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Sample records for arctic region baltic

  1. Molecular epidemiological study of Arctic rabies virus isolates from Greenland and comparison with isolates from throughout the Arctic and Baltic regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansfield, K.L.; Racloz, V.; McElhinney, L.M.;

    2006-01-01

    We report a Molecular epidemiological study of rabies in Arctic Countries by comparing a panel of novel Greenland isolates to a larger cohort of viral sequences from both Arctic and Baltic regions. Rabies Virus isolates originating from wildlife (Arctic/red foxes, raccoon-dogs and reindeer), from...... sequences from the Arctic and Arctic-like viruses, which were distinct from rabies isolates originating ill the Baltic region of Europe, the Steppes in Russia and from North America. The Arctic-like group consist of isolates from India, Pakistan, southeast Siberia and Japan. The Arctic group Was...... northeast Siberia and Alaska. Arctic 2b isolates represent a biotype, which is dispersed throughout the Arctic region. The broad distribution of rabies in the Arctic regions including Greenland, Canada and Alaska provides evidence for the movement of rabies across borders....

  2. Regional security and cooperation in the Arctic and Baltic: destabilisation follows Ukraine crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Etzold, Tobias; Steinicke, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The Ukraine conflict has created a deep and long-running crisis of confidence in relations between the West and Russia, as Moscow challenges the foundations of the European security order. Russia's behaviour in the Baltic and Arctic regions, which it shares with members of NATO and the European Union, has become increasingly confrontative and presents an impediment to regional cooperation and security. While growing instability looms over these two regions, all the states there should maintai...

  3. Radioactive contamination of the Arctic Region, Baltic Sea, and the Sea of Japan from activities in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contamination of the Arctic regions of northern Europe and Russia, as well as the Sea of Japan, may become a potential major hazard to the ecosystem of these large areas. Widespread poor radioactive waste management practices from nuclear fuel cycle activities in the former Soviet Union have resulted in direct discharges to this area as well as multiple sources that may continue to release additional radioactivity. Information on the discharges of radioactive materials has become more commonplace in the last year, and a clearer picture is emerging of the scale of the contamination. Radioactivity in the Arctic oceans is now reported to be four times higher than would be derived from fallout from weapons tests. Although the characteristics and extent of the contamination are not well known, it has been stated that the contamination in the Arctic may range from 1 to 3.5 billion curies. As yet, no scientific sampling or measurement program has occurred that can verify the amount or extent of the contamination, or its potential impact on the ecosystem

  4. Baltic Earth - Earth System Science for the Baltic Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Markus; Rutgersson, Anna; Lehmann, Andreas; Reckermann, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    The Baltic Sea region, defined as its river catchment basin, spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It encompasses most of the Scandinavian Peninsula in the west; most of Finland and parts of Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic states in the east; and Poland and small parts of Germany and Denmark in the south. The region represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. Preliminary grand challenges and topics for which Working Groups have been installed include: • Salinity dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Land-Sea biogeochemical feedbacks in the Baltic Sea region • Natural hazards and extreme events in the Baltic Sea region • Understanding sea level dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Understanding regional variability of water and energy exchange • Utility of Regional Climate Models • Assessment of Scenario Simulations

  5. Environmental economics and the Baltic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume originates from a workshop on Economics of the Environment held at the Institute of Economics, Copenhagen University, November 14-15, 1990 with participants from Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, Finland, Sweden and Denmark. The volume contains the papers presented at the workshop. In all the countries around the Baltic Sea there has been an increasing understainding of the importance of using the economic incentive approach to reach environmental goals. By changing the incentives an individual producer or consumer faces, the best private choice can be made to coincide with the best social choice. All the countries around the Baltic Sea have used direct regulation or command and control in environment regulation. Growing concern about environmental degradation, dissatisfaction with the command and control approach and the need to extend environmental regulation to sectors with a large number of small producers or consumers have increased attention to economic instruments in environmental policy. The Baltic sea is an almost coherent ecological system and there is a growing interest in addressing common environmental problems among the countries around the Baltic Sea. The recent political development offer new possibilites for cooperation in environmental policy. This is important because many environmental problems in the region require solutions involving several countries. (EG)

  6. The Baltic Region in U.S. Western Civilization Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, Gordon R.

    1992-01-01

    Evaluates six U.S. western civilization textbooks' treatment of the Baltic region. Reports that the books devote little or no attention to the region, emphasize larger nations, and ignore Baltic social history. Suggests that social histories may continue to neglect small countries, whereas reaction against "Eurocentrism" may result in sparse…

  7. Trichinella in arctic, subarctic and temperate regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, C. M O

    1997-01-01

    The transmission and occurrence of Trichinella spp according to the zoogeography of different climatic conditions, socioeconomy and human activity are discussed. Comparing arctic, subarctic and temperate regions, it appears that the species of Trichinella present, the composition of the fauna and...... domestic trichinellosis differ widely. Denmark is regarded as Trichinella-free, in the case of domestic trichinellosis and sylvatic trichinellosis is very rare. In Sweden and Norway. Trichinella is found in wildlife but domestic trichrnellosis is rare. In Finland, both domestic and sylvatic trichinellosis...... have increased dramatically during the last decade. Among the Scandinavian countries, Finland also has the largest populations of carnivorous mammals. In the Baltic states, Trichinella is frequently found in wildlife and domestic trichinellosis is increasingly diagnosed. The high prevalence in the...

  8. Innovative economy in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich N. M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovative activity is carried out at three levels — those of the state, region and a company or a university. This article considers the level of development of knowledge-based economy in Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland at each of the three levels, as well as descripes the spatial differentiation of innovative activity within the Baltic region. The analysis is done on the basis of national and international research, as well as statistical data on the intensity of research and development, structure of research expenditure, human capital in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of institutional support for innovative activity. The authors characterise the role of business, university, and authorities — which constitute the «triple helix» — in national innovative systems. The article also analyses such important factors as the intensity of research and development, the share of employees in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of public support. Examples of private-public infrastructure for the implementation of innovative projects are offered.

  9. Transborder corporate integration in the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov A. V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines flows of foreign direct investment within the Baltic region. The author demonstrates close investment ties among the EU members, which are of special importance for Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Transborder corporate integration in the region is characterized by significant imbalances. In many aspects, it can be viewed as Sweden’s economic expansion or development of domestic markets for northern European companies. Although many German, Polish and Russian companies are involved in corporate integration in the Baltic region, other vectors of their foreign economic relations are still more important for them. As a result, the integration of Russian business in the Baltic part of the European integration area is still rather weak despite Russia’s considerable foreign direct investment in the Baltic States.

  10. Geography of international clusters in the Baltic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhailov A. S.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available International cluster is a relatively new form of spatial organisation of economy in the globalisation conditions, which has become a frequent phenomenon in European countries, including those of the Baltic region. It requires a comprehensive study of both regional economics and economic geography. This article aims to identify structured international clusters in the Baltic region and map the corresponding regions. The results obtained will make it possible to get a comprehensive idea of the aggregate of international clusters existing and emerging in the region and put forward a hypothesis about the prerequisites of their formation. The methodological framework of the research is an integrated case study. The article considers the processes of transboundary and transnational regionalisation in the countries of the Baltic region aimed at the development of international clusters. ‘International cluster’ is defined as a new form of spatial economy. The author identifies and maps organised international clusters and cluster initiatives in the Baltic Sea region countries. The international clusters of the Baltic region are characterised according to the following criteria: the degree of geographical localisation, the organisational type of formation, and specialisation areas. The author analyses the degree of involvement of a Russian region into the processes of international cluster cooperation in the macroregion.

  11. BALTEX - A science broker for the Baltic Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckermann, M.; von Storch, H.; Langner, J.; Omstedt, A. T.

    2010-12-01

    BALTEX (the Baltic Sea Experiment) is an interdisciplinary research network of scientists involved in environmental research dedicated to the Baltic Sea drainage basin (including disciplines such as meteorology, hydrology, oceanography, biogeochemistry and climate research). Originally founded in 1992 as a Continental Scale Experiment in GEWEX (the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment within the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) of the World Meteorological Organization, WMO), it was intended to form a common science, communication and data platform with the overall goal to integrate efforts to gain a better understanding of the water and energy cycle in the Baltic Sea basin. BALTEX Phase II (since 2003) has extended the scope to research on regional climate change and variability, climate change impacts on biogeochemistry and water management, but also made first steps towards overarching social and political issues as cross-cutting activities in the context of the scientific objectives. An important aspect of BALTEX Phase II is a more holistic approach towards observing, understanding and modelling major environmental relevant for the entire Baltic Sea region. Parts of the BALTEX Phase II research activities thus contribute to the establishment of a high resolution integrated modelling system for Northern Europe, embedded in an Earth System Model. An outstanding product of BALTEX as a “knowledge broker” for regional political institutions is the BACC report. Following to a large extent the method of IPCC, a regional assessment report on climate change in the Baltic Sea basin was compiled, which summarizes the published scientifically legitimate knowledge on regional climate change in the Baltic Sea basin and its impacts. The assessment, known as the BACC report (BALTEX Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin; BACC author team 2008, Reckermann et al., 2008) was published in 2008 as a book. A survey among climate researchers in the area

  12. The transnational territorial transport system of the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumenyuk I. S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on the structure and territorial borders of the Baltic Sea region, and examine the key structural elements of the transnational territorial transport system. In this respect, we clarify some terms used in transport geography. For the first time the transport system gets territorially localized, which allows for a broad range of new studies of transnational transportation in the Baltic Sea area. We also identify the main principles of development and operation of international territorial transport systems and present them taking the Baltic Sea region as an example. Our findings, we hope, will have a great practical application for researchers of transport geography, especially those studying international logistics.

  13. Natural gas co-operation in the Baltic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Co-operation between the gas companies in the Baltic Region has been in place for several years. The overview given in this paper shows that the co-operation has been developed in trade, investments, privatisation and participation in the restructuring process. Finally, through a broad technical co-operation, significant efforts are made to establish common operational practices, codes and standards and the integrity of gas transmission pipelines. The Baltic Region, from a resource and gas interconnection point of view, enjoys a strategic position in the future development of the gas industry in Europe. The Baltic gas sector represents an interesting and growing gas market with the significant gas storage capacity. The region is also located strategically for planned gas interconnections and could serve as a transit corridor for the future gas supplies from western Siberia or the North Sea. This co-operation in the region is being supported by international regulations and agreements such as the Energy Charter between the European Union and the central and east European countries. However, at present the gas industry in the Baltic Region seems to be ahead of these international agreements. It may well be seen that trade arrangements such as Third Party Access are implemented directly by market forces rather than through international agreements. The regional development may thus be a driving force for the implementation of the Internal Energy Market for the gas industry

  14. Clustering in Engineering Education in the Baltic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Andreas; Zascerinska, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    The contemporary situation in the Baltic region, namely, the lack of working places due to the structural problems, a high unemployment rate, the migration of highly qualified people and the low rate of self-employees, demands on innovation as an engine of the economic development with a strong impact on sustainable development in the European…

  15. An international scope of the regional journal Baltic Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartasiute, Stanislava

    2015-08-01

    The internationalization of publishing has been progressing in most fields of science, including astronomy and physics in particular. Along with high quality journals having a completely international readership, national and regional journals represent a significant part in number, whereas their average impact is very diverse and not always competitive. Based mainly on the Web of Science data, we will give a comparative analysis of astronomy journals published in/for countries with relatively small astronomical communities, such as Baltic and some Eastern European. Bibliometric statistics will be presented of one of such journals, Baltic Astronomy, established in 1992 as a result of cooperation between astronomers of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia. Since the first years of publishing this journal has been evolving from regional to the more internationalized status. The list of countries of contributing authors has expanded to 54, while only 19% of the articles are from the three Baltic countries, mainly from Lithuania (14%) and, to a much lesser extent, from Estonia (3%) and Latvia (2%). Recognizing the inadequacies of national and regional bases for dissemination and exchange of scientific information, the Baltic astronomical communities themselves move, however, towards internationalization: in international journals Latvia publishes twice and Estonia nearly ten times more articles than they do in Baltic Astronomy. Meanwhile Lithuanian astronomers publish nearly the same number of articles both outside and inside the region. In the light of progress being made toward consolidation of scholarly publications, a choice between a national/regional and international basis for publishing is becoming more decisive for the future of national and regional astronomy journals.

  16. Sustainable manure management in the Baltic Sea Region - results, cases and project recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybirk, Knud; Luostarinen, S; Hamelin, Lorie;

    This magazine contains the major results, conclusions and recommendations of the project Baltic Forum for Innovative Technologies for Sustainable Manure Management (Baltic Manure) which via co-funding from Interreg Baltic Sea Region programme has been a Flagship project in the EU Strategy for the...... Baltic Sea Region from 2010-2013. The project has involved 18 partners from 8 countries with MTT Agrifood Research Finland as the Lead Partne...

  17. Use of bioenergy in the Baltic Sea region. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barz, M.; Ahlhaus, M. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    The actual situation in our world can shortly be characterized by growing population and increasing energy demand, mainly covered by fossil fuels. This results in environmental as well as climate change problems. Renewable energies offer many opportunities to overcome these problems - they can provide heat and electricity as well as automotive fuels in environmentally friendly systems and thus contribute to lower the fossil fuels dependency. Biomass as the oldest renewable energy of mankind is still playing a dominant role as an energy carrier in some African and Asian regions, where biofuels are still used in traditional ways - mainly for cooking. On the other hand biomass has a huge potential to become a more important energy resource even in industrialized countries. All over the world the opportunities of biomass are accepted and biomass has become a common term in politics resulting in new strategic analyses, political documents, legislative actions and funding programs. A lot of modern and new high-tech solutions for bioenergy systems are already developed and others are under research. Aims of the actual developments are new bioenergy systems on the basis of regional biomass potentials in rural regions. The Baltic Sea Region offers a high potential to produce biofuels for different applications to fit the growing demand of heat, electricity and fuels. In combination with its industry and engineering skills the Baltic Sea Region is predestinated as a nucleus for further development and demonstration of advanced bioenergy solutions. In the result of the conference ''Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production'', held in Tallinn, Estonia in October 2005 representatives from policy, economy and science identified a high potential and demand for bioenergy solutions and realized the necessity of establishment of an international network (Baltic Bioenergy Net - BaBEt) for information and know-how transfer between the Baltic States to foster

  18. BABAR: Becoming Adult Educators in the Baltic-Sea Region

    OpenAIRE

    Milana, Marcella; Andersson, Per; Gross, Marin; Jõgi, Larissa; Köpsén, Susanne; Larson, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the results from a comparative study of the qualification of adult educators in the Nordic-Baltic region. The study involved Denmark, Estonia and Sweden. The rationale behind the study is a growing interest in adult education resulting from a focus on lifelong learning in the public and political agendas, internationally and nationally. According to the authors of the report, an increased interest in adult education generates an increased interest in the professionalisati...

  19. International migration between Finland and the Baltic Sea Region

    OpenAIRE

    ELLI HEIKKILÄ

    2006-01-01

    Immigration from the former socialist countries into Western Europe generally increased after the fall of the Iron Curtain. This was also apparent with respect to the Nordic labour markets and Finland where the share of immigrants grew from countries around the Baltic Sea Region. The main immigrant groups come to Finland from Sweden, Russia and Estonia. Immigration from Poland, Lithuania and Latvia has not played such an important role. This paper analyses the volume and integration of immigr...

  20. Nordic-Baltic security, Germany and NATO: the Baltic Sea Region is a test case for European security

    OpenAIRE

    Major, Claudia; Voss, Alicia von

    2016-01-01

    The countries around the Baltic Sea are among Europe's frontline states affected by the conflict between Russia and western Europe. The Baltics and Nordics share a common concern about a revisionist, aggressive, and rearming Russia: Since the onset of the crisis in and around Ukraine in 2014, these countries have felt increasingly exposed to Rus­sian military and non-military intimidation. Currently, they can neither defend nor maintain regional security by themselves: Their capacities are li...

  1. Acquatorialities of the Arctic Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2013-01-01

    In order to describe the Arctic system I propose using a concept functionally equivalent to territoriality, namely aquatoriality. Whether communicating about territoriality or aquatoriality, concepts and delimitations are both contingent to forms of communication systems. I will distinguish between...... six communications systems that differentiated from each other could become involved in the new deals emerging around the Arctic. Apart of an economic communication code about the Arctic, a legal code, ecological communication codes, and tourist communication codes, I will cope with the military...

  2. Potential for Nordic-Baltic security cooperation: shared threat perception strengthens regional collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Opitz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    All the Nordic and Baltic states are concerned about the deteriorating security situation in northern Europe. Most of all, military tensions in the Baltic region engender a collective threat perception vis-à-vis Russia. The pressure to respond is boosting a historically rooted security cooperation between the Nordic and Baltic states. A shifting of priorities is becoming apparent within the institutional cooperation, which is moving from a forum of exchange towards a shared framework of actio...

  3. Innovacionnyj process v regione Baltijskogo morja [The innovative process in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäkinen Hanna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to maintain its global competitiveness in the future, the Baltic Sea region (BSR needs to preserve and improve its technological capability and innovativeness. This article focuses on innovations in the Baltic Sea region, particularly on external innovation drivers and innovation environments in the BSR and individual countries within the region. Firstly, some definitions of innovations, innovation drivers, and characteristics of a favourable innovation environment are presented. Secondly, the current condition of innovation environments in the BSR is described and the innovation performances of Baltic countries are compared. Finally, the research aims to conclude, as well as to analyse, the future innovation development of the BSR. The research material for this desk study is collected from various sources, including journal articles, statistics, media, research reports, and other publications.

  4. Construction of transport and energy networks in the Baltic region as an impetus for regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Alexey

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In light of some new aspects of the EU functioning, particularly, the recovery from the 2008-2009 global crisis, transportation and energy development projects are coming to the forefront in the Baltic region. At the same time, there is a need to consider EU’s recent adoption of a common seven-year financial program (2014—2020, which serves, in effect, as the Union’s budget. Given that, one may conclude that the countries of the Baltic region are entering a new stage of development. We look at the role and significance of transportation and energy projects as an instrument of economic development. Having studied the largest transport and energy projects in the Baltic region, we were able to show that the new infrastructure networks supported the investment expansion of Swedish and Finnish companies into the post-communist countries of the Baltic Region. Which, in its turn, allowed the Nordic investors to expand their domestic markets. The analysis also shows that the experience of private businesses proves a recent theoretical concept — the pyramid of regional development factors. As a result, the actual regional policy of the EU cannot be considered in the narrow sense of the Cohesion Policy alone.

  5. Regional higher education co-operation: a research proposal to compare the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Ewert

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available While the Baltic Sea Region is considered to be a pioneer region in the development of regional integration and identity, the Black Sea Region is regarded to be a laggard in terms of regionali¬zation and region building. My paper summarizes the role of regional higher education co-operation in the Baltic Sea regionalization process in theory and analyzes the empirical background of these assumptions. Yet, inasmuch an evaluation of the regions` status as a pioneer is possible only in a comparative perspective, I propose to compare the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea Region regarding their higher education networks systematically. My paper asks for the transferability of arguments in favor of a strong regional higher education co-operation in the Baltic Sea Region since the 1990s to today’s situation of the Black Sea Region. It concludes with some fundamental considerations on a comparative research project.

  6. Changing geo-political realities in the Arctic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Camilla T. N.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes and discusses how Denmark seeks to manage the changing geopolitical realities in the Arctic region specifically focusing on how Denmark seeks to manage its relations with China in the Arctic region....

  7. Carbon dioxide in Arctic and subarctic regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosink, T. A.; Kelley, J. J.

    1981-03-01

    A three year research project was presented that would define the role of the Arctic ocean, sea ice, tundra, taiga, high latitude ponds and lakes and polar anthropogenic activity on the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere. Due to the large physical and geographical differences between the two polar regions, a comparison of CO/sub 2/ source and sink strengths of the two areas was proposed. Research opportunities during the first year, particularly those aboard the Swedish icebreaker, YMER, provided additional confirmatory data about the natural source and sink strengths for carbon dioxide in the Arctic regions. As a result, the hypothesis that these natural sources and sinks are strong enough to significantly affect global atmospheric carbon dioxide levels is considerably strengthened. Based on the available data we calculate that the whole Arctic region is a net annual sink for about 1.1 x 10/sup 15/ g of CO/sub 2/, or the equivalent of about 5% of the annual anthropogenic input into the atmosphere. For the second year of this research effort, research on the seasonal sources and sinks of CO/sub 2/ in the Arctic will be continued. Particular attention will be paid to the seasonal sea ice zones during the freeze and thaw periods, and the tundra-taiga regions, also during the freeze and thaw periods.

  8. Distribution and reproduction of the Arctic ctenophore Mertensia ovum in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtiniemi, M; Gorokhova, E; Bolte, S; Haslob, H; Huwer, B; Katajisto, T; Lennuk, L; Majaneva, S; Põllumäe, A; Schaber, M; Setälä, O; Reusch, TBH; Viitasalo-Frösén, S; Vuorinen, I; Välipakka, P

    2013-01-01

    southern, central and northern Baltic Sea, and its egg production, distribution and abundance were studied in relation to physical factors. Genetic analyses indicate that M. ovum is by far the most abundant small ctenophore in the Baltic Sea. Specimens from a 20 yr old ctenophore collection were also...

  9. Regional cost-effectiveness in transboundary water quality management for the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Berit; Smart, James Christopher Rudd; Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders;

    . This paper investigates the costeffective distribution of nutrient abatement measures between drainage basins and Baltic Sea regions, where the aim is to achieve the BSAP nutrient load reduction targets. The cost-minimisation model BALTCOST, an interdisciplinary development involving economists and...... natural scientists, is used to identify the most cost-effective configuration of abatement measures. BALTCOST utilises detailed regional and spatial data down to 10 x 10km grid cell level for all Baltic littoral countries. Modelling results suggest that it should be possible to achieve the BSAP load...... reduction targets for N and P in most Baltic Sea regions, with the exception of the P load target in the Baltic Proper and the N reduction target in the Danish Straits, where only 74% and 88% respectively, of the desired BSAP load reductions can be delivered. BALTCOST results indicate that the BSAP targets...

  10. CHARACTERISTIC ASPECTS OF THE NORTHWEST BALTIC REGION SEA BASIN

    OpenAIRE

    Zhelezkova, Polina

    2014-01-01

    This work covers the characteristic features of the port infrastructure development in the Northwest of the Baltic basin. The ports specialization is emphasized. Following the results, a need to build multimodal terminal and logistic complexes (hubs) was found.

  11. The baltic environmental information dissemination system: using environmental informatics as a tool for sustainable development in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leal Filho Walter

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The on-going economic development of EU-countries as well of the countries in the C&E European region has been leading to a significant use of a great deal of natural resources as well as to noticeable environmental problems. The lack of a wide-spread environmental awareness from the side of those acting in various sectors (industry, public administration, users sometimes inhibit the implementation of legislation already available as well as the introduction of new technologies deriving, from example, from marine research. An example of this state of affairs is seen in respect of the implementation of the recommendations deriving from Baltic 21 and VASAB 2010, which illustrate the advantages from a cross-sectorial, open mechanism for the dissemination of environmental information in the region. There are various organisations today which act as suppliers of environmental information in the Baltic Sea Region. However, few, if any, are providers concerned with the various ways in which information on matters related to sustainable development is being used by various groups and audiences. This state of affairs makes it necessary to enhance the current mechanisms and approaches in place, so as to enable the wide-range of environmental information available today from areas such as marine research, to be more widely used. It is equally important that the didactic or educational potential of such information be exploited, so as to not only inform, but also to educate various groups and the general public on matters concerned with the environment in European closed seas and give information to planners and politicians to prepare decisions. In order to address such needs, the project "Baltic Environmental Information Dissemination System (BEIDS" was set in motion. BEIDS has been taking advantage of the most modern information technologies and has been acting as a focal point for the circulation of intelligent information on aspects of the marine

  12. South Baltic wind atlas. South Baltic offshore wind energy regions project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A.; Hahmann, A.; Hasager, C.B.; Bingoel, F.; Karagali, I.; Badger, J.; Badger, M.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2011-05-15

    A first version of a wind atlas for the South Baltic Sea has been developed using the WRF mesoscale model and verified by data from tall Danish and German masts. Six different boundary-layer parametrization schemes were evaluated by comparing the WRF results to the observed wind profiles at the masts. The WRF modeling was done in a nested domain of high spatial resolution for 4 years. In addition the long-term wind statistics using the NCAR-NCEP reanalysis data were performed during 30 years to provide basis for a long-term adjustment of the results and the final WRF results include a weighting for the long-term trends variability in the South Baltic Sea. Observations from Earth observing satellites were used to evaluate the spatial resolution of the WRF model results near the surface. The QuikSCAT and the WRF results compared well whereas the Envisat ASAR mean wind map showed some variation to the others. The long-term analysis revealed that the South Baltic Sea has a spatially highly variable wind climate during the 30-years. (Author)

  13. New Levels of Climate Adaptation Policy: Analyzing the Institutional Interplay in the Baltic Sea Region

    OpenAIRE

    Sirkku Juhola; Erik Glaas

    2013-01-01

    International policy development and expected climate change impacts such as flooding, landslides, and the extinction of sensitive species have forced countries around the Baltic Sea to begin working on national climate adaptation policies. Simultaneously, the EU is building both a central and a macro-regional Baltic Sea-wide adaptation strategy to support national policy developments. However, it yet remains unclear how these EU strategies will complement each other or national policies. Thi...

  14. Waste management guidelines for remote (Arctic) regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, E.H.; Taylor, E. [Polaris Applied Sciences Inc., Bainbridge Island, WA (United States); O' Connell, K.; Smith, C. [Oil Spill Training Co., Inverness, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Oil spill response operations in Arctic regions involve well planned logistics support due to the remoteness and lack of infrastructure in most locations. The waste material generated by oil spill response field activities must be managed, recycled or disposed. In remote areas, in-situ shoreline treatment options are preferred since they require minimal manpower and generate very little waste. The Emergency Prevention, Preparation and Response Working Group of the Arctic Council has developed guidelines and strategies for oil spill waste management in Arctic regions. In addition, a waste management calculator software program was developed to provide a planning framework to illustrate the potential consequences of different options for different shore types and oil types. Potential shoreline treatment waste generation volumes and waste types can then be identified. The planning tool identifies the preferred shoreline treatment options, estimates the amount of waste that would be generated and identifies the amount and per cent of the types of waste that are associated with each treatment option. A review of 11 case studies has shown that there is no correlation between the volumes of waste generated by shoreline treatment response activities and the original volume of spilled oil. Rather, the volume of waste generated during a response operation is a function of the nature of the spill, location, and length of oiled shoreline, combined with decisions made by the spill management team and the selected treatment methods. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  15. [The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2010-01-01

    Arvustus: The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008. Vienna, 2009

  16. Prospects of the New Science and Outreach Network Baltic Earth with Results of the Second Climate Change Assessment for the Baltic Sea Region (BACC II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckermann, M.; Von Storch, H.; Omstedt, A. T.; Meier, M.; Rutgersson, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Baltic Sea region in Northern Europe spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most intensively studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. A major outcome of Baltic Earth will be the update of the BALTEX Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin (BACC II). This new study after 5 years finds the results of BACC I still valid. Climate change can be detected at the regional scale but attribution is still weak. The effect of changing atmospheric aerosol loads and land use change is largely unknown so far and needs further attention in the coming years. For the observed changes in biogeochemical and ecological systems, multiple drivers are at work of which climate change is one. Their relative importance still needs to be evaluated. When addressing climate change impacts on e.g. forestry, agriculture, urban

  17. Mezhdunarodnoe nauchnoe sotrudnichestvo v Baltijskom regione: naukometricheskij analiz [International research cooperation in the Baltic region: a scientometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsova Tatyana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the processes of international research cooperation in the Baltic Sea region. It focuses on research works published in the leading periodicals in 1993—2012. The empirical material is collected from the world’s largest abstract and citation database, SciVerse Scopus, which makes it possible to evaluate macroindicators at the national and global levels as well as the contribution of scholars to the global progress. The article also offers an assessment of the efficiency of research activities in the Baltic Sea region countries. It is based on a number of scientometric indicators that reflect the performance of universities in terms of research journal publications and the development of research cooperation in the field of Baltic studies. The authors consider the dynamics of research contribution and academic cooperation in the Baltic Sea countries in four leading fields — i. e. agricultural and biological sciences, Earth sciences, ecology and social sciences presented in the SciVerse Scopus scientometric database. The article provides a map of research cooperation in the Baltic Sea region.

  18. [Communication in the early modern Baltic Sea region = Kommunikatsioon varauusaegses Läänemereruumis] / Ulrike Plath

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Plath, Ulrike, 1972-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Communication in the early modern Baltic Sea region = Kommunikatsioon varauusaegses Läänemereruumis. Hrsg. von Enn Küng, Mati Laur, Kersti Lust. Ajalooline Ajakiri. The Estonian Historical Journal 2009. Nr. 3/4 (129/130). (Tartu 2010)

  19. BALTEX—an interdisciplinary research network for the Baltic Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckermann, Marcus; Langner, Joakim; Omstedt, Anders; von Storch, Hans; Keevallik, Sirje; Schneider, Bernd; Arheimer, Berit; Markus Meier, H. E.; Hünicke, Birgit

    2011-10-01

    BALTEX is an environmental research network dealing with the Earth system of the entire Baltic Sea drainage basin. Important elements include the water and energy cycle, climate variability and change, water management and extreme events, and related impacts on biogeochemical cycles. BALTEX was founded in 1993 as a GEWEX continental-scale experiment and is currently in its second 10 yr phase. Phase I (1993-2002) was primarily dedicated to hydrological, meteorological and oceanographic processes in the Baltic Sea drainage basin, hence mostly dealt with the physical aspects of the system. Scientific focus was on the hydrological cycle and the exchange of energy between the atmosphere, the Baltic Sea and the surface of its catchment. The BALTEX study area was hydrologically defined as the Baltic Sea drainage basin. The second 10 yr phase of BALTEX (Phase II: 2003-12) has strengthened regional climate research, water management issues, biogeochemical cycles and overarching efforts to reach out to stakeholders and decision makers, as well as to foster communication and education. Achievements of BALTEX Phase II have been the establishment of an assessment report of regional climate change and its impacts on the Baltic Sea basin (from hydrological to biological and socio-economic), the further development of regional physical climate models and the integration of biogeochemical and ecosystem models. BALTEX features a strong infrastructure, with an international secretariat and a publication series, and organizes various workshops and conferences. This article gives an overview of the BALTEX programme, with an emphasis on Phase II, with some examples from BALTEX-related research.

  20. Comparison of E-Commerce behaviour among women consumers of Balkan and Baltic Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Polychronidou Persefoni; Valsamidis Stavros; Florou Giannoula; Karasavvoglou Anastasios

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, more and more consumers prefer to make their shopping via Internet. Researchers wish to study the e-commerce behaviour and the factors influencing consumer’s attitude while shopping on line. This paper investigates the differences and similarities of women’s behaviour toward e-commerce in two culturally different Europe regions; the Balkans and the Baltic regions. Some attributes such as trust in vendor, trust in transactions, language, culture, age or education and their possible i...

  1. AROME-Arctic: New operational NWP model for the Arctic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süld, Jakob; Dale, Knut S.; Myrland, Espen; Batrak, Yurii; Homleid, Mariken; Valkonen, Teresa; Seierstad, Ivar A.; Randriamampianina, Roger

    2016-04-01

    In the frame of the EU-funded project ACCESS (Arctic Climate Change, Economy and Society), MET Norway aimed 1) to describe the present monitoring and forecasting capabilities in the Arctic; and 2) to identify the key factors limiting the forecasting capabilities and to give recommendations on key areas to improve the forecasting capabilities in the Arctic. We have observed that the NWP forecast quality is lower in the Arctic than in the regions further south. Earlier research indicated that one of the factors behind this is the composition of the observing system in the Arctic, in particular the scarceness of conventional observations. To further assess possible strategies for alleviating the situation and propose scenarios for a future Arctic observing system, we have performed a set of experiments to gain a more detailed insight in the contribution of the components of the present observing system in a regional state-of-the-art non-hydrostatic NWP model using the AROME physics (Seity et al, 2011) at 2.5 km horizontal resolution - AROME-Arctic. Our observing system experiment studies showed that conventional observations (Synop, Buoys) can play an important role in correcting the surface state of the model, but prove that the present upper-air conventional (Radiosondes, Aircraft) observations in the area are too scarce to have a significant effect on forecasts. We demonstrate that satellite sounding data play an important role in improving forecast quality. This is the case with satellite temperature sounding data (AMSU-A, IASI), as well as with the satellite moisture sounding data (AMSU-B/MHS, IASI). With these sets of observations, the AROME-Arctic clearly performs better in forecasting extreme events, like for example polar lows. For more details see presentation by Randriamampianina et al. in this session. The encouraging performance of AROME-Arctic lead us to implement it with more observations and improved settings into daily runs with the objective to

  2. Current Status of the Equine Sector in the Central Baltic Region (Finland, Latvia and Sweden)

    OpenAIRE

    Lunner Kolstrup, Christina; Pinzke, Stefan; Löfqvist, Lotta; Järvinen, Maija; Korpa, Viola; Paula, Līga; Kursitis, Andis

    2013-01-01

    This report covers basic descriptions and characteristics of the equine sector, including statistics on number of horses, horse farms, employment, current structure and recent dynamics in the horse sector in Finland, Latvia and Sweden and also the mobility (e.g. trade, import, export and tourism) within the Central Baltic Region. The information was gathered through literature reviews, round table discussions and interviews with equine organisations and stakeholders, and through visits to far...

  3. Suplphur Regulation – technology solutions and economic consequences for the Baltic Sea Region shipping market

    OpenAIRE

    Wiśnicki, Bogusz; Czermański, Ernest; Droździecki, Sławomir; Matczak, Maciej; Spangenberg, Eugen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this publication is to give an accurate overview of the shipping market, especially in the Baltic Sea Region, which we judge to be most seriously affected by the Sulphur Regulation. The overview consists of a technical part in which the most popular and most probable solutions that shipping owners will undertake and invest in are presented. The second part concerns the economic consequences of specific, chosen technologies with special attention given to the cost analysis of the...

  4. Nutrient Abatement Potential and Abatement Costs of Waste Water Treatment Plants in the Baltic Sea Region

    OpenAIRE

    Hautakangas, Sami; Ollikainen, Markku; Aarnos, Kari; Rantanen, Pirjo

    2013-01-01

    We assess the physical potential to reduce nutrient loads from waste water treatment plants in the Baltic Sea region and determine the costs of abating nutrients based on the estimated potential. We take a sample of waste water treatment plants of different size classes and generalize its properties to the whole population of waste water treatment plants. Based on a detailed investment and operational cost data on actual plants, we develop the total and marginal abatement cost functions for b...

  5. The Baltic-Pontic region in the Europe-Eurasia dual system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyin M. V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the Baltic-Pontic Sea region not only as a geographical space of Intermarium (Międzymorze, Tarpjūris etc. but also as Intermundium or the interface of European and Russian (Eurasian civilization. The study sets out to clarify the logic of changing patterns shaping this geopolitical area. To this end, the concept of the Baltic-Pontic conflict system proposed by Vadim Tsymbursky is applied and further developed. In contrast to his agent-focused vehicle of analysis disclosing the power interactions in Intermarium, the authors advance an alternative structure-focused model of the Baltic-Pontic system (BPS as a multidimensional evolving space of heterogeneous interactions, which include cooperation. The authors suggest applying the BPS models in interpreting and clarifying historical developments in the area from the late 14th century until the present. The article analyses the spatial, geopolitical and geochronopolitical characteristics of the region, as well as the models of intercivilisational interaction between Europe and Eurasia. The author addresses the issue of the political identity of the region and its ability to play an independent role in the world politics.

  6. Innovacionnaja jekonomika v regione Baltijskogo morja [Innovative economy in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich Nikolay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovative activity is carried out at three levels — those of the state, region and a company or a university. This article considers the level of development of knowledge-based economy in Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland at each of the three levels, as well as descripes the spatial differentiation of innovative activity within the Baltic region. The analysis is done on the basis of national and international research, as well as statistical data on the intensity of research and development, structure of research expenditure, human capital in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of institutional support for innovative activity. The authors characterise the role of business, university, and authorities — which constitute the «triple helix» — in national innovative systems. The article also analyses such important factors as the intensity of research and development, the share of employees in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of public support. Examples of private-public infrastructure for the implementation of innovative projects are offered.

  7. Actors and arenas in hybrid networks: implications for environmental policymaking in the Baltic Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joas, Marko; Kern, Kristine; Sandberg, Siv

    2007-04-01

    Policymaking within and among states is under pressure for change. One feature of this change is empirically observed as an activation of different network structures in the Baltic Sea Region, especially since the collapse of the Iron Curtain, the initiation of the Rio process, and the enlargement of the European Union. The contemporary theoretical debates about governance highlight the changing conditions for policymaking and implementation on all societal levels. This process of change, especially evident concerning environmental policies, includes new types of networks crossing state borders both at the supranational and the subnational levels. This article illuminates this process of change with empirical data from the project "Governing a Common Sea" (GOVCOM) within the Baltic Sea Research Program (BIREME). PMID:17520939

  8. Geodetic observation of sea-level change and crustal deformation in the Baltic Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, A.; Groh, A.; Dietrich, R.

    Based on tide gauge observations spanning almost 200 years, homogeneous time series of the mean relative sea level were derived for nine sites at the southern coast of the Baltic Sea. Our regionally concentrated data were complemented by long-term relative sea-level records retrieved from the data base of the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL). From these records relative sea-level change rates were derived at 51 tide gauge stations for the period between 1908 and 2007. A minimum observation time of 60 years is required for the determination of reliable sea-level rates. At present, no anthropogenic acceleration in sea-level rise is detected in the tide gauge observations in the southern Baltic. The spatial variation of the relative sea-level rates reflects the fingerprint of GIA-induced crustal uplift. Time series of extreme sea levels were also inferred from the tide gauge records. They were complemented by water level information from historic storm surge marks preserved along the German Baltic coast. Based on this combined dataset the incidence and spatial variation of extreme sea levels induced by storm surges were analysed yielding important information for hazard assessments. Permanent GPS observations were used to determine recent crustal deformation rates for 44 stations in the Baltic Sea region. The GPS derived height change rates were applied to reduce the relative sea-level changes observed by tide gauges yielding an estimate for the eustatic sea-level change. For 13 tide gauge-GPS colocation sites a mean eustatic sea-level trend of 1.3 mm/a was derived for the last 100 years.

  9. Saint Petersburg as a Global Coastal City: Positioning in the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachninsky S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic region consists of coastal areas of nine countries — Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. The region’s hubs are the port cities located along the Baltic Sea coast. However, Peter Taylor and Saskia Sassen’s classification identifies higher status cities and ‘global cities’, which are to be considered in the global context. Seven coastal regions are distinguished within this region, whose organising centers are the global coastal cities of Stockholm, Copenhagen, Helsinki, Riga, Tallinn, St. Petersburg, and Malmö. The concept of a “global city-region” (Sassen can be used as a methodological framework for analyzing this connection. Within this hierarchy, the dominant alpha group global city is Stockholm. The authors argue that, as a global coastal city, St. Petersburg forms the St. Petersburg coastal region, which can be defined as a typical "global city region". The index method shows that the position of St. Petersburg in the system of global coastal cities of the Baltic region is relatively favorable in view of its transport, logistics, and demographic potential and the advantageous geo-economic situation. St. Petersburg has certain competitive advantages in the region brought about by its demographic potential, port freight capacity, and the favorable geo-economic position of the "sea gate" of Russia. However, the level of high-tech services and ‘new economy’ development is not sufficient for the port to become a match for the top three cities (Stockholm, Helsinki, and Copenhagen. This is increasingly important because transboundary global city networks demonstrate that global cities are functions of global networks. Saint Petersburg is just starting to integrate into these networks through the Pulkovo airline hub and seaports of Ust-Luga, Primorsk, and Saint Petersburg.

  10. Saint Petersburg as a Global Coastal City: Positioning in the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachninsky S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic region consists of coastal areas of nine countries — Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. The region’s hubs are the port cities located along the Baltic Sea coast. However, Peter Taylor and Saskia Sassen’s classification identifies higher status cities and ‘global cities’, which are to be considered in the global context. Seven coastal regions are distinguished within this region, whose organising centers are the global coastal cities of Stockholm, Copenhagen, Helsinki, Riga, Tallinn, St. Petersburg, and Malmö. The concept of a “global city-region” (Sassen can be used as a methodological framework for analyzing this connection. Within this hierarchy, the dominant alpha group global city is Stockholm. The authors argue that, as a global coastal city, St. Petersburg forms the St. Petersburg coastal region, which can be defined as a typical "global city region". The index method shows that the position of St. Petersburg in the system of global coastal cities of the Baltic region is relatively favorable in view of its transport, logistics, and demographic potential and the advantageous geo-economic situation. St. Petersburg has certain competitive advantages in the region brought about by its demographic potential, port freight capacity, and the favorable geo-economic position of the "sea gate" of Russia. However, the level of high-tech services and ‘new economy’ development is not sufficient for the port to become a match for the top three cities (Stockholm, Helsinki, and Copenhagen. This is increasingly important because transboundary global city networks demonstrate that global cities are functions of global networks. Saint Petersburg is just starting to integrate into these networks through the Pulkovo airline hub and seaports of Ust-Luga, Primorsk, and Saint Petersburg.

  11. Seismicity, structure and tectonics in the Arctic region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masaki Kanao; Vladimir D. Suvorov; Shigeru Toda; Seiji Tsuboi

    2015-01-01

    The“Arctic”region, where the North Pole occupies the center of the Arctic Ocean, has been affecting the environmental variation of the Earth from geological time to the present. However, the seismic activities in the area are not adequately monitored. Therefore, by conducting long term monitoring of seismic phenomenon as sustainable parameters, our understanding of both the tectonic evolution of the Earth and the dynamic interaction between the cryosphere and geosphere in surface layers of the Earth will increase. In this paper, the association of the seismicity and structure of the Arctic region, particularly focused on Eurasian continent and surrounding oceans, and its relationship with regional evolution during the Earth’s history is studied. The target areas cover representative tectonic provinces in the Eurasian Arctic, such as the wide area of Siberia, Baikal Rift Zone, Far East Russia, Arctic Ocean together with Greenland and Northern Canada. Based on discussion including characteristics of seismicity, het-erogeneous structure of the crust and upper mantle, tectonic history and recent dynamic features of the Earth’s surface in the Arctic are summarized.

  12. Linkages between Arctic sea ice cover, large-scale atmospheric circulation, and weather and ice conditions in the Gulf of Bothnia, Baltic Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Timo Vihma; Bin Cheng; Petteri Uotila; WEI Lixin; QIN Ting

    2014-01-01

    During years 1980/1981–2012/2013, inter-annual variations in sea ice and snow thickness in Kemi, in the northern coast of the Gulf of Bothnia, Baltic Sea, depended on the air temperature, snow fall, and rain. Inter-annual variations in the November—April mean air temperature, accumulated total precipitation, snow fall, and rain, as well as ice and snow thickness in Kemi and ice concentration in the Gulf of Bothnia correlated with inter-annual variations of the Paciifc Decadal Oscillation (PDO), Arctic Oscillation (AO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Scandinavian Pattern (SCA), and Polar / Eurasian Pattern (PEU). The strong role of PDO is a new ifnding. In general, the relationships with PDO were approximately equally strong as those with AO, but rain and sea ice concentration were better correlated with PDO. The correlations with PDO were, however, not persistent; for a study period since 1950 the correlations were much lower. During 1980/1981—2012/2013, also the Paciifc / North American Pattern (PNA) and El Nino–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) had statistical connections with the conditions in the Gulf of Bothnia, revealed by analyzing their effects combined with those of PDO and AO. A reduced autumn sea ice area in the Arctic was related to increased rain and total precipitation in the following winter in Kemi. This correlation was signiifcant for the Pan-Arctic sea ice area in September, October, and November, and for the November sea ice area in the Barents / Kara seas.

