a number of scientometric indicators that reflect the performance of universities in terms of research journal publications and the development of research cooperation in the field of Baltic studies. The authors consider the dynamics of research contribution and academic cooperation in the Baltic Sea countries in four leading fields — i. e. agricultural and biological sciences, Earth sciences, ecology and social sciences presented in the SciVerse Scopus scientometric database. The article provides a map of research cooperation in the Baltic Sea region.

  18. [Communication in the early modern Baltic Sea region = Kommunikatsioon varauusaegses Läänemereruumis] / Ulrike Plath

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Plath, Ulrike, 1972-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Communication in the early modern Baltic Sea region = Kommunikatsioon varauusaegses Läänemereruumis. Hrsg. von Enn Küng, Mati Laur, Kersti Lust. Ajalooline Ajakiri. The Estonian Historical Journal 2009. Nr. 3/4 (129/130). (Tartu 2010)

  19. Can regional climate engineering save the summer Arctic sea ice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, S.; Jahn, Alexandra; Kay, Jennifer E.; Holland, Marika; Lamarque, Jean-Francois

    2014-02-01

    Rapid declines in summer Arctic sea ice extent are projected under high-forcing future climate scenarios. Regional Arctic climate engineering has been suggested as an emergency strategy to save the sea ice. Model simulations of idealized regional dimming experiments compared to a business-as-usual greenhouse gas emission simulation demonstrate the importance of both local and remote feedback mechanisms to the surface energy budget in high latitudes. With increasing artificial reduction in incoming shortwave radiation, the positive surface albedo feedback from Arctic sea ice loss is reduced. However, changes in Arctic clouds and the strongly increasing northward heat transport both counteract the direct dimming effects. A 4 times stronger local reduction in solar radiation compared to a global experiment is required to preserve summer Arctic sea ice area. Even with regional Arctic dimming, a reduction in the strength of the oceanic meridional overturning circulation and a shut down of Labrador Sea deep convection are possible.

  20. Regional variations in diffuse nitrogen losses from agriculture in the Nordic and Baltic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vagstad

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes nitrogen losses from, and the characteristics of, 35 selected catchments (12 to 2000 ha in the Nordic and Baltic countries. Average annual losses of N in 1994–1997 ranged from 5 to 75 kg ha-1, generally highest and characterised by significant within-country and interannual variations, in Norway and the lowest losses were observed in the Baltic countries. An important finding of the study is that the average nutrient losses varied greatly among the studied catchments. The main explanations for this variability were water runoff, fertiliser use (especially the amount of manure, soil type and erosion (including stream bank erosion. However, there were several exceptions, and it was difficult to find general relationships between the individual factors. For example, there was poor correlation between nitrogen losses and surpluses. Therefore, the results suggest that the observed variability in N losses cannot have been due solely to differences in farm management practices, although the studied catchments do include a wide range of nutrient application levels, animal densities and other relevant elements. There is considerable spatial variation in the physical properties (soil, climate, hydrology, and topography and the agricultural management of the basins, and the interaction between and relative effects of these factors has an important impact on erosion and nutrient losses. In particular, hydrological processes may have a marked effect on N losses measured in the catchment stream water. The results indicate that significant differences in hydrological pathways (e.g. the relationship between fast- and slow-flow processes lead to major regional differences in N inputs to surface waters and therefore also in the response to changes in field management practices. Agricultural practices such as crop rotation systems, nutrient inputs and soil conservation measures obviously play a significant role in the site-specific effects

  1. High resolution re-analysis for the Baltic Sea region during 1965-2005 period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhamaa, Andres; Maennik, Aarne [University of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia); Estonian Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Tallinn (Estonia); Kimmel, Kaarel; Room, Rein [University of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia)

    2011-02-15

    Regional reanalysis database BaltAn65+ comprising meteorological data for Baltic Sea region for the time period 1965-2005 is described. For data assimilation and hindcasts, the numerical weather prediction model HIRLAM 7.1.4 is applied, with 11 km horizontal and 60-layer vertical resolution. Reanalysis includes three-dimensional weather analysis data. Standard surface observations and meteorological soundings together with ship and buoy measurements from WMO observational network are used in analysis. Boundary fields are obtained from ECMWF ERA-40 global re-analysis. The BaltAn65+ can be considered as a regional refinement of ERA-40 for Baltic Sea region, providing the historical weather and climate data with enhanced spatial resolution, which is main motivation for creation of this novel reanalysis database. (orig.)

  2. Competition and cooperation problems in the energy sector of the Baltic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zverev Yu.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the problems of competition and cooperation in the field of energy in the Baltic region, first of all, those related to the export of Russian oil and oil products, the Nord Stream gas pipeline, and the construction of nuclear plants in Poland, the Kaliningrad region, Lithuania, and Belarus. The author shows that, though Russia and the EU occasionally pursue opposite goals, there is considerable interdependence between them, and a confrontation is disadvantageous for both parties.

  3. Innovations in the Baltic Sea Region and Network Cooperation between Russia and the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorov Gennady

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Transnational (involving countries and cross-border (involving adjacent regions of different countries cooperation and integration are rapidly developing in the Baltic Sea region. Russia lags behind the Nordic countries and Germany as far as innovative development is concerned; yet our national pace here is comparable to that of Poland and the three Baltic States. At the same time, the features of innovative cooperation vary a great deal depending on the group of countries involved in cooperation processes. Independent of its type, however, international cooperation is beneficial for all parties concerned and should therefore be more actively encouraged. Northwestern Federal District traditionally plays a special role in the development of EU-Russia cooperation, since a number of its regions border on the EU countries. The district participates in the development of network innovative structures within the Baltic Sea region. It takes an active part in cross-border cooperation — activities that involve the formation of transborder innovative clusters. There are high expectations associated with the formation of such territorially localised innovative networks, as the Helsinki — Saint Petersburg — Tallinn and Tricity (Gdansk, Gdynia, Sopot — Kaliningrad — Klaipeda transborder innovative clusters. The city of Saint Petersburg and the adjacent Leningrad region, as well as the Kaliningrad region can become innovative development corridors between Russia and the EU and, eventually, develop into the ‘economic growth poles’ of the Russian Federation.

  4. Innovations in the Baltic Sea Region and Network Cooperation between Russia and the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorov G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transnational (involving countries and cross-border (involving adjacent regions of different countries cooperation and integration are rapidly developing in the Baltic Sea region. Russia lags behind the Nordic countries and Germany as far as innovative development is concerned; yet our national pace here is comparable to that of Poland and the three Baltic States. At the same time, the features of innovative cooperation vary a great deal depending on the group of countries involved in cooperation processes. Independent of its type, however, international cooperation is beneficial for all parties concerned and should therefore be more actively encouraged. Northwestern Federal District traditionally plays a special role in the development of EU-Russia cooperation, since a number of its regions border on the EU countries. The district participates in the development of network innovative structures within the Baltic Sea region. It takes an active part in cross-border cooperation — activities that involve the formation of transborder innovative clusters. There are high expectations associated with the formation of such territorially localised innovative networks, as the Helsinki — Saint Petersburg — Tallinn and Tricity (Gdansk, Gdynia, Sopot — Kaliningrad — Klaipeda transborder innovative clusters. The city of Saint Petersburg and the adjacent Leningrad region, as well as the Kaliningrad region can become innovative development corridors between Russia and the EU and, eventually, develop into the ‘economic growth poles’ of the Russian Federation.

  5. Current Status of the Equine Sector in the Central Baltic Region (Finland, Latvia and Sweden)

    OpenAIRE

    Lunner Kolstrup, Christina; Pinzke, Stefan; Löfqvist, Lotta; Järvinen, Maija; Korpa, Viola; Paula, Līga; Kursitis, Andis

    2013-01-01

    This report covers basic descriptions and characteristics of the equine sector, including statistics on number of horses, horse farms, employment, current structure and recent dynamics in the horse sector in Finland, Latvia and Sweden and also the mobility (e.g. trade, import, export and tourism) within the Central Baltic Region. The information was gathered through literature reviews, round table discussions and interviews with equine organisations and stakeholders, and through visits to far...

  6. The Baltic-Pontic region in the Europe-Eurasia dual system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyin M. V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the Baltic-Pontic Sea region not only as a geographical space of Intermarium (Międzymorze, Tarpjūris etc. but also as Intermundium or the interface of European and Russian (Eurasian civilization. The study sets out to clarify the logic of changing patterns shaping this geopolitical area. To this end, the concept of the Baltic-Pontic conflict system proposed by Vadim Tsymbursky is applied and further developed. In contrast to his agent-focused vehicle of analysis disclosing the power interactions in Intermarium, the authors advance an alternative structure-focused model of the Baltic-Pontic system (BPS as a multidimensional evolving space of heterogeneous interactions, which include cooperation. The authors suggest applying the BPS models in interpreting and clarifying historical developments in the area from the late 14th century until the present. The article analyses the spatial, geopolitical and geochronopolitical characteristics of the region, as well as the models of intercivilisational interaction between Europe and Eurasia. The author addresses the issue of the political identity of the region and its ability to play an independent role in the world politics.

  7. The Baltic-Pontic region in the Europe-Eurasia dual system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyin Mikhail

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the Baltic-Pontic Sea region not only as a geographical space of Intermarium (Międzymorze, Tarpjūris etc. but also as Intermundium or the interface of European and Russian (Eurasian civilization. The study sets out to clarify the logic of changing patterns shaping this geopolitical area. To this end, the concept of the Baltic-Pontic conflict system proposed by Vadim Tsymbursky is applied and further developed. In contrast to his agent-focused vehicle of analysis disclosing the power interactions in Intermarium, the authors advance an alternative structure-focused model of the Baltic-Pontic system (BPS as a multidimensional evolving space of heterogeneous interactions, which include cooperation. The authors suggest applying the BPS models in interpreting and clarifying historical developments in the area from the late 14th century until the present. The article analyses the spatial, geopolitical and geochronopolitical characteristics of the region, as well as the models of intercivilisational interaction between Europe and Eurasia. The author addresses the issue of the political identity of the region and its ability to play an independent role in the world politics.

  8. Innovacionnaja jekonomika v regione Baltijskogo morja [Innovative economy in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich Nikolay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovative activity is carried out at three levels — those of the state, region and a company or a university. This article considers the level of development of knowledge-based economy in Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland at each of the three levels, as well as descripes the spatial differentiation of innovative activity within the Baltic region. The analysis is done on the basis of national and international research, as well as statistical data on the intensity of research and development, structure of research expenditure, human capital in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of institutional support for innovative activity. The authors characterise the role of business, university, and authorities — which constitute the «triple helix» — in national innovative systems. The article also analyses such important factors as the intensity of research and development, the share of employees in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of public support. Examples of private-public infrastructure for the implementation of innovative projects are offered.

  9. Saint Petersburg as a Global Coastal City: Positioning in the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachninsky S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic region consists of coastal areas of nine countries — Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. The region’s hubs are the port cities located along the Baltic Sea coast. However, Peter Taylor and Saskia Sassen’s classification identifies higher status cities and ‘global cities’, which are to be considered in the global context. Seven coastal regions are distinguished within this region, whose organising centers are the global coastal cities of Stockholm, Copenhagen, Helsinki, Riga, Tallinn, St. Petersburg, and Malmö. The concept of a “global city-region” (Sassen can be used as a methodological framework for analyzing this connection. Within this hierarchy, the dominant alpha group global city is Stockholm. The authors argue that, as a global coastal city, St. Petersburg forms the St. Petersburg coastal region, which can be defined as a typical "global city region". The index method shows that the position of St. Petersburg in the system of global coastal cities of the Baltic region is relatively favorable in view of its transport, logistics, and demographic potential and the advantageous geo-economic situation. St. Petersburg has certain competitive advantages in the region brought about by its demographic potential, port freight capacity, and the favorable geo-economic position of the "sea gate" of Russia. However, the level of high-tech services and ‘new economy’ development is not sufficient for the port to become a match for the top three cities (Stockholm, Helsinki, and Copenhagen. This is increasingly important because transboundary global city networks demonstrate that global cities are functions of global networks. Saint Petersburg is just starting to integrate into these networks through the Pulkovo airline hub and seaports of Ust-Luga, Primorsk, and Saint Petersburg.

  10. Operational Arctic: The Potential for Crisis or Conflict in the Arctic Region and Application of Operational Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    variables, driving factors and leading indicators related to shaping the near future of the Arctic region with the foreign policy approaches of...experts see the Arctic region as an area that may see more Russian aggressiveness. In Russia in the Arctic , a series of essays by Russian foreign policy ...87Government of Canada, “Canada’s Foreign Policy ,” www.international.gc.ca (accessed on April 16, 2014). 25 the Canadian Arctic oil sands produce

  11. Nutrient abatement potential and abatement costs of waste water treatment plants in the Baltic Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautakangas, Sami; Ollikainen, Markku; Aarnos, Kari; Rantanen, Pirjo

    2014-04-01

    We assess the physical potential to reduce nutrient loads from waste water treatment plants in the Baltic Sea region and determine the costs of abating nutrients based on the estimated potential. We take a sample of waste water treatment plants of different size classes and generalize its properties to the whole population of waste water treatment plants. Based on a detailed investment and operational cost data on actual plants, we develop the total and marginal abatement cost functions for both nutrients. To our knowledge, our study is the first of its kind; there is no other study on this issue which would take advantage of detailed data on waste water treatment plants at this extent. We demonstrate that the reduction potential of nutrients is huge in waste water treatment plants. Increasing the abatement in waste water treatment plants can result in 70 % of the Baltic Sea Action Plan nitrogen reduction target and 80 % of the Baltic Sea Action Plan phosphorus reduction target. Another good finding is that the costs of reducing both nutrients are much lower than previously thought. The large reduction of nitrogen would cost 670 million euros and of phosphorus 150 million euros. We show that especially for phosphorus the abatement costs in agriculture would be much higher than in waste water treatment plants.

  12. AROME-Arctic: New operational NWP model for the Arctic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süld, Jakob; Dale, Knut S.; Myrland, Espen; Batrak, Yurii; Homleid, Mariken; Valkonen, Teresa; Seierstad, Ivar A.; Randriamampianina, Roger

    2016-04-01

    In the frame of the EU-funded project ACCESS (Arctic Climate Change, Economy and Society), MET Norway aimed 1) to describe the present monitoring and forecasting capabilities in the Arctic; and 2) to identify the key factors limiting the forecasting capabilities and to give recommendations on key areas to improve the forecasting capabilities in the Arctic. We have observed that the NWP forecast quality is lower in the Arctic than in the regions further south. Earlier research indicated that one of the factors behind this is the composition of the observing system in the Arctic, in particular the scarceness of conventional observations. To further assess possible strategies for alleviating the situation and propose scenarios for a future Arctic observing system, we have performed a set of experiments to gain a more detailed insight in the contribution of the components of the present observing system in a regional state-of-the-art non-hydrostatic NWP model using the AROME physics (Seity et al, 2011) at 2.5 km horizontal resolution - AROME-Arctic. Our observing system experiment studies showed that conventional observations (Synop, Buoys) can play an important role in correcting the surface state of the model, but prove that the present upper-air conventional (Radiosondes, Aircraft) observations in the area are too scarce to have a significant effect on forecasts. We demonstrate that satellite sounding data play an important role in improving forecast quality. This is the case with satellite temperature sounding data (AMSU-A, IASI), as well as with the satellite moisture sounding data (AMSU-B/MHS, IASI). With these sets of observations, the AROME-Arctic clearly performs better in forecasting extreme events, like for example polar lows. For more details see presentation by Randriamampianina et al. in this session. The encouraging performance of AROME-Arctic lead us to implement it with more observations and improved settings into daily runs with the objective to

  13. Geopolitical and Geo-economic Changes in the Baltic Sea Region at the Turn of the XX—XXI centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretinin Gennady V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the process and results of the geopolitical and geoeconomic changes in the Baltic Sea region at the turn of the XX and XXI centuries. The authors assess the political, economic and military potential of individual countries and groups of countries. Ranking the selected countries and grouping them according to the similarity of their characteristics requires a variety of methods — the economic, statistical, cartographic, graphic-analytical methods, to name just a few. In the late 1980s — early 1990s, there were three socialist countries in the Baltic Sea region. They were signatories of the Warsaw Pact and members of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (the Soviet Union, Poland and East Germany. The Baltic Sea region housed four market economies (Sweden, Finland, Denmark and Germany. Only two of them were members of NATO and the EU (Germany and Denmark. At present, there are eight EU countries in the region; six of them are NATO members (Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, and the same two countries, Sweden and Finland, remain outside the bloc. Russia, the legal successor of the USSR, is neither a NATO, nor an EU member. The authors explore similarities and differences between countries of the Baltic Sea region in terms of their territory, population, GDP, foreign trade turnover and the number of regular armed forces. The article stresses the importance of international cooperation in increasing the growth rates of economic development of all countries of the Baltic Sea region.

  14. Geodynamics, Seismicity, Minerageny and Ecology of Arctic Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutinov, Y. G.

    The researches of Arctic region is necessary for beginning from delimitation of Arctic. Geographically concept "Arctic" uncertain enough. There is a set of approach to definition of its borders and set the variants of these borders (eternal permafrost, boreal tayga, drifting ice, temperature, etc.). Most correct the point of view of Ecology is realization of Arctic borders on borders of the Arctic geo - depression. Such approach allows to consider in a complex migration of natural substance and polluting substance from orogenes to deep-water hollows of Arctic Ocean. On other hand, it is necessary to take into account natural power flows from zone of Mid-Arctic ridge system at Arctic Ocean to continental land, that is opposition direction process. The certificates of such influence at different levels of Earth's crust already has collected enough (speed of seismic wave on Moho discontinuity; modern vertical movement of Earth's crust; distribution of temperature on depth; structure of basement, etc.). During the last 250 million years the Arctic geo-depression has been developing as an autonomous region with circumpolar zonality, and mass-and-energy transfer in its bowlers as well as shitting of lithospheric plates and expansion of the ocean are caused by rotational forces under conditions of an expanding planet. Four types of geoecological structures have been recorded on the basis of deep structures, position in the over-all structures of regions, place in geological history of its evolution, time of appearance, geodynamic regimes , seismicity, structural-morphological features, specific form of appearance and composition of magmatic and sedimentary formations, compositions of soil, specific metallogenic nature, types of human activity, etc. It is tectonic Segments of Earth, as geoecological global structures; the continental marginal perioceanic zones; the branches of continental marginal perioceanic zones; the mineragenic province. The main criteria of ecological

  15. Jelektrojenergeticheskaja kooperacija v Baltijskom regione i rol' v nej Rossii [Electric energy cooperation in the Baltic Sea region and the role of Russia in it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zverev Yuri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines cooperation in the electric energy sector in the Baltic region. The author explores the existing undersea HVDC power exchange projects. It is emphasised that cooperation in the electric energy sector is concentrated largely in the EU member states despite earlier plans to establish the Baltic energy ring, which would also include Russia and Belarus. The author stresses that one of the most acute problems for the EU today is overcoming isolation of the energy systems of the Baltic States (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia from that of the major part of the EU. This task has become especially relevant after the closing of the Ignalina NPP (Lithuania, which used to be the primary energy source for the three Baltic States. The article examines key projects of the construction of new international power transmission lines in the framework of the Baltic Energy Market Interconnection Plan (BEMIP and the prospects of the Visaginas NPP (Lithuania in solving energy problems of the Baltic States. The author analyses Russia’s role in the electric energy market and focuses on a possible increase of the country’s energy market share following the construction of the Baltic NPP and the export of generated electric energy to Poland, Lithuania, Germany, and Sweden. The author concludes that the prospects of Russia’s energy export to the Baltic Sea region will be determined not only by technological, economic and market factors, but rather by the general state of relations between Russia and the EU. Moreover, a lot depends on Lithuania’s decision on the construction of the Visaginas NPP, as well as the way the EU and the Baltic States solve the problem of energy supply in case the NPP project is terminated.

  16. Sustainable Production through Innovation in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdas Arbačiauskas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article provides brief information about the international project SPIN (Sustainable Productionthrough Innovation in SMEs that is under implementation in the Baltic Sea region to intensify ecoinnovationdevelopment and implementation. It presents initial findings from the study conducted in theframework of this project, particularly, an overview of the SME sector (including the structure of the SMEsector, contribution of SMEs to the national economy and the situation concerning innovationimplementation in Lithuania as well as the framework situation concerning eco-innovation development andimplementation (including available financial support. The key SME needs in development andimplementation of eco-innovations are also discussed in the article.

  17. Results of seismological observations in the western Kaliningrad region and in the Baltic Sea water area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovachev, S. A.

    2008-09-01

    In 2006 2007, researchers of the IO RAS conducted seismological observations in the Baltic Sea and western Kaliningrad region with the use of ocean-bottom and land-based autonomous seismic stations. According to maps of general seismic zoning of the territory of Russia, the Kaliningrad region is aseismic. However, a series of seismic phenomena with magnitudes of about 5 and sources located near the Bay of Gdansk coast occurred here in September 2004. The total duration of the IO RAS seismological observations in five areas of the region under investigation was more than 200 days. The analysis of seismic records of the IO RAS network located sources of two local weak earthquakes with magnitudes M L = 3.4 3.5, which indicates that the seismic process in the western part of the Kaliningrad region continues and the region is far from being seismically stable.

  18. Marshak Lectureship Talk: Women in Physics in the Baltic States Region: Problems and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satkovskiene, Dalia

    2008-03-01

    In this contribution the gender equality problem in physics will be discussed on the basis of the results obtained implementing the project ``Baltic States Network: Women in Sciences and High Technology'' (BASNET) initiated by Lithuanian women physicists and financed by European Commission. The main goal of BASNET project was creation of the regional Strategy how to deal with women in sciences problem in the Baltic States. It has some stages and the contribution follows them. The first one was in depth sociological study aiming to find out disincentives and barriers women scientists face in their career and work at science and higher education institutions. Analysis of results revealed wide range of problems concerned with science organization, management and financing common for both counterparts. However it also proved the existence of women discrimination in sciences. As main factors influencing women under-representation in Physics was found: the stereotypes existing in the society where physics is assigned to the masculine area of activity; failings of the science management system, where highest positions are distributed not using the institutionalized objective criteria but by voting, where the correctness of majority solutions is anticipated implicitly. In physics where male scientists are the majority (they also usually compose executive boards, committees etc.) results of such a procedures often are unfavorable for women. The same reasons also influence women ``visibility'' in physicist's community and as the consequence possibility to receive needed recourses for their research as well as appropriate presentation of results obtained. The study revealed also the conservatism of scientific community- reluctance to face existing in the scientific society problems and to start solving them. On the basis of the results obtained as well practice of other countries the common strategy of solving women in physics (sciences) in the Baltic States region was

  19. Arctic Region Policy: Information Sharing Model Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    specializations , meaning that expertise is not blended into a process that focuses on one sector over another. Figure 25 highlights APIP’s ability to...8 Figure 5. 2004 Arctic Maritime Activity (From Treadwell, 2009, p. 48) .............. 10 Figure 6. Explorer Stuck in the Antarctic (From New...been a Titanic situation, such as what happened to the cruise ship EXPLORER in the Antarctic in November 2007 as shown in Figure 6 (Browley & 11

  20. Modeling nutrient transports and exchanges of nutrients between shallow regions and the open Baltic sea in present and future climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilola, Kari; Rosell, Elin Almroth; Dieterich, Christian; Fransner, Filippa; Höglund, Anders; Meier, H E Markus

    2012-09-01

    We quantified horizontal transport patterns and the net exchange of nutrients between shallow regions and the open sea in the Baltic proper. A coupled biogeochemical-physical circulation model was used for transient simulations 1961-2100. The model was driven by regional downscaling of the IPCC climate change scenario A1B from two global General Circulation Models in combination with two nutrient load scenarios. Modeled nutrient transports followed mainly the large-scale internal water circulation and showed only small circulation changes in the future projections. The internal nutrient cycling and exchanges between shallow and deeper waters became intensified, and the internal removal of phosphorus became weaker in the warmer future climate. These effects counteracted the impact from nutrient load reductions according to the Baltic Sea Action Plan. The net effect of climate change and nutrient reductions was an increased net import of dissolved inorganic phosphorus to shallow areas in the Baltic proper.

  1. Transnacional'naja territorial'naja transportnaja sistema Baltijskogo regiona [The transnational territorial transport system of the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumenyuk Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on the structure and territorial borders of the Baltic Sea region, and examine the key structural elements of the transnational territorial transport system. In this respect, we clarify some terms used in transport geography. For the first time the transport system gets territorially localized, which allows for a broad range of new studies of transnational transportation in the Baltic Sea area. We also identify the main principles of development and operation of international territorial transport systems and present them taking the Baltic Sea region as an example. Our findings, we hope, will have a great practical application for researchers of transport geography, especially those studying international logistics.

  2. Studying luminescent characteristics of the specific surfactants in various regions of the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdowska, V.; Darecki, M.; Gutowska, D.; Makuch, P.; Kowalczyk, J.; Strzałkowska, A.; Petelski, T.; Piskozub, J.

    2012-04-01

    The sea surface layer is the interface between the atmosphere and marine environment, where there are a variety of physical, biological and chemical processes that contribute to accumulation and exchange of surface-active-agents (surfactants). At the same time the dynamic properties of the water surface (surface wave spectrum) and fluxes (especially in gas exchange and production of marine aerosol) and even the apparent and real optical properties of seawater are affected by the surfactants gathered on the sea surface. Moreover, the presence of the surface film may restrict the supply of light energy into the depths of the sea. The study was conducted in different regions of the Baltic Sea which also assessed the impact of external environment (estuaries, vicinity of the ports and shipping routs) on the marine environment. The primary scientific objectives were: - to investigate the variability of luminescent properties of surfactants and organic matter contained in the surface film and layer of the sea from the results of spectrophotometric studies. - to find any special surfactants (characterized by luminescent properties) occurring in certain regions of the Baltic. The practical aim was to answer the question whether and to what extent changes in luminescence properties of organic matter contained in the film and the layer depend on the biological activity of the basin and how they affect the water leaving radiance remotely measured over the surface of the sea.

  3. Seismicity, structure and tectonics in the Arctic region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masaki Kanao; Vladimir D. Suvorov; Shigeru Toda; Seiji Tsuboi

    2015-01-01

    The“Arctic”region, where the North Pole occupies the center of the Arctic Ocean, has been affecting the environmental variation of the Earth from geological time to the present. However, the seismic activities in the area are not adequately monitored. Therefore, by conducting long term monitoring of seismic phenomenon as sustainable parameters, our understanding of both the tectonic evolution of the Earth and the dynamic interaction between the cryosphere and geosphere in surface layers of the Earth will increase. In this paper, the association of the seismicity and structure of the Arctic region, particularly focused on Eurasian continent and surrounding oceans, and its relationship with regional evolution during the Earth’s history is studied. The target areas cover representative tectonic provinces in the Eurasian Arctic, such as the wide area of Siberia, Baikal Rift Zone, Far East Russia, Arctic Ocean together with Greenland and Northern Canada. Based on discussion including characteristics of seismicity, het-erogeneous structure of the crust and upper mantle, tectonic history and recent dynamic features of the Earth’s surface in the Arctic are summarized.

  4. Seismicity, structure and tectonics in the Arctic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Kanao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The “Arctic” region, where the North Pole occupies the center of the Arctic Ocean, has been affecting the environmental variation of the Earth from geological time to the present. However, the seismic activities in the area are not adequately monitored. Therefore, by conducting long term monitoring of seismic phenomenon as sustainable parameters, our understanding of both the tectonic evolution of the Earth and the dynamic interaction between the cryosphere and geosphere in surface layers of the Earth will increase. In this paper, the association of the seismicity and structure of the Arctic region, particularly focused on Eurasian continent and surrounding oceans, and its relationship with regional evolution during the Earth's history is studied. The target areas cover representative tectonic provinces in the Eurasian Arctic, such as the wide area of Siberia, Baikal Rift Zone, Far East Russia, Arctic Ocean together with Greenland and Northern Canada. Based on discussion including characteristics of seismicity, heterogeneous structure of the crust and upper mantle, tectonic history and recent dynamic features of the Earth's surface in the Arctic are summarized.

  5. Dvigateli regional'nogo stroitel'stva. Vlijanie regional'nyh politicheskih organizacij na sotrudnichestvo universitetov v regione Baltijskogo morja [Motors for regional development: impact on regional political organizations on the university cooperation in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewert Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Educational co-operation is one of the main aspects of the regional political agenda in the Baltic Sea Region. The article analyzes the political impact of the organizations, as perceived by the universities in the region and political decision-makers on national and regional levels. Based on the success of the OECD in becoming an influential actor in educational policies, this article discusses different strategies for the regional political organizations to enhance their influence.

  6. Linkages between Arctic sea ice cover, large-scale atmospheric circulation, and weather and ice conditions in the Gulf of Bothnia, Baltic Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Timo Vihma; Bin Cheng; Petteri Uotila; WEI Lixin; QIN Ting

    2014-01-01

    During years 1980/1981–2012/2013, inter-annual variations in sea ice and snow thickness in Kemi, in the northern coast of the Gulf of Bothnia, Baltic Sea, depended on the air temperature, snow fall, and rain. Inter-annual variations in the November—April mean air temperature, accumulated total precipitation, snow fall, and rain, as well as ice and snow thickness in Kemi and ice concentration in the Gulf of Bothnia correlated with inter-annual variations of the Paciifc Decadal Oscillation (PDO), Arctic Oscillation (AO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Scandinavian Pattern (SCA), and Polar / Eurasian Pattern (PEU). The strong role of PDO is a new ifnding. In general, the relationships with PDO were approximately equally strong as those with AO, but rain and sea ice concentration were better correlated with PDO. The correlations with PDO were, however, not persistent; for a study period since 1950 the correlations were much lower. During 1980/1981—2012/2013, also the Paciifc / North American Pattern (PNA) and El Nino–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) had statistical connections with the conditions in the Gulf of Bothnia, revealed by analyzing their effects combined with those of PDO and AO. A reduced autumn sea ice area in the Arctic was related to increased rain and total precipitation in the following winter in Kemi. This correlation was signiifcant for the Pan-Arctic sea ice area in September, October, and November, and for the November sea ice area in the Barents / Kara seas.

  7. Arctic climate change in an ensemble of regional CORDEX simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben Koenigk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fifth phase Climate Model Intercomparison Project historical and scenario simulations from four global climate models (GCMs using the Representative Concentration Pathways greenhouse gas concentration trajectories RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 are downscaled over the Arctic with the regional Rossby Centre Atmosphere model (RCA. The regional model simulations largely reflect the circulation bias patterns of the driving global models in the historical period, indicating the importance of lateral and lower boundary conditions. However, local differences occur as a reduced winter 2-m air temperature bias over the Arctic Ocean and increased cold biases over land areas in RCA. The projected changes are dominated by a strong warming in the Arctic, exceeding 15°K in autumn and winter over the Arctic Ocean in RCP8.5, strongly increased precipitation and reduced sea-level pressure. Near-surface temperature and precipitation are linearly related in the Arctic. The wintertime inversion strength is reduced, leading to a less stable stratification of the Arctic atmosphere. The diurnal temperature range is reduced in all seasons. The large-scale change patterns are dominated by the surface and lateral boundary conditions so future response is similar in RCA and the driving global models. However, the warming over the Arctic Ocean is smaller in RCA; the warming over land is larger in winter and spring but smaller in summer. The future response of winter cloud cover is opposite in RCA and the GCMs. Precipitation changes in RCA are much larger during summer than in the global models and more small-scale change patterns occur.

  8. Nuclear power in the Baltic Sea region: the history of emergence and the political and economic features of its development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretinin G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the development of peaceful nuclear power. The author draws attention to the fact that nuclear power is a rather young branch of national economy. However, over recent decades, it has already seen rises and falls, and a number of states have had tragic experiences of nuclear emergencies. Nevertheless, many countries — including the three Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania — express a strong interest in development, generation, and application of nuclear power. In the Baltic States, nuclear power dates back to the Soviet times, but its development was suspended pursuant to the EU regulations (the Ignalina NPP. Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia have been striving for energy independence from Russia — the principal supplier of energy carriers to these countries. For a long time, the three Baltic States have been proclaiming their unanimity on the general European path of development. However, the reality proved to be different. The touchstone for achieving common goals was the idea of constructing a new NPP at the site of the closed Ignalina NPP. The author concludes that the joint construction of a new NPP is quite questionable. When it comes to politics, each of the three Baltic States is ready to build its own NPP. Thus, the development of nuclear power in the Baltic Sea region requires joint coordinated actions independent of any bloc-inspired interests of the states involved. Moreover, this success may prove sustainable if the actions are based on innovative decisions and modern technologies.

  9. Russian sub-national actors: paradiplomacies in the Arctic region

    OpenAIRE

    Sergunin, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The paper aims at examining Russian sub-state units' Arctic 'foreign policies'. The paper starts from discussing which theories are applicable to explaining the phenomenon of paradiplomacy. Particularly, the paper focuses on the following strategies/methods of paradiplomacy: making direct agreements with international partners; attracting foreign investment; creating regions' positive image; cooperation with international organizations; establishing representative offices in foreign countries...

  10. Advancement into the Arctic region for bioactive sponge secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Samuel; Kelly, Michelle; Bowling, John; Sims, James; Waters, Amanda; Hamann, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Porifera have long been a reservoir for the discovery of bioactive compounds and drug discovery. Most research in the area has focused on sponges from tropical and temperate waters, but more recently the focus has shifted to the less accessible colder waters of the Antarctic and, to a lesser extent, the Arctic. The Antarctic region in particular has been a more popular location for natural products discovery and has provided promising candidates for drug development. This article reviews groups of bioactive compounds that have been isolated and reported from the southern reaches of the Arctic Circle, surveys the known sponge diversity present in the Arctic waters, and details a recent sponge collection by our group in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. The collection has yielded previously undescribed sponge species along with primary activity against opportunistic infectious diseases, malaria, and HCV. The discovery of new sponge species and bioactive crude extracts gives optimism for the isolation of new bioactive compounds from a relatively unexplored source.

  11. Deep and shallow structures in the Arctic region imaged by satellite magnetic and gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaina, Carmen; Panet, Isabelle; Shephard, Grace

    2016-07-01

    , volcanic crust, but, as in the case of other oceanic Large Igneous Provinces, only deep sea drilling will be able to reveal the true nature of the underlying crust at the core of the Arctic. The oldest continental crust, usually found in the cratonic areas and as Proterozoic accreted crust, generates the largest positive magnetic anomalies. This crust contains large and deep volcanic bodies in the North American shield, Greenland, the Baltic shield in Eurasia and the Siberian platform in NE Asia, and are imaged by the satellite data. Furthermore, satellite data is not only restricted to revealing crustal and lithospheric depths. Recent workflows have shown that subducted remnants of ocean basins, now located in the lower mantle, as well as large, antipodal features on the core-mantle boundary, can be imaged by satellite gravity. Seismic tomography provides evidence for an extinct Mesozoic Arctic ocean lying around 1400 km under present-day Greenland. However, the variable resolution of seismic tomography at high latitudes, as well as ambiguity in plate reconstructions, renders the existence of the slab open to interpretation. Critically, the current location of the slab also matches perturbations in long-wavelength gravity gradients, providing further support for a deep density anomaly and a slab origin. Gravity data therefore provides a complementary and independent link in linking surface events and deep mantle structure in frontier regions like the Arctic. By revealing the present-day structure, satellite-derived magnetics and gravity offer a critical component in our understanding of Arctic history, over timescales of millions of years and scales of thousands of kilometers.

  12. Problem zone and pioneer region. The Baltic region between controversies of energy policy and cooperative projects; Problemzone und Vorreiterregion. Der Ostseeraum im Spannungsfeld energiepolitischer Kontroversen und Kooperationsvorhaben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Kai-Olaf

    2010-10-15

    This publication describes how for the EU states bordering on the Baltic coast energy policy and energy economy have become crucial fields of bilateral and regional cooperation. On the one side this is attributable to the controversial Nord Stream Pipeline, growing concerns over the security of supply, vulnerabilities in energy policy - be they real or imagined - and to competing energy economic interests. On the other side, what has drawn numerous players' attention to the greater Baltic region as an attractive area in terms of energy policy are the prospects for multilateral cooperation projects and associated hopes for greater regional solidarity in issues of energy policy. In this sense the Baltic region is not only an energy political problem zone but also a potential pioneer region, namely when it comes to energy economic and energy political integration within the EU. This ambivalence should continue to characterise the region for the foreseeable future. The extent to which energy economic integration will in future prevail over particular national interests of energy and security policy will greatly depend on the initiatives which the EU Baltic states succeed in launching cooperatively at EU level.

  13. Advancement into the Arctic Region for Bioactive Sponge Secondary Metabolites

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Hamann; Amanda Waters; James Sims; John Bowling; Michelle Kelly; Samuel Abbas

    2011-01-01

    Porifera have long been a reservoir for the discovery of bioactive compounds and drug discovery. Most research in the area has focused on sponges from tropical and temperate waters, but more recently the focus has shifted to the less accessible colder waters of the Antarctic and, to a lesser extent, the Arctic. The Antarctic region in particular has been a more popular location for natural products discovery and has provided promising candidates for drug development. This article reviews grou...

  14. [The reception of medieval Europe in the Baltic Sea region, Papers of the XIIth Visby Symposium held at Gotland University, Visby] / Juhan Kreem

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreem, Juhan, 1971-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: The reception of medieval Europe in the Baltic Sea Region : papers of the XIIth Visby Symposium, held at Gotland University, Visby / editor: Jörn Staecker. Visby : Gotland University Press, 2009. (Acta Visbyensia ; 12)

  15. [The Reception of Medieval Europa in the Baltic Sea Region. Papers of the XIIth Visby Symposium held at Gotland University, Visby] / Stefan Donecker

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Donecker, Stefan, 1977-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus : The Reception of Medieval Europa in the Baltic Sea Region. Papers of the XIIth Visby Symposium held at Gotland University, Visby. Viby : Gotland University Press, 2009. (Acta Visbyensia. 12)

  16. Relationship between Eurasian large-scale patterns and regional climate variability over the Black and Baltic Seas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankunavicius, G.; Pupienis, D. [Vilnius Univ. (Lithuania). Dept. of Hydrology and Climatology; Basharin, D. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Sevastopol (Ukraine). Sevastopol Marine Hydrophysical Inst.

    2012-11-01

    Using a NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis dataset and the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis approach we studied interannual to decadal variabilities of the sea-level air pressure (SLP) and the surface air temperature (SAT) fields over Eurasia during the 2nd part of the 20th century. Our results agree with those of the previous studies, which conclude that Eurasian trends are the result of storm-path changes driven by the interdecadal behaviour of the NAO-like meridional dipole pattern in the Atlantic. On interannual and decadal time scales, significant synchronous correlations between correspondent modes of SAT and SLP EOF patterns were found. This fact suggests that there is a strong and stable Eurasian interrelationship between SAT and SLP large-scale fields which affects the local climate of two sub-regions: the Black and Baltic Seas. The climate variability in these sub-regions was studied in terms of Eurasian large-scale surface-temperature and air-pressure patterns responses. We concluded that the sub-regional climate variability substantially differs over the Black and Baltic Seas, and depends on different Eurasian large-scale patterns. We showed that the Baltic Sea region is influenced by the patterns arising primary from NAO-like meridional dipole, as well as Scandinavian patterns, while the Black Sea's SAT/SLP variability is influenced mainly by the second mode EOF (eastern Atlantic) and large scale tropospheric wave structures. (orig.)

  17. «Goroda-bliznecy»: novaja forma prigranichnogo sotrudnichestva v Baltijskom regione? [Twin cities: a new form of cross-border cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anishenko Anatoly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates the first attempt in Russian political studies to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the “twin city” movement as a form of cross-border cooperation in the Baltic region. This phenomenon emerged as a result of a global tendency towards more active involvement of municipal units in international cooperation, on the one hand, and aspirations of frontier cities and towns in the Baltic region to solve common problems together, on the other hand. This work is based on a comparative analysis method and a case study methodology. The authors consider four examples (city pairs: Tornio — Haparanda, Valga — Valka, Narva — Ivangorod and Imatra — Svetogorsk. The article specifies the terminological framework used in this field of research. The authors analyse achievements and failures of this type of international inter-municipal cooperation and emphasise that for twin cities it served not only as a means of survival in the difficult situation of the 1990s, but also as an experimental ground for new forms of crossborder cooperation. The authors arrive at the conclusion that this model proves to be promising for further development of integration processes in the Baltic region. This practice can be applied by Russian municipal, regional and federal authorities in promotion of cross-border cooperation not only in the Baltic region, but also in other regions of the country. Thus, influenced by the successful experience of Baltic frontier cities and towns, the Russian city of Nikel and the Norwegian city of Kirkenes decided to adopt this model for further development of their cooperation.

  18. Regional variability in food availability for Arctic marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluhm, Bodil A; Gradinger, Rolf

    2008-03-01

    This review provides an overview of prey preferences of seven core Arctic marine mammal species (AMM) and four non-core species on a pan-Arctic scale with regional examples. Arctic marine mammal species exploit prey resources close to the sea ice, in the water column, and at the sea floor, including lipid-rich pelagic and benthic crustaceans and pelagic and ice-associated schooling fishes such as capelin and Arctic cod. Prey preferred by individual species range from cephalopods and benthic bivalves to Greenland halibut. A few AMM are very prey-, habitat-, and/or depth-specific (e.g., walrus, polar bear), while others are rather opportunistic and, therefore, likely less vulnerable to change (e.g., beluga, bearded seal). In the second section, we review prey distribution patterns and current biomass hotspots in the three major physical realms (sea ice, water column, and seafloor), highlighting relations to environmental parameters such as advection patterns and the sea ice regime. The third part of the contribution presents examples of documented changes in AMM prey distribution and biomass and, subsequently, suggests three potential scenarios of large-scale biotic change, based on published observations and predictions of environmental change. These scenarios discuss (1) increased pelagic primary and, hence, secondary production, particularly in the central Arctic, during open-water conditions in the summer (based on surplus nutrients currently unutilized); (2) reduced benthic and pelagic biomass in coastal/shelf areas (due to increased river runoff and, hence, changed salinity and turbidity conditions); and (3) increased pelagic grazing and recycling in open-water conditions at the expense of the current tight benthic-pelagic coupling in part of the ice-covered shelf regions (due to increased pelagic consumption vs. vertical flux). Should those scenarios hold true, pelagic-feeding and generalist AMM might be advantaged, while the range for benthic shelf

  19. Spatial Distribution of Carbonaceous Aerosol in the Southeastern Baltic Sea Region (Event of Grass Fires)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudoitis, Vadimas; Byčenkienė, Steigvilė; Plauškaitė, Kristina; Bozzetti, Carlo; Fröhlich, Roman; Mordas, Genrik; Ulevičius, Vidmantas

    2016-05-01

    The aerosol chemical composition in air masses affected by large vegetation fires transported from the Kaliningrad region (Russia) and southeast regions (Belarus and Ukraine) during early spring (March 2014) was characterized at the remote background site of Preila, Lithuania. In this study, the chemical composition of the particulate matter was studied by high temporal resolution instruments, including an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) and a seven-wavelength aethalo-meter. Air masses were transported from twenty to several hundred kilometres, arriving at the measurement station after approximately half a day of transport. The concentration-weighted trajectory analysis suggests that organic aerosol particles are mainly transported over the Baltic Sea and the continent (southeast of Belarus). Results show that a significant fraction of the vegetation burning organic aerosol is transformed into oxidised forms in less than a half-day. Biomass burning aerosol (BBOA) was quantified from the ACSM data using a positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis, while its spatial distribution was evaluated using air mass clustering approach.

  20. Spatial distribution of carbonaceous aerosol in the southeastern Baltic Sea region (event of grass fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudoitis Vadimas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aerosol chemical composition in air masses affected by large vegetation fires transported from the Kaliningrad region (Russia and southeast regions (Belarus and Ukraine during early spring (March 2014 was characterized at the remote background site of Preila, Lithuania. In this study, the chemical composition of the particulate matter was studied by high temporal resolution instruments, including an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM and a seven-wavelength aethalometer. Air masses were transported from twenty to several hundred kilometres, arriving at the measurement station after approximately half a day of transport. The concentration-weighted trajectory analysis suggests that organic aerosol particles are mainly transported over the Baltic Sea and the continent (southeast of Belarus. Results show that a significant fraction of the vegetation burning organic aerosol is transformed into oxidised forms in less than a half-day. Biomass burning aerosol (BBOA was quantified from the ACSM data using a positive matrix factorization (PMF analysis, while its spatial distribution was evaluated using air mass clustering approach.

  1. Arctic Region Space Weather Customers and SSA Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Per; Kauristi, Kirsti; Wintoft, Peter

    Arctic inhabitants, authorities, and companies rely strongly on precise localization information and communication covering vast areas with low infrastructure and population density. Thus modern technology is crucial for establishing knowledge that can lead to growth in the region. At the same time...... it is crucial for the development of the industrial sectors and transportation systems in the Arctic that the digital infrastructure for higher-level information are operating at the standards for modern industrial societies. This can only be done if the precision of the localization information...... and communication can be established without errors resulting from Space Weather effects. An ESA project have identified and clarified, how the products of the four ESA Space Weather Expert Service Centres (SWE) in the ESA Space Situational Awareness Programme (SSA), can contribute to the requirements of SSA...

  2. Evaluation of the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) - Process-resolving Arctic Climate Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslowski, Wieslaw

    2016-04-01

    The Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) has been developed to better understand the past and present operation of Arctic System at process scale and to predict its change at time scales from days to decades, in support of the US environmental assessment and prediction needs. RASM is a limited-area, fully coupled ice-ocean-atmosphere-land model that uses the Community Earth System Model (CESM) framework. It includes the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, the LANL Parallel Ocean Program (POP) and Community Ice Model (CICE) and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land hydrology model. The ocean and sea ice models used in RASM are regionally configured versions of those used in CESM, while WRF replaces the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM). In addition, a streamflow routing (RVIC) model was recently implemented in RASM to transport the freshwater flux from the land surface to the Arctic Ocean. The model domain is configured at an eddy-permitting resolution of 1/12° (or ~9km) for the ice-ocean and 50 km for the atmosphere-land model components. It covers the entire Northern Hemisphere marine cryosphere, terrestrial drainage to the Arctic Ocean and its major inflow and outflow pathways, with optimal extension into the North Pacific / Atlantic to model the passage of cyclones into the Arctic. In addition, a 1/48° (or ~2.4km) grid for the ice-ocean model components has been recently configured. All RASM components are coupled at high frequency (currently at 20-minute intervals) to allow realistic representation of inertial interactions among the model components. In addition to an overview of RASM technical details, model results are presented from both fully coupled and subsets of RASM, where the atmospheric and land components are replaced with prescribed realistic atmospheric reanalysis data to evaluate model skill in representing seasonal climatology as well as interannual and multidecadal climate variability. Selected physical processes and resulting

  3. Relating Regional Arctic Sea Ice and climate extremes over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionita-Scholz, Monica; Grosfeld, Klaus; Lohmann, Gerrit; Scholz, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The potential increase of temperature extremes under climate change is a major threat to society, as temperature extremes have a deep impact on environment, hydrology, agriculture, society and economy. Hence, the analysis of the mechanisms underlying their occurrence, including their relationships with the large-scale atmospheric circulation and sea ice concentration, is of major importance. At the same time, the decline in Arctic sea ice cover during the last 30 years has been widely documented and it is clear that this change is having profound impacts at regional as well as planetary scale. As such, this study aims to investigate the relation between the autumn regional sea ice concentration variability and cold winters in Europe, as identified by the numbers of cold nights (TN10p), cold days (TX10p), ice days (ID) and consecutive frost days (CFD). We analyze the relationship between Arctic sea ice variation in autumn (September-October-November) averaged over eight different Arctic regions (Barents/Kara Seas, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi/Bering Seas, Central Arctic, Greenland Sea, Labrador Sea/Baffin Bay, Laptev/East Siberian Seas and Northern Hemisphere) and variations in atmospheric circulation and climate extreme indices in the following winter season over Europe using composite map analysis. Based on the composite map analysis it is shown that the response of the winter extreme temperatures over Europe is highly correlated/connected to changes in Arctic sea ice variability. However, this signal is not symmetrical for the case of high and low sea ice years. Moreover, the response of temperatures extreme over Europe to sea ice variability over the different Arctic regions differs substantially. The regions which have the strongest impact on the extreme winter temperature over Europe are: Barents/Kara Seas, Beaufort Sea, Central Arctic and the Northern Hemisphere. For the years of high sea ice concentration in the Barents/Kara Seas there is a reduction in the number

  4. A comprehensive validation toolbox for regional ocean models - Outline, implementation and application to the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandt, Simon; Laagemaa, Priidik; Janssen, Frank

    2014-05-01

    version is compared with the previous version. Although, the toolbox is mainly tested for the Baltic Sea yet, it can easily be adapted to different datasets and parameters, regardless of the geographic region. In this presentation the usability of the toolbox is demonstrated along with several results of the validation process.

  5. Strategic Networking in the Technical HEI‘s of the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justas Nugaras

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the empirical research of the networking of Technical Higher Education Institutions (HEI‘S of the Baltic Sea region. The research was conducted in order to understand how the Social Network Analysis (SNA and network mapping methods could help to strengthen institution’s strategic perspective through networking. The author analyse the interaction phenomena in the Higher education sector; its’ impact for networking of institutions and for the network itself; the role of the position in the networks; abilities to strengthen the node’s perception of the network for the strategizing purposes. The research was based on the SNA of the Erasmus programme student mobility data. The results of the research cover the implications of aspects of the network centrality, clustering and ego networks let to identify the node’s position in the network, and to understand surrounding network. The research disclosed that the SNA could be applied in supporting the strategizing process by: increasing of understanding of embedded networks, having more realistic network picture, also could be used as supplement evaluation and development planning method for the relationships portfolio management for HEI’s.

  6. Russia-EU energy efficiency cooperation in the Baltic region: the untapped potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanova T. A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A stereotypical understanding of EU-Russia energy relations is often reduced to trade in oil and natural gas, which downplays the importance of energy efficiency cooperation. Such cooperation is promoted within the Energy Charter and its Treaty, Partnership and Cooperation Agreement, Energy Dialogue, Common Economic Space, Partnership for Modernisation. However, it lacks practical development, which relates to the instability of the legal environment in Russia, insufficient mechanisms of financial support for energy conservation projects and poor political support. Nevertheless, energy efficiency cooperation is capable of changing Russia-EU energy cooperation qualitatively: it offers a cheaper way to meet the needs of the EU, redefines interdependence between the parties, and introduces new elements of equality between them. Energy efficiency cooperation also transforms the patterns of the EU-Russia legal harmonization, creates new conditions for the convergence of regulations and the development of the middle class in Russia. Due to its specific features, cooperation in the Baltic Sea region becomes a locomotive of the Russia-EU energy efficiency cooperation, and, as a result, is capable of changing the quality of relations between the partners.

  7. Regional variability in sea ice melt in a changing Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, Donald K; Richter-Menge, Jacqueline A

    2015-07-13

    In recent years, the Arctic sea ice cover has undergone a precipitous decline in summer extent. The sea ice mass balance integrates heat and provides insight on atmospheric and oceanic forcing. The amount of surface melt and bottom melt that occurs during the summer melt season was measured at 41 sites over the time period 1957 to 2014. There are large regional and temporal variations in both surface and bottom melting. Combined surface and bottom melt ranged from 16 to 294 cm, with a mean of 101 cm. The mean ice equivalent surface melt was 48 cm and the mean bottom melt was 53 cm. On average, surface melting decreases moving northward from the Beaufort Sea towards the North Pole; however interannual differences in atmospheric forcing can overwhelm the influence of latitude. Substantial increases in bottom melting are a major contributor to ice losses in the Beaufort Sea, due to decreases in ice concentration. In the central Arctic, surface and bottom melting demonstrate interannual variability, but show no strong temporal trends from 2000 to 2014. This suggests that under current conditions, summer melting in the central Arctic is not large enough to completely remove the sea ice cover.

  8. Advancement into the Arctic Region for Bioactive Sponge Secondary Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hamann

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Porifera have long been a reservoir for the discovery of bioactive compounds and drug discovery. Most research in the area has focused on sponges from tropical and temperate waters, but more recently the focus has shifted to the less accessible colder waters of the Antarctic and, to a lesser extent, the Arctic. The Antarctic region in particular has been a more popular location for natural products discovery and has provided promising candidates for drug development. This article reviews groups of bioactive compounds that have been isolated and reported from the southern reaches of the Arctic Circle, surveys the known sponge diversity present in the Arctic waters, and details a recent sponge collection by our group in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. The collection has yielded previously undescribed sponge species along with primary activity against opportunistic infectious diseases, malaria, and HCV. The discovery of new sponge species and bioactive crude extracts gives optimism for the isolation of new bioactive compounds from a relatively unexplored source.

  9. Cold War and the environment: the role of Finland in international environmental politics in the Baltic Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Tuomas; Laakkonen, Simo

    2007-04-01

    The Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area signed in 1974 in Helsinki is probably the most important environmental agreement consummated in the Baltic Sea region. This article is the first study that explores the history of this agreement, also known as the Helsinki Convention, by using primary archival sources. The principal sources are the archives of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland. We examine the role of Finland in the process that led to the signing of the Helsinki Convention from the perspective of international politics. The study focuses primarily on Finnish, Swedish, and Soviet state-level parties from the end of the 1960s to 1974. We show that Cold War politics affected in several ways negotiations and contents of the Helsinki Convention. We also argue that the Soviet Union used the emerging international environmental issues as a new tool of power politics.

  10. Did the naval wars in the North Atlantic and adjacent North and Baltic Sea during WWI and WWII played a significant role in the two climatic shifts of the 20th Century, the Arctic warming (1919 to 1939) and the global cooling (1940 to mid 1970)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaerts, Arnd

    2010-05-01

    A better understanding of the perfect time correlation between the two most devastating naval wars during the last century, and the most prominent climatic changes in the Northern Hemisphere, the first at the end of WWI, and the second immediately after WWII commencement, could highlight the role of the ocean and adjacent seas in climate change matters, and of anthropogenic activities in the marine environment. The study provides an overview of decisive links between naval activities and a change of air temperatures, showing that the Arctic warming (1919 to 1939) was based on a different mechanism as the cooling period (1940 to mid 1970), which needs to be subdivided in two distinct periods, and three main regions. From autumn 1939 to winter 1941/42 naval war was primarily fought in the North- and Baltic Sea and the most eastern part of the Northern North Atlantic. Only after the U.S.A. became a war party in December 1941, the naval war took place everywhere in the North Atlantic for more than two years, and with increasing intensity in the Western North Pacific from 1942 to August 1945. Particular attention is given to the role of the North and Baltic Sea concerning the three extreme cold winters in Europe 1939/40, 1940/41 and 1941/42 that marked the start of a three decade long global cooling, and had been the coldest for more than 100 years. The most affected locations lay close to those sea areas with the highest naval activities, e.g. the North Sea section from The Netherlands to Denmark, and in the Southern and Central Baltic Sea in winter 1939/40. Similar observations can be made for the two subsequent war winters. After the invasion of Norway in 1940 the Skagerrak region experienced a record cold winter. The next most severe winter conditions in 1941/42 can be attributed to the realm of the Eastern Baltic Sea where naval force had been active since Germany had attacked Russia in June 1941. A significant fact of the three extreme winters is their appearance

  11. The Arctic Region: A Requirement for New Security Architecture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    the vast array of security challenges that will inevitably arise in the Arctic. In spite of the success of the Treaty of the Antarctic , the Arctic...Unlike Antarctica, there is no comprehensive treaty protecting the Arctic or its resources and many observers argue that innovative security...current international treaty (ex. UNCLOS) as a sufficient regulatory basis to deal with Arctic issues. Finland is open to expanding the Arctic

  12. Regional variability in sea ice melt in a changing Arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Perovich, Donald K.; Richter-Menge, Jacqueline A.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the Arctic sea ice cover has undergone a precipitous decline in summer extent. The sea ice mass balance integrates heat and provides insight on atmospheric and oceanic forcing. The amount of surface melt and bottom melt that occurs during the summer melt season was measured at 41 sites over the time period 1957 to 2014. There are large regional and temporal variations in both surface and bottom melting. Combined surface and bottom melt ranged from 16 to 294 cm, with a mean of...

  13. Crustal structure and regional tectonics of SE Sweden and the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milnes, A.G. [Bergen Univ. (Norway). Dept. of Geology; Gee, D.G.; Lund, C.E. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    1998-11-01

    In this desk study, the available geophysical and geological data on the crustal structure and regional tectonics of the wider surroundings of the Aespoe site (SE Sweden and adjacent parts of the Baltic Sea) are compiled and assessed. The aim is to contribute to the knowledge base for long-term rock mechanical modeling, using the Aespoe site as a proxy for a high-level radioactive waste repository site in Swedish bedrock. The geophysical data reviewed includes two new refraction/wide-angle reflection seismic experiments carried out within the EUROBRIDGE project, in addition to the numerous earlier refraction seismic profiles. The BABEL normal-incidence deep seismic profile is also considered. New geological data, presented at EUROBRIDGE workshops, and in recent SGU publications, are reviewed for the same area. In combination with the seismic data, these provide a base for interpreting the present composition and structure, and the Palaeoproterozoic-Mesoproterozoic evolution, of the crustal segment within which the Aespoe site lies - the Smaaland mega-block. This is characterized by having undergone little regionally significant deformation or magmatism since Neoproterozoic times (the last 1000 million years). It is shown that, at this scale of observation (of the order of 100 km), the long-term rheology of the lithosphere can be argued from a relatively tight observational network, when combined with the results of earlier SKB studies (seismo-tectonics, uplift patterns, state of stress, heat flow) and published research. Although many uncertainties exist, the present state of knowledge would suffice for first exploratory calculations and sensitivity studies of long-term, large-scale rock mechanics 101 refs, 22 figs

  14. The prospects of nuclear power development in the eastern part of the Baltic Sea region as a factor of the formation of international relations system in the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich Nikolai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The current development of economic diplomacy in the world is determined by a combination of globalization and regionalization. In addition, it has an economic dimension. At the same time, the Baltic Sea region demonstrates large-scale politicisation of economic cooperation. The development of nuclear power in the eastern part of the Baltic Sea is indicative of the effectiveness of political and economic cooperation in the region. The author believes that Russia and the three Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have the economic and technological opportunities for building up cooperation in the field of energy. This points to a question whether the traditional patterns of relations that developed among these countries in the past can be changed. A more pronounced international division of labour accompanied by the historically developed specialization of Russia makes nuclear power an important factor in Russia’s economic diplomacy. The promotion of Russian energy projects in the region contributes to the development of a system of mutually beneficial ties. The increasing energy deficiency in the region can serve an economic prerequisite to this process.