  13. Proceedings of Conference of Ministers of Energy on co-operation in the Baltic Sea Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Conference of the Ministers of Energy on Cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region held in Helsinki on 24-25 October has been regarded as a success. The European Commission and eleven countries adopted a communique that outlined goals for the regional energy sector, defined tasks for the cooperation for the next few years and decided how to organise the cooperation. In December 1999, the Energy Council discussed the Northern Dimension (ND) policy and the energy sector cooperation in the Baltic Sea region. The work in the energy sector was stated to be important for the whole EU, and the Commission was charged with the task of following the developments and reporting to the Council on the progress. The Foreign Ministers' Conference on the Northern Dimension, held in Helsinki on 11-12 November 1999, identified - in addition to the energy sector - also many other prioritised ND policy action fields, such as the forest sector, transportation systems, environmental challenges, the cooperation for new solutions of many social, health-related and administrative problems and research work, just to mention some sectors. The European Commission is preparing an action plan for the ND policy on the basis of the results of the Foreign Ministers' Conference and the Commission Communications on the ND policy activities. Energy cooperation will certainly have a central role in this action programme provided that the international political atmosphere gives the framework and support for further integration and cooperation in the region

  14. Jelektrojenergeticheskaja kooperacija v Baltijskom regione i rol' v nej Rossii [Electric energy cooperation in the Baltic Sea region and the role of Russia in it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zverev Yuri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines cooperation in the electric energy sector in the Baltic region. The author explores the existing undersea HVDC power exchange projects. It is emphasised that cooperation in the electric energy sector is concentrated largely in the EU member states despite earlier plans to establish the Baltic energy ring, which would also include Russia and Belarus. The author stresses that one of the most acute problems for the EU today is overcoming isolation of the energy systems of the Baltic States (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia from that of the major part of the EU. This task has become especially relevant after the closing of the Ignalina NPP (Lithuania, which used to be the primary energy source for the three Baltic States. The article examines key projects of the construction of new international power transmission lines in the framework of the Baltic Energy Market Interconnection Plan (BEMIP and the prospects of the Visaginas NPP (Lithuania in solving energy problems of the Baltic States. The author analyses Russia’s role in the electric energy market and focuses on a possible increase of the country’s energy market share following the construction of the Baltic NPP and the export of generated electric energy to Poland, Lithuania, Germany, and Sweden. The author concludes that the prospects of Russia’s energy export to the Baltic Sea region will be determined not only by technological, economic and market factors, but rather by the general state of relations between Russia and the EU. Moreover, a lot depends on Lithuania’s decision on the construction of the Visaginas NPP, as well as the way the EU and the Baltic States solve the problem of energy supply in case the NPP project is terminated.

  15. Sustainable Production through Innovation in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdas Arbačiauskas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article provides brief information about the international project SPIN (Sustainable Productionthrough Innovation in SMEs that is under implementation in the Baltic Sea region to intensify ecoinnovationdevelopment and implementation. It presents initial findings from the study conducted in theframework of this project, particularly, an overview of the SME sector (including the structure of the SMEsector, contribution of SMEs to the national economy and the situation concerning innovationimplementation in Lithuania as well as the framework situation concerning eco-innovation development andimplementation (including available financial support. The key SME needs in development andimplementation of eco-innovations are also discussed in the article.

  16. Aerosol black carbon over Svalbard regions of Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Mukunda M.; Babu, S. Suresh; Moorthy, K. Krishna; Thakur, Roseline C.; Chaubey, Jai Prakash; Nair, Vijayakumar S.

    2016-03-01

    In view of the climate impact of aerosol Black Carbon (BC) over snow covered regions (through enhanced absorption of radiation as well as snow-albedo forcing), and in view of the increasing anthropogenic presence and influence in the northern polar regions, continuous long term measurements of airborne BC have been undertaken from the Svalbard region of Norwegian Arctic (Ny-Ålesund, 79°N, 12°E, 8 m a.s.l.). This study, employing data over a period of 4-years (2010-2013) have shown a consistent spring-time enhancement in BC concentrations, having a (climatological) seasonal mean value of ∼50.3 ± 19.5 ng m-3, nearly 3-times higher than the lowest BC concentrations in summer (∼19.5 ± 6.5 ng m-3). Spectral variation of absorbance indicates that long-range transported biomass burning aerosols contribute as high as 25% to the high BC concentrations in the Arctic atmosphere in spring. Concurrent estimates of BC concentrations in the Arctic snow (for an ensemble of snow samples collected over a period of time during spring) showed values ranging from 0.6 ppb to 4.1 ppb. These values have been used to estimate the BC scavenging ratio (SR). Our studies revealed a mean value of SR ∼98 ± 46, which varied over wide range from 40 to 184 for individual samples. In a broader perspective, the seasonal variations of atmospheric BC concentrations at the Arctic are similar to those seen at the high altitude Himalayas; even though the concentrations are much lower at Arctic. It is found that synoptic conditions mainly influence the high altitude Himalayas, while the influences of local anthropogenic influences are not negligible at the Arctic in modulating the seasonal variations of absorbing aerosols.

  17. Osobennosti jenergeticheskoj strategii ES v Baltijskom regione [The features of EU energy strategy in the Baltic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretinin Gannady

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the issues of EU energy policy in the 1990s-the beginning of the 2000s in order to identify the features of energy supply and energy safety of the Baltic region countries. The research and practical significance of the work lies in the stepwise description of actions taken by EU leaders and EU member states in order to formulate a common European energy policy. The 2004 EU enlargement posed the problem of taking into account the features of energy supply of Eastern European countries and, especially, the Baltic States. The energy industries of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia, as well as other Eastern European and CIS countries, are closely related to the energy industry of the Russian Federation. Trying to allow for this circumstance, EU leaders and energy structures took a number of organizational measures aimed, on the one hand, at an increase in energy independence of new members of the EU and, on the other hand, at taking into account the recent trends in the energy market development. The research shows that most of the initiatives do not take into account the perspective and interests of Russia, which has a strong presence in the energy market. The analysis conducted will help the assessment of prospects of further development of the Baltic States' energy industry and its interaction with that of the Russian Federation.

  18. The climate in the Baltic Sea region during the last millennium simulated with a regional climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schimanke

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Variability and long-term climate change in the Baltic Sea region is investigated for the pre-industrial period of the last millennium. For the first time dynamical downscaling covering the complete millennium is conducted with a regional climate model in this area. As a result of changing external forcing conditions, the model simulation shows warm conditions in the first centuries followed by a gradual cooling until ca. 1700 before temperature increases in the last centuries. This long-term evolution, with a Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA and a Little Ice Age (LIA, is in broad agreement with proxy-based reconstructions. However, the timing of warm and cold events is not captured at all times. We show that the regional response to the global climate anomalies is to a strong degree modified by the large-scale circulation in the model. In particular, we find that a positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO simulated during MCA contributes to enhancing winter temperatures and precipitation in the region while a negative NAO index in the LIA reduces them. In a second step, the regional ocean model (RCO-SCOBI is used to investigate the impact of atmospheric changes onto the Baltic Sea for two 100 yr time slices representing the MCA and the LIA. Besides the warming of the Baltic Sea, the water becomes fresher at all levels during the MCA. This is induced by increased runoff and stronger westerly winds. Moreover, the oxygen concentrations in the deep layers are slightly reduced during the MCA. Additional sensitivity studies are conducted to investigate the impact of even higher temperatures and increased nutrient loads. The presented experiments suggest that changing nutrient loads may be more important determining oxygen depletion than changes in temperature or dynamic feedbacks.

  19. Deep and shallow structures in the Arctic region imaged by satellite magnetic and gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaina, Carmen; Panet, Isabelle; Shephard, Grace

    2016-07-01

    , volcanic crust, but, as in the case of other oceanic Large Igneous Provinces, only deep sea drilling will be able to reveal the true nature of the underlying crust at the core of the Arctic. The oldest continental crust, usually found in the cratonic areas and as Proterozoic accreted crust, generates the largest positive magnetic anomalies. This crust contains large and deep volcanic bodies in the North American shield, Greenland, the Baltic shield in Eurasia and the Siberian platform in NE Asia, and are imaged by the satellite data. Furthermore, satellite data is not only restricted to revealing crustal and lithospheric depths. Recent workflows have shown that subducted remnants of ocean basins, now located in the lower mantle, as well as large, antipodal features on the core-mantle boundary, can be imaged by satellite gravity. Seismic tomography provides evidence for an extinct Mesozoic Arctic ocean lying around 1400 km under present-day Greenland. However, the variable resolution of seismic tomography at high latitudes, as well as ambiguity in plate reconstructions, renders the existence of the slab open to interpretation. Critically, the current location of the slab also matches perturbations in long-wavelength gravity gradients, providing further support for a deep density anomaly and a slab origin. Gravity data therefore provides a complementary and independent link in linking surface events and deep mantle structure in frontier regions like the Arctic. By revealing the present-day structure, satellite-derived magnetics and gravity offer a critical component in our understanding of Arctic history, over timescales of millions of years and scales of thousands of kilometers.

  20. Distribution and sources of 129I in rivers of the Baltic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of 129I was measured in 54 river waters discharging into the Baltic Sea from Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Germany. Sample collection was performed during a well-bracketed time interval (June-July 1999), thus allowing comparison of the rivers over a wide latitude range without the effect of long temporal spread. Although there is no direct input of anthropogenic 129I in the watersheds, the concentration of the isotope is about two to three orders of magnitude higher than the expected pre-nuclear era natural values in the rivers of Finland and northern Sweden, and in the rivers of southern Sweden, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, Poland and Germany; the 129I concentration may reach five orders of magnitude higher. Furthermore, there are significant correlations between the 129I concentration and latitude and/or distance from the North Sea and between 129I and Cl. These findings suggest seawater as a main source of 129I to the rivers through atmospheric transport. Of the many chemical parameters investigated, the pH may account for some of the variability in 129I concentrations of the rivers. The contribution from nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl accident to the riverine 129I is insignificant compared to the releases from the nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. The total flux of 129I by rivers to the Baltic Sea and related basins represents minor amounts of the isotope pool in these marine waters. External radioactivity hazards from 129I are considered to be negligible in the Baltic region. However, as the main 129I intake to the human body is likely through water, due to the large amount of daily water consumption, more concern should be given to internal radioactivity hazard that may be associated with the isotope's localized elevated concentration in the human organs

  1. Arctic climate change in an ensemble of regional CORDEX simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Koenigk, Torben; Berg, Peter; Döscher, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Fifth phase Climate Model Intercomparison Project historical and scenario simulations from four global climate models (GCMs) using the Representative Concentration Pathways greenhouse gas concentration trajectories RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 are downscaled over the Arctic with the regional Rossby Centre Atmosphere model (RCA). The regional model simulations largely reflect the circulation bias patterns of the driving global models in the historical period, indicating the importance of lateral and lowe...

  2. Transnacional'naja territorial'naja transportnaja sistema Baltijskogo regiona [The transnational territorial transport system of the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumenyuk Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on the structure and territorial borders of the Baltic Sea region, and examine the key structural elements of the transnational territorial transport system. In this respect, we clarify some terms used in transport geography. For the first time the transport system gets territorially localized, which allows for a broad range of new studies of transnational transportation in the Baltic Sea area. We also identify the main principles of development and operation of international territorial transport systems and present them taking the Baltic Sea region as an example. Our findings, we hope, will have a great practical application for researchers of transport geography, especially those studying international logistics.

  3. Dvigateli regional'nogo stroitel'stva. Vlijanie regional'nyh politicheskih organizacij na sotrudnichestvo universitetov v regione Baltijskogo morja [Motors for regional development: impact on regional political organizations on the university cooperation in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewert Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Educational co-operation is one of the main aspects of the regional political agenda in the Baltic Sea Region. The article analyzes the political impact of the organizations, as perceived by the universities in the region and political decision-makers on national and regional levels. Based on the success of the OECD in becoming an influential actor in educational policies, this article discusses different strategies for the regional political organizations to enhance their influence.

  4. Nuclear power in the Baltic Sea region: the history of emergence and the political and economic features of its development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretinin G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the development of peaceful nuclear power. The author draws attention to the fact that nuclear power is a rather young branch of national economy. However, over recent decades, it has already seen rises and falls, and a number of states have had tragic experiences of nuclear emergencies. Nevertheless, many countries — including the three Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania — express a strong interest in development, generation, and application of nuclear power. In the Baltic States, nuclear power dates back to the Soviet times, but its development was suspended pursuant to the EU regulations (the Ignalina NPP. Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia have been striving for energy independence from Russia — the principal supplier of energy carriers to these countries. For a long time, the three Baltic States have been proclaiming their unanimity on the general European path of development. However, the reality proved to be different. The touchstone for achieving common goals was the idea of constructing a new NPP at the site of the closed Ignalina NPP. The author concludes that the joint construction of a new NPP is quite questionable. When it comes to politics, each of the three Baltic States is ready to build its own NPP. Thus, the development of nuclear power in the Baltic Sea region requires joint coordinated actions independent of any bloc-inspired interests of the states involved. Moreover, this success may prove sustainable if the actions are based on innovative decisions and modern technologies.

  5. Interpreting time trends and biomagnification of PCBs in the Baltic region using the equilibrium lipid partitioning approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-year monitoring data for PCBs in abiotic media and biota collected from the Baltic region were compiled into a database and analyzed using the equilibrium lipid partitioning (ELP) approach to study temporal trends as well as to investigate food web biomagnification. Statistically significant reductions in ELP concentrations between 1987 and 2001 were observed in guillemots, air, and some fish species and a general, but not always statistically significant decline in concentrations was observed throughout the Baltic ecosystem. Estimated clearance half-lives ranged from 2.7-10.7 years. The database contained concentrations for a range of different Baltic species, which comprise a well-known Baltic food web. It was possible to derive the trophic position of the species in this food web and relate them to ELP concentrations. A significant positive correlation between ELP concentrations and trophic position was obtained. Estimated food web magnification factors ranged between 1.9 and 5.1 for selected congeners. - The equilibrium lipid partitioning approach is applied to a large Baltic database of PCB concentrations in abiotic and biota media to investigate time trends and biomagnification

  6. The changing Arctic Sea ice cover : regional and seasonal aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Steene, Rebekka Jastamin

    2015-01-01

    As global climate changes are becoming increasingly evident, increasing air temperatures, melting glaciers, rising sea levels, and decreasing biodiversity is observed at increasing rates worldwide. The Arctic sea ice cover has has become a key indicator of the ongoing global climate change through its substantial decline in both extent and thickness. In this study we show how the observed regression of the Northern Hemisphere sea ice is distributed over different regions of the...

  7. Guideline on the System Vulnerability : Analysis of the Baltic Sea Region Vulnerability to the Impact of Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Hjerpe, Mattias; Schauser, Inke; Alberth, Johan

    2013-01-01

    This report elaborates an integrated vulnerability assessment concept, intended as a knowledge brokerage tool for decision-makers in the Baltic Sea Region. By developing an integrated vulnerability concept, in line with advances in regional and local vulnerability and adaptation research and based on the project’s review of the scope and quality of current vulnerability assessments, the report supports discussions on what is needed for a systematic assessment of vulnerability in the region. T...

  8. Co-existence of electricity, TEP, and TGC markets in the Baltic Sea Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the application of two policy instruments, tradable emission permits (TEPs) and tradable green certificates (TGCs) to the electricity sector in an international context. The paper contains an explicit modelling at two levels of abstraction, one suitable for defining and analysing basic functionalities and one suitable for numerical analysis in relation to countries in the Baltic Sea Region. Emphasis is on estimating implications in quantitative terms for countries in the Baltic Sea Region in 2010 when the TEP market in the analysis extends to four Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden), and the TGC market extends to North European EU countries (Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Germany). The study concludes that within the range of goals stipulated in the EU draft directive (23.6% renewable energy) and the Kyoto targets for emissions, the following prices are affected significantly: from -2 to +10 Euro/MWh for electricity spot prices, TGC prices up to 50 Euro/MWh, TEP prices up to 18 Euro/t CO2 and up to +15 Euro/MWh on the consumer cost. It is shown that such price changes have important consequences for the production and investment patterns in the electricity sector, and the resulting patterns will be clearly different according to the specific numerical targets for the two goals. An immediate consequence is increased pressure on transmission lines. Further, the introduction of TEP and TGC markets will imply a restructuring of the electricity sector, e.g. (depending on the specific combination of targets) by a significant increase in wind power capacities. However, this will have to be counterbalanced by access to production technologies that have fast regulation properties and/or that may maintain voltage stability. However, the price signals of TGCs (and to some extent also TEPs) that will enhance wind power investments will simultaneously hamper investments in technologies that are a precondition for extensive use of wind power

  9. Relating Regional Arctic Sea Ice and climate extremes over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionita-Scholz, Monica; Grosfeld, Klaus; Lohmann, Gerrit; Scholz, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The potential increase of temperature extremes under climate change is a major threat to society, as temperature extremes have a deep impact on environment, hydrology, agriculture, society and economy. Hence, the analysis of the mechanisms underlying their occurrence, including their relationships with the large-scale atmospheric circulation and sea ice concentration, is of major importance. At the same time, the decline in Arctic sea ice cover during the last 30 years has been widely documented and it is clear that this change is having profound impacts at regional as well as planetary scale. As such, this study aims to investigate the relation between the autumn regional sea ice concentration variability and cold winters in Europe, as identified by the numbers of cold nights (TN10p), cold days (TX10p), ice days (ID) and consecutive frost days (CFD). We analyze the relationship between Arctic sea ice variation in autumn (September-October-November) averaged over eight different Arctic regions (Barents/Kara Seas, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi/Bering Seas, Central Arctic, Greenland Sea, Labrador Sea/Baffin Bay, Laptev/East Siberian Seas and Northern Hemisphere) and variations in atmospheric circulation and climate extreme indices in the following winter season over Europe using composite map analysis. Based on the composite map analysis it is shown that the response of the winter extreme temperatures over Europe is highly correlated/connected to changes in Arctic sea ice variability. However, this signal is not symmetrical for the case of high and low sea ice years. Moreover, the response of temperatures extreme over Europe to sea ice variability over the different Arctic regions differs substantially. The regions which have the strongest impact on the extreme winter temperature over Europe are: Barents/Kara Seas, Beaufort Sea, Central Arctic and the Northern Hemisphere. For the years of high sea ice concentration in the Barents/Kara Seas there is a reduction in the number

  10. Advancement into the Arctic Region for Bioactive Sponge Secondary Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hamann

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Porifera have long been a reservoir for the discovery of bioactive compounds and drug discovery. Most research in the area has focused on sponges from tropical and temperate waters, but more recently the focus has shifted to the less accessible colder waters of the Antarctic and, to a lesser extent, the Arctic. The Antarctic region in particular has been a more popular location for natural products discovery and has provided promising candidates for drug development. This article reviews groups of bioactive compounds that have been isolated and reported from the southern reaches of the Arctic Circle, surveys the known sponge diversity present in the Arctic waters, and details a recent sponge collection by our group in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. The collection has yielded previously undescribed sponge species along with primary activity against opportunistic infectious diseases, malaria, and HCV. The discovery of new sponge species and bioactive crude extracts gives optimism for the isolation of new bioactive compounds from a relatively unexplored source.

  11. Differences in Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli Virulence Factor Genes in the Baltic Sea Region

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Lillo; Kristiine Pai; Arta Balode; Mariia Makarova; Kristi Huik; Siiri Kõljalg; Marina Ivanova; Lidia Kaftyreva; Jolanta Miciuleviciene; Paul Naaber; Kristel Parv; Anastasia Pavelkovich; Tiiu Rööp; Karolin Toompere; Ludmila Suzhaeva

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of different virulence factor (VF) genes in extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from the Baltic Sea region. A total of 432 strains of phenotypically ESBL positive E. coli were collected from 20 institutions located in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and the region of St. Petersburg in Russia from January to May 2012 and analyzed for phylogenetic group and prevalence of 23 VF genes. The strains were...

  12. Problem zone and pioneer region. The Baltic region between controversies of energy policy and cooperative projects; Problemzone und Vorreiterregion. Der Ostseeraum im Spannungsfeld energiepolitischer Kontroversen und Kooperationsvorhaben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Kai-Olaf

    2010-10-15

    This publication describes how for the EU states bordering on the Baltic coast energy policy and energy economy have become crucial fields of bilateral and regional cooperation. On the one side this is attributable to the controversial Nord Stream Pipeline, growing concerns over the security of supply, vulnerabilities in energy policy - be they real or imagined - and to competing energy economic interests. On the other side, what has drawn numerous players' attention to the greater Baltic region as an attractive area in terms of energy policy are the prospects for multilateral cooperation projects and associated hopes for greater regional solidarity in issues of energy policy. In this sense the Baltic region is not only an energy political problem zone but also a potential pioneer region, namely when it comes to energy economic and energy political integration within the EU. This ambivalence should continue to characterise the region for the foreseeable future. The extent to which energy economic integration will in future prevail over particular national interests of energy and security policy will greatly depend on the initiatives which the EU Baltic states succeed in launching cooperatively at EU level.

  13. Integrated regional changes in arctic climate feedbacks: Implications for the global climate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, A.D.; Chapin, F. S., III; Walsh, J.E.; Wirth, C.

    2006-01-01

    The Arctic is a key part of the global climate system because the net positive energy input to the tropics must ultimately be resolved through substantial energy losses in high-latitude regions. The Arctic influences the global climate system through both positive and negative feedbacks that involve physical, ecological, and human systems of the Arctic. The balance of evidence suggests that positive feedbacks to global warming will likely dominate in the Arctic during the next 50 to 100 years. However, the negative feedbacks associated with changing the freshwater balance of the Arctic Ocean might abruptly launch the planet into another glacial period on longer timescales. In light of uncertainties and the vulnerabilities of the climate system to responses in the Arctic, it is important that we improve our understanding of how integrated regional changes in the Arctic will likely influence the evolution of the global climate system. Copyright ?? 2006 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  14. [The Reception of Medieval Europa in the Baltic Sea Region. Papers of the XIIth Visby Symposium held at Gotland University, Visby] / Stefan Donecker

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Donecker, Stefan, 1977-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus : The Reception of Medieval Europa in the Baltic Sea Region. Papers of the XIIth Visby Symposium held at Gotland University, Visby. Viby : Gotland University Press, 2009. (Acta Visbyensia. 12)

  15. [The reception of medieval Europe in the Baltic Sea region, Papers of the XIIth Visby Symposium held at Gotland University, Visby] / Juhan Kreem

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreem, Juhan, 1971-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: The reception of medieval Europe in the Baltic Sea Region : papers of the XIIth Visby Symposium, held at Gotland University, Visby / editor: Jörn Staecker. Visby : Gotland University Press, 2009. (Acta Visbyensia ; 12)

  16. Regional dependence in the rapid loss of Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Sally; Houssais, Marie-Noëlle; Herbaut, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    The accelerating rate of sea ice decline in the Arctic, particularly in the summer months, has been well documented by previous studies. However, the methods of analysis used to date have tended to employ pre-defined regions over which to determine sea ice loss, potentially masking regional variability within these regions. Similarly, evidence of acceleration has frequently been based on decade-to-decade comparisons that do not precisely quantify the timing of the increase in rate of decline. In this study, we address this issue by quantifying the onset time of rapid loss in sea ice concentration on a point-by-point basis, using an objective method applied to satellite passive microwave data. Seasonal maps of onset time are produced, and reveal strong regional dependency, with differences of up to 20 years in onset time between the various subregions of the Arctic. In certain cases, such as the Laptev Sea, strong spatial variability is found even at the regional scale, suggesting that caution should be employed in the use of geographically-based region definitions that may be misaligned with the physical response. The earliest onset times are found in the Pacific sector, where certain areas undergo a transition ca. 1992. In contrast, onset times in the Atlantic sector are much more recent. Rates of decline prior to and following the onset of rapid decline are calculated, and suggest that the post-onset rate of loss is weakest in the Pacific sector and greatest in the Barents Sea region. Coherency is noted in the season-to-season response, both at interannual and longer time scales. Our results describe a series of spatially self-consistent regional responses, and may be useful in understanding the primary drivers of recent sea ice loss.

  17. Relationship between Eurasian large-scale patterns and regional climate variability over the Black and Baltic Seas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankunavicius, G.; Pupienis, D. [Vilnius Univ. (Lithuania). Dept. of Hydrology and Climatology; Basharin, D. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Sevastopol (Ukraine). Sevastopol Marine Hydrophysical Inst.

    2012-11-01

    Using a NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis dataset and the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis approach we studied interannual to decadal variabilities of the sea-level air pressure (SLP) and the surface air temperature (SAT) fields over Eurasia during the 2nd part of the 20th century. Our results agree with those of the previous studies, which conclude that Eurasian trends are the result of storm-path changes driven by the interdecadal behaviour of the NAO-like meridional dipole pattern in the Atlantic. On interannual and decadal time scales, significant synchronous correlations between correspondent modes of SAT and SLP EOF patterns were found. This fact suggests that there is a strong and stable Eurasian interrelationship between SAT and SLP large-scale fields which affects the local climate of two sub-regions: the Black and Baltic Seas. The climate variability in these sub-regions was studied in terms of Eurasian large-scale surface-temperature and air-pressure patterns responses. We concluded that the sub-regional climate variability substantially differs over the Black and Baltic Seas, and depends on different Eurasian large-scale patterns. We showed that the Baltic Sea region is influenced by the patterns arising primary from NAO-like meridional dipole, as well as Scandinavian patterns, while the Black Sea's SAT/SLP variability is influenced mainly by the second mode EOF (eastern Atlantic) and large scale tropospheric wave structures. (orig.)

  18. «Goroda-bliznecy»: novaja forma prigranichnogo sotrudnichestva v Baltijskom regione? [Twin cities: a new form of cross-border cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anishenko Anatoly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates the first attempt in Russian political studies to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the “twin city” movement as a form of cross-border cooperation in the Baltic region. This phenomenon emerged as a result of a global tendency towards more active involvement of municipal units in international cooperation, on the one hand, and aspirations of frontier cities and towns in the Baltic region to solve common problems together, on the other hand. This work is based on a comparative analysis method and a case study methodology. The authors consider four examples (city pairs: Tornio — Haparanda, Valga — Valka, Narva — Ivangorod and Imatra — Svetogorsk. The article specifies the terminological framework used in this field of research. The authors analyse achievements and failures of this type of international inter-municipal cooperation and emphasise that for twin cities it served not only as a means of survival in the difficult situation of the 1990s, but also as an experimental ground for new forms of crossborder cooperation. The authors arrive at the conclusion that this model proves to be promising for further development of integration processes in the Baltic region. This practice can be applied by Russian municipal, regional and federal authorities in promotion of cross-border cooperation not only in the Baltic region, but also in other regions of the country. Thus, influenced by the successful experience of Baltic frontier cities and towns, the Russian city of Nikel and the Norwegian city of Kirkenes decided to adopt this model for further development of their cooperation.

  19. Balmorel: A model for analyses of the electricity and CHP markets in the Baltic Sea Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the motivations behind the development of the Balmorel model as well as the model itself. The purpose of the Balmorel project is to develop a model for analyses of the power and CHP sectors in the Baltic Sea Region. The model is directed towards the analysis of relevant policy questions to the extent that they contain substantial international aspects. The model is developed in response to the trend towards internationalisation in the electricity sector. This trend is seen in increased international trade of electricity, in investment strategies among producers and otherwise. Also environmental considerations and policies are to an increasing extent gaining an international perspective in relation to the greenhouse gasses. Further, the ongoing process of deregulation of the energy sector highlights this and contributes to the need for overview and analysis. A guiding principle behind the construction of the model has been that it may serve as a means of communication in relation to the policy issues that already are or that may become important for the region. Therefore, emphasis has been put on documentation, transparency and flexibility of the model. This is achieved in part by formulating the model in a high level modelling language, and by making the model, including data, available at the internet. Potential users of the Balmorel model include research institutions, consulting companies, energy authorities, transmission system operators and energy companies. (au)

  20. Cultural Chameleons and Teamwork Terminators − Promoting Intercultural Management in the Baltic Sea Region PIM 2009 as Intercultural Teamwork

    OpenAIRE

    Kirjavainen, Sanna

    2009-01-01

    This bachelor’s thesis discusses intercultural teamwork in the intensive programme Promoting Intercultural Management in the Baltic Sea Region (PIM) 2009. The aim is to answer the research problem “How did cultural differences appear and affect teamwork in PIM 2009”. The need for this research and discussion of this topic can be found in the growing importance of both in-terculturalism and teamwork in working life. The research was implemented as a qualitative research using the observati...

  1. A comprehensive validation toolbox for regional ocean models - Outline, implementation and application to the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandt, Simon; Laagemaa, Priidik; Janssen, Frank

    2014-05-01

    version is compared with the previous version. Although, the toolbox is mainly tested for the Baltic Sea yet, it can easily be adapted to different datasets and parameters, regardless of the geographic region. In this presentation the usability of the toolbox is demonstrated along with several results of the validation process.

  2. Russia-EU energy efficiency cooperation in the Baltic region: the untapped potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanova T. A.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A stereotypical understanding of EU-Russia energy relations is often reduced to trade in oil and natural gas, which downplays the importance of energy efficiency cooperation. Such cooperation is promoted within the Energy Charter and its Treaty, Partnership and Cooperation Agreement, Energy Dialogue, Common Economic Space, Partnership for Modernisation. However, it lacks practical development, which relates to the instability of the legal environment in Russia, insufficient mechanisms of financial support for energy conservation projects and poor political support. Nevertheless, energy efficiency cooperation is capable of changing Russia-EU energy cooperation qualitatively: it offers a cheaper way to meet the needs of the EU, redefines interdependence between the parties, and introduces new elements of equality between them. Energy efficiency cooperation also transforms the patterns of the EU-Russia legal harmonization, creates new conditions for the convergence of regulations and the development of the middle class in Russia. Due to its specific features, cooperation in the Baltic Sea region becomes a locomotive of the Russia-EU energy efficiency cooperation, and, as a result, is capable of changing the quality of relations between the partners.

  3. Origin of Elblag Upland, northern Poland, and glaciotectonism in the southern Baltic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aber, James S.; Ruszczyńska-Szenajch, Hanna

    1997-07-01

    Elblag Upland is a complex glaciotectonic landform located near Gdansk Bay in northern Poland. We conducted surface, subsurface, and remote-sensing investigations to elaborate the internal structure and morphology of the upland. The upland covers some 390 km 2 and rises more than 150 m. Elbląg Upland consists almost entirely of Pleistocene strata, many of which are strongly deformed, anomalously thick, and situated high above their normal levels. These deformed sediments were derived from source basins located to the northeast and possibly west of the upland. Elbląg Upland was created by North Polish (Vistulian = Weichselian) ice advances, which pushed locally from the northeast and possibly the west. The upland was then overridden by ice coming from the north-northwest. We propose that glaciotectonic deformation occurred as a result of ice-lobe advances — possibly surges — over unconsolidated and unfrozen sediments, in which high pore-water pressures existed in confined aquifers. Surges may have been either local or regional in character, and surging may have taken place repeatedly during Vistulian glaciation. Glaciotectonism played a prominent role in shaping the southern Baltic basin, which represents a geomorphic end-product of multiple Pleistocene glaciations.

  4. Reconstruction of early Holocene paleoclimate and environment in the SW Kola region, Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grekov, Ivan; Kolka, Vasiliy; Syrykh, Liudmila; Nazarova, Larisa

    2016-04-01

    In the current period of the global climate change it becomes necessary to have a clear understanding of not only the changes taking place in the components of the natural environment, but also to understand development of all interactions between those components. Quaternary terrigenic sediments and lakes of the Kola Peninsula store information about the development of the region in the Late Glacial and Holocene: movements of the glacier, neotectonic activity, post-glacial rebound, formation and development of natural environments after deglaciation. Multi-proxy study of landscapes evolution of the Kola Peninsula in the Late Quaternary will help to establish a detailed reconstruction of climatic and environmental changes of this poor studied sector of the Arctic. Quaternary history on the Kola Peninsula is represented mainly by Late Pleistocene and Holocene sediments covering the Baltic Shield (Lavrova, 1960; Evzerov, 2015). Several palaeolimnological investigations in the Baltic Shield area have been performed earlier (Donner et al., 1977; Anundsen, 1985; Berglund, 2004). Studies of the southern coast of the Kola Peninsula have shown that marine transgression took place in the Late Pleistocene that was then replaced by a regression with variable speed. The slowdown of the uplift of the area took place between 8800 - 6800 BP (cal. years) and corresponded to the time of the Tapes transgression of the Arctic Ocean (Evzerov et al. 2010; Kolka, et al., 2013). Palaeoclimatic studies based on micro-paleontological analyzes indicate uneven development of the Kola Peninsula landscapes in the Late Glacial and Early Holocene. The northern coast of the Peninsula became free of ice first. In this area tundra-steppe vegetation was established for a short time and was later replaced by tundra (Snyder et al, 2000). Southern part of the Kola Peninsula was dependent on the conditions of deglaciation of the White Sea basin and cleared of ice much later (Evzerov et al., 2010; Kolka

  5. Emission Trading as a Basis for new Bioenergy Business Concepts in the Baltic Sea Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new EU Emission Trading system started in the beginning of 2005. This system will bring new challenges, but also new opportunities for the energy market in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) countries. Typically in some EU countries the decreasing of greenhouse gas emissions tends to be more expensive to achieve than in the others. This brings about new trade schemes that could be implemented in the BSR. One important way of reducing emissions is to replace fossil fuels with biomass-based fuels in large scale power and steam production. As the availability of biomass, price level of biomass, electricity and steam, and national subsidies and taxation are different in different countries, it may be economically viable to create a framework for international trade. The product to be traded may be e.g. wood fuel (either as logs and chips or in refined form like pellets), energy (electricity), green certificates or emission allowances. It is also possible to implement so-called JI (Joint Implementation) projects to reach the emission reduction targets.All the above mentioned options may be realised in different ways. The purpose of the project is to find win-win opportunities, in which both the exporting and importing countries/regions will get profit from the system. These positive impacts may be quite impressive in regional level, as they directly boost several business areas like fuel production and transport, equipment manufacturing and maintenance, plant construction, as well as energy production and use. In addition, the impacts cover also forestry and agriculture, by bringing new value and utilisation options for their by-products.The paper presents the first results of an on-going project which is co-financed by the EU programme BSR INTERREG III B. The two-year project started in the beginning of 2005, and the main results will be available in autumn 2006

  6. Crustal structure and regional tectonics of SE Sweden and the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milnes, A.G. [Bergen Univ. (Norway). Dept. of Geology; Gee, D.G.; Lund, C.E. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    1998-11-01

    In this desk study, the available geophysical and geological data on the crustal structure and regional tectonics of the wider surroundings of the Aespoe site (SE Sweden and adjacent parts of the Baltic Sea) are compiled and assessed. The aim is to contribute to the knowledge base for long-term rock mechanical modeling, using the Aespoe site as a proxy for a high-level radioactive waste repository site in Swedish bedrock. The geophysical data reviewed includes two new refraction/wide-angle reflection seismic experiments carried out within the EUROBRIDGE project, in addition to the numerous earlier refraction seismic profiles. The BABEL normal-incidence deep seismic profile is also considered. New geological data, presented at EUROBRIDGE workshops, and in recent SGU publications, are reviewed for the same area. In combination with the seismic data, these provide a base for interpreting the present composition and structure, and the Palaeoproterozoic-Mesoproterozoic evolution, of the crustal segment within which the Aespoe site lies - the Smaaland mega-block. This is characterized by having undergone little regionally significant deformation or magmatism since Neoproterozoic times (the last 1000 million years). It is shown that, at this scale of observation (of the order of 100 km), the long-term rheology of the lithosphere can be argued from a relatively tight observational network, when combined with the results of earlier SKB studies (seismo-tectonics, uplift patterns, state of stress, heat flow) and published research. Although many uncertainties exist, the present state of knowledge would suffice for first exploratory calculations and sensitivity studies of long-term, large-scale rock mechanics 101 refs, 22 figs

  7. Age-specific suicide rates in the Slavic and Baltic regions of the former USSR during perestroika, in comparison with 22 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Värnik, A; Wasserman, D; Dankowicz, M; Eklund, G

    1998-01-01

    Age-specific differences in suicide rates in the Baltic and Slavic regions of the former USSR were studied for the period 1984-1990, and were compared to those of 22 European countries. It was observed that suicide rates per 100,000 inhabitants in the Slavic and Baltic regions increased directly with age for women, and showed a bimodal distribution with peaks for the 45-54 and > or = 75 age groups for men. In most of the 22 European countries, the suicide rates of both men and women increased directly with age. In 1990 the suicide rates in the Slavic and Baltic regions ranged from 25.1 for the 15-24 age group to 86.9 for men aged 75 or older, and from 6.0 to 29.8 for women, while the suicide rates in Europe ranged from 13.0 to 64.8 for men and from 3.6 to 18.7 for women. Decreases in the suicide rates in the Slavic and Baltic regions during perestroika were largest for the 25-54 age group, averaging at drop of 45% for men and 33% for women between 1984 and 1986-1988. The pattern of age-specific suicide rates for women in the Slavic and Baltic regions remained similar to that in Europe throughout the period studied. This was in contrast to a distinct pattern of male suicide rates in the Slavic and Baltic regions in 1984, which converged with those found in other parts of Europe during 1986-1988. It appears that perestroika contributed to a unique pattern of male suicide mortality in the Slavic and Baltic regions, especially in the 25-54 age group. PMID:9825014

  8. On the potential for climate change impacts on marine anthropogenic radioactivity in the Arctic regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current predictions as to the impacts of climate change in general and Arctic climate change in particular are such that a wide range of processes relevant to Arctic contaminants are potentially vulnerable. Of these, radioactive contaminants and the processes that govern their transport and fate may be particularly susceptible to the effects of a changing Arctic climate. This paper explores the potential changes in the physical system of the Arctic climate system as they are deducible from present day knowledge and model projections. As a contribution to a better preparedness regarding Arctic marine contamination with radioactivity we present and discuss how a changing marine physical environment may play a role in altering the current understanding pertaining to behavior of contaminant radionuclides in the marine environment of the Arctic region.

  9. The prospects of nuclear power development in the eastern part of the Baltic Sea region as a factor of the formation of international relations system in the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current development of economic diplomacy in the world is determined by a combination of globalization and regionalization. In addition, it has an economic dimension. At the same time, the Baltic Sea region demonstrates large-scale politicisation of economic cooperation. The development of nuclear power in the eastern part of the Baltic Sea is indicative of the effectiveness of political and economic cooperation in the region. The author believes that Russia and the three Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have the economic and technological opportunities for building up cooperation in the field of energy. This points to a question whether the traditional patterns of relations that developed among these countries in the past can be changed. A more pronounced international division of labour accompanied by the historically developed specialization of Russia makes nuclear power an important factor in Russia’s economic diplomacy. The promotion of Russian energy projects in the region contributes to the development of a system of mutually beneficial ties. The increasing energy deficiency in the region can serve an economic prerequisite to this process.

  10. Role of Air Cargo and Road Feeder Services for Regional Airports – Case Studies from the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beifert Anatoli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although airports play an important role the global and European economies, according to the new guidelines of the EU Commission on the new state aid rules for a competitive aviation industry (EC, 2014, it will be more difficult for unprofitable airports, to get financial public subsidies in the future. The Commission noted that the majority of regional airports experience severe problems to cover their operative costs, resulting from among other things from overlapping of airports’ catchment areas. The main objective of the above mentioned measures is not to close the regional airports, but to motivate them to operate on cost efficient, profitable and more flexible basis, stating however that and that the most inefficient airports will be still closed. In order face upcoming challenges, the regional airports shall reconsider their future development plans. Traditionally, the airports including small and regional airports focus on the passenger traffic and thus, the possible benefits and opportunities of the air cargo market are totally underestimated or even completely ignored. Most regional airports in the Baltic Sea region act totally isolated and do not have a clear picture of the current situation on the international air cargo market today, its future perspectives and sustainable development plans remain basically hidden. There are some examples when trying to meet the market demand, the regional airports have made huge, but unfortunately unjustified investments, e.g. improving airport infrastructure, runways, etc. However, the airports’ infrastructural investments alone cannot fulfil the expected “remedy” role for the airports’ sustainability. This paper aims at investigating the positioning and the role of the regional airports in the current hub-and-spoke network, focusing on the relevance and potential of the air cargo sector for the regional airports development. The optional freight value proposition for the development of

  11. Life Cycle Assessments of Manure Management Techniques for the Baltic Sea Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Baky, A; Cano-Bernal, J;

    manure were investigated). In-house slurry cooling as well as the possibility to produce highly available phosphorus mineral fertilizers from manure ashes (obtained from manure thermo-gasification) were also assessed. This report was prepared as part of Baltic Manure Work Package 5 - Assessing...

  12. Evidence and Implications of Recent Climate Change in Terrestrial Regions of the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzman, L. D.; Bettez, N.; Chapin, F. S.; Dyurgerov, M.; Fastie, C.; Griffith, D. B.; Hope, A.; Huntington, H. P.; Jensen, A.; Kane, D. L.; Kofinas, G.; Lynch, A.; Lloyd, A.; McGuire, A. D.; Nelson, F. E.; Osterkamp, T.; Oechel, W. C.; Racine, C.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Schimel, J.; Stow, D.; Sturm, M.; Tweedie, C. E.; Vourlitis, G.; Walker, M.; Webber, P. J.; Welker, J.; Winker, K.; Yoshikawa, K.

    2002-12-01

    Are changes occurring in the polar terrestrial regime? Is the distribution of permafrost and Arctic region freeze and thaw changing? Is the hydrology of Arctic terrestrial regions changing? Are significant changes occurring in the distribution and productivity of high-latitude vegetation? If one examines any individual scientific discipline, evidence of climate change in arctic regions offers only pieces of the puzzle. Here we present a broad array of evidence to provide a convincing case of change in the arctic climate and a system-wide response of terrestrial processes. The thermal regime of the Arctic holds unique characteristics and consequently will display marked changes in response to climate warming. In many cases, threshold changes will occur in physical systems proceeding from permanently frozen to periodically thawed. Dramatic changes also accompany biological systems adapting to an evolving environment. In the last 25 to 400 years a wide range of changes in the Arctic have been detected. In many cases, these changes started, or accelerated, in the mid-1970s. Some of the changes, like later freeze-up and earlier break-up of arctic rivers and lakes, mirror arctic-wide and even global increases in air temperature. Others document more subtle or complex responses of the arctic system as it adapts to current and longer-term trends in climate. Since the arctic system is particularly sensitive to changes in rain- and snowfall, timing of freeze-up and break-up, and the intensity of storm activity, it is likely that much of what has been documented to date, and will be observed in the future, arises from changes in these forcing fields. Unfortunately, compared with temperature, they are poorly known. Regardless of the driving forces, however, the combined observations and documentation offer diffuse but substantial evidence that the arctic system may be entering a state not seen before in recent history.

  13. Perspektivy razvitija atomnoj jenergetiki v vostochnoj chasti Baltijskogo morja kak faktor formirovanija sistemy mezhdunarodnyh otnoshenij v regione [The prospects of nuclear power development in the eastern part of the Baltic Sea region as a factor of the formation of international relations system in the region

    OpenAIRE

    Mezhevich Nikolay

    2013-01-01

    The current development of economic diplomacy in the world is determined by a combination of globalization and regionalization. In addition, it has an economic dimension. At the same time, the Baltic Sea region demonstrates large-scale politicisation of economic cooperation. The development of nuclear power in the eastern part of the Baltic Sea is indicative of the effectiveness of political and economic cooperation in the region. The author believes that Russia and the three Baltic States of...

  14. Air Cargo Development in the Regional Airports of the Baltic Sea Region Through Road Feeder Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beifert Anatoli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As issued in the Competition Policy Brief on the new state aid rules for a competitive aviation industry by the Competition Directorate-General of the European Commission in February 20141, it will be more difficult for unprofitable airports, to obtain financial public subsidies on EU, national or regional level. Although the positive impact of small airports on the regional development and general accessibility was mentioned, still the operating aid to the airports shall be cut out over a maximum of 10 years. It has been further stated that the vast majority of small and regional airports experience problems to cover their running operative costs, as a result from an intensive market competition and overlapping of airports’ catchment areas preventing even some promising airports from growth. Public subsidies are mostly used by the airport management for infrastructural investments, to cover operating losses or to attract price-sensitive airlines. Herewith, among other things, the EU Commission is pointing out at the lack of cooperation structures and network strategies among the regional airports and at rather isolated and individual approach during elaboration of the airport development scenarios. However, the Competition Policy Brief permits public aid to regional airports, among other things if there is sufficient transports need to establish transition periods for small airports; the need for more flexibility of the regional airports in the remote areas has been underlined. The EU Commission is expecting herewith not to close the regional airports, but to stimulate them to operate on cost efficient and profitable basis, and that only the most inefficient airports will be closed.

  15. Sensitivity of modeled atmospheric nitrogen species to variations in sea salt emissions in the North and Baltic Sea regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, D.; Matthias, V.; Bieser, J.; Aulinger, A.; Quante, M.

    2015-10-01

    Coarse sea salt particles are emitted ubiquitously from the oceans' surfaces by wave breaking and bubble bursting processes. These particles impact atmospheric chemistry by affecting condensation of gas-phase species and nucleation of new fine particles, particularly in regions with high air pollution. In this study, atmospheric particle concentrations are modeled for the North and Baltic Sea regions, Northwestern Europe, using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system and evaluated against European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) measurement data. As model extension, sea salt emissions are scaled by water salinity because of low salinity in large parts of the Baltic Sea and in certain river estuaries. The resulting improvement in predicted sea salt concentrations is assessed. The contribution of surf zone emissions is separately considered. Additionally, the impact of sea salt particles on atmospheric nitrate, ammonium and sulfate concentrations is evaluated. The comparisons show that sea salt concentrations are commonly overestimated at coastal stations and partly underestimated when going inland. The introduced salinity scaling improves predicted Baltic Sea sea salt concentrations considerably. Dates of measured peak concentrations are appropriately reproduced by the model. The impact of surf zone emissions is negligible in both seas. Nevertheless, they might be relevant because surf zone emissions were cut at an upper threshold in this study. Deactivating sea salt leads to a minor increase of NH4+ and NO3- and a minor decrease of SO42- concentrations. However, the overall effect is very low and lower than the deviation from measurements. Size resolved measurements of Na+, NH4+, NO3-, and SO42- are needed for a more detailed analysis on the impact of sea salt particles.

  16. Impact of marine mercury cycling on coastal atmospheric mercury concentrations in the North- and Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Bieser

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The cycling of mercury between ocean and atmosphere is an important part of the global Hg cycle. Here we study the regional contribution of the air-sea exchange in the North- and Baltic Sea region. We use a newly developed coupled regional chemistry transport modeling (CTM system to determine the flux between atmosphere and ocean based on the meteorological model COSMO-CLM, the ocean-ecosystem model ECOSMO, the atmospheric CTM CMAQ and a newly developed module for mercury partitioning and speciation in the ocean (MECOSMO. The model was evaluated using atmospheric observations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, surface concentrations of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM, and air-sea flux (ASF calculations based on observations made on seven cruises in the western and central Baltic Sea and three cruises in the North Sea performed between 1991 and 2006. It was shown that the model is in good agreement with observations: DGM (Normalized Mean Bias NMB=-0.27 N=413, ASF (NMB=-0.32, N=413, GEM (NMB=0.07, N=2359. Generally, the model was able to reproduce the seasonal DGM cycle with the best agreement during winter and autumn (NMBWinter=-0.26, NMBSpring=-0.41, NMBSummer=-0.29, NMBAutumn=-0.03. The modelled mercury evasion from the Baltic Sea ranged from 3400 to 4000 kg/a for the simulation period 1994–2007 which is on the lower end of previous estimates. Modelled atmospheric deposition, river inflow and air-sea exchange lead to an annual net Hg accumulation in the Baltic Sea of 500 to 1000 kg/a. For the North Sea the model calculates an annual mercury flux into the atmosphere between 5700 and 6000 kg/a. The mercury flux from the ocean influenced coastal atmospheric mercury concentrations. Running CMAQ coupled with the ocean model lead to better agreement with GEM observations. Directly at the coast GEM concentrations could be increased by up to 10% on annual average and observed peaks could be reproduced much better. At stations 100km downwind

  17. Canadian Ice Service Arctic Regional Sea Ice Charts in SIGRID-3 Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Canadian Ice Service (CIS) produces digital Arctic regional sea ice charts for marine navigation, climate research, and input to the Global Digital Sea Ice Data...

  18. Arctic Ocean Regional Climatology Online Atlas (NODC Accession 0115771)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Arctic Ocean, NODC developed a new set of high-resolution...

  19. Inflow waters in the deep regions of the southern Baltic Sea - transport and transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Beszczyńska-Möller

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A medium-sized inflow (about 200 km3 according to IOW data, - personal communication of saline water into the southern Baltic Sea occurred during January 2003. Unlike any previously observed inflow, this one brought very cold water, of temperatures around 1-2oC and less. Since the temperature of the deep water in the southern Baltic before the inflow was exceptionally high (11-12oC, the inflowing waters produced dramatic changes and a steep temperature gradient. The movement of the inflowing waters through the deep basins and channels of the Baltic Sea from the Arkona Basin to the Gdańsk Deep during next 4-8 months is described. Frequent mesoscale structures and intensive mixing followed the eastward transport of the inflow water, particularly in the Bornholm Deep and Słupsk Furrow. The present paper is based on data collected during 6 cruises r/v "Oceania" between December 2002 and August 2003. The last cruise in August took place in order to assess the long-term consequences of the inflow.

  20. Arctic terrestrial hydrology: A synthesis of processes, regional effects, and research challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bring, A.; Fedorova, I.; Dibike, Y.; Hinzman, L.; Mârd, J.; Mernild, S. H.; Prowse, T.; Semenova, O.; Stuefer, S. L.; Woo, M.-K.

    2016-03-01

    Terrestrial hydrology is central to the Arctic system and its freshwater circulation. Water transport and water constituents vary, however, across a very diverse geography. In this paper, which is a component of the Arctic Freshwater Synthesis, we review the central freshwater processes in the terrestrial Arctic drainage and how they function and change across seven hydrophysiographical regions (Arctic tundra, boreal plains, shield, mountains, grasslands, glaciers/ice caps, and wetlands). We also highlight links between terrestrial hydrology and other components of the Arctic freshwater system. In terms of key processes, snow cover extent and duration is generally decreasing on a pan-Arctic scale, but snow depth is likely to increase in the Arctic tundra. Evapotranspiration will likely increase overall, but as it is coupled to shifts in landscape characteristics, regional changes are uncertain and may vary over time. Streamflow will generally increase with increasing precipitation, but high and low flows may decrease in some regions. Continued permafrost thaw will trigger hydrological change in multiple ways, particularly through increasing connectivity between groundwater and surface water and changing water storage in lakes and soils, which will influence exchange of moisture with the atmosphere. Other effects of hydrological change include increased risks to infrastructure and water resource planning, ecosystem shifts, and growing flows of water, nutrients, sediment, and carbon to the ocean. Coordinated efforts in monitoring, modeling, and processing studies at various scales are required to improve the understanding of change, in particular at the interfaces between hydrology, atmosphere, ecology, resources, and oceans.

  1. Sensitivity of simulated regional Arctic climate to the choice of coupled model domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry V. Sein

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The climate over the Arctic has undergone changes in recent decades. In order to evaluate the coupled response of the Arctic system to external and internal forcing, our study focuses on the estimation of regional climate variability and its dependence on large-scale atmospheric and regional ocean circulations. A global ocean–sea ice model with regionally high horizontal resolution is coupled to an atmospheric regional model and global terrestrial hydrology model. This way of coupling divides the global ocean model setup into two different domains: one coupled, where the ocean and the atmosphere are interacting, and one uncoupled, where the ocean model is driven by prescribed atmospheric forcing and runs in a so-called stand-alone mode. Therefore, selecting a specific area for the regional atmosphere implies that the ocean–atmosphere system can develop ‘freely’ in that area, whereas for the rest of the global ocean, the circulation is driven by prescribed atmospheric forcing without any feedbacks. Five different coupled setups are chosen for ensemble simulations. The choice of the coupled domains was done to estimate the influences of the Subtropical Atlantic, Eurasian and North Pacific regions on northern North Atlantic and Arctic climate. Our simulations show that the regional coupled ocean–atmosphere model is sensitive to the choice of the modelled area. The different model configurations reproduce differently both the mean climate and its variability. Only two out of five model setups were able to reproduce the Arctic climate as observed under recent climate conditions (ERA-40 Reanalysis. Evidence is found that the main source of uncertainty for Arctic climate variability and its predictability is the North Pacific. The prescription of North Pacific conditions in the regional model leads to significant correlation with observations, even if the whole North Atlantic is within the coupled model domain. However, the inclusion of the

  2. Past storminess recorded in the internal architecture of coastal formations of Estonia in the NE Baltic Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tõnisson, Hannes; Vilumaa, Kadri; Kont, Are; Sugita, Shinya; Rosentau, Alar; Muru, Merle; Anderson, Agnes

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 50 years, storminess has increased in northern Europe because of the changes in cyclonic activity. The cyclone season in the Baltic Sea area has shifted from autumn to winter; this has led to intensification of shore processes (erosion, sediment transport and accumulation) and has increased pressure to the economy (land use, coastal protection measures) of the coastal regions in the Baltic states. Therefore, studing the effects of such changes on shore processes in the past is critical for prediction of the future changes along the Baltic coasts. Beach ridge plains are found worldwide, where cyclones and storm surges affect accumulation forms. These sandy shores are highly susceptible to erosion. Due to the isostatic uplift on the NE coast of the Baltic Sea, the signs of major past events are well-preserved in the internal architecture of old coastal formations (dune ridge-swale complexes). Wave-eroded scarps in beach deposits are visible in subsurface ground-penetrating radar (GPR) records, indicating the past high-energy events. Several study areas and transects were selected on the NW coast of Estonia, using high-resolution topographic maps (LiDAR). Shore-normal subsurface surveys have been conducted with a digital GSSI SIR-3000 georadar with a 270 MHz antenna at each transect. Interpretation of GPR facies was based on hand auger and window sampler coring, which provided accurate depths of key stratigraphic boundaries and bounding surfaces. Several samples for luminescence and 14C dating were collected to determine the approximate chronology of the coastal formations along the Estonian coast. We have found that changes in storminess, including the periods of high and low intensity of storms in late Holocene, are clearly reflected in the internal patterns of ancient coastal formations. The sections with small ridges with short seaward-dipped layers (interface between wave-built and aeolian deposits) in deeper horizons are probably formed during

  3. Overview and regional and temporal differences of heavy metals in Arctic whales and ringed seals in the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemann, R; Innes, S; Richard, P R

    1996-07-16

    Concentrations of mercury, cadmium, and other heavy metals in tissues of belugas (Delphinapterus leucas), narwhal (Monodon monoceros) and ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from across the Canadian Arctic are reported. Published and new information is used to provide an overview of metals in tissues of these animals, to delineate the existence of a spatial trend of mercury and cadmium in belugas and ringed seals, and to show a temporal trend is superimposed on the geochemical trend. Mercury concentrations in tissues of Arctic whales and ringed seals were high relative to the Canadian guideline of 0.5 micrograms/g wet wt., for mercury in fish, except in the skin of belugas (0.59-0.78 micrograms/g wet wt.) and flesh of ringed seals (0.39-0.41 micrograms/g wet wt.). In the flesh of belugas (0.94-1.34 micrograms/g wet wt.), and in the liver of ringed seals, tissues that are also consumed by Native people in the Arctic (8.34-27.5 micrograms/g wet wt.), the guideline value was significantly exceeded. Mean lead concentrations in tissues of belugas, narwhal and ringed seals were generally low (0.002-0.028 micrograms/g wet wt.), except in tissues of belugas in the St. Lawrence River (0.10-0.15 micrograms/g wet wt.). The concentration of zinc in the skin of whales was two to three times higher than in other tissues. The concentration of cadmium in organs was highest in narwhal. There was a positive correlation between mercury and selenium in the liver of all three species. The concentration of mercury in tissues of belugas and ringed seals was higher in the western than the eastern Arctic. This was attributed to different natural background concentrations in the western and eastern Arctic of Canada dictated by different geological formations in the two regions. Cadmium concentrations in tissues of belugas and ringed seals were higher in the eastern than the western Arctic. Zinc and copper in some tissues of belugas and ringed seals were also higher in the eastern than the western

  4. Approaches and methods for eutrophication target setting in the Baltic Sea region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carstensen, J.; Andersen, J.; Dromph, K. [and others

    2013-06-01

    This report describes the outcome of the project 'Review of the ecological targets for eutrophication of the HELCOM BSAP', also known as HELCOM TARGREV. The objectives of HELCOM TARGREV have been to revise the scientific basis underlying the ecological targets for eutrophication, placing much emphasis on providing a strengthened data and information basis for the setting of quantitative targets. The results are first of all likely to form the information basis on which decisions in regard to reviewing and if necessary revising the maximum allowable inputs (MAI) of nutrient of the Baltic Sea Action Plan, including the provisional country-wise allocation reduction targets (CART), will be made.

  5. Improving health in the Arctic region through safe and affordable access to household running water and sewer services: an Arctic Council initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W. Hennessy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Important health disparities have been documented among the peoples of the Arctic and subarctic, including those related to limited access to in-home improved drinking water and sanitation services. Although improving water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH has been a focus of the United Nations for decades, the Arctic region has received little attention in this regard. A growing body of evidence highlights inequalities across the region for the availability of in-home drinking WASH services and for health indicators associated with these services. In this review, we highlight relevant data and describe an initiative through the Arctic Council's Sustainable Development Working Group to characterize the extent of WASH services in Arctic nations, the related health indicators and climate-related vulnerabilities to WASH services. With this as a baseline, efforts to build collaborations across the Arctic will be undertaken to promote innovations that can extend the benefits of water and sanitation services to all residents.

  6. Improving health in the Arctic region through safe and affordable access to household running water and sewer services: an Arctic Council initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Thomas W; Bressler, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    Important health disparities have been documented among the peoples of the Arctic and subarctic, including those related to limited access to in-home improved drinking water and sanitation services. Although improving water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) has been a focus of the United Nations for decades, the Arctic region has received little attention in this regard. A growing body of evidence highlights inequalities across the region for the availability of in-home drinking WASH services and for health indicators associated with these services. In this review, we highlight relevant data and describe an initiative through the Arctic Council's Sustainable Development Working Group to characterize the extent of WASH services in Arctic nations, the related health indicators and climate-related vulnerabilities to WASH services. With this as a baseline, efforts to build collaborations across the Arctic will be undertaken to promote innovations that can extend the benefits of water and sanitation services to all residents. PMID:27132632

  7. Regional Arctic System Model (RASM): A Tool to Advance Understanding and Prediction of Arctic Climate Change at Process Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslowski, W.; Roberts, A.; Osinski, R.; Brunke, M.; Cassano, J. J.; Clement Kinney, J. L.; Craig, A.; Duvivier, A.; Fisel, B. J.; Gutowski, W. J., Jr.; Hamman, J.; Hughes, M.; Nijssen, B.; Zeng, X.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic is undergoing rapid climatic changes, which are some of the most coordinated changes currently occurring anywhere on Earth. They are exemplified by the retreat of the perennial sea ice cover, which integrates forcing by, exchanges with and feedbacks between atmosphere, ocean and land. While historical reconstructions from Global Climate and Global Earth System Models (GC/ESMs) are in broad agreement with these changes, the rate of change in the GC/ESMs remains outpaced by observations. Reasons for that stem from a combination of coarse model resolution, inadequate parameterizations, unrepresented processes and a limited knowledge of physical and other real world interactions. We demonstrate the capability of the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) in addressing some of the GC/ESM limitations in simulating observed seasonal to decadal variability and trends in the sea ice cover and climate. RASM is a high resolution, fully coupled, pan-Arctic climate model that uses the Community Earth System Model (CESM) framework. It uses the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE) and Parallel Ocean Program (POP) configured at an eddy-permitting resolution of 1/12° as well as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) models at 50 km resolution. All RASM components are coupled via the CESM flux coupler (CPL7) at 20-minute intervals. RASM is an example of limited-area, process-resolving, fully coupled earth system model, which due to the additional constraints from lateral boundary conditions and nudging within a regional model domain facilitates detailed comparisons with observational statistics that are not possible with GC/ESMs. In this talk, we will emphasize the utility of RASM to understand sensitivity to variable parameter space, importance of critical processes, coupled feedbacks and ultimately to reduce uncertainty in arctic climate change projections.

  8. Surface Temperature Trends in the Arctic Atlantic Region Over the Last 2,000 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhola, A.; Hanhijarvi, S.; Tingley, M.

    2013-12-01

    We introduce a new reconstruction method that uses the ordering of all pairs of proxy observations within each record to arrive at a consensus time series that best agrees with all proxy records. By considering only pairwise comparisons, this method, which we call PaiCo, facilitates the inclusion of records with differing temporal resolutions, and relaxes the assumption of linearity to the more general assumption of a monotonically increasing relationship between each proxy series and the target climate variable. We apply PaiCo to a newly assembled collection of high-quality proxy data to reconstruct the mean temperature of the Northernmost Atlantic region, which we call Arctic Atlantic, over the last 2,000 years. The Arctic Atlantic is a dynamically important region known to feature substantial temperature variability over recent millennia, and PaiCo allows for a more thorough investigation of the Arctic Atlantic regional climate as we include a diverse array of terrestrial and marine proxies with annual to multidecadal temporal resolutions. Comparisons of the PaiCo reconstruction to recent reconstructions covering larger areas indicate greater climatic variability in the Arctic Atlantic than for the Arctic as a whole. The Arctic Atlantic reconstruction features temperatures during the Roman Warm Period and Medieval Climate Anomaly that are comparable or even warmer than those of the twentieth century, and coldest temperatures in the middle of the nineteenth century, just prior to the onset of the recent warming trend.

  9. Ties that Bind: The Emerging Regional Security Complex in the Arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Lanteigne, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The security situation in the Arctic has begun to produce a 'regional security complex' (RSC) based on shared regional strategic concerns. However, the geography and politics of the region will prevent this RSC from taking on a military aspect in the near future.

  10. Educational potential in the concept of the Arctic region sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarkov S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Problem-oriented analysis of the status and prospects of vocational education development of the Murmansk region in the concept of the Arctic sustainable development has been worked out. It has been shown that establishing the pivotal university on the basis of the Murmansk State Technical University is the most effective model for formation of the regional vocational training system and meets the priorities of the state Arctic and the national marine policy of the Russian Federation, the goals and objectives of sustainable socio-economic development of the Murmansk region. The necessity to provide the intellectual leadership of the region where just the higher engineering education creates human potential (capital has been substantiated; it has been pointed out that engineering education is the basis of innovative development of the Arctic economy

  11. Stable isotope evidence for late medieval (14th-15th C origins of the eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua fishery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Orton

    Full Text Available Although recent historical ecology studies have extended quantitative knowledge of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua exploitation back as far as the 16th century, the historical origin of the modern fishery remains obscure. Widespread archaeological evidence for cod consumption around the eastern Baltic littoral emerges around the 13th century, three centuries before systematic documentation, but it is not clear whether this represents (1 development of a substantial eastern Baltic cod fishery, or (2 large-scale importation of preserved cod from elsewhere. To distinguish between these hypotheses we use stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis to determine likely catch regions of 74 cod vertebrae and cleithra from 19 Baltic archaeological sites dated from the 8th to the 16th centuries. δ(13C and δ(15N signatures for six possible catch regions were established using a larger sample of archaeological cod cranial bones (n = 249. The data strongly support the second hypothesis, revealing widespread importation of cod during the 13th to 14th centuries, most of it probably from Arctic Norway. By the 15th century, however, eastern Baltic cod dominate within our sample, indicating the development of a substantial late medieval fishery. Potential human impact on cod stocks in the eastern Baltic must thus be taken into account for at least the last 600 years.

  12. Nuclear installations in the baltic sea region and the stake holders cooperation: a crucial step towards energy security, environmental sustainability and political stability in the region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakaria, M.; Mandere, N.; Olsson, L. [Lund Univ., Centre for Sustainability Studies (LUCSUS) (Sweden)

    2006-07-01

    Radiation hazards are trans-boundary. The prevention of accidents must be managed locally. But the awareness, preparedness, and the responsibilities in the case of emergencies must be managed at the local and regional level, and must rely on close interaction between the local and regional levels. The Baltic Sea Region contains over 40 nuclear reactors contributing to energy security, but also posing a potential threat to human, environmental, and political security. The aim of this paper is to integrate the four fields of security: health, environment, energy, and political by analysing awareness, preparedness responsibility and decision making related to nuclear installations. With increasing political, economical, cultural and physical (in term of energy infrastructure) integration, the region needs to take a comprehensive approach to create adequate structure for managing risks and thereby promote security. (authors)

  13. Nuclear installations in the baltic sea region and the stake holders cooperation: a crucial step towards energy security, environmental sustainability and political stability in the region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation hazards are trans-boundary. The prevention of accidents must be managed locally. But the awareness, preparedness, and the responsibilities in the case of emergencies must be managed at the local and regional level, and must rely on close interaction between the local and regional levels. The Baltic Sea Region contains over 40 nuclear reactors contributing to energy security, but also posing a potential threat to human, environmental, and political security. The aim of this paper is to integrate the four fields of security: health, environment, energy, and political by analysing awareness, preparedness responsibility and decision making related to nuclear installations. With increasing political, economical, cultural and physical (in term of energy infrastructure) integration, the region needs to take a comprehensive approach to create adequate structure for managing risks and thereby promote security. (authors)

  14. Improving health in the Arctic region through safe and affordable access to household running water and sewer services: an Arctic Council initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Hennessy, Thomas W; Bressler, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    Important health disparities have been documented among the peoples of the Arctic and subarctic, including those related to limited access to in-home improved drinking water and sanitation services. Although improving water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) has been a focus of the United Nations for decades, the Arctic region has received little attention in this regard. A growing body of evidence highlights inequalities across the region for the availability of in-home drinking WASH services an...

  15. Climate change in the Baltic sea region: a cross-country analysis of institutional stakeholder perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwowarczyk, Joanna; Hansson, Anders; Hjerpe, Mattias; Chubarenko, Boris; Karmanov, Konstantin

    2012-09-01

    Before climate change is considered in long-term coastal management, it is necessary to investigate how institutional stakeholders in coastal management conceptualize climate change, as their awareness will ultimately affect their actions. Using questionnaires in eight Baltic Sea riparian countries, this study examines environmental managers' awareness of climate change. Our results indicate that problems related to global warming are deemed secondary to short-term social and economic issues. Respondents agree that problems caused by global warming will become increasingly important, but pay little attention to adaptation and mitigation strategies. Current environmental problems are expected to continue to be urgent in the future. We conclude that an apparent gap exists between decision making, public concerns, and scientific consensus, resulting in a situation in which the latest evidence rarely influences commonly held opinions. PMID:22926886

  16. Regional Arctic observations of TEC gradients and scintillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durgonics, Tibor; Høeg, Per; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik

    2015-01-01

    There has been a growing scientific interest in the Arctic ionospheric properties and variations during the recentyears. However, our understanding of the fundamental ionospheric processes present in this area is still incomplete.Today GNSS networks present in Greenland make it possible to acquire...... near-real time observations of the stateand variations of the high-latitude ionosphere. This data can be employed to obtain relevant geophysical variablesand statistics. In our study GPS-derived total electron content (TEC) measurements have been complemented with amplitudescintillation indices (S4......), and phase scintillation indices (σϕ) The investigation of relations of these geophysical variables can lead to possible new ways to study the underlying processes and to build tools for monitoring and predicting Arctic TEC and scintillation large-scale patterns. A number of specific ionosphere events...

  17. Primary source regions of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) measured in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubl, Sandy; Scheringer, Martin; Stohl, Andreas; Burkhart, John F.; Hungerbuhler, Konrad

    2012-12-01

    We investigate the source regions of the three polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) 28, 101, and 180 measured at the Arctic stations Alert and Zeppelin, and at Birkenes, which is located in southern Norway. Although the Arctic is remote from the main use areas of these chemicals, PCBs have been found in Arctic air, seawater and biota, which has caused concerns for human and environmental health. We used 20-day backward calculations of the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model FLEXPART to identify the origin of air masses associated with the 20% highest and lowest measured PCB concentrations. At Birkenes, high concentrations are clearly associated with air masses arriving from known source regions (primarily in Europe and Russia), whereas low concentrations are correlated with atmospheric transport from regions with low primary emissions. At Zeppelin, the influence from known source regions is also enhanced when high PCB-28 and PCB-101 concentrations were measured. At Alert, in contrast, there is no clear link between high/low PCB concentrations and atmospheric transport from source/non-source regions. Additionally, we combined the atmospheric transport patterns with PCB emission data to identify important source regions and their seasonal variability. For the Arctic stations, Western Russia is the dominant source region for PCB-28 and PCB-101. Central Europe is the most important source region for PCB-180, but sources in the US contribute up to 15% to PCB-180 measured at Alert.

  18. Comparative analysis of marine paleogene sections and biota from West Siberia and the Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmet'ev, M. A.; Zaporozhets, N. I.; Iakovleva, A. I.; Aleksandrova, G. N.; Beniamovsky, V. N.; Oreshkina, T. V.; Gnibidenko, Z. N.; Dolya, Zh. A.

    2010-12-01

    The analysis of the main biospheric events that took place in West Siberia and the Arctic region during the Early Paleogene revealed the paleogeographic and paleobiogeographic unity of marine sedimentation basins and close biogeographic relations between their separate parts. Most biotic and abiotic events of the first half of the Paleogene in the Arctic region and West Siberia were synchronous, unidirectional, and interrelated. Shelf settings, sedimentation breaks, and microfaunal assemblages characteristic of these basins during the Paleogene are compared. The comparative analysis primarily concerned events of the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) and beds with Azolla (aquatic fern). The formation of the Eocene Azolla Beds in the Arctic region and West Siberia was asynchronous, although it proceeded in line with a common scenario related to the development of a system of estuarine-type currents in a sea basin partly isolated from the World Ocean.

  19. Uranium potential of ancient regional structural-stratigraphic unconformities (SSU) in the southeast Baltic shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancient unconformities regionally distributed in the southeast Baltic shield are ore-controlling structures. The estimation of the uranium potential of ancient unconformities is based on the data of genetic features of the emergence of the Karku uranium deposit occurring in the Pasha-Ladoga graben and confined to the pre-Riphean SSU zone. According to these data, the formation of unconformity-type deposits is a result of epigenetic transformations, which accompany the development of sedimentary basins. A set of predictive criteria and features of uranium mineralization was developed on the basis of the data obtained in the Karku deposit. Their character and the degree of manifestation, particularly the correlation between the structural-petrologic complexes of the cover and the basement, have their own specificity for different levels of the SSU zones. The basement of the pre-Riphean SSU zones is characterized by intensive dislocation of rocks, heterogeneity of their composition, the presence of dome granite-gneiss ancient structures, the presence in the sections of uranium-specialized rocks with a high portion of easily mobile forms, rock greisenization, the occurrence of permeable zones of cracking, schistosity, brecciation. Weathering crust of kaolinite-hydromicaceous composition is developed after all rocks of the basement. The sandstones of the basal horizon of the cover (up to 40 m thick) show traces of the stage epigenesis processes, which correspond to the depth of submergence of at least 3 km. The basement of the pre-Vendian unconformity (the area of deposits in the South Ladoga zone) is composed of Lower Proterozoic crystalline gneiss and schist with horizons of carbon bearing varieties broken by small massifs of high-radioactive leucocratic granites resulted in high radioactive background of the basement; the granite and enclosing gneiss are highly greisenized. Areal and linear kaolinite weathering crust is developed ubiquitously after the basement rocks

  20. Environmental impacts of shipping in 2030 with a particular focus on the Arctic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Dalsøren

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We quantify the concentrations changes and Radiative Forcing (RF of short-lived atmospheric pollutants due to shipping emissions of NOx, SOx, CO, NMVOCs, BC and OC. We use high resolution ship emission inventories for the Arctic that are more suitable for regional scale evaluation than those used in former studies. A chemical transport model and a RF model are used to evaluate the time period 2004–2030, when we expect increasing traffic in the Arctic region. Two datasets for ship emissions are used that characterize the potential impact from shipping and the degree to which shipping controls may mitigate impacts: a high (HIGH scenario and a low scenario with Maximum Feasible Reduction (MFR of black carbon in the Arctic. In MFR, BC emissions in the Arctic are reduced with 70% representing a combination technology performance and/or reasonable advances in single-technology performance. Both scenarios result in moderate to substantial increases in concentrations of pollutants both globally and in the Arctic. Exceptions are black carbon in the MFR scenario, and sulfur species and organic carbon in both scenarios due to the future phase-in of current regulation that reduces fuel sulfur content. In the season with potential transit traffic through the Arctic in 2030 we find increased concentrations of all pollutants in large parts of the Arctic. Net global RFs from 2004–2030 of 53 mW m−2 (HIGH and 73 mW m−2 (MFR are similar to those found for preindustrial to present net global aircraft RF. The found warming contrasts with the cooling from historical ship emissions. The reason for this difference and the higher global forcing for the MFR scenario is mainly the reduced future fuel sulfur content resulting in less cooling from sulfate aerosols. The Arctic RF is largest in the HIGH scenario. In the HIGH scenario ozone dominates the RF during the transit season (August–October. RF due to BC in air, and

  1. Environmental impacts of shipping in 2030 with a particular focus on the Arctic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsøren, S. B.; Samset, B. H.; Myhre, G.; Corbett, J. J.; Minjares, R.; Lack, D.; Fuglestvedt, J. S.

    2013-02-01

    We quantify the concentrations changes and Radiative Forcing (RF) of short-lived atmospheric pollutants due to shipping emissions of NOx, SOx, CO, NMVOCs, BC and OC. We use high resolution ship emission inventories for the Arctic that are more suitable for regional scale evaluation than those used in former studies. A chemical transport model and a RF model are used to evaluate the time period 2004-2030, when we expect increasing traffic in the Arctic region. Two datasets for ship emissions are used that characterize the potential impact from shipping and the degree to which shipping controls may mitigate impacts: a high (HIGH) scenario and a low scenario with Maximum Feasible Reduction (MFR) of black carbon in the Arctic. In MFR, BC emissions in the Arctic are reduced with 70% representing a combination technology performance and/or reasonable advances in single-technology performance. Both scenarios result in moderate to substantial increases in concentrations of pollutants both globally and in the Arctic. Exceptions are black carbon in the MFR scenario, and sulfur species and organic carbon in both scenarios due to the future phase-in of current regulation that reduces fuel sulfur content. In the season with potential transit traffic through the Arctic in 2030 we find increased concentrations of all pollutants in large parts of the Arctic. Net global RFs from 2004-2030 of 53 mW m-2 (HIGH) and 73 mW m-2 (MFR) are similar to those found for preindustrial to present net global aircraft RF. The found warming contrasts with the cooling from historical ship emissions. The reason for this difference and the higher global forcing for the MFR scenario is mainly the reduced future fuel sulfur content resulting in less cooling from sulfate aerosols. The Arctic RF is largest in the HIGH scenario. In the HIGH scenario ozone dominates the RF during the transit season (August-October). RF due to BC in air, and snow and ice becomes significant during Arctic spring. For the HIGH

  2. Security in the Arctic region. Coming in from the Cold War: Arctic security in the emerging global climate: A view from Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article briefly discusses the strategic importance of the Arctic during the cold war years, before moving on to a consideration of the Canadian approach to the region and an outline of various Canadian governmental and private initiatives. The question of whether confidence and security building measures established in other areas are suitable for transfer to the Arctic is answered and a tentative list of some measures that might most appropriately and effectively serve to make the Arctic more secure is put forward for later and fuller discussions

  3. Clubs within clubs: The Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS) and the Benelux as Macro-regions within the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Groenendijk, Nico; Muravska, Tatjana

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with two examples of macro-regions in the EU: the Benelux and the Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS). Building on the distinction between “old” and “new” regionalism, it discusses some characteristics of regions in general, and of sub-integration schemes within the EU in particular. These characteristics are applied to the two regions at hand. From this application it follows that the CBSS can be regarded as a “new” region, whereas the Benelux is an “old” region with som...

  4. Modeling Water Exchange and Contaminant Transport through a Baltic Coastal Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water exchange of the Baltic coastal zone is characterized by its seasonally varying regimes. In the safety assessment of a potential repository for spent nuclear fuel, it is important to assess the consequences of a hypothetical leak of radionuclides through the seabed into a waterborne transport phase. In particular, estimates of the associated residence times in the near-shore coastal zone are of interest. There are several methods to quantify such measures, of which three are presented here. Using the coastal location of Forsmark (Sweden) as an example, methods based on passive tracers, particle trajectories, and the average age distribution of exogenous water parcels are compared for a representative one-year cycle. Tracer-based methods can simulate diffusivity more realistically than the other methods. Trajectory-based methods can handle Lagrangian dispersion processes due to advection but neglect diffusion on the sub-grid scale. The method based on the concept of average age (AvA) of exogenous water can include all such sources simultaneously not only boundary water bodies but also various (fresh)water discharges. Due to the inclusion of sub-grid diffusion this method gives a smoother measure of the water renewal. It is shown that backward in time trajectories and AvA-times are basically equipollent methods, yielding correlated results within the limits set by the diffusivity

  5. Validation of the multi-mission altimeter data for the Baltic Sea region

    CERN Document Server

    Kudryavtseva, N A

    2016-01-01

    We present a complete cross-validation of Significant Wave Heights (SWH) extracted from altimetry data from all ten existing satellites with available in situ (buoy and echosounder) wave measurements for the Baltic Sea basin. The main purpose is to select an adequate altimetry data subset for a subsequent evaluation of the wave climate. The satellite measurements with the backscatter coefficients >13.5, errors in the SWH normalized standard deviation >0.5 m and snapshots with centroids closer than 0.2 degrees to the land are not reliable. The ice flag usually denotes the ice concentration of >50%. The presence of ice affects the SWH data starting from concentrations 10%, but substantial effects are only evident for concentrations >30%. The altimetry data selected based on these criteria have very good correspondence with in situ data, except for GEOSAT Phase 1 data (1985-1989) that could not be validated. The root-mean-square difference and bias of altimetry and in situ data are in the range of 0.23-0.37 and ...

  6. Differences in Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli Virulence Factor Genes in the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Lillo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of different virulence factor (VF genes in extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from the Baltic Sea region. A total of 432 strains of phenotypically ESBL positive E. coli were collected from 20 institutions located in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and the region of St. Petersburg in Russia from January to May 2012 and analyzed for phylogenetic group and prevalence of 23 VF genes. The strains were collected from clinical material (urine, blood, wound, and respiratory tract. Bacterial isolates were compared according to phylogenetic group, clinical material, and geographical origin. Most of the VF genes were concentrated within phylogenetic group B2 and/or D. When comparing strains isolated from different countries, it was found that strains originating from Estonia and Latvia belonged mainly to group B2 and strains from Lithuania and Russia mainly to groups B2 and D. The P-fimbrial adhesin gene papEF was more prevalent in Russian strains, colicin gene cvaC in Lithuanian strains, and capsular gene kpsMTII in Latvian strains; serum resistant gene traT was less prevalent in Estonian strains. The regional differences of VF genes remained statistically significant after taking into account the phylogenetic distribution in the countries.

  7. Differences in extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli virulence factor genes in the Baltic Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo, Jana; Pai, Kristiine; Balode, Arta; Makarova, Mariia; Huik, Kristi; Kõljalg, Siiri; Ivanova, Marina; Kaftyreva, Lidia; Miciuleviciene, Jolanta; Naaber, Paul; Parv, Kristel; Pavelkovich, Anastasia; Rööp, Tiiu; Toompere, Karolin; Suzhaeva, Ludmila; Sepp, Epp

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of different virulence factor (VF) genes in extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from the Baltic Sea region. A total of 432 strains of phenotypically ESBL positive E. coli were collected from 20 institutions located in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and the region of St. Petersburg in Russia from January to May 2012 and analyzed for phylogenetic group and prevalence of 23 VF genes. The strains were collected from clinical material (urine, blood, wound, and respiratory tract). Bacterial isolates were compared according to phylogenetic group, clinical material, and geographical origin. Most of the VF genes were concentrated within phylogenetic group B2 and/or D. When comparing strains isolated from different countries, it was found that strains originating from Estonia and Latvia belonged mainly to group B2 and strains from Lithuania and Russia mainly to groups B2 and D. The P-fimbrial adhesin gene papEF was more prevalent in Russian strains, colicin gene cvaC in Lithuanian strains, and capsular gene kpsMTII in Latvian strains; serum resistant gene traT was less prevalent in Estonian strains. The regional differences of VF genes remained statistically significant after taking into account the phylogenetic distribution in the countries. PMID:25250320

  8. Differences in Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli Virulence Factor Genes in the Baltic Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balode, Arta; Makarova, Mariia; Huik, Kristi; Kõljalg, Siiri; Kaftyreva, Lidia; Miciuleviciene, Jolanta; Naaber, Paul; Rööp, Tiiu; Toompere, Karolin; Suzhaeva, Ludmila; Sepp, Epp

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of different virulence factor (VF) genes in extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from the Baltic Sea region. A total of 432 strains of phenotypically ESBL positive E. coli were collected from 20 institutions located in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and the region of St. Petersburg in Russia from January to May 2012 and analyzed for phylogenetic group and prevalence of 23 VF genes. The strains were collected from clinical material (urine, blood, wound, and respiratory tract). Bacterial isolates were compared according to phylogenetic group, clinical material, and geographical origin. Most of the VF genes were concentrated within phylogenetic group B2 and/or D. When comparing strains isolated from different countries, it was found that strains originating from Estonia and Latvia belonged mainly to group B2 and strains from Lithuania and Russia mainly to groups B2 and D. The P-fimbrial adhesin gene papEF was more prevalent in Russian strains, colicin gene cvaC in Lithuanian strains, and capsular gene kpsMTII in Latvian strains; serum resistant gene traT was less prevalent in Estonian strains. The regional differences of VF genes remained statistically significant after taking into account the phylogenetic distribution in the countries. PMID:25250320

  9. Assessing regional populations of ground-nesting marine birds in the Canadian High Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Maftei

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Queens Channel region of Nunavut is an ecologically distinct area within the Canadian High Arctic consisting of an extensive archipelago of small, low-lying gravel islands throughout which form several localized but highly productive polynyas. We used aerial survey and colony-monitoring data to assess regional- and colony-level fluctuations in the number of birds in this region between 2002 and 2013. Regional and colony-specific monitoring suggested that common eider (Somateria mollissima numbers are increasing, while numbers of Arctic terns (Sterna paradisaea may be in decline. Based on these data, we suggest that even infrequent comprehensive surveys are more useful than annual monitoring at specific sites in generating an accurate assessment of ground-nesting seabird populations at the regional level, and that dramatic fluctuations at individual colonies probably belie the overall stability of regional populations.

  10. Quantifying emerging local anthropogenic emissions in the Arctic region: the ACCESS aircraft campaign experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiger, Anke; Thomas, Jennie L.; Schlager, Hans; Law, Kathy; Kim, Jin; Reiter, Anja; Schäfler, Andreas; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Rose, Maximilian; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Marelle, Louis

    2014-05-01

    Arctic change has opened the region to new industrial activities, most notably transit shipping and resource extraction. The impacts that Arctic industrialization will have on pollutants and Arctic climate are not well understood. In order to understand how shipping and offshore oil/gas extraction impact on Arctic tropospheric chemistry and composition, we conducted the ACCESS (Arctic Climate Change, Economy, and Society, a European Union Seventh Framework Programme project) aircraft campaign. The campaign was conducted in July 2012 using the DLR Falcon research aircraft, based in Andenes, Norway. The Falcon was equipped with a suite of trace gas and aerosol instruments (black carbon, ozone, as well as other trace species) to characterize these emissions and their atmospheric chemistry. The Falcon performed nine scientific flights to study emissions from different ships (e.g. cargo, passenger, and fishing vessels) and a variety of offshore extraction facilities (e.g. drilling rigs, production and storage platforms) off the Norwegian Coast. Distinct differences in chemical and aerosol composition were found in emissions from these increasing pollution sources. We also studied the composition of biomass burning plumes imported from Siberian wildfires to put the emerging local pollution within a broader context. In addition to our measurements, we used a regional chemical transport model to study the influence of emerging pollution sources on gas and aerosol concentrations in the region. We will present an overview on the measured trace gas and aerosol properties of the different emission sources and discuss the impact of future local anthropogenic activities on the Arctic air composition by combining measurements with model simulations.

  11. Energy policy strategies of the Baltic Sea Region for the post-Kyoto period - focusing on electricity and district heating generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-05-15

    This study presents a comprehensive analysis of energy policy strategies for the Baltic Sea Region for the post-Kyoto period. To this aim, the study provides scenarios for the region in order to develop a both secure and climate-compatible energy system for the year 2020 and beyond. The long-term development of the energy systems in the Baltic Sea Region is analysed, i.e. in Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Sweden, and the north western part of Russia. The study focuses on the electricity and district heating sectors. The Baltic Sea Region is comprised of countries with very different economies and characteristics. Hydropower is an important source of electricity generation in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Latvia. Biomass resources are significant throughout the region, deriving from both agricultural residues and large forested areas. Wind power already contributes considerably to electricity generation in countries such as Denmark and Germany, and is likely to play a much greater role in the region in the years to come, both onshore and offshore. In the longer term (2030 and beyond), solar power and geothermal energy could also provide notable contributions to the overall energy supply. The study shows that it is technically possible to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the electricity and district heating sectors of the Baltic Sea Region by close to 100% using mainly renewable energy sources. The results indicate that this is a challenging, but manageable task. The associated costs are moderate and can be further decreased through regional cooperation. Once the various production technologies have the possibility to interact with district heating and flexible electricity consumption, and transmission connections are optimally utilised, it becomes realistic to integrate e.g. large volumes of wind power into the energy system as a whole. Furthermore, the hydro power reservoirs, particularly in Norway, play a key role in

  12. Changes in temperature, precipitation and snow cover in the Arctic Sea region, 1981–2010

    OpenAIRE

    V. F. Radionov; E. I. Aleksandrov; N. N. Bryazgin; A. A. Dementiev

    2015-01-01

    The results of climatic generalization and analysis of the observation series on air temperature, precipitation and snow cover in the regions of the Arctic Seas and at the stations of the Canadian Archipelago to the north of 70° N are presented for the period 1981–2010. One uses data of meteorological observations at the permanent coastal and island stations and at the «North Pole» drifting stations and data from drifting buoys in the Arctic Basin. Quantitative estimates of the tendencies of ...