  15. Reconstruction of early Holocene paleoclimate and environment in the SW Kola region, Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grekov, Ivan; Kolka, Vasiliy; Syrykh, Liudmila; Nazarova, Larisa

    2016-04-01

    In the current period of the global climate change it becomes necessary to have a clear understanding of not only the changes taking place in the components of the natural environment, but also to understand development of all interactions between those components. Quaternary terrigenic sediments and lakes of the Kola Peninsula store information about the development of the region in the Late Glacial and Holocene: movements of the glacier, neotectonic activity, post-glacial rebound, formation and development of natural environments after deglaciation. Multi-proxy study of landscapes evolution of the Kola Peninsula in the Late Quaternary will help to establish a detailed reconstruction of climatic and environmental changes of this poor studied sector of the Arctic. Quaternary history on the Kola Peninsula is represented mainly by Late Pleistocene and Holocene sediments covering the Baltic Shield (Lavrova, 1960; Evzerov, 2015). Several palaeolimnological investigations in the Baltic Shield area have been performed earlier (Donner et al., 1977; Anundsen, 1985; Berglund, 2004). Studies of the southern coast of the Kola Peninsula have shown that marine transgression took place in the Late Pleistocene that was then replaced by a regression with variable speed. The slowdown of the uplift of the area took place between 8800 - 6800 BP (cal. years) and corresponded to the time of the Tapes transgression of the Arctic Ocean (Evzerov et al. 2010; Kolka, et al., 2013). Palaeoclimatic studies based on micro-paleontological analyzes indicate uneven development of the Kola Peninsula landscapes in the Late Glacial and Early Holocene. The northern coast of the Peninsula became free of ice first. In this area tundra-steppe vegetation was established for a short time and was later replaced by tundra (Snyder et al, 2000). Southern part of the Kola Peninsula was dependent on the conditions of deglaciation of the White Sea basin and cleared of ice much later (Evzerov et al., 2010; Kolka

  16. Role of Air Cargo and Road Feeder Services for Regional Airports – Case Studies from the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beifert Anatoli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although airports play an important role the global and European economies, according to the new guidelines of the EU Commission on the new state aid rules for a competitive aviation industry (EC, 2014, it will be more difficult for unprofitable airports, to get financial public subsidies in the future. The Commission noted that the majority of regional airports experience severe problems to cover their operative costs, resulting from among other things from overlapping of airports’ catchment areas. The main objective of the above mentioned measures is not to close the regional airports, but to motivate them to operate on cost efficient, profitable and more flexible basis, stating however that and that the most inefficient airports will be still closed. In order face upcoming challenges, the regional airports shall reconsider their future development plans. Traditionally, the airports including small and regional airports focus on the passenger traffic and thus, the possible benefits and opportunities of the air cargo market are totally underestimated or even completely ignored. Most regional airports in the Baltic Sea region act totally isolated and do not have a clear picture of the current situation on the international air cargo market today, its future perspectives and sustainable development plans remain basically hidden. There are some examples when trying to meet the market demand, the regional airports have made huge, but unfortunately unjustified investments, e.g. improving airport infrastructure, runways, etc. However, the airports’ infrastructural investments alone cannot fulfil the expected “remedy” role for the airports’ sustainability. This paper aims at investigating the positioning and the role of the regional airports in the current hub-and-spoke network, focusing on the relevance and potential of the air cargo sector for the regional airports development. The optional freight value proposition for the development of

  17. Environmental Protection of the Arctic Region: Effective Mechanisms of Legal Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gladun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The legal regulations on environmental issues that arise in the Arctic due to intensive exploitation of its oil and gas resources need to be explored. There are gaps in environmental regulations over the Arctic region both at international and domestic levels. For Russia, at least two basic problems can be seen in the legal norms: the absence of a coherent approach to the Arctic environmental legislation and policy, and the need to develop effective mechanisms of environmental protection in the process of the Arctic development. In recent years, the Arctic states have expanded legislation on the Arctic issues. Currently, the most effective legal instruments targeting the protection of the fragile Arctic environment have been created by the Arctic countries. The introduction of a system of integrated environmental management is the first step that should be taken. Deep scientific research should be the obligatory foundation of any Arctic project. Moreover, much attention should be paid to the analysis of biological diversity preservation schemes. Lastly, special laws are needed in Russia to ensure: the regulation, prevention, and response to pollution by oil and other containments; the protection and rational use of Arctic resources; and the conservation of the Arctic marine areas and natural landmarks. These ideas are based on a comparative analysis of the legal rules contained within the laws of Norway, Canada, and the United States.

  18. 76 FR 69736 - Primus Solutions, Inc., and Arctic Slope Regional Corp.; Transfer of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... AGENCY Primus Solutions, Inc., and Arctic Slope Regional Corp.; Transfer of Data AGENCY: Environmental... Primus Solutions, Inc., and its subcontractor, Arctic Slope Regional Corporation (ASRC) in ] accordance... from the Agency; and requires that each official and employee of the contractor sign an agreement...

  19. Ctenophore population recruits entirely through larval reproduction in the central Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Cornelia; Haraldsson, Matilda; Bolte, Sören; Reusch, Thorsten B. H.; Thygesen, Uffe H.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The comb jelly Mertensia ovum, widely distributed in Arctic regions, has recently been discovered in the northern Baltic Sea. We show that M. ovum also exists in the central Baltic but that the population consists solely of small-sized larvae (less than 1.6 mm). Despite the absence of adults, eggs were abundant. Experiments revealed that the larvae were reproductively active. Egg production and anticipated mortality rates suggest a self-sustaining population. This is the first account of a ctenophore population entirely recruiting through larval reproduction (paedogenesis). We hypothesize that early reproduction is favoured over growth to compensate for high predation pressure. PMID:22535640

  20. Air Cargo Development in the Regional Airports of the Baltic Sea Region Through Road Feeder Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beifert Anatoli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As issued in the Competition Policy Brief on the new state aid rules for a competitive aviation industry by the Competition Directorate-General of the European Commission in February 20141, it will be more difficult for unprofitable airports, to obtain financial public subsidies on EU, national or regional level. Although the positive impact of small airports on the regional development and general accessibility was mentioned, still the operating aid to the airports shall be cut out over a maximum of 10 years. It has been further stated that the vast majority of small and regional airports experience problems to cover their running operative costs, as a result from an intensive market competition and overlapping of airports’ catchment areas preventing even some promising airports from growth. Public subsidies are mostly used by the airport management for infrastructural investments, to cover operating losses or to attract price-sensitive airlines. Herewith, among other things, the EU Commission is pointing out at the lack of cooperation structures and network strategies among the regional airports and at rather isolated and individual approach during elaboration of the airport development scenarios. However, the Competition Policy Brief permits public aid to regional airports, among other things if there is sufficient transports need to establish transition periods for small airports; the need for more flexibility of the regional airports in the remote areas has been underlined. The EU Commission is expecting herewith not to close the regional airports, but to stimulate them to operate on cost efficient and profitable basis, and that only the most inefficient airports will be closed.

  1. Multi-model seasonal forecast of Arctic sea-ice: forecast uncertainty at pan-Arctic and regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, E.; Barthélemy, A.; Chevallier, M.; Cullather, R.; Fučkar, N.; Massonnet, F.; Posey, P.; Wang, W.; Zhang, J.; Ardilouze, C.; Bitz, C. M.; Vernieres, G.; Wallcraft, A.; Wang, M.

    2016-10-01

    Dynamical model forecasts in the Sea Ice Outlook (SIO) of September Arctic sea-ice extent over the last decade have shown lower skill than that found in both idealized model experiments and hindcasts of previous decades. Additionally, it is unclear how different model physics, initial conditions or forecast post-processing (bias correction) techniques contribute to SIO forecast uncertainty. In this work, we have produced a seasonal forecast of 2015 Arctic summer sea ice using SIO dynamical models initialized with identical sea-ice thickness in the central Arctic. Our goals are to calculate the relative contribution of model uncertainty and irreducible error growth to forecast uncertainty and assess the importance of post-processing, and to contrast pan-Arctic forecast uncertainty with regional forecast uncertainty. We find that prior to forecast post-processing, model uncertainty is the main contributor to forecast uncertainty, whereas after forecast post-processing forecast uncertainty is reduced overall, model uncertainty is reduced by an order of magnitude, and irreducible error growth becomes the main contributor to forecast uncertainty. While all models generally agree in their post-processed forecasts of September sea-ice volume and extent, this is not the case for sea-ice concentration. Additionally, forecast uncertainty of sea-ice thickness grows at a much higher rate along Arctic coastlines relative to the central Arctic ocean. Potential ways of offering spatial forecast information based on the timescale over which the forecast signal beats the noise are also explored.

  2. [Demographic aspects of social security of elderly population in the Barents Euro-Arctic Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilova, R I; Golubeva, E Iu; Emel'ianova, A S

    2010-01-01

    Social security of elderly people is discussed at different levels of the realization of the geronto-social policy in the Barents Euro-Arctic Region within the context of the Madrid Plan of Actions on Aging. There have been comparatively analyzed demographic indicators that show age structures of the regions which are parts of the Barents Euro-Arctic Region. There have been defined regional differences and trends of improvement of geronto-social policy for providing security of life activity of elderly people in the Russian part of the Barents Euro-Arctic Region.

  3. Impact of marine mercury cycling on coastal atmospheric mercury concentrations in the North- and Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Bieser

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The cycling of mercury between ocean and atmosphere is an important part of the global Hg cycle. Here we study the regional contribution of the air-sea exchange in the North- and Baltic Sea region. We use a newly developed coupled regional chemistry transport modeling (CTM system to determine the flux between atmosphere and ocean based on the meteorological model COSMO-CLM, the ocean-ecosystem model ECOSMO, the atmospheric CTM CMAQ and a newly developed module for mercury partitioning and speciation in the ocean (MECOSMO. The model was evaluated using atmospheric observations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, surface concentrations of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM, and air-sea flux (ASF calculations based on observations made on seven cruises in the western and central Baltic Sea and three cruises in the North Sea performed between 1991 and 2006. It was shown that the model is in good agreement with observations: DGM (Normalized Mean Bias NMB=-0.27 N=413, ASF (NMB=-0.32, N=413, GEM (NMB=0.07, N=2359. Generally, the model was able to reproduce the seasonal DGM cycle with the best agreement during winter and autumn (NMBWinter=-0.26, NMBSpring=-0.41, NMBSummer=-0.29, NMBAutumn=-0.03. The modelled mercury evasion from the Baltic Sea ranged from 3400 to 4000 kg/a for the simulation period 1994–2007 which is on the lower end of previous estimates. Modelled atmospheric deposition, river inflow and air-sea exchange lead to an annual net Hg accumulation in the Baltic Sea of 500 to 1000 kg/a. For the North Sea the model calculates an annual mercury flux into the atmosphere between 5700 and 6000 kg/a. The mercury flux from the ocean influenced coastal atmospheric mercury concentrations. Running CMAQ coupled with the ocean model lead to better agreement with GEM observations. Directly at the coast GEM concentrations could be increased by up to 10% on annual average and observed peaks could be reproduced much better. At stations 100km downwind

  4. Inflow waters in the deep regions of the southern Baltic Sea - transport and transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Beszczyńska-Möller

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A medium-sized inflow (about 200 km3 according to IOW data, - personal communication of saline water into the southern Baltic Sea occurred during January 2003. Unlike any previously observed inflow, this one brought very cold water, of temperatures around 1-2oC and less. Since the temperature of the deep water in the southern Baltic before the inflow was exceptionally high (11-12oC, the inflowing waters produced dramatic changes and a steep temperature gradient. The movement of the inflowing waters through the deep basins and channels of the Baltic Sea from the Arkona Basin to the Gdańsk Deep during next 4-8 months is described. Frequent mesoscale structures and intensive mixing followed the eastward transport of the inflow water, particularly in the Bornholm Deep and Słupsk Furrow. The present paper is based on data collected during 6 cruises r/v "Oceania" between December 2002 and August 2003. The last cruise in August took place in order to assess the long-term consequences of the inflow.

  5. Seismicity pattern and thermal anomalies in the southern Baltic region before and during the Kaliningrad earthquakes of 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonov, A. A.

    2008-11-01

    The seismic situation in the SE Baltic region that existed during the period 1990-2006, including the unexpectedly strong Kaliningrad earthquakes of 2004, is analyzed. The spatiotemporal variation of seismic events in the region is examined on the basis of a newly compiled catalog of tectonic earthquakes. The analysis revealed outbursts of seismic activity in 1995 and 2004, structurization of the distribution of shocks, and their southward migration. The distribution of hot springs that arose in 2002-2004 is analyzed in relation to seismological data. The seismic process and thermal anomalies are shown to be geodynamically controlled, which provided constraints on the nucleation process and focal mechanism of the Kaliningrad earthquakes. The region, located in the western East European platform, should be regarded as seismically rather active.

  6. Past storminess recorded in the internal architecture of coastal formations of Estonia in the NE Baltic Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tõnisson, Hannes; Vilumaa, Kadri; Kont, Are; Sugita, Shinya; Rosentau, Alar; Muru, Merle; Anderson, Agnes

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 50 years, storminess has increased in northern Europe because of the changes in cyclonic activity. The cyclone season in the Baltic Sea area has shifted from autumn to winter; this has led to intensification of shore processes (erosion, sediment transport and accumulation) and has increased pressure to the economy (land use, coastal protection measures) of the coastal regions in the Baltic states. Therefore, studing the effects of such changes on shore processes in the past is critical for prediction of the future changes along the Baltic coasts. Beach ridge plains are found worldwide, where cyclones and storm surges affect accumulation forms. These sandy shores are highly susceptible to erosion. Due to the isostatic uplift on the NE coast of the Baltic Sea, the signs of major past events are well-preserved in the internal architecture of old coastal formations (dune ridge-swale complexes). Wave-eroded scarps in beach deposits are visible in subsurface ground-penetrating radar (GPR) records, indicating the past high-energy events. Several study areas and transects were selected on the NW coast of Estonia, using high-resolution topographic maps (LiDAR). Shore-normal subsurface surveys have been conducted with a digital GSSI SIR-3000 georadar with a 270 MHz antenna at each transect. Interpretation of GPR facies was based on hand auger and window sampler coring, which provided accurate depths of key stratigraphic boundaries and bounding surfaces. Several samples for luminescence and 14C dating were collected to determine the approximate chronology of the coastal formations along the Estonian coast. We have found that changes in storminess, including the periods of high and low intensity of storms in late Holocene, are clearly reflected in the internal patterns of ancient coastal formations. The sections with small ridges with short seaward-dipped layers (interface between wave-built and aeolian deposits) in deeper horizons are probably formed during

  7. MIGRATION PROCESSES IN BARENTS EURO-ARCTIC REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Aleksandrovna Afonkina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research is the analysis of migration processes in the Barents Euro-Arctic region (BEAR. The main focus is the balance of interests between ethnic immigrants and citizens of the accepting country as well as formation and dynamics of ethno-social structure.The research of the migration problems is done through socio-cultural focus. It implies that a research of nation’s constant norms, values and traditions creates a scientific basis for creation of poly-cultural society and it’s stable structure.The novelty of the work is the regional aspect. The transformational trends of modern society and specifics of the BEAR are taken into account and studied on the example of the Murmansk region which is characterized as a region of heavy migration.The study describes migration processes intertwined with the realities of the multi-cultural society in BEAR (with the example of Murmansk region. The factors of upkeep of ba-lanced inter-ethnic relationship and formation of poly-cultural society are highlighted. The role of each ethnic group and national diasporas within ethno-social processes is highlighted. Authors suggest that the success of socio-cultural adaptation of immigrants is not only due to knowledge of language and culture of the accepting society, but also is due to traditions and trends of poly-culture of the accepting nation.The results of the study may be used for managing solutions in stabilizing of ethno-cultural processes within BEAR but also within the framework of the study courses, such as «Ethno-sociology» or «Sociology of migration».

  8. Chlorinated organic compounds in aquatic biological resources of the Baltic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubova O. L.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of studying dependencies of levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in the liver and muscles of the main commercial fish species of the Baltic Sea (sprat, herring, cod, flounder, the Vistula and the Curonian Bay (pike-perch, bream, roach on the fishing area, season and fish species have been considered. Determination of PCBs and pesticides has been carried out in accordance with MVI MN 2352–2005 "Method for simultaneous determination of residual amounts of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in fish and fish products by gas-liquid chromatography". Separation, identification and quantification have been performed by the gas chromatography Varian 3400 on the DB-1701 column, 30 m  0.25 mm  0.25 m, the column temperature 150–250 °C, the detector one – 300 °C. Identification and quantification have been performed by retention time of individual PCB congeners by the internal standard. The content of PCBs in liver of the Curonian and Vistula Bays fish is much lower than in liver of aquatic biological resources (ABR of the Baltic Sea. Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT are accumulated more intensively in liver of fish caught in the southern part of the Baltic Sea. β-HCH and γ-HCH prevail in the liver and muscle tissue of ABR samples as individual organochlorine pesticides (OCPs. The all three isomers of HCH are present in cod liver. Accumulation ratio in cod liver compared to that in the muscle tissue content reaches 7-8 units HCH for isomers, and for DDT and metabolites – 10-12 units. It has been proposed that the secondary admission of HCH in the aquatic environment and in ABG (delivery from sediments takes place. Organochlorine pesticides such as hexachlorobenzene, heptachlor and aldrin are present in the Baltic Sea ABR in quantities below the detection limit used in the analysis methods. In spring and summer, there is an increased level of HCH and DDT in

  9. Life Cycle Assessments of Manure Management Techniques for the Baltic Sea Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Baky, A; Cano-Bernal, J

    , fattening pig slurry, horse manure and solid manure from fattening pigs) and five BSR countries (Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Poland and Sweden). Three main categories of techniques were investigated: i) separation technologies; ii) technologies involving energy production; and iii) other technologies......-substrates to manure were investigated). In-house slurry cooling as well as the possibility to produce highly available phosphorus mineral fertilizers from manure ashes (obtained from manure thermo-gasification) were also assessed. This report was prepared as part of Baltic Manure Work Package 5 - Assessing...

  10. Collaborative Proposal: Improving Decadal Prediction of Arctic Climate Variability and Change Using a Regional Arctic System Model (RASM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslowski, Wieslaw [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States)

    2016-10-17

    This project aims to develop, apply and evaluate a regional Arctic System model (RASM) for enhanced decadal predictions. Its overarching goal is to advance understanding of the past and present states of arctic climate and to facilitate improvements in seasonal to decadal predictions. In particular, it will focus on variability and long-term change of energy and freshwater flows through the arctic climate system. The project will also address modes of natural climate variability as well as extreme and rapid climate change in a region of the Earth that is: (i) a key indicator of the state of global climate through polar amplification and (ii) which is undergoing environmental transitions not seen in instrumental records. RASM will readily allow the addition of other earth system components, such as ecosystem or biochemistry models, thus allowing it to facilitate studies of climate impacts (e.g., droughts and fires) and of ecosystem adaptations to these impacts. As such, RASM is expected to become a foundation for more complete Arctic System models and part of a model hierarchy important for improving climate modeling and predictions.

  11. Canadian Ice Service Arctic Regional Sea Ice Charts in SIGRID-3 Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Canadian Ice Service (CIS) produces digital Arctic regional sea ice charts for marine navigation, climate research, and input to the Global Digital Sea Ice Data...

  12. Arctic Ocean Regional Climatology Online Atlas (NODC Accession 0115771)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Arctic Ocean, NODC developed a new set of high-resolution...

  13. Nuclear installations in the baltic sea region and the stake holders cooperation: a crucial step towards energy security, environmental sustainability and political stability in the region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakaria, M.; Mandere, N.; Olsson, L. [Lund Univ., Centre for Sustainability Studies (LUCSUS) (Sweden)

    2006-07-01

    Radiation hazards are trans-boundary. The prevention of accidents must be managed locally. But the awareness, preparedness, and the responsibilities in the case of emergencies must be managed at the local and regional level, and must rely on close interaction between the local and regional levels. The Baltic Sea Region contains over 40 nuclear reactors contributing to energy security, but also posing a potential threat to human, environmental, and political security. The aim of this paper is to integrate the four fields of security: health, environment, energy, and political by analysing awareness, preparedness responsibility and decision making related to nuclear installations. With increasing political, economical, cultural and physical (in term of energy infrastructure) integration, the region needs to take a comprehensive approach to create adequate structure for managing risks and thereby promote security. (authors)

  14. Sensitivity of simulated regional Arctic climate to the choice of coupled model domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry V. Sein

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The climate over the Arctic has undergone changes in recent decades. In order to evaluate the coupled response of the Arctic system to external and internal forcing, our study focuses on the estimation of regional climate variability and its dependence on large-scale atmospheric and regional ocean circulations. A global ocean–sea ice model with regionally high horizontal resolution is coupled to an atmospheric regional model and global terrestrial hydrology model. This way of coupling divides the global ocean model setup into two different domains: one coupled, where the ocean and the atmosphere are interacting, and one uncoupled, where the ocean model is driven by prescribed atmospheric forcing and runs in a so-called stand-alone mode. Therefore, selecting a specific area for the regional atmosphere implies that the ocean–atmosphere system can develop ‘freely’ in that area, whereas for the rest of the global ocean, the circulation is driven by prescribed atmospheric forcing without any feedbacks. Five different coupled setups are chosen for ensemble simulations. The choice of the coupled domains was done to estimate the influences of the Subtropical Atlantic, Eurasian and North Pacific regions on northern North Atlantic and Arctic climate. Our simulations show that the regional coupled ocean–atmosphere model is sensitive to the choice of the modelled area. The different model configurations reproduce differently both the mean climate and its variability. Only two out of five model setups were able to reproduce the Arctic climate as observed under recent climate conditions (ERA-40 Reanalysis. Evidence is found that the main source of uncertainty for Arctic climate variability and its predictability is the North Pacific. The prescription of North Pacific conditions in the regional model leads to significant correlation with observations, even if the whole North Atlantic is within the coupled model domain. However, the inclusion of the

  15. Collaborative Research: Towards Advanced Understanding and Predictive Capability of Climate Change in the Arctic using a High-Resolution Regional Arctic Climate System Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lettenmaier, Dennis P

    2013-04-08

    Primary activities are reported in these areas: climate system component studies via one-way coupling experiments; development of the Regional Arctic Climate System Model (RACM); and physical feedback studies focusing on changes in Arctic sea ice using the fully coupled model.

  16. Problemy konkurencii i kooperacii v toplivno-jenergeticheskom komplekse Baltijskogo regiona [Competition and cooperation problems in the energy sector of the Baltic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zverev Yuri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the problems of competition and cooperation in the field of energy in the Baltic region, first of all, those related to the export of Russian oil and oil products, the Nord Stream gas pipeline, and the construction of nuclear plants in Poland, the Kaliningrad region, Lithuania, and Belarus. The author shows that, though Russia and the EU occasionally pursue opposite goals, there is considerable interdependence between them, and a confrontation is disadvantageous for both parties.

  17. Overview and regional and temporal differences of heavy metals in Arctic whales and ringed seals in the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemann, R; Innes, S; Richard, P R

    1996-07-16

    Concentrations of mercury, cadmium, and other heavy metals in tissues of belugas (Delphinapterus leucas), narwhal (Monodon monoceros) and ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from across the Canadian Arctic are reported. Published and new information is used to provide an overview of metals in tissues of these animals, to delineate the existence of a spatial trend of mercury and cadmium in belugas and ringed seals, and to show a temporal trend is superimposed on the geochemical trend. Mercury concentrations in tissues of Arctic whales and ringed seals were high relative to the Canadian guideline of 0.5 micrograms/g wet wt., for mercury in fish, except in the skin of belugas (0.59-0.78 micrograms/g wet wt.) and flesh of ringed seals (0.39-0.41 micrograms/g wet wt.). In the flesh of belugas (0.94-1.34 micrograms/g wet wt.), and in the liver of ringed seals, tissues that are also consumed by Native people in the Arctic (8.34-27.5 micrograms/g wet wt.), the guideline value was significantly exceeded. Mean lead concentrations in tissues of belugas, narwhal and ringed seals were generally low (0.002-0.028 micrograms/g wet wt.), except in tissues of belugas in the St. Lawrence River (0.10-0.15 micrograms/g wet wt.). The concentration of zinc in the skin of whales was two to three times higher than in other tissues. The concentration of cadmium in organs was highest in narwhal. There was a positive correlation between mercury and selenium in the liver of all three species. The concentration of mercury in tissues of belugas and ringed seals was higher in the western than the eastern Arctic. This was attributed to different natural background concentrations in the western and eastern Arctic of Canada dictated by different geological formations in the two regions. Cadmium concentrations in tissues of belugas and ringed seals were higher in the eastern than the western Arctic. Zinc and copper in some tissues of belugas and ringed seals were also higher in the eastern than the western

  18. Perspektivy setevogo sotrudnichestva Rossii i stran ES v innovacionnoj sfere na Baltike [Innovations in the Baltic Sea Region and Network Cooperation between Russia and the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorov Gennady

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transnational (involving countries and cross-border (involving adjacent regions of different countries cooperation and integration are rapidly developing in the Baltic Sea region. Russia lags behind the Nordic countries and Germany as far as innovative development is concerned; yet our national pace here is comparable to that of Poland and the three Baltic States. At the same time, the features of innovative cooperation vary a great deal depending on the group of countries involved in cooperation processes. Independent of its type, however, international cooperation is beneficial for all parties concerned and should therefore be more actively encouraged. Northwestern Federal District traditionally plays a special role in the development of EU-Russia cooperation, since a number of its regions border on the EU countries. The district participates in the development of network innovative structures within the Baltic Sea region. It takes an active part in cross-border cooperation — activities that involve the formation of transborder innovative clusters. There are high expectations associated with the formation of such territorially localised innovative networks, as the Helsinki — Saint Petersburg — Tallinn and Tricity (Gdansk, Gdynia, Sopot — Kaliningrad — Klaipeda transborder innovative clusters. The city of Saint Petersburg and the adjacent Leningrad region, as well as the Kaliningrad region can become innovative development corridors between Russia and the EU and, eventually, develop into the ‘economic growth poles’ of the Russian Federation.

  19. Improving health in the Arctic region through safe and affordable access to household running water and sewer services: an Arctic Council initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W. Hennessy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Important health disparities have been documented among the peoples of the Arctic and subarctic, including those related to limited access to in-home improved drinking water and sanitation services. Although improving water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH has been a focus of the United Nations for decades, the Arctic region has received little attention in this regard. A growing body of evidence highlights inequalities across the region for the availability of in-home drinking WASH services and for health indicators associated with these services. In this review, we highlight relevant data and describe an initiative through the Arctic Council's Sustainable Development Working Group to characterize the extent of WASH services in Arctic nations, the related health indicators and climate-related vulnerabilities to WASH services. With this as a baseline, efforts to build collaborations across the Arctic will be undertaken to promote innovations that can extend the benefits of water and sanitation services to all residents.

  20. Regional Arctic System Model (RASM): A Tool to Advance Understanding and Prediction of Arctic Climate Change at Process Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslowski, W.; Roberts, A.; Osinski, R.; Brunke, M.; Cassano, J. J.; Clement Kinney, J. L.; Craig, A.; Duvivier, A.; Fisel, B. J.; Gutowski, W. J., Jr.; Hamman, J.; Hughes, M.; Nijssen, B.; Zeng, X.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic is undergoing rapid climatic changes, which are some of the most coordinated changes currently occurring anywhere on Earth. They are exemplified by the retreat of the perennial sea ice cover, which integrates forcing by, exchanges with and feedbacks between atmosphere, ocean and land. While historical reconstructions from Global Climate and Global Earth System Models (GC/ESMs) are in broad agreement with these changes, the rate of change in the GC/ESMs remains outpaced by observations. Reasons for that stem from a combination of coarse model resolution, inadequate parameterizations, unrepresented processes and a limited knowledge of physical and other real world interactions. We demonstrate the capability of the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) in addressing some of the GC/ESM limitations in simulating observed seasonal to decadal variability and trends in the sea ice cover and climate. RASM is a high resolution, fully coupled, pan-Arctic climate model that uses the Community Earth System Model (CESM) framework. It uses the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE) and Parallel Ocean Program (POP) configured at an eddy-permitting resolution of 1/12° as well as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) models at 50 km resolution. All RASM components are coupled via the CESM flux coupler (CPL7) at 20-minute intervals. RASM is an example of limited-area, process-resolving, fully coupled earth system model, which due to the additional constraints from lateral boundary conditions and nudging within a regional model domain facilitates detailed comparisons with observational statistics that are not possible with GC/ESMs. In this talk, we will emphasize the utility of RASM to understand sensitivity to variable parameter space, importance of critical processes, coupled feedbacks and ultimately to reduce uncertainty in arctic climate change projections.

  1. Paleolimnological reconstruction of environmental variability during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene in the south-east Baltic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kublitskiy, Iurii; Subetto, Dmitriy; Druzhinina, Olga; Kulkova, Marianna; Arslanov, Khikmatula

    2016-04-01

    The main goal of our research is the high-resolution reconstruction of environmental and climatic changes in SE Baltic region since the Last Glacial Maximum by palaeolimnological data. The 6 objects - lakes and peat-bogs, were studied since 2009 in the Kaliningrad region, Russian Federation. According to palaeolimnological studies of bottom sediments of the Kamyshovoe Lake (N 54°22,6`; E22°42,8`, 189 m a.s.l.), located in the Vishtynets Highland, the south-east part of Kaliningrad district, the environmental and climatic changes after the late glacial have been reconstructed. At that moment the radiocarbon and loss-on-ignition (LOI) data, geochemistry and diatom analysis for the whole sediment core, and pollen analyze for the bottom part of the core have been completed. According to the pollen data the Alleröd interstadial starts at 13 200 cal. yrs BP and is marked by the rising of birch and pine pollen. The transition to the Younger Dryas around 12 700 cal. yrs BP corresponds with the development of patches of shrublands in which light-demanding species, such as juniper, flourished and communities of steppe herbs. The late Preboreal is marked by the appearance of Populus and an increase of the role of grasses in the vegetation cover 11 300-11 100 cal. yrs BP (Druzinina et al., 2015). The Holocene climatic zones have been identified by LOI and geochemistry analyses. The Boreal period started about 10 200 cal. yrs BP, Atlantic around 9100 cal. yrs BP, Subboreal 5800 cal. yrs BP, and Subatlantic 3200 cal. yrs BP (Kublitskiy et al., 2015). During the conference the new palaeolimnological data of environmental variability during the late Pleistocene and Holocene in SE Baltic region will be presented. Acknowledgements The investigations have been granted by the Russian Fund for Basic Research (12-05-33013, 13-05-41457, 15-35-50721). References Druzhinina, O., Subetto, D., Stančikaitė, M., Vaikutienė, G., Kublitsky, J., Arslanov, Kh., 2015. Sediment record from the

  2. Aerosol optical depth retrieval in the Arctic region using MODIS based on prior knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is especially vulnerable to the long-term transport of aerosols and other pollutants because aerosols can affect the albedo of the surface by deposition on snow and ice. However, aerosol observations for this area are sparse and hence there is considerable uncertainty in the knowledge on the properties of the Arctic aerosol. Arctic aerosol observations are needed to fill this gap because these are among the basic and most important parameters for researching the Arctic environment. Atmospheric remote sensing using satellites offers us an opportunity to describe the aerosol distribution in terms of both local, regional and global coverage. However, AOD retrieval over a bright surface remains a difficult task because it is hard to separate and explicitly describe the contribution of the observed signal reflected by the variable surface and back scattering by the semi-transparent aerosols, especially with a large solar or sensor zenith angle. In this paper, an approach using a synergetic approach with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data based on prior knowledge is presented. The detailed analysis of the model demonstrates that it is suitable for Arctic region AOD retrieval. Six AERONET stations at high latitude (Andenes, Barrow, Ittoqqortoormiit, OPAL, Thule, and Tiksi were used for validation, and the correlation coefficient between retrieved AODs and AERONET AODs was 0.75 and the retrieval absolute error is approximately 0.1, while the relative error is 20% (at some stations with clear skies as low as 10% was found. Furthermore, the Russian wildfires that occurred in late July of 2010 and their effect on the Arctic environment is presented; Satellite retrieved AODs in the Arctic increased to 1.0 during 1 August and 15 August 2010, even 2.0, during the burning phase, and subsequently returned to normal values (lower than 0.1, which was fully in line with the AERONET observations. This indicates that the fire plumes

  3. Validation of the multi-mission altimeter data for the Baltic Sea region

    CERN Document Server

    Kudryavtseva, N A

    2016-01-01

    We present a complete cross-validation of Significant Wave Heights (SWH) extracted from altimetry data from all ten existing satellites with available in situ (buoy and echosounder) wave measurements for the Baltic Sea basin. The main purpose is to select an adequate altimetry data subset for a subsequent evaluation of the wave climate. The satellite measurements with the backscatter coefficients >13.5, errors in the SWH normalized standard deviation >0.5 m and snapshots with centroids closer than 0.2 degrees to the land are not reliable. The ice flag usually denotes the ice concentration of >50%. The presence of ice affects the SWH data starting from concentrations 10%, but substantial effects are only evident for concentrations >30%. The altimetry data selected based on these criteria have very good correspondence with in situ data, except for GEOSAT Phase 1 data (1985-1989) that could not be validated. The root-mean-square difference and bias of altimetry and in situ data are in the range of 0.23-0.37 and ...

  4. On the Role of Arctic Sea Ice Deformations: An Evaluation of the Regional Arctic System Model Results with Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinski, Robert; Maslowski, Wieslaw; Roberts, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The atmosphere - sea ice - ocean fluxes and their contribution to rapid changes in the Arctic system are not well understood and generally are not resolved by global climate models (GCMs). While many significant model refinements have been made in the recent past, including the representation of sea ice rheology, surface albedo and ice-albedo feedback, other processes such as sea ice deformations, still require further studies and model advancements. Of particular potential interest here are linear kinematic features (LKFs), which control winter air-sea heat exchange and affect buoyancy forces in the ocean. Their importance in Arctic climate change, especially under an increasing first-year ice cover, is yet to be determined and their simulation requires representation of processes currently at sub-grid scale of most GCMs. To address some of the GCM limitations and to better understand the role of LKFs in air-sea exchange we use the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM), which allows high spatio-temporal resolution and regional focus on the Arctic. RASM is a fully coupled regional climate model, developed to study dynamic and thermodynamic processes and their coupling across the atmosphere-sea ice-ocean interface. It consists of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) atmospheric model, the Parallel Ocean Program (POP), the Community Ice Model (CICE) and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land hydrology model. The sea ice component has been upgraded to the Los Alamos Community Ice Model version 5.1 (CICE5.1), which allows either Elastic-Viscous-Plastic (EVP) or a new anisotropic (EPA) rheology. RASM's domain is pan-Arctic, with the ocean and sea ice components configured at an eddy-permitting horizontal resolution of 1/12-degree as well as 1/48-degree, for limited simulations. The atmosphere and land model components are configured at 50-km grids. All the components are coupled at a 20-minute time step. Results from multiple RASM simulations are analyzed and

  5. Educational potential in the concept of the Arctic region sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarkov S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Problem-oriented analysis of the status and prospects of vocational education development of the Murmansk region in the concept of the Arctic sustainable development has been worked out. It has been shown that establishing the pivotal university on the basis of the Murmansk State Technical University is the most effective model for formation of the regional vocational training system and meets the priorities of the state Arctic and the national marine policy of the Russian Federation, the goals and objectives of sustainable socio-economic development of the Murmansk region. The necessity to provide the intellectual leadership of the region where just the higher engineering education creates human potential (capital has been substantiated; it has been pointed out that engineering education is the basis of innovative development of the Arctic economy

  6. Projected changes in regional climate extremes arising from Arctic sea ice loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screen, James A.; Deser, Clara; Sun, Lantao

    2015-08-01

    The decline in Arctic sea ice cover has been widely documented and it is clear that this change is having profound impacts locally. An emerging and highly uncertain area of scientific research, however, is whether such Arctic change has a tangible effect on weather and climate at lower latitudes. Of particular societal relevance is the open question: will continued Arctic sea ice loss make mid-latitude weather more extreme? Here we analyse idealized atmospheric general circulation model simulations, using two independent models, both forced by projected Arctic sea ice loss in the late twenty-first century. We identify robust projected changes in regional temperature and precipitation extremes arising solely due to Arctic sea ice loss. The likelihood and duration of cold extremes are projected to decrease over high latitudes and over central and eastern North America, but to increase over central Asia. Hot extremes are projected to increase in frequency and duration over high latitudes. The likelihood and severity of wet extremes are projected to increase over high latitudes, the Mediterranean and central Asia; and their intensity is projected to increase over high latitudes and central and eastern Asia. The number of dry days over mid-latitude Eurasia and dry spell duration over high latitudes are both projected to decrease. There is closer model agreement for projected changes in temperature extremes than for precipitation extremes. Overall, we find that extreme weather over central and eastern North America is more sensitive to Arctic sea ice loss than over other mid-latitude regions. Our results are useful for constraining the role of Arctic sea ice loss in shifting the odds of extreme weather, but must not be viewed as deterministic projections, as they do not account for drivers other than Arctic sea ice loss.

  7. Energy policy strategies of the Baltic Sea Region for the post-Kyoto period - focusing on electricity and district heating generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-05-15

    This study presents a comprehensive analysis of energy policy strategies for the Baltic Sea Region for the post-Kyoto period. To this aim, the study provides scenarios for the region in order to develop a both secure and climate-compatible energy system for the year 2020 and beyond. The long-term development of the energy systems in the Baltic Sea Region is analysed, i.e. in Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Sweden, and the north western part of Russia. The study focuses on the electricity and district heating sectors. The Baltic Sea Region is comprised of countries with very different economies and characteristics. Hydropower is an important source of electricity generation in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Latvia. Biomass resources are significant throughout the region, deriving from both agricultural residues and large forested areas. Wind power already contributes considerably to electricity generation in countries such as Denmark and Germany, and is likely to play a much greater role in the region in the years to come, both onshore and offshore. In the longer term (2030 and beyond), solar power and geothermal energy could also provide notable contributions to the overall energy supply. The study shows that it is technically possible to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the electricity and district heating sectors of the Baltic Sea Region by close to 100% using mainly renewable energy sources. The results indicate that this is a challenging, but manageable task. The associated costs are moderate and can be further decreased through regional cooperation. Once the various production technologies have the possibility to interact with district heating and flexible electricity consumption, and transmission connections are optimally utilised, it becomes realistic to integrate e.g. large volumes of wind power into the energy system as a whole. Furthermore, the hydro power reservoirs, particularly in Norway, play a key role in

  8. An evaluation of Arctic cloud and radiation processes during the SHEBA year: simulation results from eight Arctic regional climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyser, K.; Willen, U. [Rossby Centre, SMHI, Norrkoeping (Sweden); Jones, C.G.; Du, P.; Girard, E.; Laprise, R. [Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Canadian Regional Climate Modelling and Diagnostics Network, Montreal (Canada); Cassano, J.; Serreze, M.; Shaw, M.J. [University of Colorado, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences and Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Boulder, CO (United States); Christensen, J.H. [Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Curry, J.A. [School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Dethloff, K.; Rinke, A. [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Research Unit, Potsdam (Germany); Haugen, J.-E.; Koeltzow, M. [Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo (Norway); Jacob, D.; Pfeifer, S. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Lynch, A. [Monash University, School of Geography and Environmental Science, Melbourne (Australia); Tjernstroem, M.; Zagar, M. [Stockholm University, Department of Meteorology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2008-02-15

    Eight atmospheric regional climate models (RCMs) were run for the period September 1997 to October 1998 over the western Arctic Ocean. This period was coincident with the observational campaign of the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) project. The RCMs shared common domains, centred on the SHEBA observation camp, along with a common model horizontal resolution, but differed in their vertical structure and physical parameterizations. All RCMs used the same lateral and surface boundary conditions. Surface downwelling solar and terrestrial radiation, surface albedo, vertically integrated water vapour, liquid water path and cloud cover from each model are evaluated against the SHEBA observation data. Downwelling surface radiation, vertically integrated water vapour and liquid water path are reasonably well simulated at monthly and daily timescales in the model ensemble mean, but with considerable differences among individual models. Simulated surface albedos are relatively accurate in the winter season, but become increasingly inaccurate and variable in the melt season, thereby compromising the net surface radiation budget. Simulated cloud cover is more or less uncorrelated with observed values at the daily timescale. Even for monthly averages, many models do not reproduce the annual cycle correctly. The inter-model spread of simulated cloud-cover is very large, with no model appearing systematically superior. Analysis of the co-variability of terms controlling the surface radiation budget reveal some of the key processes requiring improved treatment in Arctic RCMs. Improvements in the parameterization of cloud amounts and surface albedo are most urgently needed to improve the overall performance of RCMs in the Arctic. (orig.)

  9. The direct radiative effect of wildfire smoke on a severe thunderstorm event in the Baltic Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, V.; Männik, A.

    2015-03-01

    On August 8, 2010, a severe derecho type thunderstorm in the Baltic Sea region coincided with smoke from wildfires in Russia. Remarkable smoke aerosol concentrations, with a maximum aerosol optical depth of more than 2 at 550 nm, were observed near the thunderstorm. The impact of the wildfire smoke on the thunderstorm through direct radiative effects was investigated using the Hirlam Aladin Research for Mesoscale Operational Numerical Weather Prediction in Euromed (HARMONIE) model. HARMONIE was successfully able to resolve the dynamics of the thunderstorm, and simulations that considered the influence of the smoke-related aerosols were compared to simulation without aerosols. As simulated by the HARMONIE model, the smoke reduced the shortwave radiation flux at the surface by as much as 300 W/m2 and decreased the near-surface temperature by as much as 3 °C in the vicinity of the thunderstorm and respectively 100 W/m2 and 1 °C in the thunderstorm region. Atmospheric instability decreased through the direct radiative effect of aerosols, and several dynamic features of the simulated thunderstorm appeared slightly weaker.

  10. Multinational Experiment 7. Maritime Security Region: The Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 08 JUL 2013 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Multinational Experiment...thousand meters. Vast ledges of subsea land extend from the surrounding continents and underlie nearly two thirds of the ocean. The central Arctic... models had predicted. According to satellite measurements the minimum area of sea ice has decreased by more than 11 percent per decade over the last 30

  11. Seasonal patterns in Arctic planktonic metabolism (Fram Strait – Svalbard region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vaquer-Sunyer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The metabolism of the Arctic Ocean is marked by extreme pronounced seasonality and spatial heterogeneity associated with light conditions, ice cover, water masses and nutrient availability. Here we report the marine planktonic metabolic rates (Net Community Production, Gross Primary Production and Community Respiration along three different seasons of the year for a total of eight cruises along the western sector of the European Arctic (Fram Strait – Svalbard region in the Arctic Ocean margin: one at the end of 2006 (fall/winter, two in 2007 (early spring and summer, two in 2008 (early spring and summer, one in 2009 (late spring–early summer and one in 2010 (spring. The results show that metabolisms of the western sector of the European Arctic varies throughout the year, depending mostly on the stage of bloom, which is mainly determined by availability of light and nutrients. Here we report metabolic rates for the different periods, including the spring bloom, summer and the dark period, increasing considerably the empirical basis on metabolic rates in the Artic Ocean, and especially in the European Arctic corridor. We also report a rough annual metabolic balance for this area of the Arctic Ocean, resulting in a Net Community Production of 108 g C m−2 yr−1.

  12. Regional Economic Development in the Soviet Union, Two Case Studies: The Baltic and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    this false "jump" in the value of at, D70t is introduced into the model. The graph of Soviet inter- regional connectivity is different for 1965 and...calculation of ucwi, j follows along similar lines. First, the interiogional regional connectivity matrix CC is constructed in a manner analogous to the...or regions, if no city in the intervening region(s) above the threshold size lies on the connecting route. A rule used to determine trans- regional

  13. Jelektrojenergetika Kaliningradskoj oblasti: analiz sostojanija, perspektiv razvitija i vzaimodejstvija s jenergosistemami stran Baltijskogo regiona [The power industry of the Kaliningrad region: an analysis of the current state, future development, and cooperation with the energy systems of the Baltic Region states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belei Valery

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the current state of the power system of the Kaliningrad region and gives recommendations regarding the increase in energy efficiency. The author considers the prospects of its development taking into account the possible accession of the Baltic States to the UCTE.

  14. Characteristics of black carbon aerosol mass concentration over the East Baltic region from two-year measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byčenkienė, Steigvilė; Ulevicius, Vidmantas; Kecorius, Simonas

    2011-04-01

    Continuous measurements of black carbon (BC) aerosol mass concentration were performed at a background site Preila (55°55'N, 21°00'E, 5 m a.s.l., Lithuania) during the period 2008-2009. The data were used to characterize the BC mass concentration distribution over the East Baltic region. High increase in aerosol BC concentration was associated with the change in air mass characteristics and biomass burning during the winter heating season and spring wildfires. Monthly means of BC concentration ranged from 212 to 1268 ng m(-3) and the highest hourly means of concentration were from 4800 to 6300 ng m(-3), predominantly in spring and winter months. During the October-April period the BC mass concentrations were about twice as high as those in the summertime. The BC diurnal pattern in winter was typically different from that in spring indicating the seasonal variation of the atmospheric boundary layer height. The weekday/weekend difference was not strongly pronounced because the BC concentrations in Preila are mainly affected by long-range transport or local sources. Typical periodicities caused by anthropogenic and meteorological influences have been identified using Fourier analysis. It was shown that domestic heating appears as a 365 day periodicity; traffic slightly contributes 5-7 day peaks in the spectrum and elevated long-range BC can be identified as characteristic peaks with periodicities in the range from 16 to 29 days.Temporal evolution and transport of BC aerosols were interpreted by the air mass backward trajectory analysis in conjunction with the examination of the wavelength dependence on the aethalometer data. Air masses originated from the North Atlantic Ocean and Scandinavia were favourable for lower BC concentrations (350 ng m(-3)), while the BC level associated with the Western Europe airflows was significantly higher (970 ng m(-3)). The mean values of Ångström exponent of the absorption coefficient (monthly means 1.45 ± 0.25 and 0.84 ± 0

  15. ENTEROBACTERIACAE, PRODUCING ESBLS AND METALLO-β-LACTAMASE NDM-1, ISOLATED IN HOSPITALS OF BALTIC REGION COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Egorova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. We studied the prevalence of K. pneumoniae and E. coli resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems, isolated from patients of eight hospitals in St-Petersburg from January to May, 2012. Prevalence of cephalosporin resistant isolates varied in different hospitals: E. coli – from 7,8 to 50%, K. pneumoniae – from 25,4 to 88,4%. Isolates produced extended spectrum beta-lactamases СТХ-М, mainly СТХ-М-1, also СТХ-М-2 and СТХ-М-9. Twenty two carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae strains (also resistant to other antimicrobials were isolated in three hospitals. MALDI-TOF MS showed that carbapenem resistance was caused by carbapenemase. Carbapenemases of all isolates belonged to metallo-β-lactamases according to results of the ROSCO Diagnostica tests. The gene coding production of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (blaNDM-1 were detected in all strains. Our data confirmed that the main cephalosporin resistance mechanism of E. coli и K. pneumoniae in Baltic region (including Russia, St-Petersburg is CTX-M-1 production. For the first time in Russia K. pneumoniae strains  producing metallo-β-lactamases NDM-1 were isolated in several hospitals of St-Petersburg.

  16. Environmental impacts of shipping in 2030 with a particular focus on the Arctic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Dalsøren

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We quantify the concentrations change of atmospheric pollutants and Radiative Forcing (RF of short-lived components due to shipping emissions of NOx, SOx, CO, NMVOCs, BC and OC. A set of models is used to evaluate the period 2004–2030. This time period reflects expected increasing traffic in the Arctic region. Two datasets for ship emissions are used that may characterize the potential impact from shipping and the degree to which shipping controls may mitigate impacts: A high (HIGH scenario and a low scenario with Maximum Feasible Reduction (MFR of black carbon in the Arctic. In MFR, BC emissions in the Arctic are reduced with 70% representing a combination technology performance and/or reasonable advances in single-technology performance. Both scenarios result in moderate to substantial increases in concentrations of pollutants both globally and in the Arctic. Exceptions are black carbon in the MFR scenario, and sulfur species and organic carbon in both scenarios due to the future phase-in of current regulation that reduces fuel sulfur content. In the season with potential transit traffic through the Arctic in 2030 significant increases occur for all pollutants in large parts of the Arctic. Net global RFs from 2004–2030 of 53 mW m−2 (HIGH and 73 mW m−2 (MFR are similar to those found for preindustrial to present net global aircraft RF. The found warming contrasts the cooling from historical ship emissions. The reason for this difference and the higher global forcing for the MFR scenario is mainly the reduced future fuel sulfur content resulting in less cooling from sulfate aerosols. Arctic regional forcing is largest in the HIGH scenario because other components become locally more important in polar latitudes. In the HIGH scenario ozone dominates the RF during Arctic summer and the transit season. RF due to BC in air, and snow and ice becomes of significance in Arctic spring. For the HIGH

  17. Environmental impacts of shipping in 2030 with a particular focus on the Arctic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Dalsøren

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We quantify the concentrations changes and Radiative Forcing (RF of short-lived atmospheric pollutants due to shipping emissions of NOx, SOx, CO, NMVOCs, BC and OC. We use high resolution ship emission inventories for the Arctic that are more suitable for regional scale evaluation than those used in former studies. A chemical transport model and a RF model are used to evaluate the time period 2004–2030, when we expect increasing traffic in the Arctic region. Two datasets for ship emissions are used that characterize the potential impact from shipping and the degree to which shipping controls may mitigate impacts: a high (HIGH scenario and a low scenario with Maximum Feasible Reduction (MFR of black carbon in the Arctic. In MFR, BC emissions in the Arctic are reduced with 70% representing a combination technology performance and/or reasonable advances in single-technology performance. Both scenarios result in moderate to substantial increases in concentrations of pollutants both globally and in the Arctic. Exceptions are black carbon in the MFR scenario, and sulfur species and organic carbon in both scenarios due to the future phase-in of current regulation that reduces fuel sulfur content. In the season with potential transit traffic through the Arctic in 2030 we find increased concentrations of all pollutants in large parts of the Arctic. Net global RFs from 2004–2030 of 53 mW m−2 (HIGH and 73 mW m−2 (MFR are similar to those found for preindustrial to present net global aircraft RF. The found warming contrasts with the cooling from historical ship emissions. The reason for this difference and the higher global forcing for the MFR scenario is mainly the reduced future fuel sulfur content resulting in less cooling from sulfate aerosols. The Arctic RF is largest in the HIGH scenario. In the HIGH scenario ozone dominates the RF during the transit season (August–October. RF due to BC in air, and

  18. The role of atmospheric heat transport and regional feedbacks in the Arctic warming at equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimori, Masakazu; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Laîné, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that the Arctic warms much more than the rest of the world even under spatially quasi-uniform radiative forcing such as that due to an increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration. While the surface albedo feedback is often referred to as the explanation of the enhanced Arctic warming, the importance of atmospheric heat transport from the lower latitudes has also been reported in previous studies. In the current study, an attempt is made to understand how the regional feedbacks in the Arctic are induced by the change in atmospheric heat transport and vice versa. Equilibrium sensitivity experiments that enable us to separate the contributions of the Northern Hemisphere mid-high latitude response to the CO2 increase and the remote influence of surface warming in other regions are carried out. The result shows that the effect of remote forcing is predominant in the Arctic warming. The dry-static energy transport to the Arctic is reduced once the Arctic surface warms in response to the local or remote forcing. The feedback analysis based on the energy budget reveals that the increased moisture transport from lower latitudes, on the other hand, warms the Arctic in winter more effectively not only via latent heat release but also via greenhouse effect of water vapor and clouds. The change in total atmospheric heat transport determined as a result of counteracting dry-static and latent heat components, therefore, is not a reliable measure for the net effect of atmospheric dynamics on the Arctic warming. The current numerical experiments support a recent interpretation based on the regression analysis: the concurrent reduction in the atmospheric poleward heat transport and future Arctic warming predicted in some models does not imply a minor role of the atmospheric dynamics. Despite the similar magnitude of poleward heat transport change, the Arctic warms more than the Southern Ocean even in the equilibrium response without ocean dynamics. It is shown that a

  19. Regional variability of acidification in the Arctic: a sea of contrasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Popova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic Ocean is a region that is particularly vulnerable to the impact of ocean acidification driven by rising atmospheric CO2, negatively impacting calcifying organisms such as coccolithophorids and foraminiferans. In this study, we use an ocean general circulation model, with embedded biogeochemistry and a full description of the carbon cycle, to study the response of pH and saturation states of calcite and aragonite to changing climate in the Arctic Ocean. Particular attention is paid to the strong regional variability within the Arctic and, for comparison, simulation results are contrasted with those for the global ocean. Simulations were run to year 2099 using the RCP 8.5 (the highest IPCC AR5 CO2 emission scenario. The separate impacts of the direct increase in atmospheric CO2 and indirect effects via climate feedbacks (changing temperature, stratification, primary production and fresh water fluxes were examined by undertaking two simulations, one with the full system and the other in which ocean-atmosphera exchange of CO2 was prevented from increasing beyond the flux calculated for year 2000. Results indicate that climate feedbacks, and spatial heterogeneity thereof, play a strong role in the declines in pH and carbonate saturation (Ω seen in the Arctic. The central Arctic, Canadian Arctic Archipelago and Baffin Bay show greatest rates of acidification and Ω decline as a result of melting sea ice. In contrast, areas affected by Atlantic inflow including the Greenland Sea and outer shelves of the Barents, Kara and Laptev seas, had minimal decreases in pH and Ω because weakening stratification associated with diminishing ice cover led to greater mixing and primary production. As a consequence, the predicted onset of undersaturation is highly variable regionally within the Arctic, occurring during the decade of 2000–2010 in the Siberian shelves and Canadian Arctic Archipelago, but as late

  20. Regional variability of acidification in the Arctic: a sea of contrasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Popova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic Ocean is a region that is particularly vulnerable to the impact of ocean acidification driven by rising atmospheric CO2, with potentially negative consequences for calcifying organisms such as coccolithophorids and foraminiferans. In this study, we use an ocean-only general circulation model, with embedded biogeochemistry and a comprehensive description of the ocean carbon cycle, to study the response of pH and saturation states of calcite and aragonite to rising atmospheric pCO2 and changing climate in the Arctic Ocean. Particular attention is paid to the strong regional variability within the Arctic, and, for comparison, simulation results are contrasted with those for the global ocean. Simulations were run to year 2099 using the RCP8.5 (an Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5 scenario with the highest concentrations of atmospheric CO2. The separate impacts of the direct increase in atmospheric CO2 and indirect effects via impact of climate change (changing temperature, stratification, primary production and freshwater fluxes were examined by undertaking two simulations, one with the full system and the other in which atmospheric CO2 was prevented from increasing beyond its preindustrial level (year 1860. Results indicate that the impact of climate change, and spatial heterogeneity thereof, plays a strong role in the declines in pH and carbonate saturation (Ω seen in the Arctic. The central Arctic, Canadian Arctic Archipelago and Baffin Bay show greatest rates of acidification and Ω decline as a result of melting sea ice. In contrast, areas affected by Atlantic inflow including the Greenland Sea and outer shelves of the Barents, Kara and Laptev seas, had minimal decreases in pH and Ω because diminishing ice cover led to greater vertical mixing and primary production. As a consequence, the projected onset of undersaturation in respect to aragonite is highly variable regionally within the

  1. Nord stream: not just a pipeline. An analysis of the political debates in the Baltic Sea region regarding the planned gas pipeline from Russia to Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whist, Bendik Solum

    2008-11-15

    This report is an analysis of the planned gas pipeline from Russia to Germany through the Baltic Sea known as Nord Stream. Although not yet realised, the project has, since its birth, been the subject of harsh criticism and opposition by a significant number of states that consider themselves affected by the pipeline. Whereas the Baltic States and Poland have interpreted the pipeline as a politically motivated strategy that will increase Russia's leverage on them and threaten their energy security, the debate in Sweden was at first mostly concerned with the prospect of increased Russian military presence in the Swedish Exclusive Economic Zone. The potential environmental impact of the pipeline has been, and continues to be, an overarching concern shared by all the littoral states of the Baltic Sea. Proponents of Nord Stream, most notably Germany, Russia and the Nord Stream consortium, have largely dismissed the concerns as unwarranted and argue that the pipeline is a common European project that all EU-members should embrace, as it will provide much-needed gas to an increasingly energy-thirsty union. This report is an extensive study of the divergent attitudes and debates that have surged in the region regarding Nord Stream, and the aim is to provide plausible explanations as to why the interpretations of the project have been so different in the various states. The report is based on a variety of sources, including several first-hand interviews with researchers and government officials in the Baltic Sea region. (author). refs.,fig.,tabs

  2. Regional Modelling of Air Quality in the Canadian Arctic: Impact of marine shipping and North American wild fire emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, W.; Beagley, S. R.; Zhang, J.; Cousineau, S.; Sassi, M.; Munoz-Alpizar, R.; Racine, J.; Menard, S.; Chen, J.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic atmospheric composition is strongly influenced by long-range transport from mid-latitudes as well as processes occurring in the Arctic locally. Using an on-line air quality prediction model GEM-MACH, simulations were carried out for the 2010 northern shipping season (April - October) over a regional Arctic domain. North American wildfire emissions and Arctic shipping emissions were represented, along with other anthropogenic and biogenic emissions. Sensitivity studies were carried out to investigate the principal sources and processes affecting air quality in the Canadian Northern and Arctic regions. In this paper, we present an analysis of sources, transport, and removal processes on the ambient concentrations and atmospheric loading of various pollutants with air quality and climate implications, such as, O3, NOx, SO2, CO, and aerosols (sulfate, black carbon, and organic carbon components). Preliminary results from a model simulation of a recent summertime Arctic field campaign will also be presented.

  3. Assessment of Wind Shear and Wind Energy Potential in the Baltic Sea Region of Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezrukovs, V.; Bezrukovs, Vl.; Zacepins, A.; Komashilovs, V.

    2015-04-01

    The paper is devoted to the investigation into the wind energy potential based on long-term observations of the wind speed and energy density fluctuations at heights from 10 to 160 m on the Baltic Sea coast of Latvia. During the observations (2004 - 2013), the wind speed and direction values were measured, and the statistical database was accumulated using a LOGGER 9200 Symphonie measuring systems mounted on 60 m masts - one on the western coast and another on the north-east of Latvia. From June 2011 to May 2012, these measurements were complemented with the data for the heights from 40 to 160 m obtained by means of a ZephIR lidar and with the metrological data provided by "Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre" for the same period. The graphs of seasonal fluctuations in the wind speed were obtained for the heights up to 160 m by measurements over the period of 2007 - 2013. The results of the research on the wind speed distribution up to 200 m are promising for evaluation of the wind energy potential of Latvia and will be helpful in assessment of prospective sites for construction of WPPs. Zinātniskais raksts ir veltīts pētījumam par vēja enerģijas potenciālu Latvijas teritorijā, Baltijas jūras piekrastē, balstoties uz ilgtermiņa vēja ātruma un vēja enerģijas blīvuma svārstību novērojumiem no 10 līdz 160 metriem augstumā. Vēja ātruma un vēja virziena mērījumu dati tika iegūti un apkopoti statistiskajā datubāzē laika periodā no 2004 līdz 2013. gadam, izmantojot mērīšanas sistēmu LOGGER 9200 Symphonie, kas bija ierīkotā uz 60 metru augsta masta - viena rietumu piekrastē un otra Latvijas ziemeļu-austrumos. No 2011. gada jūnija līdz 2012. gada maijam mērījumu datubāze tika papildināta ar datiem, kas tika iegūti ar lidaruZephIR augstumos no 40 līdz 160 metriem, un datiem no "Latvijas Vides, ģeoloģijas un meteoroloģijas centra" tam pašam laika periodam. Analizējot mērījumus 2007. g.-2013. g., grafiki ar

  4. Infrastructure of Baltic Region Transmission System: Analysis of Technical and Economic Factors of its Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obushevs, A.; Oleinikova, I.; Mutule, A.

    2014-08-01

    The operational conditions of new networks dictate new requirements for the transmission planning, which would include the electricity market figures and a sizable involvement of renewable generation. This paper focuses on the transmission expansion planning techniques based on the calculations of optimal power flows and on the concept of development planning and sustainability. A description is given for the mathematical model of calculations and analysis of transmission system. The results have shown that the Baltic transmission system infrastructure can successfully be analyzed based on the proposed methodology and developed mathematical model Baltijas valstu (Latvijas, Lietuvas un Igaunijas) energosistēmas ir cieši saistītas vēsturiski, un to darbība nav iespējama bez savstarpējas sadarbības attīstības un darba režīmu jautājumos. Ekonomisko attiecību īstenošanu enerģētikas sektorā paātrināja elektroenerģijas tirgus attīstība. Baltijas valstu enerģētikas politika ir integrēta ES enerģētikas stratēģijas sastāvdaļa, nosakot trīs galvenos mērķus: enerģētikas nozares konkurētspēja, ilgtspējīga attīstība un drošība. Visas trīs Baltijas energosistēmas veica lielu darba apjomu iekārtu modernizācijā un standartu saskaņošanā, kuras ir saskaņā ar Eiropas Savienības prasībām, kā arī par tirgus attiecību un tehnoloģiju standartu ieviešanu, lai nodrošinātu energoapgādes drošību un elektroenerģijas pieejamību patērētājiem Tomēr, ņemot vērā strauji mainīgos ārējos apstākļus, it īpaši ģeopolitiskos faktorus, Baltijas valstu enerģētikas politika būtu jāizskata ar mērķi novērtēt, kā šie faktori ietekmē energosistēmas ilgtspējīgu attīstību kopumā. No iepriekš minētā izriet, ka nepieciešama jauna nacionāla enerģētikas stratēģija, kura stiprinātu efektīvu ekonomisko un sociālo pamatu ilgtspējīgu attīstību Baltijas valstu nacionālā ekonomikā. Šī darba m

  5. Local and Regional Scale Impacts of Arctic Shipping Emissions Off the Coast of Northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelle, L.; Thomas, J. L.; Law, K.; Raut, J. C.; Jalkanen, J. P.; Johansson, L.; Roiger, A.; Schlager, H.; Kim, J.; Reiter, A.; Weinzierl, B.; Rose, M.