  13. Balmorel: A model for analyses of the electricity and CHP markets in the Baltic Sea Region. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the motivations behind the development of the Balmorel model as well as the model itself. The purpose of the Balmorel project is to develop a model for analyses of the power and CHP sectors in the Baltic Sea Region. The model is directed towards the analysis of relevant policy questions to the extent that they contain substantial international aspects. The model is developed in response to the trend towards internationalisation in the electricity sector. This trend is seen in increased international trade of electricity, in investment strategies among producers and otherwise. Also environmental considerations and policies are to an increasing extent gaining an international perspective in relation to the greenhouse gasses. Further, the ongoing process of deregulation of the energy sector highlights this and contributes to the need for overview and analysis. A guiding principle behind the construction of the model has been that it may serve as a means of communication in relation to the policy issues that already are or that may become important for the region. Therefore, emphasis has been put on documentation, transparency and flexibility of the model. This is achieved in part by formulating the model in a high level modelling language, and by making the model, including data, available at the internet. Potential users of the Balmorel model include research institutions, consulting companies, energy authorities, transmission system operators and energy companies. (au)

  14. The atmospheric boundary layer over land and sea: Focus on the off-shore Southern Baltic and Southern North Sea region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren Ejling

    Lecture notes for a short course on the ideal atmospheric boundary layer and its characteristics for different types of real boundary layers, aiming at a discussion of the coastal conditions at the Southern Baltic and North Sea region. The notes are aimed at young scientists (e.g. PhD students) t......) that study the physics of the atmospheric boundary layer with the purpose of applying this knowledge for remote sensing techniques within offshore wind energy....

  15. Ecological Recycling Agriculture to Enhance Agro-Ecosystem Services in the Baltic Sea Region: Guidelines for Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Karin Stein-Bachinger; Moritz Reckling; Johann Bachinger; Johannes Hufnagel; Wijnand Koker; Artur Granstedt

    2015-01-01

    Eutrophication caused by agriculture is an increasing ecological threat to the Baltic Sea. Modern, resource-efficient farming systems based on integrated plant and animal production, effective nutrient recycling and low external inputs can enhance multiple agro-ecosystem services, resulting in reduced pollution. Practical examples of such farming systems are not widespread. Therefore, the Baltic Ecological Recycling Agriculture and Society (BERAS) Implementation project aimed to foster t...

  16. Recent advances in long-term climate and moisture reconstructions from the Baltic region: Exploring the potential for a new multi-millennial tree-ring chronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsson, Johannes; Corona, Christophe; Mažeika, Jonas; Pukienė, Rutile; Stoffel, Markus

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the first results from an ongoing initiative to develop a multi-millennial Baltic tree-ring width (TRW) chronology consisting of 12 floating records from subfossil Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) extracted from three Lithuanian peat-mining areas. The floating series have been complemented with absolutely dated TRW chronologies which were obtained from living trees growing in unmanaged and unexploited peatland areas adjacent to each of the above study sites. The subfossil material has been dated by radiocarbon and shows a temporal spread over the last 6000 years, with assemblages of trees during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM; 8000-4000 BP) and the onset of the Medieval Warm Period (MWP, AD 900-1350). Annual tree growth and sample replication of peatland pines reflect moisture variations and long-term climate variability. The importance of extending the TRW chronologies should not therefore be underestimated as (1) climate records of comparable length and resolution do not exist for the Baltic region, but also as (2) a result of a widespread lack of detailed moisture proxies spanning several millennia. Our data clearly show that a 6000-yr, continuous pine chronology from the Baltic region is a realistic objective, and would doubtlessly fill a major geographic gap in an ecologically sensitive region located at the interface between the temperate and boreal vegetation zones.

  17. Baltic Nuclear workshop. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceedings of the NKS/BOK-1.6 workshop on crisis communication 'Baltic Nuclear', held in Stockholm March 19 -20, 2001, with participants from the nuclear power plants and nuclear authorities in the Baltic Sea region. The main content of the workshop was founded on the principle of 'learning by doing'. The participants were therefore practically trained in how to handle a crisis from an information and communication point of view. Added to that there were three different lectures. (au)

  18. ENTEROBACTERIACAE, PRODUCING ESBLS AND METALLO-β-LACTAMASE NDM-1, ISOLATED IN HOSPITALS OF BALTIC REGION COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Egorova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. We studied the prevalence of K. pneumoniae and E. coli resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems, isolated from patients of eight hospitals in St-Petersburg from January to May, 2012. Prevalence of cephalosporin resistant isolates varied in different hospitals: E. coli – from 7,8 to 50%, K. pneumoniae – from 25,4 to 88,4%. Isolates produced extended spectrum beta-lactamases СТХ-М, mainly СТХ-М-1, also СТХ-М-2 and СТХ-М-9. Twenty two carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae strains (also resistant to other antimicrobials were isolated in three hospitals. MALDI-TOF MS showed that carbapenem resistance was caused by carbapenemase. Carbapenemases of all isolates belonged to metallo-β-lactamases according to results of the ROSCO Diagnostica tests. The gene coding production of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (blaNDM-1 were detected in all strains. Our data confirmed that the main cephalosporin resistance mechanism of E. coli и K. pneumoniae in Baltic region (including Russia, St-Petersburg is CTX-M-1 production. For the first time in Russia K. pneumoniae strains  producing metallo-β-lactamases NDM-1 were isolated in several hospitals of St-Petersburg.

  19. Biogeophysical feedbacks enhance Arctic terrestrial carbon sink in regional Earth system dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Continued warming of the Arctic will likely accelerate terrestrial carbon (C cycling by increasing both uptake and release of C. There are still large uncertainties in modelling Arctic terrestrial ecosystems as a source or sink of C. Most modelling studies assessing or projecting the future fate of C exchange with the atmosphere are based an either stand-alone process-based models or coupled climate–C cycle general circulation models, in either case disregarding biogeophysical feedbacks of land surface changes to the atmosphere. To understand how biogeophysical feedbacks will impact on both climate and C budget over Arctic terrestrial ecosystems, we apply the regional Earth system model RCA-GUESS over the CORDEX-Arctic domain. The model is forced with lateral boundary conditions from an GCMs CMIP5 climate projection under the RCP 8.5 scenario. We perform two simulations with or without interactive vegetation dynamics respectively to assess the impacts of biogeophysical feedbacks. Both simulations indicate that Arctic terrestrial ecosystems will continue to sequester C with an increased uptake rate until 2060s–2070s, after which the C budget will return to a weak C sink as increased soil respiration and biomass burning outpaces increased net primary productivity. The additional C sinks arising from biogeophysical feedbacks are considerable, around 8.5 Gt C, accounting for 22% of the total C sinks, of which 83.5% are located in areas of Arctic tundra. Two opposing feedback mechanisms, mediated by albedo and evapotranspiration changes respectively, contribute to this response. Albedo feedback dominates over winter and spring season, amplifying the near-surface warming by up to 1.35 K in spring, while evapotranspiration feedback dominates over summer exerting the evaporative cooling by up to 0.81 K. Such feedbacks stimulate vegetation growth with an earlier onset of growing-season, leading to compositional changes in woody plants and vegetation

  20. A Review of Magnetic Anomaly Field Data for the Arctic Region: Geological Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Patrick T.; vonFrese, Ralph; Roman, Daniel; Frawley, James J.

    1999-01-01

    Due to its inaccessibility and hostile physical environment remote sensing data, both airborne and satellite measurements, has been the main source of geopotential data over the entire Arctic region. Ubiquitous and significant external fields, however, hinder crustal magnetic field studies These potential field data have been used to derive tectonic models for the two major tectonic sectors of this region, the Amerasian and Eurasian Basins. The latter is dominated by the Nansen-Gakkel or Mid-Arctic Ocean Ridge and is relatively well known. The origin and nature of the Alpha and Mendeleev Ridges, Chukchi Borderland and Canada Basin of the former are less well known and a subject of controversy. The Lomonosov Ridge divides these large provinces. In this report we will present a summary of the Arctic geopotential anomaly data derived from various sources by various groups in North America and Europe and show how these data help us unravel the last remaining major puzzle of the global plate tectonic framework. While magnetic anomaly data represent the main focus of this study recently derived satellite gravity data are playing a major role in Arctic studies.

  1. Nord stream: not just a pipeline. An analysis of the political debates in the Baltic Sea region regarding the planned gas pipeline from Russia to Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whist, Bendik Solum

    2008-11-15

    This report is an analysis of the planned gas pipeline from Russia to Germany through the Baltic Sea known as Nord Stream. Although not yet realised, the project has, since its birth, been the subject of harsh criticism and opposition by a significant number of states that consider themselves affected by the pipeline. Whereas the Baltic States and Poland have interpreted the pipeline as a politically motivated strategy that will increase Russia's leverage on them and threaten their energy security, the debate in Sweden was at first mostly concerned with the prospect of increased Russian military presence in the Swedish Exclusive Economic Zone. The potential environmental impact of the pipeline has been, and continues to be, an overarching concern shared by all the littoral states of the Baltic Sea. Proponents of Nord Stream, most notably Germany, Russia and the Nord Stream consortium, have largely dismissed the concerns as unwarranted and argue that the pipeline is a common European project that all EU-members should embrace, as it will provide much-needed gas to an increasingly energy-thirsty union. This report is an extensive study of the divergent attitudes and debates that have surged in the region regarding Nord Stream, and the aim is to provide plausible explanations as to why the interpretations of the project have been so different in the various states. The report is based on a variety of sources, including several first-hand interviews with researchers and government officials in the Baltic Sea region. (author). refs.,fig.,tabs

  2. Ecological risk analysis as a key factor in environmental safety system development in the Arctic region of the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to specific natural and climatic conditions combined with human intervention, the Arctic is regarded as a highly sensitive region to any environmental pressures. Arctic projects require continuous environmental monitoring. This poses for the government of the Russian Federation (RF) a tremendous task concerning the formation and implementation of sustainable nature management policy within the international framework. The current article examines the basic constraints to the effective ecological safety system implementation in the Arctic region of the RF. The ecological risks and their effects which influence the sustainable development of the region were analyzed. The model of complex environmental safety system was proposed

  3. Surface water inundation in the boreal-Arctic: potential impacts on regional methane emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northern wetlands may be vulnerable to increased carbon losses from methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas, under current warming trends. However, the dynamic nature of open water inundation and wetting/drying patterns may constrain regional emissions, offsetting the potential magnitude of methane release. Here we conduct a satellite data driven model investigation of the combined effects of surface warming and moisture variability on high northern latitude (⩾45° N) wetland CH4 emissions, by considering (1) sub-grid scale changes in fractional water inundation (Fw) at 15 day, monthly and annual intervals using 25 km resolution satellite microwave retrievals, and (2) the impact of recent (2003–11) wetting/drying on northern CH4 emissions. The model simulations indicate mean summer contributions of 53 Tg CH4 yr−1 from boreal-Arctic wetlands. Approximately 10% and 16% of the emissions originate from open water and landscapes with emergent vegetation, as determined from respective 15 day Fw means or maximums, and significant increases in regional CH4 efflux were observed when incorporating satellite observed inundated land fractions into the model simulations at monthly or annual time scales. The satellite Fw record reveals widespread wetting across the Arctic continuous permafrost zone, contrasting with surface drying in boreal Canada, Alaska and western Eurasia. Arctic wetting and summer warming increased wetland emissions by 0.56 Tg CH4 yr−1 compared to the 2003–11 mean, but this was mainly offset by decreasing emissions (−0.38 Tg CH4 yr−1) in sub-Arctic areas experiencing surface drying or cooling. These findings underscore the importance of monitoring changes in surface moisture and temperature when assessing the vulnerability of boreal-Arctic wetlands to enhanced greenhouse gas emissions under a shifting climate. (letter)

  4. Synoptic controls on the surface energy and water budgets in sub-arctic regions of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, Richard M.; Rouse, Wayne R.

    2000-08-01

    An objective hybrid classification of daily surface weather maps for central and western Canadian sub-arctic locations was used to determine their dominant synoptic conditions during the snow free period. This classification yielded seven dominant synoptic types for each location during the snowmelt and snow-free periods (20 April-7 September), accounting for 90% of the days in period. The effects of source regions were used to explain the observed air mass characteristics, and their influence on the respective study locations. Cooler, drier air masses were the most frequent at both study locations. Arctic high pressure cells to the northeast brought the coolest air to the western sub-arctic site, Trail Valley Creek (TVC), Northwest Territories, while high pressure systems approaching from the northwest brought the coolest conditions to the central sub-arctic site, Churchill, Manitoba. Sub-tropical high pressure approaching from the west-southwest brought warm air to TVC, whereas stationary high pressure to the south warmed Churchill. These synoptic regimes exerted strong controls on the precipitation and evaporation components of the water balance as observed in terms of cloud cover, radiation and precipitation and evaporation efficiencies.

  5. Coreless Winter Characteristics Observed with Global Positioning System Receivers over Antarctic and Arctic Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayan Suparta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The most recent warming trends occurred during the winter in Polar Regions had been attracted many researchers to study its impacts, which might affect the sensitivity of climate prediction in both regions, as well as on a global basis. Approach: The aims of this study were to observe the characteristics of coreless winter events using the GPS meteorology such as the Zenith Tropospheric Delay (ZTD, Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV, the surface meteorology and the solar radiation measurements. The periods of observations were within two years which from January 2008 to December 2009 for Antarctic and from July 2008 to June 2010 for the Arctic. Results: The occurrence of coreless winter had clearly detected in June and January for Antarctic and Arctic, respectively. During the winter period, PWV and ZTD, temperature and relative humidity variations in both regions demonstrate a significant unusual warming peak than with the surface pressure. During this event, the increasing of 1°C of temperature showed that the PWV in Arctic was observed twice larger compared to the Antarctic. Conclusion: The increased PWV during winter suggest that the coreless winters characteristic is signified when advection between the warm or cold air masses over the region tend to increase the formation of cyclonic activity that causes increasing in surface temperature.

  6. New seismicity map for the European sector of the Russian Arctic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogozhin, E. A.; Kapustian, N. K.; Antonovskaya, G. N.; Konechnaya, Ya. V.

    2016-05-01

    Based on seismological monitoring data specifying earthquake epicenters, a new map is made for the Western sector of the Russian Arctic region. The seismicity data is reworked in detail by specifying the epicentral positions of earthquakes and adding data on weak seismicity for areas which were earlier insufficiently studied, including those at the boundary of the Arctic Shelf of the Russian Federation. The fundamental possibility of applying seismological observations to construct a regional geodynamic map is discussed (in particular, the important role of island-based seismic stations). The possibility of specifying the nature of seismicity in terms of spectral-temporal analysis (STAN) of waveforms based on data from the new seismic station on the Franz Josef Land is considered. Possible application of the character of seismicity obtained from geophysical data to specify the geodynamic nature of events accompanying interaction of the ridge and shelf spreading is discussed.

  7. Nekotorye voprosy realizacii jenergeticheskoj politiki Rossii v Baltijskom regione: geojekonomicheskij podhod [Russia’s energy policy in the Baltic region: a geoeconomic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachininsky Stanislav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses certain issues of implementation of Russian energy policy in the Baltic region fr om the geoeconomic perspective. The purpose of the study is to explain Russian energy policy in the region as dependent solely on the import capacity of its partners. Russian energy policy is viewed as one of the most important activities of the state and its business structures. As such it aims to achieve both general economic goals (generation of profit, market domination and more specific geoeconomic tasks. At the same time, the policy follows the traditional rules of consumer/producer market game. Russian energy resources are delivered to an energy deficient region, wh ere the demand and need for them is stable. The study is based on the author’s geoeconomic methodology, which extensively uses geographical and general scientific methods. This work aims to develop a geoeconomic paradigm in the framework of social geography. It will be of interest to anyone who aims to analyse the true motives behind Russian current energy policy.

  8. Regional interests of Russia in the concept of development of the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogachev V. F.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the current state and prospects of development of the Arctic in the context of its growing value in connection with expansion of demand for strategic types of raw materials, increased interest in the region of the concerned states and transnational consortia, as well as with the development of the international transport corridors and new technologies facilitating access to sources of raw materials

  9. Benthic macrofaunal production for a typical shelf-slope-basin region in the western Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Heshan; Wang, Jianjun; Liu, Kun; He, Xuebao; Lin, Junhui; Huang, Yaqin; Zhang, Shuyi; Mou, Jianfeng; Zheng, Chengxing; Wang, Yu

    2016-02-01

    Secondary production by macrofaunal communities in the western Arctic Ocean were quantified during the 4th and 5th Chinese Arctic Scientific Expeditions. The total production and P/B ratio for each sector ranged from 3.8 (±7.9) to 615.6 (±635.5) kJ m-2 yr-1 and 0.5 (± 0.2) to 0.7 (± 0.2) yr-1, respectively. The shallow shelves in the western Arctic Ocean exhibited particularly high production (178.7-615.6 kJ m-2 yr-1), particularly in the two "hotspots" - the southern and northeastern (around Barrow Canyon) Chukchi Sea. Benthic macrofaunal production decreased sharply with depth and latitude along a shelf-slope-basin transect, with values of 17.0-269.8 kJ m-2 yr-1 in slope regions and 3.8-10.1 kJ m-2 yr-1 in basins. Redundancy analysis indicated that hydrological characteristics (depth, bottom temperature and salinity) and granulometric parameters (mean particle size, % sand and % clay) show significant positive/negative correlations with total production. These correlations revealed that the dominant factors influencing benthic production are the habitat type and food supply from the overlying water column. In the Arctic, the extreme environmental conditions and low temperature constrain macrofaunal metabolic processes, such that food and energy are primarily used to increase body mass rather than for reproduction. Hence, energy turnover is relatively low at high latitudes. These data further our understanding of benthic production processes and ecosystem dynamics in the context of rapid climate change in the western Arctic Ocean.

  10. Estimated storage of amorphous silica in soils of the circum-Arctic tundra region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfredsson, H.; Clymans, W.; Hugelius, G.; Kuhry, P.; Conley, D. J.

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the vertical distribution, storage, landscape partitioning, and spatial variability of soil amorphous silica (ASi) at four different sites underlain by continuous permafrost and representative of mountainous and lowland tundra, in the circum-Arctic region. Based on a larger set of data, we present the first estimate of the ASi soil reservoir (0-1 m depth) in circum-Arctic tundra terrain. At all sites, the vertical distribution of ASi concentrations followed the pattern of either (1) declining concentrations with depth (most common) or (2) increasing/maximum concentrations with depth. Our results suggest that a set of processes, including biological control, solifluction and other slope processes, cryoturbation, and formation of inorganic precipitates influence vertical distributions of ASi in permafrost terrain, with the capacity to retain stored ASi on millennial timescales. At the four study sites, areal ASi storage (0-1 m) is generally higher in graminoid tundra compared to wetlands. Our circum-Arctic upscaling estimates, based on both vegetation and soil classification separately, suggest a storage amounting to 219 ± 28 and 274 ± 33 Tmol Si, respectively, of which at least 30% is stored in permafrost. This estimate would account for about 3% of the global soil ASi storage while occupying an equal portion of the global land area. This result does not support the hypothesis that the circum-Arctic tundra soil ASi reservoir contains relatively higher amounts of ASi than other biomes globally as demonstrated for carbon. Nevertheless, climate warming has the potential to significantly alter ASi storage and terrestrial Si cycling in the Arctic.

  11. Changes in the Arctic Ocean CO2 sink (1996-2007): A regional model analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manizza, M.; Follows, M. J.; Dutkiewicz, S.; Menemenlis, D.; Hill, C. N.; Key, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    The rapid recent decline of Arctic Ocean sea ice area increases the flux of solar radiation available for primary production and the area of open water for air-sea gas exchange. We use a regional physical-biogeochemical model of the Arctic Ocean, forced by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research atmospheric reanalysis, to evaluate the mean present-day CO2 sink and its temporal evolution. During the 1996-2007 period, the model suggests that the Arctic average sea surface temperature warmed by 0.04°C a-1, that sea ice area decreased by ˜0.1 × 106 km2 a-1, and that the biological drawdown of dissolved inorganic carbon increased. The simulated 1996-2007 time-mean Arctic Ocean CO2 sink is 58 ± 6 Tg C a-1. The increase in ice-free ocean area and consequent carbon drawdown during this period enhances the CO2 sink by ˜1.4 Tg C a-1, consistent with estimates based on extrapolations of sparse data. A regional analysis suggests that during the 1996-2007 period, the shelf regions of the Laptev, East Siberian, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas experienced an increase in the efficiency of their biological pump due to decreased sea ice area, especially during the 2004-2007 period, consistent with independently published estimates of primary production. In contrast, the CO2 sink in the Barents Sea is reduced during the 2004-2007 period due to a dominant control by warming and decreasing solubility. Thus, the effect of decreasing sea ice area and increasing sea surface temperature partially cancel, though the former is dominant.

  12. Sensitivity of modeled atmospheric nitrogen species and nitrogen deposition to variations in sea salt emissions in the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Daniel; Matthias, Volker; Bieser, Johannes; Aulinger, Armin; Quante, Markus

    2016-03-01

    Coarse sea salt particles are emitted ubiquitously from the ocean surface by wave-breaking and bubble-bursting processes. These particles impact the atmospheric chemistry by affecting the condensation of gas-phase species and, thus, indirectly the nucleation of new fine particles, particularly in regions with significant air pollution. In this study, atmospheric particle concentrations are modeled for the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions in northwestern Europe using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system and are compared to European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) measurement data. The sea salt emission module is extended by a salinity-dependent scaling of the sea salt emissions because the salinity in large parts of the Baltic Sea is very low, which leads to considerably lower sea salt mass emissions compared to other oceanic regions. The resulting improvement in predicted sea salt concentrations is assessed. The contribution of surf zone emissions is considered separately. Additionally, the impacts of sea salt particles on atmospheric nitrate and ammonium concentrations and on nitrogen deposition are evaluated. The comparisons with observational data show that sea salt concentrations are commonly overestimated at coastal stations and partly underestimated farther inland. The introduced salinity scaling improves the predicted Baltic Sea sea salt concentrations considerably. The dates of measured peak concentrations are appropriately reproduced by the model. The impact of surf zone emissions is negligible in both seas. Nevertheless, they might be relevant because surf zone emissions were cut at an upper threshold in this study. Deactivating sea salt leads to minor increases in NH3 + NH4+ and HNO3 + NO3- and a decrease in NO3- concentrations. However, the overall effect on NH3 + NH4+ and HNO3 + NO3- concentrations is smaller than the deviation from the measurements. Nitrogen wet deposition is underestimated by the model at most

  13. Biological responses to current UV-B radiation in Arctic regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian; N. Mikkelsen, Teis; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    Depletion of the ozone layer and the consequent increase in solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) may impact living conditions for arctic plants significantly. In order to evaluate how the prevailing UV-B fluxes affect the heath ecosystem at Zackenberg (74°30'N, 20°30'W) and other high......-arctic regions, manipulation experiments with various set-ups have been performed. Activation of plant defence mechanisms by production of UV-B absorbing compounds was significant in ambient UV-B in comparison to a filter treatment reducing the UV-B radiation. Despite the UV-B screening response, ambient UV...... symbionts (mycorrhiza) or in the biomass of microbes in the soil of the root zone. However, the composition of the soil microbial community was different in the soils under ambient and reduced UV radiation after three treatment years. These results provide new insight into the negative impact of current UV...

  14. Mass changes in Arctic ice caps and glaciers: implications of regionalizing elevation changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Johan; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Barletta, Valentina Roberta; Forsberg, René

    2015-01-01

    regional mass balance of Arctic ice caps and glaciers to different regionalization schemes. The sensitivity analysis is based on studying the spread of mass changes and their associated errors, and the suitability of the different regionalization techniques is assessed through cross validation.The cross-validation...... results shows comparable accuracies for all regionalization methods, but the inferred mass changein individual regions, such as Svalbard and Iceland, can vary up to 4 Gt a-1, which exceeds the estimated errors by roughly50 % for these regions. This study further finds that this spread in mass balance is......The mass balance of glaciers and ice caps is sensitive to changing climate conditions. The mass changes derived n this study are determined from elevation changes derived measured by the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) for the time period 2003–2009. Four methods, based on...

  15. Labour Market Developments in the Maritime Industry of the South Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernacki Dariusz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dwa główne cele badań, to analiza stanu gospodarki morskiej i zatrudnienia w Rejonie Południowego Bałtyku oraz zidentyfikowanie sektorów gospodarki morskiej wykazujących potencjał dla rozwoju i określenie wpływu, jaki będzie to miało na zatrudnienie i wymagane kwalifikacje zawodowe, a także na możliwości wymiany międzyregionalnej pracowników. Badania porównawcze przeprowadzono dla czterech nadmorskich regionów UE, a mianowicie Meklemburgii-Przedpomorza Przedniego(D, województw: Zachodniopomorskiego i Pomorskiego (PL oraz Regionu Kłajpedy (LT. Wskazano na perspektywy rozwoju gospodarczego poszczególnych segmentów gospodarki morskiej i ustalono związany z tym wpływ na rynki pracy w poszczególnych regionach. Analiza porównawcza poszczególnych segmentów gospodarki morskiej Rejonu Południowego Bałtyku umożliwiła zidentyfikowanie różnic w możliwościach ich rozwoju i w efektach popytu na pracę i na kwalifikacje zawodowe dla każdego z regionów. Zjawisko zróżnicowanego potencjału rozwoju rynków pracy w wyróżnionych segmentach gospodarki morskiej w ujęciu międzyregionalnym przedstawiono w formie wielokryterialnych macierzy prognoz popytu na pracę.

  16. Quality assessment of atmospheric surface fields over the Baltic Sea from an ensemble of regional climate model simulations with respect to ocean dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Markus Meier

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate model results for the Baltic Sea region from an ensemble of eight simulations using the Rossby Centre Atmosphere model version 3 (RCA3 driven with lateral boundary data from global climate models (GCMs are compared with results from a downscaled ERA40 simulation and gridded observations from 1980-2006. The results showed that data from RCA3 scenario simulations should not be used as forcing for Baltic Sea models in climate change impact studies because biases of the control climate significantly affect the simulated changes of future projections. For instance, biases of the sea ice cover in RCA3 in the present climate affect the sensitivity of the model's response to changing climate due to the ice-albedo feedback. From the large ensemble of available RCA3 scenario simulations two GCMs with good performance in downscaling experiments during the control period 1980-2006 were selected. In this study, only the quality of atmospheric surface fields over the Baltic Sea was chosen as a selection criterion. For the greenhouse gas emission scenario A1B two transient simulations for 1961-2100 driven by these two GCMs were performed using the regional, fully coupled atmosphere-ice-ocean model RCAO. It was shown that RCAO has the potential to improve the results in downscaling experiments driven by GCMs considerably, because sea surface temperatures and sea ice concentrations are calculated more realistically with RCAO than when RCA3 has been forced with surface boundary data from GCMs. For instance, the seasonal 2 m air temperature cycle is closer to observations in RCAO than in RCA3 downscaling simulations. However, the parameterizations of air-sea fluxes in RCAO need to be improved.

  17. Microphysical, chemical and optical aerosol properties in the Baltic Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikas, Ülle; Reinart, Aivo; Pugatshova, Anna; Tamm, Eduard; Ulevicius, Vidmantas

    2008-11-01

    The microphysical structure, chemical composition and prehistory of aerosol are related to the aerosol optical properties and radiative effect in the UV spectral range. The aim of this work is the statistical mapping of typical aerosol scenarios and adjustment of regional aerosol parameters. The investigation is based on the in situ measurements in Preila (55.55° N, 21.00° E), Lithuania, and the AERONET data from the Gustav Dalen Tower (58 N, 17 E), Sweden. Clustering of multiple characteristics enabled to distinguish three aerosol types for clear-sky periods: 1) clean maritime-continental aerosol; 2) moderately polluted maritime-continental aerosol; 3) polluted continental aerosol. Differences between these types are due to significant differences in aerosol number and volume concentration, effective radius of volume distribution, content of SO 4- ions and Black Carbon, as well as different vertical profiles of atmospheric relative humidity. The UV extinction, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and the Ångstrom coefficient α increased with the increasing pollution. The value α = 1.96 was observed in the polluted continental aerosol that has passed over central and eastern Europe and southern Russia. Reduction of the clear-sky UV index against the aerosol-free atmosphere was of 4.5%, 27% and 41% for the aerosol types 1, 2 and 3, respectively.

  18. The North Atlantic Region and Socio-Economic impacts of Global Change: Tracking Change using Arctic Social Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Sölmundur Karl Pálsson

    2009-01-01

    The interest of social scientists on the arctic has increased steadily in recent years, because of the climate change and its impacts on resources. Scientists have predicted some environmental and social change in the arctic. The focus of this paper will be on the north Atlantic region and possible impacts of global changes. The possible impacts of climate change on Greenland and Iceland is shift in commercial species, especially on cod and shrimp. The main interest of social scientists o...

  19. Arctic Newcomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki

    2013-01-01

    Interest in the Arctic region and its economic potential in Japan, South Korea and Singapore was slow to develop but is now rapidly growing. All three countries have in recent years accelerated their engagement with Arctic states, laying the institutional frameworks needed to better understand an...

  20. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: TOWARDS ADVANCED UNDERSTANDING AND PREDICTIVE CAPABILITY OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE ARCTIC USING A HIGH-RESOLUTION REGIONAL ARCTIC CLIMATE SYSTEM MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutowski, William J.

    2013-02-07

    The motivation for this project was to advance the science of climate change and prediction in the Arctic region. Its primary goals were to (i) develop a state-of-the-art Regional Arctic Climate system Model (RACM) including high-resolution atmosphere, land, ocean, sea ice and land hydrology components and (ii) to perform extended numerical experiments using high performance computers to minimize uncertainties and fundamentally improve current predictions of climate change in the northern polar regions. These goals were realized first through evaluation studies of climate system components via one-way coupling experiments. Simulations were then used to examine the effects of advancements in climate component systems on their representation of main physics, time-mean fields and to understand variability signals at scales over many years. As such this research directly addressed some of the major science objectives of the BER Climate Change Research Division (CCRD) regarding the advancement of long-term climate prediction.

  1. Characterization of sea-ice kinematic in the Arctic outflow region using buoy data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruibo Lei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from four ice-tethered buoys deployed in 2010 were used to investigate sea-ice motion and deformation from the Central Arctic to Fram Strait. Seasonal and long-term changes in ice kinematics of the Arctic outflow region were further quantified using 42 ice-tethered buoys deployed between 1979 and 2011. Our results confirmed that the dynamic setting of the transpolar drift stream (TDS and Fram Strait shaped the motion of the sea ice. Ice drift was closely aligned with surface winds, except during quiescent conditions, or during short-term reversal of the wind direction opposing the TDS. Meridional ice velocity south of 85°N showed a distinct seasonal cycle, peaking between late autumn and early spring in agreement with the seasonality of surface winds. Inertia-induced ice motion was strengthened as ice concentration decreased in summer. As ice drifted southward into the Fram Strait, the meridional ice speed increased dramatically, while associated zonal ice convergence dominated the ice-field deformation. The Arctic atmospheric Dipole Anomaly (DA influenced ice drift by accelerating the meridional ice velocity. Ice trajectories exhibited less meandering during the positive phase of DA and vice versa. From 2005 onwards, the buoy data exhibit high Arctic sea-ice outflow rates, closely related to persistent positive DA anomaly. However, the long-term data from 1979 to 2011 do not show any statistically significant trend for sea-ice outflow, but exhibit high year-to-year variability, associated with the change in the polarity of DA.

  2. Status of persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals in surface water of Arctic region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Trace pollutants in the surface water of the Arctic region have been analyzed by the capillary gas chromatography with the micro-electron capture detector (GC- μECD), the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC- MS) and the inductively coupled plasmas-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Compared with previously reported studies, concentrations of OCPs in these regions are much lower than those in the last decades. The ratio of α-/γ-HCH indicates the different pesticide composition between these two regions and is the potential marker for the source of the OCPs. Many other OCPs with different residue patterns have also been found for the first time in the two regions. No heavy metal contaminant was found in the investigation regions.

  3. Nuclear power in the Baltic Sea region: the history of emergence and the political and economic features of its development

    OpenAIRE

    Kretinin G.

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the development of peaceful nuclear power. The author draws attention to the fact that nuclear power is a rather young branch of national economy. However, over recent decades, it has already seen rises and falls, and a number of states have had tragic experiences of nuclear emergencies. Nevertheless, many countries — including the three Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania — express a strong interest in development, generation, and application of nuclear pow...

  4. Evolution Of Geopolitic Factors, Determining Regional Spatial Planning Of Arctic Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Minina, Marina; Mitko, Valery

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of one of the priority projects of the Arctic academy of sciences is development, based on the principles of safe and sustainable development, taking into account the experience of United Nations - HABITAT and purposes of the development of United Nations, practical recommendations regarding the guarantee of level and quality of the life of population and sustainable development of the populated areas of Russia, the creation on the basis of the development of the contemporary engineer...

  5. Cross-Border Assessment of Environmental Radioactivity in the Euro-Arctic Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Euro-Arctic region is currently experiencing rapid changes in environmental, social and economic conditions. The issue of environmental radioactivity is of special concern to the Arctic region due to numerous existing and potential sources of radioactive pollution in the immediate and adjacent areas. Due to cross-border nature of any potential radioactive contamination and common challenges in border countries, one should consider risks related to radioactivity, monitoring and protection at a regional and international level. This research presents results of cross-border cooperation between Norway, Finland and Russia and joint assessment of the status of terrestrial radioactivity in the Euro-Arctic region and in particular across Troms and Finnmark (Norway), Lapland (Finland) and Murmansk Oblast (Russia). To assess current environmental radioactivity levels in the terrestrial environment, environmental samples were collected in each country in 2010-2012. The main focus was comparison of radioactivity levels in the natural food products such as berries, mushrooms and freshwater fish. The results showed that large variations in activity concentrations exist between species and sampling areas. However, activity concentrations of 137Cs in all berries and mushrooms in Northern Norway, Finland and Russia were below the national limits set for commercial retail and well below the national limits for freshwater fish from Northern Norway and Finland. The sampled species from three countries were analysed in order to find out reference species available for further monitoring and data comparison. The doses to man arising from consumption of berries, mushrooms and freshwater fish were calculated. To compare overall terrestrial radioactivity levels in the Euro-Arctic region, partners exchanged long-term monitoring data available in the three countries such as data for soil, vegetation, berries, mushrooms, lichens, reindeer meat, freshwater fish, whole body counting of

  6. Cross-Border Assessment of Environmental Radioactivity in the Euro-Arctic Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalbandyan, Anna; Gwynn, Justin P.; Moeller, Bredo [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), Section High North, 9296 Tromsoe (Norway); Leppaenen, Ari-Pekka; Rasilainen, Tiina [STUK Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Regional Laboratory in Northern Finland, 96400 Rovaniemi (Finland); Kasatkina, Nadezhda; Usiagina, Irina [Murmansk Marine Biological Institute (MMBI), 183010 Murmansk (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The Euro-Arctic region is currently experiencing rapid changes in environmental, social and economic conditions. The issue of environmental radioactivity is of special concern to the Arctic region due to numerous existing and potential sources of radioactive pollution in the immediate and adjacent areas. Due to cross-border nature of any potential radioactive contamination and common challenges in border countries, one should consider risks related to radioactivity, monitoring and protection at a regional and international level. This research presents results of cross-border cooperation between Norway, Finland and Russia and joint assessment of the status of terrestrial radioactivity in the Euro-Arctic region and in particular across Troms and Finnmark (Norway), Lapland (Finland) and Murmansk Oblast (Russia). To assess current environmental radioactivity levels in the terrestrial environment, environmental samples were collected in each country in 2010-2012. The main focus was comparison of radioactivity levels in the natural food products such as berries, mushrooms and freshwater fish. The results showed that large variations in activity concentrations exist between species and sampling areas. However, activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in all berries and mushrooms in Northern Norway, Finland and Russia were below the national limits set for commercial retail and well below the national limits for freshwater fish from Northern Norway and Finland. The sampled species from three countries were analysed in order to find out reference species available for further monitoring and data comparison. The doses to man arising from consumption of berries, mushrooms and freshwater fish were calculated. To compare overall terrestrial radioactivity levels in the Euro-Arctic region, partners exchanged long-term monitoring data available in the three countries such as data for soil, vegetation, berries, mushrooms, lichens, reindeer meat, freshwater fish, whole body counting

  7. The influence of regional Arctic sea-ice decline on stratospheric and tropospheric circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Christine; Bracegirdle, Thomas; Shuckburgh, Emily; Haynes, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Arctic sea-ice extent has rapidly declined over the past few decades, and most climate models project a continuation of this trend during the 21st century in response to greenhouse gas forcing. A number of recent studies have shown that this sea-ice loss induces vertically propagating Rossby waves, which weaken the stratospheric polar vortex and increase the frequency of sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs). SSWs have been shown to increase the probability of a negative NAO in the following weeks, thereby driving anomalous weather conditions over Europe and other mid-latitude regions. In contrast, other studies have shown that Arctic sea-ice loss strengthens the polar vortex, increasing the probability of a positive NAO. Sun et al. (2015) suggest these conflicting results may be due to the region of sea-ice loss considered. They find that if only regions within the Arctic Circle are considered in sea-ice projections, the polar vortex weakens; if only regions outwith the Arctic Circle are considered, the polar vortex strengthens. This is because the anomalous Rossby waves forced in the former/latter scenario constructively/destructively interfere with climatological Rossby waves, thus enhancing/suppressing upward wave propagation. In this study, we investigate whether Sun et al.'s results are robust to a different model. We also divide the regions of sea-ice loss they considered into further sub-regions, in order to examine the regional differences in more detail. We do this by using the intermediate complexity climate model, IGCM4, which has a well resolved stratosphere and does a good job of representing stratospheric processes. Several simulations are run in atmosphere only mode, where one is a control experiment and the others are perturbation experiments. In the control run annually repeating historical mean surface conditions are imposed at the lower boundary, whereas in each perturbation run the model is forced by SST perturbations imposed in a specific

  8. Diversity and Distribution of Aquatic Fungal Communities in the Ny-Ålesund Region, Svalbard (High Arctic) : Aquatic Fungi in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Neng-Fei; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Yu, Li-Yan

    2016-04-01

    We assessed the diversity and distribution of fungi in 13 water samples collected from four aquatic environments (stream, pond, melting ice water, and estuary) in the Ny-Ålesund Region, Svalbard (High Arctic) using 454 pyrosequencing with fungi-specific primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal rRNA gene. Aquatic fungal communities in this region showed high diversity, with a total of 43,061 reads belonging to 641 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) being found. Of these OTUs, 200 belonged to Ascomycota, 196 to Chytridiomycota, 120 to Basidiomycota, 13 to Glomeromycota, and 10 to early diverging fungal lineages (traditional Zygomycota), whereas 102 belonged to unknown fungi. The major orders were Helotiales, Eurotiales, and Pleosporales in Ascomycota; Chytridiales and Rhizophydiales in Chytridiomycota; and Leucosporidiales and Sporidiobolales in Basidiomycota. The common fungal genera Penicillium, Rhodotorula, Epicoccum, Glaciozyma, Holtermanniella, Betamyces, and Phoma were identified. Interestingly, the four aquatic environments in this region harbored different aquatic fungal communities. Salinity, conductivity, and temperature were important factors in determining the aquatic fungal diversity and community composition. The results suggest the presence of diverse fungal communities and a considerable number of potentially novel fungal species in Arctic aquatic environments, which can provide reliable data for studying the ecological and evolutionary responses of fungi to climate change in the Arctic ecosystem. PMID:26492897

  9. Arctic Climate Change Analysed By Two 30-year Scenario Regional Climate Model Runs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiilsholm, S.; Christensen, J. H.

    High-resolution climate change simulations for an area covering the entire Arctic have been conducted with the regional climate model (RCM) HIRHAM. The emission sce- narios used were the IPCC SRES1 marker scenarios A2 and B2. Three 30-year time slice experiments were conducted with HIRHAM for periods representing present-day (1961-1990) and the future (2071-2100) in the two scenarios. Changes of the climate between these two periods will be presented with special emphasize on the climate of Greenland.

  10. Baltic region going nuclear

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Läti keskkonnaminister Raimonds Vejonis leiab, et Läti ei peaks investeerima Leetu rajatava tuumaelektrijaama ehitusse ja võiks panustada hoopis taastuvenergiale. Venemaa peaminister Vladimir Putin ja Valgevene president Aleksandr Lukašenko allkirjastasid kokkuleppe Valgevene ja Leedu piiri lähistele uue tuumajaama ehitamise kohta. Leedu ei ole selle projektiga nõus

  11. Warming in Arctic intermediate and deep waters around Chukchi Plateau and its adjacent regions in 1999

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jinping; GAO Guoping; JIAO Yutian

    2005-01-01

    Based on the data measured during Arctic scientific expedition of China in 1999, the characteristics of temperature and salinity distributions around the Chukchi Plateau and its adjacent regions have been studied. It was found that the intermediate water with temperature higher than 0.5℃ existed in all parts of a 640 km section with a maximum temperature of 0.85℃ indicating a strong signal of the warming in Arctic Intermediate Water in 1999. Two important phenomena are described in this paper. First, the temperature of warm water was horizontally nonuniform. In the area of Chukchi Plateau, the temperature was higher, the layer of warm water was thicker and the depth of the warm water core was shallower than those in the area of continental slope. The horizontal nonuniformity of the temperature distribution of warming water implies that the upward heat flux should also be nonuniform, thus exerting different effects on sea ice thickness, ice extent, and air-sea heat exchange. The mechanism to generate higher temperature in the plateau region was the bypassing of current around the plateau area caused by the special local topography, which restricted water exchange across the plateau and conserved heat in the water body. Second, the deep water down to 1400 m was also warming with a temperature increase of 0.2℃. The warming in deep water reflects the occurrence of complicated heat redistribution processes in the intermediate water, which altered the thermal structure in the upper 1400 m. The warming data embody the obvious impact of global climate change on the Arctic Ocean and further studies are wanted.

  12. Atomnaja jenergetika Pribaltiki: istorija vozniknovenija i politiko-jekonomicheskie osobennosti razvitija [Nuclear power in the Baltic Sea region: the history of emergence and the political and economic features of its development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretinin Gannady

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the development of peaceful nuclear power. The author draws attention to the fact that nuclear power is a rather young branch of national economy. However, over recent decades, it has already seen rises and falls, and a number of states have had tragic experiences of nuclear emergencies. Nevertheless, many countries — including the three Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania — express a strong interest in development, generation, and application of nuclear power. In the Baltic States, nuclear power dates back to the Soviet times, but its development was suspended pursuant to the EU regulations (the Ignalina NPP. Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia have been striving for energy independence from Russia — the principal supplier of energy carriers to these countries. For a long time, the three Baltic States have been proclaiming their unanimity on the general European path of development. However, the reality proved to be different. The touchstone for achieving common goals was the idea of constructing a new NPP at the site of the closed Ignalina NPP. The author concludes that the joint construction of a new NPP is quite questionable. When it comes to politics, each of the three Baltic States is ready to build its own NPP. Thus, the development of nuclear power in the Baltic Sea region requires joint coordinated actions independent of any bloc-inspired interests of the states involved. Moreover, this success may prove sustainable if the actions are based on innovative decisions and modern technologies.

  13. Is it possible to draw conclusions from mean wind statistics on extreme wind statistics?: A wind direction analysis for the Baltic Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierstedt, Svenja; Zorita, Eduardo; Hünicke, Birgit

    2014-05-01

    We investigate whether direction-related statistics of extreme wind events follow statistics of mean wind and thus whether changes in mean wind statistics can be used to approximate extreme wind changes. This study shows that this hypothesis is not valid over the Baltic Sea region. Furthermore, the predominant extreme wind direction and its temporal changes are analyzed. Differences between both mean and extreme wind direction distributions are detected. Main direction for extremes is wind from South-West (SW) whereas for the mean wind all directions can be found. The distribution of extreme wind directions shows a limited spread around SW. These distributions are not just different for annual statistics for mean and extreme, but additionally across seasons. The main direction remains SW but deviations from this mean winds in springtime occur as often from SW as from NE. Extreme winds are clearly focused from W, with a stronger influence of SW. Easterly wind seems to play a minor role in extreme wind statistics. The spatially covariance of wind statistics is further investigated by an EOF- analysis, which shows seasonally independent patterns of wind direction variability. Extreme winds are mainly westerlies, thus their variability is limited to north-south directions. These variability patterns show no trends in time and are quite homogeneous over the whole region. The results show that mean wind is not a good indicator for the main direction of extreme wind. As these first results showed a limited distribution for extreme wind directions for SW we continued analyzing changes of wind extremes from W and SW in the Baltic Sea region during winter (DJF) based on regional reanalysis data (coastdat2) over the period from 1948 to 2012. Extreme winds occur mostly and are strongest in winter season. Although on average all wind directions are quite frequent over the Baltic Sea, extremes are very focused on W and SW directions. Trends in the frequencies of extremes from SW

  14. Current situation of the wind energy use and investigation of wind resources in the coastal region of the Baltic Sea in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katinas, Vladislovas; Marciukaitis, Mantas; Markevicius, Antanas [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Breslaujos street 3, LT-44403 Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2009-01-15

    In this paper current situation and future prospects of the use of wind energy and wind power resource assessment experience in Lithuania are reviewed. Installed wind power capacity has increased from 6.4 to 54.84 MW in Lithuania in 2006. During last five years wind power resource assessment was carried out, wind measurements were generalized and on the basis of obtained results Lithuanian wind resources map was developed. Measurements have shown that the most suitable region for building WT of big capacity is the 10 km wide coastal strip in Lithuania. The suitability of several existing WT sites was evaluated by the power output coefficient, which describes the efficiency of installed WT. The aim of this work is to present the current situation of wind energy development and the results of the investigation of wind climate conditions in the coastal region of the Baltic Sea in Lithuania. (author)

  15. Aerosol impact on atmospheric meso-scale circulation over the Baltic region: A HARMONIE model case study and verification versus radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamarchuk, Iuliia; Mahura, Alexander; Ivanov, Sergiy; Ruban, Igor; Pavlova, Hanna

    2015-04-01

    An important goal in operational weather forecasting is an accurate prediction of precipitation on meso-scales. This demands, among the others, detailed representation of aerosol impact on the troposphere. Various direct, semi-direct and indirect effects of aerosols lead to significant changes in amount and distribution of precipitation, especially for weak patterns. Features of the atmosphere sensitivity to aerosols is studied employing the HARMONIE (Hirlam Aladin Regional/Meso-scale Operational NWP In Europe) model. Numerical experiments are performed for the Baltic region during the BaltRad experiment (August 2010). The focus of the study is the life-time of convective cells along with feedbacks from aerosols toward meteorological parameters, physical and dynamical mechanisms responsible for developing of precipitation forecast features, direct and indirect aerosol effects. Numerical results are verified by comparing model microphysics fields versus radar reflectivity.

  16. Tropospheric impact of methane emissions from clathrates in the Arctic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bhattacharyya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A highly potent greenhouse gas, methane, is locked in the solid phase as ice-like deposits containing a mixture of water and gas (mostly methane called clathrates in both ocean sediments and underneath permafrost regions. Clathrates are stable under high pressures and low temperatures. In a warming climate, increases in ocean temperatures could lead to dissociation of the clathrates and release methane into the ocean and subsequently the atmosphere. This is of particular importance in the shallow parts of the Arctic Ocean, since clathrates are expected to start outgassing abruptly at depths of around 300 m. In this paper, we present a comparison of simulations from the Community Earth System Model (CESM1 for present-day conditions with and without additional methane emissions from a plausible clathrate release scenario based on a state-of-the-art ocean sediment model. The CESM model includes a fully interactive physical ocean and we added a fast atmospheric chemistry mechanism that represents methane as a fully interactive tracer (with emissions rather than concentration boundary conditions along with the main chemical reactions for methane, ozone, and nitrous oxide. The results show that such Arctic clathrate emissions increase methane concentrations non-uniformly, and that increases in surface ozone concentrations are greatest in polluted regions. We also find that the interannual variability in surface methane and ozone increases.

  17. Spherical Slepian as a new method for ionospheric modeling in arctic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemadfard, Hossein; Hossainali, Masoud Mashhadi

    2016-03-01

    From the perspective of the physical, chemical and biological balance in the world, the Arctic has gradually turned into an important region opening ways for new researchers and scientific expeditions. In other words, various researches have been funded in order to study this frozen frontier in details. The current study can be seen in the same milieu where researchers intend to propose a set of new base functions for modeling ionospheric in the Arctic. As such, to optimize the Spherical Harmonic (SH) functions, the spatio-spectral concentration is applied here using the Slepian theory that was developed by Simons. For modeling the ionosphere, six International GNSS Service (IGS) stations located in the northern polar region were taken into account. Two other stations were left out for assessing the accuracy of the proposed model. The adopted GPS data starts at DOY 69 (Day of Year) and ends at DOY 83 (totally 15 successive days) in 2013. Three Spherical Slepian models respectively with the maximal degrees of K=15, 20 & 25 were used. Based on the results, K=15 is the optimum degree for the proposed model. The accuracy and precision of the Slepian model are about 0.1 and 0.05 TECU, respectively (TEC Unit=1016 electron/m2). To understand the advantage of this model, it is compared with polynomial and trigonometric series which are developed using the same set of measurements. The accuracy and precision of trigonometric and polynomial models are at least 4 times worse than the Slepian one.

  18. Understanding of the atmospheric methane evolution and change over the last 30 years with focus on the Arctic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Stephen; Myhre, Cathrine Lund; Dalsoren, Stig; Hermansen, Ove; Myhre, Gunnar

    2015-04-01

    The methane (CH4) concentration is increasing in the atmosphere, both globally and in the Arctic region since ~2005. The explanation to this is currently not well understood. There are huge reservoirs of CH4 in the Arctic; both methane hydrates in seabed sediments, and organic material in land- and marine-based permafrost which can be partly converted to CH4 after permafrost thaw. Both are vulnerable to destabilization in a warming climate. The Arctic Ocean surface waters may also represent a potentially important source of CH4, which may be sensitive to changes in sea-ice cover. Previous studies show strong atmospheric chemistry feedback to climate warming from Arctic methane emissions. Final results from the GAME project (Causes and effects of Global and Arctic changes in the MEthane budget), and first results from the MOCA project (Methane Emissions from the Arctic OCean to the Atmosphere: Present and Future Climate Effects: http://moca.nilu.no) will be presented. One goal of these studies is to improve the understanding on how emissions in different regions, transport and chemical processes contribute to observed changes in atmospheric methane distribution the last 40 years, with particular focus on the Arctic, including CH4 emissions from the ocean like the East Siberian Arctic Shelf. The work is an integrated study combining new measurements at Zeppelin Observatory, Svalbard, analysis of existing and ongoing methane observations and other relevant species, and Chemical Transport Modelling (CTM). The Oslo CTM3 model is used to calculate distribution and changes over the last 40 years. The study include evaluation of different methane sources and source regions, and chemical processes affecting OH distribution and changes, including changes in anthropogenic and natural emissions from different sources. The Norwegian Research council through the project GAME (Causes and effects of Global and Arctic changes in the MEthane budget), and MOCA (Methane Emissions from

  19. Mass changes in Arctic ice caps and glaciers: implications of regionalizing elevation changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, J.; Sandberg Sørensen, L.; Barletta, V. R.; Forsberg, R.

    2015-01-01

    The mass balance of glaciers and ice caps is sensitive to changing climate conditions. The mass changes derived in this study are determined from elevation changes derived measured by the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) for the time period 2003-2009. Four methods, based on interpolation and extrapolation, are used to regionalize these elevation changes to areas without satellite coverage. A constant density assumption is then applied to estimate the mass change by integrating over the entire glaciated region. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the sensitivity of the regional mass balance of Arctic ice caps and glaciers to different regionalization schemes. The sensitivity analysis is based on studying the spread of mass changes and their associated errors, and the suitability of the different regionalization techniques is assessed through cross-validation. The cross-validation results shows comparable accuracies for all regionalization methods, but the inferred mass change in individual regions, such as Svalbard and Iceland, can vary up to 4 Gt a-1, which exceeds the estimated errors by roughly 50% for these regions. This study further finds that this spread in mass balance is connected to the magnitude of the elevation change variability. This indicates that care should be taken when choosing a regionalization method, especially for areas which exhibit large variability in elevation change.

  20. Collaborative Research: Towards Advanced Understanding and Predictive Capability of Climate Change in the Arctic Using a High-Resolution Regional Arctic Climate Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassano, John [Principal Investigator

    2013-06-30

    The primary research task completed for this project was the development of the Regional Arctic Climate Model (RACM). This involved coupling existing atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and land models using the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate System Model (CCSM) coupler (CPL7). RACM is based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) atmospheric model, the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) ocean model, the CICE sea ice model, and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land model. A secondary research task for this project was testing and evaluation of WRF for climate-scale simulations on the large pan-Arctic model domain used in RACM. This involved identification of a preferred set of model physical parameterizations for use in our coupled RACM simulations and documenting any atmospheric biases present in RACM.

  1. Aquatorialities of the Arctic Region – A Systems Theoretical Analysis of Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorm Harste

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to describe the Arctic system I propose using a concept functionally equivalent to territoriality, namely aquatoriality. Whether communicating about territoriality or aquatoriality, concepts and delimitations are both contingent to forms of communication systems. I will distinguish between six communications systems that differentiated from each other could become involved in the new deals emerging around the Arctic. Apart of an economic communication code about the Arctic, a legal code, ecological communication codes, and tourist communication codes, I will cope with the military coding of the Arctic. These codes could then appear structurally coupled to a political system that in an organizational way appears in the Arctic Council.

  2. Diurnal variability of water vapour in the Baltic Sea region according to NCEP-CFSR and BaltAn65+ reanalyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erko Jakobson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Diurnal variations in water vapour in the Baltic Sea region are examined using BaltAn65+ and NCEP-CFSR reanalyses of summer (JJA data for the period 1979-2005. A systematic difference between precipitable water (PW diurnal variability above the land and the water is revealed. Above the land, PW diurnal variability has minimal values at 00 and 06 UTC, as in previous studies, whereas above the water, the minima are at 12 and 18 UTC. Diurnal variability in the vertical humidity profile is controlled by turbulent mixing and the diurnal behaviour of sea breezes. The impacts and proportions of diurnal variability of humidity are evaluated at different vertical levels.

  3. Arctic Shipping Emissions in the Changing Climate

    OpenAIRE

    Vihanninjoki, Vesa

    2014-01-01

    Due to the Arctic climate change and the related diminishing of Arctic sea ice cover, the general conditions for Arctic shipping are changing. The retreat of Arctic sea ice opens up new routes for maritime transportation, both trans-Arctic passages and new alternatives within the Arctic region. Hence the amount of Arctic shipping is presumed to increase. Despite the observed development, the sailing conditions in the Arctic waters will remain challenging. Thus particular attention will be ...

  4. Pairwise comparisons to reconstruct mean temperature in the Arctic Atlantic Region over the last 2,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanhijärvi, Sami; Tingley, Martin P.; Korhola, Atte

    2013-10-01

    Existing multi-proxy climate reconstruction methods assume the suitably transformed proxy time series are linearly related to the target climate variable, which is likely a simplifying assumption for many proxy records. Furthermore, with a single exception, these methods face problems with varying temporal resolutions of the proxy data. Here we introduce a new reconstruction method that uses the ordering of all pairs of proxy observations within each record to arrive at a consensus time series that best agrees with all proxy records. The resulting unitless composite time series is subsequently calibrated to the instrumental record to provide an estimate of past climate. By considering only pairwise comparisons, this method, which we call PaiCo, facilitates the inclusion of records with differing temporal resolutions, and relaxes the assumption of linearity to the more general assumption of a monotonically increasing relationship between each proxy series and the target climate variable. We apply PaiCo to a newly assembled collection of high-quality proxy data to reconstruct the mean temperature of the Northernmost Atlantic region, which we call Arctic Atlantic, over the last 2,000 years. The Arctic Atlantic is a dynamically important region known to feature substantial temperature variability over recent millennia, and PaiCo allows for a more thorough investigation of the Arctic Atlantic regional climate as we include a diverse array of terrestrial and marine proxies with annual to multidecadal temporal resolutions. Comparisons of the PaiCo reconstruction to recent reconstructions covering larger areas indicate greater climatic variability in the Arctic Atlantic than for the Arctic as a whole. The Arctic Atlantic reconstruction features temperatures during the Roman Warm Period and Medieval Climate Anomaly that are comparable or even warmer than those of the twentieth century, and coldest temperatures in the middle of the nineteenth century, just prior to the onset

  5. Managing oil logistics around the Baltic Rim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finland's Neste Group is a major player in the oil business in the Baltic area. Neste tankers and petroleum product logistics services comprehensively serve the region. Neste's main Baltic Rim terminal outside Finland is located at Muuga close to the Estonian capital, Tallinn. This will be joined by one in Riga in Latvia at the end of this year. A terminal for St. Petersburg is in the planning stage

  6. Surface ozone observations during voyages to the Arctic and Antarctic regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Surface ozone concentration and UV-B data between 75°N and 70°S were obtained aboard the Chinese polar scientific vessel "Xue-long" (Snow-Dragon) during the first voyage to the Arctic and the 16th to the Antarctic in 1999-2000. Analysis of these data presents that variations of the surface ozone concentration have small amplitude during voyages except the mid-latitude in the Northern Hemisphere. As a whole, average surface ozone concentration in the Northern Hemisphere is higher than that in the Southern, and high value occurred when the ship sailed close to the continents. The average diurnal variations of the surface ozone in the Northern Hemisphere are also higher compared to the southern counterparts, and high diurnal variations were found at low latitudes, and relative low level in the polar region.

  7. Arctic Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, John; Baggeroer, Arthur; Mikhalevsky, Peter; Munk, Walter; Sagen, Hanne; Vernon, Frank; Worcester, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The dramatic reduction of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean will increase human activities in the coming years. This will be driven by increased demand for energy and the marine resources of an Arctic Ocean more accessible to ships. Oil and gas exploration, fisheries, mineral extraction, marine transportation, research and development, tourism and search and rescue will increase the pressure on the vulnerable Arctic environment. Synoptic in-situ year-round observational technologies are needed to monitor and forecast changes in the Arctic atmosphere-ice-ocean system at daily, seasonal, annual and decadal scales to inform and enable sustainable development and enforcement of international Arctic agreements and treaties, while protecting this critical environment. This paper will discuss multipurpose acoustic networks, including subsea cable components, in the Arctic. These networks provide communication, power, underwater and under-ice navigation, passive monitoring of ambient sound (ice, seismic, biologic and anthropogenic), and acoustic remote sensing (tomography and thermometry), supporting and complementing data collection from platforms, moorings and autonomous vehicles. This paper supports the development and implementation of regional to basin-wide acoustic networks as an integral component of a multidisciplinary, in situ Arctic Ocean Observatory.

  8. Atmospheric winter conditions 2007/08 over the Arctic Ocean based on NP-35 data and regional model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mielke

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric measurements on the drifting Arctic sea ice station "North Pole-35" crossing the Eastern part of the Arctic Ocean during winter 2007/2008 have been compared with regional atmospheric HIRHAM model simulations. The observed near-surface temperature, mean sea level pressure and the vertical temperature, wind and humidity profiles are satisfactorily reproduced by the model. The strongest temperature differences between observations and the simulations occur near the surface due to an overestimated vertical mixing of heat in the stable Arctic boundary layer (ABL. The observations show very strong temperature inversions near the surface, whereas the simulated inversions occur frequently between the surface and 415 m at too high levels. The simulations are not able to reproduce the observed inversion strength. The regional model underestimates the wind speeds and the sharp vertical wind gradients. The strength of internal atmospheric dynamics on the temporal development of atmospheric surface variables and vertical profiles of temperature, wind and relative humidity has been examined. Although the HIRHAM model systematically overestimates relative humidity and produces too high long-wave downward radiation during winter, two different atmospheric circulation states, which are connected to higher or lower pressure systems over the Eastern part of the Arctic Ocean, are simulated in agreement with the NP-35 observations. Sensitivity studies with reduced vertical mixing of heat in the stable ABL have been carried out. A slower increase in the stability functions with decreasing Richardson number under stable stratification has an impact on the horizontal and vertical atmospheric structure. Changes in synoptical cyclones on time scales from 1–3 days over the North Atlantic cyclone path are generated, which influences the atmospheric baroclinic and planetary waves on time scales up to 20 days over the Arctic Ocean basin. The use of increased

  9. Metabolic cold adaptation and aerobic performance of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) along a temperature gradient into the High Arctic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrring, Jakob; Rysgaard, Søren; Blicher, Martin;

    2015-01-01

    The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) has recently expanded its northern distribution in the Arctic and is therefore considered to be a sensitive indicator of climate changes in this region. In this study, we compared aerobic performance of blue mussels from High Arctic, Subarctic and temperate...... window (−1 to 25 °C), whereas Q10 values in the Arctic populations were 1.9 (Subarctic) and 2.3 (High Arctic), with a thermal window of −1 to 21 °C. Aerobic scope increased with rising temperatures, reaching a maximum at 14 °C (temperate) and 7 °C (Subarctic and High Arctic, respectively), after which a...... plasticity of blue mussels across latitudes spanning from 56 to 77ºN. This indicates that low ocean temperature per se does not constrain metabolic activity of Mytilus in the Arctic; rather, we speculate that maturation of reproductive tissues, larval supply and annual energy budgets are the most relevant...

  10. Regional-Scale Vegetation Dynamics in Patterned-Ground Ecosystems of Arctic Tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, H. E.; Kelley, A. M.; Walker, D. A.; Jia, G. J.; Raynolds, M. K.

    2006-12-01

    Regional-scale patterns of vegetation have been analyzed along a number of climate gradients throughout the world; these spatial dynamics provide important insights into the controlling factors of vegetation and the potential plant responses to environmental change. Only a few studies to date have collectively examined the vegetation biomass and production of arctic tundra ecosystems and their relationships to broadly ranging climate variables. No prior study has taken a systematic and consistent approach to examining vegetation biomass patterns along the full temperature gradient of the arctic biome. An additional complicating factor for studying vegetation of arctic tundra is the high spatial variability associated with small patterned-ground features (e.g. non-sorted circles and small non-sorted polygons), resulting from intense freeze-thaw processes. In this study, we sampled and analyzed the aboveground plant biomass components of patterned-ground ecosystems in the Arctic of northern Alaska and Canada along an 1800-km north-south gradient that spans approximately 11 degrees C of mean July temperatures. At each of ten locations along the regional temperature gradient, we ran several 50-m transects and harvested the aboveground biomass of three 20 x 50 cm plots for each transect. Vegetation biomass was dried, sorted by plant functional groups and tissue types, weighed, and analyzed as functions of the summer warmth index (SWI sum of mean monthly temperatures > 0). The absolute biomass (g/m2) of shrubs and graminoids increased exponentially with SWI, whereas forb and lichen biomass showed no change along the gradient. Moss biomass increased linearly with SWI, but with greater variabiliy than the other types. Relative aboveground biomass (% of total) of shrubs and graminoids increased with SWI, whereas percent lichen biomass decreased, and forbs again exhibited no significant change. Percentage of moss biomass was a parabolic function of SWI, with high relative

  11. Global and regional drivers of nutrient supply, primary production and CO2 drawdown in the changing Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Jean-Éric; Anderson, Leif G.; Matrai, Patricia; Coupel, Pierre; Bélanger, Simon; Michel, Christine; Reigstad, Marit

    2015-12-01

    The main environmental factors driving spatial patterns, variability and change in primary production (PP) in the Arctic Ocean are reviewed. While instantaneous PP rates are predominantly influenced by the local factors affecting light penetration through clouds, sea ice and water, net PP (NPP) at the annual scale is conditioned by a hierarchy of remote and local processes that affect nutrient supply and light availability in general. Nutrient supply sets spatial differences in realized or potential trophic status (i.e. oligotrophic or eutrophic), whereas light availability modulates PP within each regime. Horizontal nutrient supply through Atlantic and Pacific ocean gateways differ markedly, which is explained by their position at opposite ends of the global meridional overturning circulation and imbalanced nitrogen (N) cycling in the Pacific sector. Nutrient supply by rivers is locally important, but does not appear to sustain a major portion of overall pan-Arctic NPP so far. Horizontal nutrient inputs to the surface Arctic Ocean are eventually transferred to the halocline through winter convection and the decomposition of settling organic matter. The subsequent re-injection of these nutrients to the euphotic zone varies by two orders of magnitude across sectors, depending on the strength and persistence of the vertical stratification. Such differences in nutrient delivery are commensurate with those of PP and NPP rates. Widespread N deficiency in surface waters fosters the occurrence and seasonal persistence of subsurface layers of maximum chlorophyll a (SCM) and phytoplankton carbon biomass in several sectors. The contribution of these layers to NPP is possibly higher in the Arctic than in thermally-stratified waters of the subtropical gyres due to a combination of extreme acclimation to low light and a shallow nitracline in the former. The overall impacts of SCM layers on biogeochemical fluxes remain to be quantified directly, both regionally and at the pan-Arctic

  12. Situation analysis in relation to district heating and CHP in the Baltic Sea Region: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Kaliningrad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-11-01

    The situation analysis embraces chapters on: Estonia, Kaliningrad, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Russia, which experience varying degrees of difficulties with the transition to a market economy, and with integrating into the world market. In the following, the focus is on Lithuania, which has been visited during the project period. Lithuania has specific problems due to the existence of the Ignalina power plant, but has nevertheless characteristics, which apply to Estonia and Latvia as well. The problem with the quality of heat supply is rampant in all the countries, as is legal framework for the sector, except in Poland, which has generally attracted much attention from investors over the last ten years and has experienced a relatively sound political development in the energy sector. The main problem in all countries seem to relate to the policy development. The case of Lithuania confirms this. Following the observations on Lithuania, it is attempted to establish some points of concern, which are relevant to a greater or lesser extent in all countries, as well as some suggestions on how to move towards a solution of those problems. As mentioned Poland is generally in a better position, technically and politically than the three Baltic states, whereas Russia still needs to progress much on those issues. The general recommendations for initiatives in the Baltic countries in question are in brief: Establishing a clear view at governmental level of what the EU and liberalisation will bring, and what needs to be done additionally to secure main energy political objectives. Issues such as security of supply, environmental protection, low cost energy supplies and security of investments need to be thoroughly discussed at national level. It is important to understand that EU Directives provide a framework, not an answer to the future of the energy sector. Reinforcement of governmental bodies that deal with the practical problems of the energy sector. The main task of

  13. Situation analysis in relation to district heating and CHP in the Baltic Sea Region: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Kaliningrad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The situation analysis embraces chapters on: Estonia, Kaliningrad, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Russia, which experience varying degrees of difficulties with the transition to a market economy, and with integrating into the world market. In the following, the focus is on Lithuania, which has been visited during the project period. Lithuania has specific problems due to the existence of the Ignalina power plant, but has nevertheless characteristics, which apply to Estonia and Latvia as well. The problem with the quality of heat supply is rampant in all the countries, as is legal framework for the sector, except in Poland, which has generally attracted much attention from investors over the last ten years and has experienced a relatively sound political development in the energy sector. The main problem in all countries seem to relate to the policy development. The case of Lithuania confirms this. Following the observations on Lithuania, it is attempted to establish some points of concern, which are relevant to a greater or lesser extent in all countries, as well as some suggestions on how to move towards a solution of those problems. As mentioned Poland is generally in a better position, technically and politically than the three Baltic states, whereas Russia still needs to progress much on those issues. The general recommendations for initiatives in the Baltic countries in question are in brief: Establishing a clear view at governmental level of what the EU and liberalisation will bring, and what needs to be done additionally to secure main energy political objectives. Issues such as security of supply, environmental protection, low cost energy supplies and security of investments need to be thoroughly discussed at national level. It is important to understand that EU Directives provide a framework, not an answer to the future of the energy sector. Reinforcement of governmental bodies that deal with the practical problems of the energy sector. The main task of

  14. Aerosol optical depth retrieval in the Arctic region using MODIS data over snow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mei, L.; Xue, Y.; Leeuw, G. de; Hoyningen-Huene, W. von; Kokhanovsky, A.A.; Istomina, L.; Guang, J.; Burrows, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    The Arctic is vulnerable to the long-term transport of aerosols because they affect the surface albedo when particles are deposited on snow and ice. However, aerosol observations for this area are sparse and hence there is considerable uncertainty in the knowledge on the properties of the Arctic aer

  15. Demographic potential of the Russia’s northern regions as a factor and condition of economic development of the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Vilgelmovich Fauzer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the research relevance of all aspects of development of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation consists the fact that in spite of limited stocks in the old rendered habitable regions of the country, Arctic is considered as a source of resources for socio-economic development of Russia. Based on the recognition that the territory is like a separate object of state observation, it is noted that the best resources for labor of the economy of Arctic may become demographic potential of adjacent northern regions. The different points of view and approaches to the definition of the demographic potential and a set of indicators by its assessment are given. On the basis of the statistical analysis of population dynamics and a level of birth rate and mortality, it is shown that quantitative demographic potential of the northern regions since 1990s significantly decreased. It was affected by the migratory outflow. It is revealed that in northern regions, there are still positive differences in age and sexual structure. Regional governments can use the results while drawing up Strategic plans of socio-economic development of territories. The article concludes with recommendations

  16. Interorganisational networking as the principal form of technological, innovative and research cooperation between Russia and the European Union in the Baltic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolychev Oleg

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the role that international cooperation in research, technology, and innovation plays in ensuring innovative development and producing an innovative model of the Russian economy. One of the key objectives of the country’s integration into international research, technological, and innovative space is the development of Russia-EU cooperation in the Baltic region. It is established that, with the development of integration connections and regionalization processes, interorganizational networking takes on special importance in the organization and development of the innovative space. The authors analyze the existing typologies of forms of cooperation in the field of research, technology, and innovation, within which cases of networking are identified. The article gives a definition of interorganizational networks in view of the spatial and structural components of networking. The authors introduce the notion of international interorganizational networks as a special form of international cooperation. A study into the spatial form of interorganizational networks helps explain the effect of different levels and types of economic integration. Key areas of research on international interorganizational networks are identified in view of the features of integration processes in the development of network processes and in the framework of network approach in general.

  17. Interorganisational networking as the principal form of technological, innovative and research cooperation between Russia and the European Union in the Baltic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolychev Oleg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the role that international cooperation in research, technology, and innovation plays in ensuring innovative development and producing an innovative model of the Russian economy. One of the key objectives of the country’s integration into international research, technological, and innovative space is the development of Russia-EU cooperation in the Baltic region. It is established that, with the development of integration connections and regionalization processes, interorganizational networking takes on special importance in the organization and development of the innovative space. The authors analyze the existing typologies of forms of cooperation in the field of research, technology, and innovation, within which cases of networking are identified. The article gives a definition of interorganizational networks in view of the spatial and structural components of networking. The authors introduce the notion of international interorganizational networks as a special form of international cooperation. A study into the spatial form of interorganizational networks helps explain the effect of different levels and types of economic integration. Key areas of research on international interorganizational networks are identified in view of the features of integration processes in the development of network processes and in the framework of network approach in general.

  18. The Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO): A Change Detection Array in the Pacific Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebmeier, J. M.; Moore, S. E.; Cooper, L. W.; Frey, K. E.; Pickart, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The Pacific region of the Arctic Ocean is experiencing major reductions in seasonal sea ice extent and increases in sea surface temperatures. One of the key uncertainties in this region is how the marine ecosystem will respond to seasonal shifts in the timing of spring sea ice retreat and/or delays in fall sea ice formation. Climate changes are likely to result in shifts in species composition and abundance, northward range expansions, and changes in lower trophic level productivity that can directly cascade and affect the life cycles of higher trophic level organisms. The developing Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) is composed of focused biological and oceanographic sampling at biological "hot spot" sites for lower and higher trophic organisms on a latitudinal S-to-N array. The DBO is being developed by an international consortium of scientists in the Pacific Arctic as a change detection array to systematically track the broad biological response to sea ice retreat and associated environmental change. Coordinated ship-based observations over various seasons, together with satellite and mooring data collections at the designated sites, can provide an early detection system for biological and ecosystem response to climate warming. The data documenting the importance of these ecosystem "hotspots" provide a growing marine time-series from the northern Bering Sea to Barrow Canyon at the boundary of the Chukchi and Beaufort seas. Results from these studies show spatial changes in carbon production and export to the sediments as indicated by infaunal community composition and biomass, shifts in sediment grain size on a S-to-N latitudinal gradient, and range extensions for lower trophic levels and further northward migration of higher trophic organisms, such as gray whales. There is also direct evidence of negative impacts on ice dependent species, such as walrus and polar bears. As a ramp up to a fully operational observatory, hydrographic transects and select

  19. Architectural Design in Arctic Regions - Issue of wind-driven snow in a built environment for sustainable urban planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiebig, Jennifer; Koss, Holger

    2014-01-01

    The extreme climate is a growing problem caused by climate change in many parts of the world. Research in Arctic regions offer a great potential for adaptation for other extreme climates. The issue of snow drift and accumulation in north European and arctic regions exists since the first human...... settlements in this areas. The need to adapt to the extreme climatic conditions lead to specific traditions of construction forms and development concepts utilizing the available resources. Focuses of the research will be the relation between the architectural design of buildings as individual units or as...... forcity life and human comfort. Increasing temperatures in summer season give the incentive for human activities as known from more temperate climate zones. Such activities can be supportedby enhancing the urban microclimate though sheltering measures. These shelters might in winter season increase the...

  20. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki;

    2011-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s....... Radioactivity inputs into the Baltic Sea from nuclear reprocessing plants in Western Europe have become of minor importance due to significant reduction of discharges in recent years. In terms of input of 137Cs into the Baltic Sea, Chernobyl fallout has contributed about 82% and nuclear weapons test fallout...... about 14%. For 90Sr in the Baltic Sea, input from atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons tests has contributed about 81%, while the contribution from Chernobyl fallout was about 13%. Cesium-137 is the main indicator of Baltic seawater with respect to anthropogenic radioactivity. The highest...

  1. GRACE and AMSR-E-based estimates of winter season solid precipitation accumulation in the Arctic drainage region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ki-Weon; Ryu, Dongryeol; Kim, Baek-Min; Waliser, Duane E.; Tian, Baijun; Eom, Jooyoung

    2010-10-01

    Solid precipitation plays a major role in controlling the winter hydrological cycle and spring discharge in the Arctic region. However, it has not been well documented due to sharply decreasing numbers of precipitation gauges, gauge measurement biases, as well as limitations of conventional satellite methods in high latitudes. In this study, we document the winter season solid precipitation accumulation in the Arctic region using the latest new satellite measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E). GRACE measures the winter total water (mainly from snow water equivalent (SWE)) storage change through gravity changes while AMSR-E measures the winter SWE through passive microwave measurements. The GRACE and AMSR-E measurements are combined with in situ and numerical model estimates of discharge and evapotranspiration to estimate the winter season solid precipitation accumulation in the Arctic region using the water budget equation. These two satellite-based estimates are then compared to the conventional estimates from two global precipitation products, such as the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and Climate Prediction Center's Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP), and three reanalyses, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis, the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts' ERA-Interim, and the Japan Meteorological Agency's Climate Data Assimilation System (JCDAS) reanalysis. The GRACE-based estimate is very close to the GPCP and ERA-Interim estimates. The AMSR-E-based estimate is the most different from the other estimates. This GRACE-based measurement of winter season solid precipitation accumulation can provide a new valuable benchmark to understand the hydrological cycle, to validate and evaluate the model simulation, and to improve data assimilation in the

  2. Multi-Sensor Investigation of a Regional High-Arctic Cloudy Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanescu, L.; O'Neill, N. T.; Blanchet, J. P.; Baibakov, K.; Chaubey, J. P.; Perro, C. W.; Duck, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    A regional high-Arctic cloud event observed in March, 2011 at the PEARL Observatory, near the Eureka Weather Station (80°N, 86°W), was investigated with a view to better understanding cloud formation mechanisms during the Polar night. We analysed the temporal cloud evolution with a suite of nighttime, ground-based remote sensing (RS) instruments, supplemented by radiosonde profiles and surface weather measurements. The RS suite included Raman lidar, cloud radar, a star-photometer and microwave-radiometers. In order to estimate the spatial extent and vertical variability of the cloud mass, we employed satellite-based lidar (CALIPSO) and radar (CloudSat) profiles in the regional neighbourhood of Eureka (at a latitude of 80°N, Eureka benefits from a high frequency of CALIPSO and CloudSat overpasses). The ground-based and satellite-based observations provide quantitative measurements of extensive (bulk) properties (cloud and aerosol optical depths), and intensive (per particle properties) such as aerosol and cloud particle size as well as shape, density and aggregation phase of the cloud particulates. All observations were then compared with the upper atmosphere NCEP/NCAR reanalyses in order to understand better the synoptic context of the cloud mass dynamics as a function of key meteorological parameters such as upper air temperature and water vapor circulation. Preliminary results indicated the presence of a particular type of thin ice cloud (TIC-2) associated with a deep and stable atmospheric low. A classification into small and large ice crystal size ( 40 μm, respectively), identifies the clouds as TIC-1 or TIC-2. This classification is hypothesized to be associated with the nature of the aerosols (non-anthropogenic versus anthropogenic) serving as ice nuclei in their formation. Such a distinction has important implications on the initiation of precipitation, removal rate of the cloud particles and, in consequence, the radiative forcing properties on a

  3. Seasonal feeding strategies of Calanus in the high-Arctic Svalbard region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søreide, Janne E.; Falk-Petersen, Stig; Hegseth, Else Nøst; Hop, Haakon; Carroll, Michael L.; Hobson, Keith A.; Blachowiak-Samolyk, Katarzyna

    2008-10-01

    The feeding strategies of Calanus hyperboreus, C. glacialis, and C. finmarchicus were investigated in the high-Arctic Svalbard region (77-81 °N) in May, August, and December, including seasons with algal blooms, late- to post-bloom situations, and unproductive winter periods. Stable isotope and fatty acid trophic marker (FATM) techniques were employed together to assess trophic level (TL), carbon sources (phytoplankton vs. ice algae), and diet of the three Calanus species. In addition, population development, distribution, and nutritional state (i.e. storage lipids) were examined to estimate their population status at the time of sampling. In May and August, the vertical distribution of the three Calanus species usually coincided with the maximum algal biomass. Their stable isotope and fatty acid (FA) composition indicated that they all were essentially herbivores in May, when the algal biomass was highest. Their FA composition, however, revealed different food preferences. C. hyperboreus had high proportions of 18:4n3, suggesting that it fed mainly on Phaeocystis, whereas C. glacialis and C. finmarchicus had high proportions of 16:4n1, 16:1n7, and 20:5n3, suggesting diatoms as their major food source. Carbon sources (i.e. phytoplankton vs. ice algae) were not possible to determine solely from FATM techniques since ice-diatoms and pelagic-diatoms were characterised by the same FA. However, the enriched δ13C values of C. glacialis and C. finmarchicus in May indicated that they fed both on pelagic- and ice-diatoms. Patterns in absolute FA and fatty alcohol composition revealed that diatoms were the most important food for C. hyperboreus and C. glacialis, followed by Phaeocystis, whereas diatoms, Phaeocystis and other small autotrophic flagellates were equally important food for C. finmarchicus. During periods of lower algal biomass, only C. glacialis exhibited evidence of significant dietary switch, with a TL indicative of omnivory (mean TL=2.4). Large spatial

  4. Evidence and implications of recent climate change in Northern Alaska and other Arctic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzman, L.D.; Bettez, N.D.; Bolton, W.R.; Chapin, F.S.; Dyurgerov, M.B.; Fastie, C.L.; Griffith, B.; Hollister, R.D.; Hope, A.; Huntington, H.P.; Jensen, A.M.; Jia, G.J.; Jorgenson, T.; Kane, D.L.; Klein, D.R.; Kofinas, G.; Lynch, A.H.; Lloyd, A.H.; McGuire, A.D.; Nelson, F.E.; Oechel, W.C.; Osterkamp, T.E.; Racine, C.H.; Romanovsky, V.E.; Stone, R.S.; Stow, D.A.; Sturm, M.; Tweedie, C.E.; Vourlitis, G.L.; Walker, M.D.; Walker, D. A.; Webber, P. J.; Welker, J.M.; Winker, K.S.; Yoshikawa, K.

    2005-01-01

    The Arctic climate is changing. Permafrost is warming, hydrological processes are changing and biological and social systems are also evolving in response to these changing conditions. Knowing how the structure and function of arctic terrestrial ecosystems are responding to recent and persistent climate change is paramount to understanding the future state of the Earth system and how humans will need to adapt. Our holistic review presents a broad array of evidence that illustrates convincingly; the Arctic is undergoing a system-wide response to an altered climatic state. New extreme and seasonal surface climatic conditions are being experienced, a range of biophysical states and processes influenced by the threshold and phase change of freezing point are being altered, hydrological and biogeochemical cycles are shifting, and more regularly human sub-systems are being affected. Importantly, the patterns, magnitude and mechanisms of change have sometimes been unpredictable or difficult to isolate due to compounding factors. In almost every discipline represented, we show how the biocomplexity of the Arctic system has highlighted and challenged a paucity of integrated scientific knowledge, the lack of sustained observational and experimental time series, and the technical and logistic constraints of researching the Arctic environment. This study supports ongoing efforts to strengthen the interdisciplinarity of arctic system science and improve the coupling of large scale experimental manipulation with sustained time series observations by incorporating and integrating novel technologies, remote sensing and modeling. ?? Springer 2005.

  5. Regional Aerosol Optical Properties and Radiative Impact of the Extreme Smoke Event in the European Arctic in Spring 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund Myhre, C.; Toledano, C.; Myhre, G.; Stebel, K.; Yttri, K.; Aaltonen, V.; Johnsrud, M.; Frioud, M.; Cachorro, V.; deFrutos, A.; Lihavainen, H.; Campbell, J.; Chaikovsky, A.; Shiobara, M.; Welton, E.; Torseth, K.

    2007-01-01

    In spring 2006 a special meteorological situation occurred in the European Arctic region giving record high levels of air pollution. The synoptic situation resulted in extensive transport of pollution predominantly from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe into the Arctic region and record high air-pollution levels were measured at the Zeppelin observatory at Ni-Alesun(78deg 54'N, 11deg 53'E) in the period from 25 April to 12 May. In the present study we investigate the optical properties of the aerosols from this extreme event and we estimate the radiative forcing of this episode. We examine the aerosol optical properties from the source region and into the European Arctic and explore the evolution of the episode and the changes in the optical properties. A number of sites in Eastern Europe, Northern Scandinavia and Svalbard are included in the study. In addition to AOD measurements, we explored lidar measurements from Minsk, ALOMAR (Arctic Lidar Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research at Andenes) and Ny-Alesund. For the AERONET sites included (Minsk, Toravere, Hornsund) we have further studied the evolution of the aerosol size. Importantly, at Svalbard it is consistency between the AERONET measurements and calculations of single scattering albedo based on aerosol chemical composition. We have found strong agreement between the satellite dally MODIS AOD and the ground-based AOD observations. This agreement is crucial for the radiative forcing calculations. We calculate a strong negative radiative forcing for the most polluted days employing the analysed ground based data, MODIS AOD and a multi-stream model for radiative transfer of solar radiation.

  6. Cryptosporidium hominis Is a Newly Recognized Pathogen in the Arctic Region of Nunavik, Canada: Molecular Characterization of an Outbreak.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Thivierge

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of childhood diarrhea in low-resource settings, and has been repeatedly associated with impaired physical and cognitive development. In May 2013, an outbreak of diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium hominis was identified in the Arctic region of Nunavik, Quebec. Human cryptosporidiosis transmission was previously unknown in this region, and very few previous studies have reported it elsewhere in the Arctic. We report clinical, molecular, and epidemiologic details of a multi-village Cryptosporidium outbreak in the Canadian Arctic.We investigated the occurrence of cryptosporidiosis using a descriptive study of cases with onset between April 2013 and April 2014. Cases were defined as Nunavik inhabitants of any age presenting with diarrhea of any duration, in whom Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by stool microscopy in a specialised reference laboratory. Cryptosporidium was identified in stool from 51 of 283 individuals. The overall annual incidence rate (IR was 420 / 100,000 inhabitants. The IR was highest among children aged less than 5 years (1290 /100,000 persons. Genetic subtyping for stool specimens from 14/51 cases was determined by DNA sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60 gene. Sequences aligned with C. hominis subtype Id in all cases. No common food or water source of infection was identified.In this first observed outbreak of human cryptosporidiosis in this Arctic region, the high IR seen is cause for concern about the possible long-term effects on growth and development of children in Inuit communities, who face myriad other challenges such as overcrowding and food-insecurity. The temporal and geographic distribution of cases, as well as the identification of C. hominis subtype Id, suggest anthroponotic rather than zoonotic transmission. Barriers to timely diagnosis delayed the recognition of human cryptosporidiosis in this remote setting.

  7. Regional aerosol optical properties and radiative impact of the extreme smoke event in the European Arctic in spring 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lund Myhre

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In spring 2006 a special meteorological situation occurred in the European Arctic region giving record high levels of air pollution. The synoptic situation resulted in extensive transport of pollution predominantly from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe into the Arctic region and record high air-pollution levels were measured at the Zeppelin observatory at Ny-Ålesund (78°54' N, 11°53' E in the period from 25 April to 12 May. In the present study we investigate the optical properties of the aerosols from this extreme event and we estimate the radiative forcing of this episode.

    We examine the aerosol optical properties from the source region and into the European Arctic and explore the evolution of the episode and the changes in the optical properties. A number of sites in Eastern Europe, Northern Scandinavia and Svalbard are included in the study. In addition to AOD measurements, we explored lidar measurements from Minsk, ALOMAR (Arctic Lidar Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research at Andenes and Ny-Ålesund. For the AERONET sites included (Minsk, Toravere, Hornsund we have further studied the evolution of the aerosol size. Importantly, at Svalbard it is consistency between the AERONET measurements and calculations of single scattering albedo based on aerosol chemical composition. We have found strong agreement between the satellite daily MODIS AOD and the ground-based AOD observations. This agreement is crucial for the radiative forcing calculations. We calculate a strong negative radiative forcing for the most polluted days employing the analysed ground based data, MODIS AOD and a multi-stream model for radiative transfer of solar radiation.

  8. Perspektivy razvitija atomnoj jenergetiki v vostochnoj chasti Baltijskogo morja kak faktor formirovanija sistemy mezhdunarodnyh otnoshenij v regione [The prospects of nuclear power development in the eastern part of the Baltic Sea region as a factor of the formation of international relations system in the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich Nikolay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current development of economic diplomacy in the world is determined by a combination of globalization and regionalization. In addition, it has an economic dimension. At the same time, the Baltic Sea region demonstrates large-scale politicisation of economic cooperation. The development of nuclear power in the eastern part of the Baltic Sea is indicative of the effectiveness of political and economic cooperation in the region. The author believes that Russia and the three Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have the economic and technological opportunities for building up cooperation in the field of energy. This points to a question whether the traditional patterns of relations that developed among these countries in the past can be changed. A more pronounced international division of labour accompanied by the historically developed specialization of Russia makes nuclear power an important factor in Russia’s economic diplomacy. The promotion of Russian energy projects in the region contributes to the development of a system of mutually beneficial ties. The increasing energy deficiency in the region can serve an economic prerequisite to this process.