    2014-12-01

    Decreased sea ice extent due to warming has already resulted in the use of new shipping routes through the Arctic. Marine traffic is a source of air pollutants, including NOx, SO2, and aerosols, and is predicted to be an increasingly significant source of Arctic pollution in the future. Currently there are large uncertainties in both global and Arctic shipping emissions, leading to uncertainties in diagnosing current and future impacts of marine traffic on Arctic air quality and climate. This study focuses on the local scale, examining chemical/aerosol transformations occurring in individual ship plumes. Measurements of ship pollution in the Arctic taken during the EU ACCESS aircraft campaign (Arctic Climate Change, Economy and Society) in July 2012 are used to quantify the amount of pollution emitted from different ship types. This is combined with regional model (WRF-Chem) simulations to evaluate the impacts of shipping in northern Norway in summer 2012. The model is run at high resolution (2x2 km) combined with STEAMv2 (Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model version 2) emissions (1x1 km, 15 minute resolution) produced for shipping activity during the measurement period. WRF-Chem model results are compared with 3 ship plumes sampled during ACCESS. The model shows that both the location and total amount of pollution in individual ship plumes are correctly represented. Given this, the model is used to investigate the regional influence of ship pollution off the coast of Norway on a weekly time scale during July 2012, focusing on ozone photochemistry in ship plumes, the evolution of aerosols, and investigating the fate of black carbon emitted from ships. We compare regional modeling results obtained using 15 minute resolution STEAMv2 emissions with results using weekly averaged emissions, which are more representative of emissions typically used by global models to study the impacts of shipping on air quality and climate.

  6. Sea-Ice Wintertime Lead Frequencies and Regional Characteristics in the Arctic, 2003–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Willmes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of sea-ice leads represents a key feature of the Arctic sea ice cover. Leads promote the flux of sensible and latent heat from the ocean to the cold winter atmosphere and are thereby crucial for air-sea-ice-ocean interactions. We here apply a binary segmentation procedure to identify leads from MODIS thermal infrared imagery on a daily time scale. The method separates identified leads into two uncertainty categories, with the high uncertainty being attributed to artifacts that arise from warm signatures of unrecognized clouds. Based on the obtained lead detections, we compute quasi-daily pan-Arctic lead maps for the months of January to April, 2003–2015. Our results highlight the marginal ice zone in the Fram Strait and Barents Sea as the primary region for lead activity. The spatial distribution of the average pan-Arctic lead frequencies reveals, moreover, distinct patterns of predominant fracture zones in the Beaufort Sea and along the shelf-breaks, mainly in the Siberian sector of the Arctic Ocean as well as the well-known polynya and fast-ice locations. Additionally, a substantial inter-annual variability of lead occurrences in the Arctic is indicated.

  7. Limnological characteristics of 56 lakes in the Central Canadian Arctic Treeline Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. SMOL

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Measured environmental variables from 56 lakes across the Central Canadian Treeline Region exhibited clear limnological differences among subpolar ecozones, reflecting strong latitudinal changes in biome characteristics (e.g. vegetation, permafrost, climate. Principal Components Analysis (PCA clearly separated forested sites from tundra sites based on distinct differences in limnological characteristics. Increases in major ions and related variables (e.g. dissolved inorganic carbon, DIC were higher in boreal forest sites in comparison to arctic tundra sites. The higher values recorded in the boreal forest lakes may be indirectly related to differences in climatic factors in these zones, such as the degree of permafrost development, higher precipitation and runoff, duration of ice-cover on the lakes, and thicker and better soil development. Similar to trends observed in DIC, substantially higher values for dissolved organic carbon (DOC were measured in boreal forest lakes than in arctic tundra lakes. This was likely due to higher amounts of catchment-derived DOC entering the lakes from coniferous leaf litter sources. Relative to arctic tundra lakes, boreal forest lakes had higher nutrient concentrations, particularly total nitrogen (TN, likely due to warmer conditions, a longer growing season, and higher precipitation, which would enhance nutrient cycling and primary productivity. Results suggest that modern aquatic environments at opposite sides of the central Canadian arctic treeline (i.e. boreal forest and arctic tundra exhibit distinct differences in water chemistry and physical conditions. These limnological trends may provide important information on possible future changes with additional warming.

  8. Nekotorye voprosy realizacii jenergeticheskoj politiki Rossii v Baltijskom regione: geojekonomicheskij podhod [Russia’s energy policy in the Baltic region: a geoeconomic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachininsky Stanislav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses certain issues of implementation of Russian energy policy in the Baltic region fr om the geoeconomic perspective. The purpose of the study is to explain Russian energy policy in the region as dependent solely on the import capacity of its partners. Russian energy policy is viewed as one of the most important activities of the state and its business structures. As such it aims to achieve both general economic goals (generation of profit, market domination and more specific geoeconomic tasks. At the same time, the policy follows the traditional rules of consumer/producer market game. Russian energy resources are delivered to an energy deficient region, wh ere the demand and need for them is stable. The study is based on the author’s geoeconomic methodology, which extensively uses geographical and general scientific methods. This work aims to develop a geoeconomic paradigm in the framework of social geography. It will be of interest to anyone who aims to analyse the true motives behind Russian current energy policy.

  9. Physical oceanography of the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaeranta, Matti [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Myrberg, Kai [Finnish Institute of Marine Research, Helsinki (Finland)

    2009-07-01

    The Baltic Sea oceanographic research community is wide and the research history is over 100 years old. Nevertheless, there is still no single, coherent book on the physical oceanography of the Baltic Sea as a whole. There is a strong need for such a book, coming from working oceanographers as well as the university teaching programmes in advanced undergraduate to graduate levels. In the regional conference series in physical oceanography (Baltic Sea Science Conference, Baltic Sea Oceanographers' conference, Baltex-conferences) about 500 scientists take part regularly. Even more scientists work in the fields of marine biology, chemistry and the environment, and they need information on the physics of the Baltic Sea as well. There are nine countries bordering on the Baltic Sea and five more in the runoff area. The Baltic Sea as a source of fish, means of transportation and leisure activities is highly important to the regional society. In the runoff area there are a total of 85 million people. Research and protection strategies need to be developed, as the Baltic Sea is probably the most polluted sea in the world. Since the Baltic Sea has become an inner sea of the EU (apart from small shore parts of Russia in Petersburg and Kaliningrad), it is anticipated that the importance of the region will consequently rise. The book will arouse interest among students, scientists and decision makers involved with the Baltic problems. It will also give important background information for those working with biogeochemical processes in the Baltic Sea, because the physical forcing for those processes is of vital importance. (orig.)

  10. Infant mortality gap in the Baltic region - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - in relation to macroeconomic factors in 1996-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebela, Inguna; Zile, Irisa; Ebela, Danute Razuka; Rozenfelde, Ingrida Rumba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE. A constant gap has appeared in infant mortality among the 3 Baltic States - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - since the restoration of independence in 1991. The aim of the study was to compare infant mortality rates in all the 3 Baltic countries and examine some of the macro- and socioeconomic factors associated with infant mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The data were obtained from international databases, such as World Health Organization and EUROSTAT, and the national statistical databases of the Baltic States. The time series data sets (1996-2010) were used in the regression and correlation analysis. RESULTS. In all the 3 Baltic States, a strong and significant correlation was found: Latvia (r=-0.81, PLithuania (r=-0.93, PLithuania (r=-0.90, PLithuania, the relationship was not significant. CONCLUSIONS. Higher infant mortality rates and a less stable decreasing tendency in Latvia are apparently explained by less successful adaptation to a new political and economic situation and limited skills in adjusting the healthcare system to the reality of life.

  11. Sensitivity of modeled atmospheric nitrogen species and nitrogen deposition to variations in sea salt emissions in the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Daniel; Matthias, Volker; Bieser, Johannes; Aulinger, Armin; Quante, Markus

    2016-03-01

    Coarse sea salt particles are emitted ubiquitously from the ocean surface by wave-breaking and bubble-bursting processes. These particles impact the atmospheric chemistry by affecting the condensation of gas-phase species and, thus, indirectly the nucleation of new fine particles, particularly in regions with significant air pollution. In this study, atmospheric particle concentrations are modeled for the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions in northwestern Europe using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system and are compared to European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) measurement data. The sea salt emission module is extended by a salinity-dependent scaling of the sea salt emissions because the salinity in large parts of the Baltic Sea is very low, which leads to considerably lower sea salt mass emissions compared to other oceanic regions. The resulting improvement in predicted sea salt concentrations is assessed. The contribution of surf zone emissions is considered separately. Additionally, the impacts of sea salt particles on atmospheric nitrate and ammonium concentrations and on nitrogen deposition are evaluated. The comparisons with observational data show that sea salt concentrations are commonly overestimated at coastal stations and partly underestimated farther inland. The introduced salinity scaling improves the predicted Baltic Sea sea salt concentrations considerably. The dates of measured peak concentrations are appropriately reproduced by the model. The impact of surf zone emissions is negligible in both seas. Nevertheless, they might be relevant because surf zone emissions were cut at an upper threshold in this study. Deactivating sea salt leads to minor increases in NH3 + NH4+ and HNO3 + NO3- and a decrease in NO3- concentrations. However, the overall effect on NH3 + NH4+ and HNO3 + NO3- concentrations is smaller than the deviation from the measurements. Nitrogen wet deposition is underestimated by the model at most

  12. Is it 'boom times' for baleen whales in the Pacific Arctic region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sue E

    2016-09-01

    The marine ecosystem in the Pacific Arctic region has experienced dramatic transformation, most obvious by the loss of sea ice volume (75%), late-summer areal extent (50%) and change in phenology (four to six weeks longer open-water period). This alteration has resulted in an opening of habitat for subarctic species of baleen whales, many of which are recovering in number from severe depletions from commercial whaling in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Specifically, humpback, fin and minke whales (Megaptera novaeangliae, Balaenoptera physalus and Balaenoptera acutorostrata) are now regularly reported during summer and autumn in the southern Chukchi Sea. These predators of zooplankton and forage fishes join the seasonally resident grey whale (Eschrichtius robustus) and the arctic-endemic bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) in the expanding open-ocean habitat of the Pacific Arctic. Questions arising include: (i) what changes in whale-prey production and delivery mechanisms have accompanied the loss of sea ice, and (ii) how are these five baleen whale species partitioning the expanding ice-free habitat? While there has been no programme of research specifically focused on these questions, an examination of seasonal occurrence, foraging plasticity and (for bowhead whales) body condition suggests that the current state of Pacific Arctic marine ecosystem may be 'boom times' for baleen whales. These favourable conditions may be moderated, however, by future shifts in ecosystem structure and/or negative impacts to cetaceans related to increased commercial activities in the region.

  13. Biogeophysical feedbacks enhance Arctic terrestrial carbon sink in regional Earth system dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Continued warming of the Arctic will likely accelerate terrestrial carbon (C cycling by increasing both uptake and release of C. There are still large uncertainties in modelling Arctic terrestrial ecosystems as a source or sink of C. Most modelling studies assessing or projecting the future fate of C exchange with the atmosphere are based an either stand-alone process-based models or coupled climate–C cycle general circulation models, in either case disregarding biogeophysical feedbacks of land surface changes to the atmosphere. To understand how biogeophysical feedbacks will impact on both climate and C budget over Arctic terrestrial ecosystems, we apply the regional Earth system model RCA-GUESS over the CORDEX-Arctic domain. The model is forced with lateral boundary conditions from an GCMs CMIP5 climate projection under the RCP 8.5 scenario. We perform two simulations with or without interactive vegetation dynamics respectively to assess the impacts of biogeophysical feedbacks. Both simulations indicate that Arctic terrestrial ecosystems will continue to sequester C with an increased uptake rate until 2060s–2070s, after which the C budget will return to a weak C sink as increased soil respiration and biomass burning outpaces increased net primary productivity. The additional C sinks arising from biogeophysical feedbacks are considerable, around 8.5 Gt C, accounting for 22% of the total C sinks, of which 83.5% are located in areas of Arctic tundra. Two opposing feedback mechanisms, mediated by albedo and evapotranspiration changes respectively, contribute to this response. Albedo feedback dominates over winter and spring season, amplifying the near-surface warming by up to 1.35 K in spring, while evapotranspiration feedback dominates over summer exerting the evaporative cooling by up to 0.81 K. Such feedbacks stimulate vegetation growth with an earlier onset of growing-season, leading to compositional changes in woody plants and vegetation

  14. Baltic nuclear projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adlys, Gediminas; Adliene, Diana [Kaunas Univ. of Technology (Lithuania)

    2009-07-01

    The Authors discuss the Baltic energy policy with respect to new nuclear power plants for Lithuania, Belarus and the Kaliningrad region. The construction of a new nuclear power plant in Lithuania would threaten Russian interests in the region. Therefore Lithuania is looking to Russian plans to build a new nuclear power plant in the Kaliningrad region as an attempt to subvert Lithuania's foreign partners and potential investors from participating in the Visaginas NPP project. However, the authors conclude, that the Visaginas NPP project is and must be the preferential project for the EU and NATO member states.

  15. A Multi-Model Comparison of Black Carbon Budgets in the Arctic Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, R.; von Salzen, K.; Flanner, M.; Sand, M.; Langner, J.; Wang, H.; Huang, L.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we quantify modeled aerosol processes related to black carbon (BC) concentrations in the Arctic region in several general circulation models used by the Expert Group on Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP). All models simulated well the observed seasonal cycle of BC concentrations in the high Canadian Arctic region, however, most models (except CanAM) underestimate the total concentrations. Transport of BC from lower latitudes is the major source for the Arctic region where emissions are small. The models produce similar seasonal cycle of BC transport towards the Arctic with maximum transport in July. However, substantial differences were found among the models in simulating BC burdens and vertical distributions with some models producing very week seasonal cycle while others producing stronger seasonality. The annual mean BC residence times in models also differs markedly with CanAM having the shortest residence times followed by SMHI-MATCH, CESM and NorESM. There are substantial differences among the models in simulating the relative role of wet and dry deposition rates which is one of the major factors causing variations in the seasonality of BC burdens in the models. Similarly, significant differences in wet deposition efficiencies among the models exist and are the leading cause of differences in simulated BC burdens. To further explore these processes, we performed several sensitivity tests in CanAM and CESM. Overall, the results indicate that scavenging of BC in convective clouds as compared to simulations without convective BC scavenging substantially increases the overall efficiency of BC wet deposition which leads to low BC burdens and a more pronounced seasonal cycle.

  16. Reference life cycle assessment scenarios for manure management in the Baltic Sea Regions - An assessment covering six animal production, five BSR countries, and four manure types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Baky, A; Cano-Bernal, J

    types (fattening pig slurry, dairy cow slurry, hens manure, bulls deep litter, fattening pig solid manure, dairy cow solid manure, horse manure & broilers manure) and five Baltic Sea Regions (Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Poland), for a total of 15 reference systems. It presents, for each...... the manure is applied, specific legislations governing the manure management practices, etc.). Further, it presents a reference manure composition for each of these reference systems, including key parameters such as dry matter, nitrogen (inorganic and total), phosphorus, carbon and volatile solids content...

  17. D2: major subgenotype of hepatitis B virus in Russia and the Baltic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallo, Tatjana; Tefanova, Valentina; Priimägi, Ljudmilla; Schmidt, Jelena; Katargina, Olga; Michailov, Michail; Mukomolov, Sergey; Magnius, Lars; Norder, Heléne

    2008-08-01

    Complete or almost complete hepatitis B virus (HBV) genomes were sequenced for 13 genotype A and 42 genotype D strains from the former USSR. The strains were classifiable within subgenotypes A2, D1, D2 and D3. Comparison of the deduced gene products for the four ORFs of 89 genotype D strains revealed 27 subgenotype-specific residues, and a region spanning residues 58-128 in the spacer region of the P gene could be used to distinguish between D1 and D4. This enabled the allocation to subgenotype of strains with partially sequenced genomes. D2 was dominating, while D3 was found in low frequency in the whole region. D1 was most prevalent in the Middle Asian Republics. Mean inter-subgenotype divergences between D1 and D2, D1 and D3 and D2 and D3 were 2.7, 3.4 and 3.4 %, respectively. The intra-subgenotype divergence was 0.4, 1.1, 1.0 and 1.8 % for A2, D1, D2 and D3, respectively. All D1 and D3 strains encoded subtype ayw2, whereas most D2 strains encoded ayw3. Two D2 strains encoded ayw4. Strains with identical S genes were closely related at the level of complete genomes and formed geographically specific clades with low intraclade divergences, possibly indicating past iatrogenic spread. It is not clear whether the finding of four subgenotypes in the area corresponds to separate introductions of the virus or to previous population migrations into the area. An earlier introduction of D3 compared with D2 was supported by its higher intra-subgenotype divergence, while the lower divergence within D1 is probably due to a more recent emergence.

  18. Fauna of gastropod molluscs in the Curonian Lagoon littoral biotopes (Baltic Sea, Kaliningrad region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Filippenko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the gastropod mollusc fauna in the coastal waters of the southern part of the Curonian Lagoon (Kaliningrad region, Russia were carried out. Study revealed 34 aquatic gastropods representing 30% of Prosobranchia and 70% of Pulmonata. Obtained data showed higher mollusc diversity in the littoral biotopes in comparison with open areas of the Lagoon. The fauna is represented by a typical Central European species complex of freshwater gastropods. The reed zone along the coastline in the Lagoon functions as a barrier and provides shallow water habitats with slow moving and warmer water, where maximum gastropod species concentrate.

  19. OUTDOORS ON THE SHORES OF THE BALTIC: GRADIENCE IN THE GRAMMATICALIZATION OF THE EXTERIOR-REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Karjus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The change of a lexical element into a grammatical (closed class element must necessarily include intermediary stages where the element is considered gradually less lexical and more grammatical.The central assumptions in this study are the gradualness and gradience of grammaticalization, that natural language change cannot happen overnight, and that the change is driven by individual speakers of a language community (cf. Traugott and Trousdale 2010: 23,26. Using a data sample from a questionnaire on spatial grams of the EXTERIOR-REGION (cf. Svorou 1994 in Estonian, Võro and Latvian, an attempt is made to model diachronic gradualness through synchronic gradience. The analysis and the explication thereof are carried out using multidimensional scaling, a statistical modelling method used akin to semantic maps.

  20. Influence of meteorological storms on ionospheric parameters in Baltic region in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, Ivan; Borchevkina, Olga; Dadashev, Ruslan; Ilminskaya, Aleksandra

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents observations of atmospheric and ionospheric parameters during strong meteorological disturbances (storms) in the Kaliningrad region. The critical frequency of the F2 layer (foF2) and the total electron content (TEC) were observed at the station Kaliningrad (20 °E, 54.20 °N). Atmospheric pressure and wind were taken to be the atmospheric parameters under study. The analysis of ionospheric observations has shown that during meteorological storms the amplitude of diurnal variations in TEC decreases to 50 %; and in foF2, to 15 % as compared to quiet days. The revealed changes in ionospheric conditions during meteorological storms are regularly registered and represent a characteristic feature of the meteorological effect on the ionosphere.

  1. Quality assessment of atmospheric surface fields over the Baltic Sea from an ensemble of regional climate model simulations with respect to ocean dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Markus Meier

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate model results for the Baltic Sea region from an ensemble of eight simulations using the Rossby Centre Atmosphere model version 3 (RCA3 driven with lateral boundary data from global climate models (GCMs are compared with results from a downscaled ERA40 simulation and gridded observations from 1980-2006. The results showed that data from RCA3 scenario simulations should not be used as forcing for Baltic Sea models in climate change impact studies because biases of the control climate significantly affect the simulated changes of future projections. For instance, biases of the sea ice cover in RCA3 in the present climate affect the sensitivity of the model's response to changing climate due to the ice-albedo feedback. From the large ensemble of available RCA3 scenario simulations two GCMs with good performance in downscaling experiments during the control period 1980-2006 were selected. In this study, only the quality of atmospheric surface fields over the Baltic Sea was chosen as a selection criterion. For the greenhouse gas emission scenario A1B two transient simulations for 1961-2100 driven by these two GCMs were performed using the regional, fully coupled atmosphere-ice-ocean model RCAO. It was shown that RCAO has the potential to improve the results in downscaling experiments driven by GCMs considerably, because sea surface temperatures and sea ice concentrations are calculated more realistically with RCAO than when RCA3 has been forced with surface boundary data from GCMs. For instance, the seasonal 2 m air temperature cycle is closer to observations in RCAO than in RCA3 downscaling simulations. However, the parameterizations of air-sea fluxes in RCAO need to be improved.

  2. Regional Arctic System Model (RASM): A Tool to Address the U.S. Priorities and Advance Capabilities for Arctic Climate Modeling and Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslowski, W.; Roberts, A.; Cassano, J. J.; Gutowski, W. J., Jr.; Nijssen, B.; Osinski, R.; Zeng, X.; Brunke, M.; Duvivier, A.; Hamman, J.; Hossainzadeh, S.; Hughes, M.; Seefeldt, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic is undergoing some of the most coordinated rapid climatic changes currently occurring anywhere on Earth, including the retreat of the perennial sea ice cover, which integrates forcing by, exchanges with and feedbacks between atmosphere, ocean and land. While historical reconstructions from Earth System Models (ESMs) are in broad agreement with these changes, the rate of change in ESMs generally remains outpaced by observations. Reasons for that relate to a combination of coarse resolution, inadequate parameterizations, under-represented processes and a limited knowledge of physical interactions. We demonstrate the capability of the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) in addressing some of the ESM limitations in simulating observed variability and trends in arctic surface climate. RASM is a high resolution, pan-Arctic coupled climate model with the sea ice and ocean model components configured at an eddy-permitting resolution of 1/12o and the atmosphere and land hydrology model components at 50 km resolution, which are all coupled at 20-minute intervals. RASM is an example of limited-area, process-resolving, fully coupled ESM, which due to the constraints from boundary conditions facilitates detailed comparisons with observational statistics that are not possible with ESMs. The overall goal of RASM is to address key requirements published in the Navy Arctic Roadmap: 2014-2030 and in the Implementation Plan for the National Strategy for the Arctic Region, regarding the need for advanced modeling capabilities for operational forecasting and strategic climate predictions through 2030. The main science objectives of RASM are to advance understanding and model representation of critical physical processes and feedbacks of importance to sea ice thickness and area distribution. RASM results are presented to quantify relative contributions by (i) resolved processes and feedbacks as well as (ii) sensitivity to space dependent sub-grid parameterizations to better

  3. Impacts of urban and industrial development on Arctic land surface temperature in Lower Yenisei River Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Shiklomanov, N. I.

    2015-12-01

    Urbanization and industrial development have significant impacts on arctic climate that in turn controls settlement patterns and socio-economic processes. In this study we have analyzed the anthropogenic influences on regional land surface temperature of Lower Yenisei River Region of the Russia Arctic. The study area covers two consecutive Landsat scenes and includes three major cities: Norilsk, Igarka and Dudingka. Norilsk industrial region is the largest producer of nickel and palladium in the world, and Igarka and Dudingka are important ports for shipping. We constructed a spatio-temporal interpolated temperature model by including 1km MODIS LST, field-measured climate, Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), DEM, Landsat NDVI and Landsat Land Cover. Those fore-mentioned spatial data have various resolution and coverage in both time and space. We analyzed their relationships and created a monthly spatio-temporal interpolated surface temperature model at 1km resolution from 1980 to 2010. The temperature model then was used to examine the characteristic seasonal LST signatures, related to several representative assemblages of Arctic urban and industrial infrastructure in order to quantify anthropogenic influence on regional surface temperature.

  4. Arctic Defense Concerns: The Need to Reorganize United States Defense Structure to Meet Threats in a Changing Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    great North American allies. „ Gold Rush ‟ The retreating Arctic ice cap presents another potential benefit and major source of Figure 1 - Northwest...international tension. The possibility of significant untapped natural resources in the arctic have prompted a veritable international „ Gold - rush ‟ to the

  5. Genetic approach to reconstruct complex regional geological setting of the Baltic basin in 3D geological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovs, K.; Saks, T.; Ukass, J.; Jatnieks, J.

    2012-04-01

    Interpretation of geological structures in 3D geological models is a relatively new research topic that is already standardized in many geological branches. Due to its wide practical application, these models are indispensable and become one of the dominant interpretation methods in reducing geological uncertainties in many geology fields. Traditionally, geological concepts complement quantitative as much as qualitative data to obtain a model deemed acceptable, however, available data very often is insufficient and modeling methods primarily focus on spatial data but geological history usually is mostly neglected for the modeling of large sedimentary basins. A need to better integrate the long and often complex geological history and geological knowledge into modeling procedure is very acute to gain geological insight and improve the quality of geological models. During this research, 3D geological model of the Baltic basin (BB) was created. Because of its complex regional geological setting - wide range of the data sources with multiple scales, resolution and density as well as its various source formats, the study area provides a challenge for the 3D geological modeling. In order to create 3D regional geometrical model for the study area algorithmic genetic approach for model geometry reconstruction was applied. The genetic approach is based on the assumption that post-depositional deformation produce no significant change in sedimentary strata volume, assuming that the strata thickness and its length in a cross sectional plane remains unchanged except as a result of erosion. Assuming that the tectonic deformation occurred in sequential cycles and subsequent tectonic stage strata is separated by regional unconformity as is the case of the BB, there is an opportunity for algorithmic approach in reconstructing these conditions by sequentially reconstructing the layer original thickness. Layer thicknesses were sliced along fault lines, where applicable layer

  6. Regional interests of Russia in the concept of development of the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogachev V. F.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the current state and prospects of development of the Arctic in the context of its growing value in connection with expansion of demand for strategic types of raw materials, increased interest in the region of the concerned states and transnational consortia, as well as with the development of the international transport corridors and new technologies facilitating access to sources of raw materials

  7. Rise of Regional Logistics Hubs in Global Trade : Role of Arctic Corridor in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Buyle, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The proposed research concerns the engagement of the Finnish transport network into national, regional, European and global supply chains. The author was interested in studying the role of new transport corridors in trade reactivity and changes in market trends. The main target of the thesis is to understand the role of the Arctic Corridor on the implementation of Finnish development strategies. The mineral industry in Finnish Lapland and the extraction of natural resources in the Barent...

  8. Fog removal in the declines of underground mines in sub-arctic regions

    OpenAIRE

    Martikainen, Anu

    2007-01-01

    Fogging is a common safety hazard observed especially in the declines of underground mines located in sub-arctic regions. Fog forms when saturated air loses internal energy by mixing with a colder air stream, by simply ascending through the ventilation system of the mine, or when contact with cold wall-rock decreases air temperature. Studies concerning fogging in underground mines are rare. Technological advances and more complete theoretical knowledge gained by research in many other fie...

  9. Against the stream: relevance of gluconeogenesis from fatty acids for natives of the arctic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Schuster

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. The question whether even-chain fatty acids can be converted into glucose has a long-standing tradition in biochemistry. Since the glyoxylate shunt is absent from mammals, the question has been considered to be solved. It is of particular relevance for understanding the metabolic state of natives of the arctic regions due to the very high fat content of their traditional diet only containing negligible amounts of carbohydrates. Methods & Results. Using an in silico approach, we discovered several hitherto unknown routes in human metabolism that allow the conversion of even-chain fatty acids into carbohydrates in humans. These pathways proceed via ketogenesis over the intermediate of acetone and produce the gluconeogenic precursor pyruvate. While these pathways can make a contribution to glucose production during times of limited carbohydrate supply, we found that their capacity might be limited due to a high demand in reducing equivalents in acetone degradation. Considering the traditional diet of natives of the arctic regions, the detected pathways are not only important in order to improve carbohydrate supply, but moreover reduce the amount of protein that needs to be used for gluconeogenesis. Conclusion. In summary, our study sheds new light on our understanding of the metabolic state of natives from the arctic regions on their traditional diet. Moreover, they provide an avenue for new analyses that can reveal how humans have adapted metabolically to a practically carbohydrate-free diet.

  10. Benthic macrofaunal production for a typical shelf-slope-basin region in the western Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Heshan; Wang, Jianjun; Liu, Kun; He, Xuebao; Lin, Junhui; Huang, Yaqin; Zhang, Shuyi; Mou, Jianfeng; Zheng, Chengxing; Wang, Yu

    2016-02-01

    Secondary production by macrofaunal communities in the western Arctic Ocean were quantified during the 4th and 5th Chinese Arctic Scientific Expeditions. The total production and P/B ratio for each sector ranged from 3.8 (±7.9) to 615.6 (±635.5) kJ m-2 yr-1 and 0.5 (± 0.2) to 0.7 (± 0.2) yr-1, respectively. The shallow shelves in the western Arctic Ocean exhibited particularly high production (178.7-615.6 kJ m-2 yr-1), particularly in the two "hotspots" - the southern and northeastern (around Barrow Canyon) Chukchi Sea. Benthic macrofaunal production decreased sharply with depth and latitude along a shelf-slope-basin transect, with values of 17.0-269.8 kJ m-2 yr-1 in slope regions and 3.8-10.1 kJ m-2 yr-1 in basins. Redundancy analysis indicated that hydrological characteristics (depth, bottom temperature and salinity) and granulometric parameters (mean particle size, % sand and % clay) show significant positive/negative correlations with total production. These correlations revealed that the dominant factors influencing benthic production are the habitat type and food supply from the overlying water column. In the Arctic, the extreme environmental conditions and low temperature constrain macrofaunal metabolic processes, such that food and energy are primarily used to increase body mass rather than for reproduction. Hence, energy turnover is relatively low at high latitudes. These data further our understanding of benthic production processes and ecosystem dynamics in the context of rapid climate change in the western Arctic Ocean.

  11. Architectural Design in Arctic Regions - Issue of wind-driven snow in a built environment for sustainable urban planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiebig, Jennifer; Koss, Holger

    2014-01-01

    settlements in this areas. The need to adapt to the extreme climatic conditions lead to specific traditions of construction forms and development concepts utilizing the available resources. Focuses of the research will be the relation between the architectural design of buildings as individual units......The extreme climate is a growing problem caused by climate change in many parts of the world. Research in Arctic regions offer a great potential for adaptation for other extreme climates. The issue of snow drift and accumulation in north European and arctic regions exists since the first human...... or as arrangement in an urban grid and the dominating climatic boundary conditions of snow and wind in arctic regions. Especially the accumulation of wind driven snow on building roofs and on the ground around and between buildings has caused damages of roof structures and blockage of accumulation in arctic urban...

  12. Baltic region going nuclear

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Läti keskkonnaminister Raimonds Vejonis leiab, et Läti ei peaks investeerima Leetu rajatava tuumaelektrijaama ehitusse ja võiks panustada hoopis taastuvenergiale. Venemaa peaminister Vladimir Putin ja Valgevene president Aleksandr Lukašenko allkirjastasid kokkuleppe Valgevene ja Leedu piiri lähistele uue tuumajaama ehitamise kohta. Leedu ei ole selle projektiga nõus

  13. Regional estimates of POC export flux derived from thorium-234 in the western Arctic Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Qiang; CHEN Min; QIU Yusheng; LI Yanping

    2005-01-01

    In order to elucidate the regional export variation of particulate organic carbon in the western Arctic Ocean, samples vertically integrated between 0 and 100 m depth or between 0and 30 m/40 m depth were collected for total 224Th measurements and those from 30 m/40 m or 100 m depth were collected for particulate 234Th measurements during the Second Chinese Arctic Expedition in July-September 2003. The removal fluxes and residence time of 234Th in the upper water column were calculated by using irreversible steady-state scavenging model. The results showed that, total 234Th was deficit relative to its parent 238U in the western Arctic Ocean except in the western Chukchi shelf and the slope regions around 160°W, indicating that scavenging and removal processes play an important role in element biogeochemical cycle in the Arctic Ocean. In the western Chukchi shelfand the slope regions around 160°W,total 234Th was excess relative to 238U, ascribing to the horizontal input of 234Th adsorbed by ice-rafted sediments. Thorinm-234 removal fluxes decreased from the shelf to the deep ocean, while the residence time of 234Th increased from shelf to offshore, demonstrating that particle scavenging and removal processes are more active in the shelfregions. The estimated POC export fluxes from 40 m in the shelf regions and from 100 m in the slope and deep ocean varied between 1.6 and 27.5 mmol/(m2·d), and between 1.8 and 14.4 mmol/(m2·d), respectively. The averaged POC export fluxes over the entire water column decreased from the shelf to the deep ocean, indicating that the Chukchi shelf is an important region for organic carbon sequestration. The high ThE ratios (ratio of POC export flux derived from 234Th/238U disequilibria to primary production) in the western Arctic Ocean suggested that the biological pump runs actively in high-latitudes.

  14. ARCHITECTURE OF THE ESTLYANDSKAYA PROVINCE – A SOURCE OF INSPIRATION AND THE BASE OF N.M. SOKOLOV’S CREATIVE METHOD (neogothic style of the Baltic region and its reflection in the architectural appearance of the Southern capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmirskaya A. V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available N. M. Sokolov was the chief architect of Rostov-onDon city and as well as the author of the concept of architectural preferences continuity of a "brick style" at the end of XIX- beginning XX centuries that is presented in the article. The author assumes that the creative method of the architect was affected by the childhood and youth when he lived in Baltic and also the beginning of architectural and art activity of the master taking place in Riga. The author investigates the architectural development of the Baltic region, taking in attention that the value of N. M. Sokolov’s architectural creations has deep roots hidden in the development of architectural tradition of Baltic and in particular Riga where the master of a neogothic style of Rostov was born. The author reveals the main distinctive features of the Baltic architecture, the Gothic principle formation in the Baltic in terms of development of cities and cult sights of Riga and their transformation from the late Gothic into mannerism and neogothic style, the influence of cult Lutheran tradition on cult orthodox architecture. The author also considers construction materials of cult architecture, local design features of architecture of the Latvian people. The concepts "northern gothic style", "brick style" are revealed from the point of view of development of a Gothic form and influence of Medieval architecture on N. M. Sokolov's creativity

  15. Atomnaja jenergetika Pribaltiki: istorija vozniknovenija i politiko-jekonomicheskie osobennosti razvitija [Nuclear power in the Baltic Sea region: the history of emergence and the political and economic features of its development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretinin Gannady

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the development of peaceful nuclear power. The author draws attention to the fact that nuclear power is a rather young branch of national economy. However, over recent decades, it has already seen rises and falls, and a number of states have had tragic experiences of nuclear emergencies. Nevertheless, many countries — including the three Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania — express a strong interest in development, generation, and application of nuclear power. In the Baltic States, nuclear power dates back to the Soviet times, but its development was suspended pursuant to the EU regulations (the Ignalina NPP. Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia have been striving for energy independence from Russia — the principal supplier of energy carriers to these countries. For a long time, the three Baltic States have been proclaiming their unanimity on the general European path of development. However, the reality proved to be different. The touchstone for achieving common goals was the idea of constructing a new NPP at the site of the closed Ignalina NPP. The author concludes that the joint construction of a new NPP is quite questionable. When it comes to politics, each of the three Baltic States is ready to build its own NPP. Thus, the development of nuclear power in the Baltic Sea region requires joint coordinated actions independent of any bloc-inspired interests of the states involved. Moreover, this success may prove sustainable if the actions are based on innovative decisions and modern technologies.

  16. Interannual Arctic sea ice variability and associated winter weather patterns: A regional perspective for 1979-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hans W.; Alley, Richard B.; Zhang, Fuqing

    2016-12-01

    Using Arctic sea ice concentration derived from passive microwave satellite observations in autumn and early winter over the 1979-2014 period, the Arctic region was objectively classified into several smaller regions based on the interannual sea ice variability through self-organizing map analyses. The trend in regional sea ice extent (RSIE) in each region was removed using an adaptive, nonlinear, and nonstationary method called Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition, which captures well the accelerating decline of Arctic RSIEs in recent decades. Although the linear trend in RSIE is negative in all regions in both seasons, there are marked differences in RSIE trends and variability between regions, with the largest negative trends found during autumn in the Beaufort Sea, the Barents-Kara Seas, and the Laptev-East Siberian Seas. Winter weather patterns associated with the nonlinearly detrended RSIEs show distinct features for different regions and tend to be better correlated with the autumn than early winter RSIE anomalies. Sea ice losses in the Beaufort Sea and the Barents-Kara Seas are both associated with a cooling of Eurasia, but in the former case the circulation anomaly is reminiscent of a Rossby wave train, whereas in the latter case the pattern projects onto the negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation. These results highlight the nonuniform changes in Arctic sea ice and suggest that regional sea ice variations may play a crucial role for the winter weather patterns.

  17. RELATIONS OF DISTRIBUTION OF THE LOW SULPHUR SHIPPING FUELS IN REGION OF THE BALTIC SEA IN THE BUNKERING BOAT-SHIP SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Matejski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents relations of distribution of the low sulphur marine fuels as result of being in force the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78, especially the record establishing the region of the Baltic Sea and the North See as sulphur emission control areas (SECA. There are presented obligatory regulations and their influence on sale of the particular kinds of fuels in this region. There are also presented chosen procedures of care about cargo in relation bunker boat – harbour – ship, the delivery fuel procedures in relation bunker boat–ship and the quantitative analysis of distributed fuels on an example of chosen bunker boat.

  18. The impact of regional Arctic sea ice loss on atmospheric circulation and the NAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker Pedersen, Rasmus; Cvijanovic, Ivana; Langen, Peter Lang; Vinther, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Reduction of the Arctic sea ice cover can affect the atmospheric circulation, and thus impact the climate beyond the Arctic. The atmospheric response may, however, vary with the geographical location of sea ice loss. The atmospheric sensitivity to the location of sea ice loss is studied using a general circulation model in a configuration that allows combination of a prescribed sea ice cover and an active mixed layer ocean. This hybrid setup makes it possible to simulate the isolated impact of sea ice loss and provides a more complete response compared to experiments with fixed sea surface temperatures. Three investigated sea ice scenarios with ice loss in different regions all exhibit substantial near-surface warming which peaks over the area of ice loss. The maximum warming is found during winter, delayed compared to the maximum sea ice reduction. The wintertime response of the mid-latitude atmospheric circulation shows a non-uniform sensitivity to the location of sea ice reduction. While all three scenarios exhibit decreased zonal winds related to high-latitude geopotential height increases, the magnitudes and locations of the anomalies vary between the simulations. Investigation of the North Atlantic Oscillation reveals a high sensitivity to the location of the ice loss. The northern center of action exhibits clear shifts in response to the different sea ice reductions. Sea ice loss in the Atlantic and Pacific sectors of the Arctic cause westward and eastward shifts, respectively.

  19. Evaluation of a regional climate model for atmospheric simulation over Arctic river basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yan; CHEN Shang; HUA Feng; WEI Helin; D. H. BROMWICH

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation on a regional climate model was made with five-month atmospheric simulations over the Arctic river basins. The simulations were performed with a modified mesoscale model, Polar MM5 coupled to the NCAR Land Surface Model (LSM) to illustrate the skill of the coupled model (Polar MM5+LSM) in simulating atmospheric circulation over the Arctic river basins. Near-surface and upper-air observations were used to verify the simulations. Sensitivity studies between the Polar MM5 and Polar MMS+LSM simulations revealed that the coupled model could improve the forecast skill for surface variables at some sites. In addition, the extended evaluations of the coupled model simulations on the North American Arctic domain during December 15, 2002 to May 15, 2003 were carded out. The time series plots and statistics of the observations and Polar MM5+LSM simulations at six stations for near-surface and vertical profiles at 850 hPa and 500 hPa were analyzed. The model was found capable of reproducing the observed atmospheric behavior in both magnitude and variability, especially for temperature and near-surface wind direction.

  20. Status of persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals in surface water of Arctic region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Trace pollutants in the surface water of the Arctic region have been analyzed by the capillary gas chromatography with the micro-electron capture detector (GC- μECD), the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC- MS) and the inductively coupled plasmas-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Compared with previously reported studies, concentrations of OCPs in these regions are much lower than those in the last decades. The ratio of α-/γ-HCH indicates the different pesticide composition between these two regions and is the potential marker for the source of the OCPs. Many other OCPs with different residue patterns have also been found for the first time in the two regions. No heavy metal contaminant was found in the investigation regions.

  1. Characterization of sea-ice kinematic in the Arctic outflow region using buoy data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruibo Lei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from four ice-tethered buoys deployed in 2010 were used to investigate sea-ice motion and deformation from the Central Arctic to Fram Strait. Seasonal and long-term changes in ice kinematics of the Arctic outflow region were further quantified using 42 ice-tethered buoys deployed between 1979 and 2011. Our results confirmed that the dynamic setting of the transpolar drift stream (TDS and Fram Strait shaped the motion of the sea ice. Ice drift was closely aligned with surface winds, except during quiescent conditions, or during short-term reversal of the wind direction opposing the TDS. Meridional ice velocity south of 85°N showed a distinct seasonal cycle, peaking between late autumn and early spring in agreement with the seasonality of surface winds. Inertia-induced ice motion was strengthened as ice concentration decreased in summer. As ice drifted southward into the Fram Strait, the meridional ice speed increased dramatically, while associated zonal ice convergence dominated the ice-field deformation. The Arctic atmospheric Dipole Anomaly (DA influenced ice drift by accelerating the meridional ice velocity. Ice trajectories exhibited less meandering during the positive phase of DA and vice versa. From 2005 onwards, the buoy data exhibit high Arctic sea-ice outflow rates, closely related to persistent positive DA anomaly. However, the long-term data from 1979 to 2011 do not show any statistically significant trend for sea-ice outflow, but exhibit high year-to-year variability, associated with the change in the polarity of DA.

  2. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: TOWARDS ADVANCED UNDERSTANDING AND PREDICTIVE CAPABILITY OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE ARCTIC USING A HIGH-RESOLUTION REGIONAL ARCTIC CLIMATE SYSTEM MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutowski, William J.

    2013-02-07

    The motivation for this project was to advance the science of climate change and prediction in the Arctic region. Its primary goals were to (i) develop a state-of-the-art Regional Arctic Climate system Model (RACM) including high-resolution atmosphere, land, ocean, sea ice and land hydrology components and (ii) to perform extended numerical experiments using high performance computers to minimize uncertainties and fundamentally improve current predictions of climate change in the northern polar regions. These goals were realized first through evaluation studies of climate system components via one-way coupling experiments. Simulations were then used to examine the effects of advancements in climate component systems on their representation of main physics, time-mean fields and to understand variability signals at scales over many years. As such this research directly addressed some of the major science objectives of the BER Climate Change Research Division (CCRD) regarding the advancement of long-term climate prediction.

  3. Cross-Border Assessment of Environmental Radioactivity in the Euro-Arctic Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalbandyan, Anna; Gwynn, Justin P.; Moeller, Bredo [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), Section High North, 9296 Tromsoe (Norway); Leppaenen, Ari-Pekka; Rasilainen, Tiina [STUK Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Regional Laboratory in Northern Finland, 96400 Rovaniemi (Finland); Kasatkina, Nadezhda; Usiagina, Irina [Murmansk Marine Biological Institute (MMBI), 183010 Murmansk (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The Euro-Arctic region is currently experiencing rapid changes in environmental, social and economic conditions. The issue of environmental radioactivity is of special concern to the Arctic region due to numerous existing and potential sources of radioactive pollution in the immediate and adjacent areas. Due to cross-border nature of any potential radioactive contamination and common challenges in border countries, one should consider risks related to radioactivity, monitoring and protection at a regional and international level. This research presents results of cross-border cooperation between Norway, Finland and Russia and joint assessment of the status of terrestrial radioactivity in the Euro-Arctic region and in particular across Troms and Finnmark (Norway), Lapland (Finland) and Murmansk Oblast (Russia). To assess current environmental radioactivity levels in the terrestrial environment, environmental samples were collected in each country in 2010-2012. The main focus was comparison of radioactivity levels in the natural food products such as berries, mushrooms and freshwater fish. The results showed that large variations in activity concentrations exist between species and sampling areas. However, activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in all berries and mushrooms in Northern Norway, Finland and Russia were below the national limits set for commercial retail and well below the national limits for freshwater fish from Northern Norway and Finland. The sampled species from three countries were analysed in order to find out reference species available for further monitoring and data comparison. The doses to man arising from consumption of berries, mushrooms and freshwater fish were calculated. To compare overall terrestrial radioactivity levels in the Euro-Arctic region, partners exchanged long-term monitoring data available in the three countries such as data for soil, vegetation, berries, mushrooms, lichens, reindeer meat, freshwater fish, whole body counting

  4. Local Perceptions of Corporate Social Responsibility for Arctic Petroleum in the Barents Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilan Kelman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility (CSR is promoted and critiqued by many players involved in or opposed to petroleum exploration and extraction, although a common understanding of CSR's theoretical and practical meanings rarely exists. This paper uses Arctic petroleum in the Barents region (Norway and Russia to investigate local perceptions of CSR. We conducted open-ended, semi-structured interviews in four locations: Hammerfest, Murmansk, Komi Republic, and Nenets Autonomous Okrug (NAO. Interviewees included the local population, regional and local authorities, non-governmental organisations (NGOs, and petroleum company representatives. The field research suggests that those who gain directly from the petroleum industry and do not directly experience negative impacts were more inclined to be positive about the industry, although overall, general support for petroleum activity was high. In some cases, positive economic benefits resulted in greater tolerance of environmental risk. Sometimes, the industry and government were criticised by locals for failing to support a more equitable distribution of broader economic benefits. Rather than splitting along for-profit/NGO or indigenous/non-indigenous lines, our analysis suggests that those who are closer to the petroleum industry or its benefits, termed ‘insiders’, tend to be more positive than ‘outsiders’. This study is perhaps the first of its kind in its focus on local perceptions of CSR for Arctic petroleum across the Barents region. The findings of this study not only match with that of the previous literature on Arctic petroleum but also provide further practical and theoretical insights by indicating subtleties and nuances within the localities examined.

  5. Arctic Newcomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki

    2013-01-01

    Interest in the Arctic region and its economic potential in Japan, South Korea and Singapore was slow to develop but is now rapidly growing. All three countries have in recent years accelerated their engagement with Arctic states, laying the institutional frameworks needed to better understand an...

  6. Biological responses to current UV-B radiation in Arctic regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian; N. Mikkelsen, Teis; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    -arctic regions, manipulation experiments with various set-ups have been performed. Activation of plant defence mechanisms by production of UV-B absorbing compounds was significant in ambient UV-B in comparison to a filter treatment reducing the UV-B radiation. Despite the UV-B screening response, ambient UV...... (mycorrhiza) or in the biomass of microbes in the soil of the root zone. However, the composition of the soil microbial community was different in the soils under ambient and reduced UV radiation after three treatment years. These results provide new insight into the negative impact of current UV-B fluxes...

  7. Diversity and Distribution of Aquatic Fungal Communities in the Ny-Ålesund Region, Svalbard (High Arctic): Aquatic Fungi in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Neng-Fei; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Yu, Li-Yan

    2016-04-01

    We assessed the diversity and distribution of fungi in 13 water samples collected from four aquatic environments (stream, pond, melting ice water, and estuary) in the Ny-Ålesund Region, Svalbard (High Arctic) using 454 pyrosequencing with fungi-specific primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal rRNA gene. Aquatic fungal communities in this region showed high diversity, with a total of 43,061 reads belonging to 641 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) being found. Of these OTUs, 200 belonged to Ascomycota, 196 to Chytridiomycota, 120 to Basidiomycota, 13 to Glomeromycota, and 10 to early diverging fungal lineages (traditional Zygomycota), whereas 102 belonged to unknown fungi. The major orders were Helotiales, Eurotiales, and Pleosporales in Ascomycota; Chytridiales and Rhizophydiales in Chytridiomycota; and Leucosporidiales and Sporidiobolales in Basidiomycota. The common fungal genera Penicillium, Rhodotorula, Epicoccum, Glaciozyma, Holtermanniella, Betamyces, and Phoma were identified. Interestingly, the four aquatic environments in this region harbored different aquatic fungal communities. Salinity, conductivity, and temperature were important factors in determining the aquatic fungal diversity and community composition. The results suggest the presence of diverse fungal communities and a considerable number of potentially novel fungal species in Arctic aquatic environments, which can provide reliable data for studying the ecological and evolutionary responses of fungi to climate change in the Arctic ecosystem.

  8. Warming in Arctic intermediate and deep waters around Chukchi Plateau and its adjacent regions in 1999

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Jinping; GAO; Guoping

    2005-01-01

    Based on the data measured during Arctic scientific expedition of China in 1999, the characteristics of temperature and salinity distributions around the Chukchi Plateau and its adjacent regions have been studied. It was found that the intermediate water with temperature higher than 0.5℃ existed in all parts of a 640 km section with a maximum temperature of 0.85℃ indicating a strong signal of the warming in Arctic Intermediate Water in 1999. Two important phenomena are described in this paper. First, the temperature of warm water was horizontally nonuniform. In the area of Chukchi Plateau, the temperature was higher, the layer of warm water was thicker and the depth of the warm water core was shallower than those in the area of continental slope. The horizontal nonuniformity of the temperature distribution of warming water implies that the upward heat flux should also be nonuniform, thus exerting different effects on sea ice thickness, ice extent, and air-sea heat exchange. The mechanism to generate higher temperature in the plateau region was the bypassing of current around the plateau area caused by the special local topography, which restricted water exchange across the plateau and conserved heat in the water body. Second, the deep water down to 1400 m was also warming with a temperature increase of 0.2℃. The warming in deep water reflects the occurrence of complicated heat redistribution processes in the intermediate water, which altered the thermal structure in the upper 1400 m. The warming data embody the obvious impact of global climate change on the Arctic Ocean and further studies are wanted.

  9. Mass changes in Arctic ice caps and glaciers: implications of regionalizing elevation changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Johan; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Barletta, Valentina Roberta;

    2015-01-01

    The mass balance of glaciers and ice caps is sensitive to changing climate conditions. The mass changes derived n this study are determined from elevation changes derived measured by the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) for the time period 2003–2009. Four methods, based on interp......The mass balance of glaciers and ice caps is sensitive to changing climate conditions. The mass changes derived n this study are determined from elevation changes derived measured by the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) for the time period 2003–2009. Four methods, based...... of the regional mass balance of Arctic ice caps and glaciers to different regionalization schemes. The sensitivity analysis is based on studying the spread of mass changes and their associated errors, and the suitability of the different regionalization techniques is assessed through cross validation.The cross...

  10. Spherical Slepian as a new method for ionospheric modeling in arctic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemadfard, Hossein; Hossainali, Masoud Mashhadi

    2016-03-01

    From the perspective of the physical, chemical and biological balance in the world, the Arctic has gradually turned into an important region opening ways for new researchers and scientific expeditions. In other words, various researches have been funded in order to study this frozen frontier in details. The current study can be seen in the same milieu where researchers intend to propose a set of new base functions for modeling ionospheric in the Arctic. As such, to optimize the Spherical Harmonic (SH) functions, the spatio-spectral concentration is applied here using the Slepian theory that was developed by Simons. For modeling the ionosphere, six International GNSS Service (IGS) stations located in the northern polar region were taken into account. Two other stations were left out for assessing the accuracy of the proposed model. The adopted GPS data starts at DOY 69 (Day of Year) and ends at DOY 83 (totally 15 successive days) in 2013. Three Spherical Slepian models respectively with the maximal degrees of K=15, 20 & 25 were used. Based on the results, K=15 is the optimum degree for the proposed model. The accuracy and precision of the Slepian model are about 0.1 and 0.05 TECU, respectively (TEC Unit=1016 electron/m2). To understand the advantage of this model, it is compared with polynomial and trigonometric series which are developed using the same set of measurements. The accuracy and precision of trigonometric and polynomial models are at least 4 times worse than the Slepian one.

  11. Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter across a Marine Distributed Biological Observatory in the Pacific Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, S. L.; Frey, K. E.; Shake, K. L.; Cooper, L. W.; Grebmeier, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in marine ecosystems as both a carbon source for the microbial food web (and thus a source of CO2 to the atmosphere) and as a light inhibitor in marine environments. The presence of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM; the optically active portion of total DOM) can have significant controlling effects on transmittance of sunlight through the water column and therefore on primary production as well as the heat balance of the upper ocean. However, CDOM is also susceptible to photochemical degradation, which decreases the flux of solar radiation that is absorbed. Knowledge of the current spatial and temporal distribution of CDOM in marine environments is thus critical for understanding how ongoing and future changes in climate may impact these biological, biogeochemical, and physical processes. We describe the quantity and quality of CDOM along five key productive transects across a developing Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) in the Pacific Arctic region. The samples were collected onboard the CCGS Sir Wilfred Laurier in July 2013 and 2014. Monitoring of the variability of CDOM along transects of high productivity can provide important insights into biological and biogeochemical cycling across the region. Our analyses include overall concentrations of CDOM, as well as proxy information such as molecular weight, lability, and source (i.e., autochthonous vs. allochthonous) of organic matter. We utilize these field observations to compare with satellite-derived CDOM concentrations determined from the Aqua MODIS satellite platform, which ultimately provides a spatially and temporally continuous synoptic view of CDOM concentrations throughout the region. Examining the current relationships among CDOM, sea ice variability, biological productivity, and biogeochemical cycling in the Pacific Arctic region will likely provide key insights for how ecosystems throughout the region will respond in future

  12. Collaborative Research: Towards Advanced Understanding and Predictive Capability of Climate Change in the Arctic Using a High-Resolution Regional Arctic Climate Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassano, John [Principal Investigator

    2013-06-30

    The primary research task completed for this project was the development of the Regional Arctic Climate Model (RACM). This involved coupling existing atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and land models using the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate System Model (CCSM) coupler (CPL7). RACM is based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) atmospheric model, the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) ocean model, the CICE sea ice model, and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land model. A secondary research task for this project was testing and evaluation of WRF for climate-scale simulations on the large pan-Arctic model domain used in RACM. This involved identification of a preferred set of model physical parameterizations for use in our coupled RACM simulations and documenting any atmospheric biases present in RACM.

  13. Situation analysis in relation to district heating and CHP in the Baltic Sea Region: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Kaliningrad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-11-01

    The situation analysis embraces chapters on: Estonia, Kaliningrad, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Russia, which experience varying degrees of difficulties with the transition to a market economy, and with integrating into the world market. In the following, the focus is on Lithuania, which has been visited during the project period. Lithuania has specific problems due to the existence of the Ignalina power plant, but has nevertheless characteristics, which apply to Estonia and Latvia as well. The problem with the quality of heat supply is rampant in all the countries, as is legal framework for the sector, except in Poland, which has generally attracted much attention from investors over the last ten years and has experienced a relatively sound political development in the energy sector. The main problem in all countries seem to relate to the policy development. The case of Lithuania confirms this. Following the observations on Lithuania, it is attempted to establish some points of concern, which are relevant to a greater or lesser extent in all countries, as well as some suggestions on how to move towards a solution of those problems. As mentioned Poland is generally in a better position, technically and politically than the three Baltic states, whereas Russia still needs to progress much on those issues. The general recommendations for initiatives in the Baltic countries in question are in brief: Establishing a clear view at governmental level of what the EU and liberalisation will bring, and what needs to be done additionally to secure main energy political objectives. Issues such as security of supply, environmental protection, low cost energy supplies and security of investments need to be thoroughly discussed at national level. It is important to understand that EU Directives provide a framework, not an answer to the future of the energy sector. Reinforcement of governmental bodies that deal with the practical problems of the energy sector. The main task of

  14. Suitability of otolith microchemistry for stock separation of Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, F; Marohn, L; Hinrichsen, HH

    2012-01-01

    differences between individuals from the eastern and the western Baltic Sea and between North Sea and Baltic Sea samples. Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca, Y/Ca, Mg/Ca, Zr/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios had the strongest discriminatory power. A further separation of individuals caught in 3 different spawning grounds of the eastern Baltic......, however, was not possible. Elemental compositions from the core regions of otoliths from young of the year cod caught in eastern and western Baltic Sea spawning grounds showed significant differences in Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca and Mg/Ca concentrations. Analyses of similarities again showed significant differences...

  15. Potential sea salt aerosol sources from frost flowers in the pan-Arctic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Li [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla California USA; Now at Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine California USA; Russell, Lynn M. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla California USA; Burrows, Susannah M. [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA

    2016-09-23

    In order to better represent observed wintertime aerosol concentrations at Barrow, Alaska, we implemented an observationally-based parameterization for estimating sea salt production from frost flowers in the Community Earth System Model (CESM). In this work, we evaluate the potential influence of this sea salt source on the pan-Arctic (60ºN-90ºN) climate. Results show that frost flower salt emissions substantially increase the modeled surface sea salt aerosol concentration in the winter months when new sea ice and frost flowers are present. The parameterization reproduces both the magnitude and seasonal variation of the observed submicron sea salt aerosol concentration at surface in Barrow during winter much better than the standard CESM simulation without a frost-flower salt particle source. Adding these frost flower salt particle emissions increases aerosol optical depth by 10% and results in a small cooling at surface. The increase in salt particle mass concentrations of a factor of 8 provides nearly two times the cloud condensation nuclei concentration, as well as 10% increases in cloud droplet number and 40% increases in liquid water content near coastal regions adjacent to continents. These cloud changes reduce longwave cloud forcing by 3% and cause a small surface warming, increasing the downward longwave flux at the surface by 2 W m-2 in the pan-Arctic under the present-day climate.

  16. Aquatorialities of the Arctic Region – A Systems Theoretical Analysis of Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorm Harste

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to describe the Arctic system I propose using a concept functionally equivalent to territoriality, namely aquatoriality. Whether communicating about territoriality or aquatoriality, concepts and delimitations are both contingent to forms of communication systems. I will distinguish between six communications systems that differentiated from each other could become involved in the new deals emerging around the Arctic. Apart of an economic communication code about the Arctic, a legal code, ecological communication codes, and tourist communication codes, I will cope with the military coding of the Arctic. These codes could then appear structurally coupled to a political system that in an organizational way appears in the Arctic Council.

  17. Reconstruction of Holocene palaeoclimate and environment in the Khatanga region, Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrykh, Ludmila; Nazarova, Larisa

    2016-04-01

    Arctic regions are highly sensitive to changes in temperature and precipitation, and their Late Quaternary environmental history is very important for understanding of present and past climate trends. Though the timing of Holocene climate change is well established for wide parts of the Northern Hemisphere, suitable palaeoenvironmental records are still scarce in the Russian Siberian Arctic. Taimyr Peninsula (74oN, 100oE) is the northernmost part of Russia. Thus, this area is probably one of the most promising regions for the reconstruction of the Late Quaternary environment in dependence on changes in global and regional climate and the atmospheric circulation. (Andreev et al., 2004).The area is characterized by a continental climate with long, severe winters, and short summers. The modern temperatures are about 10-14oC in July, and - 32 to 34oC in January. Annual precipitation ranges from about 300-400 mm at low elevations to about 600-800 mm on the western slopes of the Putorana Plateau (Atlas Arktiki, 1985). The frost-free period is ca. 35 days. Almost all the territory is underlain by continues permafrost. Periglacial landscape is dominated by tundra and taiga vegetation. Aquatic organisms such as chironomids (Insecta: Diptera) are recognized as the best biological indicators for quantifying past changes in air temperature or lake chemistry (Letter et al., 1997; Brooks and Birks, 2000; Battarbee, 2000; Massaferro and Brooks, 2002; Solovieva et al., 2005). Chironomids belong to the most abundant group of fresh-water bottom-dwelling macroinvertebrates. Because of their short life cycle, chironomids quickly adapt to environmental changes and in global scale the distribution and abundance of chironomids are mostly limited by temperature (Walker and Mathewes, 1987; Warwick, 1989; Hann et al., 1992; Walker et al., 1992). Larval head capsules of chironomids preserved in lake sediment as subfossils are abundant, identifiable and serve as indicators of the

  18. Circum-Arctic Magnetic Anomalies - Challenges of Compilation and the Value of Regional Interpretation in a Frontier Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltus, R. W.; Gaina, C.; Brown, P. J.

    2007-12-01

    Important societal issues are driving increased attention to polar regions. The arctic, in particular, is the focus of scientific studies relating to climate change as well as resource exploration and territorial claims. The news and entertainment media are picking up on polar themes and driving interest within popular culture. Part of the attraction and mystique of the ends of the Earth lies in their relative inaccessibility and harsh environment. These same attributes make it difficult to conduct even basic scientific investigation, and therefore, the arctic remains a scientific frontier in many respects. Delineation of a robust tectonic framework for the top of the world is an essential prerequisite to resource assessment. The difficulty of making direct geologic observations beneath ice and sea requires remote measurement. Regional magnetic anomaly mapping provides important constraining information for the development of tectonic models for this structurally complex region. In addition to the obvious logistical challenges to detailed magnetic field measurement in the high arctic, noise and instability in the magnetic field itself at high latitudes presents difficulties. Nevertheless, regional magnetic anomaly data have been collected over the past 50 years for much of the arctic. The available surveys are diverse in vintage and survey design; the amplitude and frequency content of measured anomalies are widely variable. Availability of metadata and other documentation are also inconsistent for these surveys. This leads to significant challenges in constructing accurate regional magnetic anomaly maps. Preliminary maps from a new international cooperation effort (CAMP-GM, under the direction of Carmen Gaina, Geological Survey of Norway) provide the most consistent view yet of magnetic anomalies for the tectonically complex arctic basins and surrounding continents. Careful attention to digital compilation details allows the new grids to be mathematically filtered

  19. Surface ozone observations during voyages to the Arctic and Antarctic regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Surface ozone concentration and UV-B data between 75°N and 70°S were obtained aboard the Chinese polar scientific vessel "Xue-long" (Snow-Dragon) during the first voyage to the Arctic and the 16th to the Antarctic in 1999-2000. Analysis of these data presents that variations of the surface ozone concentration have small amplitude during voyages except the mid-latitude in the Northern Hemisphere. As a whole, average surface ozone concentration in the Northern Hemisphere is higher than that in the Southern, and high value occurred when the ship sailed close to the continents. The average diurnal variations of the surface ozone in the Northern Hemisphere are also higher compared to the southern counterparts, and high diurnal variations were found at low latitudes, and relative low level in the polar region.

  20. Evaluating climate variables, indexes and thresholds governing Arctic urban sustainability: case study of Russian permafrost regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, O. A.; Kokorev, V.

    2013-12-01

    Addressing Arctic urban sustainability today forces planners to deal with the complex interplay of multiple factors, including governance and economic development, demography and migration, environmental changes and land use, changes in the ecosystems and their services, and climate change. While the latter can be seen as a factor that exacerbates the existing vulnerabilities to other stressors, changes in temperature, precipitation, snow, river and lake ice, and the hydrological regime also have direct implications for the cities in the North. Climate change leads to reduced demand for heating energy, on one hand, and heightened concerns about the fate of the infrastructure built upon thawing permafrost, on the other. Changes in snowfall are particularly important and have direct implications for the urban economy, as together with heating costs, expenses for snow removal from streets, airport runways, roofs and ventilation corridors underneath buildings erected on pile foundations on permafrost constitute the bulk of the city's maintenance budget. Many cities are located in river valleys and are prone to flooding that leads to enormous economic losses and casualties, including human deaths. The severity of the northern climate has direct implications for demographic changes governed by regional migration and labor flows. Climate could thus be viewed as an inexhaustible public resource that creates opportunities for sustainable urban development. Long-term trends show that climate as a resource is becoming more readily available in the Russian North, notwithstanding the general perception that globally climate change is one of the challenges facing humanity in the 21st century. In this study we explore the sustainability of the Arctic urban environment under changing climatic conditions. We identify key governing variables and indexes and study the thresholds beyond which changes in the governing climatic parameters have significant impact on the economy

  1. Multimission satellite altimetric data validation in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Yongcun; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per;

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of altimetric data is crucial for investigating the regional sea level variability. Few works has been performed to validate the altimetric data [1, 2] in the Baltic Sea. The exploring of multi-mission altimetric data in the Baltic Sea has yet to be published. The number of available...

  2. IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrén, T.; Barker Jorgensen, B.; Cotterill, C.; Green, S.; Slomp, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 347 cored sediments from different settings of the Baltic Sea covering the last glacial–interglacial cycle. The main aim was to study the geological development of the Baltic Sea in relation to the extreme climate variability of the region with

  3. Metabolic cold adaptation and aerobic performance of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) along a temperature gradient into the High Arctic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrring, Jakob; Rysgaard, Søren; Blicher, Martin;

    2015-01-01

    and plasticity of blue mussels across latitudes spanning from 56 to 77ºN. This indicates that low ocean temperature per se does not constrain metabolic activity of Mytilus in the Arctic; rather, we speculate that maturation of reproductive tissues, larval supply and annual energy budgets are the most relevant......The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) has recently expanded its northern distribution in the Arctic and is therefore considered to be a sensitive indicator of climate changes in this region. In this study, we compared aerobic performance of blue mussels from High Arctic, Subarctic and temperate...... populations at different temperatures. Standard metabolic rates (SMR) and active metabolic rates (AMR) were measured for each population, and absolute (AMR − SMR) and factorial (AMR/SMR) scopes were calculated. Blue mussels from the temperate population had the lowest Q10 (= 1.8) and the largest thermal...

  4. Jurassic to Present Evolution of the Arctic Ocean Region: Questions for IPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawver, L. L.; Gahagan, L. M.; Childers, V. A.; Brozena, J. M.; Grantz, A.

    2007-12-01

    Superchron around 120 Ma. A brief review of the tectonic history of Arctic Ocean will be used to formulate a list of unknowns that IPY and subsequent work might investigate. We see a three or more stage opening of the Amerasian Basin. First stage is rifting between the Arctic Alaska/Chukokta block from the Canadian Arctic Islands with rotation of the Chukchi Borderland/Northwind Ridge out of the North Chukchi Basin similar to present motion in the Afar region and rotation of the Danakil block. This first stage was followed by a reorganization and the final stage is a rotational opening about a pole east of Fairbanks, AK. The Northwind Ridge was originally along the Sverdrup Basin margin of Canada. Timing of the stages is inexact due to a lack of correlatable magnetics but the final stage had to end prior to the start of the Cretaceous Normal Superchron because the gravity anomaly that marks the abandoned spreading center is flanked by magnetic anomalies.

  5. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki;

    2011-01-01

    . Radioactivity inputs into the Baltic Sea from nuclear reprocessing plants in Western Europe have become of minor importance due to significant reduction of discharges in recent years. In terms of input of 137Cs into the Baltic Sea, Chernobyl fallout has contributed about 82% and nuclear weapons test fallout...

  6. Atmospheric winter conditions 2007/08 over the Arctic Ocean based on NP-35 data and regional model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mielke

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric measurements on the drifting Arctic sea ice station "North Pole-35" crossing the Eastern part of the Arctic Ocean during winter 2007/2008 have been compared with regional atmospheric HIRHAM model simulations. The observed near-surface temperature, mean sea level pressure and the vertical temperature, wind and humidity profiles are satisfactorily reproduced by the model. The strongest temperature differences between observations and the simulations occur near the surface due to an overestimated vertical mixing of heat in the stable Arctic boundary layer (ABL. The observations show very strong temperature inversions near the surface, whereas the simulated inversions occur frequently between the surface and 415 m at too high levels. The simulations are not able to reproduce the observed inversion strength. The regional model underestimates the wind speeds and the sharp vertical wind gradients. The strength of internal atmospheric dynamics on the temporal development of atmospheric surface variables and vertical profiles of temperature, wind and relative humidity has been examined. Although the HIRHAM model systematically overestimates relative humidity and produces too high long-wave downward radiation during winter, two different atmospheric circulation states, which are connected to higher or lower pressure systems over the Eastern part of the Arctic Ocean, are simulated in agreement with the NP-35 observations. Sensitivity studies with reduced vertical mixing of heat in the stable ABL have been carried out. A slower increase in the stability functions with decreasing Richardson number under stable stratification has an impact on the horizontal and vertical atmospheric structure. Changes in synoptical cyclones on time scales from 1–3 days over the North Atlantic cyclone path are generated, which influences the atmospheric baroclinic and planetary waves on time scales up to 20 days over the Arctic Ocean basin. The use of increased

  7. Land-use change, climate and conservation of peatlands: lessons from the high-resolution palaeoecology peat archives of the southern Baltic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamentowicz, M.; Gałka, M.; Tobolski, K.; Górska, A.

    2012-04-01

    Conservation of peatlands and other issues connected with carbon sequestration and the global change have been increasingly challenging during the last decade. However, the reliable conservation can only be based on the interdisciplinary approach to the peatland ecosystem functioning. Good understanding of a present state is impossible without looking into the past conditions using various palaeoecological methods (e.g. analyses of: plant macrofossils, testate amoebae, pollen and spores and non-pollen palynomorphs). Natural developmental trends can only be recognized, having a long-term perspective (decadal, centennial or millennial scale). This perspective can be used to identify the past human impact. Many peatlands possess the state that is apparently pristine, but when we look into their past it is often obvious that their state was disturbed long time ago. Consequently, geological and palaeoecological study is prerequisite to begin a neo-ecological study. Furthermore, the past perspective is useful to start measurements of the modern processes e.g. hydrological monitoring or carbon exchange. We present high-resolution multi-proxy data from three raised bogs located in southern Baltic region. The quantitative reconstructions show the gradual disturbance connected with increasing human impact (deforestation and local peat cutting). We also show the extent of peatlands' degradation and difficulty of the recovery after stress. Differences of preservation on the example of three different bogs with the different Holocene histories will be presented. We paid an exceptional attention to the last thousand years as and the transition to the anthropocene.

  8. Arctic Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, John; Baggeroer, Arthur; Mikhalevsky, Peter; Munk, Walter; Sagen, Hanne; Vernon, Frank; Worcester, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The dramatic reduction of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean will increase human activities in the coming years. This will be driven by increased demand for energy and the marine resources of an Arctic Ocean more accessible to ships. Oil and gas exploration, fisheries, mineral extraction, marine transportation, research and development, tourism and search and rescue will increase the pressure on the vulnerable Arctic environment. Synoptic in-situ year-round observational technologies are needed to monitor and forecast changes in the Arctic atmosphere-ice-ocean system at daily, seasonal, annual and decadal scales to inform and enable sustainable development and enforcement of international Arctic agreements and treaties, while protecting this critical environment. This paper will discuss multipurpose acoustic networks, including subsea cable components, in the Arctic. These networks provide communication, power, underwater and under-ice navigation, passive monitoring of ambient sound (ice, seismic, biologic and anthropogenic), and acoustic remote sensing (tomography and thermometry), supporting and complementing data collection from platforms, moorings and autonomous vehicles. This paper supports the development and implementation of regional to basin-wide acoustic networks as an integral component of a multidisciplinary, in situ Arctic Ocean Observatory.

  9. Impacts of using spectral nudging on regional climate model RCA4 simulations of the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Berg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of the Rossby Centre regional climate model RCA4 is investigated for the Arctic CORDEX region, with an emphasis on its suitability to be coupled to a regional ocean and sea-ice model. Large biases in mean sea level pressure (MSLP are identified, with pronounced too high pressure centred over the North Pole in summer of over 5 hPa, and too low pressure in winter of a similar magnitude. These lead to biases in the surface winds, which will potentially lead to strong sea-ice biases in a future coupled system. The large scale circulation is believed to be the major reason for the biases, and an implementation of spectral nudging is applied to remedy the problems by constraining the large scale components of the driving fields within the interior domain. It is found that the spectral nudging generally corrects for the MSLP and wind biases, while not significantly affecting other variables such as surface radiative components, two metre temperature and precipitation.

  10. Perspektivy razvitija atomnoj jenergetiki v vostochnoj chasti Baltijskogo morja kak faktor formirovanija sistemy mezhdunarodnyh otnoshenij v regione [The prospects of nuclear power development in the eastern part of the Baltic Sea region as a factor of the formation of international relations system in the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich Nikolay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current development of economic diplomacy in the world is determined by a combination of globalization and regionalization. In addition, it has an economic dimension. At the same time, the Baltic Sea region demonstrates large-scale politicisation of economic cooperation. The development of nuclear power in the eastern part of the Baltic Sea is indicative of the effectiveness of political and economic cooperation in the region. The author believes that Russia and the three Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have the economic and technological opportunities for building up cooperation in the field of energy. This points to a question whether the traditional patterns of relations that developed among these countries in the past can be changed. A more pronounced international division of labour accompanied by the historically developed specialization of Russia makes nuclear power an important factor in Russia’s economic diplomacy. The promotion of Russian energy projects in the region contributes to the development of a system of mutually beneficial ties. The increasing energy deficiency in the region can serve an economic prerequisite to this process.

  11. Influence of Arctic Sea Ice Extent on Polar Cloud Fraction and Vertical Structure and Implications for Regional Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Stephen P.; Strey, Sara T.; Spinhirne, James; Markus, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    Recent satellite lidar measurements of cloud properties spanning a period of 5 years are used to examine a possible connection between Arctic sea ice amount and polar cloud fraction and vertical distribution. We find an anticorrelation between sea ice extent and cloud fraction with maximum cloudiness occurring over areas with little or no sea ice. We also find that over ice!free regions, there is greater low cloud frequency and average optical depth. Most of the optical depth increase is due to the presence of geometrically thicker clouds over water. In addition, our analysis indicates that over the last 5 years, October and March average polar cloud fraction has increased by about 7% and 10%, respectively, as year average sea ice extent has decreased by 5% 7%. The observed cloud changes are likely due to a number of effects including, but not limited to, the observed decrease in sea ice extent and thickness. Increasing cloud amount and changes in vertical distribution and optical properties have the potential to affect the radiative balance of the Arctic region by decreasing both the upwelling terrestrial longwave radiation and the downward shortwave solar radiation. Because longwave radiation dominates in the long polar winter, the overall effect of increasing low cloud cover is likely a warming of the Arctic and thus a positive climate feedback, possibly accelerating the melting of Arctic sea ice.

  12. The Influence of Arctic Sea Ice Extent on Polar Cloud Fraction and Vertical Structure and Implications for Regional Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Stephen P.; Strey, Sara T.; Spinhirne, James; Markus, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    Recent satellite lidar measurements of cloud properties spanning a period of five years are used to examine a possible connection between Arctic sea ice amount and polar cloud fraction and vertical distribution. We find an anti-correlation between sea ice extent and cloud fraction with maximum cloudiness occurring over areas with little or no sea ice. We also find that over ice free regions, there is greater low cloud frequency and average optical depth. Most of the optical depth increase is due to the presence of geometrically thicker clouds over water. In addition, our analysis indicates that over the last 5 years, October and March average polar cloud fraction has increased by about 7 and 10 percent, respectively, as year average sea ice extent has decreased by 5 to 7 percent. The observed cloud changes are likely due to a number of effects including, but not limited to, the observed decrease in sea ice extent and thickness. Increasing cloud amount and changes in vertical distribution and optical properties have the potential to affect the radiative balance of the Arctic region by decreasing both the upwelling terrestrial longwave radiation and the downward shortwave solar radiation. Since longwave radiation dominates in the long polar winter, the overall effect of increasing low cloud cover is likely a warming of the Arctic and thus a positive climate feedback, possibly accelerating the melting of Arctic sea ice.

  13. New insights into late Neogene glacial dynamics, tectonics, and hydrocarbon migrations in the Atlantic-Arctic gateway region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knies, J.; Baranwal, S.; Fabian, K.; Grøsfjeld, K.; Andreassen, K.; Husum, K.; Mattingsdal, R.; Gaina, C.; De Schepper, S.; Vogt, C.; Andersen, N.

    2012-04-01

    Notwithstanding the recent IODP drilling on the Lomonosov Ridge, the Late Cenozoic history of the Arctic Ocean still remains elusive. The tectonic processes leading to the development of the only deep-water connection to the Arctic Ocean via the Fram Strait are still poorly understood. Also, the influence of the gateway region on changes in Arctic-Atlantic ocean circulation, uplift/erosion on the adjacent hinterland, as well as glacial initiation and its consequences for the petroleum systems in the regions, remain unclear. By revisiting Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 151, holes 911A and 910C and interpreting new multi-channel seismic data, we have now established a new comprehensive chronological framework for the Yermak Plateau and revealed important paleoenvironmental changes for the Atlantic-Arctic gateway during the late Neogene. The improved chronostratigraphic framework is established through continuous paleomagnetic and biostratigraphic data as well as selected intervals with stable ?18O and ?13C data derived from benthic foraminifera Cassidulina teretis. Supported by acoustic profiling, the new data indicate a continuous late Miocene/early Pliocene age (~5-6 Ma) for the base of both holes. The depositional regime north (Yermak Plateau) and south of the Fram Strait (Hovgaard Ridge) was rather shallow during the late Miocene and water mass exchange between the Arctic and Atlantic was restricted. Ice sheets on the Svalbard Platform evolved during the late Miocene, however did not reach the coastline before 3.3 Ma. Migration of gaseous hydrocarbons occurred prior to the intensification of the Northern Hemisphere Glaciations (~2.7 Ma) as indicated by high-amplitude reflections, corroborating the occurrence of greigite mineralization and stable carbon isotope excursions in planktic/benthic foraminifera. The data indicate that Pleistocene erosion and uplift in the Barents Sea region had probably only minor effects on reservoir leakages than previously thought.

  14. Aerosol optical depth retrieval in the Arctic region using MODIS data over snow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mei, L.; Xue, Y.; Leeuw, G. de; Hoyningen-Huene, W. von; Kokhanovsky, A.A.; Istomina, L.; Guang, J.; Burrows, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    The Arctic is vulnerable to the long-term transport of aerosols because they affect the surface albedo when particles are deposited on snow and ice. However, aerosol observations for this area are sparse and hence there is considerable uncertainty in the knowledge on the properties of the Arctic aer

  15. Demographic potential of the Russia’s northern regions as a factor and condition of economic development of the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Vilgelmovich Fauzer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the research relevance of all aspects of development of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation consists the fact that in spite of limited stocks in the old rendered habitable regions of the country, Arctic is considered as a source of resources for socio-economic development of Russia. Based on the recognition that the territory is like a separate object of state observation, it is noted that the best resources for labor of the economy of Arctic may become demographic potential of adjacent northern regions. The different points of view and approaches to the definition of the demographic potential and a set of indicators by its assessment are given. On the basis of the statistical analysis of population dynamics and a level of birth rate and mortality, it is shown that quantitative demographic potential of the northern regions since 1990s significantly decreased. It was affected by the migratory outflow. It is revealed that in northern regions, there are still positive differences in age and sexual structure. Regional governments can use the results while drawing up Strategic plans of socio-economic development of territories. The article concludes with recommendations

  16. Baltic Landscapes : Festival of Images from Baltics

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Hanno Soans eesti projektist "Analogue TV" N.E.W.S. (north-east-west-süd) seminaril. Eesti videoprogramm näitusel "Baltic Landscapes" (kunstnikud A. Maimik, K. Kaljo, E-L. Semper, M. Raat, M. Laanemets, K. Sukmit, J. Zoova) Bornholmis

  17. Baltic Climate Vulnerability Assessment Framework : Introduction and Guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Hjerpe, Mattias; Wilk, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This Vulnerability Assessment Framework was put together within the project Baltic Challenges and Chances for local and regional development generated by Climate Change financed by the European Regional Development Fund and the Baltic Sea Region Programme 2007-2013. The purpose of the framework is to guide and assist the Target Areas (TA) within the project in mapping and analysing the challenges and chances created by climate change. The Vulnerability exercises have originally been developed...

  18. The Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO): A Change Detection Array in the Pacific Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebmeier, J. M.; Moore, S. E.; Cooper, L. W.; Frey, K. E.; Pickart, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The Pacific region of the Arctic Ocean is experiencing major reductions in seasonal sea ice extent and increases in sea surface temperatures. One of the key uncertainties in this region is how the marine ecosystem will respond to seasonal shifts in the timing of spring sea ice retreat and/or delays in fall sea ice formation. Climate changes are likely to result in shifts in species composition and abundance, northward range expansions, and changes in lower trophic level productivity that can directly cascade and affect the life cycles of higher trophic level organisms. The developing Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) is composed of focused biological and oceanographic sampling at biological "hot spot" sites for lower and higher trophic organisms on a latitudinal S-to-N array. The DBO is being developed by an international consortium of scientists in the Pacific Arctic as a change detection array to systematically track the broad biological response to sea ice retreat and associated environmental change. Coordinated ship-based observations over various seasons, together with satellite and mooring data collections at the designated sites, can provide an early detection system for biological and ecosystem response to climate warming. The data documenting the importance of these ecosystem "hotspots" provide a growing marine time-series from the northern Bering Sea to Barrow Canyon at the boundary of the Chukchi and Beaufort seas. Results from these studies show spatial changes in carbon production and export to the sediments as indicated by infaunal community composition and biomass, shifts in sediment grain size on a S-to-N latitudinal gradient, and range extensions for lower trophic levels and further northward migration of higher trophic organisms, such as gray whales. There is also direct evidence of negative impacts on ice dependent species, such as walrus and polar bears. As a ramp up to a fully operational observatory, hydrographic transects and select

  19. Seroprevalence of parasitic zoonoses and their relationship with social factors among the Canadian Inuit in Arctic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyette, Stephanie; Cao, Zhirong; Libman, Michael; Ndao, Momar; Ward, Brian J

    2014-04-01

    Residents of Arctic communities are at increased risk of contracting infectious diseases transmitted by wildlife. Data collected from the International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey were used to determine the seroprevalence of 4 parasitic zoonoses in three Inuit jurisdictions of the Canadian Arctic and to assess risk factors of infection. To date, this is the most comprehensive survey of its kind. Immunoenzymatic methods were used for the detection of antibodies against Toxocara canis, Echinococcus granulosus, Trichinella sp., and Toxoplasma gondii. We determined the weighted prevalence of parasitic infections in 36 Inuit communities across the Inuvialuit settlement region, Nunavut, and Nunatsiavut. Our results indicate infrequent exposure to Toxocara and Echinococcus (1.7 and 6.3%, respectively). Exposure to T. gondii (27.2%) and Trichinella (18.6%) was more prevalent and was generally higher in Nunavut compared to other northern regions. Overall, seropositivity was related to age, education, and consumption of marine mammals and seafood.

  20. Biological responses to current UV-B radiation in Arctic regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian; N. Mikkelsen, Teis; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    -B was demonstrated to decrease photosynthesis and shift carbon allocation from shoots to roots. Moreover, ambient UV-B increased plant stress with detrimental effects on electron processing in the photosynthetic apparatus. Plant responses did not lead to clear changes in the amount of fungal root symbionts...... on high-arctic vegetation. They supplement previous investigations from the Arctic focussing on other variables like growth etc., which have reported no or minor plant responses to UV-B, and clearly indicates that UV-B radiation is an important factor affecting plant life at high-arctic Zackenberg...

  1. Arctic rapid sea ice loss events in regional coupled climate scenario experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Döscher

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid sea ice loss events (RILEs in a mini-ensemble of regional Arctic coupled climate model scenario experiments are analyzed. Mechanisms of sudden ice loss are strongly related to atmospheric circulation conditions and preconditioning by sea ice thinning during the seasons and years before the event. Clustering of events in time suggests a strong control by large-scale atmospheric circulation. Anomalous atmospheric circulation is providing warm air anomalies of up to 5 K and is forcing ice flow, affecting winter ice growth. Even without a seasonal preconditioning during winter, ice drop events can be initiated by anomalous inflow of warm air during summer. It is shown that RILEs can be generated based on atmospheric circulation changes as a major driving force without major competing mechanisms, other than occasional longwave effects during spring and summer. Other anomalous seasonal radiative forcing or short-lived forcers (e.g., soot play minor roles or no role at all in our model. RILEs initiated by ocean forcing do not occur in the model, although cannot be ruled out due to model limitations. Mechanisms found are qualitatively in line with observations of the 2007 RILE.

  2. Arctic rapid sea ice loss events in regional coupled climate scenario experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Döscher

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid sea ice loss events (RILEs in a mini-ensemble of regional Arctic coupled climate model scenario experiments are analyzed. Mechanisms of sudden ice loss are strongly related to atmospheric circulation conditions and preconditioning by sea ice thinning during the seasons and years before the event. Clustering of events in time suggests a strong control by large scale atmospheric circulation. Anomalous atmospheric circulation is forcing ice flow and providing warm air affecting winter ice growth. Even without a seasonal preconditioning during winter, ice drop events can be initiated by anomalous inflow of warm air from the Atlantic sector during summer. It is shown that RILE events can be generated solely based on atmospheric circulation changes without possible competing mechanisms, such as anomalous seasonal radiative forcing or short-lived forcers (e.g. soot. Such forces do merely play minor roles or no role at all in our model. Mechanisms found are qualitatively in line with observations of the 2007 RILE.

  3. Cryptosporidium hominis Is a Newly Recognized Pathogen in the Arctic Region of Nunavik, Canada: Molecular Characterization of an Outbreak.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Thivierge

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of childhood diarrhea in low-resource settings, and has been repeatedly associated with impaired physical and cognitive development. In May 2013, an outbreak of diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium hominis was identified in the Arctic region of Nunavik, Quebec. Human cryptosporidiosis transmission was previously unknown in this region, and very few previous studies have reported it elsewhere in the Arctic. We report clinical, molecular, and epidemiologic details of a multi-village Cryptosporidium outbreak in the Canadian Arctic.We investigated the occurrence of cryptosporidiosis using a descriptive study of cases with onset between April 2013 and April 2014. Cases were defined as Nunavik inhabitants of any age presenting with diarrhea of any duration, in whom Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by stool microscopy in a specialised reference laboratory. Cryptosporidium was identified in stool from 51 of 283 individuals. The overall annual incidence rate (IR was 420 / 100,000 inhabitants. The IR was highest among children aged less than 5 years (1290 /100,000 persons. Genetic subtyping for stool specimens from 14/51 cases was determined by DNA sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60 gene. Sequences aligned with C. hominis subtype Id in all cases. No common food or water source of infection was identified.In this first observed outbreak of human cryptosporidiosis in this Arctic region, the high IR seen is cause for concern about the possible long-term effects on growth and development of children in Inuit communities, who face myriad other challenges such as overcrowding and food-insecurity. The temporal and geographic distribution of cases, as well as the identification of C. hominis subtype Id, suggest anthroponotic rather than zoonotic transmission. Barriers to timely diagnosis delayed the recognition of human cryptosporidiosis in this remote setting.

  4. Regional aerosol optical properties and radiative impact of the extreme smoke event in the European Arctic in spring 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lund Myhre

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In spring 2006 a special meteorological situation occurred in the European Arctic region giving record high levels of air pollution. The synoptic situation resulted in extensive transport of pollution predominantly from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe into the Arctic region and record high air-pollution levels were measured at the Zeppelin observatory at Ny-Ålesund (78°54' N, 11°53' E in the period from 25 April to 12 May. In the present study we investigate the optical properties of the aerosols from this extreme event and we estimate the radiative forcing of this episode.

    We examine the aerosol optical properties from the source region and into the European Arctic and explore the evolution of the episode and the changes in the optical properties. A number of sites in Eastern Europe, Northern Scandinavia and Svalbard are included in the study. The observations show that the maximum AOD was from 2–3 May at all sites and varies from 0.52 to 0.87, and the corresponding Ångstrøm exponent was relatively large. Lidar measurements from Minsk, ALOMAR (Arctic Lidar Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research at Andenes and Ny-Ålesund show that the aerosol layer was below 3 km at all sites the height is decreasing from the source region and into the Arctic. For the AERONET sites included (Minsk, Toravere, Hornsund we have further studied the evolution of the aerosol size. The single scattering albedo at Svalbard is provided for two sites; Ny-Ålesund and Hornsund. Importantly the calculated single scattering albedo based on the aerosol chemical composition and size distribution from Ny-Ålesund and the AERONET measurements at Hornsund are consistent. We have found strong agreement between the satellite daily MODIS AOD and the ground-based AOD observations. This agreement is crucial for accurate radiative forcing calculations. We calculate a strong negative radiative forcing for the most polluted days employing the analysed

  5. Aerosol optical properties over the Svalbard region of Arctic: ground-based measurements and satellite remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Mukunda M.; Babu, S. Suresh

    2016-05-01

    In view of the increasing anthropogenic presence and influence of aerosols in the northern polar regions, long-term continuous measurements of aerosol optical parameters have been investigated over the Svalbard region of Norwegian Arctic (Ny-Ålesund, 79°N, 12°E, 8 m ASL). This study has shown a consistent enhancement in the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients during spring. The relative dominance of absorbing aerosols is more near the surface (lower single scattering albedo), compared to that at the higher altitude. This is indicative of the presence of local anthropogenic activities. In addition, long-range transported biomass burning aerosols (inferred from the spectral variation of absorption coefficient) also contribute significantly to the higher aerosol absorption in the Arctic spring. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) estimates from ground based Microtop sun-photometer measurements reveals that the columnar abundance of aerosols reaches the peak during spring season. Comparison of AODs between ground based and satellite remote sensing indicates that deep blue algorithm of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrievals over Arctic snow surfaces overestimate the columnar AOD.

  6. Numerical experiments with MPI-ESM coupled atmosphere-land-ocean model in conjunction with data assimilations in Arctic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, K.; Kuleshov, A.; Kirchner, I.; Tuchkova, N.

    2016-12-01

    Numerical experiments have been performed with state-of-the art modern MPI Earth System model (MPIESM) in conjunction with ocean altimetry data assimilation from archive AVISO. The original data assimilation method has been derived and applied. All computations have been realized on cluster system of German Climate Computing Center (DKRZ). The results of numerical experiments with and without assimilation were recorded and analyzed. A special attention has been focused on the Arctic zone. The model output in this region, in particular, ice concentration have been compared with independent data given by Arctic institute of Canada. It is shown that there is a good match of analyzed (after assimilation) model output and independent data.

  7. The regional species richness and genetic diversity of Arctic vegetation reflect both past glaciations and current climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, L.; Alsos, Inger G.; Bay, Christian

    2016-01-01

    correlated with each other, and both showed a positive relationship with landscape age. Plot species richness showed differing responses for vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens. At this finer scale, the richness of vascular plants was not significantly related to landscape age, which had a small effect...... size compared to the models of bryophyte and lichen richness. Main conclusion Our study suggests that imprints of past glaciations in Arctic vegetation diversity patterns at the regional scale are still detectable today. Since Arctic vegetation is still limited by post-glacial migration lag......, it will most probably also exhibit lags in response to current and future climate change. Our results also suggest that local species richness at the plot scale is more determined by local habitat factors...

  8. Arctic Risk Management (ARMNet) Network: Linking Risk Management Practitioners and Researchers Across the Arctic Regions of Canada and Alaska To Improve Risk, Emergency and Disaster Preparedness and Mitigation Through Comparative Analysis and Applied Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic Risk Management Network (ARMNet) was conceived as a trans-disciplinary hub to encourage and facilitate greater cooperation, communication and exchange among American and Canadian academics and practitioners actively engaged in the research, management and mitigation of risks, emergencies and disasters in the Arctic regions. Its aim is to assist regional decision-makers through the sharing of applied research and best practices and to support greater inter-operability and bilateral collaboration through improved networking, joint exercises, workshops, teleconferences, radio programs, and virtual communications (eg. webinars). Most importantly, ARMNet is a clearinghouse for all information related to the management of the frequent hazards of Arctic climate and geography in North America, including new and emerging challenges arising from climate change, increased maritime polar traffic and expanding economic development in the region. ARMNet is an outcome of the Arctic Observing Network (AON) for Long Term Observations, Governance, and Management Discussions, www.arcus.org/search-program. The AON goals continue with CRIOS (www.ariesnonprofit.com/ARIESprojects.php) and coastal erosion research (www.ariesnonprofit.com/webinarCoastalErosion.php) led by the North Slope Borough Risk Management Office with assistance from ARIES (Applied Research in Environmental Sciences Nonprofit, Inc.). The constituency for ARMNet will include all northern academics and researchers, Arctic-based corporations, First Responders (FRs), Emergency Management Offices (EMOs) and Risk Management Offices (RMOs), military, Coast Guard, northern police forces, Search and Rescue (SAR) associations, boroughs, territories and communities throughout the Arctic. This presentation will be of interest to all those engaged in Arctic affairs, describe the genesis of ARMNet and present the results of stakeholder meetings and webinars designed to guide the next stages of the Project.

  9. Using Existing Arctic Atmospheric Mercury Measurements to Refine Global and Regional Scale Atmospheric Transport Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C. W.; Dastoor, A.; Steffen, A.; Nghiem, S. V.; Agnan, Y.; Obrist, D.

    2015-12-01

    Northern hemisphere background atmospheric concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) have been declining by up to 25% over the last ten years at some lower latitude sites. However, this decline has ranged from no decline to 9% over 10 years at Arctic long-term measurement sites. Measurements also show a highly dynamic nature of mercury (Hg) species in Arctic air and snow from early spring to the end of summer when biogeochemical transformations peak. Currently, models are unable to reproduce this variability accurately. Estimates of Hg accumulation in the Arctic and Arctic Ocean by models require a full mechanistic understanding of the multi-phase redox chemistry of Hg in air and snow as well as the role of meteorology in the physicochemical processes of Hg. We will show how findings from ground-based atmospheric Hg measurements like those made in spring 2012 during the Bromine, Ozone and Mercury Experiment (BROMEX) near Barrow, Alaska can be used to reduce the discrepancy between measurements and model output in the Canadian GEM-MACH-Hg model. The model is able to reproduce and to explain some of the variability in Arctic Hg measurements but discrepancies still remain. One improvement involves incorporation of new physical mechanisms such as the one we were able to identify during BROMEX. This mechanism, by which atmospheric mercury depletion events are abruptly ended via sea ice leads opening and inducing shallow convective mixing that replenishes GEM (and ozone) in the near surface atmospheric layer, causing an immediate recovery from the depletion event, is currently lacking in models. Future implementation of this physical mechanism will have to incorporate current remote sensing sea ice products but also rely on the development of products that can identify sea ice leads quantitatively. In this way, we can advance the knowledge of the dynamic nature of GEM in the Arctic and the impact of climate change along with new regulations on the overall

  10. Long term trends of CCN concentration in Arctic region at Zeppelin station, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, C. H.; Yoon, Y. J.; Kang, H. J.; Gim, Y. T.; Lee, B. Y.; Ström, J.; Krejci, R.; Tunved, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic is a challenging region when assessing aerosol impacts due to their large variations in concentration, and varying chemical, physical and optical properties. In the climate effects of atmosphere aerosol indirect force, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) play an important role because particles acting as they can grow to cloud droplets by condensation of water vapor, affecting cloud properties in various ways. For example, the increased CCN concentrations lead to the production of more numerous and smaller cloud drops, which can result in optically thicker clouds that tend to reflect more incoming solar radiation back to space (Twomey, 1977). Thus, investigating the physical process of the CCN aerosol that controls cloud droplet formation is important in understanding the radiative transfer and climate effect. In addition, there are still large variabilities in Arctic CCN number concentrations remaining. These variabilities are mainly due to the result of varying aerosol sources and chemical composition (Browse et al., 2012). Especially, the analysis on the long term trends as well as seasonality of CCN and relation with aerosols are very rare and need to be investigated. In this study, CCN concentration data collected at the Zeppelin observatory located on the top of Mt. Zeppelin, Svalbard (78° 54' N, 11° 53' E) are analyzed during 2007-2013. The seasonal and yearly trends of CCN in the Arctic region during the long periods are presented. The obtained results are compared with other instrumental data such as aerosol size distribution and total number concentration. ReferenceBrowse, J., Carslaw, K. S., Arnold, S. R., Pringle, K., and Boucher, O, 2012, The scavenging processes controlling the seasonal cycle in Arctic sulphate and black carbon aerosol, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 6775-6798. Twomey, S., 1977: Atmospheric Aerosols. Elsevier.

  11. The Baltic policy of Germany and current international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salikov Aleksey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the Baltic policy of united Germany from the 1990s until today. The authors set out to identify the significance of German-Baltic relations and the role of the Eastern policy in Russian-German relations. The method of dynamic comparison between the political and economic narrative in intergovernmental relations makes it possible to identify distinctive features of Germany’s Baltic policy in the context of current international relations. In particular, it is noted that Germany was most active in the Baltic region in the 1990s, when the country was establishing political, economic, and cultural ties with the new independent states. In the second half of the 1990s, Germany’s foreign policy became less intense. After the accession of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia to the EU and NATO in 2004, certain disagreements started to arise between Germany and the Baltics. It explains the lukewarm relations between them. The Ukraine events brought about a change in Germany’s regional policy. Despite Russia remaining one of the key economic and political counteractors, Germany, being a partner of the Baltics in the EU and NATO, cannot adopt a neutral position in the conflict of interests between the Baltics and Russia.

  12. Approaching a Postcolonial Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This article explores different postcolonially configured approaches to the Arctic. It begins by considering the Arctic as a region, an entity, and how the customary political science informed approaches are delimited by their focus on understanding the Arctic as a region at the service...... of the contemporary neoliberal order. It moves on to explore how different parts of the Arctic are inscribed in a number of sub-Arctic nation-state binds, focusing mainly on Canada and Denmark. The article argues that the postcolonial can be understood as a prism or a methodology that asks pivotal questions to all...... approaches to the Arctic. Yet the postcolonial itself is characterised by limitations, not least in this context its lack of interest in the Arctic, and its bias towards conventional forms of representation in art. The article points to the need to develop a more integrated critique of colonial and neo...

  13. Status of biodiversity in the Baltic Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henn Ojaveer

    Full Text Available The brackish Baltic Sea hosts species of various origins and environmental tolerances. These immigrated to the sea 10,000 to 15,000 years ago or have been introduced to the area over the relatively recent history of the system. The Baltic Sea has only one known endemic species. While information on some abiotic parameters extends back as long as five centuries and first quantitative snapshot data on biota (on exploited fish populations originate generally from the same time, international coordination of research began in the early twentieth century. Continuous, annual Baltic Sea-wide long-term datasets on several organism groups (plankton, benthos, fish are generally available since the mid-1950s. Based on a variety of available data sources (published papers, reports, grey literature, unpublished data, the Baltic Sea, incl. Kattegat, hosts altogether at least 6,065 species, including at least 1,700 phytoplankton, 442 phytobenthos, at least 1,199 zooplankton, at least 569 meiozoobenthos, 1,476 macrozoobenthos, at least 380 vertebrate parasites, about 200 fish, 3 seal, and 83 bird species. In general, but not in all organism groups, high sub-regional total species richness is associated with elevated salinity. Although in comparison with fully marine areas the Baltic Sea supports fewer species, several facets of the system's diversity remain underexplored to this day, such as micro-organisms, foraminiferans, meiobenthos and parasites. In the future, climate change and its interactions with multiple anthropogenic forcings are likely to have major impacts on the Baltic biodiversity.

  14. Association of climatic factors with infectious diseases in the Arctic and subarctic region – a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Hedlund

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Arctic and subarctic area are likely to be highly affected by climate change, with possible impacts on human health due to effects on food security and infectious diseases. Objectives: To investigate the evidence for an association between climatic factors and infectious diseases, and to identify the most climate-sensitive diseases and vulnerable populations in the Arctic and subarctic region. Methods: A systematic review was conducted. A search was made in PubMed, with the last update in May 2013. Inclusion criteria included human cases of infectious disease as outcome, climate or weather factor as exposure, and Arctic or subarctic areas as study origin. Narrative reviews, case reports, and projection studies were excluded. Abstracts and selected full texts were read and evaluated by two independent readers. A data collection sheet and an adjusted version of the SIGN methodology checklist were used to assess the quality grade of each article. Results: In total, 1953 abstracts were initially found, of which finally 29 articles were included. Almost half of the studies were carried out in Canada (n=14, the rest from Sweden (n=6, Finland (n=4, Norway (n=2, Russia (n=2, and Alaska, US (n=1. Articles were analyzed by disease group: food- and waterborne diseases, vector-borne diseases, airborne viral- and airborne bacterial diseases. Strong evidence was found in our review for an association between climatic factors and food- and waterborne diseases. The scientific evidence for a link between climate and specific vector- and rodent-borne diseases was weak due to that only a few diseases being addressed in more than one publication, although several articles were of very high quality. Air temperature and humidity seem to be important climatic factors to investigate further for viral- and bacterial airborne diseases, but from our results no conclusion about a causal relationship could be drawn. Conclusions: More studies of high quality

  15. Modelling of the spring phenological phases of the Silver birch Betula pendula and Bird cherry Padus racemosa in Baltic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvāns, Andis; Kalvāne, Gunta; Bitāne, Māra; Cepīte-Frišfelde, Daiga; Sīle, Tija; Seņņikovs, Juris

    2014-05-01

    The air temperature is the strongest driving factor of the plant development during spring time in moderate climate conditions. However other factors such as the air temperature during the dormancy period and light conditions can play a role as well. The full potential of the recent and historical phenological observation data can be utilised by modelling tools. We have calibrated seven phenological models described in scientific literature to calculate the likely dates leaf unfolding and start of flowering of the Silver birch Betula pendula and bird cherry Padus racemosa (Kalvāns at al, accepted). Phenological observations are derived from voluntary observation network for period 1960-2009 in Latvia. The number of used observations for each phase range from 149 to 172. Air temperature data measured in meteorological stations closest to the corresponding phenological observation sites are obtained from Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre. We used 33 random data subsamples for model calibration to produce a range of model coefficients enabling the estimation of the phenological model uncertainty. It is found that the best reproduction of the observational data are obtained using a simple linear degree day model considering daily minimum and maximum temperature and more complex sigmoidal model honouring the need for low temperatures for dormancy release (UniChill, Chuine, 2000). The median calibration base temperature in the degree day model for the silver birch leaf unfolding is 5.6°C and for start of the flowering 6.7°C; for the bird cherry the corresponding base temperatures are 3.2°C and 3.4°C. The calibrated models and air temperature archive data derived from the Danish Meteorological Institute is used to simulate the respective phase onset in the Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in 2009. Significant regional differences between modelled phase onset times are observed. There is a wide regional variation of the model uncertainty as well

  16. Baltic Factor in Russia-France Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltsev Leonid A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to identify the role of the Baltic factor in Russia-France relations. Despite the fact that the Baltic Sea region (BSR no longer plays an important role in Russia-France bilateral relations, the authors attach significance to analysing the dynamics and changes of the BSR role in European politics in the post- Napoleonic period. The authors compare the Russian and the July Monarchies (1830—1848 in the context of the current Vienna system of international relations. The article describes the role of the 1830—1831 uprising in Poland, which was an event of particular importance. The monarchies of the two countries had to take into account new social phenomena, which were more pronounced in France. After the suppression of the uprising in the Polish part of the Russian Empire, Polish emigrants residing in France became the stumbling block for the development of Russia- France relations. The article explores the role of P. de Barante, Ambassador of France to Russia and describes France and Russia’s trade and economic interests in the Baltic Sea region. The authors conclude that the specificity of Russia-France bilateral relations became more apparent during the First and Second World Wars. However, the Baltic factor has lost its relevance over time.

  17. Gastrointestinal helminths of arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) from different bioclimatological regions in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, C. M O; Nansen, P.

    1996-01-01

    Nine species of gastrointestinal helminths were recovered from 254 arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) from 8 different localities in Greenland. Prevalences of infection with the helminth species differed from area to area: Toxascaris leonina (3968%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0-14%), Mesocestoides...... of Greenland. In general, the composition of the helminth fauna of arctic foxes in Greenland showed distinct differences geographically. Thus, the diversity of helminth species in foxes caught in the northern districts of Greenland seems lower than in the southern districts; only nematode species with direct...

  18. Dissolved methane and carbon dioxide fluxes in Subarctic and Arctic regions: Assessing measurement techniques and spatial gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Tigreros Kodovska, Fenix; Sparrow, Katy J.; Yvon-Lewis, Shari A.; Paytan, Adina; Dimova, Natasha T.; Lecher, Alanna; Kessler, John D.

    2016-02-01

    Here we use a portable method to obtain high spatial resolution measurements of concentrations and calculate diffusive water-to-air fluxes of CH4 and CO2 from two Subarctic coastal regions (Kasitsna and Jakolof Bays) and an Arctic lake (Toolik Lake). The goals of this study are to determine distributions of these concentrations and fluxes to (1) critically evaluate the established protocols of collecting discrete water samples for these determinations, and to (2) provide a first-order extrapolation of the regional impacts of these diffusive atmospheric fluxes. Our measurements show that these environments are highly heterogeneous. Areas with the highest dissolved CH4 and CO2 concentrations were isolated, covering less than 21% of the total lake and bay areas, and significant errors can be introduced if the collection of discrete water samples does not adequately characterize these spatial distributions. A first order extrapolation of diffusive fluxes to all Arctic regions with similar characteristics as Toolik Lake suggests that these lakes are likely supplying 0.21 and 15.77 Tg of CH4 and CO2 to the atmosphere annually, respectively. Similarly, we found that the Subarctic Coastal Ocean is likely supplying 0.027 Tg of CH4 annually and is taking up roughly 524 Tg of CO2 per year. Although diffusive fluxes at Toolik Lake may not be as substantial when comparing against present seep ebullition and spring ice-out values, warming in the Arctic may result in the increase of methane discharge and methane emissions to the atmosphere. Thus further work is needed to understand this changing environment. This study suggests that high spatial resolution measurement protocols, similar to the one used here, should be incorporated into field campaigns to reduce regional uncertainty and refine global emission estimates.

  19. WORKING GROUP ON DRY GRASSLANDS IN THE NORDIC AND BALTIC REGION - OUTLINE OF THE PROJECT AND FIRST RESULTS FOR THE CLASS FESTUCO-BROMETEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERMUD TYLER

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation databank established by our working group covers the classes FestucoBrametea. Koelerio-Corynephoretea, and Trifolio-Geranietea sanguinei in the Nordic and Baltic region. i.e. NE Germany, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland. N Poland. Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia. and NW Russia. We aim to use these data to develop a consistent supra-national phy~ tosociological classification of these xerothermic vegetation types in the study area and to analyse their biodiversity patterns. Up to now, we located some 12,500 releves meeting our criteria, and more than 3.500 of them have already been included in the databank. We give an overview of the properties of these releves as regards coverage of syntaxa and countries, source types, plot sizes, and cryptogam treatment. We also present first analyses for the basiphilous semi·dry grasslands (Brachypodietalia pinnati within the Festuco-Brometea. For this group of communities, many different and incompatible classification schemes have been proposed. We givc an overview of the alliance and aSsociation names that have been in use for them in the study area, accompanied by a nomenclatural assessment. The releves presently included in the databank havc been tentatively assigned to those vegetation classes whose diagnostic taxa were prevailing. Accordingly, morc than 2.000 releves have been placed in the Festuco-Brometea. These show considerable floristic differenccs compared to stands of the southern temperate Brachypodietalia pinnati alliances Bromion erecti, Cirsio-Brachypodion pinnati, and Agrostionvinealis. The presence degrees of Avenula pratensis and Homalothecium lutescens, for instance, are significantly increased in the study area, and those of Festuca rupieola and Euphorbia cyparissias decreased. An analysis of the species-area relationship yielded a power function with z = 0.09 which is considerably lower than increments determined by nested-plot analyses of this community type, indicating the

  20. WORKING GROUP ON DRY GRASSLANDS IN THE NORDIC AND BALTIC REGION - OUTLINE OF THE PROJECT AND FIRST RESULTS FOR THE CLASS FESTUCO-BROMETEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JURGEN DENGLER

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation databank established by our working group covers the classes FestucoBrametea. Koelerio-Corynephoretea, and Trifolio-Geranietea sanguinei in the Nordic and Baltic region. i.e. NE Germany, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland. N Poland. Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia. and NW Russia. We aim to use these data to develop a consistent supra-national phy~ tosociological classification of these xerothermic vegetation types in the study area and to analyse their biodiversity patterns. Up to now, we located some 12,500 releves meeting our criteria, and more than 3.500 of them have already been included in the databank. We give an overview of the properties of these releves as regards coverage of syntaxa and countries, source types, plot sizes, and cryptogam treatment. We also present first analyses for the basiphilous semi·dry grasslands (Brachypodietalia pinnati within the Festuco-Brometea. For this group of communities, many different and incompatible classification schemes have been proposed. We givc an overview of the alliance and aSsociation names that have been in use for them in the study area, accompanied by a nomenclatural assessment. The releves presently included in the databank havc been tentatively assigned to those vegetation classes whose diagnostic taxa were prevailing. Accordingly, morc than 2.000 releves have been placed in the Festuco-Brometea. These show considerable floristic differenccs compared to stands of the southern temperate Brachypodietalia pinnati alliances Bromion erecti, Cirsio-Brachypodion pinnati, and Agrostionvinealis. The presence degrees of Avenula pratensis and Homalothecium lutescens, for instance, are significantly increased in the study area, and those of Festuca rupieola and Euphorbia cyparissias decreased. An analysis of the species-area relationship yielded a power function with z = 0.09 which is considerably lower than increments determined by nested-plot analyses of this community type, indicating the

  1. Variability of the mixed phase in the Arctic with a focus on the Svalbard region: a study based on spaceborne active remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mioche

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic region is known to be very sensitive to climate change. Clouds and in particular mixed phase clouds (MPC remain one of the greatest sources of uncertainties in the modeling of the Arctic response to climate change due to an inaccurate representation of their variability and their quantification. In this study, we present a characterization of the vertical, spatial and seasonal variability of Arctic clouds and MPC over the whole Arctic region based on satellite active remote sensing observations. MPC properties in the region of Svalbard archipelago (78° N, 15° E are also investigated. The occurrence frequency of clouds and MPC are determined from CALIPSO/CLOUDSAT measurements processed with the DARDAR retrieval algorithm which allows for a reliable cloud thermodynamic phase classification (warm liquid, supercooled liquid, ice, mixing of ice and supercooled liquid. Significant differences are observed between MPC variability over the whole Arctic region and over the Svalbard region. Results show that MPC are ubiquitous all along the year, with a minimum occurrence of 30% in winter and 50% during the rest of the year, in average over the whole Arctic. Over the Svalbard region, MPC occurrence is more constant with time with larger values (55% compared to the average observed in the Arctic. MPC are especially located at low altitudes, below 3000 m, where their frequency of occurrence reaches 90%, in particular during winter, spring and autumn. Moreover, results highlight that MPC statistically prevail over sea. The temporal and spatial distribution of MPC over the Svalbard region seems to be linked to the contribution of moister air and warmer water from the North Atlantic Ocean which contribute to the initiation of the liquid water phase. Over the whole Arctic, and particularly in western regions, the increase of MPC occurrence from spring to autumn could be connected to the sea ice melting. During this period, the open water transports

  2. Regional patterns and controlling factors on summer population structure of Calanus glacialis in the western Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, Kohei; Abe, Yoshiyuki; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Kikuchi, Takashi

    2016-12-01

    In the Arctic Ocean, Calanus glacialis is the most dominant species in zooplankton biomass. While important, little information is available concerning the factors controlling their population. In this study, we evaluated regional patterns and environmental factors controlling the population structure of C. glacialis in the western Arctic Ocean in summer months (July-October) in 1991, 1992, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2013 and 2014. To evaluate regional patterns, environmental parameters (temperature, salinity and chlorophyll a) and C. glacialis population parameters (abundance, biomass, mean copepodid stage and lipid accumulation) were divided into three latitudinal regions. In all three regions from July to October, chlorophyll a decreased, while the mean copepodid stage increased. These results suggest phytoplankton blooms occurred early in the sampling period, and C. glacialis grew during the period. From Structural Equation Model (SEM) analysis, the controlling factors on the C. glacialis population were evaluated. The results of the SEM analysis indicated positive correlations between abundance and biomass; Julian day and mean copepodid stage; and temperature and mean copepodid stage. Additionally, a negative correlation between abundance and mean copepodid stage was observed.

  3. Base of brackish-water mud as key regional stratigraphic marker of mid-Holocene marine flooding of the Baltic Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtasalo, Joonas J.; Endler, Michael; Moros, Matthias; Jokinen, Sami A.; Hämäläinen, Jyrki; Kotilainen, Aarno T.

    2016-12-01

    Many modern epicontinental seas were dry land before their marine flooding by the mid-Holocene glacioeustatic sea-level rise, whereas the Baltic Sea Basin was covered by a huge postglacial lake. This change from a postglacial lake to the present-day semi-enclosed brackish-water sea is studied here in sediment cores and acoustic profiles from the Baltic Sea major sub-basins, based on novel datasets combined with information extracted from earlier publications. In shallow areas (50m water depth), where it may be locally less clearly expressed due to reworking and bioturbation. Both in the shallow and deep areas, the brackish-water mud is strongly enriched in organic matter compared to underlying sediments. Bioturbation type changes at the flooding surface in response to the increased sedimentary organic content, but no firm-ground ichnofacies were developed because of low erosion. It is concluded that the base of the brackish-water mud is a robust allostratigraphic bounding surface that is identifiable by the lithologic examination of cores over the Baltic Sea. The surface is a distinct reflector in seismic-acoustic profiles, which facilitates mapping and basin-wide stratigraphic subdivision. Detailed geochronologic studies are required to confirm if sediments immediately overlying the erosional flooding surface in shallow areas are younger than the basal part of the brackish-water mud in deep areas that is predicted to be time-equivalent to the erosion.

  4. Biological responses to current UV-B radiation in Arctic regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian; N. Mikkelsen, Teis; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    Depletion of the ozone layer and the consequent increase in solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) may impact living conditions for arctic plants significantly. In order to evaluate how the prevailing UV-B fluxes affect the heath ecosystem at Zackenberg (74°30'N, 20°30'W) and other high...

  5. An Evaluation of Sea Ice Deformation and Its Spatial Characteristics from the Regional Arctic System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Borgerson 2008). The largest deposits are thought to be near Russia, although the Shell Company holds millions of dollars‘ worth of leases in the...Arctic Ocean, and the ― Banana Hole‖ in the Norwegian Sea. On December 20, 2001, Russia made an official submission to the UN Commission to extend as

  6. Taxonomy, biogeography and DNA barcodes of Geodia species (Porifera, Demospongiae, Tetractinellida) in the Atlantic boreo-arctic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardenas, Paco; Rapp, Hans Tore; Klitgaard, Anne Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    Geodia species north of 60 degrees N in the Atlantic appeared in the literature for the first time when Bowerbank described Geodia barretti and G.macandrewii in 1858 from western Norway. Since then, a number of species have been based on material from various parts of the region: G.simplex, Isops......, except for G.barretti which had two haplotypes. 18S is unique for four species but cannot discriminate G.phlegraei and G.parva. Two keys to the boreo-arctic Geodia are included, one based on external morphology, the other based on spicule morphology.(c) 2013 The Linnean Society of London...

  7. Baltic Exchange toodi Tallinna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Viimane osa merekonteineritesse kokkupakitud Londoni laevandus- ja merebörsi Baltic Exchange'i endise peakorteri detailidest jõudis 2007. a. juunis Tallinna. Hoone detailid ostnud ärimehed Heiti Hääl ja Eerik-Niiles Kross plaanivad leida hoonele koha Tallinna kesklinnas. E.-N. Krossi kommentaar

  8. South Baltic Wind Atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    A first version of a wind atlas for the South Baltic Sea has been developed using the WRF mesoscale model and verified by data from tall Danish and German masts. Six different boundary-layer parametrization schemes were evaluated by comparing the WRF results to the observed wind profiles at the m...

  9. Baltic financial markets attractive

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Tallinnas toimunud konverentsil East Baltic Summit tõdesid eksperdid, et Balti riikidel on välisinvestorite silmis positiivne maine. Esinejate hulgas olid Rootsi endine peaminister Carl Bildt, Baltimaade juhtivaid eksperte Bengt Dennis, investeerimispankur Rain Lõhmus, East Capitali president Peter Elam Hakansson

  10. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki

    2010-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Radi...

  11. A green supply chain network design model for enhancing competitiveness and sustainability of companies in high north arctic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yu, Wei Deng Solvang, Chen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To survive in today’s competitive and ever-changing marketplace, companies need not only to engage in their products and/or services, but also to focus on the management of the whole supply chain. Effectively managing and balancing the profitability and interconnection of each player in the supply chain will improve the overall supply chain surplus as well as individual profit. However, it is extremely difficult to simultaneously optimize several objectives in design and planning of a supply chain, i.e., cost-minimization, risk-minimization, responsiveness-maximization, etc., which are somehow conflict with one another. Furthermore, the natural and infrastructural challenges in high north arctic regions make it become much more difficult and complicated to design and develop cost-efficient, highly responsive, environmentally friendly, and sustainable supply chain network. In order to provide companies in high north arctic regions with decision support tool for the design and planning of theirs supply chain networks, a green supply chain network design (GrSCND model is formulated in this study based on multi-objective mixed integer programming (MIP. The optimal trade-off among several conflicting objectives is the focus of this GrSCND model aiming to enhance both competitive competence and sustainability of companies and supply chains operated in high north regions. In addition, a numerical experiment is also given to present a deep insight of the GrSCND model.

  12. Record-low primary productivity and high plant damage in the Nordic Arctic Region in 2012 caused by multiple weather events and pest outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerke, Jarle W.; Rune Karlsen, Stein; Arild Høgda, Kjell; Malnes, Eirik; Jepsen, Jane U.; Lovibond, Sarah; Vikhamar-Schuler, Dagrun; Tømmervik, Hans

    2014-08-01

    The release of cold temperature constraints on photosynthesis has led to increased productivity (greening) in significant parts (32-39%) of the Arctic, but much of the Arctic shows stable (57-64%) or reduced productivity (browning, factors dampening the greening effect of more maritime regions have remained elusive. Here we show how multiple anomalous weather events severely affected the terrestrial productivity during one water year (October 2011-September 2012) in a maritime region north of the Arctic Circle, the Nordic Arctic Region, and contributed to the lowest mean vegetation greenness (normalized difference vegetation index) recorded this century. Procedures for field data sampling were designed during or shortly after the events in order to assess both the variability in effects and the maximum effects of the stressors. Outbreaks of insect and fungal pests also contributed to low greenness. Vegetation greenness in 2012 was 6.8% lower than the 2000-11 average and 58% lower in the worst affected areas that were under multiple stressors. These results indicate the importance of events (some being mostly neglected in climate change effect studies and monitoring) for primary productivity in a high-latitude maritime region, and highlight the importance of monitoring plant damage in the field and including frequencies of stress events in models of carbon economy and ecosystem change in the Arctic. Fourteen weather events and anomalies and 32 hypothesized impacts on plant productivity are summarized as an aid for directing future research.

  13. The economic substantiation for creating defense "support zone" of the Arctic region of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryzgalova A. E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the theoretical foundations of the transition from "continuous" development of the Russian territories of the Far North that proved to be ineffective to the "focal" development based on the concentration of resources within the anchor sectors of the regional economy. The defensive specialisation of the Kola "bearing point" which is a part of the system of eight "bearing zones" located respectively in each of the Arctic regions of Russia is being proved. The value of communication networks in ensuring the effective functioning of naval Arctic closed cities as a core of the defense "bearing point" is discussed from the standpoint of the new economic geography. Рассмотрены теоретические основы перехода от доказавшего свою неэффективность "непрерывного" развития территорий Крайнего Севера России к "очаговому" развитию, основанному на концентрации ресурсов в пределах якорных секторов регионального хозяйства. Доказан оборонный профиль Кольской "опорной точки", входящей в систему восьми "опорных зон", локализованных соответственно в каждом арктическом субъекте Российской Федерации. С позиций новой экономической географии обосновано значение коммуникационной сети для обеспечения эффективного функционирования военно-морских арктических закрытых административно-территориальных образований, выступающих ядром "опорной точки" оборонного значения

  14. ARCHITECTURE OF THE ESTLYANDSKAYA PROVINCE – A SOURCE OF INSPIRATION AND THE BASE OF N.M. SOKOLOV’s CREATIVE METHOD (the main milestones of the architect’s biography in the context of the Baltic Region architecture development in terms of cult architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmirskaya A. V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available N. M. Sokolov was the chief architect of Rostov-on-Don city and as well as the author of the concept of architectural preferences continuity of a "brick style" at the end of XIX- beginning XX centuries that is presented in the article. The author assumes that the creative method of the architect was affected by the childhood and youth when he lived in Baltic and the beginning of architectural and art activity of the master taking place in Riga. The author investigates the architectural development of the Baltic region, taking in attention that the value of N. M. Sokolov’s architectural creations has deep roots hidden in the development of architectural tradition of Baltic and in particular Riga where the master of a neogothic style of Rostov was born. The author reveals the main distinctive features of the Baltic architecture, the Gothic principle formation in the Baltic in terms of development of cities and cult sights of Riga and their transformation from the late Gothic into mannerism and neogothic style, the influence of cult Lutheran tradition on cult orthodox architecture. The author also considers construction materials of cult architecture, local design features of architecture of the Latvian people. The concepts "northern gothic style", "brick style" are revealed from the point of view of development of a Gothic form and influence of Medieval architecture on N. M. Sokolov's creativity

  15. Arctic-HYCOS: a Large Sample observing system for estimating freshwater fluxes in the drainage basin of the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietroniro, Al; Korhonen, Johanna; Looser, Ulrich; Hardardóttir, Jórunn; Johnsrud, Morten; Vuglinsky, Valery; Gustafsson, David; Lins, Harry F.; Conaway, Jeffrey S.; Lammers, Richard; Stewart, Bruce; Abrate, Tommaso; Pilon, Paul; Sighomnou, Daniel; Arheimer, Berit

    2015-04-01

    initial stages of the project will focus on collecting data on discharge and revise station selection criteria. For monitoring freshwater flow to oceans, stations close to the mouths of rivers and immediately inland for back-up purposes will be preferred. For studies of change emphasis is placed on hydrological regime stations located in headwaters small sub-catchments, including pristine basins. Stations outside the Arctic Ocean basin, such as at the mouth of the Yukon River, Baltic Sea and Hudson Bay, can also be considered to allow a better understanding of hydrological processes occurring in the general region. Countries shall facilitate, to the extent possible, access to their data currently published online, and also access to those not yet regularly published on the web. At a later stage data exchange standards such as WaterML2.0 will be implemented. The project will also perform pan-Arctic hydrological modelling (geo-statistical, deterministic and probabilistic methods) for the assessment and integration of observational and modelled data to improve estimates of ungauged discharge and the overall estimates of freshwater flux to the Arctic Ocean, as well as understanding of hydrological processes.