  9. Biogeography of Deep-sea benthic bacteria at regional scale (LTER HAUSGARTEN, Fram Strait, Arctic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Jacob

    Full Text Available Knowledge on spatial scales of the distribution of deep-sea life is still sparse, but highly relevant to the understanding of dispersal, habitat ranges and ecological processes. We examined regional spatial distribution patterns of the benthic bacterial community and covarying environmental parameters such as water depth, biomass and energy availability at the Arctic Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER site HAUSGARTEN (Eastern Fram Strait. Samples from 13 stations were retrieved from a bathymetric (1,284-3,535 m water depth, 54 km in length and a latitudinal transect (∼ 2,500 m water depth; 123 km in length. 454 massively parallel tag sequencing (MPTS and automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA were combined to describe both abundant and rare types shaping the bacterial community. This spatial sampling scheme allowed detection of up to 99% of the estimated richness on phylum and class levels. At the resolution of operational taxonomic units (97% sequence identity; OTU3% only 36% of the Chao1 estimated richness was recovered, indicating a high diversity, mostly due to rare types (62% of all OTU3%. Accordingly, a high turnover of the bacterial community was also observed between any two sampling stations (average replacement of 79% of OTU3%, yet no direct correlation with spatial distance was observed within the region. Bacterial community composition and structure differed significantly with increasing water depth along the bathymetric transect. The relative sequence abundance of Verrucomicrobia and Planctomycetes decreased significantly with water depth, and that of Deferribacteres increased. Energy availability, estimated from phytodetrital pigment concentrations in the sediments, partly explained the variation in community structure. Overall, this study indicates a high proportion of unique bacterial types on relatively small spatial scales (tens of kilometers, and supports the sampling design of the LTER site HAUSGARTEN to

  10. Regional aerosol optical properties and radiative impact of the extreme smoke event in the European Arctic in spring 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lund Myhre

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In spring 2006 a special meteorological situation occurred in the European Arctic region giving record high levels of air pollution. The synoptic situation resulted in extensive transport of pollution predominantly from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe into the Arctic region and record high air-pollution levels were measured at the Zeppelin observatory at Ny-Ålesund (78°54' N, 11°53' E in the period from 25 April to 12 May. In the present study we investigate the optical properties of the aerosols from this extreme event and we estimate the radiative forcing of this episode.

    We examine the aerosol optical properties from the source region and into the European Arctic and explore the evolution of the episode and the changes in the optical properties. A number of sites in Eastern Europe, Northern Scandinavia and Svalbard are included in the study. The observations show that the maximum AOD was from 2–3 May at all sites and varies from 0.52 to 0.87, and the corresponding Ångstrøm exponent was relatively large. Lidar measurements from Minsk, ALOMAR (Arctic Lidar Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research at Andenes and Ny-Ålesund show that the aerosol layer was below 3 km at all sites the height is decreasing from the source region and into the Arctic. For the AERONET sites included (Minsk, Toravere, Hornsund we have further studied the evolution of the aerosol size. The single scattering albedo at Svalbard is provided for two sites; Ny-Ålesund and Hornsund. Importantly the calculated single scattering albedo based on the aerosol chemical composition and size distribution from Ny-Ålesund and the AERONET measurements at Hornsund are consistent. We have found strong agreement between the satellite daily MODIS AOD and the ground-based AOD observations. This agreement is crucial for accurate radiative forcing calculations. We calculate a strong negative radiative forcing for the most polluted days employing the analysed

  11. Arctic Risk Management (ARMNet) Network: Linking Risk Management Practitioners and Researchers Across the Arctic Regions of Canada and Alaska To Improve Risk, Emergency and Disaster Preparedness and Mitigation Through Comparative Analysis and Applied Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic Risk Management Network (ARMNet) was conceived as a trans-disciplinary hub to encourage and facilitate greater cooperation, communication and exchange among American and Canadian academics and practitioners actively engaged in the research, management and mitigation of risks, emergencies and disasters in the Arctic regions. Its aim is to assist regional decision-makers through the sharing of applied research and best practices and to support greater inter-operability and bilateral collaboration through improved networking, joint exercises, workshops, teleconferences, radio programs, and virtual communications (eg. webinars). Most importantly, ARMNet is a clearinghouse for all information related to the management of the frequent hazards of Arctic climate and geography in North America, including new and emerging challenges arising from climate change, increased maritime polar traffic and expanding economic development in the region. ARMNet is an outcome of the Arctic Observing Network (AON) for Long Term Observations, Governance, and Management Discussions, www.arcus.org/search-program. The AON goals continue with CRIOS (www.ariesnonprofit.com/ARIESprojects.php) and coastal erosion research (www.ariesnonprofit.com/webinarCoastalErosion.php) led by the North Slope Borough Risk Management Office with assistance from ARIES (Applied Research in Environmental Sciences Nonprofit, Inc.). The constituency for ARMNet will include all northern academics and researchers, Arctic-based corporations, First Responders (FRs), Emergency Management Offices (EMOs) and Risk Management Offices (RMOs), military, Coast Guard, northern police forces, Search and Rescue (SAR) associations, boroughs, territories and communities throughout the Arctic. This presentation will be of interest to all those engaged in Arctic affairs, describe the genesis of ARMNet and present the results of stakeholder meetings and webinars designed to guide the next stages of the Project.

  12. Nordic Baltic innovation platform for Creative Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickson, Thomas; Järvinen, Juha; Koski, Emilia;

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this project report is to explore the potential the current status of Creative Industries (CI) and design innovation programmes provide in the Nordic-Baltic area. Moreover, this report reviews the possibilities of building an innovation platform in the Nordic-Baltic region....... To illustrate the prevailing situation, this report reviews and analyses Creative Industries and design innovation systems and actors, design promotion and its actors in each country, activities and measures – around design – in each country (main research programmes, innovation transfer systems) and finally......, results achieved in each country (new knowledge created, new forms of activities etc.), in the Nordic and Baltic region, respectively. This report concludes with discussion and an idea of how the innovation platform could be built....

  13. Long term trends of CCN concentration in Arctic region at Zeppelin station, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, C. H.; Yoon, Y. J.; Kang, H. J.; Gim, Y. T.; Lee, B. Y.; Ström, J.; Krejci, R.; Tunved, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic is a challenging region when assessing aerosol impacts due to their large variations in concentration, and varying chemical, physical and optical properties. In the climate effects of atmosphere aerosol indirect force, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) play an important role because particles acting as they can grow to cloud droplets by condensation of water vapor, affecting cloud properties in various ways. For example, the increased CCN concentrations lead to the production of more numerous and smaller cloud drops, which can result in optically thicker clouds that tend to reflect more incoming solar radiation back to space (Twomey, 1977). Thus, investigating the physical process of the CCN aerosol that controls cloud droplet formation is important in understanding the radiative transfer and climate effect. In addition, there are still large variabilities in Arctic CCN number concentrations remaining. These variabilities are mainly due to the result of varying aerosol sources and chemical composition (Browse et al., 2012). Especially, the analysis on the long term trends as well as seasonality of CCN and relation with aerosols are very rare and need to be investigated. In this study, CCN concentration data collected at the Zeppelin observatory located on the top of Mt. Zeppelin, Svalbard (78° 54' N, 11° 53' E) are analyzed during 2007-2013. The seasonal and yearly trends of CCN in the Arctic region during the long periods are presented. The obtained results are compared with other instrumental data such as aerosol size distribution and total number concentration. ReferenceBrowse, J., Carslaw, K. S., Arnold, S. R., Pringle, K., and Boucher, O, 2012, The scavenging processes controlling the seasonal cycle in Arctic sulphate and black carbon aerosol, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 6775-6798. Twomey, S., 1977: Atmospheric Aerosols. Elsevier.

  14. Baltic Landscapes : Festival of Images from Baltics

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Hanno Soans eesti projektist "Analogue TV" N.E.W.S. (north-east-west-süd) seminaril. Eesti videoprogramm näitusel "Baltic Landscapes" (kunstnikud A. Maimik, K. Kaljo, E-L. Semper, M. Raat, M. Laanemets, K. Sukmit, J. Zoova) Bornholmis

  15. Baltic Climate Vulnerability Assessment Framework : Introduction and Guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Hjerpe, Mattias; Wilk, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This Vulnerability Assessment Framework was put together within the project Baltic Challenges and Chances for local and regional development generated by Climate Change financed by the European Regional Development Fund and the Baltic Sea Region Programme 2007-2013. The purpose of the framework is to guide and assist the Target Areas (TA) within the project in mapping and analysing the challenges and chances created by climate change. The Vulnerability exercises have originally been developed...

  16. Assessment of possible airborne impact from nuclear risk sites ? Part II: probabilistic analysis of atmospheric transport patterns in Euro-Arctic region

    OpenAIRE

    A. G. Mahura; A. A. Baklanov

    2003-01-01

    The probabilistic analysis of atmospheric transport patterns from most important nuclear risk sites in the Euro-Arctic region is performed employing the methodology developed within the "Arctic Risk" Project of the NARP Programme (Baklanov and Mahura, 2003). The risk sites are the nuclear power plants in the Northwest Russia, Finland, Sweden, Lithuania, United Kingdom, and Germany as well as the Novaya Zemlya test site of Russia. The geographical regio...

  17. Application of Slepian theory for improving the accuracy of SH-based global ionosphere models in the Arctic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemadfard, Hossein; Mashhadi Hossainali, Masoud

    2016-03-01

    Due to significant energy resources in polar regions, they have emerged as strategic parts of the world. Consequently, various researches have been funded in order to study these areas in further details. This research intends to improve the accuracy of spherical harmonic (SH)-based Global Ionospheric Models (GIMs) by reconstructing a new map of ionosphere in the Arctic region. For this purpose, the spatiospectral concentration is applied to optimize the base functions. It is carried out using the Slepian theory which was developed by Simons. Here the new base functions and the corresponding coefficients are derived from the SH models for the polar regions. Then, VTEC (vertical total electron content) is reconstructed using Slepian functions and the new coefficients. Reconstructed VTECs and the VTECs derived from SH models are compared to the estimates of this parameter, which are directly derived from dual-frequency GPS measurements. Three International Global Navigation Satellite Systems Service stations located in the northern polar region have been used for this purpose. The starting and ending day of year of adopted GPS data are 69 and 83, respectively, (totally 15 successive days) of the year 2013. According to the obtained results, on average, application of Slepian theory can improve accuracy of the GIM by 1 to 2 total electron content unit (TECU) (1 TECU = 1016 el m-2) in the Arctic region.

  18. An eddy covariance network to investigate post-fire carbon and energy dynamics in remote regions of Alaskan arctic tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, A. V.; Shaver, G. R.; Rastetter, E.; Jiang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The Alaskan arctic is experiencing pronounced changes such as fires, increased shrub cover, and permafrost thaw that are the result of increased air temperatures. Quantifying the effect of these changes on arctic carbon and energy fluxes is difficult because the Arctic is remote and difficult to access throughout the year. Here we report on an experimental design that uses a roving eddy covariance network, remote sensing, and model data fusion to determine post-fire effects on carbon and energy exchange over hours to decadal timescales in Alaskan arctic tundra. We describe the approach, challenges and goals of this project, and present some preliminary data. Our approach incorporated a number of sites along an Alaskan tundra fire chronosequence, and paired fire scars of different age with an unburned control. Challenges included; limited site access and power, communication and data acquisition, spatial variability, and missing data. We approached these challenges in a variety of ways, including; assessing spatial variability with MODIS data and roving towers, comparing burned to nearby unburned sites, harvesting biomass to understand decadal carbon recovery, and developing models that incorporate remotely sensed, eddy covariance, and biomass data. Our experimental design provides a test-bed for assessing large-scale variability across time and space, which is critical for understanding the role of disturbance on regional carbon and energy fluxes. Conceptual framework for our study. Field measurements will encompass both fast [top of hatched line] to slow [bottom of hatched line] ecosystem processes and states along a fire chronosequence [1] that will be assimilated into a fast and slow response model framework through model-data fusion [2], and used to scale up to the North Slope with MODIS data [3].

  19. Biological responses to current UV-B radiation in Arctic regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian; N. Mikkelsen, Teis; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    Depletion of the ozone layer and the consequent increase in solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) may impact living conditions for arctic plants significantly. In order to evaluate how the prevailing UV-B fluxes affect the heath ecosystem at Zackenberg (74°30'N, 20°30'W) and other high...

  20. Sillamaee - a common Baltic concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of uranium mining and milling are related to the huge amount of waste containing radioactive as well as chemical pollutants. Tailings can be satisfactorly protected so that the environmental impact is minor in the short term. The methods to reduce the risks are many. The actual releases today in the Sillamaee region of the Baltic Sea from the tailings pond are relatively small and should not give rise to concern. However, the situation is unstable, which is why efforts to find remediation methods are justified

  1. Absolute sea levels and isostatic changes of the eastern North Sea to central Baltic region during the last 900 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Morten; Aagaard, Troels; Binderup, Merete

    2012-01-01

    confirms that ice-cap growth can be faster than ice-cap melting. By comparison with 29 long-term tide gauge measurements of the region we show that the isostatic implications of the sea-level curve are in nearly perfect agreement with Peltier's global isostatic VM2 model (applied by IPCC and PSMSL) and...

  2. A green supply chain network design model for enhancing competitiveness and sustainability of companies in high north arctic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yu, Wei Deng Solvang, Chen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To survive in today’s competitive and ever-changing marketplace, companies need not only to engage in their products and/or services, but also to focus on the management of the whole supply chain. Effectively managing and balancing the profitability and interconnection of each player in the supply chain will improve the overall supply chain surplus as well as individual profit. However, it is extremely difficult to simultaneously optimize several objectives in design and planning of a supply chain, i.e., cost-minimization, risk-minimization, responsiveness-maximization, etc., which are somehow conflict with one another. Furthermore, the natural and infrastructural challenges in high north arctic regions make it become much more difficult and complicated to design and develop cost-efficient, highly responsive, environmentally friendly, and sustainable supply chain network. In order to provide companies in high north arctic regions with decision support tool for the design and planning of theirs supply chain networks, a green supply chain network design (GrSCND model is formulated in this study based on multi-objective mixed integer programming (MIP. The optimal trade-off among several conflicting objectives is the focus of this GrSCND model aiming to enhance both competitive competence and sustainability of companies and supply chains operated in high north regions. In addition, a numerical experiment is also given to present a deep insight of the GrSCND model.

  3. The economic substantiation for creating defense "support zone" of the Arctic region of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryzgalova A. E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the theoretical foundations of the transition from "continuous" development of the Russian territories of the Far North that proved to be ineffective to the "focal" development based on the concentration of resources within the anchor sectors of the regional economy. The defensive specialisation of the Kola "bearing point" which is a part of the system of eight "bearing zones" located respectively in each of the Arctic regions of Russia is being proved. The value of communication networks in ensuring the effective functioning of naval Arctic closed cities as a core of the defense "bearing point" is discussed from the standpoint of the new economic geography. Рассмотрены теоретические основы перехода от доказавшего свою неэффективность "непрерывного" развития территорий Крайнего Севера России к "очаговому" развитию, основанному на концентрации ресурсов в пределах якорных секторов регионального хозяйства. Доказан оборонный профиль Кольской "опорной точки", входящей в систему восьми "опорных зон", локализованных соответственно в каждом арктическом субъекте Российской Федерации. С позиций новой экономической географии обосновано значение коммуникационной сети для обеспечения эффективного функционирования военно-морских арктических закрытых административно-территориальных образований, выступающих ядром "опорной точки" оборонного значения

  4. Improved sea level determination in the Arctic regions through development of tolerant altimetry retracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Maulik

    This PhD project involves the development of a suitable retracking strategy for processing ofCryosat-2 SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) altimetry waveforms in the Arctic Ocean. The Cryosat-2SAR altimetry waveforms are processed for precise and accurate SSH determination. Precise and accurate...... knowledge of SSH has various applications like gravity field determination, climate prediction, weather forecasting and studies of ocean currents and circulations.Cryosat-2 SAR altimetry waveforms in the Arctic can have a variety of shapes because of the superposition of the echoes from the water and the...... the lead type waveforms. It is demonstrated that the SAMOSA3-C retracker exhibits a more precise SSHA as compared tothe primary peak retrackers and the ESA retracker. The accuracy evaluation of the retrackers showsthat the SAMOSA3-O retracker has the best accuracy when compared to tide gauge data in...

  5. Arctic-HYCOS: a Large Sample observing system for estimating freshwater fluxes in the drainage basin of the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietroniro, Al; Korhonen, Johanna; Looser, Ulrich; Hardardóttir, Jórunn; Johnsrud, Morten; Vuglinsky, Valery; Gustafsson, David; Lins, Harry F.; Conaway, Jeffrey S.; Lammers, Richard; Stewart, Bruce; Abrate, Tommaso; Pilon, Paul; Sighomnou, Daniel; Arheimer, Berit

    2015-04-01

    initial stages of the project will focus on collecting data on discharge and revise station selection criteria. For monitoring freshwater flow to oceans, stations close to the mouths of rivers and immediately inland for back-up purposes will be preferred. For studies of change emphasis is placed on hydrological regime stations located in headwaters small sub-catchments, including pristine basins. Stations outside the Arctic Ocean basin, such as at the mouth of the Yukon River, Baltic Sea and Hudson Bay, can also be considered to allow a better understanding of hydrological processes occurring in the general region. Countries shall facilitate, to the extent possible, access to their data currently published online, and also access to those not yet regularly published on the web. At a later stage data exchange standards such as WaterML2.0 will be implemented. The project will also perform pan-Arctic hydrological modelling (geo-statistical, deterministic and probabilistic methods) for the assessment and integration of observational and modelled data to improve estimates of ungauged discharge and the overall estimates of freshwater flux to the Arctic Ocean, as well as understanding of hydrological processes.

  6. Modelling of the spring phenological phases of the Silver birch Betula pendula and Bird cherry Padus racemosa in Baltic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvāns, Andis; Kalvāne, Gunta; Bitāne, Māra; Cepīte-Frišfelde, Daiga; Sīle, Tija; Seņņikovs, Juris

    2014-05-01

    The air temperature is the strongest driving factor of the plant development during spring time in moderate climate conditions. However other factors such as the air temperature during the dormancy period and light conditions can play a role as well. The full potential of the recent and historical phenological observation data can be utilised by modelling tools. We have calibrated seven phenological models described in scientific literature to calculate the likely dates leaf unfolding and start of flowering of the Silver birch Betula pendula and bird cherry Padus racemosa (Kalvāns at al, accepted). Phenological observations are derived from voluntary observation network for period 1960-2009 in Latvia. The number of used observations for each phase range from 149 to 172. Air temperature data measured in meteorological stations closest to the corresponding phenological observation sites are obtained from Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre. We used 33 random data subsamples for model calibration to produce a range of model coefficients enabling the estimation of the phenological model uncertainty. It is found that the best reproduction of the observational data are obtained using a simple linear degree day model considering daily minimum and maximum temperature and more complex sigmoidal model honouring the need for low temperatures for dormancy release (UniChill, Chuine, 2000). The median calibration base temperature in the degree day model for the silver birch leaf unfolding is 5.6°C and for start of the flowering 6.7°C; for the bird cherry the corresponding base temperatures are 3.2°C and 3.4°C. The calibrated models and air temperature archive data derived from the Danish Meteorological Institute is used to simulate the respective phase onset in the Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in 2009. Significant regional differences between modelled phase onset times are observed. There is a wide regional variation of the model uncertainty as well

  7. On the effects of constraining atmospheric circulation in a coupled atmosphere-ocean Arctic regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Peter; Döscher, Ralf; Koenigk, Torben

    2015-08-01

    Impacts of spectral nudging on simulations of Arctic climate in coupled simulations have been investigated in a set of simulations with a regional climate model (RCM). The dominantly circumpolar circulation in the Arctic lead to weak constraints on the lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) for the RCM, which causes large internal variability with strong deviations from the driving model. When coupled to an ocean and sea ice model, this results in sea ice concentrations that deviate from the observed spatial distribution. Here, a method of spectral nudging is applied to the atmospheric model RCA4 in order to assess the potentials for improving results for the sea ice concentrations when coupled to the RCO ocean-sea ice model. The spectral nudging applied to reanalysis driven simulations significantly improves the generated sea ice regarding its temporal evolution, extent and inter-annual trends, compared to simulations with standard LBC nesting. The method is furthermore evaluated with driving data from two CMIP5 GCM simulations for current and future conditions. The GCM biases are similar to the RCA4 biases with ERA-Interim, however, the spectral nudging still improves the surface winds enough to show improvements in the simulated sea ice. For both GCM downscalings, the spectrally nudged version retains a larger sea ice extent in September further into the future. Depending on the sea ice formulation in the GCM, the temporal evolution of the regional sea ice model can deviate strongly.

  8. Arctic Rabies – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prestrud Pål

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Rabies seems to persist throughout most arctic regions, and the northern parts of Norway, Sweden and Finland, is the only part of the Arctic where rabies has not been diagnosed in recent time. The arctic fox is the main host, and the same arctic virus variant seems to infect the arctic fox throughout the range of this species. The epidemiology of rabies seems to have certain common characteristics in arctic regions, but main questions such as the maintenance and spread of the disease remains largely unknown. The virus has spread and initiated new epidemics also in other species such as the red fox and the racoon dog. Large land areas and cold climate complicate the control of the disease, but experimental oral vaccination of arctic foxes has been successful. This article summarises the current knowledge and the typical characteristics of arctic rabies including its distribution and epidemiology.

  9. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki; Outola, Iisa; Ikäheimonen, Tarja; Mattila, Jukka; Herrmann, Jürgen; Kanisch, Günter; Osvath, Iolanda

    2011-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Radi...... seawater; only the Irish Sea and the Black Sea show higher levels. In 1990, average concentrations of 137Cs in fish from the Baltic Sea were similar to those in the Irish Sea, about 4 times higher than in the Black Sea and about 30 times higher than in the Mediterranean Sea....

  10. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki; Outola, Iisa; Ikäheimonen, Tarja; Mattila, Jukka; Herrmann, Jürgen; Kanisch, Günter; Osvath, Iolanda

    2010-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Radi...... seawater; only the Irish Sea and the Black Sea show higher levels. In 1990, average concentrations of 137Cs in fish from the Baltic Sea were similar to those in the Irish Sea, about 4 times higher than in the Black Sea and about 30 times higher than in the Mediterranean Sea....

  11. ONE OF THE LIMITROPHE TERRITORIES OF THE GLOBAL WORLD(TRANSFORMATION OF THE STATES OF THE BALTIC-BLACK SEA REGION IN THE 21ST CENTURY)

    OpenAIRE

    Zazhigaev, Boris

    2009-01-01

    In recent years the academic community has become increasingly engrossed in the conceptions of the Baltic-Black Sea system (BBSS) of international relations. Closer inspection reveals three major approaches. The first approach envisages the conceptual mapping of Europe (an idea suggested by Stein Rokkan) 1 and its application in the Vienna-Moscow-Istanbul triangle. The second approach relies on the Cold War logic best described as conflicting interaction; it rests on the agency interpretation...

  12. Tropospheric ozone depletion in polar regions A comparison of observations in the Arctic and Antarctic

    OpenAIRE

    Wessel, S; Aoki, S.; Winkler, P.; Weller, R.; A. Herber; H. Gernandt; Schrems, O.

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of tropospheric ozone variations in the Arctic (Ny-Å lesund, Spitsbergen, 79°N, 12°E) and in Antarctica (Neumayer-Station, 70°S, 8°W) were investigated for the period January 1993 to June 1994. Continuous surface ozone measurements, vertical profiles of tropospheric ozone by ECC-sondes, meteorological parameters, trajectories as well as ice charts were available for analysis. Information about the origins of the advected air masses were derived from 5-days back-trajectory analyse...

  13. The Nordic-Baltic Security Dynamics after the Ukraine Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Tina; Schou, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    This master thesis takes departure in the observation that the Russian involvement in the Ukraine crisis since 2014 has altered the European security environment with implications for the security dynamics of the Nordic-Baltic states. The thesis examines how the perception of Russia in relation to the Ukraine crisis has affected the Nordic-Baltic security dynamics. In order to analyse this, the thesis employs an analytical framework based on the Regional Security Complex Theory by Barry Buzan...

  14. The regional species richness and genetic diversity of Arctic vegetation reflect both past glaciations and current climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, L.; Alsos, Inger G.; Bay, Christian;

    2016-01-01

    Aim The Arctic has experienced marked climatic differences between glacial and interglacial periods and is now subject to a rapidly warming climate. Knowledge of the effects of historical processes on current patterns of diversity may aid predictions of the responses of vegetation to future clima......, it will most probably also exhibit lags in response to current and future climate change. Our results also suggest that local species richness at the plot scale is more determined by local habitat factors......Aim The Arctic has experienced marked climatic differences between glacial and interglacial periods and is now subject to a rapidly warming climate. Knowledge of the effects of historical processes on current patterns of diversity may aid predictions of the responses of vegetation to future climate...... change. We aim to test whether plant species and genetic diversity patterns are correlated with time since deglaciation at regional and local scales. We also investigate whether species richness is correlated with genetic diversity in vascular plants. Location Circumarctic. Methods We investigated...

  15. The onset of spring melt in first-year ice regions of the Arctic as determined from scanning multichannel microwave radiometer data for 1979 and 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark R.

    1987-11-01

    Sea ice ablation is an important physical process affecting the global climate system. During the Arctic melt season, rapid changes occur in both sea ice surface conditions and the extent of ice. These changes alter the albedo and vary the surface energy budget. Understanding variations in Arctic sea ice is critical for global climate studies. This paper investigates the spring onset of melt in the Arctic seasonal sea ice zone through analysis of melt signatures derived from Nimbus 7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer data. Satellite-derived melt signatures, determined by 18- and 37-GHz vertical brightness temperatures, are associated with the initial melt of the snow pack on the sea ice surface. Sea ice melt events vary spatially and temporally. Within the arctic basin the melt signature is observed first in the Chukchi Sea and the Kara and Barents seas. As melting progresses, the melt signature moves westward from the Chukchi Sea and eastward from the Kara and Barents seas to the Laptev Sea region. The initial location of the melt signal also varies with year. In 1979 the melt signature occurs first in the Chukchi Sea; and in 1980 in the Kara Sea. The date for the initial melt varies between 1979 and 1980 by an average of 7-10 days with a maximum of 25 days in the Chukchi Sea region. Monitoring the occurrence of melt signatures can be used as an indicator of climate variability in the Arctic's seasonal sea ice zones.

  16. Baltic financial markets attractive

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Tallinnas toimunud konverentsil East Baltic Summit tõdesid eksperdid, et Balti riikidel on välisinvestorite silmis positiivne maine. Esinejate hulgas olid Rootsi endine peaminister Carl Bildt, Baltimaade juhtivaid eksperte Bengt Dennis, investeerimispankur Rain Lõhmus, East Capitali president Peter Elam Hakansson

  17. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki;

    2010-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Radi...

  18. Power Sector Reform in the Baltic States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish Energy Agency is active in different ways to support and promote an environmentally friendly development of the energy sector in the Baltic Sea Region. The Agency is of the opinion that it is of greatest importance to use the market forces in the work to introduce a more rational use of both production resources and the electricity network installations that in a longer perspective contribute to a more efficient and environmentally adapted electricity system in the Baltic Sea Region. In the present report it is fairly evident that in recent years certain important progress has been made in the work on integration of the electricity markets of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. However, it also points out that important measures remains to be implemented. The report puts focus on areas that may need further studies or widened studies that include more countries in the Baltic Sea Region. One of the aims of the report is to form a basis also when it comes to evaluate the needs to replace electricity production that will be phased out when the two nuclear reactors in the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant will be closed down. What possibilities are there to use alternative energy sources that will not increase the emissions of green house gases and what possibilities will there be to implement such projects as climate projects in line with the mechanism of Joint Implementation under the Kyoto Protocol? The report also touches upon such aspects. The development of the electricity market in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania has been in the focus ever since these countries reached independence from the former Soviet Union. In later years thus certain important steps to establish a common and joint electricity markets has been achieved. The development is very rapid - from three separate markets dominated by the three national power monopolies to a more or less open market allowing for trade with electricity over the borders. To start with it will be possible for greater

  19. Comparison of publically available Moho depth and crustal thickness grids with newly derived grids by 3D gravity inversion for the High Arctic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Gaina, Carmen; Minakov, Alexander; Kashubin, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    We derived Moho depth and crustal thickness for the High Arctic region by 3D forward and inverse gravity modelling method in the spectral domain (Minakov et al. 2012) using lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction (Alvey et al., 2008); a vertical density variation for the sedimentary layer and lateral crustal variation density. Recently updated grids of bathymetry (Jakobsson et al., 2012), gravity anomaly (Gaina et al, 2011) and dynamic topography (Spasojevic & Gurnis, 2012) were used as input data for the algorithm. TeMAr sedimentary thickness grid (Petrov et al., 2013) was modified according to the most recently published seismic data, and was re-gridded and utilized as input data. Other input parameters for the algorithm were calibrated using seismic crustal scale profiles. The results are numerically compared with publically available grids of the Moho depth and crustal thickness for the High Arctic region (CRUST 1 and GEMMA global grids; the deep Arctic Ocean grids by Glebovsky et al., 2013) and seismic crustal scale profiles. The global grids provide coarser resolution of 0.5-1.0 geographic degrees and not focused on the High Arctic region. Our grids better capture all main features of the region and show smaller error in relation to the seismic crustal profiles compare to CRUST 1 and GEMMA grids. Results of 3D gravity modelling by Glebovsky et al. (2013) with separated geostructures approach show also good fit with seismic profiles; however these grids cover the deep part of the Arctic Ocean only. Alvey A, Gaina C, Kusznir NJ, Torsvik TH (2008). Integrated crustal thickness mapping and plate recon-structions for the high Arctic. Earth Planet Sci Lett 274:310-321. Gaina C, Werner SC, Saltus R, Maus S (2011). Circum-Arctic mapping project: new magnetic and gravity anomaly maps of the Arctic. Geol Soc Lond Mem 35, 39-48. Glebovsky V.Yu., Astafurova E.G., Chernykh A.A., Korneva M.A., Kaminsky V.D., Poselov V.A. (2013). Thickness of the Earth's crust in the

  20. Rim versus Non-Rim States in the Arctic Region: Prospects for a Zero-Sum Game or a Win-Win One?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Ghimiş

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to develop a critical approach on one of the most urgent energy security challenges: the Arctic region. Until recently, it was considered to be a frozen desert, upon which no one raised any legal demands or interests. The global warming, the technological development and the increased need for energy resources had transformed the frozen High North into a very hot spot, where states like US, Canada, Norway, Denmark or Russia started an energy race that threatens to escalate. The Arctic became a strategic area given its opportunities: besides the energy resources, new commercial routes could become available for a longer period of time. But, due to legal uncertainties, the lack of coherent and direct legal procedures of international law, the Arctic game is an open one, in which any state can intervene and ask for a solution that is suitable for its interests. This aspect complicates even further the already unstable region. Some of the actors see the region as an international area, as a common good, where everyone has the right to explore or exploit, while the rim states see the Arctic in sovereign rights terms. Therefore, the game tends to complicate as non-rim players (the EU, China, Japan, NATO and South Korea want to intervene in the region and try to influence its development.

  1. Modelling regional to global CH4 emissions of boreal and arctic wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, A. M. R.; van Beek, L. P. H.; van Huissteden, J.; Prigent, C.; Sachs, T.; Corradi, C. A. R.; Parmentier, F. J. W.; Dolman, A. J.

    2012-04-01

    Methane (CH4) emission from arctic and subarctic wetlands constitutes a potentially positive feedback to global climate warming. Many process-based models have been developed, but high uncertainties remain in estimating the amount of CH4 released from wetlands at the global scale. This study tries to improve estimates of CH4 emissions by up-scaling a wetland CH4 emission model, PEATLAND-VU, to the global scale with a spatial resolution of 0.5° for the period 2001-2006. This up-scaling was based on the global circum-arctic distribution of wetlands with hydrological conditions being specified by a global hydrological model, PCR-GLOBWB. In addition to the daily hydrological output from PCR-GLOBWB, comprising water table depths and snow thickness, the parametrisation included air temperature as obtained from the ECMWF Operational Archive. To establish the uncertainty in the representations of the circum-arctic distribution of wetlands on the CH4 emission, several existing products were used to aggregate the emissions. Using the description of potential peatlands from the FAO Digital Soil Map of the World and the representation of floodplains by PCR-GLOBWB, the average flux over the period 2001-2006 was estimated to be 78 Tg yr-1. In comparison, the six-year average CH4 fluxes were 38, 89, 146, and 157 Tg yr-1 for different estimates of wetland extends based on studies by Matthews and Fung, Prigent et al., Lehner and Döll and Kaplan, respectively. This study shows the feasibility to estimate interannual variations in CH4 emissions by coupling hydrological and CH4 emission process models. It highlights the importance of an adequate understanding of hydrology in quantifying the total emissions from northern hemispheric wetlands and shows how knowledge of the sub-grid variability in wetland extent helps to prescribe relevant hydrological conditions to the emission model as well as to identify the uncertainty associated with existing wetland distributions. Reference A. M

  2. Modeling regional to global CH4 emissions of boreal and arctic wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, A. M. R.; van Beek, L. P. H.; van Huissteden, J.; Prigent, C.; Sachs, T.; Corradi, C. A. R.; Parmentier, F. J. W.; Dolman, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    Methane (CH4) emission from boreal, arctic and subarctic wetlands constitutes a potentially positive feedback to global climate warming. Many process-based models have been developed, but high uncertainties remain in estimating the amount of CH4 released from wetlands at the global scale. This study tries to improve estimates of CH4 emissions by up-scaling a wetland CH4 emission model, PEATLAND-VU, to the global scale with a spatial resolution of 0.5° for the period 2001-2006. This up-scaling was based on the global circum-arctic distribution of wetlands with hydrological conditions being specified by a global hydrological model, PCR-GLOBWB. In addition to the daily hydrological output from PCR-GLOBWB, comprising water table depths and snow thickness, the parameterization included air temperature as obtained from the ECMWF Operational Archive. To establish the uncertainty in the representations of the circum-arctic distribution of wetlands on the CH4 emission, several existing products were used to aggregate the emissions. Using the description of potential peatlands from the FAO Digital Soil Map of the World and the representation of floodplains by PCR-GLOBWB, the average annual flux over the period 2001-2006 was estimated to be 78 Tg yr-1. In comparison, the six-year average CH4 fluxes were 37.7, 89.4, 145.6, and 157.3 Tg yr-1 for different estimates of wetland extends based on the studies by Matthews and Fung, Prigent et al., Lehner and Döll, and Kaplan, respectively. This study shows the feasibility to estimate interannual variations in CH4 emissions by coupling hydrological and CH4 emission process models. It highlights the importance of an adequate understanding of hydrology in quantifying the total emissions from northern hemispheric wetlands and shows how knowledge of the sub-grid variability in wetland extent helps to prescribe relevant hydrological conditions to the emission model as well as to identify the uncertainty associated with existing wetland

  3. Intercomparison of atmospheric reanalysis data in the Arctic region: To derive site-specific forcing data for terrestrial models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, J.; Saito, K.; Machiya, H.; Yabuki, H.; Ikawa, H.; Ohta, T.; Iijima, Y.; Kotani, A.; Suzuki, R.; Miyazaki, S.; Sato, A.; Hajima, T.; Sueyoshi, T.

    2015-12-01

    An intercomparison project for the Arctic terrestrial (physical and ecosystem) models, GTMIP, is conducted, targeting at improvements in the existing terrestrial schemes, as an activity of the Terrestrial Ecosystem research group in the Arctic of Japan GRENE Arctic Climate Change Research Project (GRENE-TEA). For site simulations for four GRENE-TEA sites (i.e., Fairbanks/AK, Kevo/Finland, Tiksi and Yakutsk/Siberia), we needed to prepare continuous, site-fit forcing data ready to drive the models. Due to scarcity of site observations in the region, however, it was difficult to make such data directly from the observations. Therefore, we decided to create a backbone dataset (Level 0 or Lv0) first by utilizing the reanalysis data to derive the site-specific data (Level 1 or Lv1). For selection of the best dataset for our purpose, we compared four atmospheric reanalysis datasets, i.e., ERA Interim, JRA-55, NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis 1, and NCEP-DOE Reanalysis 2, in terms of the climatic reproducibility (w.r.t. temperature at 2 m and precipitation) in the region north of 60°N. CRU for temperature and GPCP for precipitation were also used for monthly-mean ground-level climate. As we will show ERA-Interim showed the smallest bias for both the parameters in terms of RMSE. Especially, air temperature in the cold period was reproduced better in ERA-Interim than is in JRA-55 or other reanalysis products. Therefore, we created Lv0 from ERA-Interim. Comparison between the site observations and Lv0 showed good agreement except for wind speed at all sites and air temperature at Tiksi, a coastal site in the eastern Siberia. Air temperature of ERA-Interim showed significantly continental characteristics while the site observation more coastal. The 34-year-long, hourly, site-fit continuous data (Lv1) for each of the GRENE-TEA sites was then created from the Lv0 values at the grid point closest to the site, by merging with the observations.

  4. Interannual variability of the Arctic freshwater cycle in the second half of the twentieth century in a regionally coupled climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederdrenk, Anne Laura; Sein, Dmitry V.; Mikolajewicz, Uwe

    2016-03-01

    We use a regionally coupled ocean-sea ice-atmosphere-hydrological discharge model to investigate the influence of changes in the atmospheric large-scale circulation on the interannual variability of the Arctic freshwater (FW) components. This model includes all sinks and sources of FW and allows for the analysis of a closed FW cycle in the Arctic. We show that few atmospheric winter modes explain large parts of the interannual variability of the Arctic FW cycle. A strong Icelandic low causing anomalous strong westerlies over the North Atlantic leads to warmer and wetter conditions over Eurasia. The ocean circulation is then characterized by a strong transpolar drift leading to increased export of FW in liquid and solid form into the North Atlantic. In contrast to this, a weaker than usual Icelandic low and a strong Siberian high is associated with a strong Beaufort Gyre and thus an accumulation of FW within the Arctic Ocean. Not only specific winter conditions but also increased precipitation in late spring and summer, caused by enhanced cyclone activity over land, lead to increased Eurasian runoff, which is responsible for most of the variability in Arctic river runoff.

  5. Record-low primary productivity and high plant damage in the Nordic Arctic Region in 2012 caused by multiple weather events and pest outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerke, Jarle W.; Rune Karlsen, Stein; Arild Høgda, Kjell; Malnes, Eirik; Jepsen, Jane U.; Lovibond, Sarah; Vikhamar-Schuler, Dagrun; Tømmervik, Hans

    2014-08-01

    The release of cold temperature constraints on photosynthesis has led to increased productivity (greening) in significant parts (32-39%) of the Arctic, but much of the Arctic shows stable (57-64%) or reduced productivity (browning, insect and fungal pests also contributed to low greenness. Vegetation greenness in 2012 was 6.8% lower than the 2000-11 average and 58% lower in the worst affected areas that were under multiple stressors. These results indicate the importance of events (some being mostly neglected in climate change effect studies and monitoring) for primary productivity in a high-latitude maritime region, and highlight the importance of monitoring plant damage in the field and including frequencies of stress events in models of carbon economy and ecosystem change in the Arctic. Fourteen weather events and anomalies and 32 hypothesized impacts on plant productivity are summarized as an aid for directing future research.

  6. Vertical characteristics of ozone variation over the Arctic Chukchi Sea region in 1999

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立波; 刘宇; 邹捍

    2002-01-01

    In 1999 summer, Chinese Arctic Research Expedition operated the Chukchi Sea. On Chinese icebreaker Xuelong, we made many high-resolution ozonesonds measurements. During the period from August 18 to 24, a synoptic scale observation was taken at 75°N, 160°W. Using the above data, together with TOMS total ozone and NCEP circulation data, we showed that atmospheric ozone amount experienced a high-low-high variation, with low-high-low tropopause altitude. Correlation analysis showed a close relation between the total ozone and ozone below 13 km, while the variation of the maximum concentration at about 20 km didn't show any relation to the column ozone. In 500 hPa height maps, there was also the weak-strong-weak southwesterly pattern. Therefore we suggested that the synoptic system might be responsible to a low ozone advection during this ozone variation.

  7. Nutrient trends through time in Sweden's Baltic Drainage Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, I.; Destouni, G.; Prieto, C.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in climate and land-use have and will continue to modify regional hydrology, in turn impacting environmental health, agricultural productivity and water resource quality and availability. The Baltic region is an area of interest as the coast spans nine countries- serving over 100 million people. The Baltic Sea contains one of the largest human caused hypoxic dead zones due to eutrophication driven by anthropogenic excess loading of nutrients. Policies to reduce these loads include also international directives and agreements, such as the EU Water Framework Directive, adopted in 2000 to protect and improve water quality throughout the European Union, and the Baltic Sea Action Plan under the Helsinki Commission aimed specifically at reducing the nutrient loading to and mitigating the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea. In light of these policies and amidst the number of studies on the Baltic Sea we ask, using the accessible nutrient and discharge data what does nutrient loading look like today? Are the most excessive loads going down? Observed nutrient and flow time series across Sweden allow for answering these questions, by spatial and temporal trend analysis of loads from various parts of Sweden to the Baltic Sea. Analyzing these observed time series in conjunction with the ecological health status classifications of the EU Water Framework Directive, allows in particular for answering the question if the loads into the water bodies with the poorest water quality, and from those to the Baltic Sea, are improving, being maintained or deteriorating. Such insight is required to contribute to relevant and efficient water and nutrient load management. Furthermore, empirically calculating nutrient loads, rather than only modeling, reveals that the water body health classification may not reflect what water bodies actually contribute the heaviest loads to the Baltic Sea. This work also underscores the importance of comprehensive analysis of all available data from

  8. Do countries catch cold when trading partners sneeze? Evidence from spillovers in the Baltics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley I. Obiora

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available How do countries respond to shocks from their major trading partners? This paper addresses the question in the context of the observed shifts in trade linkages between the Baltic countries and their major trading partners. Vector autoregression (VAR models were used to examine the magnitude and sources of growth spillovers to the Baltics from key trading partners, as well as shocks from the real effective exchange rate (REER.Our results show there are significant cross-country spillovers to the Baltics, with spillovers from the EU outweighing those from Russia. Shocks to the REER generally depress growth in the Baltics, and this effect rises over time. We also find that financial and trade linkages are the dominant transmission channels of spillovers to the region, which explains the current realization of downside risks to the Baltics from the global slowdown. In general, therefore, these results suggest that the Baltics are susceptible to shocks from their key trading partners.

  9. Think - Baltic Extension / Kalle Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Kalle

    2002-01-01

    Tallinna TÜ Rehabilitatsiooni tehnoloogia keskus korraldas pressikonverentsi, kus tutvustati osalemist EL V raamprogrammis Think - Baltic Extension, mis on suunatud puuetega inimeste tööhõive tagamisele

  10. The problems of studying the Baltic origins of hydronyms on the territory of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Валерий Л. Васильев

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article raises a wide range of issues related to the ancient presence of Balts in Russian hydronymy. The entire eastern half of the vast Old Baltic ethno-historical area overlapped with regions of European Russia. The names of rivers and lakes are the main source that allows to ascertain the extent of their ancient settlement as well as some features of their language. This paper provides an overview of the history of the study of hydronyms of Baltic origin on the territory of Russia, including the criticism of certain previous works, and briefly highlights a number of issues, among which are: 1 the refinement of the South-eastern, Eastern and especially North-eastern borders of the Old Baltic range, 2 the correlation of the Baltic linguistic elements with the Finnish and the Iranian elements, 3 the relationship of Baltic hydronymy to archaeological cultures, localizable in European Russia, 4 the relative density of the Baltic stratum in different Russian regions, 5 the optimization of techniques related to searching and confirmation of Baltic water names. Maps are provided to show the North-eastern flank of the Baltic hydronymic areal and the maximum geographical extent of Eastern Baltic hydronymy.

  11. Energy Security in the Baltic States

    OpenAIRE

    Valciukaite, Silvestra; Nissen, Mark; Gulbinaite, Simona

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown the importance of energy security issue in the Baltic States. The research to date has tended to focus on the energy dependency on Russian energy resources. Despite the vast of studies being made upon energy security this study aims to analyze how energy security has been securitized in Lithuania. This paper is based on Regional Security Complex and speech act theory in terms of securitization framework. Two securitization sectors (economic, politics) and the area of...

  12. Record-low primary productivity and high plant damage in the Nordic Arctic Region in 2012 caused by multiple weather events and pest outbreaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of cold temperature constraints on photosynthesis has led to increased productivity (greening) in significant parts (32–39%) of the Arctic, but much of the Arctic shows stable (57–64%) or reduced productivity (browning, <4%). Summer drought and wildfires are the best-documented drivers causing browning of continental areas, but factors dampening the greening effect of more maritime regions have remained elusive. Here we show how multiple anomalous weather events severely affected the terrestrial productivity during one water year (October 2011–September 2012) in a maritime region north of the Arctic Circle, the Nordic Arctic Region, and contributed to the lowest mean vegetation greenness (normalized difference vegetation index) recorded this century. Procedures for field data sampling were designed during or shortly after the events in order to assess both the variability in effects and the maximum effects of the stressors. Outbreaks of insect and fungal pests also contributed to low greenness. Vegetation greenness in 2012 was 6.8% lower than the 2000–11 average and 58% lower in the worst affected areas that were under multiple stressors. These results indicate the importance of events (some being mostly neglected in climate change effect studies and monitoring) for primary productivity in a high-latitude maritime region, and highlight the importance of monitoring plant damage in the field and including frequencies of stress events in models of carbon economy and ecosystem change in the Arctic. Fourteen weather events and anomalies and 32 hypothesized impacts on plant productivity are summarized as an aid for directing future research. (letter)

  13. Plutonium in Baltic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine sediments accumulate the bulk of plutonium produced by nuclear tests. The nuclear power industry will form an additional source of plutonium, and it is important to determine the present background levels of plutonium in sediments and to compare the accumulation rate in the Baltic with that in other areas of the world. Plutonium was determined on four sediment cores collected from the Baltic Sea in 1974 and 1975. Two of the samples were from oxygenated coastal sediment with benthic life and two cores were collected from deep basins in the Baltic at depths of 183 m and 164 m where the bottoms were anoxic, with no benthic life, and where the rate of sedimentation is rather high. Data are presented on the Pu-239,240 content of the sediment cores as is pCi/kg dry wt in the different core sections. The highest plutonium concentrations were found near the surface, at depths of 0 to 8 cm. In all cores the plutonium concentration decreases sharply at a depth of about 6 to 8 cm

  14. Arctic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) conducted a study of contamination of the Arctic Ocean and surrounding areas in order to better understand the severity of the problem and identify possible parallels in the United States. The findings were published in a quarterly report as a part of this technical task plan (TTP). While many radioactive and hazardous material contamination sites in this region have been identified, official Russian statements indicate that contaminant concentrations are within normal limits and are currently confined to specific areas

  15. Liquidity problems and policy implications during the recent financial crisis in the Baltic-Scandinavian region: ex ante empirical study. Likviidsusprobleemid ning nende majanduspoliitiline käsitlus viimase finantskriisi ajal Balti ja Skandinaavia regioon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Karilaid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an empirical examination of the development and determinants of the liquidity position in the financial sector during the past financial crises in the Baltic-Scandinavian region. We look at fiscal and monetary policy implications of the liquidity problems arising in the crisis, using panel data from Datastream and IFS data collection. The results are consistent with the theoretical predictions for a small open economy with the expected sign of changes and developments in common economic indicators. The main finding is that the changes (and the speed of changes of interest rates, GDP and money supply have occurred relatively fast, meaning that the rising area of the LM-curve has been shorter than theory would predict. Market reactions took place quickly and relatively simultaneously – there was no time for the slow restructuring, thus liquidity needs were higher than generally. The impact of crises on the liquidity position of the financial sector is also studied.

  16. A Hundred Years Later. Streetcars are still rattling in Baltic Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika V. Polanska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A young geographer by the name of Sten De Geer mapped the cities around the Baltic Sea in an article published in 1912. As an attempt to capture the urban structure of Baltic region cities, his paper is unique. In this article, we comment on his meticulous descriptions of these cities, with a century-long perspective.

  17. Nord Stream, Sweden and Baltic Sea Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June 2006, FOI published the report: Sweden and the NEGP: a Pilot Study of the North European Gas Pipeline and Sweden's Dependence on Russian Energy, a base data report on a topic that FOI considered to be of rising importance. Much has happened since then and the NEGP has changed its name to Nord Stream and submitted an official notification on the intention of realising the project of constructing a gas pipeline from Russia to Germany via the Baltic Sea. The primary aim of this report is to discuss and analyse some of the core aspects of Nord Stream and the pipeline project with regard to the security situation for the Baltic Sea region. The report constitutes an updated version of the previous report. Most of the old report still stands valid, especially concerning the historical survey of Russia's energy policy, but the new report has additional chapters and is broader in scope concerning the consequences of the project

  18. White Arctic vs. Blue Arctic: Making Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Newton, R.; Schlosser, P.; Pomerance, R.; Tremblay, B.; Murray, M. S.; Gerrard, M.

    2015-12-01

    As the Arctic warms and shifts from icy white to watery blue and resource-rich, tension is arising between the desire to restore and sustain an ice-covered Arctic and stakeholder communities that hope to benefit from an open Arctic Ocean. If emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere continue on their present trend, most of the summer sea ice cover is projected to be gone by mid-century, i.e., by the time that few if any interventions could be in place to restore it. There are many local as well as global reasons for ice restoration, including for example, preserving the Arctic's reflectivity, sustaining critical habitat, and maintaining cultural traditions. However, due to challenges in implementing interventions, it may take decades before summer sea ice would begin to return. This means that future generations would be faced with bringing sea ice back into regions where they have not experienced it before. While there is likely to be interest in taking action to restore ice for the local, regional, and global services it provides, there is also interest in the economic advancement that open access brings. Dealing with these emerging issues and new combinations of stakeholders needs new approaches - yet environmental change in the Arctic is proceeding quickly and will force the issues sooner rather than later. In this contribution we examine challenges, opportunities, and responsibilities related to exploring options for restoring Arctic sea ice and potential pathways for their implementation. Negotiating responses involves international strategic considerations including security and governance, meaning that along with local communities, state decision-makers, and commercial interests, national governments will have to play central roles. While these issues are currently playing out in the Arctic, similar tensions are also emerging in other regions.

  19. Oil and Gas in a New Arctic. Developments of the Energy Issue and Regional Strategic Dynamic; Olja och gas i ett nytt och foeraendrat Arktis. Energifraagans utveckling mot bakgrund av regionens strategiska dynamik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granholm, Niklas; Kiesow, Ingolf

    2010-03-15

    This study has as its point of departure that large reserves of energy and minerals are deposited in the Arctic. There is uncertainty on how large these reserves are and if extraction of them is technically and economically feasible. As the Arctic gradually becomes more accessible as the melting of the sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean progresses, the region becomes more open to human activities than ever before. The energy issue in the Arctic develops against the background of the region's increasing geostrategic importance. Russia shows no hesitation, Norway also put considerable resources into energy extraction in the Arctic. Environ-mental protection is a more prominent issue in Norway, Canada and the USA than in Russia. In addition to the energy issue, other factors in the Arctic are also changing. Shipping, climate change, military strategy, nuclear weapons, overlapping territorial claims, developments in international security and national policies and efforts, are all parts of a development that does not easily let itself be described and analysed. The different factors under change develop according to their own character and inner logic and how they interact will be hard to foresee. Uncertainties of future developments in the Arctic therefore remain. The Arctic will become more clearly linked into developments in the rest of the world than hitherto. The region will no longer be exclusively an issue for the states in the region. The interest in the Arctic is on the increase, not only from the Arctic states, but also from external state actors in Europe and Asia, as well as multilateral organisations such as the European Union and NATO

  20. Regional fluxes of momentum and sensible heat over a sub-arctic landscape during late winter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batchvarova, E.; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Hasager, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    Based on measurements at Sodankyla Meteorological Observatory the regional (aggregated) momentum and sensible heat fluxes are estimated for two days over a site in Finnish Lapland during late winter. The forest covers 49% of the area. The study shows that the forest dominates and controls the...... flux is determined in two ways, both based on blending height theory. One is a parameterised method, the other represents a numerical solution of an aggregation model. The regional sensible heat flux is determined from the theory of mixed-layer growth. At near neutral conditions the regional momentum...... regional fluxes of momentum and sensible heat in different ways. The regional momentum flux is found to be 10-20% smaller than the measured momentum flux over the forest, and the regional sensible heat flux is estimated to be 30-50% of the values measured over a coniferous forest. The regional momentum...

  1. Chapter 2: Sedimentary successions of the Arctic Region (58–64° to 90°N) that may be prospective for hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantz, Arthur; Scott, Robert A.; Drachev, Sergey S.; Moore, Thomas E.; Valin, Zenon C.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 143 sedimentary successions that contain, or may be prospective for, hydrocarbons were identified in the Arctic Region north of 58–64°N and mapped in four quadrants at a scale of 1:11 000 000. Eighteen of these successions (12.6%) occur in the Arctic Ocean Basin, 25 (17.5%) in the passive and sheared continental margins of the Arctic Basin and 100 (70.0%) on the Circum-Arctic continents of which one (succession was assigned to one of 13 tectono-stratigraphic and morphologic classes and coloured accordingly on the map. The thickness of each succession and that of any underlying sedimentary section down to economic basement, where known, are shown on the map by isopachs. Major structural or tectonic features associated with the creation of the successions, or with the enhancement or degradation of their hydrocarbon potential, are also shown. Forty-four (30.8%) of the successions are known to contain hydrocarbon accumulations, 64 (44.8%) are sufficiently thick to have generated hydrocarbons and 35 (24.5%) may be too thin to be prospective.

  2. Fifth Baltic Sea pollution load compilation (PLC-5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuuttila, S.; Svendsen, L.M.; Staaf, H.; Kotilainen, P.; Boutrup, S.; Pyhala, M.; Durkin, M.

    2011-07-01

    This report includes the main results from the Fifth Pollution Load Compilation abbreviated PLC-5. It includes quantified annual waterborne total loads (from rivers, unmonitored and coastal areas as well as direct point and diffuse sources discharging directly to the Baltic Sea) from 1994 to 2008 to provide a basis for evaluating any decreasing (or increasing) trends in the total waterborne inputs to the Baltic Sea. Chapter 1 contains the objectives of PLC and the framework on classification of inputs and sources. Chapter 2 includes a short description of the Baltic Sea catchment area, while the methods for quantification and analysis together with quality assurance topics are briefly introduced in Chapter 3. More detailed information on methodologies is presented in the PLC-5 guidelines (HELCOM 2006). Chapter 4 reports the total inputs to the Baltic Sea of nutrients and selected heavy metals. Furthermore, the results of the quatification of discharges and losses of nitrogen and phosphorus from point and diffuse sources into inland surface waters within the Baltic Sea catchment area (source-oriented approach or gross loads) as well as the total load to the maritime area (load-oriented approarch or net loads) in 2006 are shown. Typically, results are presented by country and by main Baltic Sea sub-region. In Chapter 5, flow normalization is introduced and the results of trend analyses on 1994-2008 time series data on total waterborne loads of nitrogen and phosphorus are given together with a first evaluation of progress in obtaining the provisional reduction targets by country and by main Baltic Sea sub-region. Chapter 6 includes discussion of some of the main conclusions and advice for future PLCs. The annexes contain the flow-normalized annual load data and figures and tables with results from the PLC-5.

  3. A regional climate model for the Arctic and the North Atlantic; Ein regionales Klimamodell fuer die Arktis und den Nordatlantik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berndt, H.

    2001-07-01

    The Arctic and the subpolar region of the North Atlantic with their complex net of mechanisms and feedbacks play an important role in the climate system. Because of the sparse observations and the low resolution of the global models the high-resolution regional climate model REMO provides an improved tool to investigate arctic processes. REMO is based on the former numerical weather prediction model EM of the German Weather Service (DWD) and was further developed at the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology (MPIfM) in Hamburg. It has two different parameterization schemes - the original one called DWD-physics and additionally the ECHAM4-physics from MPIfM. The dynamical scheme is in both cases identical. In a first step REMO is adapted to the new domain. This configuration covers the Arctic and the North Atlantic down to 40 N with a horizontal resolution of 0.5 x 0.5 and 121 x 145 grid points. Different periods are simulated with DWD- and ECHAM4-Physics in forecast - as well as in climate-mode. Lateral boundary conditions are taken from NCEP/NCAR-reanalysis. Comparing REMO with ship observations in the Labrador Sea yields a better correspondence than the reanalysis data. Simulated precipitation is overestimated most probably due to unrealistic high humidity in the NCEP/NCAR-reanalysis. Observed sensible heat fluxes are much lower than the REMO and NCEP/NCAR simulated fluxes. REMO simulations in climate- and forecast-mode with ECHAM4-parameterizations are compared with measured surface temperatures and precipitation distributions. While there are numerically generated spectral spikes in the NCEP/NCAR precipitation fields in the Arctic, they are not found in the REMO results. In a sensitivity study the impact of higher surface roughness in the marginal ice zone is investigated. Ensemble experiments show the high internal variability masking any signals due to the changed roughness length. This high internal variability is mostly due to the large model domain and the

  4. Deposition of 236U from atmospheric nuclear testing in Washington state (USA) and the Pechora region (Russian Arctic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratospheric fallout-derived 236U has been detected by sector field ICPMS at two field locations for which our laboratory possessed available archived samples: A) four soil cores from Washington state (northwestern USA) and B) sediment cores from three small lakes in the Pechora region (Russian Arctic). Four Washington state soil cores exhibit 236U inventories of 8.1 ± 1.3, 11.1 ± 0.9, 18 ± 2, and 30.2 ± 3.9 Tatoms/m2; the respective 239Pu contents are 52.9 ± 3.5, 67 ± 3, 71 ± 2, and 151 ± 2 Tatoms/m2. A 236U/239Pu atom ratio of 0.19 ± 0.04 (1 SD) has been determined from the Washington state soil cores. The three Pechora region lake cores each exhibit coincident maxima in their 236U and 239Pu atom concentration profiles. The 236U/238U atom ratios are controlled by two independent factors; 236U is from fallout deposition and 238U concentrations are a property of the geochemical distribution of naturally occurring U. A 236U/238U atom ratio as high as 8.9 × 10−6 has been observed for acid-leached soils containing Pu solely derived from bomb-test fallout. Accordingly, a non-zero 236U background from stratospheric fallout must be recognized and taken into account when detectable 236U is used to infer specific local or regional influences of reactor-irradiated U. -- Highlights: ► The isotope 236U, originating from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, has been identified at two locations in the Northern Hemisphere. ► Peak 236U concentrations match peak 239Pu concentrations in sediment cores. ► The 236U/239Pu atom ratio is 0.19 ± 0.04

  5. Interaction between Cenozoic fault activity and sediment influx in the Arctic region: new thermochronologic data and seismic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigot-Buschendorf, Maelianna; Mouthereau, Frédéric; Fillon, Charlotte; Loget, Nicolas; Labrousse, Loïc; Werner, Philippe; Bernet, Matthias; Ehlers, Todd

    2015-04-01

    The Alaskan Brooks Range and its canadian counterpart, the British Mountains result from the Meso-Cenozoic collision of the Arctic continental margin with accreted volcanic arcs and adjacent continental terranes. Because of its location and known potential for oil industries, more attention has been brought to this area for the last few years. While the timing of collisional events, duration, and rates of exhumation associated with mountain building is now better understood, the causes of these exhumation events are still largely unknown. Published constraints and our present data are consistent with progressive cooling from 105 to 25 Ma, with rates of exhumation constant across the range until 35-25 Ma. From 35 Ma onwards, exhumation likely slowed in concomitance with underplating/duplexing in the inner part of the belt (Doonerak window) and activation of the northernmost thrust. The earliest cooling stage (from 100 Ma) marking the onset of the Brookian orogeny is recorded by a low order coarsening upward sequence in the foreland. On the contrary, the latest stage of cooling (at 35 Ma) is not linked to the construction of the range but more likely due to a reorganization of the wedge possibly related to changes in the regional climatic or geodynamic boundary conditions. First, we aim at reconstructing the time-temperature evolution of the British Mountains by combining new (U-Th)/He and fission-tracks ages on zircon and apatite ; our first thermochronological data in the British Mountains show ages ranging from 110 to 25 Ma from range to basin. These data will permit to reconstruct the thermal history of the British Mountains and its basin, and to estimate the exhumation rates associated to the main unities. Then, we also examine the role of climate during the Tertiary period. Some markers indicate a climate change at this period which could be registered in the sedimentation. Therefore we determine the part of climate by analyzing seismic lines in the Beaufort

  6. Prerequisites for carbon capture and storage (CCS) in Sweden - a synthesis of the Baltic Sea Project; Foerutsaettningar foer avskiljning och lagring av koldioxid (CCS) i Sverige - En syntes av Oestersjoeprojektet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gode, Jenny; Stigson, Peter; Hoeglund, Jonas; Bingel, Eva

    2011-07-01

    This publication summarizes a project on carbon capture and storage (CCS) in the Baltic region conducted at the initiative of the Energy Agency. The project is called 'the Baltic Project' and the aim has been to highlight the prospects for CCS in Sweden and how the Baltic Sea region affects this

  7. Oil spill emergency preparedness in the Russian Arctic: a study of the Murmansk region

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The issue of oil spill emergency response in north-west Russia has become increasingly important following a substantial increase in maritime transport and major offshore developments in Russian waters. This study is an initial effort to outline the public and private agencies and organizations involved in handling oil spills in the Murmansk region and the structure of the oil spill emergency response system in the region. This study examines the formal relationships between federal and regio...

  8. The position of international community on the restoration of independence of the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portnyagina M. D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The separation of the Baltics from the Soviet Union was a difficult process accompanied by both political and economic conflicts. The third party in the negotiation process was represented by Germany and the USA. This article sets out to identify the role of the USA and Germany in the restoration of Baltic independence. Historicism and objectivity principles serve as the methodological framework for the research. The regional approach was applied in order to integrate the features of regional development into the overall picture of world politics. The scientific and practical significance of the article lies in a scientific evaluation of the Soviet-Baltic relations in 1989—1991. This study can help understand the mechanisms of formulation of foreign policy by the USA, Germany, and the USSR, as well as the practice of political interaction between these countries and the Baltic States. The materials and conclusions of this article can be used for further research on the foreign policies of the USA, Germany, the USSR, and the Baltic republics. In the process of the Baltics gaining their independence, western countries showed an ambivalent position and hesitancy regarding support for the struggle for liberation. As a result of internal contradictions in the USSR, Baltic leaders managed to achieve independence without any effective support from western powers. The research significance of this study lies in a diverse selection of sources and a new formulation of the problem of Baltic independence. The practical significance of the article results lies in the applicability of its materials in the development of Russian foreign policy in the Baltic region, further research on the history of the Baltic region, Germany, and the USA, and preparation of lectures.

  9. Seismic LAB or LID? The Baltic Shield case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grad

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the asthenosphere for old Precambrian cratons, including East European Craton and its part – the Baltic Shield, is still discussed. To study the seismic lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB beneath the Baltic Shield we used records of 9 local events with magnitudes in the range 2.7–5.9. The relatively big number of seismic stations in the Baltic Shield with a station spacing of 30–100 km permits for relatively dense recordings, and is sufficient in lithospheric scale. For modelling of the lower lithosphere and asthenosphere, the original data were corrected for topography and the Moho depth for each event and each station location, using a reference model with a 46 km thick crust. Observed P and S arrivals are significantly earlier than those predicted by the iasp91 model, which clearly indicates that lithospheric P and S velocities beneath the Baltic Shield are higher than in the global iasp91 model. For two northern events at Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlya we observe a low velocity layer, 60–70 km thick asthenosphere, and the LAB beneath Barents Sea was found at depth of about 200 km. Sections for other events show continous first arrivals of P waves with no evidence for "shadow zone" in the whole range of registration, which could be interpreted as absence of asthenosphere beneath the central part of the Baltic Shield, or that LAB in this area occurs deeper (>200 km. The relatively thin low velocity layer found beneath southern Sweden, 15 km below the Moho, could be interpreted as small scale lithospheric inhomogeneities, rather than asthenosphere. Differentiation of the lid velocity beneath the Baltic Shield could be interpreted as regional inhomogeneity. It could also be interpreted as anisotropy of the Baltic Shield lithosphere, with fast velocity close to the east-west direction, and slow velocity close to the south-north direction.

  10. Future conditions for integration of the Baltic Electricity Supply System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economies of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania developed in close association with the north-west region of the former Soviet Union. This is especially true for energy supply systems and electricity generation and transmission; the Baltic States depend on Russia for much of their primary energy needs, and export power to Russia and Belarus. In restructuring their electricity industries, the Baltic States hope to establish closer relationships and trade with Western Europe. The initial focus has been on changes to the legislative framework, industry restructuring and the establishment of new regulatory institutions. Vertically integrated utilities are in the process of being broken up into a number of separate generation, transmission and distribution companies. This restructuring is a prelude to privatisation. The states aim to establish a common power market among themselves, and hope to integrate this market with neighbouring (Nordic and European) markets. Despite the target set by the Baltic authorities of a common market by 2001, there is little clarity, as yet, on the framework and guidelines for the structure and functioning of the market. This process is supported by other players in the region, and the EU has recently prioritised closer co-operation and harmonisation of power networks in the Baltic Sea region. The Swedish National Energy Administration has identified cooperation on energy and environmental issues in the Baltic Sea region as one of its priorities. Consequently, the Administration commissioned ECON to analyse the conditions for closer linkages between the Baltic and Nordic electricity systems. This report presents the findings of this analysis

  11. Gastrointestinal helminths of arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) from different bioclimatological regions in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, C. M O; Nansen, P.

    1996-01-01

    areas in northwest Greenland in close proximity to the Canadian Archipelago. Foxes from air bases, which are known to feed intensively on garbage, harbored similar numbers of species compared to foxes from settlements in the same regions. The number of T. leonina in animals less than 1 yr of age was...

  12. Problems on radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel management in the European Arctic Region of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Arkhangelsk and Murmansk regions of Russia, radioactive wastes and spent nuclear fuel from the Northern Fleet and Mineconomiki, the technological repairing plant Atomflot and the Kola nuclear power plant and other activities is accumulating steadily and there is no adequate waste management system in the region. There is an action plan to remedy the situation, but it has been delayed because of insufficient funds. This presentation lists the volumes of liquid and solid radioactive wastes from these sources in 1996 and the expected volumes in 2020. It also lists the specific problems of the present waste management and main proposals of the action plan. In addition to federal funds, a number of projects are financed through international co-operation

  13. VOLGA - BALTIC WATERWAY AND TOURISM

    OpenAIRE

    Nuran TAŞLIGİL

    2011-01-01

    Tourism activities throughout the world are becoming diversified every year. One of these is river tourism. In Russia, these activities took place and developed at different locations and at different times commencing in the 1960s. At first planned to meet the needs of industry, the Volga-Baltic Waterway Project in recent years has emphasized tourism different from its original purpose. This study takes the geographical, touristic, historical and cultural dimensions of the Volga-Baltic waterw...

  14. Sub regional cooperation and protection of the arctic marine environments: The Barents Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokke, Olav Schram

    1997-07-01

    The report deals with questions related to effectiveness of subregional co-operation in the Barents Sea. Efforts have differed from global processes by their clearer programmatic profile. Relatively more resources, in terms of both expertise and financial funds, have been invested in order to enhance the knowledge-base for management decisions in the region as well as the administrative and technical capacity to avoid behaviour liable to threaten the marine environment. Many of the programmatic activities encouraged at other levels have been planned, financed and organised at the subregional level. Comparatively less attention has been given to establishing new regulative norms for environmental protection from either industrial or military activity in the region. The Regional Council ensures that both county level decision makers and representatives of the indigenous population are involved. A point is the general balance between the environmental and the economic component. Moreover, the inclusiveness of the Barents Council provides linkages to potential partners in development found beyond the Barents Sea area. The subregional level has served to relate environmental protection to broader foreign policy issues and has strengthened environmental networks across the Nordic Russian divide which in turn has generated financial resources and expertise. The main reason for the higher fund raising capacity of subregional processes is that geographic proximity ensures denser networks of interdependence partly by the fact that Nordic neighbours have a clear self interest in financing environmental projects in Russia, particularly those addressing industrial pollution from the border areas and those designed to prevent dumping of radioactive waste and partly by ensuring that environmental projects may serve broader purposes associated with national security. The willingness on the part of Norway and other Nordic states to use their financial powers for problem solving

  15. Nitrogen fixation during an unusual summer Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Maren; Dalsgaard, Tage; Fabian, Jenny;

    Nitrogen fixation is a major nitrogen source for the open ocean. Also the land-locked, partly anoxic Baltic Sea receives almost as much nitrogen from nitrogen fixation as it receives from eutrophied rivers. Growth conditions for cyanobacteria are usually very favorable with low N/P ratios after...... winter mixing and a strong stratification and high surface temperatures in summer. However, the summer 2012 was quite different with strong winds and cold surface waters. Blooms of cyanobacteria therefore only developed in sheltered regions but not in the central Baltic Proper. Moreover, a greater...

  16. Baltic Nuclear workshop. Final report[Crisis communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlberg, L.G

    2001-05-01

    Proceedings of the NKS/BOK-1.6 workshop on crisis communication 'Baltic Nuclear', held in Stockholm March 19 -20, 2001, with participants from the nuclear power plants and nuclear authorities in the Baltic Sea region. The main content of the workshop was founded on the principle of 'learning by doing'. The participants were therefore practically trained in how to handle a crisis from an information and communication point of view. Added to that there were three different lectures. (au)

  17. Assessment of possible airborne impact from nuclear risk sites – Part II: probabilistic analysis of atmospheric transport patterns in Euro-Arctic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Baklanov

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The probabilistic analysis of atmospheric transport patterns from most important nuclear risk sites in the Euro-Arctic region is performed employing the methodology developed within the "Arctic Risk" Project of the NARP Programme (Baklanov and Mahura, 2003. The risk sites are the nuclear power plants in the Northwest Russia, Finland, Sweden, Lithuania, United Kingdom, and Germany as well as the Novaya Zemlya test site of Russia. The geographical regions of interest are the Northern and Central European countries and Northwest Russia. In this study, the employed research tools are the trajectory model to calculate a multiyear dataset of forward trajectories that originated over the risk site locations, and a set of statistical methods (including exploratory, cluster, and probability fields analyses for analysis of trajectory modelling results. The probabilistic analyses of trajectory modelling results for eleven sites are presented as a set of various indicators of the risk sites possible impact on geographical regions and countries of interest. The nuclear risk site possible impact (on a particular geographical region, territory, country, site, etc. due to atmospheric transport from the site after hypothetical accidental release of radioactivity can be properly estimated based on a combined interpretation of the indicators (simple characteristics, atmospheric transport pathways, airflow and fast transport probability fields, maximum reaching distance and maximum possible impact zone, typical transport time and precipitation factor fields for different time periods (annual, seasonal, and monthly for any selected site (both separately for each site or grouped for several sites in the Euro-Arctic region. Such estimation could be the useful input information for the decision-making process, risk assessment, and planning of emergency response systems for sites of nuclear, chemical, and biological danger.

  18. Isotopic signatures of lamproite dikes on the eastern Baltic shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The age values, coinciding by Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd, are obtained for lamproits in the eastern party of the Baltic Shield (the Kostamuksha Region): 1230±5 Ma and 1234±80 Ma correspondingly. The magnetic source of lamproites is depletary relative to the Sr isotope composition and enriched relative to the Nd composition

  19. Response of the Baltic and North Seas to river runoff from the Baltic watershed - Physical and biological changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänninen, Jari; Vuorinen, Ilppo; Rajasilta, Marjut; Reid, Philip C.

    2015-11-01

    Selected Baltic Sea watershed River Runoff (BSRR) events during 1970-2000 were used as predictor in Generalised Linear Mixed Models (GLIMMIX) for evidence of simultaneous changes/chain of events (including possible time lags) in some chemical, physical and biological variables in the Baltic and North Sea ecosystems. Our aim was to explore for climatic-based explanation for ecological regime shifts that were documented semi-simultaneously in both ecosystems. Certain similarities were identified in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea salinity, oxygen concentration, temperature and phyto- and zooplankton parameters. These findings suggest that BSRR events which originate in the Baltic Sea catchment area modify and contribute to large scale ecosystem changes not only in the Baltic Sea, but also in the adjacent parts of the North Sea. However, the Baltic Sea inter-annual and inter-decadal variabilities of physical and biological parameters are driven by direct atmospheric forcing, typically with a relatively short lag. In contrast, such changes in the North Sea are influenced by both local and direct atmospheric forcing, typically with a longer lag than in the Baltic, and a more regional, indirect forcing from changes in the North Atlantic. We suggest that this interactive system partially is behind large scale ecosystem regime shifts found in both Seas. During our study period two such shifts have been identified independently from us in a study earlier in the Southern and Central Baltic in 1980s and 1990s and a later one in 2001/2002 in the North Sea. As a post hoc test we compared the 0+ year class strength of the North Sea herring with BSRR intensity, and found evidence for higher herring production in high BSRR periods, which further corroborates the idea of a remote effect from the large watershed area of the Baltic. Regime shifts as well as their semi-synchronous appearance in two neighbouring sea areas could be identified. GLIMMIX models provide opportunities for

  20. Microbial decomposition of terrigenic organic matter discharged into the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manecki, M.; Herlemann, D.; Pollehne, F.; Labrenz, M.; Zimmermann, R.; Dittmar, T.; Schulz-Bull, D.; Jürgens, K.

    2012-04-01

    The permafrost soils in arctic regions contain a large amount of the worldwide organic carbon and global warming is expected to increase drainage of dissolved organic matter (DOM) into the adjacent oceans. It is yet unclear how this terrigenic organic matter will influence the global carbon cycle and the feedback effects to the climate. We used the Baltic Sea as a model system to investigate the role of abiotic factors on the degradation of terrigenic dissolved organic matter (tDOM) upon discharge into a brackish system as well as the response of the microbial community. Water from the Kalix River in Northern Sweden, which drains also permafrost soils, was used as the tDOM source in incubation experiments with Baltic Sea water. Different qualities of tDOM were compared by applying concentration procedures: tDOM was added to fresh Baltic Sea water as untreated Kalix River water or concentrated by commonly use DOC concentration procedures (lyophilization, ultrafiltration, solid phase extraction). We investigated the TDOC degradation by parallel measurements of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) consumption, DOM composition (using a 15 Tesla Fourier Transformation Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (FT-ICR-MS)), microbial activities and microbial community structure. FT-ICR-MS measurements showed qualitative differences in the DOM compositions for the different treatments and a drastic change in DOM composition between the third and fourth week of the incubation experiment. Despite the qualitative differences in DOM composition, the results obtained so far revealed that the added tDOC had, independent of the previous enrichment procedure, only little influence on bacterial activities, bacterial community structure and DOC decomposition dynamics. This indicates that the major portion of the added tDOC is of refractory nature. Instead, bacterial predation by heterotrophic protists had a strong impact on both bacterial community structure and DOC decomposition

  1. Comparison of several climate indices as inputs in modelling of the Baltic Sea runoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanninen, J.; Vuorinen, I. [Turku Univ. (Finland). Archipelaco Research Inst.], e-mail: jari.hanninen@utu.fi

    2012-11-01

    Using Transfer function (TF) models, we have earlier presented a chain of events between changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and their oceanographical and ecological consequences in the Baltic Sea. Here we tested whether other climate indices as inputs would improve TF models, and our understanding of the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Besides NAO, the predictors were the Arctic Oscillation (AO), sea-level air pressures at Iceland (SLP), and wind speeds at Hoburg (Gotland). All indices produced good TF models when the total riverine runoff to the Baltic Sea was used as a modelling basis. AO was not applicable in all study areas, showing a delay of about half a year between climate and runoff events, connected with freezing and melting time of ice and snow in the northern catchment area of the Baltic Sea. NAO appeared to be most useful modelling tool as its area of applicability was the widest of the tested indices, and the time lag between climate and runoff events was the shortest. SLP and Hoburg wind speeds showed largely same results as NAO, but with smaller areal applicability. Thus AO and NAO were both mostly contributing to the general understanding of climate control of runoff events in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. (orig.)

  2. Russia's European agenda and the Baltic states

    OpenAIRE

    Šleivytė, J.

    2009-01-01

    Russia has always been a primary factor in the development of the Baltic States. It is impossible to analyse Baltic security without looking into the processes inside Russia and the prevailing trends vis-a-vis the Baltic States. However, the changes in the Baltic security landscape in the 21st century lack a comprehensive analysis. This thesis seeks to bridge the gap. Two key aims are being pursued in this thesis. The first is to present an analysis of Russia's European agen...

  3. East Siberian Sea, an Arctic region of very high biogeochemical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Anderson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Shelf seas are among the most active biogeochemical marine environments and the East Siberian Sea is a prime example. This sea is supplied by seawater from both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and has a substantial input of river runoff. All of these waters contribute chemical constituents, dissolved and particulate, but of different signatures. Sea ice formation during the winter season and melting in the summer has a major impact on physical as well as biogeochemical conditions. The internal circulation and water mass distribution is significantly influenced by the atmospheric pressure field. The western region is dominated by input of river runoff from the Laptev Sea and an extensive input of terrestrial organic matter. The microbial decay of this organic matter produces carbon dioxide (CO2 that oversaturates all waters from the surface to bottom relative to atmospheric level, even when primary production, inferred from low surface water nutrients, has occurred. The eastern surface waters were under-saturated with respect to CO2 illustrating the dominance of marine primary production. The drawdown of dissolved inorganic carbon equals a primary production of ~0.8 ± 2 mol C m−2, which when multiplied by half the area of the East Siberian Sea, ~500 000 km2, results in an annual primary production of 0.4 (± 1 × 1012 mol C or ~4 (± 10 × 1012 gC. Microbial decay occurs through much of the water column, but dominates at the sediment interface where the majority of organic matter ends up, thus more of the decay products are recycled to the bottom water. High nutrient concentrations and fugacity of CO2 and low oxygen and pH were observed in the bottom waters. Another signature of organic matter decomposition, methane (CH4, was observed in very high but variable concentrations. This is due to its seabed sources of glacial origin or modern production from

  4. Vegetation and climate history in the Laptev Sea region (Arctic Siberia) during Late Quaternary inferred from pollen records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, Andrei A.; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Tarasov, Pavel E.; Ganopolski, Andrey; Brovkin, Viktor; Siegert, Christine; Wetterich, Sebastian; Hubberten, Hans-Wolfgang

    2011-08-01

    Paleoenvironmental records from a number of permafrost sections and lacustrine cores from the Laptev Sea region dated by several methods ( 14C-AMS, TL, IRSL, OSL and 230Th/U) were analyzed for pollen and palynomorphs. The records reveal the environmental history for the last ca 200 kyr. For interglacial pollen spectra, quantitative temperature values were estimated using the best modern analogue method. Sparse grass-sedge vegetation indicating arctic desert environmental conditions existed prior to 200 kyr ago. Dense, wet grass-sedge tundra habitats dominated during an interstadial ca 200-190 kyr ago, reflecting warmer and wetter summers than before. Sparser vegetation communities point to much more severe stadial conditions ca 190-130 kyr ago. Open grass and Artemisia communities with shrub stands ( Alnus fruticosa, Salix, Betula nana) in more protected and moister places characterized the beginning of the Last Interglacial indicate climate conditions similar to present. Shrub tundra ( Alnus fruticosa and Betula nana) dominated during the middle Eemian climatic optimum, when summer temperatures were 4-5 °C higher than today. Early-Weichselian sparse grass-sedge dominated vegetation indicates climate conditions colder and dryer than in the previous interval. Middle Weichselian Interstadial records indicate moister and warmer climate conditions, for example, in the interval 40-32 kyr BP Salix was present within dense, grass-sedge dominated vegetation. Sedge-grass- Artemisia-communities indicate that climate became cooler and drier after 30 kyr BP, and cold, dry conditions characterized the Late Weichselian, ca 26-16 kyr BP, when grass-dominated communities with Caryophyllaceae, Asteraceae, Cichoriaceae, Selaginella rupestris were present. From 16 to 12 kyr BP, grass-sedge communities with Caryophyllaceae, Asteraceae, and Cichoriaceae indicate climate was significantly warmer and moister than during the previous interval. The presence of Salix and Betula reflect

  5. Biases of the Arctic climate in a regional ocean-sea ice-atmosphere coupled model:an annual validation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiying

    2014-01-01

    The Coupling of three model components, WRF/PCE (polar climate extension version of weather research and forecasting model ( WRF)), ROMS (regional ocean modeling system), and CICE (community ice code), has been implemented, and the regional atmosphere-ocean-sea ice coupled model named WRF/PCE-ROMS-CICE has been validated against ERA-interim reanalysis data sets for 1989. To better understand the reasons that generate model biases, the WRF/PCE-ROMS-CICE results were compared with those of its components, the WRF/PCE and the ROMS-CICE. There are cold biases in surface air temperature (SAT) over the Arctic Ocean, which contribute to the sea ice concentration (SIC) and sea surface temperature (SST) biases in the results of the WRF/PCE-ROMS-CICE. The cold SAT biases also appear in results of the atmo-spheric component with a mild temperature in winter and similar temperature in summer. Compared to results from the WRF/PCE, due to influences of different distributions of the SIC and the SST and inclusion of interactions of air-sea-sea ice in the WRF/PCE-ROMS-CICE, the simulated SAT has new features. These influences also lead to apparent differences at higher levels of the atmosphere, which can be thought as responses to biases in the SST and sea ice extent. There are similar atmospheric responses in feature of distribution to sea ice biases at 700 and 500 hPa, and the strength of responses weakens when the pressure decreases in January. The atmospheric responses in July reach up to 200 hPa. There are surplus sea ice ex-tents in the Greenland Sea, the Barents Sea, the Davis Strait and the Chukchi Sea in winter and in the Beau-fort Sea, the Chukchi Sea, the East Siberian Sea and the Laptev Sea in summer in the ROMS-CICE. These differences in the SIC distribution can all be explained by those in the SST distributions. These features in the simulated SST and SIC from ROMS-CICE also appear in the WRF/PCE-ROMS-CICE. It is shown that the performance of the WRF/PCE-ROMS-CICE is

  6. Live from the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, W. K.; Haines-Stiles, G.; Warburton, J.; Sunwood, K.

    2003-12-01

    residents speak in eloquent terms of the changes they see around them, manifested in new patterns of vegetation, the melting of permafrost and the absence of game species that used to be abundant. Meanwhile, new satellites and more sophisticated sensors on the ground and in the ice, add scientific testimony that seems to support and even extend native perceptions. Live from the Arctic will unify both perspectives, and use todays most powerful and effective communications media to connect young people and general audiences all across America to researchers and communities living and working in the Arctic. During IPY there will be a level of interest in the Polar regions unprecedented in a generation. Live from the Arctic offers unique resources to satisfy that curiosity, and encourage active participation and engagement in understanding some of Earths most significant peoples, places and rapidly changing conditions.

  7. The main physical properties of planosol in maize (Zea mays L.) cultivation under different long-term reduced tillage practices in the Baltic region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kstutis Romaneckas; Egidijusarauskis; DovilAviienyt; Sidona Buragien; David Arney

    2015-01-01

    The impact of sustainable reduced til age (RT) on the physical properties of soil is wel documented worldwide;however, there is no precise information about the inlfuence of long-term RT or no-til (NT) on the soils at the boundary for grain maize-growing in the semi-humid subarctic climate conditions of the Baltic states, especial y on the formation of a hard-ened upper soil layer (10–15 cm in depth)-“loosening hardpan”. This study was carried out at the Research Station of Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Lithuania from 2009–2012. The investigations were based on a long-term (since 1988) ifeld experiment. The aim of the investigation was to ascertain the inlfuence of reduced primary til age on the main soil’s physical properties. This study examined soils that were deep ploughing (DP), shal ow ploughing (SP), deep cultivation (DC), shal ow cultivation (SC), and no-til (NT). Reducing the til age intensity to NT had no signiifcant effect on the structural soil’s composition;however, the stability of the structure of the>1 and>0.25 mm-size fractions was signiifcantly higher in the non-reversibly til ed (DC, SC) and NT plots. The penetration resistance of the DP soils was less after primary til age and wintering, and became similar to the NT plots at the end of the maize growth season. After primary til age and wintering, the soil moisture content in the upper soil layer (0–5 cm depth) of the NT plots was 17–49 and 16–18%higher than that in the DP. Long-term reduction of primary til age up to NT general y had no signiifcant effect on the moisture content and soil bulk density of the 0–10 and 10–20 cm layers. The results showed that long-term RT stabilized the physical quality of soil. Less soil penetration resistance was established in the DP plots compared to both RT and NT, however, indicators of the formation of a uniform“loosening hardpan”layer were not found. It is summarized that long-term RT or NT systems stabilize, or may increase

  8. East Siberian Sea, an arctic region of very high biogeochemical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Anderson

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Shelf seas are among the most active biogeochemical marine environments and the East Siberian Sea is a prime example. This sea is supplied by seawater from both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and has a substantial input of river runoff. All of these waters contribute chemical constituents, dissolved and particulate, but of different signatures. Sea ice formation during the winter season and melting in the summer has a major impact on physical as well as biochemical conditions. The internal circulation and water mass distribution is significantly influenced by the atmospheric pressure field. The western region is dominated by input of river runoff from the Laptev Sea and an extensive input of terrestrial organic matter. The microbial decay of this organic matter produces carbon dioxide (CO2 over-saturating all waters from the surface to the bottom relative to atmospheric values, even if the nutrient concentrations of the surface waters showed recent primary production. The eastern surface waters were under-saturated with respect to CO2 illustrating the dominance of marine primary production. The drawdown of dissolved inorganic carbon equals a primary production of ∼1 mol C m−2, which when multiplied by half the area of the East Siberian Sea, 500 000 km2, results in an annual primary production of 0.5×1012 mol C or 6×1012 gC. Even though microbial decay occurs through much of the water column it dominates at the sediment surface where the majority of organic matter ends up, and most of the decay products are added to the bottom water. High nutrient concentrations and fugacity of CO2 and low oxygen and pH were observed in the bottom waters. Another signature of organic matter decomposition, methane (CH4, was observed in very high but variable concentrations. This is due to its seabed sources of glacial origin or modern production from ancient organic

  9. Trauma research in the Baltic countries: from political oppression to recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldas Kazlauskas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of traumatic stress studies from the three Baltic countries—Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia—and reveal how specific social context contributes to the topics relevant in traumatic stress field in the region. Traumatic stress studies in the Baltic countries are closely related to the complicated history of the region. It was only since the restoration of independence of the Baltic States in the 1990s when traumatic stress studies could emerge. The start of the psychotraumatology in the Baltic States was inspired by the interest of the psychological effects of political violence. Four major topics in traumatic stress literature from the Baltic countries were identified in this article: political violence studies, epidemiology of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, disaster studies, and developmental aspects of trauma. Traumatic events prevalence was reported between 70 and 75%, and PTSD prevalence range 2–7% in the Baltic countries. The interest in psychotraumatology in the Baltic countries is rising.