  16. IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrén, T; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Cotterill, Carol

    2015-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 347 cored sediments from different set- tings of the Baltic Sea covering the last glacial–interglacial cycle. The main aim was to study the geological development of the Baltic Sea in relation to the extreme climate variability of the region...... with changing ice cover and major shifts in temperature, salinity, and biological communities. Using the Greatship Manisha as a European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) mission-specific platform, we recovered 1.6 km of core from nine sites of which four were additionally cored for microbiology......-rich clay. Due to the stratified water column of the brackish Baltic Sea and the recurrent and widespread anoxia, the deeper basins harbor laminated sediments that provide a unique opportunity for high-resolution chronological studies. The Baltic Sea is a eutrophic intra-continental sea that is strongly...

  17. Tick-borne borrelioses pathogen identification in Ixodes ticks (Acarina, Ixodidae) collected in St. Petersburg and Kaliningrad Baltic regions of Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, A N; Dubinina, H V; Antykova, L P; Dzhivanyan, T I; Rijpkema, S G; Kruif, N V; Cinco, M

    1998-03-01

    Two isolated Baltic seashore populations of Ixodes ticks were studied as vectors of different Borrelia genospecies in Russia by using darkfield microscopy and modified polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the Kalinigrad region (Kurish Spit, forests near the settlements of Lesnoye and Rybachy), 788 Ixodes ricinus (L.) adults and nymphs were collected by flagging and studied by darkfield microscopy during 1995-1996. There were 88 darkfield microscopy positive specimens (11.2%) of which 69 were also analyzed by PCR. Borrelia afzelii and B. garinii were found individually and together in ticks. In this region, on the Kurish Spit, 7 patients with tick borrelioses were observed: 2 in the Russian part of Spit and 5 in the Lithuanian part. A significant difference was found between Borrelia prevalence during the spring and fall peaks of tick abundance. Specimens that were darkfield microscopy positive prevailed in the fall (25.15%) in comparison with the spring peak (7.3%). The number of specimens with identified genospecies prevailed in the spring: 22 out of 35 versus 4 out of 31 in the fall. Among 29 PCR positive I. ricinus, 21 contained B. afzelii, 3 had B. garinii, and 2 had dual infection. In 1995, only B. afzelii infected specimens were observed. In the vicinity of St. Petersburg (the seashore of the northern Gulf of Finland, in forests near Lisy Nos, Morskaja) during 1992-1996, 31 patients with a tick-borne borrelioses were registered. We collected 487 Ixodes persulcatus Schulze by flagging and studied them by darkfield microscopy in 1995-1996 of which 144 ticks (29.6%) were darkfield microscopy positive. Sixty darkfield-positive specimens were analyzed by PCR, and in 88.3% of cases genospecies were identified. B. afzelii and B. garinii were identified individually and together in ticks. In 1995, I. persulcatus with dual infection prevailed with 11 out of 21 (52.4% positive), whereas in 1996, most I. persulcatus ticks contained B. garinii (81.2%). Dual infection was

  18. Improved sea level determination in the Arctic regions through development of tolerant altimetry retracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Maulik

    This PhD project involves the development of a suitable retracking strategy for processing ofCryosat-2 SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) altimetry waveforms in the Arctic Ocean. The Cryosat-2SAR altimetry waveforms are processed for precise and accurate SSH determination. Precise and accurate...... knowledge of SSH has various applications like gravity field determination, climate prediction, weather forecasting and studies of ocean currents and circulations.Cryosat-2 SAR altimetry waveforms in the Arctic can have a variety of shapes because of the superposition of the echoes from the water...... retracker. It also has the advantage of primary peak COG retracker with capability of estimating SSH in the sea ice areas where irregular type waveforms are present, which are neither lead type nor ocean type. Prior to combining the physical and empirical retracking, bias is removed and the primary peak COG...

  19. Dynamics of the Exchange of Carbon Dioxide in Arctic and Subarctic Regions,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    R . Stross, D. Bierle , R . Dillon, M. Miller, P. Coyne and J. Kelley. 1972. Carbon Flux Through a Tundra Pond Ecosystem at Barrow, Alaska. U.S. Tundra...University of Washington, were encouraged by R . Adm. 3 Charles Thomas (now deceased) and Professors P. E. Church and N. Unterleiner. Continued advice and...vessel R /V Acona. Particular acknowledgment is given to the Naval Arctic Research Laboratory, Barrow, Alaska, whose director and staff have gen- erously

  20. Duration of the Arctic sea ice melt season: Regional and interannual variability, 1979-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belchansky, G.I.; Douglas, D.C.; Platonov, N.G.

    2004-01-01

    Melt onset dates, freeze onset dates, and melt season duration were estimated over Arctic sea ice, 1979–2001, using passive microwave satellite imagery and surface air temperature data. Sea ice melt duration for the entire Northern Hemisphere varied from a 104-day minimum in 1983 and 1996 to a 124-day maximum in 1989. Ranges in melt duration were highest in peripheral seas, numbering 32, 42, 44, and 51 days in the Laptev, Barents-Kara, East Siberian, and Chukchi Seas, respectively. In the Arctic Ocean, average melt duration varied from a 75-day minimum in 1987 to a 103-day maximum in 1989. On average, melt onset in annual ice began 10.6 days earlier than perennial ice, and freeze onset in perennial ice commenced 18.4 days earlier than annual ice. Average annual melt dates, freeze dates, and melt durations in annual ice were significantly correlated with seasonal strength of the Arctic Oscillation (AO). Following high-index AO winters (January–March), spring melt tended to be earlier and autumn freeze later, leading to longer melt season durations. The largest increases in melt duration were observed in the eastern Siberian Arctic, coincident with cyclonic low pressure and ice motion anomalies associated with high-index AO phases. Following a positive AO shift in 1989, mean annual melt duration increased 2–3 weeks in the northern East Siberian and Chukchi Seas. Decreasing correlations between consecutive-year maps of melt onset in annual ice during 1979–2001 indicated increasing spatial variability and unpredictability in melt distributions from one year to the next. Despite recent declines in the winter AO index, recent melt distributions did not show evidence of reestablishing spatial patterns similar to those observed during the 1979–88 low-index AO period. Recent freeze distributions have become increasingly similar to those observed during 1979–88, suggesting a recurrent spatial pattern of freeze chronology under low-index AO conditions.

  1. On the effects of constraining atmospheric circulation in a coupled atmosphere-ocean Arctic regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Peter; Döscher, Ralf; Koenigk, Torben

    2016-06-01

    Impacts of spectral nudging on simulations of Arctic climate in coupled simulations have been investigated in a set of simulations with a regional climate model (RCM). The dominantly circumpolar circulation in the Arctic lead to weak constraints on the lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) for the RCM, which causes large internal variability with strong deviations from the driving model. When coupled to an ocean and sea ice model, this results in sea ice concentrations that deviate from the observed spatial distribution. Here, a method of spectral nudging is applied to the atmospheric model RCA4 in order to assess the potentials for improving results for the sea ice concentrations when coupled to the RCO ocean-sea ice model. The spectral nudging applied to reanalysis driven simulations significantly improves the generated sea ice regarding its temporal evolution, extent and inter-annual trends, compared to simulations with standard LBC nesting. The method is furthermore evaluated with driving data from two CMIP5 GCM simulations for current and future conditions. The GCM biases are similar to the RCA4 biases with ERA-Interim, however, the spectral nudging still improves the surface winds enough to show improvements in the simulated sea ice. For both GCM downscalings, the spectrally nudged version retains a larger sea ice extent in September further into the future. Depending on the sea ice formulation in the GCM, the temporal evolution of the regional sea ice model can deviate strongly.

  2. Do countries catch cold when trading partners sneeze? Evidence from spillovers in the Baltics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley I. Obiora

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available How do countries respond to shocks from their major trading partners? This paper addresses the question in the context of the observed shifts in trade linkages between the Baltic countries and their major trading partners. Vector autoregression (VAR models were used to examine the magnitude and sources of growth spillovers to the Baltics from key trading partners, as well as shocks from the real effective exchange rate (REER.Our results show there are significant cross-country spillovers to the Baltics, with spillovers from the EU outweighing those from Russia. Shocks to the REER generally depress growth in the Baltics, and this effect rises over time. We also find that financial and trade linkages are the dominant transmission channels of spillovers to the region, which explains the current realization of downside risks to the Baltics from the global slowdown. In general, therefore, these results suggest that the Baltics are susceptible to shocks from their key trading partners.

  3. Nutrient trends through time in Sweden's Baltic Drainage Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, I.; Destouni, G.; Prieto, C.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in climate and land-use have and will continue to modify regional hydrology, in turn impacting environmental health, agricultural productivity and water resource quality and availability. The Baltic region is an area of interest as the coast spans nine countries- serving over 100 million people. The Baltic Sea contains one of the largest human caused hypoxic dead zones due to eutrophication driven by anthropogenic excess loading of nutrients. Policies to reduce these loads include also international directives and agreements, such as the EU Water Framework Directive, adopted in 2000 to protect and improve water quality throughout the European Union, and the Baltic Sea Action Plan under the Helsinki Commission aimed specifically at reducing the nutrient loading to and mitigating the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea. In light of these policies and amidst the number of studies on the Baltic Sea we ask, using the accessible nutrient and discharge data what does nutrient loading look like today? Are the most excessive loads going down? Observed nutrient and flow time series across Sweden allow for answering these questions, by spatial and temporal trend analysis of loads from various parts of Sweden to the Baltic Sea. Analyzing these observed time series in conjunction with the ecological health status classifications of the EU Water Framework Directive, allows in particular for answering the question if the loads into the water bodies with the poorest water quality, and from those to the Baltic Sea, are improving, being maintained or deteriorating. Such insight is required to contribute to relevant and efficient water and nutrient load management. Furthermore, empirically calculating nutrient loads, rather than only modeling, reveals that the water body health classification may not reflect what water bodies actually contribute the heaviest loads to the Baltic Sea. This work also underscores the importance of comprehensive analysis of all available data from

  4. Base of brackish-water mud as key regional stratigraphic marker of mid-Holocene marine flooding of the Baltic Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtasalo, Joonas J.; Endler, Michael; Moros, Matthias; Jokinen, Sami A.; Hämäläinen, Jyrki; Kotilainen, Aarno T.

    2016-08-01

    Many modern epicontinental seas were dry land before their marine flooding by the mid-Holocene glacioeustatic sea-level rise, whereas the Baltic Sea Basin was covered by a huge postglacial lake. This change from a postglacial lake to the present-day semi-enclosed brackish-water sea is studied here in sediment cores and acoustic profiles from the Baltic Sea major sub-basins, based on novel datasets combined with information extracted from earlier publications. In shallow areas (water depth), the base of the brackish-water mud is erosional and covered by a patchy, thin, transgressive silt-sand sheet resulting from decreased sediment supply, winnowing and the redistribution of material from local coarse-grained deposits during transgression. This erosional marine flooding surface becomes sharp and possibly erosional in deep areas (>50m water depth), where it may be locally less clearly expressed due to reworking and bioturbation. Both in the shallow and deep areas, the brackish-water mud is strongly enriched in organic matter compared to underlying sediments. Bioturbation type changes at the flooding surface in response to the increased sedimentary organic content, but no firm-ground ichnofacies were developed because of low erosion. It is concluded that the base of the brackish-water mud is a robust allostratigraphic bounding surface that is identifiable by the lithologic examination of cores over the Baltic Sea. The surface is a distinct reflector in seismic-acoustic profiles, which facilitates mapping and basin-wide stratigraphic subdivision. Detailed geochronologic studies are required to confirm if sediments immediately overlying the erosional flooding surface in shallow areas are younger than the basal part of the brackish-water mud in deep areas that is predicted to be time-equivalent to the erosion.

  5. Comparison of the optical properties of dissolved organic matter in two river-influenced coastal regions of the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamal, Leira; Vincent, Warwick F.; Martineau, Christine; Osburn, Christopher L.

    2007-03-01

    The optical characteristics of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were analyzed in the Great Whale River and adjacent Hudson Bay (55° N, 77° W) in the eastern Canadian Low Arctic, and in the Mackenzie River and adjacent Beaufort Sea in the western Canadian High Arctic (70° N, 133° W). Sampling was during ice-free open water conditions. Both rivers contained high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (3 and 6 mg DOC l -1 in the Great Whale River and Mackenzie River, respectively) and CDOM ( a320 of 11 and 14 m -1), resulting in a substantial load of organic matter to their coastal seas. There were pronounced differences in the CDOM characteristics of the two rivers, notably in their synchronous fluorescence scans (SFS). The latter showed that the Mackenzie River was depleted in humic materials, implying a more mature catchment relative to the younger, more recently glaciated Great Whale River system. SFS spectra had a similar shape across the freshwater-saltwater transition zone of the Great Whale plume, and DOC was linearly related to salinity implying conservative mixing and no loss by flocculation or biological processes across the salt front. In contrast, there were major differences in SFS spectral shape from the Mackenzie River to the freshwater-influenced coastal ocean, with a marked decrease in the relative importance of fulvic and humic acid materials. The SFS spectra for the coastal Beaufort Sea in September-October strongly resembled those recorded for the Mackenzie River during the high discharge, CDOM-rich, snowmelt period in June, but with some loss of autochthonous materials. These results are consistent with differences in freshwater residence time between the Mackenzie River and Great Whale River coastal ocean systems. Models of arctic continental shelf responses to present and future climate regimes will need to consider these striking regional differences in the organic matter content, biogeochemistry and optics between waters from

  6. Think - Baltic Extension / Kalle Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Kalle

    2002-01-01

    Tallinna TÜ Rehabilitatsiooni tehnoloogia keskus korraldas pressikonverentsi, kus tutvustati osalemist EL V raamprogrammis Think - Baltic Extension, mis on suunatud puuetega inimeste tööhõive tagamisele

  7. Regional variations in provenance and abundance of ice-rafted clasts in Arctic Ocean sediments: Implications for the configuration of late Quaternary oceanic and atmospheric circulation in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R.L.; Grantz, A.

    2001-01-01

    The composition and distribution of ice-rafted glacial erratics in late Quaternary sediments define the major current systems of the Arctic Ocean and identify two distinct continental sources for the erratics. In the southern Amerasia basin up to 70% of the erratics are dolostones and limestones (the Amerasia suite) that originated in the carbonate-rich Paleozoic terranes of the Canadian Arctic Islands. These clasts reached the Arctic Ocean in glaciers and were ice-rafted to the core sites in the clockwise Beaufort Gyre. The concentration of erratics decreases northward by 98% along the trend of the gyre from southeastern Canada basin to Makarov basin. The concentration of erratics then triples across the Makarov basin flank of Lomonosov Ridge and siltstone, sandstone and siliceous clasts become dominant in cores from the ridge and the Eurasia basin (the Eurasia suite). The bedrock source for the siltstone and sandstone clasts is uncertain, but bedrock distribution and the distribution of glaciation in northern Eurasia suggest the Taymyr Peninsula-Kara Sea regions. The pattern of clast distribution in the Arctic Ocean sediments and the sharp northward decrease in concentration of clasts of Canadian Arctic Island provenance in the Amerasia basin support the conclusion that the modem circulation pattern of the Arctic Ocean, with the Beaufort Gyre dominant in the Amerasia basin and the Transpolar drift dominant in the Eurasia basin, has controlled both sea-ice and glacial iceberg drift in the Arctic Ocean during interglacial intervals since at least the late Pleistocene. The abruptness of the change in both clast composition and concentration on the Makarov basin flank of Lomonosov Ridge also suggests that the boundary between the Beaufort Gyre and the Transpolar Drift has been relatively stable during interglacials since that time. Because the Beaufort Gyre is wind-driven our data, in conjunction with the westerly directed orientation of sand dunes that formed during

  8. Trend and interannual variability of summer precipitation and the atmospheric water vapor convergence in the Arctic circumpolar region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyama, T.; Fujinami, H.; Oshima, K.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated trend and interannual variability of summer (June, July and August) precipitation and the atmospheric water vapor convergence in the Arctic circumpolar region, with an emphasis on recent increase of those around the Lena river basin in eastern Siberia. Data used in this study are an archived precipitation data (PREC/L) and atmospheric re-analysis data (JRA-25, JRA-55). Previous studies have revealed a negative correlation in the summer atmospheric circulation pattern between the Lena and Ob river basins. However little is known about the atmospheric water cycles in the Arctic circumpolar region, including the Mackenzie river basin. Hence we compared the trend and interannual variability of summer precipitation and the atmospheric water vapor convergence in three large North Eurasian river (Lena, Yenisei, and Ob) basins together with the Mackenzie basin. The analyzed results are as follows. 1) In the highest five-year summer precipitation in the Lena river basin during the period 1958 to 2012, the center of the cyclonic circulation shifted to the east, from the Kara and Barents Seas over the region across the Yenisei and Lena. In the years, significant cyclonic deviation was present. The deviation distribution of the height field and the atmospheric water vapor flux from the west to the Lena river basin were significantly increased, so as to form a positive deviation of summer precipitation. 2) Significant increases (positive trend) in the summer precipitation were detected from 1984 to 2011 in the Lena, Yenisei, and the Mackenzie river basins. However, summer precipitation showed significant decreases (negative trend) over Mongolia and Europe/Russia. This was because anticyclones dominated in these regions. 3) A significant enhancement of cyclonic circulation was detected from 2005 to 2008 on the Eurasian side of the Arctic Ocean. However, anticyclones appeared over Mongolia. These probably increased the atmospheric water vapor convergence

  9. Arctic Rabies – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prestrud Pål

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Rabies seems to persist throughout most arctic regions, and the northern parts of Norway, Sweden and Finland, is the only part of the Arctic where rabies has not been diagnosed in recent time. The arctic fox is the main host, and the same arctic virus variant seems to infect the arctic fox throughout the range of this species. The epidemiology of rabies seems to have certain common characteristics in arctic regions, but main questions such as the maintenance and spread of the disease remains largely unknown. The virus has spread and initiated new epidemics also in other species such as the red fox and the racoon dog. Large land areas and cold climate complicate the control of the disease, but experimental oral vaccination of arctic foxes has been successful. This article summarises the current knowledge and the typical characteristics of arctic rabies including its distribution and epidemiology.

  10. Arctic tipping points

    OpenAIRE

    Smolkova, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    The Arctic is warming much faster than the entire planet, and this causes severe melting of sea ice. However, the climate of different regions of the Earth is interconnected, and changes in the amount of ice in the Arctic can dramatically affect the climate across the whole planet. Some scientists claim that a possible tipping point is the event of the ice-free Arctic Ocean in summer. Certain predictions point towards ice-free Arctic summers around the year 2050, whereas others pre- dict this...

  11. Arctic dimension of global warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Alekseev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A brief assessment of the global warming in the Arctic climate system with the emphasis on sea ice is presented. The Arctic region is coupled to the global climate system by the atmosphere and ocean circulation that providesa major contribution to the Arctic energy budget. On this basis using of special indices it is shown that amplification of warming in the Arctic is associated with the increasing of meridional heat transport from the low latitudes.

  12. A regional climate model for the Arctic and the North Atlantic; Ein regionales Klimamodell fuer die Arktis und den Nordatlantik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berndt, H.

    2001-07-01

    The Arctic and the subpolar region of the North Atlantic with their complex net of mechanisms and feedbacks play an important role in the climate system. Because of the sparse observations and the low resolution of the global models the high-resolution regional climate model REMO provides an improved tool to investigate arctic processes. REMO is based on the former numerical weather prediction model EM of the German Weather Service (DWD) and was further developed at the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology (MPIfM) in Hamburg. It has two different parameterization schemes - the original one called DWD-physics and additionally the ECHAM4-physics from MPIfM. The dynamical scheme is in both cases identical. In a first step REMO is adapted to the new domain. This configuration covers the Arctic and the North Atlantic down to 40 N with a horizontal resolution of 0.5 x 0.5 and 121 x 145 grid points. Different periods are simulated with DWD- and ECHAM4-Physics in forecast - as well as in climate-mode. Lateral boundary conditions are taken from NCEP/NCAR-reanalysis. Comparing REMO with ship observations in the Labrador Sea yields a better correspondence than the reanalysis data. Simulated precipitation is overestimated most probably due to unrealistic high humidity in the NCEP/NCAR-reanalysis. Observed sensible heat fluxes are much lower than the REMO and NCEP/NCAR simulated fluxes. REMO simulations in climate- and forecast-mode with ECHAM4-parameterizations are compared with measured surface temperatures and precipitation distributions. While there are numerically generated spectral spikes in the NCEP/NCAR precipitation fields in the Arctic, they are not found in the REMO results. In a sensitivity study the impact of higher surface roughness in the marginal ice zone is investigated. Ensemble experiments show the high internal variability masking any signals due to the changed roughness length. This high internal variability is mostly due to the large model domain and the

  13. Biotope map of the German Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, Kerstin S; Darr, Alexander; Zettler, Michael L; Friedland, René; Tauber, Franz; von Weber, Mario; Voss, Joachim

    2015-07-15

    Full-coverage maps on the distribution of marine biotopes are a necessary basis for Nature Conservation and Marine Spatial Planning. Yet biotope maps do not exist in many regions. We are generating the first full-coverage biotope map for the German Baltic Sea according to the HELCOM Underwater biotope and habitat classification system (HUB). Species distribution modelling is applied to create full-coverage spatial information of biological features. The results of biomass modelling of twelve target taxa and presence/absence modelling of three target taxa enabled the identification of biological levels up to HUB level 6. Environmental data on bathymetry, light penetration depth and substrate are used to identify habitat levels. HUB biotope levels were combined with HUB habitat levels to create a biotope map. Altogether, 68 HUB biotopes are identified in the German Baltic Sea. The new biotope map combining substrate characteristics and biological communities will facilitate marine management in the area.

  14. Comparison of publically available Moho depth and crustal thickness grids with newly derived grids by 3D gravity inversion for the High Arctic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Gaina, Carmen; Minakov, Alexander; Kashubin, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    We derived Moho depth and crustal thickness for the High Arctic region by 3D forward and inverse gravity modelling method in the spectral domain (Minakov et al. 2012) using lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction (Alvey et al., 2008); a vertical density variation for the sedimentary layer and lateral crustal variation density. Recently updated grids of bathymetry (Jakobsson et al., 2012), gravity anomaly (Gaina et al, 2011) and dynamic topography (Spasojevic & Gurnis, 2012) were used as input data for the algorithm. TeMAr sedimentary thickness grid (Petrov et al., 2013) was modified according to the most recently published seismic data, and was re-gridded and utilized as input data. Other input parameters for the algorithm were calibrated using seismic crustal scale profiles. The results are numerically compared with publically available grids of the Moho depth and crustal thickness for the High Arctic region (CRUST 1 and GEMMA global grids; the deep Arctic Ocean grids by Glebovsky et al., 2013) and seismic crustal scale profiles. The global grids provide coarser resolution of 0.5-1.0 geographic degrees and not focused on the High Arctic region. Our grids better capture all main features of the region and show smaller error in relation to the seismic crustal profiles compare to CRUST 1 and GEMMA grids. Results of 3D gravity modelling by Glebovsky et al. (2013) with separated geostructures approach show also good fit with seismic profiles; however these grids cover the deep part of the Arctic Ocean only. Alvey A, Gaina C, Kusznir NJ, Torsvik TH (2008). Integrated crustal thickness mapping and plate recon-structions for the high Arctic. Earth Planet Sci Lett 274:310-321. Gaina C, Werner SC, Saltus R, Maus S (2011). Circum-Arctic mapping project: new magnetic and gravity anomaly maps of the Arctic. Geol Soc Lond Mem 35, 39-48. Glebovsky V.Yu., Astafurova E.G., Chernykh A.A., Korneva M.A., Kaminsky V.D., Poselov V.A. (2013). Thickness of the Earth's crust in the

  15. Rim versus Non-Rim States in the Arctic Region: Prospects for a Zero-Sum Game or a Win-Win One?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Ghimiş

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to develop a critical approach on one of the most urgent energy security challenges: the Arctic region. Until recently, it was considered to be a frozen desert, upon which no one raised any legal demands or interests. The global warming, the technological development and the increased need for energy resources had transformed the frozen High North into a very hot spot, where states like US, Canada, Norway, Denmark or Russia started an energy race that threatens to escalate. The Arctic became a strategic area given its opportunities: besides the energy resources, new commercial routes could become available for a longer period of time. But, due to legal uncertainties, the lack of coherent and direct legal procedures of international law, the Arctic game is an open one, in which any state can intervene and ask for a solution that is suitable for its interests. This aspect complicates even further the already unstable region. Some of the actors see the region as an international area, as a common good, where everyone has the right to explore or exploit, while the rim states see the Arctic in sovereign rights terms. Therefore, the game tends to complicate as non-rim players (the EU, China, Japan, NATO and South Korea want to intervene in the region and try to influence its development.

  16. Relocating Seismicity on the Arctic Plate Boundary Using Teleseismic and Regional Phases and a Bayesian Multiple Event Locator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Steven J.; Dahl-Jensen, Trine; Kværna, Tormod; Larsen, Tine B.; Paulsen, Berit; Voss, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The tectonophysics of plate boundaries are illuminated by the pattern of seismicity - and the ability to locate seismic events accurately depends upon the number and quality of observations, the distribution of recording stations, and how well the traveltimes of seismic phases are modelled. The boundary between the Eurasian and North American plates between 70 and 84 degrees North hosts large seismic events which are well recorded teleseismically and many more events at far lower magnitudes that are well recorded only at regional distances. Existing seismic bulletins have considerable spread and bias resulting from limited station coverage and deficiencies in the velocity models applied; this is particularly acute for the lower magnitude events which may only be constrained by a small number of Pn and Sn arrivals. Over the past 15 years, there has been a significant improvement in the seismic network in the Arctic - a difficult region to instrument due to the harsh climate, a sparsity of quiet and accessible sites, and the expense and difficult logistics of deploying and maintaining stations. New deployments and upgrades to stations on Greenland, Svalbard, and the islands Jan Mayen, Hopen, and Bjørnøya have resulted in a sparse but stable regional seismic network which results in events down to magnitudes below 3 generating high quality Pn and Sn signals on multiple stations. A catalog of over 1000 events in the region since 1998 has been generated using many new phase readings on stations on both sides of the spreading ridge in addition to teleseismic P phases. The Bayesloc program, a Bayesian hierarchical multiple event location algorithm, has been used to relocate the full set of events iteratively and this has resulted in a significant reduction in the spread in hypocenter estimates for both large and small events. Whereas single event location algorithms minimize the vector of time residuals on an event-by-event basis, Bayesloc favours the hypocenters which

  17. Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the Earth's four major oceans, covering 14x10(exp 6) sq km located entirely within the Arctic Circle (66 deg 33 min N). It is a major player in the climate of the north polar region and has a variable sea ice cover that tends to increase its sensitivity to climate change. Its temperature, salinity, and ice cover have all undergone changes in the past several decades, although it is uncertain whether these predominantly reflect long-term trends, oscillations within the system, or natural variability. Major changes include a warming and expansion of the Atlantic layer, at depths of 200-900 m, a warming of the upper ocean in the Beaufort Sea, a considerable thinning (perhaps as high as 40%) of the sea ice cover, a lesser and uneven retreat of the ice cover (averaging approximately 3% per decade), and a mixed pattern of salinity increases and decreases.

  18. Intercomparison of atmospheric reanalysis data in the Arctic region: To derive site-specific forcing data for terrestrial models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, J.; Saito, K.; Machiya, H.; Yabuki, H.; Ikawa, H.; Ohta, T.; Iijima, Y.; Kotani, A.; Suzuki, R.; Miyazaki, S.; Sato, A.; Hajima, T.; Sueyoshi, T.

    2015-12-01

    An intercomparison project for the Arctic terrestrial (physical and ecosystem) models, GTMIP, is conducted, targeting at improvements in the existing terrestrial schemes, as an activity of the Terrestrial Ecosystem research group in the Arctic of Japan GRENE Arctic Climate Change Research Project (GRENE-TEA). For site simulations for four GRENE-TEA sites (i.e., Fairbanks/AK, Kevo/Finland, Tiksi and Yakutsk/Siberia), we needed to prepare continuous, site-fit forcing data ready to drive the models. Due to scarcity of site observations in the region, however, it was difficult to make such data directly from the observations. Therefore, we decided to create a backbone dataset (Level 0 or Lv0) first by utilizing the reanalysis data to derive the site-specific data (Level 1 or Lv1). For selection of the best dataset for our purpose, we compared four atmospheric reanalysis datasets, i.e., ERA Interim, JRA-55, NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis 1, and NCEP-DOE Reanalysis 2, in terms of the climatic reproducibility (w.r.t. temperature at 2 m and precipitation) in the region north of 60°N. CRU for temperature and GPCP for precipitation were also used for monthly-mean ground-level climate. As we will show ERA-Interim showed the smallest bias for both the parameters in terms of RMSE. Especially, air temperature in the cold period was reproduced better in ERA-Interim than is in JRA-55 or other reanalysis products. Therefore, we created Lv0 from ERA-Interim. Comparison between the site observations and Lv0 showed good agreement except for wind speed at all sites and air temperature at Tiksi, a coastal site in the eastern Siberia. Air temperature of ERA-Interim showed significantly continental characteristics while the site observation more coastal. The 34-year-long, hourly, site-fit continuous data (Lv1) for each of the GRENE-TEA sites was then created from the Lv0 values at the grid point closest to the site, by merging with the observations.

  19. Interannual variability of the Arctic freshwater cycle in the second half of the twentieth century in a regionally coupled climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederdrenk, Anne Laura; Sein, Dmitry V.; Mikolajewicz, Uwe

    2016-12-01

    We use a regionally coupled ocean-sea ice-atmosphere-hydrological discharge model to investigate the influence of changes in the atmospheric large-scale circulation on the interannual variability of the Arctic freshwater (FW) components. This model includes all sinks and sources of FW and allows for the analysis of a closed FW cycle in the Arctic. We show that few atmospheric winter modes explain large parts of the interannual variability of the Arctic FW cycle. A strong Icelandic low causing anomalous strong westerlies over the North Atlantic leads to warmer and wetter conditions over Eurasia. The ocean circulation is then characterized by a strong transpolar drift leading to increased export of FW in liquid and solid form into the North Atlantic. In contrast to this, a weaker than usual Icelandic low and a strong Siberian high is associated with a strong Beaufort Gyre and thus an accumulation of FW within the Arctic Ocean. Not only specific winter conditions but also increased precipitation in late spring and summer, caused by enhanced cyclone activity over land, lead to increased Eurasian runoff, which is responsible for most of the variability in Arctic river runoff.

  20. Vertical characteristics of ozone variation over the Arctic Chukchi Sea region in 1999

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立波; 刘宇; 邹捍

    2002-01-01

    In 1999 summer, Chinese Arctic Research Expedition operated the Chukchi Sea. On Chinese icebreaker Xuelong, we made many high-resolution ozonesonds measurements. During the period from August 18 to 24, a synoptic scale observation was taken at 75°N, 160°W. Using the above data, together with TOMS total ozone and NCEP circulation data, we showed that atmospheric ozone amount experienced a high-low-high variation, with low-high-low tropopause altitude. Correlation analysis showed a close relation between the total ozone and ozone below 13 km, while the variation of the maximum concentration at about 20 km didn't show any relation to the column ozone. In 500 hPa height maps, there was also the weak-strong-weak southwesterly pattern. Therefore we suggested that the synoptic system might be responsible to a low ozone advection during this ozone variation.

  1. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in marine mammals from Arctic and North Atlantic regions, 1986-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotander, Anna; van Bavel, Bert; Polder, Anuschka; Rigét, Frank; Auðunsson, Guðjón Atli; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Víkingsson, Gísli; Bloch, Dorete; Dam, Maria

    2012-04-01

    A selection of PBDE congeners was analyzed in pooled blubber samples of pilot whale (Globicephala melas), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) and Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), covering a time period of more than 20 years (1986-2009). The analytes were extracted and cleaned-up using open column extraction and multi-layer silica gel column chromatography, and the analysis was performed on a GC-MS system operating in the NCI mode. The highest PBDE levels were found in the toothed whale species pilot whale and white-sided dolphin, and the lowest levels in fin whales and ringed seals. One-sided analyses of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey comparisons of means were applied to test for differences between years and sampling areas. Due to inter-year sampling variability, only general comparisons of PBDE concentrations between different sampling areas could be made. Differences in PBDE concentrations between three sampling periods, from 1986 to 2007, were evaluated in samples of pilot whales, ringed seals, white-sided dolphins and hooded seals. The highest PBDE levels were found in samples from the late 1990s or beginning of 2000, possibly reflecting the increase in the global production of technical PBDE mixtures in the 1990s. The levels of BDE #153 and #154 increased relative to the total PBDE concentration in some of the species in recent years, which may indicate an increased relative exposure to higher brominated congeners. In order to assess the effect of measures taken in legally binding international agreements, it is important to continuously monitor POPs such as PBDEs in sub-Arctic and Arctic environments.

  2. Fifth Baltic Sea pollution load compilation (PLC-5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuuttila, S.; Svendsen, L.M.; Staaf, H.; Kotilainen, P.; Boutrup, S.; Pyhala, M.; Durkin, M.

    2011-07-01

    This report includes the main results from the Fifth Pollution Load Compilation abbreviated PLC-5. It includes quantified annual waterborne total loads (from rivers, unmonitored and coastal areas as well as direct point and diffuse sources discharging directly to the Baltic Sea) from 1994 to 2008 to provide a basis for evaluating any decreasing (or increasing) trends in the total waterborne inputs to the Baltic Sea. Chapter 1 contains the objectives of PLC and the framework on classification of inputs and sources. Chapter 2 includes a short description of the Baltic Sea catchment area, while the methods for quantification and analysis together with quality assurance topics are briefly introduced in Chapter 3. More detailed information on methodologies is presented in the PLC-5 guidelines (HELCOM 2006). Chapter 4 reports the total inputs to the Baltic Sea of nutrients and selected heavy metals. Furthermore, the results of the quatification of discharges and losses of nitrogen and phosphorus from point and diffuse sources into inland surface waters within the Baltic Sea catchment area (source-oriented approach or gross loads) as well as the total load to the maritime area (load-oriented approarch or net loads) in 2006 are shown. Typically, results are presented by country and by main Baltic Sea sub-region. In Chapter 5, flow normalization is introduced and the results of trend analyses on 1994-2008 time series data on total waterborne loads of nitrogen and phosphorus are given together with a first evaluation of progress in obtaining the provisional reduction targets by country and by main Baltic Sea sub-region. Chapter 6 includes discussion of some of the main conclusions and advice for future PLCs. The annexes contain the flow-normalized annual load data and figures and tables with results from the PLC-5.

  3. Extreme warming in the NE Atlantic in the winter period 2002-2012 - an analysis with the regional atmospheric model COSMO-CLM and the Arctic System Reanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnemann, Svenja; Heinemann, Guenther; Gutjahr, Oliver; Bromwich, David H.

    2016-04-01

    The high-resolution atmospheric model COSMO-CLM (CCLM, German Meteorological Service) is used to simulate the 2m-temperature and the boundary layer structures in the Arctic with focus on the NE Atlantic section the winter periods (Nov-Apr) between 2002 and 2015. The CCLM simulations have a horizontal resolution of 15 km for the whole Arctic. The comparable Arctic System Reanalysis data (ASR, Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center), which has been optimized for the Arctic, are available for the same time period with a horizontal resolution of 30 km. In addition, climatological data from Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) stations are used as verification. The comparison between the CCLM simulations and the ASR data shows a high agreement. Also the verification of both data sets with AWS and Era-Interim data shows a very high correlation for the air temperature. Slight differences between CCLM and ASR are recognizable in the extreme values as CCLM has the better ice information assimilated and the higher resolution during simulations. Time series of monthly mean based 2m-temperature indicate an enormous increase for the single months for the NE Atlantic and especially the region around the Siberian Island Novaya Zemlya. For example the CCLM March increase amounts up to 16 °C for the regional maximum for the period 2002-2012. The strong increase is mainly reducible to the decreasing sea ice situation in that region during the same time.

  4. Transformation of the Lake Ladoga-Baltic Sea water connection during the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subetto, D.; Kuznetsov, D.; Ludikova, A.; Sapelko, T.; Averichkin, O.

    2009-04-01

    1. In this presentation we will present results of complex paleolimnological and archeological studies several lakes in the Karelian Isthmus, NW Russia, located along the former Ladoga-Baltic water-system connection. Complementary field expeditions were organized in 2007 and 2008 in order to core lakes Volojarvi, Makarovskoye, Lamskoye, Uzlovoye and a lake on the Isl.Puutsaari, Northern Ladoga. 2. The ancient water connection between Lake Ladoga and the Baltic in the northern lowland of the Karelian Isthmus has been originated after the ice retreating ca 14,000-12,000 cal BP. At that time, until the catastrophic dropping of the Baltic Ice Lake (BIL) water-level happened ca 11,500 cal BP, Lake Ladoga was a deep easternmost bay of the BIL. During the BIL stage the highest shoreline reached c. 50-60 m a.s.l. in the northern part of the Karelian Isthmus. All studied lakes were flooded the BIL waters. Varved-type clay sediments were formed at that time 3. Arctic climatic and environmental conditions with stagnant ice/permafrost and sparse shrub, herb and grass vegetation on barren soils characterized the central highland of the Karelian Isthmus prior to 12,650 cal yrs BP. Steppe-tundra and cold, dry conditions are inferred between 12,650-11,200/11,000 cal yrs BP. 4. After 11,500 cal BP a straight/river existed in the northern part of the Karelian Isthmus during ca 7000 years. 5. During the Yoldia Sea regression of the Baltic (11500-11 000 cal. BP) Lake Ladoga was re-connected with the Baltic. Water level of Lake Ladoga and lakes in its basin was dropped. The vegetation was arctic tundra with sparse vegetation, which made the soils susceptible to erosion as reflected by the silty clayey sediments in Lake Ladoga. Most of the studied lakes were isolated. 6. The earliest evidence of human settlement in north-eastern Baltic Area is attested at Antrea-Korpilahti (11,200-10,250 cal BP) where artifacts were found in the deposits of a channel between the Baltic and the Ladoga

  5. Organising Baltic Jazz festival

    OpenAIRE

    Väärä, Emmi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to clarify how Baltic Jazz festival is organised in a matter of project based thesis, where the main product was the festival held in 2016. The festival is located on Kemiönsaari in Turku Archipelago and it has been up and running for 30 years next year. The paper includes seven key concepts that are important for understanding the field of event management as well as the main operations according to the literature found about special events and festivals. ...

  6. Present and Future Surface Mass Budget of Small Arctic Ice Caps in a High Resolution Regional Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottram, Ruth; Langen, Peter; Koldtoft, Iben; Midefelt, Linnea; Hesselbjerg Christensen, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Globally, small ice caps and glaciers make a substantial contribution to sea level rise; this is also true in the Arctic. Around Greenland small ice caps are surprisingly important to the total mass balance from the island as their marginal coastal position means they receive a large amount of precipitation and also experience high surface melt rates. Since small ice caps and glaciers have had a disproportionate number of long-term monitoring and observational schemes in the Arctic, likely due to their relative accessibility, they can also be a valuable source of data. However, in climate models the surface mass balance contributions are often not distinguished from the main ice sheet and the presence of high relief topography is difficult to capture in coarse resolution climate models. At the same time, the diminutive size of marginal ice masses in comparison to the ice sheet makes modelling their ice dynamics difficult. Using observational data from the Devon Ice Cap in Arctic Canada and the Renland Ice Cap in Eastern Greenland, we assess the success of a very high resolution (~5km) regional climate model, HIRHAM5 in capturing the surface mass balance (SMB) of these small ice caps. The model is forced with ERA-Interim and we compare observed mean SMB and the interannual variability to assess model performance. The steep gradient in topography around Renland is challenging for climate models and additional statistical corrections are required to fit the calculated surface mass balance to the high relief topography. Results from a modelling experiment at Renland Ice Cap shows that this technique produces a better fit between modelled and observed surface topography. We apply this statistical relationship to modelled SMB on the Devon Ice Cap and use the long time series of observations from this glacier to evaluate the model and the smoothed SMB. Measured SMB values from a number of other small ice caps including Mittivakkat and A.P. Olsen ice cap are also compared

  7. Human-induced Arctic moistening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Seung-Ki; Zhang, Xuebin; Zwiers, Francis

    2008-04-25

    The Arctic and northern subpolar regions are critical for climate change. Ice-albedo feedback amplifies warming in the Arctic, and fluctuations of regional fresh water inflow to the Arctic Ocean modulate the deep ocean circulation and thus exert a strong global influence. By comparing observations to simulations from 22 coupled climate models, we find influence from anthropogenic greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosols in the space-time pattern of precipitation change over high-latitude land areas north of 55 degrees N during the second half of the 20th century. The human-induced Arctic moistening is consistent with observed increases in Arctic river discharge and freshening of Arctic water masses. This result provides new evidence that human activity has contributed to Arctic hydrological change.

  8. A summary and revision of the East Baltic Silurian chitinozoan biozonation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viiu Nestor

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The biostratigraphical data on the East Baltic Silurian chitinozoans are summarized. Based on the study of nine East Baltic drill cores, 28 regional chitinozoan zonal units, including 26 biozones and 2 interzones, are briefly characterized. In comparison with earlier publications, the Silurian chitinozoan biozonation chart is essentially updated, some biozonal units are added, some renamed and several previous subdivisions have been abolished or replaced. The ranges of the stratigraphically most important chitinozoan species throughout the East Baltic Silurian are discussed. Regional chitinozoan biozones are correlated with the global chitinozoan biozones and graptolite biozones, as well as with the regional stratigraphical units of Estonia, Latvia and the Kaliningrad district.

  9. Skipping the Baltic : the emergence of a dichotomy of alternative spring migration strategies in Russian barnacle geese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eichhorn, Goetz; Drent, Rudolf H.; Stahl, Julia; Leito, Aivar; Alerstam, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, an increasing proportion of barnacle geese, Branta leucopsis, bound for breeding sites in the Russian Arctic delay their departure from the wintering quarters in the Wadden Sea by 4 weeks. These late-migrating geese skip spring stopover sites in the Baltic traditionally used b

  10. Linkages between Arctic summer circulation regimes and regional sea ice anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Amanda H.; Serreze, Mark C.; Cassano, Elizabeth N.; Crawford, Alex D.; Stroeve, Julienne

    2016-07-01

    The downward trend in overall Arctic summer sea ice extent has been substantial, particularly in the last few decades. Departures in ice extent from year to year can be very large, however, in part due to the high variability in summer atmospheric circulation patterns. Anomalies in the Pacific sector ice cover can be partially compensated by anomalies of opposite sign in the Atlantic sector. An assessment of linkages between summer atmospheric patterns and sectoral anomalies in the area of maximum open water north of 70°N demonstrates that there is asymmetry in the mechanisms. Years with low ice extent and high open water fraction are uniformly associated with positive temperature anomalies and southerly flow in both the Atlantic and Pacific sectors. However, years with high extent and low open water fraction in both sectors reveal two dominant mechanisms. Some years with anomalously low maximum open water fraction are associated with negative temperature anomalies and southerly transport—a cool summer pattern that allows ice to persist over larger areas. However, other low open water years are characterized by an "ice factory" mechanism, whereby—even when melting—ice cover is continually replenished by advection from the north.

  11. Future conditions for integration of the Baltic Electricity Supply System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The economies of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania developed in close association with the north-west region of the former Soviet Union. This is especially true for energy supply systems and electricity generation and transmission; the Baltic States depend on Russia for much of their primary energy needs, and export power to Russia and Belarus. In restructuring their electricity industries, the Baltic States hope to establish closer relationships and trade with Western Europe. The initial focus has been on changes to the legislative framework, industry restructuring and the establishment of new regulatory institutions. Vertically integrated utilities are in the process of being broken up into a number of separate generation, transmission and distribution companies. This restructuring is a prelude to privatisation. The states aim to establish a common power market among themselves, and hope to integrate this market with neighbouring (Nordic and European) markets. Despite the target set by the Baltic authorities of a common market by 2001, there is little clarity, as yet, on the framework and guidelines for the structure and functioning of the market. This process is supported by other players in the region, and the EU has recently prioritised closer co-operation and harmonisation of power networks in the Baltic Sea region. The Swedish National Energy Administration has identified cooperation on energy and environmental issues in the Baltic Sea region as one of its priorities. Consequently, the Administration commissioned ECON to analyse the conditions for closer linkages between the Baltic and Nordic electricity systems. This report presents the findings of this analysis.

  12. Transport, mixing and ozone loss in the 2010 Arctic vortex region from in-situ tracer observations during RECONCILE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hösen, E.; Volk, C. M.; vom Scheidt, M.; Wintel, J.; Ulanovsky, A.; Ravegnani, F.; Grooß, J. U.; Günther, G.; Walker, K. A.

    2012-04-01

    The 2009/2010 Arctic stratospheric vortex was dynamically very active, splitting and reforming twice, first in mid December and then again in mid February. We use in-situ measurements of tracers and ozone both in- and outside the Arctic vortex during the 2010 RECONCILE campaign to investigate isentropic transport and irreversible mixing in the vortex region and to assess chemical ozone loss. N2O and CFC-11, along with CO2, CFC-12, H-1211, CH4, SF6 and H2 were simultanously measured by the High Altitude Gas Analyser (HAGAR) during 13 Geophysica flights between mid January and mid March. Ozone was measured onboard the M55 Geophysica aircraft by the Fast Ozone Analyser (FOZAN). Early winter reference profiles for a number of tracers are provided by the satellite instrument ACE-FTS. We derive an empirical "vortex index" from the observed isentropic distribution of N2O as an altitude-independent tracer of origin with respect to the vortex. This index is used to identify the origin of the observed air masses and to diagnose recent transport of air between distinct regions. Irreversible mixing of air masses, typically following such transport, is diagnosed from the evolution of the CFC-11/N2O correlation. Simulations with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS) are used for comparison and to better understand the meteorological context of the observed transport and mixing. Intrusions of extra-vortex air into the vortex are evident already during January, however much stronger effects are observed after the vortex split in late February and its reformation in early March. The N2O-derived "vortex index" suggests strong transport of subtropical air into the polar region above 470 K and a corresponding shift of the CFC-11/N2O correlation indicates that this air has already mixed irreversibly with high-latitude air. A further partial shift of the correlation is evidence for irreversible mixing of mid-latitude air inside the newly formed vortex. The CLa

  13. [A Study of Data From the Photochemistry of Ozone Loss in the Arctic Region In Summer (POLARIS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Paul A.; Fahey, David W.; Brune, William H.; Kurylo, Michael J.; Kawa, S. Randolph

    1999-01-01

    The Photochemistry of Ozone Loss in the Arctic Region In Summer (POLARIS) mission was designed to investigate the natural summer decrease of stratospheric ozone levels. Both polar regions have large and distinct annual cycles of ozone column amounts. In northern spring, the average level is over 450 Dobson units (DU), decreasing to less than 275 DU by September. In order to cover this period of ozone decrease, POLARIS was conducted in three deployment phases from Fairbanks, Alaska, (650N) during the summer of 1997. The principal measurement platforms were the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft and stratospheric balloons. Additional measurements were provided by ground-based instruments, sondes, and satellites. POLARIS observations included ozone, meteorological variables, particles, long-lived chemicals, and short-lived radicals. During the field deployments, several modeling and theoretical groups participated in flight planning and data evaluation activities. The interpretive studies in this Special Section of the Journal of Geophysical Research are a first comprehensive examination of the POLARIS data set, addressing stratospheric ozone abundances and its changes; the role of aerosols; details of the photochemistry of reactive species; transport of stratospheric air and the correlations of long-lived species; and measurement intercomparisons.

  14. Regional fluxes of momentum and sensible heat over a sub-arctic landscape during late winter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batchvarova, E.; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Hasager, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    Based on measurements at Sodankyla Meteorological Observatory the regional (aggregated) momentum and sensible heat fluxes are estimated for two days over a site in Finnish Lapland during late winter. The forest covers 49% of the area. The study shows that the forest dominates and controls...... the regional fluxes of momentum and sensible heat in different ways. The regional momentum flux is found to be 10-20% smaller than the measured momentum flux over the forest, and the regional sensible heat flux is estimated to be 30-50% of the values measured over a coniferous forest. The regional momentum...... flux is determined in two ways, both based on blending height theory. One is a parameterised method, the other represents a numerical solution of an aggregation model. The regional sensible heat flux is determined from the theory of mixed-layer growth. At near neutral conditions the regional momentum...

  15. Oil and Gas in a New Arctic. Developments of the Energy Issue and Regional Strategic Dynamic; Olja och gas i ett nytt och foeraendrat Arktis. Energifraagans utveckling mot bakgrund av regionens strategiska dynamik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granholm, Niklas; Kiesow, Ingolf

    2010-03-15

    This study has as its point of departure that large reserves of energy and minerals are deposited in the Arctic. There is uncertainty on how large these reserves are and if extraction of them is technically and economically feasible. As the Arctic gradually becomes more accessible as the melting of the sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean progresses, the region becomes more open to human activities than ever before. The energy issue in the Arctic develops against the background of the region's increasing geostrategic importance. Russia shows no hesitation, Norway also put considerable resources into energy extraction in the Arctic. Environ-mental protection is a more prominent issue in Norway, Canada and the USA than in Russia. In addition to the energy issue, other factors in the Arctic are also changing. Shipping, climate change, military strategy, nuclear weapons, overlapping territorial claims, developments in international security and national policies and efforts, are all parts of a development that does not easily let itself be described and analysed. The different factors under change develop according to their own character and inner logic and how they interact will be hard to foresee. Uncertainties of future developments in the Arctic therefore remain. The Arctic will become more clearly linked into developments in the rest of the world than hitherto. The region will no longer be exclusively an issue for the states in the region. The interest in the Arctic is on the increase, not only from the Arctic states, but also from external state actors in Europe and Asia, as well as multilateral organisations such as the European Union and NATO

  16. Baltic Nuclear workshop. Final report[Crisis communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlberg, L.G

    2001-05-01

    Proceedings of the NKS/BOK-1.6 workshop on crisis communication 'Baltic Nuclear', held in Stockholm March 19 -20, 2001, with participants from the nuclear power plants and nuclear authorities in the Baltic Sea region. The main content of the workshop was founded on the principle of 'learning by doing'. The participants were therefore practically trained in how to handle a crisis from an information and communication point of view. Added to that there were three different lectures. (au)

  17. Nitrogen fixation during an unusual summer Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Maren; Dalsgaard, Tage; Fabian, Jenny

    Nitrogen fixation is a major nitrogen source for the open ocean. Also the land-locked, partly anoxic Baltic Sea receives almost as much nitrogen from nitrogen fixation as it receives from eutrophied rivers. Growth conditions for cyanobacteria are usually very favorable with low N/P ratios after...... winter mixing and a strong stratification and high surface temperatures in summer. However, the summer 2012 was quite different with strong winds and cold surface waters. Blooms of cyanobacteria therefore only developed in sheltered regions but not in the central Baltic Proper. Moreover, a greater...

  18. Projected habitat loss for Atlantic herring in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illing, Björn; Moyano, Marta; Hufnagl, Marc; Peck, Myron A

    2016-02-01

    Projected, climate-driven changes in rainfall patterns are expected to alter the salinity (S) of estuaries and larger brackish water bodies, such as the Baltic Sea. Some marine fish larvae are potentially more sensitive to low salinity than older stages, hence we compared the low salinity tolerance of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) larvae at the individual and population levels including four populations in the North and Baltic Seas. Acute low salinity tolerance was similar (S = 1.9-2.7) across populations and increased with increasing body size. Based on this physiological threshold and a regionally down-scaled climate model, spawning habitats in the northern and eastern Baltic Sea are projected to be largely unsuitable for herring by 2100. Although adaptive mechanisms may attenuate the effect in some species, the limited physiological tolerance of fish larvae will remain an important bottleneck for the persistence of marine fish populations in brackish waters undergoing climate-driven freshening.

  19. A regional climate model for the Arctic and the North Atlantic; Ein regionales Klimamodell fuer die Arktis und den Nordatlantik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berndt, H.

    2001-07-01

    The Arctic and the subpolar region of the North Atlantic with their complex net of mechanisms and feedbacks play an important role in the climate system. Because of the sparse observations and the low resolution of the global models the high-resolution regional climate model REMO provides an improved tool to investigate arctic processes. REMO is based on the former numerical weather prediction model EM of the German Weather Service (DWD) and was further developed at the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology (MPIfM) in Hamburg. It has two different parameterization schemes - the original one called DWD-physics and additionally the ECHAM4-physics from MPIfM. The dynamical scheme is in both cases identical. In a first step REMO is adapted to the new domain. This configuration covers the Arctic and the North Atlantic down to 40 N with a horizontal resolution of 0.5 x 0.5 and 121 x 145 grid points. Different periods are simulated with DWD- and ECHAM4-Physics in forecast - as well as in climate-mode. Lateral boundary conditions are taken from NCEP/NCAR-reanalysis. Comparing REMO with ship observations in the Labrador Sea yields a better correspondence than the reanalysis data. Simulated precipitation is overestimated most probably due to unrealistic high humidity in the NCEP/NCAR-reanalysis. Observed sensible heat fluxes are much lower than the REMO and NCEP/NCAR simulated fluxes. REMO simulations in climate- and forecast-mode with ECHAM4-parameterizations are compared with measured surface temperatures and precipitation distributions. While there are numerically generated spectral spikes in the NCEP/NCAR precipitation fields in the Arctic, they are not found in the REMO results. In a sensitivity study the impact of higher surface roughness in the marginal ice zone is investigated. Ensemble experiments show the high internal variability masking any signals due to the changed roughness length. This high internal variability is mostly due to the large model domain and the

  20. White Arctic vs. Blue Arctic: Making Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Newton, R.; Schlosser, P.; Pomerance, R.; Tremblay, B.; Murray, M. S.; Gerrard, M.

    2015-12-01

    As the Arctic warms and shifts from icy white to watery blue and resource-rich, tension is arising between the desire to restore and sustain an ice-covered Arctic and stakeholder communities that hope to benefit from an open Arctic Ocean. If emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere continue on their present trend, most of the summer sea ice cover is projected to be gone by mid-century, i.e., by the time that few if any interventions could be in place to restore it. There are many local as well as global reasons for ice restoration, including for example, preserving the Arctic's reflectivity, sustaining critical habitat, and maintaining cultural traditions. However, due to challenges in implementing interventions, it may take decades before summer sea ice would begin to return. This means that future generations would be faced with bringing sea ice back into regions where they have not experienced it before. While there is likely to be interest in taking action to restore ice for the local, regional, and global services it provides, there is also interest in the economic advancement that open access brings. Dealing with these emerging issues and new combinations of stakeholders needs new approaches - yet environmental change in the Arctic is proceeding quickly and will force the issues sooner rather than later. In this contribution we examine challenges, opportunities, and responsibilities related to exploring options for restoring Arctic sea ice and potential pathways for their implementation. Negotiating responses involves international strategic considerations including security and governance, meaning that along with local communities, state decision-makers, and commercial interests, national governments will have to play central roles. While these issues are currently playing out in the Arctic, similar tensions are also emerging in other regions.

  1. Response of the Baltic and North Seas to river runoff from the Baltic watershed - Physical and biological changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänninen, Jari; Vuorinen, Ilppo; Rajasilta, Marjut; Reid, Philip C.

    2015-11-01

    Selected Baltic Sea watershed River Runoff (BSRR) events during 1970-2000 were used as predictor in Generalised Linear Mixed Models (GLIMMIX) for evidence of simultaneous changes/chain of events (including possible time lags) in some chemical, physical and biological variables in the Baltic and North Sea ecosystems. Our aim was to explore for climatic-based explanation for ecological regime shifts that were documented semi-simultaneously in both ecosystems. Certain similarities were identified in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea salinity, oxygen concentration, temperature and phyto- and zooplankton parameters. These findings suggest that BSRR events which originate in the Baltic Sea catchment area modify and contribute to large scale ecosystem changes not only in the Baltic Sea, but also in the adjacent parts of the North Sea. However, the Baltic Sea inter-annual and inter-decadal variabilities of physical and biological parameters are driven by direct atmospheric forcing, typically with a relatively short lag. In contrast, such changes in the North Sea are influenced by both local and direct atmospheric forcing, typically with a longer lag than in the Baltic, and a more regional, indirect forcing from changes in the North Atlantic. We suggest that this interactive system partially is behind large scale ecosystem regime shifts found in both Seas. During our study period two such shifts have been identified independently from us in a study earlier in the Southern and Central Baltic in 1980s and 1990s and a later one in 2001/2002 in the North Sea. As a post hoc test we compared the 0+ year class strength of the North Sea herring with BSRR intensity, and found evidence for higher herring production in high BSRR periods, which further corroborates the idea of a remote effect from the large watershed area of the Baltic. Regime shifts as well as their semi-synchronous appearance in two neighbouring sea areas could be identified. GLIMMIX models provide opportunities for

  2. Application of the marine circular electric dipole method in high latitude Arctic regions using drifting ice floes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogilatov, Vladimir; Goldman, Mark; Persova, Marina; Soloveichik, Yury; Koshkina, Yulia; Trubacheva, Olga; Zlobinskiy, Arkadiy

    2016-12-01

    Theoretically, a circular electric dipole is a horizontal analogue of a vertical electric dipole and, similarly to the latter, it generates the unimodal transverse magnetic field. As a result, it demonstrates exceptionally high signal detectability and both vertical and lateral resolutions, particularly regarding thin resistive targets. The ideal circular electric dipole is represented by two concentric continuums of electrodes connected to different poles of the transmitter. In practice, the ideal dipole is adequately approximated by eight outer electrodes and one central electrode. The greatest disadvantage of circular electric dipoles stems from the necessity to provide perfectly symmetrical radial grounded lines with equal current in each line. In addition, relocating such a cumbersome system is very difficult on land and offshore. All these disadvantages might be significantly reduced in the proposed ice-borne system. The system utilizes drifting ice floes in high latitude Arctic regions as stable platforms for locating marine circular electric dipole transmitters, while the underlain ocean water is a perfect environment for grounding transmitter and receiver electrodes. Taking into account the limited size of drifting floes, mainly short offset methods can be applied from the surface. Among those, the proposed method is superior in providing sufficiently high signal detectability and resolution to delineate deep targets below very conductive ocean water and sub-seafloor sediments. Other existing methods, which are able to provide similar characteristics, utilize near bottom arrays and would be hard to employ in the presence of a thick ice cover.

  3. Limitations of a coupled regional climate model in the reproduction of the observed Arctic sea-ice retreat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Dorn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of internal model variability on the simulation of Arctic sea-ice extent and volume have been examined with the aid of a seven-member ensemble with a coupled regional climate model for the period 1948–2008. Beyond general weaknesses related to insufficient representation of feedback processes, it is found that the model's ability to reproduce observed summer sea-ice retreat depends mainly on two factors: the correct simulation of the atmospheric circulation during the summer months and the sea-ice volume at the beginning of the melting period. Since internal model variability shows its maximum during the summer months, the ability to reproduce the observed atmospheric summer circulation is limited. In addition, the atmospheric circulation during summer also significantly affects the sea-ice volume over the years, leading to a limited ability to start with reasonable sea-ice volume into the melting period. Furthermore, the sea-ice volume pathway shows notable decadal variability which amplitude varies among the ensemble members. The scatter is particularly large in periods when the ice volume increases, indicating limited skill in reproducing high-ice years.

  4. Impact of the emissions of international sea traffic on airborne deposition to the Baltic Sea and concentrations at the coastline⁎ The research has received funding from the European Regional Development Fund, Central Baltic INTERREG IV A programme within the SNOOP project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marke Hongisto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of ship traffic emissions in the Baltic Sea on deposition and airborne concentrations of nitrogen and sulphur compounds in the period 2008–2011 was studied using the Hilatar chemistry transport model with a 0.068° latitude-longitude resolution. An accurate ship emission inventory based on AIS (automatic identification system security signals was used. The uncertainty of the European emission inventories are discussed, as is an inter-comparison of the Baltic Sea airborne load and concentrations with other model-based estimates and with air quality measurements and the effect of the EU sulphur directive for ship emissions on sulphate concentrations.

  5. Microbial decomposition of terrigenic organic matter discharged into the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manecki, M.; Herlemann, D.; Pollehne, F.; Labrenz, M.; Zimmermann, R.; Dittmar, T.; Schulz-Bull, D.; Jürgens, K.

    2012-04-01

    The permafrost soils in arctic regions contain a large amount of the worldwide organic carbon and global warming is expected to increase drainage of dissolved organic matter (DOM) into the adjacent oceans. It is yet unclear how this terrigenic organic matter will influence the global carbon cycle and the feedback effects to the climate. We used the Baltic Sea as a model system to investigate the role of abiotic factors on the degradation of terrigenic dissolved organic matter (tDOM) upon discharge into a brackish system as well as the response of the microbial community. Water from the Kalix River in Northern Sweden, which drains also permafrost soils, was used as the tDOM source in incubation experiments with Baltic Sea water. Different qualities of tDOM were compared by applying concentration procedures: tDOM was added to fresh Baltic Sea water as untreated Kalix River water or concentrated by commonly use DOC concentration procedures (lyophilization, ultrafiltration, solid phase extraction). We investigated the TDOC degradation by parallel measurements of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) consumption, DOM composition (using a 15 Tesla Fourier Transformation Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (FT-ICR-MS)), microbial activities and microbial community structure. FT-ICR-MS measurements showed qualitative differences in the DOM compositions for the different treatments and a drastic change in DOM composition between the third and fourth week of the incubation experiment. Despite the qualitative differences in DOM composition, the results obtained so far revealed that the added tDOC had, independent of the previous enrichment procedure, only little influence on bacterial activities, bacterial community structure and DOC decomposition dynamics. This indicates that the major portion of the added tDOC is of refractory nature. Instead, bacterial predation by heterotrophic protists had a strong impact on both bacterial community structure and DOC decomposition

  6. Comparison of several climate indices as inputs in modelling of the Baltic Sea runoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanninen, J.; Vuorinen, I. [Turku Univ. (Finland). Archipelaco Research Inst.], e-mail: jari.hanninen@utu.fi

    2012-11-01

    Using Transfer function (TF) models, we have earlier presented a chain of events between changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and their oceanographical and ecological consequences in the Baltic Sea. Here we tested whether other climate indices as inputs would improve TF models, and our understanding of the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Besides NAO, the predictors were the Arctic Oscillation (AO), sea-level air pressures at Iceland (SLP), and wind speeds at Hoburg (Gotland). All indices produced good TF models when the total riverine runoff to the Baltic Sea was used as a modelling basis. AO was not applicable in all study areas, showing a delay of about half a year between climate and runoff events, connected with freezing and melting time of ice and snow in the northern catchment area of the Baltic Sea. NAO appeared to be most useful modelling tool as its area of applicability was the widest of the tested indices, and the time lag between climate and runoff events was the shortest. SLP and Hoburg wind speeds showed largely same results as NAO, but with smaller areal applicability. Thus AO and NAO were both mostly contributing to the general understanding of climate control of runoff events in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. (orig.)

  7. Strengthening Nordic-Baltic Defense Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    2014-01-01

    , there is no reason why this framework could not be extended to the Baltic states.36 A NORBALDEFCO would not only cement the prominent role of Sweden and Finland within NATO as premier partners, it would also formally continue the work begun with Baltic independ- ence after the Cold War, and furthermore strengthen...... the NATO aspect of Nordic-Baltic security....

  8. The main physical properties of planosol in maize (Zea mays L.) cultivation under different long-term reduced tillage practices in the Baltic region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kstutis Romaneckas; Egidijusarauskis; DovilAviienyt; Sidona Buragien; David Arney

    2015-01-01

    The impact of sustainable reduced til age (RT) on the physical properties of soil is wel documented worldwide;however, there is no precise information about the inlfuence of long-term RT or no-til (NT) on the soils at the boundary for grain maize-growing in the semi-humid subarctic climate conditions of the Baltic states, especial y on the formation of a hard-ened upper soil layer (10–15 cm in depth)-“loosening hardpan”. This study was carried out at the Research Station of Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Lithuania from 2009–2012. The investigations were based on a long-term (since 1988) ifeld experiment. The aim of the investigation was to ascertain the inlfuence of reduced primary til age on the main soil’s physical properties. This study examined soils that were deep ploughing (DP), shal ow ploughing (SP), deep cultivation (DC), shal ow cultivation (SC), and no-til (NT). Reducing the til age intensity to NT had no signiifcant effect on the structural soil’s composition;however, the stability of the structure of the>1 and>0.25 mm-size fractions was signiifcantly higher in the non-reversibly til ed (DC, SC) and NT plots. The penetration resistance of the DP soils was less after primary til age and wintering, and became similar to the NT plots at the end of the maize growth season. After primary til age and wintering, the soil moisture content in the upper soil layer (0–5 cm depth) of the NT plots was 17–49 and 16–18%higher than that in the DP. Long-term reduction of primary til age up to NT general y had no signiifcant effect on the moisture content and soil bulk density of the 0–10 and 10–20 cm layers. The results showed that long-term RT stabilized the physical quality of soil. Less soil penetration resistance was established in the DP plots compared to both RT and NT, however, indicators of the formation of a uniform“loosening hardpan”layer were not found. It is summarized that long-term RT or NT systems stabilize, or may increase

  9. Recent structures and tectonic regimes of the stress-strain state of the Earth's crust in the northeastern sector of the Russian Arctic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaeva, L. P.; Imaev, V. S.; Mel'nikova, V. I.; Koz'min, B. M.

    2016-11-01

    A comprehensive investigation aimed at determining seismotectonic types of destruction and the stress-strain state of the Earth's crust in the main seismogenerating structures of the Arctic-Asian seismic belt is conducted for the territory of the northeastern sector of the Russian Arctic region. Based on the degree of activity of geodynamical processes, the regional principles for ranking neotectonic structures are elaborated, and neotectonic zoning is carried out based on the substantiated differentiation of the corresponding classes. Within the limits of the Laptev Sea, Kharaulakh, and Lena-Anabar segments, we analyzed I the structural-tectonic position of the most recent structures, II the deep structure parameters, III the parameters of the active fault system, and IV the parameters of the tectonic stress field, as revealed from tectonophysical analysis of Late Cenozoic fault and fold deformations. Based on the seismological data, the mean seismotectonic deformation tensors are calculated to determine, in combination with geological and geophysical data, the orientations of the principal stress axes and to reveal the structural-tectonic regularity for tectonic regimes of the stress-strain state of the Earth's crust in the Arctic sector of the boundary between the Eurasian and North American lithospheric plates.

  10. Hydrological and Biogeochemical Trajectories Change in Response to Permafrost Thaw in Arctic and Subarctic Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegl, R. G.; Walvoord, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    High latitude regions are particularly susceptible to changes in hydrology, carbon and nutrient biogeochemistry, and ecosystem dynamics in response to climate warming. However, these regions are vast, have few historical data, and are difficult to study because of their remoteness. Large-scale studies of water and materials exports by river systems inform on changes that are occurring on the basin scale, but provide limited process level information. Conversely, process studies in small watersheds and catchments provide bounds on responses to environmental change, but have limited value in scaling to larger systems, unless the variability of controlling conditions has been adequately captured and the distribution of these conditions is known. Regional process-based models that accurately account for spatial and temporal variability can inform on the potential location and intensity of change in a basin or region. We use the Yukon River basin of Alaska USA and NW Canada as a model for understanding the trajectories of hydrologic and carbon cycle changes in permafrost-dominated landscapes. Early measurements of carbon exports by the Yukon River suggested that recent changes in hydrology were affecting C exports; this was confirmed by historical analyses of change in groundwater contributions to river flow. Since all carbon cycling processes are directly linked to water distribution, availability, and movement, we recognized the need for implementing hydrologic models to quantify the role of permafrost on water flow and distribution and to accurately project hydrologic conditions, based on historical hydrologic information, current and projected land surface and subsurface information, and current and projected climatic information. Coupling of hydrologic projections with source, sink, and other process understanding of carbon biogeochemistry resulted in improved basin scale understanding of current and future carbon dynamics in permafrost-dominated landscapes.

  11. Tropospheric impact of methane emissions from clathrates in the Arctic Region

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Cameron-Smith, P; D. Bergmann; M. Reagan; Elliott, S.; Moridis, G.

    2012-01-01

    A highly potent greenhouse gas, methane, is locked in the solid phase as ice-like deposits containing a mixture of water and gas (mostly methane) called clathrates in both ocean sediments and underneath permafrost regions. Clathrates are stable under high pressures and low temperatures. In a warming climate, increases in ocean temperatures could lead to dissociation of the clathrates and release methane into the ocean and subsequently the atmosphere. This is of part...

  12. Atmospheric forcing of decadal Baltic Sea level variability in the last 200 years. A statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huenicke, B. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kuestenforschung

    2008-11-06

    This study aims at the estimation of the impact of different atmospheric factors on the past sealevel variations (up to 200 years) in the Baltic Sea by statistically analysing the relationship between Baltic Sea level records and observational and proxy-based reconstructed climatic data sets. The focus lies on the identification and possible quantification of the contribution of sealevel pressure (wind), air-temperature and precipitation to the low-frequency (decadal and multi-decadal) variability of Baltic Sea level. It is known that the wind forcing is the main factor explaining average Baltic Sea level variability at inter-annual to decadal timescales, especially in wintertime. In this thesis it is statistically estimated to what extent other regional climate factors contribute to the spatially heterogeneous Baltic Sea level variations around the isostatic trend at multi-decadal timescales. Although the statistical analysis cannot be completely conclusive, as the potential climate drivers are all statistically interrelated to some degree, the results indicate that precipitation should be taken into account as an explanatory variable for sea-level variations. On the one hand it has been detected that the amplitude of the annual cycle of Baltic Sea level has increased throughout the 20th century and precipitation seems to be the only factor among those analysed (wind through SLP field, barometric effect, temperature and precipitation) that can account for this evolution. On the other hand, precipitation increases the ability to hindcast inter-annual variations of sea level in some regions and seasons, especially in the Southern Baltic in summertime. The mechanism by which precipitation exerts its influence on Baltic Sea level is not ascertained in this statistical analysis due to the lack of long salinity time series. This result, however, represents a working hypothesis that can be confirmed or disproved by long simulations of the Baltic Sea system - ocean

  13. Sub regional cooperation and protection of the arctic marine environments: The Barents Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokke, Olav Schram

    1997-07-01

    The report deals with questions related to effectiveness of subregional co-operation in the Barents Sea. Efforts have differed from global processes by their clearer programmatic profile. Relatively more resources, in terms of both expertise and financial funds, have been invested in order to enhance the knowledge-base for management decisions in the region as well as the administrative and technical capacity to avoid behaviour liable to threaten the marine environment. Many of the programmatic activities encouraged at other levels have been planned, financed and organised at the subregional level. Comparatively less attention has been given to establishing new regulative norms for environmental protection from either industrial or military activity in the region. The Regional Council ensures that both county level decision makers and representatives of the indigenous population are involved. A point is the general balance between the environmental and the economic component. Moreover, the inclusiveness of the Barents Council provides linkages to potential partners in development found beyond the Barents Sea area. The subregional level has served to relate environmental protection to broader foreign policy issues and has strengthened environmental networks across the Nordic Russian divide which in turn has generated financial resources and expertise. The main reason for the higher fund raising capacity of subregional processes is that geographic proximity ensures denser networks of interdependence partly by the fact that Nordic neighbours have a clear self interest in financing environmental projects in Russia, particularly those addressing industrial pollution from the border areas and those designed to prevent dumping of radioactive waste and partly by ensuring that environmental projects may serve broader purposes associated with national security. The willingness on the part of Norway and other Nordic states to use their financial powers for problem solving

  14. Project work across borders in the arctic Barents region: practical challenges for project members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immonen, Ingrid; Anderssen, Norman; Lvova, Maria

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this article was to explore cross-border project cooperation in applied settings in health education as this emerges in the Barents region. Specifically, we wanted to identify the practical challenges for those who participate in the work. This is of direct and indirect relevance to nursing education due to the rapidly increasing student exchange rates, the teachers' increased impetus to take part in international collaboration, and the increased emphasis within nursing education to be culture sensitive and ethnically fair. The considerable differences between countries in the Barents region present clear challenges. Knowledge based on experience from everyday cross-cultural and multinational project work has not been communicated extensively, and each project will have to acquire its own knowledge. Based on participation in various cross-national collaboration projects, we organize the identified practical challenges into five interrelated, everyday challenges: (1) cultural differences: obvious and overlooked, (2) the continuous challenge of language, (3) organizational variations, (4) possibilities and obstacles related to technology, and (5) the important minutiae of project logistics. These exist in all stages of a project. In project applications, these challenges and corresponding realistic consequences for funding are vital. Nursing students and their teachers should be aware that practical cross-national project work poses important challenges that nevertheless might be overcome.

  15. Ice Complex permafrost of MIS5 age in the Dmitry Laptev Strait coastal region (East Siberian Arctic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterich, Sebastian; Tumskoy, Vladimir; Rudaya, Natalia; Kuznetsov, Vladislav; Maksimov, Fedor; Opel, Thomas; Meyer, Hanno; Andreev, Andrei A.; Schirrmeister, Lutz

    2016-09-01

    Ice Complex deposits (locally known as the Buchchagy Ice Complex) are exposed at both coasts of the East Siberian Dmitry Laptev Strait and preserved below the Yedoma Ice Complex that formed during MIS3 and MIS2 (Marine Isotope Stage) and lateglacial-Holocene thermokarst deposits (MIS1). Radioisotope disequilibria (230Th/U) of peaty horizons date the Buchchagy Ice Complex deposition to 126 + 16/-13 kyr and 117 + 19/-14 kyr until 98 ± 5 kyr and 89 ± 5 kyr. The deposit is characterised by poorly-sorted medium-to-coarse silts with cryogenic structures of horizontal ice bands, lens-like, and lens-like reticulated segregation ice. Two peaty horizons within the Buchchagy Ice Complex and syngenetic ice wedges (2-4 m wide, up to 10 m high) are striking. The isotopic composition (δ18O, δD) of Buchchagy ice-wedge ice indicates winter conditions colder than during the MIS3 interstadial and warmer than during MIS2 stadial, and similar atmospheric winter moisture sources as during the MIS2 stadial. Buchchagy Ice Complex pollen spectra reveal tundra-steppe vegetation and harsher summer conditions than during the MIS3 interstadial and rather similar vegetation as during the MIS2 stadial. Short-term climatic variability during MIS5 is reflected in the record. Even though the regional chronostratigraphic relationship of the Buchchagy Ice Complex to the Last Interglacial remains unclear because numerical dating is widely lacking, the present study indicates permafrost (Ice Complex) formation during MIS5 sensu lato, and its preservation afterwards. Palaeoenvironmental insights into past climate and the periglacial landscape dynamics of arctic lowlands in eastern Siberia are deduced from the record.

  16. Investigation of the structure and dynamics of the ozone layer in the Eastern Arctic region during EASOE Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattatov, V.; Yushkov, V.; Rudakov, V.; Zaitsev, I.; Rosen, J.; Kjome, N.

    1994-01-01

    Balloon measurements of the vertical distribution of ozone and aerosol were made at Dickson Island (73 deg N, 81 deg E), Kiruna (68 deg N, 20 deg E) and Heiss Island (81 deg N, 58 deg E) from December 1991 to March 1992. To acquire data on the seasonal variability of the vertical ozone distribution, electrochemical ozonesondes ECC-4A were flown three times a week. With ozonesondes on the same balloons, backscattersondes were flown on the average of two or three times per month. Using these instruments, altitude profiles of backscatter ratio were measured at two wavelengths centered at 490 nm and 940 nm. Additionally, at Heiss Island, Dickson, and Yakutsk (63 deg N, 130 deg E) regular total ozone measurements were obtained using Brewer spectrophotometers. Based on measurements of backscatter ratio it was found that after the Pinatubo eruption in June 1991 significant amount of stratospheric aerosols were formed and transported to the Arctic before the polar vortex was well developed. Analysis of ozone data has shown a deep decrease of ozone concentration in the lower stratosphere in times of intensive transportation of air masses from low latitudes to the polar region in the second half of January and also for some periods in February and March of 1992. When the values of backscatter ratio beta were more than 8-10 at a wavelength of 940 nm strong anticorrelation occurred between aerosol loading and ozone concentration in the lower stratosphere. At 50-70 deg N, the mean monthly values of total ozone in winter-spring 1992 proved to be much lower than the climatic mean values.

  17. Circumpolar polynya regions and ice production in the Arctic: results from MODIS thermal infrared imagery from 2002/2003 to 2014/2015 with a regional focus on the Laptev Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preußer, Andreas; Heinemann, Günther; Willmes, Sascha; Paul, Stephan

    2016-12-01

    High-resolution MODIS thermal infrared satellite data are used to infer spatial and temporal characteristics of 17 prominent coastal polynya regions over the entire Arctic basin. Thin-ice thickness (TIT) distributions (≤ 20 cm) are calculated from MODIS ice-surface temperatures, combined with ECMWF ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalysis data in an energy balance model for 13 winter seasons (2002/2003 to 2014/2015; November to March). From all available MODIS swath data, daily thin-ice thickness composites are computed in order to derive quantities such as polynya area and total thermodynamic (i.e., potential) ice production. A gap-filling approach is applied to account for cloud and data gaps in the MODIS composites. All polynya regions combined cover an average thin-ice area of 226.6 ± 36.1 × 103 km2 in winter. This allows for an average total winter-accumulated ice production of about 1811 ± 293 km3, whereby the Kara Sea region, the North Water polynya (both 15 %), polynyas on the western side of Novaya Zemlya (20 %), as well as scattered smaller polynyas in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (all combined 12 %) are the main contributors. Other well-known sites of polynya formation (Laptev Sea, Chukchi Sea) show smaller contributions and range between 2 and 5 %. We notice distinct differences to earlier studies on pan-Arctic polynya characteristics, originating in some part from the use of high-resolution MODIS data, as the capability to resolve small-scale (> 2 km) polynyas and also large leads are increased. Despite the short record of 13 winter seasons, positive trends in ice production are detected for several regions of the eastern Arctic (most significantly in the Laptev Sea region with an increase of 6.8 km3 yr-1) and the North Water polynya, while other polynyas in the western Arctic show a more pronounced variability with varying trends. We emphasize the role of the Laptev Sea polynyas as being a major influence on Transpolar Drift characteristics through

  18. Shifts in the hydrodynamic regime determine patterns of regional changes of the Arctic Ocean carbon cycle in future climate change projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyina, T.; Heinze, M.; Li, H.; Jungclaus, J. H.; Six, K. D.

    2015-12-01

    In future projections the Arctic Ocean carbon cycle is a hotspot for changes driven by rising CO2 emissions. Concomitantly, the Arctic Ocean hydrodynamic regime undergoes substantial shifts so the net effect on the carbon cycle is not intuitively clear. In the high CO2 scenario RCP8.5 extended until 2300 in projections of the Max Planck Institute's Earth System Model, the averaged Arctic Ocean surface temperature rises by 4°C in 2100 and by 10°C in 2300, respectively. The Arctic becomes free of summer sea ice in the second half of the 21st century, whereas winter sea ice disappears at the beginning of the 23rd century. Owing to increased sea ice melting and runoff, fresh water content increases gradually until the end of the 22nd century and then drops abruptly as a result of an intensification of the saline Atlantic water inflow. Accumulation of Atlantic water collapses the halocline in the central basin of the Arctic Ocean by the first half of the 23rd century. Ongoing warming enhances thermal stratification and the mixed layer shoales. In contrast, halocline erosion and the cooling of the ice free water act in concert to favor formation of convection cells in the central basin. Freshening in the Canada basin and transport of salty water into the Eurasian basin generate a dipole structure in the anomalies of surface salinity. Driven by the rising CO2, the averaged dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is growing. Changes in the averaged total alkalinity (TA) go along with the fresh water content evolution and decreasing carbonate ion concentration so that TA drops below preindustrial values. Yet, along with salinity, the Eurasian basin receives waters with higher DIC and TA from the Atlantic. As a result, the distributions of TA and DIC anomalies resemble the dipole pattern projected for salinity. We show that while future changes in the Arctic Ocean carbon cycle proceed at rates determined by atmospheric CO2 levels, the regional patterns are driven by shifts in the

  19. The Arctic zone: possibilities and risks of development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentsov, A.; Bolsunovskaya, Y.; Melnikovich, E.

    2016-09-01

    The authors analyze the Arctic region innovative possibilities from the perspective of political ideology and strategy. The Arctic region with its natural resources and high economic potential attracts many companies and it has become an important area of transnational development. At present, the Arctic region development is of great importance in terms of natural resource management and political system development. However, the most important development issue in the Arctic is a great risk of different countries’ competing interests in economic, political, and legal context. These are challenges for international partnership creating in the Arctic zone, Russian future model developing for the Arctic, and recognition of the Arctic as an important resource for the Russians. The Russian economic, military, and political expansion in the Arctic region has the potential to strengthen the national positions. The authors present interesting options for minimizing and eliminating political risks during the Arctic territories development and define an effective future planning model for the Russian Arctic.

  20. Japan’s arctic policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry V. Streltsov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article is devoted to the public policy of modern Japan in the Arctic. The Japanese government has put forward clear and well-specifi ed targets of the intensifi cation of Japan’s efforts in the economic development of the Arctic region. Among the priorities of the Arctic policy one should mention such areas as the development of maritime transportation, development of hydrocarbon deposits of the Arctic shelf, sea fi shing, as well as the preservation and increase of the sea bioresources.

  1. Biases of the Arctic climate in a regional ocean-sea ice-atmosphere coupled model:an annual validation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiying

    2014-01-01

    The Coupling of three model components, WRF/PCE (polar climate extension version of weather research and forecasting model ( WRF)), ROMS (regional ocean modeling system), and CICE (community ice code), has been implemented, and the regional atmosphere-ocean-sea ice coupled model named WRF/PCE-ROMS-CICE has been validated against ERA-interim reanalysis data sets for 1989. To better understand the reasons that generate model biases, the WRF/PCE-ROMS-CICE results were compared with those of its components, the WRF/PCE and the ROMS-CICE. There are cold biases in surface air temperature (SAT) over the Arctic Ocean, which contribute to the sea ice concentration (SIC) and sea surface temperature (SST) biases in the results of the WRF/PCE-ROMS-CICE. The cold SAT biases also appear in results of the atmo-spheric component with a mild temperature in winter and similar temperature in summer. Compared to results from the WRF/PCE, due to influences of different distributions of the SIC and the SST and inclusion of interactions of air-sea-sea ice in the WRF/PCE-ROMS-CICE, the simulated SAT has new features. These influences also lead to apparent differences at higher levels of the atmosphere, which can be thought as responses to biases in the SST and sea ice extent. There are similar atmospheric responses in feature of distribution to sea ice biases at 700 and 500 hPa, and the strength of responses weakens when the pressure decreases in January. The atmospheric responses in July reach up to 200 hPa. There are surplus sea ice ex-tents in the Greenland Sea, the Barents Sea, the Davis Strait and the Chukchi Sea in winter and in the Beau-fort Sea, the Chukchi Sea, the East Siberian Sea and the Laptev Sea in summer in the ROMS-CICE. These differences in the SIC distribution can all be explained by those in the SST distributions. These features in the simulated SST and SIC from ROMS-CICE also appear in the WRF/PCE-ROMS-CICE. It is shown that the performance of the WRF/PCE-ROMS-CICE is

  2. Application of electromagnetic-wave-ionospheric interactions to global warming in the arctic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, A. Y.

    An approach to expel pollutants which can contribute to global warming from the upper atmosphere by the use of HF electromagnetic waves has been proposed [1]. Laboratory plasma experiments have shown that significant gyro-resonance acceleration of minority ion species in a plasma is possible. The separation of ions differing in mass by one unit has been achieved. This method is applicable to the selective acceleration of ions perpendicular to the geomagnetic field in the ionosphere and involves the modulation of the auroral electrojet current to excite ion cyclotron waves. On account of the divergent geomagnetic field in the polar atmosphere the accelerated perpendicular ion velocity is converted into an upward motion along open magnetic field lines. The ions thus removed will not return to the upper atmosphere. Negatively charged particles move upward by the fair-weather electric field and by atmospheric convection. When ions reach above 120˜ km altitude where the ion gyro-frequency is comparable to or greater than the ion-neutral collision frequency, they can be accelerated by electromagnetic fields through the gyro-resonance interaction. By modulating the auroral electrojet in the gyro-frequency range for important minority ion species (˜ 15--30 Hz for CO2-, and Cl-) electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves can be excited, which propagate nearly along the geomagnetic field lines. Experimental evidence for this effect has been obtained with the HIPAS facility [Wong et al., 1997]. When exciting ELF waves over a range of ion gyro-frequencies of dominant ion species, dips were observed in magnetometer data at ion gyro-frequencies of various species, which suggests that the ELF wave energy was absorbed by ions. Similar ion acceleration and expelling phenomenon over the polar regions occurs naturally in so called ion conics as observed by high latitude satellites. Field aligned currents might provide the free energy needed to make this process practical. Field

  3. East Siberian Sea, an Arctic region of very high biogeochemical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Anderson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Shelf seas are among the most active biogeochemical marine environments and the East Siberian Sea is a prime example. This sea is supplied by seawater from both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and has a substantial input of river runoff. All of these waters contribute chemical constituents, dissolved and particulate, but of different signatures. Sea ice formation during the winter season and melting in the summer has a major impact on physical as well as biogeochemical conditions. The internal circulation and water mass distribution is significantly influenced by the atmospheric pressure field. The western region is dominated by input of river runoff from the Laptev Sea and an extensive input of terrestrial organic matter. The microbial decay of this organic matter produces carbon dioxide (CO2 that oversaturates all waters from the surface to bottom relative to atmospheric level, even when primary production, inferred from low surface water nutrients, has occurred. The eastern surface waters were under-saturated with respect to CO2 illustrating the dominance of marine primary production. The drawdown of dissolved inorganic carbon equals a primary production of ~0.8 ± 2 mol C m−2, which when multiplied by half the area of the East Siberian Sea, ~500 000 km2, results in an annual primary production of 0.4 (± 1 × 1012 mol C or ~4 (± 10 × 1012 gC. Microbial decay occurs through much of the water column, but dominates at the sediment interface where the majority of organic matter ends up, thus more of the decay products are recycled to the bottom water. High nutrient concentrations and fugacity of CO2 and low oxygen and pH were observed in the bottom waters. Another signature of organic matter decomposition, methane (CH4, was observed in very high but variable concentrations. This is due to its seabed sources of glacial origin or modern production from

  4. Seasonal dynamics of early life stages of invasive and native ctenophores give clues to invasion and bloom potential in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaspers, Cornelia; Haraldsson, Matilda; Lombard, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    Recently, both the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and the arctic Mertensia ovum were discovered in the Baltic Sea but their range expansion remains unclear due to misidentification of their larval stages. Supported by molecular species verification we describe seasonal abundance and distri...

  5. Quantifying Net Carbon Exchanges Between the Atmosphere and Terrestrial Biosphere in the Arctic: What Have We Learned through Decade Regional Modeling Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Q.

    2014-12-01

    Observed Arctic warming has been projected to continue in this century. Permafrost degradation is thus expected to continue, exposing large amounts of carbon for decomposition. Dynamics of Arctic landscape and hydrology are complicated due to changing climate and thawing permafrost, affecting the carbon biogeochemical cycling in the region. Further, human activities together with changing climate transform the regional land use and land cover, including wildfires, logging, and agricultural land conversion. This presentation will review the effects of factors, controls, and processes as well as landscape types (e.g., forests vs. lakes) on carbon biogeochemistry based on regional modeling studies and observations. Specific effects on carbon dynamics to be discussed will include: 1) thawing permafrost; 2) fire disturbances; 2) atmospheric carbon dioxide; 3) inorganic and organic nitrogen uptake by plants; 4) priming; 5) aerobic and anaerobic organic matter decomposition; and 6) various complexities of microbial physiology of soils. Partitioning the contribution of these processes to regional carbon dynamics shall help us improve the terrestrial biogeochemistry models, an important component of Earth System Models that are used to project our future climate.

  6. East Siberian Sea, an arctic region of very high biogeochemical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Anderson

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Shelf seas are among the most active biogeochemical marine environments and the East Siberian Sea is a prime example. This sea is supplied by seawater from both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and has a substantial input of river runoff. All of these waters contribute chemical constituents, dissolved and particulate, but of different signatures. Sea ice formation during the winter season and melting in the summer has a major impact on physical as well as biochemical conditions. The internal circulation and water mass distribution is significantly influenced by the atmospheric pressure field. The western region is dominated by input of river runoff from the Laptev Sea and an extensive input of terrestrial organic matter. The microbial decay of this organic matter produces carbon dioxide (CO2 over-saturating all waters from the surface to the bottom relative to atmospheric values, even if the nutrient concentrations of the surface waters showed recent primary production. The eastern surface waters were under-saturated with respect to CO2 illustrating the dominance of marine primary production. The drawdown of dissolved inorganic carbon equals a primary production of ∼1 mol C m−2, which when multiplied by half the area of the East Siberian Sea, 500 000 km2, results in an annual primary production of 0.5×1012 mol C or 6×1012 gC. Even though microbial decay occurs through much of the water column it dominates at the sediment surface where the majority of organic matter ends up, and most of the decay products are added to the bottom water. High nutrient concentrations and fugacity of CO2 and low oxygen and pH were observed in the bottom waters. Another signature of organic matter decomposition, methane (CH4, was observed in very high but variable concentrations. This is due to its seabed sources of glacial origin or modern production from ancient organic

  7. Baltic Exchange teper v Tallinne

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Viimane osa merekonteineritesse kokkupakitud Londoni laevandus- ja merebörsi Baltic Exchange'i endise peakorteri detailidest jõudis 2007. a. juunis Tallinna. Hoone detailid ostnud ärimehed Heiti Hääl ja Eerik-Niiles Kross plaanivad leida hoonele koha Tallinna kesklinnas. E.-N. Krossi kommentaar

  8. Singular Value Decomposition Analysis of Cloud Fraction Cover and Sea Ice Concentration over the Arctic Region, 1982-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccolari, Mauro; Parmiggiani, Flavio

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the coupled spatial and temporal variability between seasonal data of Cloud Fraction Cover (CFC) and Sea Ice Concentration (SIC) in the Arctic Ocean for the 1982-2009 period were investigated by using the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) method.The spatial patterns of CFCs related to the first mode of co-variability, identify the maximum covariance, for all seasons, in the Barents Sea and in the Arctic Ocean Canada, while the SIC and 'found in the Chukchi Sea in autumn (in according to the maximum sea ice melting) and the Barents sea during both the winter and spring.CFC spatial patterns related to the first mode of co- variability, locate maximum covariance, for all seasons, in the Barents Sea and in the Canadian side of the Arctic Ocean, while for SIC is found in the Chukchi Sea during autumn (corresponding to the maximum sea ice melting) and in the Barents Sea during both the winter and spring.Finally, the correlation between the seasonal time series of expansion coefficients derived from the SVD analysis, for both CFC and SIC fields, with the seasonal time series of some relevant climate indices for the Arctic (NAO, AO, PDO and PNA). Statistically significant values for both fields were found during summer with the AO, and during autumn with the PNA.

  9. Sources and pathways of 90Sr in the North Atlantic-Arctic region: present day and global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yongqi; Drange, Helge; Johannessen, Ola M; Pettersson, Lasse H

    2009-05-01

    The spatial and temporal distributions of the anthropogenic radionuclides (137)Cs and (90)Sr, originating from nuclear bomb testing, the Sellafield reprocessing plant in the Irish Sea (UK), and from the Ob and Yenisey river discharges to the Arctic Ocean, have been simulated using the global version of the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model (MICOM). The physical model is forced with daily atmospheric re-analysis fields for the period of 1948-1999. Comparison of the temporal evolution of the observed and the simulated concentrations of (90)Sr has been performed in the Kara Sea. The relative contributions of the different sources on the temporal and spatial distributions of the surface (90)Sr are quantified over the simulated period. It follows that the Ob river discharge dominated the surface (90)Sr over most of the Arctic Ocean and along the eastern and western coasts of Greenland before 1960. During the period of 1980-1990, the atmospheric fallout and the Ob river discharge were equally important for the (90)Sr distribution in the Arctic Ocean. Furthermore, an attempt has been made to explore the possible dispersion of accidental released (90)Sr from the Ob and Yenisey rivers under a global warming scenario (2 x CO(2)). The difference between the present-day and the global warming scenario runs indicates that more of the released (90)Sr from the Ob and Yenisey rivers is confined to the Arctic Ocean in the global warming run, particularly in the near coastal, non-European part of the Arctic Ocean.

  10. A regional approach to plant DNA barcoding provides high species resolution of sedges (Carex and Kobresia, Cyperaceae) in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc-Blain, Jessica L E; Starr, Julian R; Bull, Roger D; Saarela, Jeffery M

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on barcoding sedges (Carex) suggested that basic searches within a global barcoding database would probably not resolve more than 60% of the world's some 2000 species. In this study, we take an alternative approach and explore the performance of plant DNA barcoding in the Carex lineage from an explicitly regional perspective. We characterize the utility of a subset of the proposed protein-coding and noncoding plastid barcoding regions (matK, rpoB, rpoC1, rbcL, atpF-atpH, psbK-psbI) for distinguishing species of Carex and Kobresia in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, a clearly defined eco-geographical region representing 1% of the Earth's landmass. Our results show that matK resolves the greatest number of species of any single-locus (95%), and when combined in a two-locus barcode, it provides 100% species resolution in all but one combination (matK + atpFH) during unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean averages (UPGMA) analyses. Noncoding regions were equally or more variable than matK, but as single markers they resolve substantially fewer taxa than matK alone. When difficulties with sequencing and alignment due to microstructural variation in noncoding regions are also considered, our results support other studies in suggesting that protein-coding regions are more practical as barcoding markers. Plastid DNA barcodes are an effective identification tool for species of Carex and Kobresia in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, a region where the number of co-existing closely related species is limited. We suggest that if a regional approach to plant DNA barcoding was applied on a global scale, it could provide a solution to the generally poor species resolution seen in previous barcoding studies.

  11. Model simulation of inflow water to the Baltic Sea based on 129I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, P.; Chen, X.G.; Bao, D.X.;

    2013-01-01

    is crucial for estimating potential environmental risks as well as to find the best remedial strategy. We present here a model to estimate water inflow from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea by utilizing 129I as a tracer. The results predicted inflow range of 230-450 km3/y with best fit value around 330 km3/y...... from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea during 1980-1999. Despite limited time series data on 129I, the model presented here demonstrates a new management tool for the Baltic Sea to calculate inflow water compared to conventional methods (such as salinity, temperature and hydrographic models). Crown......The semi-enclosed Baltic Sea represents a vital economic and recreational resource for more than 90 million people inhabiting its coasts. Extensive contamination of this sea by a variety of anthropogenic pollutants has raised the concern of the people in the region. Quantifying seawater inflow...

  12. Influence of seabird colonies and other environmental variables on benthic community structure, Lancaster Sound Region, Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard Marmen, Mariève; Kenchington, Ellen; Ardyna, Mathieu; Archambault, Philippe

    2017-03-01

    The Canadian Arctic shelters millions of seabirds each year during the breeding season. By the excretion of important quantities of guano, seabirds locally concentrate nutrient-rich organic matter in the marine areas surrounding colonies. Seabirds, acting as biological vectors of nutrients, can markedly affect terrestrial ecosystems, but their influence on the structure of marine benthic communities is still under-studied. Sessile and long-lived megabenthic species can integrate environmental variation into marine food webs over long time frames. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the epifaunal and infaunal communities of the Lancaster Sound Region (LSR) and (2) to test the influence of the presence of seabird colonies and other environmental parameters on the structure of those benthic communities. Our prediction was that benthic diversity, number of taxa, total biomass of infauna and total density of epifauna and infauna, would be higher in areas with colonies present. Photos of the seafloor (data on epifauna) and grab samples (data on infauna) were taken at three control areas and at five areas near seabird colonies, within a depth range of 122 to 442 m. A database of 26 environmental parameters was built to study the environment-benthos relationships. Infauna, which was relatively uniform across the LSR, was numerically dominated by Annelida. Epifauna was much patchier, with each study area having unique epibenthic assemblages. Brittle stars were highly abundant in epifaunal communities, reaching 600 individuals per square meter. The presence of seabird colonies was not a major driver of benthic community structure in the LSR at the depths studied. Negative effects of colonies were detected on the density and number of taxa of infauna, perhaps due to top-down effects transmitted by the seabirds which feed in the water column and can directly reduce the quantity of food reaching the seabed. Sediment concentration of pigment, percent cover of

  13. [Pietro U. Dini. Prelude to Baltic linguistics : earliest theories about Baltic languages (16th century)] / Stefan Donecker

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Donecker, Stefan, 1977-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Dini, Pietro U. Prelude to Baltic linguistics : earliest theories about Baltic languages (16th century). (On the boundary of two worlds : identity, freedom, and moral imagination in the Baltics, 36). Verlag Rodopi, Amsterdam und New York 2014

  14. The Third Conference on Baltic and Nordic Studies in Romania, May 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Miloiu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian Association for Baltic and Nordic Studies continued to organize in 2012 a series of events, one of the most meaningful of which was the third international conference on Baltic and Nordic Studies entitled European networks: the Balkans, Scandinavia and the Baltic world in a time of economic and ideological crisis opened on 25 May at Valahia University of Târgoviște and sponsored by the Romanian National Research Council, Niro Investment Group and other partners (http://www.arsbn.ro/conference-2012.htm. The main goal of the conference was to foster debate and academic discussion with regard to the challenges the Balkan and Baltic regions face today, within a time of severe global economic instability. The participants discussed and advanced solutions to problems such as the accession of Balkan states to the EU and/or NATO, with particular reference to the experiences of the relatively new EU and/or NATO Member States from South-Eastern Europe and the Eastern Baltic region; the economic, security or cultural threats posed by Balkan and/or Eastern European states or non-state actors to the Western or Nordic Europe as perceived there; the development of extremist movements and the Balkan organized crime in the Scandinavian countries; the Balkan Roma peoples as a “threat” for Western and Nordic Europe; strategies for integrating minorities in the Baltic Sea rim countries and the Black Sea areas.

  15. Postglacial paleoceanographic environments in the Barents and Baltic seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, E. V.; Murdmaa, I. O.; Emelyanov, E. M.; Seitkalieva, E. A.; Radionova, E. P.; Alekhina, G. N.; Sloistov, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents reconstructions of ice sheet boundaries, lacustrine and marine paleobasins, as well as the connections of the Barents and Baltic seas with the North Atlantic from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Holocene. The reconstructions are based on original and published data obtained from the northern and western parts of the Barents Sea and Baltic depressions with account for the available regional schematic maps of deglaciation. The early deglaciation of the Scandinavian-Barents ice sheet culminated with the Bølling-Allerød interstadial (14.5-12.9 cal ka BP), which was characterized by a more vigorous Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and a corresponding increase in surface Atlantic water inflow into the Barents Sea through deep troughs. The Baltic Ice Lake (BIL) remained a dammed-up isolated basin during deglaciation from 16.0 to 11.7 cal ka BP. In the Younger Dryas (YD), the lake drained into the North Sea and was replaced by a brackish Yoldia Sea (YS) at the beginning of the Holocene (Preboreal, 11.7-10.7 cal ka BP), due to a limited connection between two basins through the Närke Strait. In the Barents Sea, the next increase in the Atlantic water influx into the deep basins corresponded to terminal YD and Preboreal events with a culmination in the Early Holocene. The Yoldia Sea became a lake again during the next stage, the Ancylus (~10.7-8.8 cal ka BP). Atlantic water inflow both into the Barents and Baltic seas varied during the Holocene, with a maximum contribution in the Early Holocene, when the Littorina Sea (LS, 8-4 cal ka BP) connection with the North Sea via the Danish Straits was formed to replace the Ancylus Lake. The recent, post-Littorina stage (PS, the last 4 cal ka) of the Baltic Sea evolution began in the Late Holocene.

  16. Soil pH is a Key Determinant of Soil Fungal Community Composition in the Ny-Ålesund Region, Svalbard (High Arctic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Neng-Fei; Liu, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Yu, Li-Yan

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the fungal community composition and its relationships with properties of surface soils in the Ny-Ålesund Region (Svalbard, High Arctic). A total of thirteen soil samples were collected and soil fungal community was analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing with fungi-specific primers targeting the rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The following eight soil properties were analyzed: pH, organic carbon (C), organic nitrogen (N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N), silicate silicon (SiO4 (2-)-Si), nitrite nitrogen (NO2 (-)-N), phosphate phosphorus (PO4 (3-)-P), and nitrate nitrogen (NO3 (-)-N). A total of 57,952 reads belonging to 541 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found. of these OTUs, 343 belonged to Ascomycota, 100 to Basidiomycota, 31 to Chytridiomycota, 22 to Glomeromycota, 11 to Zygomycota, 10 to Rozellomycota, whereas 24 belonged to unknown fungi. The dominant orders were Helotiales, Verrucariales, Agaricales, Lecanorales, Chaetothyriales, Lecideales, and Capnodiales. The common genera (>eight soil samples) were Tetracladium, Mortierella, Fusarium, Cortinarius, and Atla. Distance-based redundancy analysis (db-rda) and analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) revealed that soil pH (p = 0.001) was the most significant factor in determining the soil fungal community composition. Members of Verrucariales were found to predominate in soils of pH 8-9, whereas Sordariales predominated in soils of pH 7-8 and Coniochaetales predominated in soils of pH 6-7. The results suggest the presence and distribution of diverse soil fungal communities in the High Arctic, which can provide reliable data for studying the ecological responses of soil fungal communities to climate changes in the Arctic.

  17. The radiological exposure of man from radioactivity in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S P; Bengtson, P; Bojanowsky, R; Hagel, P; Herrmann, J; Ilus, E; Jakobson, E; Motiejunas, S; Panteleev, Y; Skujina, A; Suplinska, M

    1999-09-30

    A radiological assessment has been carried out considering discharges of radioactivity to the Baltic Sea marine environment since 1950. The sources of radioactivity that have been evaluated are atmospheric nuclear-weapons fallout, fallout from the Chernobyl accident in 1986, discharges of radionuclides from Sellafield and La Hague transported into the Baltic Sea, and discharges of radionuclides from nuclear installations located in the Baltic Sea area. Dose rates from man-made radioactivity to individual members of the public (critical groups) have been calculated based on annual intake of seafood and beach occupancy time. The dose rates to individuals from the regions of the Bothnian Sea and Gulf of Finland are predicted to be larger than from any other area in the Baltic Sea due to the pattern of Chernobyl fallout. The dose rates are predicted to have peaked in 1986 at a value of 0.2 mSv year-1. Collective committed doses to members of the public have been calculated based on fishery statistics and predicted concentrations of radionuclides in biota and coastal sediments. The total collective dose from man-made radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is estimated at 2600 manSv, of which approximately two-thirds originate from Chernobyl fallout, approximately one-quarter from atmospheric nuclear-weapons fallout, approximately 8% from European reprocessing facilities, and approximately 0.04% from nuclear installations bordering the Baltic Sea area. An assessment of small-scale dumping of low-level radioactive waste in the Baltic Sea in the 1960s by Sweden and the Soviet Union has showed that doses to man from these activities are negligible. Dose rates and doses from natural radioactivity dominate except for the year 1986 where dose rates to individuals from Chernobyl fallout in some regions of the Baltic Sea approached those from natural radioactivity.

  18. Arctic methane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dyupina, E.; Amstel, van A.R.

    2013-01-01

    What are the risks of a runaway greenhouse effect from methane release from hydrates in the Arctic? In January 2013, a dramatic increase of methane concentration up to 2000 ppb has been measured over the Arctic north of Norway in the Barents Sea. The global average being 1750 ppb. It has been sugges

  19. Arctic security and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamnes, Rolf

    2013-03-01

    Global warming is one of the most serious threats facing mankind. Many regions and countries will be affected, and there will be many losers. The earliest and most intense climatic changes are being experienced in the Arctic region. Arctic average temperature has risen at twice the rate of the global average in the past half century. These changes provide an early indication for the world of the environmental and societal significance of global warming. For that reason, the Arctic presents itself as an important scientific laboratory for improving our understanding of the causes and patterns of climate changes. The rapidly rising temperature threatens the Arctic ecosystem, but the human consequences seem to be far less dramatic there than in many other places in the world. According to the U.S. National Intelligence Council, Russia has the potential to gain the most from increasingly temperate weather, because its petroleum reserves become more accessible and because the opening of an Arctic waterway could provide economic and commercial advantages. Norway might also be fortunate. Some years ago, the Financial Times asked: #Left Double Quotation Mark#What should Norway do about the fact that global warming will make their climate more hospitable and enhance their financial situation, even as it inflicts damage on other parts of the world?#Right Double Quotation Mark#(Author)

  20. Parimad suhtekorraldusteod konkursil Baltic PR Awards

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Balti riikide suhtekorraldusliidud koostöös Rahvusvahelise Avalike Suhete Assotsiatsiooniga (IPRA) korraldavad 2001. aastast iga aasta kommunikatsioonijuhtimisalast auhinnakonkurssi Baltic PR Awards

  1. The Baltic Basin Case Study—towards a sustainable Baltic Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Bengt-Owe; Stålvant, Carl-Einar

    2001-12-01

    Four watersheds, each characterized by a major resource use were selected for the study: The Vistula River in Poland—agriculture; the Dalälven River in Sweden—forestry; the Archipelago Sea in Sweden, Finland, Estonia—tourism; and the Lake Peipsi in Estonia/Russia—fisheries/agriculture. The main objective was to examine the reactions of particular ecosystems within the Baltic Sea drainage area, and to assess sustainability conditions on the regional level. The degree of sustainability and impact on the Baltic Sea were investigated through workshops and seminars in the areas. Overviews of environmental and socio-economic conditions were succinctly summarized in commissioned papers. Interventions by and discussions with scholars, sector experts, administrators and stakeholders of the various sites laid the foundation for conceptualizing the interaction of natural and human forces for each case. The project was able to draw quite a number of conclusions, summarized as the following lessons learnt. In the Vistula Region, nutrient emissions have levelled off but shortage of freshwater is critical. Forestry in the Dalälven watershed is largely environmental-friendly, except for fragmentation of the landscape and its negative impact on biodiversity. In the Archipelago area a former low-energy community has been replaced by a leisure time society. Different types of tourism is developing, but despite this variety, an improved integration of ecological properties with socio-economic patterns is required in order to build a sustainable, living Archipelago. The lake Peipsi basin and the surrounding area suffer both from problems of resource management and economic backwardness. Parts of the local economy has lost access to the one time large Soviet market, although the Estonian side has apparently benefited from present economic growth. To cope with the division of the lake, a regime for trans-national management is unfolding. It is based on both informal and, to an

  2. The baltic environmental information dissemination system: using environmental informatics as a tool for sustainable development in the Baltic Sea region O sistema báltico de disseminação de informação ambiental: o uso de informática ambiental como uma ferramenta para o desenvolvimento sustentável na região do Mar Báltico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Leal Filho

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The on-going economic development of EU-countries as well of the countries in the C&E European region has been leading to a significant use of a great deal of natural resources as well as to noticeable environmental problems. The lack of a wide-spread environmental awareness from the side of those acting in various sectors (industry, public administration, users sometimes inhibit the implementation of legislation already available as well as the introduction of new technologies deriving, from example, from marine research. An example of this state of affairs is seen in respect of the implementation of the recommendations deriving from Baltic 21 and VASAB 2010, which illustrate the advantages from a cross-sectorial, open mechanism for the dissemination of environmental information in the region. There are various organisations today which act as suppliers of environmental information in the Baltic Sea Region. However, few, if any, are providers concerned with the various ways in which information on matters related to sustainable development is being used by various groups and audiences. This state of affairs makes it necessary to enhance the current mechanisms and approaches in place, so as to enable the wide-range of environmental information available today from areas such as marine research, to be more widely used. It is equally important that the didactic or educational potential of such information be exploited, so as to not only inform, but also to educate various groups and the general public on matters concerned with the environment in European closed seas and give information to planners and politicians to prepare decisions. In order to address such needs, the project "Baltic Environmental Information Dissemination System (BEIDS" was set in motion. BEIDS has been taking advantage of the most modern information technologies and has been acting as a focal point for the circulation of intelligent information on aspects of the marine

  3. Baltijskij makroregion: geograficheskie makrostruktury, specifika kommunikacii, innovacionnyj potencial [The Baltic macroregion: geographical macrostructures, communication features, innovative potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilyasov Alexandr

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers and assesses the influence of macro-geographical factors on communication behaviour of people in the course of transition to innovative economy through the example of the Baltic Sea region.

  4. Development of arctic wind technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M.; Antikainen, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The climatic conditions of Lapland set special technical requirements for wind power production. The most difficult problem regarding wind power production in arctic regions is the build-up of hard and rime ice on structures of the machine

  5. Genetic traits in the bivalve Mytilus from Europe, with an emphasis on Arctic populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, H.; Colucci, P.; Bogaards, R.H.; Strelkov, P.P.

    2001-01-01

    Genetic and some ecophysiological traits of mussels collected in the European Arctic, up to their northeastern distribution limit in the Barents Sea, were studied and compared with traits of mussels from the Mediterranean, Atlantic and Baltic. The genetic traits of these populations we-re analysed b

  6. Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in arctic marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norstrom, R J; Muir, D C

    1994-09-16

    By 1976, the presence of chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants (CHCs) had been demonstrated in fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus), walrus (Obdobenus rosmarus divergens), beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) in various parts of the Arctic. In spite of this early interest, very little subsequent research on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals was undertaken until the mid-1980s. Since that time, there has been an explosion of interest, resulting in a much expanded data base on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals. Except in the Russian Arctic, data have now been obtained on the temporospatial distribution of PCBs and other contaminants in ringed seal, beluga and polar bear. Contaminants in narwhal (Monodon monoceros) have also now been measured. On a fat weight basis, the sum of DDT-related compounds (S-DDT) and PCB levels are lowest in walrus (St. Lawrence and ringed seal in the Baltic Sea, indicate that overall contamination of the Arctic marine ecosystem is 10-50 times less than the most highly contaminated areas in the northern hemisphere temperate latitude marine environment. Geographic distribution of residue levels in polar bears indicates a gradual increase from Alaska east to Svalbard, except PCB levels are significantly higher in eastern Greenland and Svalbard. Information on temporal trends is somewhat contradictory.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  7. More Arctic research needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan

    The desire to achieve a balance between Arctic and Antarctic study was the message of the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, which heard testimony on the need for more Arctic research on April 24. Ted Stevens (R-Alaska) noted that since 1986, study in the area has not increased as the National Science Foundation has claimed, but rather, owing to inflation, has merely kept pace. Robert Correll, assistant director of geosciences at NSF and chair of the Interagency Arctic Oceans Working Group, gave several reasons why the Arctic is an important area for study by the scientific community. Its unique environment, he said, makes it a natural laboratory. And due to its environmental sensitivity, it may provide one of the earliest indicators of global climate change. Also, its geographic location makes it a “window on space,” some of the world's largest mineral and petroleum resources are in the Arctic, and the region has great strategic and military importance.

  8. Verbal Aspects in Germanic, Slavic, and Baltic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Alfred

    1949-01-01

    This study examines the theory of Prokosch concerning the Germanic-Slavic-Baltic tense and aspect systems. The interrelatedness and influence of languages and dialects in Slavic (Russian and Old Church Slavic), Baltic (Lithuanian), and Germanic (Old High German and Gothic) are demonstrated. Examples illustrating the use of the perfective present…

  9. AirBaltic says RIX favors Ryanair

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Riia lennujaama juht märkis 10. märtsi telesaates, et airBaltic ei saa oma arveid õigeks ajaks makstud. AirBaltic süüditab lennujaama Ryanairi soosimises. Valitsus kaalub airBalticule investorite otsimist

  10. BALTIC NATIONAL TRANSMISSION NETWORK DEVELOPMENT TENDENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Olejnikova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the development of Baltic transmission networks, related to the program of the European Union (EU to improve the security of energy supply, competitiveness and improve the development. Infrastructure projects to meet the needs of electricity in the EU are considered. The highlight issues are plan of Baltic energy markets merging and Latvian energy market development tendency

  11. Marine Transportation Implications of the Last Arctic Sea Ice Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, L. W.

    2010-12-01

    Marine access is increasing throughout the Arctic Ocean and the 'Last Arctic Sea Ice Refuge' may have implications for governance and marine use in the region. Arctic marine transportation is increasing due to natural resource developemnt, increasing Arctic marine tourism, expanded Arctic marine research, and a general linkage of the Arctic to the gloabl economy. The Arctic Council recognized these changes with the release of the Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment of 2009. This key study (AMSA)can be viewed as a baseline assessment (using the 2004 AMSA database), a strategic guide for a host of stakeholders and actors, and as a policy document of the Arctic Council. The outcomes of AMSA of direct relevance to the Ice Refuge are within AMSA's 17 recommendations provided under three themes: Enhancing Arctic Marine Safety, Protecting Arctic People and the Environment, and Building the Arctic Marine Infrastructure. Selected recommendations of importance to the Ice Refuge include: a mandatory polar navigation code; identifying areas of heightened ecological and cultural significance; potential designation of special Arctic marine areas; enhancing the tracking and monitoring of Arctic marine traffic; improving circumpolar environmental response capacity; developing an Arctic search and rescue agreement; and, assessing the effects of marine transportation on marine mammals. A review will be made of the AMSA outcomes and how they can influence the governance, marine use, and future protection of this unique Arctic marine environment.

  12. Arctic Ecosystem Integrated Survey (Arctic Eis): Marine ecosystem dynamics in the rapidly changing Pacific Arctic Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueter, Franz J.; Weems, Jared; Farley, Edward V.; Sigler, Michael F.

    2017-01-01

    Arctic Marine Ecosystems are undergoing rapid changes associated with ice loss and surface warming resulting from human activities (IPCC, 2013). The most dramatic changes include an earlier ice retreat and a longer ice-free season, particularly on Arctic inflow shelves such as the Barents Sea in the Atlantic Arctic and the northern Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea in the Pacific Arctic, the two major gateways into the Arctic (Danielson et al., 2016; Frey et al., 2015; Serreze et al., 2007; Wood et al., 2015). The retreat of Arctic sea ice has opened access to the Arctic marine environment and its resources, particularly during summer, and among other changes has brought with it increased research activities. For the Pacific Arctic region, these activities have led to several recent compendiums examining physical, biogeochemical, and biological patterns and trends in this rapidly changing environment (Arrigo, 2015, 2016; Arrigo et al., 2014; Bluhm et al., 2010; Dunton et al., 2014; Grebmeier and Maslowski, 2014; Hopcroft and Day, 2013; Moore and Stabeno, 2015).

  13. Long-term trends of black carbon and sulphate aerosol in the Arctic: changes in atmospheric transport and source region emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hirdman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the IPY project POLARCAT (Polar Study using Aircraft, Remote Sensing, Surface Measurements and Models, of Climate, Chemistry, Aerosols and Transport and building on previous work (Hirdman et al., 2010, this paper studies the long-term trends of both atmospheric transport as well as equivalent black carbon (EBC and sulphate for the three Arctic stations Alert, Barrow and Zeppelin. We find a general downward trend in the measured EBC concentrations at all three stations, with a decrease of −2.1±0.4 ng m−3 yr−1 (for the years 1989–2008 and −1.4±0.8 ng m−3 yr−1 (2002–2009 at Alert and Zeppelin respectively. The decrease at Barrow is, however, not statistically significant. The measured sulphate concentrations show a decreasing trend at Alert and Zeppelin of −15±3 ng m−3 yr−1 (1985–2006 and −1.3±1.2 ng m−3 yr−1 (1990–2008 respectively, while the trend at Barrow is unclear.

    To reveal the influence of different source regions on these trends, we used a cluster analysis of the output of the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART run backward in time from the measurement stations. We have investigated to what extent variations in the atmospheric circulation, expressed as variations in the frequencies of the transport from four source regions with different emission rates, can explain the long-term trends in EBC and sulphate measured at these stations. We find that the long-term trend in the atmospheric circulation can only explain a minor fraction of the overall downward trend seen in the measurements of EBC (0.3–7.2% and sulphate (0.3–5.3% at the Arctic stations. The changes in emissions are dominant in explaining the trends. We find that the highest EBC and sulphate concentrations are associated with transport from Northern Eurasia and decreasing emissions in this region drive the downward trends

  14. Long-term trends of black carbon and sulphate aerosol in the Arctic: changes in atmospheric transport and source region emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hirdman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the IPY project POLARCAT (Polar Study using Aircraft, Remote Sensing, Surface Measurements and Models, of Climate, Chemistry, Aerosols and Transport and building on previous work (Hirdman et al., 2010, this paper studies the long-term trends of both atmospheric transport as well as equivalent black carbon (EBC and sulphate for the three Arctic stations Alert, Barrow and Zeppelin. We find a general downward trend in the measured EBC concentrations at all three stations, with a decrease of −2.1±0.4 ng m−3 yr−1 (for the years 1989–2008 and −1.4±0.8 ng m−3 yr−1 (2002–2009 at Alert and Zeppelin respectively. The decrease at Barrow is, however, not statistically significant. The measured sulphate concentrations show a decreasing trend at Alert and Zeppelin of −15±3 ng m−3 yr−1 (1985–2006 and −1.3±1.2 ng m−3 yr−1 (1990–2008 respectively, while there is no trend detectable at Barrow.

    To reveal the contribution of different source regions on these trends, we used a cluster analysis of the output of the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART run backward in time from the measurement stations. We have investigated to what extent variations in the atmospheric circulation, expressed as variations in the frequencies of the transport from four source regions with different emission rates, can explain the long-term trends in EBC and sulphate measured at these stations. We find that the long-term trend in the atmospheric circulation can only explain a minor fraction of the overall downward trend seen in the measurements of EBC (0.3–7.2% and sulphate (0.3–5.3% at the Arctic stations. The changes in emissions are dominant in explaining the trends. We find that the highest EBC and sulphate concentrations are associated with transport from Northern Eurasia and decreasing emissions in this region drive the

  15. Emission Permits trade between the Nordic and Baltic Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, Leif Kristian

    2000-05-01

    A bottom-up technology oriented model of the energy systems in the Nordic and Baltic countries have been constructed and used for analysing an optimal set of energy and emission trading within the region. The model used is MARKAL, which has been developed within the IEA-ETSAP. The analyses are based on national emission levels agreed on in the Kyoto protocol (and the following burden sharing negotiations within the European Union), and with an additional strengthening after 2010. Only energy related CO{sub 2} emissions are explicitly considered. Nuclear power in Sweden is assumed to be phased out. The results show that especially Norway and Sweden have large abatement costs when acting alone, whale the Baltic countries will probably not need to take domestic actions due to the Kyoto protocol if they act alone, as the restructuring of their economies in the beginning of the 1990ties cut emissions (and their economies) dramatically. It is shown that emission trading among the Nordic and Baltic countries can reduce abatement costs among the Nordic countries significantly, possibly down to a level equivalent to a world market (Annex I) permit price. Extending the Nordic common electricity market to Balticum will have minor influence on overall energy system costs. There is no pronounced direction for net electricity flow between the Nordic and Baltic countries. High marginal costs during peak hours in Balticum indicate that imports of Nordic hydro power during peak-hours could be a cost-effective option. This possibility could be implemented with a subsea AC/DC connection between Sweden and Latvia. It is politically viable to develop more hydropower in Norway, this country will be the major electricity exporter in the region, while Sweden will be the main importer. Changing scenario assumptions, i.e. no more Norwegian hydropower, but life extension of Swedish nuclear power, could change this picture. (author)

  16. Regional albedo of Arctic first-year drift ice in advanced stages of melt from the combination of in situ measurements and aerial imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Divine

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a case study of the regional (≈ 150 km broadband albedo of first year Arctic sea ice in advanced stages of melt, estimated from a combination of in situ albedo measurements and aerial imagery. The data were collected during the eight day ICE12 drift experiment carried out by the Norwegian Polar Institute in the Arctic north of Svalbard at 82.3° N from 26 July to 3 August 2012. The study uses in situ albedo measurements representative of the four main surface types: bare ice, dark melt ponds, bright melt ponds and open water. Images acquired by a helicopter borne camera system during ice survey flights covered about 28 km2. A subset of > 8000 images from the area of homogeneous melt with open water fraction of ≈ 0.11 and melt pond coverage of ≈ 0.25 used in the upscaling yielded a regional albedo estimate of 0.40 (0.38; 0.42. The 95% confidence interval on the estimate was derived using the moving block bootstrap approach applied to sequences of classified sea ice images and albedo of the four surface types treated as random variables. Uncertainty in the mean estimates of surface type albedo from in situ measurements contributed some 95% of the variance of the estimated regional albedo, with the remaining variance resulting from the spatial inhomogeneity of sea ice cover. The results of the study are of relevance for the modeling of sea ice processes in climate simulations. It particularly concerns the period of summer melt, when the optical properties of sea ice undergo substantial changes, which existing sea ice models have significant diffuculty accurately reproducing.

  17. High resolution modeling of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere region over the Arctic - GEM-AC simulations for the future climate with and without aviation emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porebska, Magdalena; Struzewska, Joanna; Kaminski, Jacek W.

    2016-04-01

    Upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) region is a layer around the tropopause. Perturbation of the chemical composition in the UTLS region can impact physical and dynamical processes that can lead to changes in cloudiness, precipitation, radiative forcing, stratosphere-troposphere exchange and zonal flow. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential impacts of aviation emissions on the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. In order to assess the impact of the aviation emissions we will focus on changes in atmospheric dynamic due to changes in chemical composition in the UTLS over the Arctic. Specifically, we will assess perturbations in the distribution of the wind, temperature and pressure fields in the UTLS region. Our study will be based on simulations using a high resolution chemical weather model for four scenarios of current (2006) and future (2050) climate: with and without aircraft emissions. The tool that we use is the GEM-AC (Global Environmental Multiscale with Atmospheric Chemistry) chemical weather model where air quality, free tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry processes are on-line and interactive in an operational weather forecast model of Environment Canada. In vertical, the model domain is defined on 70 hybrid levels with model top at 0.1 mb. The gas-phase chemistry includes detailed reactions of Ox, NOx, HOx, CO, CH4, ClOx and BrO. Also, the model can address aerosol microphysics and gas-aerosol partitioning. Aircraft emissions are from the AEDT 2006 database developed by the Federal Aviation Administration (USA) and the future climate simulations are based on RCP8.5 projection presented by the IPCC in the fifth Assessment Report AR5. Results from model simulations on a global variable grid with 0.5o x 0.5o uniform resolution over the Arctic will be presented.

  18. Natural Increase in the Baltic South and South-West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalski T.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the natural population increase (decrease in the postcommunist part of Baltic Europe (the federated state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, West Pomeranian, Pomeranian, and Warmian-Masurian Voivodeships, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, the Kaliningrad and Leningrad region, and the federal city of Saint Petersburg in 2002—2011. The study uses standard methods of demographic analysis, the data provided by national statistical services and Eurostat. All regions analysed are characterised by a low stationary phase of the demographic transition model (DTM. The situation proves to be unfavourable in the Polish regions under consideration and highly unfavourable in the remaining area.

  19. Cytology of the outer penis epithelium of Buccinum undatum (L.) from the arctic region — an observation of the imposex phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, M.; Bolte, M.

    1994-03-01

    TBT (tributyltin)-induced imposex is observed in female Buccinum undatum from the arctic region. The fine structure of the male penis epithelium was investigated and the results were compared between specimens from non-polluted (Spitsbergen, Norway) and highly-polluted (Brittany, France) areas. Differences in the arrangement and structure of the apical microvilli-border, the intercellular spaces, RER and SER content, as well as a high rate of parasitism in the tissue of individuals from Brittany can be detected between the species of both areas. The results indicate a higher degree of pathological changes in the penis epithelial cells of individuals from TBT-polluted areas than in those from Spitsbergen.

  20. Summer monsoon rainfall variability over North East regions of India and its association with Eurasian snow, Atlantic Sea Surface temperature and Arctic Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Amita; Oh, Jaiho; Kim, In-won; Kripalani, R. H.; Mitra, A. K.; Pandithurai, G.

    2016-11-01

    This observational study during the 29-year period from 1979 to 2007 evaluates the potential role of Eurasian snow in modulating the North East-Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall with a lead time of almost 6 months. This link is manifested by the changes in high-latitude atmospheric winter snow variability over Eurasia associated with Arctic Oscillation (AO). Excessive wintertime Eurasian snow leads to an anomalous cooling of the overlying atmosphere and is associated with the negative mode of AO, inducing a meridional wave-train descending over the tropical north Atlantic and is associated with cooling of this region. Once the cold anomalies are established over the tropical Atlantic, it persists up to the following summer leading to an anomalous zonal wave-train further inducing a descending branch over NE-India resulting in weak summer monsoon rainfall.

  1. Circulation of water masses in the Baltic Proper revealed through iodine isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, P.; Chen, X.G.; Aldahan, A.

    2013-01-01

    in the Arctic and North Atlantic Ocean. Here, 129I, together with 127I, is utilized as a tracer of water pathways and circulation in the Baltic Sea through collection of seawater depth profiles. The results indicate the presence of 129I signatures which are distinct for each water mass and provide evidence for......Tracer technology has been used to understand water circulation in marine systems where the tracer dose is commonly injected into the marine waters through controlled experiments, accidental releases or waste discharges. Anthropogenic discharges of 129I have been used to trace water circulation...

  2. Timing of the Baltic Ice Lake in the eastern Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jüri Vassiljev

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A shoreline database for the Baltic, covering the Late Weichselian and Holocene, was compiled. The database includes about 1600 sites from Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Finland, NW Russia, Poland, Sweden and was used to create a GIS-based palaeogeographical reconstructions on the development of the Baltic Ice Lake (BIL. The formation of thehighest shoreline of the BIL in Estonia was connected with the development of the Pandivere ice marginal zone (Estonia and the lowest with the Salpausselkä ice-marginal formations (Finland. There was a well-accepted knowledge that the Pandivere ice marginal zone correlates with the Neva ice marginal zone in NW Russia dated to 13 300 cal yr BP. Recent studies of the late glacial sites in northern Estonia indicate that the age of the Pandivere ice marginal zone and hence the highest shoreline of the BIL A1 is about 13 800–14 000 cal yr BP. It was followed by the BIL stage A2, which formed in front ofthe Palivere ice marginal belt about 13 200–13 500 cal yr BP. The final drainage of the BIL took place about 11 650 cal yr BP. The timing of the BIL stages was derived from AMS-14C dates and correlated with varve chronology, OSL and 10Be dates.

  3. Research of legal status and navigation regime of arctic shipping lanes

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yue

    2016-01-01

    As the thawing of the sea ice within the Arctic Ocean, the Arctic is facing tremendous changes, including environment, economy, industry, culture and many other areas. As the sea ice decreasing, the Arctic region is becoming a “new world” opening its gate to the whole world. The most obvious aspect is about Arctic shipping issues. The Arctic Ocean is locating on special geographical point which closely connecting the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean. Furthermore, the Arctic Ocean has shorter ...

  4. Deoxygenation of the Baltic Sea during the last century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, Jacob; Andersen, Jesper H; Gustafsson, Bo G; Conley, Daniel J

    2014-04-15

    Deoxygenation is a global problem in coastal and open regions of the ocean, and has led to expanding areas of oxygen minimum zones and coastal hypoxia. The recent expansion of hypoxia in coastal ecosystems has been primarily attributed to global warming and enhanced nutrient input from land and atmosphere. The largest anthropogenically induced hypoxic area in the world is the Baltic Sea, where the relative importance of physical forcing versus eutrophication is still debated. We have analyzed water column oxygen and salinity profiles to reconstruct oxygen and stratification conditions over the last 115 y and compare the influence of both climate and anthropogenic forcing on hypoxia. We report a 10-fold increase of hypoxia in the Baltic Sea and show that this is primarily linked to increased inputs of nutrients from land, although increased respiration from higher temperatures during the last two decades has contributed to worsening oxygen conditions. Although shifts in climate and physical circulation are important factors modulating the extent of hypoxia, further nutrient reductions in the Baltic Sea will be necessary to reduce the ecosystems impacts of deoxygenation.

  5. Dioxin concentrations in sediments of the Baltic Sea. A preliminary survey of existing data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verta, M.; Salo, S.; Korhonen, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Kiviranta, H. [National Public Health Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Koistinen, J.; Ruokojaervi, P.; Isosaari, P. [National Public Health Institute, Kuopio (Finland)

    2004-09-15

    The Baltic Sea region is one of the most contaminated areas with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (dioxins). The high load of dioxins in Baltic fish has lead to restrictions of the use of contaminated fish for human consumption. Uncertainties about sources, geographical distribution of these contaminants, the pathways of bioaccumulation and possible ecotoxicological and human health effects are of concern. POPs may enter the Baltic Sea from atmospheric deposition, riverine input and point sources along the coast. The ultimate sink for the majority of the compounds is the open sea and coastal sediments, although some fraction enters the food chain. Analysis of sediment has been widely used to study regional and temporal trends of dioxin pollution in freshwater and oceans and the Baltic Sea has been one of the most studied sea areas for dioxin-like compounds as well. Only a fraction (unknown) of the analytical results have been published in scientific papers, however. Here we present regional distribution of certain congeners of dioxins in surface sediments and in six sediment cores from the Baltic Sea. New data is compared with data on earlier Finnish sediment surveys. Some data from published papers and unpublished data from the Kattegat Sound is also given for reference. The purpose of this paper is to: 1. get an ''draft'' picture of regional distribution (possible hot spots, major regional differences) along the Finnish-Swedish-Danish-German coastal and open sea sites in the Baltic 2. study differences in congener distributions (source identification) 3. study temporal changes in sediment profiles 4. identify major areas with gap of data 5. call for more data (both published and grey literature as well as new sediment surveys)

  6. Pozicija mezhdunarodnogo soobshhestva po voprosu «vosstanovlenija» nezavisimosti Baltijskih respublik [The position of international community on the restoration of independence of the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portnyagina Maria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The separation of the Baltics from the Soviet Union was a difficult process accompanied by both political and economic conflicts. The third party in the negotiation process was represented by Germany and the USA. This article sets out to identify the role of the USA and Germany in the restoration of Baltic independence. Historicism and objectivity principles serve as the methodological framework for the research. The regional approach was applied in order to integrate the features of regional development into the overall picture of world politics. The scientific and practical significance of the article lies in a scientific evaluation of the Soviet-Baltic relations in 1989—1991. This study can help understand the mechanisms of formulation of foreign policy by the USA, Germany, and the USSR, as well as the practice of political interaction between these countries and the Baltic States. The materials and conclusions of this article can be used for further research on the foreign policies of the USA, Germany, the USSR, and the Baltic republics. In the process of the Baltics gaining their independence, western countries showed an ambivalent position and hesitancy regarding support for the struggle for liberation. As a result of internal contradictions in the USSR, Baltic leaders managed to achieve independence without any effective support from western powers. The research significance of this study lies in a diverse selection of sources and a new formulation of the problem of Baltic independence. The practical significance of the article results lies in the applicability of its materials in the development of Russian foreign policy in the Baltic region, further research on the history of the Baltic region, Germany, and the USA, and preparation of lectures.

  7. The Arctic Circle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Siobhan

    2016-04-01

    My name is Siobhan McDonald. I am a visual artist living and working in Dublin. My studio is based in The School of Science at University College Dublin where I was Artist in Residence 2013-2015. A fascination with time and the changeable nature of landmass has led to ongoing conversations with scientists and research institutions across the interweaving disciplines of botany, biology and geology. I am developing a body of work following a recent research trip to the North Pole where I studied the disappearing landscape of the Arctic. Prompted by my experience of the Arctic shelf receding, this new work addresses issues of the instability of the earth's materiality. The work is grounded in an investigation of material processes, exploring the dynamic forces that transform matter and energy. This project combines art and science in a fascinating exploration of one of the Earth's last relatively untouched wilderness areas - the High Arctic to bring audiences on journeys to both real and artistically re-imagined Arctic spaces. CRYSTALLINE'S pivotal process is collaboration: with The European Space Agency; curator Helen Carey; palaeontologist Prof. Jenny McElwain, UCD; and with composer Irene Buckley. CRYSTALLINE explores our desire to make corporeal contact with geological phenomena in Polar Regions. From January 2016, in my collaboration with Jenny McElwain, I will focus on the study of plants and atmospheres from the Arctic regions as far back as 400 million years ago, to explore the essential 'nature' that, invisible to the eye, acts as imaginary portholes into other times. This work will be informed by my arctic tracings of sounds and images recorded in the glaciers of this disappearing frozen landscape. In doing so, the urgencies around the tipping of natural balances in this fragile region will be revealed. The final work will emerge from my forthcoming residency at the ESA in spring 2016. Here I will conduct a series of workshops in ESA Madrid to work with

  8. Reduction of Baltic Sea Nutrient Inputs and Allocation of Abatement Costs Within the Baltic Sea Catchment

    OpenAIRE

    Wulff, Fred; Andersen, Hans Estrup; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Czajkowski, Mikolaj; Elofsson, Katarina; Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders; Hasler, Berit; Humborg, Christoph; Hong, Bongghi; Jansons, Viestur; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Thodsen, Hans; Smart, James C. R.; Smedberg, Erik; Stålnacke, Per

    2014-01-01

    The Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) requires tools to simulate effects and costs of various nutrient abatement strategies. Hierarchically connected databases and models of the entire catchment have been created to allow decision makers to view scenarios via the decision support system NEST. Increased intensity in agriculture in transient countries would result in increased nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea, particularly from Poland, the Baltic States, and Russia. Nutrient retentions are high, wh...

  9. MPC&A training needs of the NIS/Baltics States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, David Franklin; Stoy-McLeod, Carol L.

    2006-07-01

    This report serves to document contract deliverables considered to be of continuing interest associated with two workshops conducted as part of an initial assessment of Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) training needs of the Newly Independent and Baltic States (NIS/Baltics). These workshops were held in Kiev, Ukraine, ca. 2003-2004, with the assistance of personnel from the George Kuzmycz Training Center (GKTC) of the Kiev Institute of Nuclear Research (KINR). Because of the dominant role Ukraine plays in the region in terms of the nuclear industry, one workshop focused exclusively on Ukrainian training needs, with participants attending from twelve Ukrainian organizations (plus U.S. DOE/NNSA representatives). The second workshop included participation by a further ten countries from the NIS/Baltics region. In addition, the training needs data developed during the workshop were supplemented by the outcomes of surveys and studies conducted by the GKTC.

  10. Arctic potential - Could more structured view improve the understanding of Arctic business opportunities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintsala, Henna; Niemelä, Sami; Tervonen, Pekka

    2016-09-01

    The increasing interest towards the Arctic has been witnessed during the past decades. However, the commonly shared definitions of the Arctic key concepts have not yet penetrated national and international arenas for political and economic decision making. The lack of jointly defined framework has made different analyses related to the Arctic quite limited considering the magnitude of economic potential embedded in Arctic. This paper is built on the key findings of two separate, yet connected projects carried out in the Oulu region, Finland. In this paper's approach, the Arctic context has been defined as a composition of three overlapping layers. The first layer is the phenomenological approach to define the Arctic region. The second layer is the strategy-level analysis to define different Arctic paths as well as a national level description of a roadmap to Arctic specialization. The third layer is the operationalization of the first two layers to define the Arctic business context and business opportunities. The studied case from Oulu region indicates that alternative futures for the Arctic competences and business activities are in resemblance with only two of the four identified strategic pathways. Introduction of other pathways to regional level actors as credible and attractive options would require additional, systematic efforts.

  11. ARCHITECTURE OF THE ESTLYANDSKAYA PROVINCE – A SOURCE OF INSPIRATION AND THE BASE OF N.M. SOKOLOV’S CREATIVE METHOD (neogothic style of the Baltic region and its reflection in the architectural appearance of the Southern capital)

    OpenAIRE

    Lyudmirskaya A. V.

    2016-01-01

    N. M. Sokolov was the chief architect of Rostov-onDon city and as well as the author of the concept of architectural preferences continuity of a "brick style" at the end of XIX- beginning XX centuries that is presented in the article. The author assumes that the creative method of the architect was affected by the childhood and youth when he lived in Baltic and also the beginning of architectural and art activity of the master taking place in Riga. The author investigates the architectural de...

  12. Globalising the Arctic Climate:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2017-01-01

    This chapter uses an object-oriented approach to explore how the Arctic is being constituted as an object of global governance within an emerging ‘global polity’, partly through geoengineering plans and political visions ('imaginaries'). It suggests that governance objects—the socially constructe...... on world politics. The emergence of the Arctic climate as a potential target of governance provides a case in point. The Arctic climate is becoming globalised, pushing it up the political agenda but drawing it away from its local and regional context.......This chapter uses an object-oriented approach to explore how the Arctic is being constituted as an object of global governance within an emerging ‘global polity’, partly through geoengineering plans and political visions ('imaginaries'). It suggests that governance objects—the socially constructed...... targets of political operations and contestations—are not simple ‘issues’ or ‘problems’ given to actors to deal with. Governance-objects emerge and are constructed through science, technology and politics, and rather than slotting neatly into existing structures, they have their own structuring effects...

  13. Validation of SMOS sea ice thickness retrieval in the northern Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Maaß

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS mission observes brightness temperatures at a low microwave frequency of 1.4 GHz (L-band with a daily coverage of the polar regions. L-band radiometry has been shown to provide information on the thickness of thin sea ice. Here, we apply a new emission model that has previously been used to investigate the impact of snow on thick Arctic sea ice. The model has not yet been used to retrieve ice thickness. In contrast to previous SMOS ice thickness retrievals, the new model allows us to include a snow layer in the brightness temperature simulations. Using ice thickness estimations from satellite thermal imagery, we simulate brightness temperatures during the ice growth season 2011 in the northern Baltic Sea. In both the simulations and the SMOS observations, brightness temperatures increase by more than 20 K, most likely due to an increase of ice thickness. Only if we include the snow in the model, the absolute values of the simulations and the observations agree well (mean deviations below 3.5 K. In a second comparison, we use high-resolution measurements of total ice thickness (sum of ice and snow thickness from an electromagnetic (EM sounding system to simulate brightness temperatures for 12 circular areas. While the SMOS observations and the simulations that use the EM modal ice thickness are highly correlated (r 2=0.95, the simulated brightness temperatures are on average 12 K higher than observed by SMOS. This would correspond to an 8-cm overestimation of the modal ice thickness by the SMOS retrieval. In contrast, if the simulations take into account the shape of the EM ice thickness distributions (r 2=0.87, the mean deviation between simulated and observed brightness temperatures is below 0.1 K.

  14. The Costs of a Cleaner baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Sisse Liv; Konrad, Maria Theresia Hedegaard; Hasler, Berit;

    2009-01-01

    of the results was nutrient reduction targets for each country - the BSAP targets. Because the Baltic Sea is such an international marine area, receiving pollutants from many  countries, an international approach is necessary to make effective solutions. But is the BSAP the most cost-effective solution...... to the regulation of the Baltic Sea? And does the BSAP result in cost-effective reductions in the different countries, which is a requirement of the Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Directive?   These questions are studied and answered using a cost minimisation model for the Baltic sea, initially...... the BSAP targets are set as target reductions for each countries.  The comparison reveals what the additional costs of fulfilling a political target for each country are instead pursuing a cost effective solution for the Baltic Sea.  In addition  we simulate cost minimising solutions for obtaining...

  15. Cost effective reductions in the agricultural load of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elofsson, K.

    1997-11-01

    To restore the health of the Baltic Sea, the Helsinki Commission, HELCOM, suggests that the nitrogen load should be reduced by 50%. The agricultural sector accounts for about 1/3 of the total load of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea, while point sources account for about 1/4. The remaining load reaches the Baltic as atmospheric deposition. The purpose of this study is to calculate cost effective reductions in the agricultural load of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea coastal waters. The Baltic Sea drainage basin is divided into 17 regions, which differ with respect to costs, leaching and nitrogen retention. For each region, cost functions are estimated for 11 nitrogen abatement measures in the agricultural sector. It is difficult to find reliable data on both costs and biological parameters for all regions included, and several assumptions are made to obtain the cost functions. In this paper the total cost of a 50% reduction of the nitrogen load from arable land is estimated to 11,700 million SEK per year. A decrease in the use of fertilizer nitrogen is the most important measure in a cost effective policy. Other measures included in the cost effective solution are changes in land-use and in manure management practices. If, instead, each country is required to reduce its load by 50%, the total cost will increase by nearly 60%. Three out of nine countries around the Baltic Sea would gain from separate reduction targets, while all others lose by such a policy. The results are sensitive to assumptions about the biological parameters and the shape of the cost functions for reductions in chemical fertilizer. 75 refs, 3 figs, 11 tabs

  16. Baltic Pathways from Liberal Trade Model to Neo-Mercantilism in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viljar Veebel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic progress of the Baltic States after the restoration of independence has been closely related to the liberal ideology and values of their economies: openness to investments, simple tax system and low tax burden, liberal trade policy, and flexible labour market. Unlike the Baltic States, some of their main partners in the European Union (EU have focused on promoting their economic growth by the neo-mercantilist way of expanding exports, supported by the economic structure of these countries exporting high technology and capital goods. As a result, when the Baltic States are expecting that in a broader context the other eu member states share the same vision of the liberal market economy, their motives have not been fully understood among their regional trade and cooperation partners. Current study will debate whether the practical implementation and needs of the European neo-mercantilism meet the economic and social needs of the Baltic States. Additionally, the study focuses on the question whether in practice the Baltic countries should be ready for the European neo-mercantilist project in upcoming years.

  17. Salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea limits the reproduction and population expansion of the newly invaded comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Jaspers

    Full Text Available The recent invasion of the comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi into northern European waters is of major public and scientific concern. One of the key features making M. leidyi a successful invader is its high fecundity combined with fast growth rates. However, little is known about physiological limitations to its reproduction and consequent possible abiotic restrictions to its dispersal. To evaluate the invasion potential of M. leidyi into the brackish Baltic Sea we studied in situ egg production rates in different regions and at different salinities in the laboratory, representing the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. During October 2009 M. leidyi actively reproduced over large areas of the Baltic Sea. Egg production rates scaled with animal size but decreased significantly with decreasing salinity, both in the field (7-29 and in laboratory experiments (6-33. Temperature and zooplankton, i.e. food abundance, could not explain the observed differences. Reproduction rates at conditions representing the Kattegat, south western and central Baltic Sea, respectively, were 2.8 fold higher at the highest salinities (33 and 25 than at intermediate salinities (10 and 15 and 21 times higher compared from intermediate to the lowest salinity tested (6. Higher salinity areas such as the Kattegat, and to a lower extent the south western Baltic, seem to act as source regions for the M. leidyi population in the central Baltic Sea where a self-sustaining population, due to the low salinity, cannot be maintained.

  18. Arctic Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Ørts; Grønsedt, Peter; Lindstrøm Graversen, Christian

    , the latter aiming at developing key concepts and building up a basic industry knowledge base for further development of CBS Maritime research and teaching. This report attempts to map the opportunities and challenges for the maritime industry in an increasingly accessible Arctic Ocean...

  19. Arctic tides from GPS on sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard Rose, Stine; Skourup, Henriette; Forsberg, René

    The presence of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean plays a significant role in the Arctic climate. Sea ice dampens the ocean tide amplitude with the result that global tidal models which use only astronomical data perform less accurately in the polar regions. This study presents a kinematic processing...... of Global Positioning System (GPS) buoys placed on sea-ice at five different sites north of Greenland for the study of sea level height and tidal analysis to improve tidal models in the Central Arctic. The GPS measurements are compared with the Arctic tidal model AOTIM-5, which assimilates tide...

  20. International Disputes and Cultural Ideas in the Canadian Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Danita Catherine

    of the Canadian-Arctic relationship. Using Canada as the focus for the analysis, the purpose of this project is to contribute to the existing Arctic studies and international relations literature by examining how interests and disputes in the Canadian Arctic region have been affected by domestic cultural...

  1. Arctic tipping points: governance in turbulent times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Oran R

    2012-02-01

    Interacting forces of climate change and globalization are transforming the Arctic. Triggered by a non-linear shift in sea ice, this transformation has unleashed mounting interest in opportunities to exploit the region's natural resources as well as growing concern about environmental, economic, and political issues associated with such efforts. This article addresses the implications of this transformation for governance, identifies limitations of existing arrangements, and explores changes needed to meet new demands. It advocates the development of an Arctic regime complex featuring flexibility across issues and adaptability over time along with an enhanced role for the Arctic Council both in conducting policy-relevant assessments and in promoting synergy in interactions among the elements of the emerging Arctic regime complex. The emphasis throughout is on maximizing the fit between the socioecological features of the Arctic and the character of the governance arrangements needed to steer the Arctic toward a sustainable future.

  2. Regional Scale Variability in Background and Source δ13C of Methane in the Atlantic, Europe and the Arctic: Cautionary Tales for Isotopic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, D.; Fisher, R. E.; France, J. L.; Lanoiselle, M.; Zazzeri, G.; Nisbet, E. G.

    2013-12-01

    Modeling studies of methane δ13C, both of modern atmosphere and glacial palaeoclimates have used a global isotopic signature for each of the main source categories, whereas detailed studies of source fluxes, such as boreal wetlands, suggest that on the centimeter to meter scale there is very great variability. In recent years we have been reassessing the usefulness of using a generic source value from source up to regional scale through sampling campaigns in the European Arctic, the UK and onboard ships sailing the Atlantic up to the Arctic Ocean. Currently the boreal wetland source of methane dominates above 60°N. Within Finland this source varies at the wetland scale from -74 to -66‰ depending on wetland type and seasonal variability in temperature and water table. Lapland road trips and ship sampling suggest that these emissions are homogenized to -70 to -67‰ in the well-mixed regional atmosphere. An infrequent boreal forest fire emission adds a -30 to -26‰ component into the mix, and such inputs have been observed in the Mace Head (Ireland) isotopic record of 2002. The story is much more complex once the latitudes of heavily urbanized and agricultural areas of Northern Europe are reached. Isotopic signatures applied to UK and EC inventories suggest that national emissions can vary from -42 to -60‰ depending on source mix, but even this is too simplified. Fugitive emissions from gas distribution systems vary based on the source of the gas, with biogenic-dominated supplies from west Siberia at -50‰ to thermogenic gas of the Southern North Sea fields at -32‰. Coal emissions are also source-dependent and have a similar range to gas, but unlike pipeline-homogenized gas can vary from one mine to the next. Emissions from ruminants vary due to C3 and C4 plant diets, with C4 closer to -50‰ while C3 emissions are in the low -60's. A recent whole barn experiment in the UK recorded -66‰. Landfill signatures also vary. Sites engineered in the last decade

  3. Arctic ice islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  4. Islands of the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdeswell, Julian; Hambrey, Michael

    2002-11-01

    The Arctic islands are characterized by beautiful mountains and glaciers, in which the wildlife lives in delicate balance with its environment. It is a fragile region with a long history of exploration and exploitation that is now experiencing rapid environmental change. All of these themes are explored in Islands of the Arctic, a richly illustrated volume with superb photographs from the Canadian Arctic archipelago, Greenland, Svalbard and the Russian Arctic. It begins with the various processes shaping the landscape: glaciers, rivers and coastal processes, the role of ice in the oceans and the weather and climate. Julian Dowdeswell and Michael Hambrey describe the flora and fauna in addition to the human influences on the environment, from the sustainable approach of the Inuit, to the devastating damage inflicted by hunters and issues arising from the presence of military security installations. Finally, they consider the future prospects of the Arctic islands Julian Dowdeswell is Director of the Scott Polar Research Institute and Professor of Physical Geography at 0he University of Cambridge. He received the Polar Medal from Queen Elizabeth for his contributions to the study of glacier geophysics and the Gill Memorial Award from the Royal Geographical Society. He is chair of the Publications Committee of the International Glaciological Society and head of the Glaciers and Ice Sheets Division of the International Commission for Snow and Ice. Michael Hambrey is Director of the Centre for Glaciology at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. A past recipient of the Polar Medal, he was also given the Earth Science Editors' Outstanding Publication Award for Glaciers (Cambridge University Press). Hambrey is also the author of Glacial Environments (British Columbia, 1994).

  5. Salt tolerance of estuarine benthic macroalgae in the Kattegat-Baltic Sea area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, A.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Tolerance of benthic marine macroalgae to low salinities is believed to be a main determinant of their vertical distribution across the marine coastline and their horizontal distribution from oceanic regions into low-saline bays, fjords and estuaries. Salt tolerance should also be important...... distribution in the inner Baltic Sea (r: 0.32). A broad tolerance and high abundance of species in the Kattegat were significantly related to the contemporary distribution of Baltic macroalgae. Nonetheless, a large proportion of the interspecific variability was unaccounted for, presumably because a range...

  6. Early Holocene lake ecosystem development in the southern Baltic lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowiński, Michał; Ott, Florian; Kramkowski, Mateusz; Noryśkiewicz, Agnieszka M.; Zawiska, Izabela; Dräger, Nadine; Theuerkauf, Martin; Hass, Christoph; Obremska, Milena; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Kordowski, Jarosław; Tjallingii, Rik; Rzodkiewicz, Monika; Schwab, Markus; Brauer, Achim

    2016-04-01

    The first millennia of the Holocene are characterized by gradual and rapid environmental changes following the warming at the beginning of the Holocene superimposed by short-term climatic instability. Landscape evolution during this period occurred at different time scales due to specific response times of landscape compartments like vegetation succession, soil formation and permafrost thawing. As a consequence, a spatiotemporally heterogeneous pattern of changes occurred particularly in regions close to the margins of the continental ice sheets like the Baltic region. Regional atmospheric circulation patterns were affected by cold catabatic winds from the remains of the Fennoscandian ice sheet. The ongoing deglaciation further influenced the regional climate through meltwater release and related changes in the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Both effects declined with the progressive ice sheet melt down. Additionally, the land-sea distribution in the North Sea changed drastically during the final melting phase of the glacial ice sheets. The Baltic Sea development is even more complex due to the strong glacio-isostatic adjustments effects that resulted in open and closed water stages affecting the entire Baltic realm. Consequently, the early Holocene interval of sediment records from the southern Baltic lowlands are not considered as straightforward palaeoclimate archives but need to be interpreted in a broader context. We present five partly varved lake records from northern Poland all including an intriguing highly organic-rich interval interrupting biochemical calcite precipitation at about the same time between 10.5 and 10.2 cal kyr BP. These sediment records have been correlated by independent age models based on varve counting, AMS 14C dating, biostratigraphy and tephrochronology. We present multi-proxy records of early Holocene sediments and our preliminary interpretation suggests hydrological processes as the main reason for the intriguing shifts

  7. Sea surface temperature development of the Baltic Sea in the period 1990-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Siegel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea Surface Temperature (SST maps derived from NOAA weathersatellites for the period 1990-2004 were used to investigateseasonal and inter-annual variations in the Baltic Sea. A comparison between monthly mean SST and in situ measurements at the MARNET station "Arkona Sea" showed goodagreement with differences in July and August. Monthly means reflect strong seasonal and inter-annualvariations. The yearly means show a slight positive trend withan increase of 0.8 K in 15 years. In particular, summer and autumnmonths contribute to this positive trend, with stronger trendsin the northern than in the southern Baltic. The winters arecharacterised by a slightly negative trend. The winter minimumSST in the Arkona Sea correlates best with the WIBIX climateindex derived for the Baltic region.

  8. Simulation of Extreme Arctic Cyclones in IPCC AR5 Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-15

    emerge in the interior Arctic Ocean, especially over regions where sea ice loss exposes open water. However, this change is not effected by the...htm> Scientific American ("Warming Arctic spurs cyclones and sea ice loss "), < http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/warming- arctic -spurs...cyclones-and-sea- ice - loss /?&WT.mc_id=SA_DD_20140220> Nelson Institute of Environmental Studies at University of Wisconsin feature ("More extreme Arctic

  9. Legal tools of public participation in the Environmental Impact Assessment process and their application in the countries of the Barents Euro-Arctic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenasheva Marina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on research of existing legal tools of public participation in the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA process and on practical issues of their application in the countries of the Barents Euro-Arctic Region (BEAR. The EIA is mandatory for projects which can have negative impacts on the environment and/or human health. Public participation in the EIA is one of the instruments used both on the international and national level that helps prevent or minimise the negative consequences of the project for the environment and human health. This article is based on research of national EIA legislation and on the analysis of the findings from interviews conducted with private and public organisations during benchmarking visits and fact-finding trips to the northern regions of Finland, Norway, Sweden and Northwest Russia. In addition, feedback was collected from participants during four seminars. Participatory methods, focused on public-private communication and pariticpation during the environmental impact assessment process, provides the theoretical basis for the article. This research results from work in a two-year strategic project funded by the Finnish Funding Agency for Innovation, TEKES.

  10. A remarkable new Middle Sandbian (Ordovician) hexactinellid sponge in Baltic erratics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botting, J.P.; Rhebergen, F.

    2011-01-01

    A new species of complex hexactinellid sponge, Haljalaspongia inaudita, is described from fluvially transported blocks found in northwestern Germany, near the Dutch border, but which probably originated from the eastern Baltic region. The heavily folded wall is composed of multiple spicule layers, i

  11. An enigmatic spiny harvestman from Baltic amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Dunlop

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A new harvestman (Arachnida: Opiliones from Baltic amber (Palaeogene: Eocene; ca. 44–49 Ma is described as Piankhi steineri n. gen., n. sp. This enigmatic fossil expresses long, slender pedipalps without a tarsal claw, which is characteristic for the suborder Dyspnoi. The chelicerae are notably enlarged and the dorsal body surface is formed from a carapace with a separate prosomatic tergite (metapeltidium, plus a large opisthosomal scute (or scutum parvum. However these characters, combined with the distinctly spiny limbs and further rows of spines across the fossil's opisthosoma, have no parallel among the modern dyspnoid harvestmen that we are aware of. The fossil resolves features reminiscent of modern members of the dyspnoid families Ceratolasmatidae, Nipponopsalididae, Ischyropsalididae and Sabaconidae, but does not show unequivocal apomorphies of any one particular family. We must entertain the possibility that this is an extinct body plan from the Eocene of north-central Europe, and we tentatively refer the fossil to a new genus in an unresolved position among the Ischyropsalidoidea (Dyspnoi. An amorphous triangular structure behind the anal region is assumed to be faecal matter, rather than part of the original anatomy. doi:10.1002/mmng.201200007

  12. 基于SWOT分析法研究我国北极油气合作战略%Study on China's oil and gas cooperation strategy in Arctic region based on the SWOT analytic methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王越

    2016-01-01

    Since the SWOT analytic method had been formed,it became the important analysis tool of strategic management and competitive intelligence after it was widely used in strategic research and competitive analysis. Its major advantage is analysis visual and using simple. As the allocation of resources globalization increasingly deepened,the strategic position of arctic regions has been promoted constantly. Its special geographical location,rich natural resources and the busy arctic channels accompanying climate warming have become the focus of all of world. In recent years,the arctic affairs have been hot,and many beyond arctic countries,regions and economies wish to "close to Arctic"consciously. As one of the largest economy in the world,we should have the comprehensive understanding of resources and cooperation situation of the arctic. We could make use of the SWOT analysis method to have a comprehensive knowledge base and reasonable analysis premise through the strengths,weaknesses,opportunities,threats-four factors of comparison and analysis for China's participation in the arctic affairs providing the strategic choice.%在战略研究与竞争分析工作中,SWOT分析法应用广泛,其分析直观、使用简单,是战略管理和竞争情报的重要分析手段.随着资源配置全球化的日趋深入,北极地区的战略地位不断提升,其特殊的地缘位置、丰富的自然资源和伴随气候变暖而日益繁忙的北极航道,都成为各国关注的焦点.近年来,北极事务不断升温,多个非北极国家、地区和经济体开始有意识地"靠近"北极,作为全球最大的经济体之一,我国对北极地区的资源和合作情况应有全面的认识.可以利用SWOT分析法,通过对优势、劣势、机会、威胁四个元素进行比较和分析,为中国开展北极油气合作的战略选择提供宏观、全面的认识基础和合理的分析前提.

  13. Collaborative Project. Understanding the effects of tides and eddies on the ocean dynamics, sea ice cover and decadal/centennial climate prediction using the Regional Arctic Climate Model (RACM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, Jennifer [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Joseph, Renu [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2013-09-14

    The goal of this project is to develop an eddy resolving ocean model (POP) with tides coupled to a sea ice model (CICE) within the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) to investigate the importance of ocean tides and mesoscale eddies in arctic climate simulations and quantify biases associated with these processes and how their relative contribution may improve decadal to centennial arctic climate predictions. Ocean, sea ice and coupled arctic climate response to these small scale processes will be evaluated with regard to their influence on mass, momentum and property exchange between oceans, shelf-basin, ice-ocean, and ocean-atmosphere. The project will facilitate the future routine inclusion of polar tides and eddies in Earth System Models when computing power allows. As such, the proposed research addresses the science in support of the BER’s Climate and Environmental Sciences Division Long Term Measure as it will improve the ocean and sea ice model components as well as the fully coupled RASM and Community Earth System Model (CESM) and it will make them more accurate and computationally efficient.

  14. Research with Arctic peoples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, H Sally; Bjerregaard, Peter; Chan, Hing Man

    2006-01-01

    of environmental and health issues that are unique to the Arctic regions, and research exploring these issues offers significant opportunities, as well as challenges. On July 28-29, 2004, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research co-sponsored a working group...... entitled "Research with Arctic Peoples: Unique Research Opportunities in Heart, Lung, Blood and Sleep Disorders". The meeting was international in scope with investigators from Greenland, Iceland and Russia, as well as Canada and the United States. Multiple health agencies from Canada and the United States...... sent representatives. Also attending were representatives from the International Union for Circumpolar Health (IUCH) and the National Indian Health Board. The working group developed a set of ten recommendations related to research opportunities in heart, lung, blood and sleep disorders; obstacles...

  15. Arctic Diatoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tammilehto, Anna

    are often dominated by diatoms. They are single-celled, eukaryotic algae, which play an essential role in ocean carbon and silica cycles. Many species of the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia Peragallo produce a neurotoxin, domoic acid (DA), which can be transferred to higher levels in food webs causing amnesic...... as vectors for DA to higher levels in the arctic marine food web, posing a possible risk also to humans. DA production in P. seriata was, for the first time, found to be induced by chemical cues from C. finmarchicus, C. hyperboreus and copepodite stages C3 and C4, suggesting that DA may be related to defense...... against grazing. This thesis also quantified population genetic composition and changes of the diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus spring bloom using microsatellite markers. Diatom-dominated spring blooms in the Arctic are the key event of the year, providing the food web with fundamental pulses of organic...

  16. Molecular identification key based on PCR/RFLP for three polychaete sibling species of the genus Marenzelleria, and the species' current distribution in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, M.; Laine, A. O.; Jürss, K.; Bastrop, R.

    2008-06-01

    Studies of Marenzelleria species were often hampered by identification uncertainties when using morphological characters only. A newly developed PCR/RFLP protocol allows a more efficient discrimination of the three species Marenzelleria viridis, Marenzelleria neglecta and Marenzelleria arctia currently known for the Baltic Sea. The protocol is based on PCR amplification of two mitochondrial DNA gene segments (16S, COI) followed by digestion with restriction enzymes. As it is faster and cheaper than PCR/sequencing protocols used so far, the protocol is recommended for large-scale analyses. The markers allow an undoubted determination of species irrespective of life stage or condition of the worms in the samples. The protocol was validated on about 950 specimens sampled at more than 30 sites of the Baltic and the North Sea, and on specimens from populations of the North American east coast. Besides this test we used mitochondrial DNA sequences (16S, COI, Cytb) and starch gel electrophoresis to further investigate the distribution of the three Marenzelleria species in the Baltic Sea. The results show that M. viridis (formerly genetic type I or M. cf. wireni) occurred in the Öresund area, in the south western as well as in the eastern Baltic Sea, where it is found sympatric with M. neglecta. Allozyme electrophoresis indicated an introduction by range expansion from the North Sea. The second species, M. arctia, was only found in the northern Baltic Sea, where it sometimes occurred sympatric with M. neglecta or M. viridis. For Baltic M. arctia, the most probable way of introduction is by ship ballast water from the European Arctic. There is an urgent need for a new genetic analysis of all Marenzelleria populations of the Baltic Sea to unravel the current distribution of the three species.

  17. Marine Arctic science capability making big strides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Leonard; Brass, Garrett

    The profound influence of the Arctic Ocean on global environment, the rapid variability of Arctic processes, and the unresolved geology of the ocean floor have led to growing scientific interest in this region. Ongoing studies are investigating recent historical processes and modern processes such as changes in ocean circulation and ice cover patterns. Sediments beneath the Arctic Ocean record long- and short-term waxing and waning of the cryosphere in the Northern Hemisphere and its linkages to bottom water renewal and faunal adaptation. Underlying basement rocks reflect the tectonic history of the ocean basin, including its ridges and plateaus, which are unsampled and of unknown composition and origin. The vulnerability of Arctic populations to environmental problems makes the need to understand the region even more compelling (see, for example, Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme, 1997; also see Web site http://www.grida.no/amap).

  18. Sources of sedimentary biomarkers and proxies with potential paleoenvironmental significance for the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Jérôme; Arz, Helge W.

    2016-07-01

    The Baltic Sea is a shallow, semi-enclosed and intra-continental shelf sea characterized by anoxic bottom waters in the deepest basins, allowing for the preservation of sedimentary organic matter. In the present study, the most abundant, naturally-occurring lipids in surface sediments from the entire Baltic Sea and the Skagerrak area were identified and their potential sources were assigned. Together with long-chain n-alkanes derived from land plant leaf waxes, diploptene and branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are of allochthonous origin, while isoprenoid GDGTs, hydroxylated isoprenoid GDGTs (OH-GDGTs), n-C25:1, n-C27:1 and n-C29:1 alkenes are autochthonous lipids. The isoprenoid and OH-GDGTs are probably derived from Thaumarchaeota and the long-chain n-alkenes from phototrophic organisms. Significant correlations were found between indexes based on isoprenoid and OH-GDGTs and Baltic Sea surface and bottom temperatures. The calibrations obtained for surface temperature have statistically similar slopes, but different intercepts than calibrations established for the Nordic Seas. The branched and isoprenoid tetraether index can be used to estimate the percentage of soil (terrestrial) organic matter in the sediments of the Baltic Sea. High values of the Paq' ratio (defined here as the ratio of odd numbered n-C23 and n-C25 over n-C23 to n-C29 alkanes) in the northern Baltic Sea originate from the presence of both Sphagnum mosses in the drainage basin and submerged macrophytes, such as Potamogeton sp. and Myriophyllum sp., in the freshwater to brackish water of the coastal areas. The Paq' ratio may thus reflect fluctuations in the regional expansion of freshwater to brackish coastal environments in the Baltic Sea.

  19. Diurnal variability of water vapour in the Baltic Sea region according to NCEP-CFSR and BaltAn65+ reanalyses** The survey was supported by the Estonian Science Foundation under a postdoctoral grant JD189, by European Social Fund’s Doctoral Studies and Internationalisation Programme DoRa and project SLOOM12073T, which are carried out by the Archimedes Foundation, and by the Estonian Radiation Climate project, funded by the European Regional Development Fund.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erko Jakobson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diurnal variations in water vapour in the Baltic Sea region are examined using BaltAn65+ and NCEP-CFSR reanalyses of summer (JJA data for the period 1979–2005. A systematic difference between precipitable water (PW diurnal variability above the land and the water is revealed. Above the land, PW diurnal variability has minimal values at 00 and 06 UTC, as in previous studies, whereas above the water, the minima are at 12 and 18 UTC. Diurnal variability in the vertical humidity profile is controlled by turbulent mixing and the diurnal behaviour of sea breezes. The impacts and proportions of diurnal variability of humidity are evaluated at different vertical levels.

  20. Possibilities and prospects of tourism development in the Russian Arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Lubov Larchenko

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. The article deals with necessity and possibility of tourism industry development as the leading sector of territorial specialization of Arctic regions. The problems are considered and strategic directions are defined for the formation and development of the tourism industry in the Arctic regions of Russia. Analysis of foreign experience in tourism development in the Arctic Regions allows to claim that it could be a powerful instrument in the economic development of Russia's Far Nort...

  1. Environmental Levels and Trends of 1,2-dichloroethane, vinyl chloride and chloroform in water, sediment and biota for the European and Arctic regions: literature study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korytar, P.; Leslie, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Data on concentrations of chloroform, 1,2-dichloroethane and vinyl chloride in European and Arctic waters, sediments and biota were collected from scientific literature and monitoring programmes for the period 1980–2005 and are presented in this report.

  2. Arctic Social Sciences: Opportunities in Arctic Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arctic Research Consortium of the United States, Fairbanks, AK.

    The U.S. Congress passed the Arctic Research and Policy Act in 1984 and designated the National Science Foundation (NSF) the lead agency in implementing arctic research policy. In 1989, the parameters of arctic social science research were outlined, emphasizing three themes: human-environment interactions, community viability, and rapid social…

  3. Overview of Financial Contagion Channels in the Banking Sector of Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gudelytė

    2014-10-01

    identification of the channels of external and internal negative shocks to the banking sector of Baltic States; useful not only for the banking executives providing business trends and officers of supervising institutions that should use not only Basel III requirements, identifying potential sources of risk in the near future, but for the rest part of society, both ordinary citizens and entrepreneurs having current accounts and deposits in banks.Originality/Value – modelling of systemic risk and analysis of instability causes of the banking sector applying reliable quantitative methods in Lithuania are not sufficiently developed and is impossible without knowing the mechanisms of transitions of external and internal shocks on banking sector. Researchers have provided an exhaustive analysis of contagion and channels of contagion in global extent or in another cases and regions. The banking sectors of the Baltic States are essentially controlled by the same foreign banking groups, so the international financial groups' liquidity problems could spill over to other banks in the Baltic States. This case is not exhaustively analysed by other researchers. This paper is one of the first attempts to describe and assess quantitatively the financial contagion in Baltic Stats. The deep dependence of banking institutions in the Baltic States on their investors means not only the simple attraction of capital flows but additional risk that can arise due to the lack of liquidity or panics of patronizing financial institutions. The findings of this article should ground the macro-prudential policy focussing on the external factors.Research type: literature review, general review.

  4. Distribution of Pacific-origin water in the region of the Chukchi Plateau in the Arctic Ocean in the summer of 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Jiuxin; CAO Yong; ZHAO Jinping; GAO Guoping; JIAO Yutian; LI Shujiang

    2005-01-01

    The upper ocean thermohaline structures in the region of the Chukchi Plateau are analyzed with the hydrographic data collected by the Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition in the summer of 2003. Three types of the Pacific-origin water were found in the upper ocean, Alaska Coastal Water (ACW), summer Bering Sea Water (sBSW) and winter Bering Sea Water (wBSW) are indicated by two maximums temperature and one minimum temperature, piling up from the upper to the lower respectively. The extreme warm ACW with a maximum temperature of 1.62 ℃ was found in the southwestern Canada Basin at a depth of about 50 m. A pathway of the ACW into the basin from its adjacent area did not existed in the expedition period. So it is speculated that the extreme warm feature of the ACW was formed locally in 2003. The relative weak ACW occurred to the east of the Chukchi Cap and in the southern Chukchi Abyssal Plain. The latter one might originate from a warm downwelling that existed in a small canyon at the shelf break of the Chukchi Sea. The sBSW without the ACW was found only at the southwestern flank of the Chukchi Cap. The ACW and the sBSW were not found in the northernmost station at 81°N,which indicates the north boundary of the upper Pacific-origin water in the Canada Basin. The wBSW, which existed in all deep stations, was exactly uniform at temperature. The difference of the core potential temperature of the wBSW in the deep regions is only 0.08 ℃.

  5. Sea Salt Source Function over the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petelski, Tomasz; Makuch, Przemyslaw; Markuszewski, Piotr; Jankowski, Andrzej; Zieliński, Tymon

    2013-04-01

    Studies of production and transport of aerosol over the sea are very important for many areas of knowledge. Marine aerosol emitted from the sea surface helps to clean the boundary layer from other aerosol particles. The emitted droplets do not dry out in the highly humid surface layer air and because of their sizes most of them are deposited quickly at the sea surface. Therefore, marine aerosol has many features of rain i.e. the deposition in the marine boundary layer in high wind events is controlled not only by the "dry" processes but also by the "wet" scavenging. While many cruises conducted on board S/Y Oceania, we collected many data which were used to calculate sea salt source function over the Baltic Sea. Our cruises held between 2009 and 2012. Measurements were carried out using gradient method. For this method we used Laser Particle Counter (PMS model CSASP-100_HV) placed on one oft the mast of S/Y Oceania. Measurements were performed on five different levels around sea level: 8, 11, 14, 17 and 20 meters. Based on the averaged vertical concentration, profiles were calculated, using Monin-Obuchow theory, vertical sea spray fluxes in the near water layer. Based on fluxes calculated from vertical concentration profiles was calculated sea salt source function over the Baltic Sea. This function gives emission for different particle size, depending on environmental parameters. Emission of sea spray depends of the size of energy lost by the wind waves in process of collapse. Acknowledgements: The support for this study was provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBałtyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract No. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09.

  6. Lunar nodal tide in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Wróblewski

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The nodal tide in the Baltic Sea was studied on the basis of the Stockholm tide-gauge readings for 1825-1984; data from the tide gauge at Swinoujscie for the same period provided comparative material. The Stockholm readings are highly accurate and are considered representative of sea levels in the whole Baltic; hence, the final computations were performed for the readings from this particular tide gauge for the period 1888-1980. The tidal amplitude obtained from measurements uncorrected for atmospheric pressure or wind field was compared with that forced only by atmospheric effects. The amplitude of the recorded nodal tide was the same as the equilibrium tide amplitude calculated for Stockholm. Calculations for equilibrium tide amplitudes were also performed for the extreme latitudes of the Baltic basin.

  7. Arctic security in an age of climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraska, James (ed.)

    2013-03-01

    Publisher review: This book examines Arctic defense policy and military security from the perspective of all eight Arctic states. In light of climate change and melting ice in the Arctic Ocean, Canada, Russia, Denmark (Greenland), Norway and the United States, as well as Iceland, Sweden and Finland, are grappling with an emerging Arctic security paradigm. This volume brings together the world's most seasoned Arctic political-military experts from Europe and North America to analyze how Arctic nations are adapting their security postures to accommodate increased shipping, expanding naval presence, and energy and mineral development in the polar region. The book analyzes the ascent of Russia as the first 'Arctic superpower', the growing importance of polar security for NATO and the Nordic states, and the increasing role of Canada and the United States in the region.(Author)

  8. Boundary survey, Arctic National Wildlife Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is on the geology of the Arctic National Wildlife Range western boundary. The Canning River region and Southern Brooks range are both analyzed, including...

  9. Grey seal predation on forage fish in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Aro; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Aho, Teija;

    has increased accordingly. The diet of grey seal in the Baltic consists of ca. 20 fish species. The most abundant prey items in the Baltic proper are Baltic herring, sprat, and cod, and in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay Baltic herring, Coregonus sp., Baltic salmon, and sea trout. An adult seal...... consumes on average round 4.5 kg fish per day, of which 55% are clupeoids in the Baltic Main basin and 70% in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay. According to acoustic estimates, predator– prey distribution patterns, migration patterns, and multispecies analysis (SMS), the predation effect of grey seals...... on Baltic herring and sprat stocks is still at a very low level. Hence, with present grey seal stock sizes, the impact of seal predation can be ignored in whole Baltic‐scale herring and sprat stock management considerations. Locally, however, grey seal–fishery interactions play an important role and should...

  10. Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea – value of water quality improvements & risk perceptions Dr. Marianne Zandersen1 Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University Abstract The Baltic Sea is heavily eutrofied and the trend has gone from bad to worse. The hypoxic zone has increased about 4...... of the water column to the bottom waters/deepwater. The expected effects include a slowing down of the sediment release from the bottom and improvement of the possibilities for aerobic bacterial decomposition and over time for the establishment of fauna. The projects test a bio-engineered approach to speeding...

  11. Ice-ocean-ecosystem operational model of the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecki, M.; Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, L.; Jakacki, J.; Nowicki, A.

    2012-04-01

    also provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBaltyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract no. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09. Calculations were done at the Academic Computer Center in Gdansk.

  12. CHARACTERISTICS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION IN ARCTIC CIRCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Lež

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of large quantities of hydrocarbons is supposed within the Arctic Circle. Assumed quantities are 25% of the total undiscovered hydrocarbon reserves on Earth, mostly natural gas. Over 500 major and minor gas accumulations within the Arctic Circle were discovered so far, but apart from Snøhvit gas field, there is no commercial exploitation of natural gas from these fields. Arctic gas projects are complicated, technically hard to accomplish, and pose a great threat to the return of investment, safety of people and equipment and for the ecosystem. Russia is a country that is closest to the realization of the Arctic gas projects that are based on the giant gas fields. The most extreme weather conditions in the seas around Greenland are the reason why this Arctic region is the least explored and furthest from the realization of any gas project (the paper is published in Croatian .

  13. Circum-Arctic Map Compilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltus, Richard W.; Gaina, Carmen

    2007-05-01

    Second Workshop of the Circum-Arctic Geophysical Maps Project, Trondheim, Norway, 12-13 February 2007 The eyes of the world are increasingly focused on the polar regions. Exploration and assessment of energy and mineral resources for the growing world economy are moving to high-latitude frontier areas. The effects of climatic changes are particularly pronounced at these ends of the Earth and have already attracted worldwide attention and concern. Many recent articles related to the International Polar Year underscore the importance of even basic mapping of the Arctic and Antarctic.

  14. Practical applicability and preliminary results of the Baltic Environmental Satellite Remote Sensing System (SatBaltic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, B.; Ostrowska, M.; Bradtke, K.; Darecki, M.; Dera, J.; Dudzinska-Nowak, J.; Dzierzbicka, L.; Ficek, D.; Furmanczyk, K.; Kowalewski, M.; Krezel, A.; Majchrowski, R.; Paszkuta, M.; Ston-Egiert, J.; Stramska, M.; Zapadka, T.

    2012-04-01

    SatBaltic (Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment) project is being realized in Poland by the SatBaltic Scientific Consortium, specifically appointed for this purpose, which associates four scientific institutions: the Institute of Oceanology PAN in Sopot - coordinator, the University of Gdańsk (Institute of Oceanography), the Pomeranian Academy in Słupsk (Institute of Physics) and the University of Szczecin (Institute of Marine Sciences). We present the first the results of the first year and a half of SatBaltic's implementation. The final result of the project is to be the creation and setting in motion of the SatBaltic Operational System (SBOS), the aim of which is to monitor effectively and comprehensively the state of the Baltic Sea environment using remote sensing techniques. Various aspects of the practical applicability of SBOS to the monitoring of the Baltic ecosystem are discussed. We present some examples of the maps of the various characteristics of the Baltic obtained using the current version of SBOS, including algorithms and models that are still in an unfinished state. At the current stage of research, these algorithms apply mainly to the characteristics of the solar energy influx and the distribution of this energy among the various processes taking place in the atmosphere-sea system, and also to the radiation balance of the sea surface, the irradiance conditions for photosynthesis and the condition of plant communities in the water, sea surface temperature distributions and some other marine phenomena correlated with this temperature. Also given are results of preliminary inspections of the accuracy of the magnitudes shown on the maps.

  15. Long-Term Arctic Peatland Dynamics, Vegetation and Climate History of the Pur-Taz Region, Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteet, Dorothy; Andreev, Andrei; Bardeen, William; Mistretta, Francesca

    1998-01-01

    Stratigraphic analyses of peat composition, LOI, pollen, spores, macrofossils, charcoal, and AMS ages are used to reconstruct the peatland, vegetation and climatic dynamics in the Pur-Taz region of western Siberia over 5000 years (9300 - 4500 BP). Section stratigraphy shows many changes from shallow lake sediment to different combinations of forested or open sedge, moss, and Equisetum fen and peatland environments. Macrofossil and pollen data indicate that Larix sibirica and Betula pubescens trees were first to arrive, followed by Picea obovata. The dominance of Picea macrofossils 6000-5000 BP in the Pur-Taz peatland along with regional Picea pollen maxima indicate warmer conditions and movement of the spruce treeline northward at this time. The decline of pollen and macrofossils from all of these tree species in uppermost peats suggests a change in the environment less favorable for their growth, perhaps cooler temperatures and/or less moisture. Of major significance is the evidence for old ages of the uppermost peats in this area of Siberia, suggesting a real lack of peat accumulation in recent millennia or recent oxidation of uppermost peat.

  16. Role of Greenland meltwater in the changing Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukhovskoy, Dmitry; Proshutinsky, Andrey; Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Myers, Paul; Platov, Gennady; Bamber, Jonathan; Curry, Beth; Somavilla, Raquel

    2016-04-01

    Observational data show that the Arctic ocean-ice-atmosphere system has been changing over the last two decades. Arctic change is manifest in the atypical behavior of the climate indices in the 21st century. Before the 2000s, these indices characterized the quasi-decadal variability of the Arctic climate related to different circulation regimes. Between 1948 and 1996, the Arctic atmospheric circulation alternated between anticyclonic circulation regimes and cyclonic circulation regimes with a period of 10-15 years. Since 1997, however, the Arctic has been dominated by an anticyclonic regime. Previous studies indicate that in the 20th century, freshwater and heat exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the sub-Arctic seas were self-regulated and their interactions were realized via quasi-decadal climate oscillations. What physical processes in the Arctic Ocean - sub-Arctic ocean-ice-atmosphere system are responsible for the observed changes in Arctic climate variability? The presented work is motivated by our hypothesis that in the 21st century, these quasi-decadal oscillations have been interrupted as a result of an additional freshwater source associated with Greenland Ice Sheet melt. Accelerating since the early 1990s, the Greenland Ice Sheet mass loss exerts a significant impact on thermohaline processes in the sub-Arctic seas. Surplus Greenland freshwater, the amount of which is about a third of the freshwater volume fluxed into the region during the 1970s Great Salinity Anomaly event, can spread and accumulate in the sub-Arctic seas influencing convective processes there. It is not clear, however, whether Greenland freshwater can propagate into the interior convective regions in the Labrador Sea and the Nordic Seas. In order to investigate the fate and pathways of Greenland freshwater in the sub-Arctic seas and to determine how and at what rate Greenland freshwater propagates into the convective regions, several numerical experiments using a passive tracer to

  17. Nutritional condition and vertical distribution of Baltic cod larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønkjær, P.; Clemmesen, C.; St. John, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Newly hatched Baltic cod Gadus morhua larvae are typically found at depths >60 m. This is a region of low light and prey availability, hence generating the hypothesis that larvae have to migrate from hatching depth to the surface layer to avoid starvation and improve their nutritional condition....... To lest this hypothesis, Baltic cod larvae were sampled during the spawning seasons of 1994 and 1995 with depth-resolving multiple opening/closing nets. Each larva was aged by otolith readings and its RNA/DNA ratio was determined as a measure of nutritional condition. The RNA/DNA ratios of these larvae...... aged 2-25 days (median 10 days) ranged from 0.4 to 6.2, corresponding to levels exhibited by starving and fast growing larvae in laboratory calibration studies (starvation, protein growth rate, G(pi)=-12.2% day(-1); fast-growing larvae, G(pi)=14.1% day(-1)) respectively. Seventy per cent of the field...

  18. Baltic air wars intensify / Dorian Ziedonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ziedonis, Dorian

    2008-01-01

    Leedu lennufirma FlyLAL pidi maksma ära 40 000 euro suuruse trahvi, et firma lennuk saaks Riia lennuväljalt lahkuda. Varem oli FlyLAL nõudnud Riia Lennujaamalt kompensatsiooni, kuna lennujaam oli võimaldanud Läti lennufirmal airBaltic maksta väiksemaid lennujaamatasusid

  19. Seasonal variability in the Baltic Sea level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Świrgoń

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sea level is subject to spatial and temporal variability on different scales. In this paper we investigate seasonal variability in the open Baltic Sea level using daily satellite altimetry data for the period 1 January 1993-31 December 2010. Our results indicate that there is a well-pronounced seasonal cycle in the 18-year average sea level and in its standard deviation. The average annual SLA amplitude in the open Baltic Sea is about 18 cm. The seasonal cycle of the SLA in the Baltic Sea is asymmetric in shape. In the autumn and winter (about 240-260 days per year, the 18-year average daily SLA are higher than the 18-year annual average SLA. In the spring and summer (about 100-120 days per year, the 18-year average daily SLA are lower than the 18-year annual average SLA. A similar asymmetry of the seasonal cycle is not observed in the North Sea and North Atlantic SLA data. The annual pattern of the sea level variability in the Baltic Sea is evident if one considers multi-year average time series, but the cycle can be obscured in some years.

  20. Seeds of Failure in Colbert's Baltic Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Richard William

    1984-01-01

    This investigation of French mercantilist initiatives and policies in the seventeenth century focuses on the attempts of Colbert, the controller general of finance to Louis XIV, to stimulate French trade with the Baltic by establishing a Company of the North. (RM)

  1. Nato enlarging into the Baltic States

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Prahas 21.-22. novembrini 2002 toimunud NATO tippkohtumisest ja seal vastu võetud otsusest Balti riikide alliansiga ühinemise kohta. Vt. samas: Russia's attitude to the NATO enlargement; Bush in Vilnius; Baltic states' prime ministers' met; Supporting USA?

  2. Dissent and Nationalism in the Soviet Baltic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    it is neither exclusivist nor chauvinistic, and cooperation across national lines, particularly with other Baltic groups, is commonplace and effec... exclusivist or chauvinistic. Indeed, one of its trademarks has been an unflagging concern for the rights of other nations and a desire to coperate with

  3. The Future of the Arctic: A Key to Global Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Stipo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The USACOR Report forecasts that by 2050 the Arctic will become the major supplier of energy to the world, in particular oil and natural gas, and natural resources such as mineral water. In the coming decades, the population in the Arctic region is projected to increase significantly due to the expansion of exploration for resources. The Report recommends that a Zero emission policy be implemented throughout the Arctic area for water emissions into the seas, rivers, or estuaries and oceans. The Report recommends that the Arctic Council guarantees safe navigation and environmental protection, establishing a Fund to cover expenses to purchase icebreakers and towards the cost of the personnel in order to assist commercial navigation in the Arctic region. The Arctic Council shall also issue environmental rules to regulate the mineral exploitation in the region and ensure that the wildlife is protected and that the exploitation of resources is conducted in a sustainable manner.

  4. Leading By Example: Canada and its Arctic Stewardship Role

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Danita Catherine

    2017-01-01

    . This paper explores the origins of Canada’s image as the steward of the Arctic environment which started with the 1970 Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act legislation and addresses the central research questions, how did Canada’s role as the steward of the Arctic environment begin and evolve and how...... to examine the circumstances which led to the creation and success of Canada’s stewardship role and its implications for Canadian and international shipping in the Arctic region before any changes are made to the governance of the region through unilateral legislation changes or new international agreements...... important is the Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act for international acceptance of Canada’s stewardship role and maritime jurisdiction in the Arctic region?...

  5. Biomonitoring polluted sediments in Arctic regions - possibilities and challenges using benthic foraminifera. Case studies from northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirbekk, Kari; Dijkstra, Noortje; Junttila, Juho; Sternal, Beata; Pedersen, Kristine Bondo; Forwick, Matthias; Carroll, JoLynn

    2016-04-01

    Biomonitoring pollution in marine environments using benthic foraminifera assemblages have proven to be a valid method for many regions. Two important reasons for their suitability are their sensitivity to changes in the environment and their rapid response time due to short life cycles. In addition, they are preserved in the sedimentary record, allowing for baseline studies of conditions prior to introduction of contaminants. Species of benthic foraminifera that appear to tolerate polluted sediments are referred to as opportunistic species. This notion is in general used for species able to dominate environments that are too stressful for most species. The high latitude setting of the northern Norwegian coastal zone experience high seasonality and, hence, largely changing conditions throughout a year: variations in water mass domination, freshwater influence, temperature and current velocity. It is possible that an environment like this is inhibited by a higher amount of opportunistic species generally thriving under high stress conditions. This might make the use of benthic foraminifera for biomonitoring more challenging, as the faunal compositions may be a result of a complex set of processes. Consequently, large datasets are necessary in order to make reliable conclusions, which in time may be used as generalized guidelines for biomonitoring in this geographical area. Here, we present preliminary results of benthic foraminiferal assemblages from two sites in Finnmark, northern Norway, which have been exposed to pollution. The main site is Repparfjorden, where the inner parts of the fjord were used as a submarine waste deposal site for mine tailings from a local copper mine during the 1970´s. Results from four marine sediment cores (10-20 cm long) containing sediments classified to be in moderate to very bad state (according to Norwegian sediment quality criteria) are presented. The contamination is seen in intervals of elevated copper content dated to the 1970

  6. THE ARCTIC: A DIALOGUE FOR DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Mazurov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In September 2010, Moscow hosted the International Arctic Forum “The Arctic—Territory of Dialogue.” The Arctic Forum focused its attention on elements of sustainable development in the Arctic region, i.e., ecology, economics, infrastructure, social services, security, and geopolitics. Many Russian experts and many well-known politicians and experts from leading research centers of the Arctic countries (Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and USA, as well as by participants from France, Germany, Netherlands, and other countries attended the forum. Scholars and public figures from the European countries, representatives of the NATO, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe and other institutions were also present at the conference. In his key-note speech the Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Russian Geographical Society (RGS, Prime Minister of the Russian Federation, Vladimir V. Putin formulated the principles of Russian national policy in the Arctic. Russian and foreign participants supported the idea of continuing dialogue on the Arctic under the RGS’s aegis and the transformation of the Arctic Forum into a permanent platform for discussions on the most urgent issues of the region.

  7. Arctic Glass: Innovative Consumer Technology in Support of Arctic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthkoski, T.

    2015-12-01

    The advancement of cyberinfrastructure on the North Slope of Alaska is drastically limited by location-specific conditions, including: unique geophysical features, remoteness of location, and harsh climate. The associated cost of maintaining this unique cyberinfrastructure also becomes a limiting factor. As a result, field experiments conducted in this region have historically been at a technological disadvantage. The Arctic Glass project explored a variety of scenarios where innovative consumer-grade technology was leveraged as a lightweight, rapidly deployable, sustainable, alternatives to traditional large-scale Arctic cyberinfrastructure installations. Google Glass, cloud computing services, Internet of Things (IoT) microcontrollers, miniature LIDAR, co2 sensors designed for HVAC systems, and portable network kits are several of the components field-tested at the Toolik Field Station as part of this project. Region-specific software was also developed, including a multi featured, voice controlled Google Glass application named "Arctic Glass". Additionally, real-time sensor monitoring and remote control capability was evaluated through the deployment of a small cluster of microcontroller devices. Network robustness was analyzed as the devices delivered streams of abiotic data to a web-based dashboard monitoring service in near real time. The same data was also uploaded synchronously by the devices to Amazon Web Services. A detailed overview of solutions deployed during the 2015 field season, results from experiments utilizing consumer sensors, and potential roles consumer technology could play in support of Arctic science will be discussed.

  8. Seasonal and Intra-annual Controls on CO2 Flux in Arctic Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oechel, Walter [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States); Kalhori, Aram [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    In order to advance the understanding of the patterns and controls on the carbon budget in the Arctic region, San Diego State University has maintained eddy covariance flux towers at three sites in Arctic Alaska, starting in 1997.

  9. Trace element concentrations and gastrointestinal parasites of Arctic terns breeding in the Canadian High Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, J F; Braune, B M; Gilchrist, H G; Forbes, M R; Mallory, M L

    2014-04-01

    Baseline data on trace element concentrations are lacking for many species of Arctic marine birds. We measured essential and non-essential element concentrations in Arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea) liver tissue and brain tissue (mercury only) from Canada's High Arctic, and recorded the presence/absence of gastrointestinal parasites during four different phases of the breeding season. Arctic terns from northern Canada had similar trace element concentrations to other seabird species feeding at the same trophic level in the same region. Concentrations of bismuth, selenium, lead and mercury in Arctic terns were high compared to published threshold values for birds. Selenium and mercury concentrations were also higher in Arctic terns from northern Canada than bird species sampled in other Arctic areas. Selenium, mercury and arsenic concentrations varied across the time periods examined, suggesting potential regional differences in the exposure of biota to these elements. For unknown reasons, selenium concentrations were significantly higher in birds with gastrointestinal parasites as compared to those without parasites, while bismuth concentrations were higher in Arctic terns not infected with gastrointestinal parasites.

  10. Arctic Region: historical presence and current socioeconomic and cultural problems; La region artica: presencia historica y problemas socioeconomicos y culturales actuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junquera Rubio, C.

    2011-07-01

    The Circumpolar region and indigenous peoples of the North have held a very special fascination for peoples in the temperate zones. The far northern peoples of Thule fascinated the scholars of Greece and Rome. The terms which describe the Circumpolar region such as cold, inhospitable, hostile, remote, inaccessible, etcetera. The numerous ethnic minorities living along the Circumpolar margins and they are an excellent example of humans groups whose material and spiritual culture has been forced to give way to the southern majority culture. In 1976, I began a study in four small communities of hunters and fishermen on the Mackenzie River on the NWT (Canada). This investigation was supported by the Federal Government of Canada (Foreign Office, Project number D-515-I-1999). The technique I used was that of participant observation. The subject of my research was the processes of change in the settlement of Norman Wells, Fort Norman and Fort Good Hope and others small communities with Inuit, Dene Indians and Metis population. (Author)

  11. Modeling the evolution of climate-sensitive Arctic subsea permafrost in regions of extensive gas expulsion at the West Yamal shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnov, Alexey; Mienert, Jurgen; Serov, Pavel

    2014-11-01

    Thawing subsea permafrost controls methane release from the Russian Arctic shelf having a considerable impact on the climate-sensitive Arctic environment. Expulsions of methane from shallow Russian Arctic shelf areas may continue to rise in response to intense degradation of relict subsea permafrost. Here we show modeling of the permafrost evolution from the Late Pleistocene to present time at the West Yamal shelf. Modeling results suggest a highly dynamic permafrost system that directly responds to even minor variations of lower and upper boundary conditions, e.g., geothermal heat flux from below and/or bottom water temperature changes from above permafrost. Scenarios of permafrost evolution show a potentially nearest landward modern extent of the permafrost at the West Yamal shelf limited by ~17 m isobaths, whereas its farthest seaward extent coincides with ~100 m isobaths. The model also predicts seaward tapering of relict permafrost with a maximal thickness of 275-390 m near the shoreline. Previous field observations detected extensive emissions of free gas into the water column at the transition zone between today's shallow water permafrost (20 m). The model adapts well to corresponding heat flux and ocean temperature data, providing crucial information about the modern permafrost conditions. It shows current locations of upper and lower permafrost boundaries and evidences for possible release of methane from the seabed to the hydrosphere in a warming Arctic.

  12. How will ocean acidification affect Baltic sea ecosystems? an assessment of plausible impacts on key functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havenhand, Jonathan N

    2012-09-01

    Increasing partial pressure of atmospheric CO₂ is causing ocean pH to fall-a process known as 'ocean acidification'. Scenario modeling suggests that ocean acidification in the Baltic Sea may cause a ≤ 3 times increase in acidity (reduction of 0.2-0.4 pH units) by the year 2100. The responses of most Baltic Sea organisms to ocean acidification are poorly understood. Available data suggest that most species and ecologically important groups in the Baltic Sea food web (phytoplankton, zooplankton, macrozoobenthos, cod and sprat) will be robust to the expected changes in pH. These conclusions come from (mostly) single-species and single-factor studies. Determining the emergent effects of ocean acidification on the ecosystem from such studies is problematic, yet very few studies have used multiple stressors and/or multiple trophic levels. There is an urgent need for more data from Baltic Sea populations, particularly from environmentally diverse regions and from controlled mesocosm experiments. In the absence of such information it is difficult to envision the likely effects of future ocean acidification on Baltic Sea species and ecosystems.

  13. The role of the Arctic in future global petroleum supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholt, Lars; Glomsroed, Solveig

    2011-07-01

    The Arctic has a substantial share of global petroleum resources, but at higher costs than in most other petroleum provinces. Arctic states and petroleum companies are carefully considering the potential for future extraction in the Arctic. This paper studies the oil and gas supply from 6 arctic regions during 2010-2050 along with global economic growth and different assumptions regarding petroleum prices and resource endowments. Supply is calculated based on a global model of oil and gas markets. The data on undiscovered resources for the Arctic is based on the estimates by USGS. Sensitivity studies are carried out for two alternative price scenarios and for a 50 per cent reduction of arctic undiscovered resources compared with the USGS 2008 resource estimate. Although a major part of the undiscovered arctic petroleum resources is natural gas, our results show that the relative importance of the Arctic as a world gas supplier will decline, while its importance as a global oil producer may be maintained. We also show that less than full access to undiscovered oil resources will have minor effect on total arctic oil production and a marginal effect on arctic gas extraction. The reason is that Arctic Russia is an important petroleum producer with a sufficiently large stock of already discovered resources to support their petroleum production before 2050. (Author)

  14. Global Warming Threatens National Interests in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-26

    Global warming has impacted the Arctic Ocean by significantly reducing the extent of the summer ice cover allowing greater access to the region...increased operations in the Arctic region, and DoD must continue to research and develop new and alternate energy sources for its forces. Global warming is

  15. Arctic parasitology: why should we care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Rebecca; Simard, Manon; Kutz, Susan J; Kapel, Christian M O; Hamnes, Inger S; Robertson, Lucy J

    2011-06-01

    The significant impact on human and animal health from parasitic infections in tropical regions is well known, but parasites of medical and veterinary importance are also found in the Arctic. Subsistence hunting and inadequate food inspection can expose people of the Arctic to foodborne parasites. Parasitic infections can influence the health of wildlife populations and thereby food security. The low ecological diversity that characterizes the Arctic imparts vulnerability. In addition, parasitic invasions and altered transmission of endemic parasites are evident and anticipated to continue under current climate changes, manifesting as pathogen range expansion, host switching, and/or disease emergence or reduction. However, Arctic ecosystems can provide useful models for understanding climate-induced shifts in host-parasite ecology in other regions.

  16. Harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena abundance in the southwestern Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Scheidat, M.; Gilles, A.; Kock, K. H.; Siebert, U

    2008-01-01

    Harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena is the only cetacean species resident in the Baltic Sea. At least 2 different subpopulations occur in this area, with a presumed demarcation line in the western Baltic Sea. Aerial surveys were conducted during different seasons in the years 2002 to 2006, to obtain estimates of porpoise abundance for the southwestern Baltic. Within the survey area, 3 strata were defined. In total, 46 surveys were completed for these strata. Abundance estimates and correspondi...

  17. Barry Lopez's Relational Arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Kjeldaas, Sigfrid

    2014-01-01

    "Arctic dreams: imagination and desire in a Northern landscape"(1986) can be read as American nature writer Barry Lopez’s attempt to evoke a more profound and ecologically sound understanding of the North American Arctic. This article investigates how Arctic Dreams uses insights from Jacob von Uexküll’s Umwelt theory, in combination with what Tim Ingold describes as a particular form of animism associated with circumpolar indigenous hunter cultures, to portray the Arctic natur...

  18. Seal dynamics on the Swedish west coast: Scenarios of competition as Baltic grey seal intrude on harbour seal territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Carl Johan

    2012-07-01

    The Kattegat-Skagerrak region on the Swedish west coast is home to an abundant harbour seal population (Phoca vitulina) and a small scattered grey seal population (Halichoerus grypus). In addition, grey seal from the growing population in the Baltic Sea frequently migrate into the Kattegat-Skagerrak. Harbour seals on the west coast of Sweden show relatively high population growth (approximately 9%) compared to the Baltic grey seal in ice-free habitats (approximately 6%), which, in theory, makes harbour seal the stronger competitor of the two in this region. However, incidents of disease in harbour seals that lower population growth are becoming more frequent. These epidemics are primarily caused by the Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV), and may reduce population size with up to 70%. This study models the average development under potential scenarios of competing harbour- and Baltic grey seal populations using Leslie matrices and the Lotka-Volterra model of inter-specific competition. The model is parameterised with previously published data, and resource overlap is incorporated through density dependent pup survival. Using numerical methods short- and long-term abundances are simulated under weak, moderate and strong competition and for different frequencies of PDV epidemics. Results show that the harbour seals are resilient to competition while exerting a negative effect on grey seal abundance under moderate to strong competition. Hence Baltic grey seal benefit from weaker levels of competition. Under moderate and strong competition grey seal abundance is a direct function of the PDV frequency as this reduces the competitive strength of harbour seals. Theoretically this means that higher frequencies of PDV or other pathogens epidemics could facilitate an expansion of Baltic grey seal into Kattegat-Skagerrak. Independent of interaction strength and frequency of epidemics the projected changes to abundances are slow (50-100 years), and even in exceedingly stable

  19. Studies of vertical coarse aerosol fluxes in the boundary layer over the Baltic Sea* This work was supported through the National Science Centre grant NN 306315536; support for this study was also provided by the project ‘Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment – SatBałtyk’ funded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract No. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Petelski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies of the vertical gradient of aerosol concentration measurements made during cruises of r/v ‘Oceania’ between 2008 and 2012 are presented. Using the results from those experiments, sea spray emission fluxes were calculated for all particles of sizes in the range from 0.5 μm to 8 μm, as well as for particles of sizes from fifteen channels of 0.5 μm width. The information obtained was further used to calculate the Sea Salt Generation Function (SSGF for the Baltic Sea depending on the wind speed and the aerosol size distribution.

  20. Lack of recognition of genetic biodiversity: International policy and its implementation in Baltic Sea marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laikre, Linda; Lundmark, Carina; Jansson, Eeva; Wennerström, Lovisa; Edman, Mari; Sandström, Annica

    2016-10-01

    Genetic diversity is needed for species' adaptation to changing selective pressures and is particularly important in regions with rapid environmental change such as the Baltic Sea. Conservation measures should consider maintaining large gene pools to maximize species' adaptive potential for long-term survival. In this study, we explored concerns regarding genetic variation in international and national policies that governs biodiversity and evaluated if and how such policy is put into practice in management plans governing Baltic Sea Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in Sweden, Finland, Estonia, and Germany. We performed qualitative and quantitative textual analysis of 240 documents and found that agreed international and national policies on genetic biodiversity are not reflected in management plans for Baltic Sea MPAs. Management plans in all countries are largely void of goals and strategies for genetic biodiversity, which can partly be explained by a general lack of conservation genetics in policies directed toward aquatic environments.

  1. The remote sensing needs of Arctic geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, W. J.

    1970-01-01

    The application of remote sensors for obtaining geophysical information of the Arctic regions is discussed. Two significant requirements are to acquire sequential, synoptic imagery of the Arctic Ocean during all weather and seasons and to measure the strains in the sea ice canopy and the heterogeneous character of the air and water stresses acting on the canopy. The acquisition of geophysical data by side looking radar and microwave sensors in military aircraft is described.

  2. Simulating Baltic Sea climate for the period 1902-1998 with the Rossby Centre coupled ice-ocean model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, H.E. Markus [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Inst., Rossby Centre, Norrkoeping (Sweden); Kauker, Frank [Alfred Wegener Inst. for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    Hindcast simulations for the period 1902-1998 have been performed using a 3D coupled ice-ocean model for the Baltic Sea. Daily sea level observations in Kattegat, monthly basin-wide discharge data, and reconstructed atmospheric surface data have been used to force the Baltic Sea model. The reconstruction utilizes a statistical model to calculate daily sea level pressure and monthly surface air temperature, dew point temperature, precipitation, and cloud cover fields on a 1 deg x 1 deg regular horizontal grid for the Baltic Sea region. An improved turbulence scheme has been implemented into the Baltic Sea model to simulate saltwater inflows realistically. The results are validated against available observational datasets for sea level, salinity, saltwater inflow, volume transport, and sea ice. In addition, a comparison is performed with simulations for the period 1980-1993 using 3-hourly gridded atmospheric observations from synoptic stations. It is shown that the results of the Baltic Sea model forced with the reconstructed data are satisfactory. Sensitivity experiments have been performed to explore the impact of internal mixing, fresh and saltwater inflows, sea ice, and the sea level in Kattegat on the salinity of the Baltic Sea. It is found that the decadal variability of mean salinity is explained partly by decadal volume variations of the accumulated freshwater inflow from river runoff and net precipitation and partly by decadal variations of the large-scale sea level pressure over Scandinavia. During the last century two exceptionally long stagnation periods are found, the 1920s to the 1930s and the 1980s to the mid 1990s. During these periods precipitation, runoff and westerly winds were stronger than normal. Stronger westerly winds caused increased eastward surface-layer transports. Consequently, the mean eastward lower layer transports through the Stolpe Channel is reduced. The response time scale of the Baltic Sea is of the order of 30-40 years. The large

  3. Sea Surface Temperature Climate Data Record for the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Jacob L.; Karagali, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    A 30-yr climate data record (CDR) of sea surface temperature (SST) has been produced with daily gap-free analysis fields for the North Sea and the Baltic Sea region from 1982 to 2012 by combining the Pathfinder AVHRR satellite data record with the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) Reprocessing...... observations on average. Validation against independent in situ observations shows a very stable performance of the data record, with a mean difference of -0.06 °C compared to moored buoys and a 0.46 °C standard deviation of the differences. The mean annual biases of the SST CDR are small for all years......, with a negligible temporal trend when compared against drifting and moored buoys. Analysis of the SST CDR reveals that the monthly anomalies for the North Sea, the Danish straits, and the central Baltic Sea regions show a high degree of correlation for interannual and decadal time scales, whereas the monthly...

  4. Influence of sea ice on Arctic precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopec, Ben G; Feng, Xiahong; Michel, Fred A; Posmentier, Eric S

    2016-01-05

    Global climate is influenced by the Arctic hydrologic cycle, which is, in part, regulated by sea ice through its control on evaporation and precipitation. However, the quantitative link between precipitation and sea ice extent is poorly constrained. Here we present observational evidence for the response of precipitation to sea ice reduction and assess the sensitivity of the response. Changes in the proportion of moisture sourced from the Arctic with sea ice change in the Canadian Arctic and Greenland Sea regions over the past two decades are inferred from annually averaged deuterium excess (d-excess) measurements from six sites. Other influences on the Arctic hydrologic cycle, such as the strength of meridional transport, are assessed using the North Atlantic Oscillation index. We find that the independent, direct effect of sea ice on the increase of the percentage of Arctic sourced moisture (or Arctic moisture proportion, AMP) is 18.2 ± 4.6% and 10.8 ± 3.6%/100,000 km(2) sea ice lost for each region, respectively, corresponding to increases of 10.9 ± 2.8% and 2.7 ± 1.1%/1 °C of warming in the vapor source regions. The moisture source changes likely result in increases of precipitation and changes in energy balance, creating significant uncertainty for climate predictions.

  5. Changing Arctic ecosystems: ecology of loons in a changing Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher-Koch, Brian; Schmutz, Joel; Whalen, Mary; Pearce, John M.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Changing Arctic Ecosystems (CAE) initiative informs key resource management decisions for Arctic Alaska by providing scientific information on current and future ecosystem response to a changing climate. From 2010 to 2014, a key study area for the USGS CAE initiative has been the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska. This region has experienced rapid warming during the past 30 years, leading to the thawing of permafrost and changes to lake and river systems. These changes, and projections of continued change, have raised questions about effects on wildlife populations that rely on northern lake ecosystems, such as loons. Loons rely on freshwater lakes for nesting habitat and the fish and invertebrates inhabiting the lakes for food. Loons live within the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPR-A) on Alaska’s northern coast, where oil and gas development is expected to increase. Research by the USGS examines how breeding loons use the Arctic lake ecosystem and the capacity of loons to adapt to future landscape change.

  6. Günther Grass and the Pirates: The Stuff of Myth and the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J Knoespel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Grass’s Flounder contributes to our work of locating, dislocating, and relocating literature in the Baltic Sea region by challenging us to give attention to the lost or hidden stories that are ignored or played off against each other in the official versions of history that would fix our position in space. While Grass counters the seduction of the big story — universal history — he also reveals himself by getting caught in the contradiction of his own storytelling.

  7. Evaluation of MERIS Case-II Water Processors in the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo Pedrero, Jaume

    2009-01-01

    Projecte realitzat en col.laboració amb Helsinki University of Technology Four MERIS Case-II Water Processors are studied, compared and evaluated: Coastal Case 2 Regional Processor, Boreal Lakes Processor, Eutrophic Lakes Processor and FUB/Wew Water Processor. In situ data from the Baltic Sea have been used to evaluate the water constituent estimations. In addition, the effect of adjacency effect ICOL on the estimation has been analyzed. For this purpose, a set of tools has been d...

  8. Arctic Summer Ice Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to estimate the flux of heat and freshwater resulting from sea ice melt in the polar seas. The approach taken is to examine the decay of sea ice in the summer months primarily through the use of spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery. The improved understanding of the dynamics of the melt process can be usefully combined with ice thermodynamic and upper ocean models to form more complete models of ice melt. Models indicate that more heat is absorbed in the upper ocean when the ice cover is composed of smaller rather than larger floes and when there is more open water. Over the course of the summer, floes disintegrate by physical forcing and heating, melting into smaller and smaller sizes. By measuring the change in distribution of floes together with open water over a summer period, we can make estimates of the amount of heating by region and time. In a climatic sense, these studies are intended to improve the understanding of the Arctic heat budget which can then be eventually incorporated into improved global climate models. This work has two focus areas. The first is examining the detailed effect of storms on floe size and open water. A strong Arctic low pressure storm has been shown to loosen up the pack ice, increase the open water concentration well into the pack ice, and change the distribution of floes toward fewer and smaller floes. This suggests episodic melting and the increased importance of horizontal (lateral) melt during storms. The second focus area is related to an extensive ship-based experiment that recently took place in the Arctic called Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA). An icebreaker was placed purposely into the older pack ice north of Alaska in September 1997. The ship served as the base for experimenters who deployed extensive instrumentation to measure the atmosphere, ocean, and ice during a one-year period. My experiment will be to derive similar measurements (floe size, open

  9. Impact of declining Arctic sea ice on winter snowfall

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jiping; Curry, Judith A.; Wang, Huijun; Song, Mirong; Radley M. Horton

    2012-01-01

    While the Arctic region has been warming strongly in recent decades, anomalously large snowfall in recent winters has affected large parts of North America, Europe, and east Asia. Here we demonstrate that the decrease in autumn Arctic sea ice area is linked to changes in the winter Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation that have some resemblance to the negative phase of the winter Arctic oscillation. However, the atmospheric circulation change linked to the reduction of sea ice shows mu...

  10. Covering Kiruna : a natural experiment in Arctic awareness.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    At a time when the Arctic is attracting increasing international attention and a variety of actors are positioning themselves in anticipation of future developments, news reporters across the world face the challenge of explaining why the Arctic is relevant to the lives and realities of audiences, some of whom are far from the region itself. This challenge was felt particularly profoundly in May 2013, when events and controversies surrounding the Kiruna Arctic Council meeting tasked journalis...

  11. Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-14

    and tourism (cruise ships) in the Arctic increase the risk of pollution in the region. Cleaning up oil spills in ice-covered waters will be more...resources, and expanded fishing and tourism (Figure 3). More broadly, physical changes in the Arctic include warming ocean, soil, and air temperatures...Alaska, and the Gulf of Mexico that had been in place since 1982 had not been restored in 2009 appropriations measures. Changes in the Arctic

  12. ArcticDEM; A Publically Available, High Resolution Elevation Model of the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Paul; Porter, Claire; Cloutier, Michael; Howat, Ian; Noh, Myoung-Jong; Willis, Michael; Bates, Brian; Willamson, Cathleen; Peterman, Kennith

    2016-04-01

    A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the Arctic is needed for a large number of reasons, including: measuring and understanding rapid, ongoing changes to the Arctic landscape resulting from climate change and human use and mitigation and adaptation planning for Arctic communities. The topography of the Arctic is more poorly mapped than most other regions of Earth due to logistical costs and the limits of satellite missions with low-latitude inclinations. A convergence of civilian, high-quality sub-meter stereo imagery; petascale computing and open source photogrammetry software has made it possible to produce a complete, very high resolution (2 to 8-meter posting), elevation model of the Arctic. A partnership between the US National Geospatial-intelligence Agency and a team led by the US National Science Foundation funded Polar Geospatial Center is using stereo imagery from DigitalGlobe's Worldview-1, 2 and 3 satellites and the Ohio State University's Surface Extraction with TIN-based Search-space Minimization (SETSM) software running on the University of Illinois's Blue Water supercomputer to address this challenge. The final product will be a seemless, 2-m posting digital surface model mosaic of the entire Arctic above 60 North including all of Alaska, Greenland and Kamchatka. We will also make available the more than 300,000 individual time-stamped DSM strip pairs that were used to assemble the mosaic. The Arctic DEM will have a vertical precision of better than 0.5m and can be used to examine changes in land surfaces such as those caused by permafrost degradation or the evolution of arctic rivers and floodplains. The data set can also be used to highlight changing geomorphology due to Earth surface mass transport processes occurring in active volcanic and glacial environments. When complete the ArcticDEM will catapult the Arctic from the worst to among the best mapped regions on Earth.

  13. Reduction of Baltic Sea nutrient inputs and allocation of abatement costs within the Baltic Sea catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Fredrik; Humborg, Christoph; Andersen, Hans Estrup; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Czajkowski, Mikołaj; Elofsson, Katarina; Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders; Hasler, Berit; Hong, Bongghi; Jansons, Viesturs; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Smart, James C R; Smedberg, Erik; Stålnacke, Per; Swaney, Dennis P; Thodsen, Hans; Was, Adam; Zylicz, Tomasz

    2014-02-01

    The Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) requires tools to simulate effects and costs of various nutrient abatement strategies. Hierarchically connected databases and models of the entire catchment have been created to allow decision makers to view scenarios via the decision support system NEST. Increased intensity in agriculture in transient countries would result in increased nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea, particularly from Poland, the Baltic States, and Russia. Nutrient retentions are high, which means that the nutrient reduction goals of 135 000 tons N and 15 000 tons P, as formulated in the BSAP from 2007, correspond to a reduction in nutrient loadings to watersheds by 675 000 tons N and 158 000 tons P. A cost-minimization model was used to allocate nutrient reductions to measures and countries where the costs for reducing loads are low. The minimum annual cost to meet BSAP basin targets is estimated to 4.7 billion Euro.

  14. New airBaltic owner on board

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Transatlantic Holdings Company on ostnud 9,6 miljoni euro eest 59 110 airBalticu aktsiat. Läti majandusminister Artis Kampars soovib raskustesse sattunud lennufirma juhi Bertolt Flicki väljavahetamist. airBaltic plaanib koondamist. Riigikogu liige Arto Aas rõhutas, et airBalticu kadumine turult ei ole Eesti reisijate huvides, kuna ta on suuruselt kolmas lennukompanii Tallinna Lennujaamas

  15. EU Engagement in the Arctic: Do the Policy Responses from the Arctic States Recognise the EU as a Legitimate Stakeholder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamrul Hossain

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic states are bound in an institutional relationship by means of their actions through the Arctic Council (AC—an organisation created by the eight Arctic states. Although a number of its European Union (EU states are both members and observers in the AC, the EU is not, despite its clear stake in the Arctic, for of a number of reasons. The AC twice postponed the application of the EU in 2013; however, it granted the EU the right to observe the AC meetings as an “observer in principle.” In addition to the significant resource and commercial interests of the EU in the Arctic, it assumes a stewardship role in the Arctic. As the leader in combating global climate change, for example, the EU is committed to assuming responsibility for protecting the Arctic environment given that climate change does have a devastating impact in the Arctic. Moreover, the EU is also concerned about its and continental Europe's only indigenous people, the Sámi, a significant proportion of whom live in its Arctic member states of Finland and Sweden. Thus, in recent years, the EU has endorsed a series of policy documents concerning the Arctic. Against the background of this development, this article examines whether the policy responses of the Arctic states with regard to the EU's increased ambition to engage in Arctic matters make it a legitimate actor or stakeholder. The article concludes that even though the Arctic states, as the primary actors, determine the region's governance approach, they see also a general partnership role for the EU with regard to the common goals of knowledge-based responsible governance and sustainable development of the Arctic.

  16. Islands of the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overpeck, Jonathan

    2004-02-01

    Few environments on Earth are changing more dramatically than the Arctic. Sea ice retreat and thinning is unprecedented in the period of the satellite record. Surface air temperatures are the warmest in centuries. The biology of Arctic lakes is changing like never before in millennia. Everything is pointing to the meltdown predicted by climate model simulations for the next 100 years. At the same time, the Arctic remains one of the most pristine and beautiful places on Earth. For both those who know the Arctic and those who want to know it, this book is worth its modest price. There is much more to the Arctic than its islands, but there's little doubt that Greenland and the major northern archipelagos can serve as a great introduction to the environment and magnificence of the Arctic. The book uses the islands of the Arctic to give a good introduction to what the Arctic environment is all about. The first chapter sets the stage with an overview of the geography of the Arctic islands, and this is followed by chapters that cover many key aspects of the Arctic: the geology (origins), weather and climate, glaciers, ice sheets, sea ice, permafrost and other frozen ground issues, coasts, rivers, lakes, animals, people, and environmental impacts. The material is pitched at a level well suited for the interested layperson, but the book will also appeal to those who study the science of the Arctic.

  17. To what extent does the salinity flux influence phytoplankton blooms? - Baltic Sea modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszyńska, Agata; Stramska, Małgorzata

    2016-04-01

    This work is focused on numerical modeling of biological-physical interactions and their influence on phytoplankton production and vertical distribution of biomass and its variability in the surface waters of the Baltic Sea. The area of interest is an inland sea with water salinity much smaller than observed in the global ocean (about one fifth of the open ocean value). Vertical distribution of the salinity has a significant influence on water column density stratification, and therefore influences intensity of mixing and the depth of mixed layer. This, in turn, defines environmental conditions for phytoplankton growth. Vertical distribution of water salinity in the basin is controlled by processes such as evaporation/precipitation, freezing/melting of sea ice and runoff of freshwater from land. There are a lot of different phytoplankton species in the area of the Baltic Sea. Every single one has its own characteristics and is sensitive to distinct complex environmental conditions. Biological-physical interactions controlling these microorganisms' life cycles are multiplicitous and because of their complexity difficult to quantify. The best and probably only way to study presented issue is the usage of numerical modeling tool. The results presented here are based on 1D numerical simulations carried out with Princeton Ocean Model (POM, http://www.ccpo.odu.edu/POMWEB/) merged with the Ecological Regional Ecosystem Model (ERGOM, http://ergom.net/) developed for the Baltic Sea research by German scientists from the Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research in Warnemünde. In model simulations surface salinity flux was determined from the difference between the precipitation and evaporation rate at the air-sea interface. Data for parameterization of atmospheric forcing were defined based on data sets from National Centers of Environmental Prediction (NCEP). We carried out systematic calculations using different values of surface fluxes encompassing the range of

  18. Rationale for restocking the Eastern Baltic cod stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne; Overton, Julia Lynne; Paulsen, Helge;

    2008-01-01

    The Danish Institute for Fisheries Research and Bornholm's Salmon Hatchery examined the potential for restocking Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.) in the eastern Baltic Sea. This cod population has adapted to the unique brackish water conditions where successful spawning depends on regular i...

  19. BALCOFISH - a BONUS+ project in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Jakob

    The project BALCOFISH, acronym for "Integration of pollutant gene responses and fish ecology in Baltic coastal fisheries and management" is a newly started 3-years BONUS+-project funded by Baltic Organisations Network for Funding Science EEIG (www.bonusportal.org) with focus on contaminants...

  20. China in the Arctic: interests, actions and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This article gives an overview of China’s interest in and approach to the Arctic region. The following questions are raised: 1.Why is China getting involved in the Arctic, 2. How is China’s engagement in the Arctic playing out? 3, What are the most important issues that need to be solved in order for China to increase its relevance and importance as a political actor and partner in the Arctic. In applying a rationalist approach when answering the research questions, I identify how China in th...

  1. Arctic winter warming amplified by the thermal inversion and consequent low infrared cooling to space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bintanja, R.; Graversen, R.G.; Hazeleger, W.

    2011-01-01

    Pronounced warming in the Arctic region, coined Arctic amplification, is an important feature of observed and modelled climate change1, 2. Arctic amplification is generally attributed to the retreat of sea-ice3 and snow, and the associated surface-albedo feedback4, in conjunction with other processe

  2. Connecting climate signals with phytoplankton productivity and composition in a high Arctic fjord

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Poll, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Kongsfjorden is a high Arctic fjord on the West coast of Spitsbergen in a rapidly changing region that experiences both Arctic and sub-Arctic influences. This fjord has been subject to intense research since the 1980s. More recently, an effort was started by the AWI to collect daily physical, chemic

  3. Why cumulative impacts assessments of hydrocarbon activities in the Arctic fail to meet their purpose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkfeldt, Trine Skovgaard; Hansen, Anne Merrild; Olsen, Pernille;

    2016-01-01

    The Arctic Region is characterised by vulnerable ecosystems and residing indigenous people, dependent on nature for fishing and hunting. The Arctic also contains a wealth of non-living natural resources such as minerals and hydrocarbons. Synergies between increased access and growing global demand...... of methodology for assessment of cumulative impacts, knowledge gap of Arctic ecosystems and other....

  4. Cost Estimation for Surface Navy Investment in Arctic-capable Platform to Maintain National Security Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    perspective 24 China’s environment is significantly effected by Arctic weather patterns (International Studies on the Polar Region, 2014). This...space for Arctic cold- weather gear, which translates into greater sustainability and an increased HADR capability. The possibility of incorporating...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT COST ESTIMATION FOR SURFACE NAVY INVESTMENT IN ARCTIC

  5. Biodiversity of Arctic marine ecosystems and responses to climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, C.; Bluhm, B.; Gallucci, V.

    2012-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean is undergoing major changes in many of its fundamental physical constituents, from a shift from multi- to first-year ice, shorter ice-covered periods, increasing freshwater runoff and surface stratification, to warming and alteration in the distribution of water masses...... that structure ecosystem biodiversity in the Arctic Ocean. We also discuss climateassociated effects on the biodiversity of Arctic marine ecosystems and discuss implications for the functioning of Arctic marine food webs. Based on the complexity and regional character of Arctic ecosystem reponses....... These changes have important impacts on the chemical and biological processes that are at the root of marine food webs, influencing their structure, function and biodiversity. Here we summarise current knowledge on the biodiversity of Arctic marine ecosystems and provide an overview of fundamental factors...

  6. Future-Proofing Japan’s Interests in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki

    2014-01-01

    credentials Japan has to be involved in the leading Arctic forum. However, a closer look at its engagement in the Arctic indicates that Japan has genuine interests in political, economic, and environmental developments there. This essay examines Japan’s interests in the Arctic, its new role as an observer......In May 2013 the Arctic states convened in Kiruna, Sweden, in part to decide on whether six new states should be admitted as observers to the Arctic Council. Japan’s application was accepted along with those of China,India, Italy, Singapore, and South Korea. At a glance, one might ask what...... to the Arctic Council, and the international relationships that will affect Japan’s engagement in the region....

  7. Gender Segregated Labour Markets in the Baltics: What are Prevailing – Similarities or Differences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rein Vöörmann

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on men and women and the gender segregation of jobs in the Baltic countries. Based on the Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian labour force survey data, a look is taken at the employment structure of men and women by industries and occupations, as well as at the question whether or not gender segregation in the labour market has been increased after the collapse of the communist systems in the region under consideration. Empirical data demonstrate that in respect to industrial gender segregation there is some increase in Estonia and Latvia, but not in Lithuania. Occupational gender segregation demonstrates more stability in all three Baltic States. Compared to the Western European countries, the main trend is towards bigger similarities.

  8. Impact of 21st century climate change on the Baltic Sea fish community and fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Gislason, Henrik; Möllmann, C.;

    2007-01-01

    reviewed. We then use recent regional - scale climate - ocean modelling results to consider how climate change during this century will affect the fish community of the Baltic and fisheries management. Expected climate changes in northern Europe will likely affect both the temperature and salinity...... some of the uncertainties and complexities associated with forecasting how fish populations, communities and industries dependent on an estuarine ecosystem might respond to future climate change.......The Baltic Sea is a large brackish semienclosed sea whose species-poor fish community supports important commercial and recreational fisheries. Both the fish species and the fisheries are strongly affected by climate variations. These climatic effects and the underlying mechanisms are briefly...

  9. Seasonality of global and Arctic black carbon processes in the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Rashed; Salzen, Knut; Flanner, Mark; Sand, Maria; Langner, Joakim; Wang, Hailong; Huang, Lin

    2016-06-01

    This study quantifies black carbon (BC) processes in three global climate models and one chemistry transport model, with focus on the seasonality of BC transport, emissions, wet and dry deposition in the Arctic. In the models, transport of BC to the Arctic from lower latitudes is the major BC source for this region. Arctic emissions are very small. All models simulated a similar annual cycle of BC transport from lower latitudes to the Arctic, with maximum transport occurring in July. Substantial differences were found in simulated BC burdens and vertical distributions, with Canadian Atmospheric Global Climate Model (CanAM) (Norwegian Earth System Model, NorESM) producing the strongest (weakest) seasonal cycle. CanAM also has the shortest annual mean residence time for BC in the Arctic followed by Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute Multiscale Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry model, Community Earth System Model, and NorESM. Overall, considerable differences in wet deposition efficiencies in the models exist and are a leading cause of differences in simulated BC burdens. Results from model sensitivity experiments indicate that convective scavenging outside the Arctic reduces the mean altitude of BC residing in the Arctic, making it more susceptible to scavenging by stratiform (layer) clouds in the Arctic. Consequently, scavenging of BC in convective clouds outside the Arctic acts to substantially increase the overall efficiency of BC wet deposition in the Arctic, which leads to low BC burdens and a more pronounced seasonal cycle compared to simulations without convective BC scavenging. In contrast, the simulated seasonality of BC concentrations in the upper troposphere is only weakly influenced by wet deposition in stratiform clouds, whereas lower tropospheric concentrations are highly sensitive.

  10. Arctic shipping emissions inventories and future scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Corbett

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is a sensitive region in terms of climate change and a rich natural resource for global economic activity. Arctic shipping is an important contributor to the region's anthropogenic air emissions, including black carbon – a short-lived climate forcing pollutant especially effective in accelerating the melting of ice and snow. These emissions are projected to increase as declining sea ice coverage due to climate change allows for increased shipping activity in the Arctic. To understand the impacts of these increased emissions, scientists and modelers require high-resolution, geospatial emissions inventories that can be used for regional assessment modeling. This paper presents 5 km×5 km Arctic emissions inventories of important greenhouse gases, black carbon and other pollutants under existing and future (2050 scenarios that account for growth of shipping in the region, potential diversion traffic through emerging routes, and possible emissions control measures. Short-lived forcing of ~4.5 gigagrams of black carbon from Arctic shipping may increase climate forcing; a first-order calculation of global warming potential due to 2030 emissions in the high-growth scenario suggests that short-lived forcing of ~4.5 gigagrams of black carbon from Arctic shipping may increase climate forcing due to Arctic ships by at least 17% compared to warming from these vessels' CO2 emissions (~42 000 gigagrams. The paper also presents maximum feasible reduction scenarios for black carbon in particular. These emissions reduction scenarios will enable scientists and policymakers to evaluate the efficacy and benefits of technological controls for black carbon, and other pollutants from ships.

  11. Melt onset dates for Arctic regions derived from satellite passive microwave data for 1979-2010; a comparison between the operational CDR and research level ESDR data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, M. R.; Bliss, A. C.

    2012-12-01

    for these effects, the NASA ESDR algorithm implements a ten day window. Since the brightness temperature differences do not persist over the ten day window no melt is indicated. Therefore both algorithms do not interpret the resulting brightness temperature differences the same, and thus, calculate a different melt date. Another situation where large differences exist between the data sets occurs with the land and coastal pixel identifications used with each data set. There are many points where one algorithm does not calculate melt compared to the other because of the land or coastal mask. These differences in melt onset dates between the NOAA CDR and NASA ESDR are highlighted through year to year comparisons and regional statistics for locations around the Arctic basin. Each data record is available and knowing the details of each data set demonstrates the usefulness of these data.

  12. Arctic air pollution: Challenges and opportunities for the next decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Arnold

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Arctic is a sentinel of global change. This region is influenced by multiple physical and socio-economic drivers and feedbacks, impacting both the natural and human environment. Air pollution is one such driver that impacts Arctic climate change, ecosystems and health but significant uncertainties still surround quantification of these effects. Arctic air pollution includes harmful trace gases (e.g. tropospheric ozone and particles (e.g. black carbon, sulphate and toxic substances (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that can be transported to the Arctic from emission sources located far outside the region, or emitted within the Arctic from activities including shipping, power production, and other industrial activities. This paper qualitatively summarizes the complex science issues motivating the creation of a new international initiative, PACES (air Pollution in the Arctic: Climate, Environment and Societies. Approaches for coordinated, international and interdisciplinary research on this topic are described with the goal to improve predictive capability via new understanding about sources, processes, feedbacks and impacts of Arctic air pollution. Overarching research actions are outlined, in which we describe our recommendations for 1 the development of trans-disciplinary approaches combining social and economic research with investigation of the chemical and physical aspects of Arctic air pollution; 2 increasing the quality and quantity of observations in the Arctic using long-term monitoring and intensive field studies, both at the surface and throughout the troposphere; and 3 developing improved predictive capability across a range of spatial and temporal scales.

  13. The Agreement on Cooperation on Marine Oil Pollution Preparedness and Response in the Arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Rise, Ingvild Hoel

    2014-01-01

    This is a case study of the establishment of an oil spill response regime in the Arctic region. The context is the work of the Arctic Council and the development of the Agreement on Cooperation on Marine Oil Pollution Preparedness and Response in the Arctic. Three research topics are studied; regime, response system and the role of politics and professions. The Arctic oil spill response agreement is outlined first, and the principles, norms, rules and decision making procedures...

  14. Methane excess in Arctic surface water-triggered by sea ice formation and melting

    OpenAIRE

    Damm, E.; Rudels, B.; Schauer, U.; Mau, S.; Dieckmann, G.

    2015-01-01

    Arctic amplification of global warming has led to increased summer sea ice retreat, which influences gas exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the atmosphere where sea ice previously acted as a physical barrier. Indeed, recently observed enhanced atmospheric methane concentrations in Arctic regions with fractional sea-ice cover point to unexpected feedbacks in cycling of methane. We report on methane excess in sea ice-influenced water masses in the interior Arctic Ocean and provide evidence t...

  15. Shelf-to-basin iron shuttling enhances vivianite formation in deep Baltic Sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Daniel C.; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Slomp, Caroline P.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal hypoxia is a growing and persistent problem largely attributable to enhanced terrestrial nutrient (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus) loading. Recent studies suggest phosphorus removal through burial of iron (II) phosphates, putatively vivianite, plays an important role in nutrient cycling in the Baltic Sea - the world's largest anthropogenic dead zone - yet the dynamics of iron (II) phosphate formation are poorly constrained. To address this, a reactive-transport model was used to reconstruct the diagenetic and depositional history of sediments in the Fårö basin, a deep anoxic and sulphidic region of the Baltic Sea where iron (II) phosphates have been observed. Simulations demonstrate that transport of iron from shelf sediments to deep basins enhances vivianite formation while sulphide concentrations are low, but that pyrite forms preferentially over vivianite when sulphate reduction intensifies due to elevated organic loading. Episodic reoxygenation events, associated with major inflows of oxic waters, encourage the retention of iron oxyhydroxides and iron-bound phosphorus in sediments, increasing vivianite precipitation as a result. Results suggest that artificial reoxygenation of the Baltic Sea bottom waters could sequester up to 3% of the annual external phosphorus loads as iron (II) phosphates, but this is negligible when compared to potential internal phosphorus loads due to dissolution of iron oxyhydroxides when low oxygen conditions prevail. Thus, enhancing vivianite formation through artificial reoxygenation of deep waters is not a viable engineering solution to eutrophication in the Baltic Sea. Finally, simulations suggest that regions with limited sulphate reduction and hypoxic intervals, such as eutrophic estuaries, could act as important phosphorus sinks by sequestering vivianite. This could potentially alleviate eutrophication in shelf and slope environments.

  16. Oceanographic influences on the distribution of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua , during spawning in the Bornholm Basin of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Lehmann, K.M.; St. John, Michael

    1998-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is a stratified, semi-enclosed sea typified by a low-salinity surface layer and a deep saline layer of varying volume, salinity, temperature and oxygen concentration. The relationships between these oceanographic factors and the distribution of Baltic cod are presented, utilizing r...... catchability and thereby the assessment and exploitation patterns of this stock...

  17. Link or sink: a modelling interpretation of the open Baltic biogeochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Baretta

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A 1-D model system, consisting of the 1-D version of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM coupled with the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM has been applied to a sub-basin of the Baltic Proper, the Bornholm basin. The model has been forced with 3h meteorological data for the period 1979-1990, producing a 12-year hindcast validated with datasets from the Baltic Environmental Database for the same period. The model results demonstrate the model to hindcast the time-evolution of the physical structure very well, confirming the view of the open Baltic water column as a three layer system of surface, intermediate and bottom waters. Comparative analyses of modelled hydrochemical components with respect to the independent data have shown that the long-term system behaviour of the model is within the observed ranges. Also primary production processes, deduced from oxygen (oversaturation are hindcast correctly over the entire period and the annual net primary production is within the observed range. The largest mismatch with observations is found in simulating the biogeochemistry of the Baltic intermediate waters. Modifications in the structure of the model (addition of fast-sinking detritus and polysaccharide dynamics have shown that the nutrient dynamics is linked to the quality and dimensions of the organic matter produced in the euphotic zone, highlighting the importance of the residence time of the organic matter within the microbial foodweb in the intermediate waters. Experiments with different scenarios of riverine nutrient loads, assessed in the limits of a 1-D setup, have shown that the external input of organic matter makes the open Baltic model more heterotrophic. The characteristics of the inputs also drive the dynamics of nitrogen in the bottom layers leading either to nitrate accumulation (when the external sources are inorganic, or to coupled nitrification-denitrification (under strong organic inputs. The model indicates the

  18. The genetic prehistory of the New World Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavan, Maanasa; DeGiorgio, Michael; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The New World Arctic, the last region of the Americas to be populated by humans, has a relatively well-researched archaeology, but an understanding of its genetic history is lacking. We present genome-wide sequence data from ancient and present-day humans from Greenland, Arctic Canada, Alaska, Al...

  19. The Alaska Arctic Vegetation Archive (AVA-AK)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, Donald A.; Breen, Amy L.; Druckenmiller, Lisa A.; Wirth, Lisa W.; Fisher, Will; Raynolds, Martha K.; Šibík, Jozef; Walker, Marilyn D.; Hennekens, Stephan; Boggs, Keith; Boucher, Tina; Buchhorn, Marcel; Bültmann, Helga; Cooper, David J.; Daniëls, Fred J.A.; Davidson, Scott J.; Ebersole, James J.; Elmendorf, Sara C.; Epstein, Howard E.; Gould, William A.; Hollister, Robert D.; Iversen, Colleen M.; Jorgenson, M.T.; Kade, Anja; Lee, Michael T.; MacKenzie, William H.; Peet, Robert K.; Peirce, Jana L.; Schickhoff, Udo; Sloan, Victoria L.; Talbot, Stephen S.; Tweedie, Craig E.; Villarreal, Sandra; Webber, Patrick J.; Zona, Donatella

    2016-01-01

    The Alaska Arctic Vegetation Archive (AVA-AK, GIVD-ID: NA-US-014) is a free, publically available database archive of vegetation-plot data from the Arctic tundra region of northern Alaska. The archive currently contains 24 datasets with 3,026 non-overlapping plots. Of these, 74% have geolocation dat

  20. Arctic methane sources: Isotopic evidence for atmospheric inputs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fisher, R.E.; Sriskantharajah, S.; Lowry, D.; Lanoisellé, M.; Fowler, C.M.R.; James, R.H.; Hermansen, O.; Lund Myhre, C.; Stohl, A.; Greinert, J.; Nisbet-Jones, P.B.R.; Mienert, J.; Nisbet, E.G.

    2011-01-01

    By comparison of the methane mixing ratio and the carbon isotope ratio (delta C-13(CH4)) in Arctic air with regional background, the incremental input of CH4 in an air parcel and the source delta C-13(CH4) signature can be determined. Using this technique the bulk Arctic CH4 source signature of air

  1. The Baltic Klint beneath the central Baltic Sea and its comparison with the North Estonian Klint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuuling, Igor; Flodén, Tom

    2016-06-01

    Along its contact with the Baltic Shield, the margin of the East European Platform reveals a well-developed, flooded terraced relief. The most striking and consistent set of escarpments at the contact of the Lower Palaeozoic calcareous and terrigenous rocks, known as the Baltic Klint (BK), extends from northwest of Russia to the Swedish island of Öland. Marine seismic reflection profiling in 1990-2004 revealed the central Baltic Sea Klint (BSK) section in detail and enabled comparison of its geology/geomorphology with a classical klint-section onshore, namely the North Estonian Klint (NEK). The conception of the BK onshore, which is based on the land-sea separating terraced relief in northern Estonia, is not fully applicable beneath the sea. Therefore, we consider that the BSK includes the entire terraced Cambrian outcrop. We suggest the term "Baltic Klint Complex" to include the well-terraced margin of the Ordovician limestone outcrop, which is weakly developed in Estonia. Because of a steady lithological framework of the bedrock layers across the southern slope of the Fennoscandian Shield, the central BSK in the western and the NEK in the eastern part of the Baltic Homocline have largely identical morphologies. The North Estonian Ordovician limestone plateau with the calcareous crest of the BK extends across the central Baltic Sea, whereas morphological changes/variations along the Klint base occur due to the east-westerly lithostratigraphic/thickness changes in the siliciclastic Cambrian sequence. The verge of the NEK, located some 30-50 m above sea level, starts to drop in altitude as its east-westerly course turns to northeast-southwest in western Estonia. Further westwards, the BK shifts gradually into southerly deepening (0.1-0.2°) layers as its crest drops to c. 150 m below sea level (b.s.l.) near Gotska Sandön. This course change is accompanied by a considerable decrease in thickness of the platform sedimentary cover, as below the central Baltic Sea the

  2. Rapid Arctic change and implications for sea-ice use and its management at the local and regional level: An example from Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicken, H.; Lovecraft, A. L.; Meek, C. L.; Druckenmiller, M. L.

    2008-12-01

    Reductions in sea-ice thickness and summer extent over the past few decades have been particularly pronounced in Alaska. This rapid environmental change coincides with significant socio-economic transformations, including increased ship traffic and offshore oil and gas development. Adaptation and response to these changes and regulation of coastal and offshore activities require environmental data and projections on seasonal to decadal timescales. Nascent Arctic observation networks are of great potential value in this context. However, in order for such observing and associated modeling activities to be useful, several criteria have to be met: (1) observations need to be relevant to stakeholders adapting or responding to a changing ice regime, (2) data products need to be accessible and interpretable by those they are meant to serve, and (3) institutions and governance strategies need to be in place to allow effective utilization of environmental data and information on changing ice conditions. We show how the concept of sea-ice system services can help guide observing programs, in particular in situations with conjoined uses of the ice cover. An example from our work in Arctic Alaska illustrates this concept for the use of sea ice as a platform by indigenous hunters, industry and marine mammals. Adaptive responses by different user groups to the substantial variability observed in local-scale ice conditions will require a significant effort in downscaling standard sea-ice data products and integrating new types of measurements. The challenge for ice-covered waters is that current approaches governing utilization of the sea-ice environment may not always be effective in addressing conjoined, potentially conflicting uses. The major transformations underway in the Arctic now provide us with an opportunity to explore and evaluate different approaches of observing, adapting and responding to change.

  3. Prospective future introduction of reduction of energy use in buildings in the Arctic regions – How might it affect the indoor climate?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vladyková, Petra; Bjarløv, Søren Peter

    Existing residential buildings in Arctic Greenland often have problems with draughts, uncomfortably low temperatures indoors, and inadequate ventilation. The standard wooden house 18D provides low thermal comfort and poor indoor air quality and has high energy consumption. On the other hand......, the new Low-energy house in Sisimiut, Greenland, provides good indoor air, thermal quality and reduced energy consumption. Using measurement data from both buildings, this paper discusses the impact of various issues, such as low indoor relative humidity, temperature variations, and high indoor humidity...

  4. Dirty Air at the North Pole. Industrial exhaust pollutes the Arctic region; Dicke Luft am Nordpol. Wie Industrieabgase die Arktis verschmutzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herber, A. [Alfred-Wegener-Institut fuer Polar- und Meeresforschung (AWI), Bremerhaven (Germany); Lange, G.

    2002-06-01

    After the long polar night, greyish brown haze often hangs over the Arctic landscape. A new 'stellar photometer' which functions also in the dark winter months recently identified its causes. At the North Pole, smog appears to enhance the 'greenhouse effect'. [German] Nach der langen Polarnacht liegen oft graubraune Dunstschwaden ueber der Arktis. Woher kommen und wie entstehen sie? Mit einem neu entwickelten 'Sternfotometer', das auch in den dunklen Wintermonaten Schwebstoffe in der Luft messen kann, liess sich diese Frage jetzt endgueltig klaeren. Anders als in mittleren Breiten scheint der Smog am Nordpol den Treibhauseffekt zu verstaerken. (orig.)

  5. Astaxanthin dynamics in Baltic Sea mesozooplankton communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeijs, Pauline; Häubner, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    The red pigment astaxanthin is a powerful antioxidant, which occurs in eggs and body tissues of crustaceans and fish. It is produced by crustaceans from algal carotenoids. In a two-year field study we assessed natural concentrations and dynamics of astaxanthin in mesozooplankton communities in the brackish Baltic Sea area. Astaxanthin levels varied between 0.37 and 36 ng L- 1. They increased with salinity along the Baltic Sea gradient and were linked to zooplankton biomass and phytoplankton community composition. Astaxanthin concentrations showed typical seasonal patterns and varied from 0.2 to 5.1 ng ind- 1, 0.2 to 3.4 ng (μg C)- 1 and 6 to 100 ng mm- 3. These concentrations were inversely related to water temperature and strongly linked to zooplankton community composition. Communities dominated by the calanoid copepods Temora longicornis, Pseudocalanus acuspes and Eurytemora spp. generally held the highest concentrations. With increasing cladocerans:copepods biomass ratios community astaxanthin concentrations decreased and with higher relative biomass of Acartia spp. the proportion of astaxanthin diesters decreased. Diesters prevailed in the cold season and they are thought to improve the antioxidant protection of storage lipids during winter. Climate change causes higher temperature and lower salinity in the Baltic Sea proper. This modifies zooplankton community composition, but not necessarily into a community with lower concentrations of astaxanthin since T. longicornis (high concentrations) has been reported to increase with higher temperature. However, decreased astaxanthin production in the ecosystem is expected if a basin-wide increase in the cladocerans:copepods biomass ratios would occur with further climate change.

  6. Consequences of future increased Arctic runoff on Arctic Ocean stratification, circulation, and sea ice cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummelin, Aleksi; Ilicak, Mehmet; Li, Camille; Smedsrud, Lars H.

    2016-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean has important freshwater sources including river runoff, low evaporation, and exchange with the Pacific Ocean. In the future, we expect even larger freshwater input as the global hydrological cycle accelerates, increasing high-latitude precipitation, and river runoff. Previous modeling studies show some robust responses to high-latitude freshwater perturbations, including a strengthening of Arctic stratification and a weakening of the large-scale ocean circulation; some idealized modeling studies also document a stronger cyclonic circulation within the Arctic Ocean itself. With the broad range of scales and processes involved, the overall effect of increasing runoff requires an understanding of both the local processes and the broader linkages between the Arctic and surrounding oceans. Here we adopt a more comprehensive modeling approach by increasing river runoff to the Arctic Ocean in a coupled i