  10. Seasonal contribution of terrestrial organic matter and biological oxygen demand to the Baltic Sea from three contrasting river catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reader, H. E.; Stedmon, C. A.; Kritzberg, E. S.

    2014-01-01

    change expected to increase precipitation events and temperatures across the region, the supply and quality of DOM delivered to the Baltic Sea can also be expected to change. Our results indicate that DOM supply to the Baltic Sea from boreal rivers will be more stable throughout the year, and potentially...

  11. McCall Glacier record of Arctic climate change: Interpreting a northern Alaska ice core with regional water isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, E. S.; Nolan, M.; McConnell, J.; Sigl, M.; Cherry, J.; Young, J.; Welker, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    We explored modern precipitation and ice core isotope ratios to better understand both modern and paleo climate in the Arctic. Paleoclimate reconstructions require an understanding of how modern synoptic climate influences proxies used in those reconstructions, such as water isotopes. Therefore we measured periodic precipitation samples at Toolik Lake Field Station (Toolik) in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range in the Alaskan Arctic to determine δ18O and δ2H. We applied this multi-decadal local precipitation δ18O/temperature regression to ∼65 years of McCall Glacier (also in the Brooks Range) ice core isotope measurements and found an increase in reconstructed temperatures over the late-20th and early-21st centuries. We also show that the McCall Glacier δ18O isotope record is negatively correlated with the winter bidecadal North Pacific Index (NPI) climate oscillation. McCall Glacier deuterium excess (d-excess, δ2H - 8*δ18O) values display a bidecadal periodicity coherent with the NPI and suggest shifts from more southwestern Bering Sea moisture sources with less sea ice (lower d-excess values) to more northern Arctic Ocean moisture sources with more sea ice (higher d-excess values). Northern ice covered Arctic Ocean McCall Glacier moisture sources are associated with weak Aleutian Low (AL) circulation patterns and the southern moisture sources with strong AL patterns. Ice core d-excess values significantly decrease over the record, coincident with warmer temperatures and a significant reduction in Alaska sea ice concentration, which suggests that ice free northern ocean waters are increasingly serving as terrestrial precipitation moisture sources; a concept recently proposed by modeling studies and also present in Greenland ice core d-excess values during previous transitions to warm periods. This study also shows the efficacy and importance of using ice cores from Arctic valley glaciers in paleoclimate reconstructions.

  12. Atmospheric forcing of decadal Baltic Sea level variability in the last 200 years. A statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huenicke, B. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kuestenforschung

    2008-11-06

    This study aims at the estimation of the impact of different atmospheric factors on the past sealevel variations (up to 200 years) in the Baltic Sea by statistically analysing the relationship between Baltic Sea level records and observational and proxy-based reconstructed climatic data sets. The focus lies on the identification and possible quantification of the contribution of sealevel pressure (wind), air-temperature and precipitation to the low-frequency (decadal and multi-decadal) variability of Baltic Sea level. It is known that the wind forcing is the main factor explaining average Baltic Sea level variability at inter-annual to decadal timescales, especially in wintertime. In this thesis it is statistically estimated to what extent other regional climate factors contribute to the spatially heterogeneous Baltic Sea level variations around the isostatic trend at multi-decadal timescales. Although the statistical analysis cannot be completely conclusive, as the potential climate drivers are all statistically interrelated to some degree, the results indicate that precipitation should be taken into account as an explanatory variable for sea-level variations. On the one hand it has been detected that the amplitude of the annual cycle of Baltic Sea level has increased throughout the 20th century and precipitation seems to be the only factor among those analysed (wind through SLP field, barometric effect, temperature and precipitation) that can account for this evolution. On the other hand, precipitation increases the ability to hindcast inter-annual variations of sea level in some regions and seasons, especially in the Southern Baltic in summertime. The mechanism by which precipitation exerts its influence on Baltic Sea level is not ascertained in this statistical analysis due to the lack of long salinity time series. This result, however, represents a working hypothesis that can be confirmed or disproved by long simulations of the Baltic Sea system - ocean

  13. VOLGA - BALTIC WATERWAY AND TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuran TAŞLIGİL

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Tourism activities throughout the world are becoming diversified every year. One of these is river tourism. In Russia, these activities took place and developed at different locations and at different times commencing in the 1960s. At first planned to meet the needs of industry, the Volga-Baltic Waterway Project in recent years has emphasized tourism different from its original purpose. This study takes the geographical, touristic, historical and cultural dimensions of the Volga-Baltic waterway as a whole and the area is evaluated within the coverage of the geography of tourism.

  14. Nuanced Perceptions and Arctic Disputes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Danita Catherine

    -depth consideration and analysis. As such, this thesis explores the complexities and evolution of the Canadian-Arctic relationship through two central research questions: how have the dominant cultural attitudes about the Canadian Arctic emerged and evolved within Canadian society and how have these cultural ideas...... interests and disputes in the Canadian Arctic region at the regional and international levels are affects by domestic cultural and political factors. The thesis was submitted in May 2015 and successfully defended in September 2015. The external examiner was Professor Philip Steinberg (Professor in the...

  15. Development of arctic wind technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M.; Antikainen, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The climatic conditions of Lapland set special technical requirements for wind power production. The most difficult problem regarding wind power production in arctic regions is the build-up of hard and rime ice on structures of the machine

  16. Model simulation of inflow water to the Baltic Sea based on 129I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The semi-enclosed Baltic Sea represents a vital economic and recreational resource for more than 90 million people inhabiting its coasts. Extensive contamination of this sea by a variety of anthropogenic pollutants has raised the concern of the people in the region. Quantifying seawater inflow is crucial for estimating potential environmental risks as well as to find the best remedial strategy. We present here a model to estimate water inflow from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea by utilizing 129I as a tracer. The results predicted inflow range of 230–450 km3/y with best fit value around 330 km3/y from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea during 1980–1999. Despite limited time series data on 129I, the model presented here demonstrates a new management tool for the Baltic Sea to calculate inflow water compared to conventional methods (such as salinity, temperature and hydrographic models). - Highlights: • We present a model to estimate water inflow from North Sea to Baltic Sea by utilizing 129I as a tracer. • The model predicted inflow range of 230–450 km3/y from the North Sea to Baltic Sea during 1980–1999. • The model provides a new way of application of 129I isotope for the Baltic Sea

  17. Contest for Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warming of Earth surface access the defrosting north extensiveness of economic activities. The Russian Federation (RF) has delegated two bathyscaphs in order to put capsule with Russian flag on the bottom under North Pole. In this paper the territorial pretensions of the RF on the Arctic region are discussed

  18. Arctic shipping emissions inventories and future scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    J. J. Corbett; D. A. Lack; J. J. Winebrake; Harder, S; J. A. Silberman; Gold, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Arctic is a sensitive region in terms of climate change and a rich natural resource for global economic activity. Arctic shipping is an important contributor to the region's anthropogenic air emissions, including black carbon – a short-lived climate forcing pollutant especially effective in accelerating the melting of ice and snow. These emissions are projected to increase as declining sea ice coverage due to climate change allows for increased shipping activity in the Arctic. To understa...

  19. Scaling the Baltic Sea environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    2008-01-01

    The Baltic Sea environment has since the early 1970s passed through several phases of spatial objectification in which the ostensibly well-defined semi-enclosed sea has been framed and reframed as a geographical object for intergovernmental environmental politics. Based on a historical analysis of...

  20. Trends in the amplitude of Baltic Sea level annual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huenicke, Birgit; Zorita, Eduardo (Inst. for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Centre, Geesthacht (DE)). e-mail: birgit.huenicke@gkss.de

    2008-01-15

    Baltic Sea tide gauge data and climatic data sets are statistically analysed to investigate the centennial trends in the amplitude of the annual cycle of Baltic sea level. In almost all gauge stations analysed, an increase of the amplitude (winter-spring sea level) is detected. These trends are not large compared to the decadal variations of the annual cycle, but they are statistically significant. The magnitude of the trends is almost spatially uniform, with exception of the Skagerrak area. Since interannual and decadal variability of sea level displays a clear spatial pattern, the mechanism responsible for the trends in the annual cycle seem to be not regional, but affect the Baltic Sea basin as a whole. Several hypotheses are proposed to explain these centennial trends on the winter-minus-spring sea level: wind (through the SLP field), the barometric effect, temperature and precipitation. By elimination of three of the working hypothesis, seasonal Baltic precipitation remains a plausible candidate. For the other three, either the sign or magnitude of the trend makes them unlikely the sole explanation

  1. The independent Baltic states: Maritime law and resource management implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The achievement of independence by the Baltic states impacts nearly all aspects of the maritime law and resource management regimes appertaining to the Baltic Sea. The unique position of these states, given their maritime history and role as a bridge between East and West, warrants reconsideration. The Baltic Sea basin is among the most highly industrialized shorelines in the world, accounting for approximately 15% of world industrial output, and is relatively dense in population. Large quantities of pollutants water its waters by way of industrial, agricultural, and municipal waste. A lack of adequate sewage treatment accounts for much of the waste. The Baltic is also especially sensitive to oil pollution as the relatively cold water inhibits bacteriological breakdown. Important issues of maritime border delimitation, treaty devolution, and the potential for reinstitution of exclusionary regimes reappeared with the attainment of independence. Further, the legacy of Soviet maritime environment and resource management has engendered fundamental political, social, and economic conflicts for which resources and effective management structures are lacking. The competing requirements of economic development, reintegration into Western markets, and management of critical marine resources highlights the need for comprehensive and regionally focused approaches to the problems identified

  2. Level and origin of Iodine-129 in the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental samples, such as seawater, seaweed, lake water, lake sediment and grass collected from the Baltic Sea area were analyzed for 129I and 127I by radiochemical neutron activation analysis. In 2000, the concentration of 129I in the seawater from Borholm and Moeen in the Baltic Sea has reached 6.0x10-13 and 16x10-13 g/l, respectively, these are more than two orders of magnitude higher than the global fallout level. The highest value of 270x10-13 g/l being found in the seawater from the Kattegat. By comparison of the level of 129I in the lake water and precipitation in this region, it is estimated that more than 95% of 129I in the Baltic Sea originates from reprocessing emissions, especially from the French nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at La Hague. More than 30% of 129I in the south Baltic and 93% in the Kattegat directly originates from the marine discharges of the European reprocessing plants

  3. Marine Transportation Implications of the Last Arctic Sea Ice Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, L. W.

    2010-12-01

    Marine access is increasing throughout the Arctic Ocean and the 'Last Arctic Sea Ice Refuge' may have implications for governance and marine use in the region. Arctic marine transportation is increasing due to natural resource developemnt, increasing Arctic marine tourism, expanded Arctic marine research, and a general linkage of the Arctic to the gloabl economy. The Arctic Council recognized these changes with the release of the Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment of 2009. This key study (AMSA)can be viewed as a baseline assessment (using the 2004 AMSA database), a strategic guide for a host of stakeholders and actors, and as a policy document of the Arctic Council. The outcomes of AMSA of direct relevance to the Ice Refuge are within AMSA's 17 recommendations provided under three themes: Enhancing Arctic Marine Safety, Protecting Arctic People and the Environment, and Building the Arctic Marine Infrastructure. Selected recommendations of importance to the Ice Refuge include: a mandatory polar navigation code; identifying areas of heightened ecological and cultural significance; potential designation of special Arctic marine areas; enhancing the tracking and monitoring of Arctic marine traffic; improving circumpolar environmental response capacity; developing an Arctic search and rescue agreement; and, assessing the effects of marine transportation on marine mammals. A review will be made of the AMSA outcomes and how they can influence the governance, marine use, and future protection of this unique Arctic marine environment.

  4. Coupling Physics, Biology and Terrestrial Runoff to Ocean Acidification and Carbonate Mineral Suppression in the Pacific-Arctic Region (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, J. T.; Cross, J. N.; Shake, K. L.

    2010-12-01

    Rising CO2 levels in the atmosphere and ocean have lead to an anthropogenically induced acidification phenomenon in high latitude seas. These areas are projected to become persistently undersaturated with respect to important carbonate minerals as early as mid-century and seasonal aragonite undersaturations have already been observed in surface and shallow subsurface waters over of the continental shelf seas surrounding Alaska. Some calcifying marine organisms, including pteropods, foraminifers, mollusks, and coralline algae that could be susceptible to reduced calcification rates under increasing ocean acidity are keystone species in the Pacific-Arctic region. Recent observations along the only long term time-series in the northern Gulf of Alaska found that the high seasonal and spatial variability of the carbonate parameters are largely controlled by physical circulation and glacial discharge. In general, surface DIC and TA concentrations decreased between May and September due to primary production and dilution from the region’s numerous glacial sources. Conversely, concentrations of DIC and TA increased in the bottom waters of the inner shelf between May and September likely due to a combination of remineralization of exported organic matter and seasonally induced upwelling. Analysis of the calcite and aragonite saturation states (Ω) showed an increase in the surface layer from May to September. However, in the bottom waters over the inner shelf the Ω of calcite and aragonite was suppressed and aragonite undersaturations were observed within 50 m of the surface. In the Bering Sea, prior to sea ice retreat in 2008, calcite and aragonite Ω ranged from 1.3 to 3.2 and 0.8 to 2.0 respectively in the upper 30 m over the shelf. Two inshore stations likely impacted by the outflows of the Yukon and Kuskokwim Rivers showed aragonite undersaturation (0.91 - 0.84) from the surface to the bottom. In summer, DIC concentrations in the upper 30 m were drawn down by

  5. Integrating surface and mantle constraints for palaeo-ocean evolution: a tour of the Arctic and adjacent regions (Arne Richter Award for Outstanding Young Scientists Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Grace E.

    2016-04-01

    Plate tectonic reconstructions heavily rely on absolute motions derived from hotspot trails or palaeomagnetic data and ocean-floor magnetic anomaies and fracture-zone geometries to constrain the detailed history of ocean basins. However, as oceanic lithosphere is progressively recycled into the mantle, kinematic data regarding the history of these now extinct-oceans is lost. In order to better understand their evolution, novel workflows, which integrate a wide range of complementary yet independent geological and geophysical datasets from both the surface and deep mantle, must be utilised. In particular, the emergence of time-dependent, semi or self-consistent geodynamic models of ever-increasing temporal and spatial resolution are revealing some critical constraints on the evolution and fate of oceanic slabs. The tectonic evolution of the circum-Arctic is no exception; since the breakup of Pangea, this enigmatic region has seen major plate reorganizations and the opening and closure of several ocean basins. At the surface, a myriad of potential kinematic scenarios including polarity, timing, geometry and location of subduction have emerged, including for systems along continental margins and intra-oceanic settings. Furthermore, recent work has reignited a debate about the origins of 'anchor' slabs, such as the Farallon and Mongol-Okhotsk slabs, which have been used to refine absolute plate motions. Moving to the mantle, seismic tomography models reveal a region peppered with inferred slabs, however assumptions about their affinities and subduction location, timing, geometry and polarity are often made in isolation. Here, by integrating regional plate reconstructions with insights from seismic tomography, satellite derived gravity gradients, slab sinking rates and geochemistry, I explore some Mesozoic examples from the palaeo-Arctic, northern Panthalassa and western margin of North America, including evidence for a discrete and previously undescribed slab under

  6. [Pietro U. Dini. Prelude to Baltic linguistics : earliest theories about Baltic languages (16th century)] / Stefan Donecker

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Donecker, Stefan, 1977-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Dini, Pietro U. Prelude to Baltic linguistics : earliest theories about Baltic languages (16th century). (On the boundary of two worlds : identity, freedom, and moral imagination in the Baltics, 36). Verlag Rodopi, Amsterdam und New York 2014

  7. Impact of 21st century climate change on the Baltic Sea fish community and fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Gislason, Henrik; Möllmann, C.;

    2007-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is a large brackish semienclosed sea whose species-poor fish community supports important commercial and recreational fisheries. Both the fish species and the fisheries are strongly affected by climate variations. These climatic effects and the underlying mechanisms are briefly...... reviewed. We then use recent regional - scale climate - ocean modelling results to consider how climate change during this century will affect the fish community of the Baltic and fisheries management. Expected climate changes in northern Europe will likely affect both the temperature and salinity of the...... Baltic because of its low salinity. Fishing fleets which presently target marine species (e.g. cod, herring, sprat, plaice, sole) in the Baltic will likely have to relocate to more marine areas or switch to other species which tolerate decreasing salinities. Fishery management thresholds that trigger...

  8. The Costs of a Cleaner baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Sisse Liv; Konrad, Maria Theresia Hedegaard; Hasler, Berit; Munch, Kris

    developed by Gren (2000) and, Schou et al 2006, now being under further development and extension within the Baltic Nest Institute in Roskilde. The model is a cost minimizing model for the reduction of nutrients to the Baltic comprising all countries around the Baltic sea. The purpose of this model is to...... results was nutrient reduction targets for each country - the BSAP targets. Because the Baltic Sea is such an international marine area, receiving pollutants from many  countries, an international approach is necessary to make effective solutions. But is the BSAP the most cost-effective solution to the...... regulation of the Baltic Sea? And does the BSAP result in cost-effective reductions in the different countries, which is a requirement of the Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Directive?   These questions are studied and answered using a cost minimisation model for the Baltic sea, initially...

  9. IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrén, T.; Barker Jørgensen, B.; Cotterill, C.; Green, S.; IODP expedition 347 scientific party, the

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 347 cored sediments from different settings of the Baltic Sea covering the last glacial-interglacial cycle. The main aim was to study the geological development of the Baltic Sea in relation to the extreme climate variability of the region with changing ice cover and major shifts in temperature, salinity, and biological communities. Using the Greatship Manisha as a European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) mission-specific platform, we recovered 1.6 km of core from nine sites of which four were additionally cored for microbiology. The sites covered the gateway to the North Sea and Atlantic Ocean, several sub-basins in the southern Baltic Sea, a deep basin in the central Baltic Sea, and a river estuary in the north. The waxing and waning of the Scandinavian ice sheet has profoundly affected the Baltic Sea sediments. During the Weichselian, progressing glaciers reshaped the submarine landscape and displaced sedimentary deposits from earlier Quaternary time. As the glaciers retreated they left a complex pattern of till, sand, and lacustrine clay, which in the basins has since been covered by a thick deposit of Holocene, organic-rich clay. Due to the stratified water column of the brackish Baltic Sea and the recurrent and widespread anoxia, the deeper basins harbor laminated sediments that provide a unique opportunity for high-resolution chronological studies. The Baltic Sea is a eutrophic intra-continental sea that is strongly impacted by terrestrial runoff and nutrient fluxes. The Holocene deposits are recorded today to be up to 50 m deep and geochemically affected by diagenetic alterations driven by organic matter degradation. Many of the cored sequences were highly supersaturated with respect to methane, which caused strong degassing upon core recovery. The depth distributions of conservative sea water ions still reflected the transition at the end of the last glaciation from fresh-water clays to

  10. Analysis of a liberalised Lithuanian/Baltic Electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electricity sectors in the Baltic countries are presently undergoing reform processes in order to meet the requirements of the EU directives regarding deregulation of electricity sectors. At the same time, EU is putting pressure upon Lithuania to close the largest electricity producer in the Baltic countries, the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant. The purpose of the paper is to establish a common background for evaluating the future perspectives of the Lithuanian and Baltic electricity market. The results of the paper deal with the possibilities of creating a competitive market and with the economic and technical consequences of different future settings. The market concentration at a liberalised electricity market in Lithuania and the Baltic region may be high because of relatively few and large production units. The joint problem of liberalisation, high market concentration and nuclear phase out has been analysed. The future electricity and district heating markets are simulated using the Balmorel model. The focus of the analyses is the economic consequences of different market openings, different producer supply behaviour and different closure speeds of INPP. With focus on Lithuania, it is shown that if competition arises in the electricity market, the prices will become low due to a large excess capacity in the system. The consumers and the society as a whole will gain significantly from competition, but most power plants will have difficulties in making positive earnings. It is furthermore concluded that there is a high risk of lack of competition in a closed Lithuanian electricity market due to the high market concentration. Even a minor lack of competition will imply significant gains to producers, but losses to consumers and the society as a whole. The establishment of a common Baltic electricity market instead of national electricity markets may help reducing the competition problem. (au)

  11. The Hydrographical Features of the Baltic Sea and the Disposal of Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the paper is to point out a few hydrographical features of the Baltic Sea, which make this sea, in reference to the disposal of radioactive wastes, different from any oceanic region. The seas can be divided, in reference to the practical problem of the disposal of radionuclides, into the following zones: (1) harbours, (2) fairways leading into harbours, (3) outer continental shelf and (4) the open sea. There, is no open sea, in the above sense, in the Baltic Sea. In addition, the validity of the rules recommended for the above zones, must be carefully checked through further hydrographical studies, since: (1) the whole Baltic is, in a sense, an estuary, with a sill-depth of only 18 metres in the Danish Sounds, (2) the mixing in the Baltic Sea is much more restricted than in the oceans, since the Baltic is rich in islands, brackish, heavily stratified, practically tideless, in winter partly covered with ice, and has a limited fetch of wind and only slowly moving permanent currents. In the paper reference is made to all these factors which diminish the turbulent diffusion, both vertical and horizontal. For the evaluation of the advection and turbulent (eddy) diffusion, both in the upper water layers and at the bottom, synoptic observations of current velocity and salinity at a number of points in several regions of the Baltic Sea and under different weather conditions are needed. (author)

  12. The Third Conference on Baltic and Nordic Studies in Romania, May 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Miloiu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian Association for Baltic and Nordic Studies continued to organize in 2012 a series of events, one of the most meaningful of which was the third international conference on Baltic and Nordic Studies entitled European networks: the Balkans, Scandinavia and the Baltic world in a time of economic and ideological crisis opened on 25 May at Valahia University of Târgoviște and sponsored by the Romanian National Research Council, Niro Investment Group and other partners (http://www.arsbn.ro/conference-2012.htm. The main goal of the conference was to foster debate and academic discussion with regard to the challenges the Balkan and Baltic regions face today, within a time of severe global economic instability. The participants discussed and advanced solutions to problems such as the accession of Balkan states to the EU and/or NATO, with particular reference to the experiences of the relatively new EU and/or NATO Member States from South-Eastern Europe and the Eastern Baltic region; the economic, security or cultural threats posed by Balkan and/or Eastern European states or non-state actors to the Western or Nordic Europe as perceived there; the development of extremist movements and the Balkan organized crime in the Scandinavian countries; the Balkan Roma peoples as a “threat” for Western and Nordic Europe; strategies for integrating minorities in the Baltic Sea rim countries and the Black Sea areas.

  13. Indirect Radiative Warming Effect in the Winter and Spring Arctic Associated with Aerosol Pollution from Mid-latitude Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuanfeng; Garrett, Timothy

    2016-04-01

    Different from global cooling effects of aerosols and aerosol-cloud interactions, anthropogenic aerosols from mid-latitude are found to play an increased warming effect in the Arctic in later winter and early spring. Using four-year (2000-2003) observation of aerosol, cloud and radiation at North Slope of Alaska, it is found that the aerosols can increase cloud droplet effective radius 3 um for fixed liquid water path, and increase cloud thermal emissivity about 0.05-0.08. In other words, aerosols are associated with a warming of 1-1.6 degrees (3-5 W/m2) in the Arctic during late winter and early spring solely due to their first indirect effect. Further analysis indicates that total aerosol climate effects are even more significant (8-10 W/m2), with about 50% contribution from aerosol first indirect effect and another 50% contribution from complicated feedbacks. It also shows strong seasonal distribution of the aerosol indirect radiative effects, with warming effects in seasons other than in summer. However, only the significant warming effect in winter and spring passes through the significance test. The strong warming effect due to aerosol indirect effect could be further strengthened through following feedbacks involving the surface albedo (early ice melting).

  14. Long-term trends of black carbon and sulphate aerosol in the Arctic: changes in atmospheric transport and source region emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hirdman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the IPY project POLARCAT (Polar Study using Aircraft, Remote Sensing, Surface Measurements and Models, of Climate, Chemistry, Aerosols and Transport and building on previous work (Hirdman et al., 2010, this paper studies the long-term trends of both atmospheric transport as well as equivalent black carbon (EBC and sulphate for the three Arctic stations Alert, Barrow and Zeppelin. We find a general downward trend in the measured EBC concentrations at all three stations, with a decrease of −2.1±0.4 ng m−3 yr−1 (for the years 1989–2008 and −1.4±0.8 ng m−3 yr−1 (2002–2009 at Alert and Zeppelin respectively. The decrease at Barrow is, however, not statistically significant. The measured sulphate concentrations show a decreasing trend at Alert and Zeppelin of −15±3 ng m−3 yr−1 (1985–2006 and −1.3±1.2 ng m−3 yr−1 (1990–2008 respectively, while there is no trend detectable at Barrow.

    To reveal the contribution of different source regions on these trends, we used a cluster analysis of the output of the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART run backward in time from the measurement stations. We have investigated to what extent variations in the atmospheric circulation, expressed as variations in the frequencies of the transport from four source regions with different emission rates, can explain the long-term trends in EBC and sulphate measured at these stations. We find that the long-term trend in the atmospheric circulation can only explain a minor fraction of the overall downward trend seen in the measurements of EBC (0.3–7.2% and sulphate (0.3–5.3% at the Arctic stations. The changes in emissions are dominant in explaining the trends. We find that the highest EBC and sulphate concentrations are associated with transport from Northern Eurasia and decreasing emissions in this region drive the

  15. On regional flow in Baltic shield rock. An application of an analytical solution using hydrogeologic conditions at Aberg, Beberg, and Ceberg of SR97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is one of many in support of SR 97, and is an analysis of the residence and transport times of a fluid particle at the three hypothetical domains of SR 97. The three domains are arbitrary named Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg. The report is intended to provide a quantitative assessment of the lateral length scales governing groundwater flow. The largest of these scales is believed to govern regional flow, i.e., flow at great depth. The calculated reference times presented in this report are fairly constant with the shortest reference time for Ceberg and the longest for Beberg. The difference in the calculated reference times are mainly due to the obtained differences in the lateral length scales at the three domains. However, the calculated residence times are extremely long. The corresponding transport times are very different from those obtained by means of numerical modeling of regional flow at Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg. The value is also contradicted by recent hydrochemical composition analyses of deep groundwater at Laxemar and Aespoe. A speculative interpretation of this result is that large scale regional flow, in the sense of meaning flow paths with long lateral extent, should be questioned for the kind of depth (500 m) and hydrogeologic system (hard rock) dealt with in this report. In other words, large scale regional flow may play a role for a repository at great depth (>>500 m), whereas non-periodic local variations in the topography may govern the flow pattern at moderate depths, e.g., depths less than 1000 m. There are several observations which support this interpretation

  16. High resolution modeling of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere region over the Arctic - GEM-AC simulations for the future climate with and without aviation emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porebska, Magdalena; Struzewska, Joanna; Kaminski, Jacek W.

    2016-04-01

    Upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) region is a layer around the tropopause. Perturbation of the chemical composition in the UTLS region can impact physical and dynamical processes that can lead to changes in cloudiness, precipitation, radiative forcing, stratosphere-troposphere exchange and zonal flow. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential impacts of aviation emissions on the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. In order to assess the impact of the aviation emissions we will focus on changes in atmospheric dynamic due to changes in chemical composition in the UTLS over the Arctic. Specifically, we will assess perturbations in the distribution of the wind, temperature and pressure fields in the UTLS region. Our study will be based on simulations using a high resolution chemical weather model for four scenarios of current (2006) and future (2050) climate: with and without aircraft emissions. The tool that we use is the GEM-AC (Global Environmental Multiscale with Atmospheric Chemistry) chemical weather model where air quality, free tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry processes are on-line and interactive in an operational weather forecast model of Environment Canada. In vertical, the model domain is defined on 70 hybrid levels with model top at 0.1 mb. The gas-phase chemistry includes detailed reactions of Ox, NOx, HOx, CO, CH4, ClOx and BrO. Also, the model can address aerosol microphysics and gas-aerosol partitioning. Aircraft emissions are from the AEDT 2006 database developed by the Federal Aviation Administration (USA) and the future climate simulations are based on RCP8.5 projection presented by the IPCC in the fifth Assessment Report AR5. Results from model simulations on a global variable grid with 0.5o x 0.5o uniform resolution over the Arctic will be presented.

  17. The Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global climate change in the Arctic is a growing concern. Research has already documented pronounced changes, and models predict that increases in temperature from anthropogenic influences could be considerably higher than the global average. The impacts of climate change on Arctic ecosystems are complex and difficult to predict because of the many interactions within ecosystem, and between many concurrently changing environmental variables. Despite the global consequences of change in the Arctic climate the monitoring of basic abiotic as well as biotic parameters are not adequate to assess the impact of global climate change. The uneven geographical location of present monitoring stations in the Arctic limits the ability to understand the climate system. The impact of previous variations and potential future changes to ecosystems is not well understood and need to be addressed. At this point, there is no consensus of scientific opinion on how much of the current changes that are due to anthropogenic influences or to natural variation. Regardless of the cause, there is a need to investigate and assess current observations and their effects to the Arctic. In this chapter examples from both terrestrial and marine ecosystems from ongoing monitoring and research projects are given. (LN)

  18. Parimad suhtekorraldusteod konkursil Baltic PR Awards

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Balti riikide suhtekorraldusliidud koostöös Rahvusvahelise Avalike Suhete Assotsiatsiooniga (IPRA) korraldavad 2001. aastast iga aasta kommunikatsioonijuhtimisalast auhinnakonkurssi Baltic PR Awards

  19. The Arctic Circle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Siobhan

    2016-04-01

    My name is Siobhan McDonald. I am a visual artist living and working in Dublin. My studio is based in The School of Science at University College Dublin where I was Artist in Residence 2013-2015. A fascination with time and the changeable nature of landmass has led to ongoing conversations with scientists and research institutions across the interweaving disciplines of botany, biology and geology. I am developing a body of work following a recent research trip to the North Pole where I studied the disappearing landscape of the Arctic. Prompted by my experience of the Arctic shelf receding, this new work addresses issues of the instability of the earth's materiality. The work is grounded in an investigation of material processes, exploring the dynamic forces that transform matter and energy. This project combines art and science in a fascinating exploration of one of the Earth's last relatively untouched wilderness areas - the High Arctic to bring audiences on journeys to both real and artistically re-imagined Arctic spaces. CRYSTALLINE'S pivotal process is collaboration: with The European Space Agency; curator Helen Carey; palaeontologist Prof. Jenny McElwain, UCD; and with composer Irene Buckley. CRYSTALLINE explores our desire to make corporeal contact with geological phenomena in Polar Regions. From January 2016, in my collaboration with Jenny McElwain, I will focus on the study of plants and atmospheres from the Arctic regions as far back as 400 million years ago, to explore the essential 'nature' that, invisible to the eye, acts as imaginary portholes into other times. This work will be informed by my arctic tracings of sounds and images recorded in the glaciers of this disappearing frozen landscape. In doing so, the urgencies around the tipping of natural balances in this fragile region will be revealed. The final work will emerge from my forthcoming residency at the ESA in spring 2016. Here I will conduct a series of workshops in ESA Madrid to work with

  20. The Baltic Basin Case Study—towards a sustainable Baltic Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Bengt-Owe; Stålvant, Carl-Einar

    2001-12-01

    Four watersheds, each characterized by a major resource use were selected for the study: The Vistula River in Poland—agriculture; the Dalälven River in Sweden—forestry; the Archipelago Sea in Sweden, Finland, Estonia—tourism; and the Lake Peipsi in Estonia/Russia—fisheries/agriculture. The main objective was to examine the reactions of particular ecosystems within the Baltic Sea drainage area, and to assess sustainability conditions on the regional level. The degree of sustainability and impact on the Baltic Sea were investigated through workshops and seminars in the areas. Overviews of environmental and socio-economic conditions were succinctly summarized in commissioned papers. Interventions by and discussions with scholars, sector experts, administrators and stakeholders of the various sites laid the foundation for conceptualizing the interaction of natural and human forces for each case. The project was able to draw quite a number of conclusions, summarized as the following lessons learnt. In the Vistula Region, nutrient emissions have levelled off but shortage of freshwater is critical. Forestry in the Dalälven watershed is largely environmental-friendly, except for fragmentation of the landscape and its negative impact on biodiversity. In the Archipelago area a former low-energy community has been replaced by a leisure time society. Different types of tourism is developing, but despite this variety, an improved integration of ecological properties with socio-economic patterns is required in order to build a sustainable, living Archipelago. The lake Peipsi basin and the surrounding area suffer both from problems of resource management and economic backwardness. Parts of the local economy has lost access to the one time large Soviet market, although the Estonian side has apparently benefited from present economic growth. To cope with the division of the lake, a regime for trans-national management is unfolding. It is based on both informal and, to an

  1. Arctic bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleanup of oil and diesel spills on gravel pads in the Arctic has typically been accomplished by utilizing a water flushing technique to remove the gross contamination or excavating the spill area and placing the material into a lined pit, or a combination of both. Enhancing the biological degradation of hydrocarbon (bioremediation) by adding nutrients to the spill area has been demonstrated to be an effective cleanup tool in more temperate locations. However, this technique has never been considered for restoration in the Arctic because the process of microbial degradation of hydrocarbon in this area is very slow. The short growing season and apparent lack of nutrients in the gravel pads were thought to be detrimental to using bioremediation to cleanup Arctic oil spills. This paper discusses the potential to utilize bioremediation as an effective method to clean up hydrocarbon spills in the northern latitudes

  2. Cytology of the outer penis epithelium of Buccinum undatum (L.) from the arctic region — an observation of the imposex phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, M.; Bolte, M.

    1994-03-01

    TBT (tributyltin)-induced imposex is observed in female Buccinum undatum from the arctic region. The fine structure of the male penis epithelium was investigated and the results were compared between specimens from non-polluted (Spitsbergen, Norway) and highly-polluted (Brittany, France) areas. Differences in the arrangement and structure of the apical microvilli-border, the intercellular spaces, RER and SER content, as well as a high rate of parasitism in the tissue of individuals from Brittany can be detected between the species of both areas. The results indicate a higher degree of pathological changes in the penis epithelial cells of individuals from TBT-polluted areas than in those from Spitsbergen.

  3. Arctic bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleanup of oil and diesel spills on gravel pads in the Arctic has typically been accomplished by utilizing a water flushing technique to remove the gross contamination or excavating the spill area and placing the material into a lined pit, or a combination of both. This paper discusses the potential to utilize bioremediation as an effective method to clean up hydrocarbon spills in the northern latitudes. Discussed are the results of a laboratory bioremediation study which simulated microbial degradation of hydrocarbon under arctic conditions

  4. The diagnosis and treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in Arctic regions with a high prevalence of infection: Expert Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, B J; Bruce, M G; Koch, A; Goodman, K J; Tsukanov, V; Mulvad, G; Borresen, M L; Sacco, F; Barrett, D; Westby, S; Parkinson, A J

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is a major cause of peptic ulcer and is also associated with chronic gastritis, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, and adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Guidelines have been developed in the United States and Europe (areas with low prevalence) for the diagnosis and management of this infection, including the recommendation to 'test and treat' those with dyspepsia. A group of international experts performed a targeted literature review and formulated an expert opinion for evidenced-based benefits and harms for screening and treatment of H. pylori in high-prevalence countries. They concluded that in Arctic countries where H. pylori prevalence exceeds 60%, treatment of persons with H. pylori infection should be limited only to instances where there is strong evidence of direct benefit in reduction of morbidity and mortality, associated peptic ulcer disease and MALT lymphoma and that the test-and-treat strategy may not be beneficial for those with dyspepsia. PMID:26094936

  5. Impacts of a Warming Arctic. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Arctic is warming much more rapidly than previously known, at nearly twice the rate as the rest of the globe, and increasing greenhouse gases from human activities are projected to make it warmer still, according to an unprecedented four-year scientific study of the region conducted by an international team of 300 scientists. At least half the summer sea ice in the Arctic is projected to melt by the end of this century, along with a significant portion of the Greenland Ice Sheet, as the region is projected to warm an additional 4-7C by the year 2100. These changes will have major global impacts, such as contributing to global sea-level rise and intensifying global warming, according to the final report of the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA). The assessment was commissioned by the Arctic Council (a ministerial intergovernmental forum comprised of the eight Arctic countries and six Indigenous Peoples organizations) and the International Arctic Science Committee (an international scientific organization appointed by 18 national academies of science). The assessment's projections are based on a moderate estimate of future emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, and incorporate results from five major global climate models used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

  6. Radioactive contamination in the Arctic - Present situation and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is currently a focus on radioactivity and the Arctic region. The reason for this is the high number of nuclear sources in parts of the Arctic and the vulnerability of Arctic systems to radioactive contamination. The Arctic environment is also perceived as a wilderness and the need for the protection of this wilderness against contamination is great. In 1991, the International Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (IAEPS) was launched and the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) established. AMAP is undertaking an assessment of the radioactive contamination of the Arctic and its radiological consequences. This paper summarises some of current knowledge about sources of radioactive contamination, vulnerability, exposure of man, and potential sources for radioactive contamination within Arctic and some views on the future needs for work concerning radioactivity in Arctic. (author)

  7. Regional and inter-annual variability in Atlantic zooplankton en route to the Arctic Ocean: potential effects of multi-path Atlantic water advection through Fram Strait and the Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasniewski, Slawomir; Gluchowska, Marta; Trudnowska, Emilia; Ormanczyk, Mateusz; Walczowski, Waldemar; Beszczynska-Moeller, Agnieszka

    2016-04-01

    The Arctic is among the regions where the climate change effects on ecosystem will be the most rapid and consequential, with Arctic amplification recognized as an integral part of the process. Great part of the changes are forced by advection of warm waters from the North Atlantic and the expected modifications of Arctic marine ecosystem will be induced not only by changing environmental conditions but also as a result of introducing Atlantic biota. Thus, the knowledge of physical and biological heterogeneity of Atlantic inflow is requisite for understanding the effects of climate change on biological diversity and ecosystem functioning in the Arctic. The complex and variable two-branched structure of the Atlantic Water flow via Fram Strait and the Barents Sea most likely has a strong influence on the ocean biology in these regions, especially in the pelagic realm. Zooplankton are key components of marine ecosystems which form essential links between primary producers and grazer/predator consumers, thus they are important for functioning of the biological carbon pump. Changes in zooplankton distribution and abundance may have cascading effects on ecosystem functioning, with regulatory effects on climate. Based on data collected in summers of 2012-2014, within the scope of the Polish-Norwegian PAVE research project, we investigate zooplankton distribution, abundance and selected structural characteristics of communities, in relation to water mass properties in the Atlantic Water complex flow to the Arctic Ocean. The main questions addressed here are: what are the differences in zooplankton patterns between the Fram Strait and Barents Sea branches, and how does the inter-annual variability of Atlantic Water advection relate to changes in zooplankton? The results of the investigation are precondition for foreseeing changes in the pelagic realm in the Arctic Ocean and are necessary for constructing and tuning plankton components of ecosystem models.

  8. Demograficheskie problemy gorodov stran Baltijskogo regiona: osnovnye tendencii [The demographic problems of the Baltic cities: general trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosov Yuri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the trends of demographic development of the Baltic Sea region's cities. It analyses the factors affecting the urban population dynamics in the second half of the 20th — the beginning of the 21st centuries. The authors emphasise the dependence of the Baltic cities on the socioeconomic development level throughout the region as well as intraregional disparities. The article analyses the conclusions drawn in the "Urban audit.2007" report.

  9. Atomnaja jenergetika Pribaltiki: istorija vozniknovenija i politiko-jekonomicheskie osobennosti razvitija [Nuclear power in the Baltic Sea region: the history of emergence and the political and economic features of its development

    OpenAIRE

    Kretinin Gannady

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the development of peaceful nuclear power. The author draws attention to the fact that nuclear power is a rather young branch of national economy. However, over recent decades, it has already seen rises and falls, and a number of states have had tragic experiences of nuclear emergencies. Nevertheless, many countries — including the three Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania — express a strong interest in development, generation, and application of nuclear pow...

  10. Seasonal dynamics of early life stages of invasive and native ctenophores give clues to invasion and bloom potential in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaspers, Cornelia; Haraldsson, Matilda; Lombard, Fabien;

    2013-01-01

    Recently, both the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and the arctic Mertensia ovum were discovered in the Baltic Sea but their range expansion remains unclear due to misidentification of their larval stages. Supported by molecular species verification we describe seasonal abundance...... and distribution of larvae and eggs of these two species. We show that their occurrence is significantly but inversely related to salinity. Mertensia ovum was present year round throughout the brackish Baltic Sea but also occurred in high-saline areas during cold seasons. Larvae of M. leidyi occurred throughout...

  11. Arctic tides from GPS on sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard Rose, Stine; Skourup, Henriette; Forsberg, René

    The presence of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean plays a significant role in the Arctic climate. Sea ice dampens the ocean tide amplitude with the result that global tidal models which use only astronomical data perform less accurately in the polar regions. This study presents a kinematic processing of...... Global Positioning System (GPS) buoys placed on sea-ice at five different sites north of Greenland for the study of sea level height and tidal analysis to improve tidal models in the Central Arctic. The GPS measurements are compared with the Arctic tidal model AOTIM-5, which assimilates tide-gauges and...

  12. Arctic tipping points: governance in turbulent times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Oran R

    2012-02-01

    Interacting forces of climate change and globalization are transforming the Arctic. Triggered by a non-linear shift in sea ice, this transformation has unleashed mounting interest in opportunities to exploit the region's natural resources as well as growing concern about environmental, economic, and political issues associated with such efforts. This article addresses the implications of this transformation for governance, identifies limitations of existing arrangements, and explores changes needed to meet new demands. It advocates the development of an Arctic regime complex featuring flexibility across issues and adaptability over time along with an enhanced role for the Arctic Council both in conducting policy-relevant assessments and in promoting synergy in interactions among the elements of the emerging Arctic regime complex. The emphasis throughout is on maximizing the fit between the socioecological features of the Arctic and the character of the governance arrangements needed to steer the Arctic toward a sustainable future. PMID:22270707

  13. Latitudinal distribution of the recent Arctic warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chylek, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lesins, Glen K [DALLHOUSIE UNIV.; Wang, Muyin [UNIV OF WASHINGTON

    2010-12-08

    Increasing Arctic temperature, disappearance of Arctic sea ice, melting of the Greenland ice sheet, sea level rise, increasing strength of Atlantic hurricanes are these impending climate catastrophes supported by observations? Are the recent data really unprecedented during the observational records? Our analysis of Arctic temperature records shows that the Arctic and temperatures in the 1930s and 1940s were almost as high as they are today. We argue that the current warming of the Arctic region is affected more by the multi-decadal climate variability than by an increasing concentration of carbon dioxide. Unfortunately, none of the existing coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models used in the IPCC 2007 cIimate change assessment is able to reproduce neither the observed 20th century Arctic cIimate variability nor the latitudinal distribution of the warming.

  14. Biodiversity gradient in the Baltic Sea: a comprehensive inventory of macrozoobenthos data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettler, Michael L.; Karlsson, Anna; Kontula, Tytti; Gruszka, Piotr; Laine, Ari O.; Herkül, Kristjan; Schiele, Kerstin S.; Maximov, Alexey; Haldin, Jannica

    2014-03-01

    In the Helsinki Commission Red List project 2009-2012, taxonomic and distributional data of benthic (macro) invertebrates were compiled by the present authors in a comprehensive checklist of the Baltic Sea fauna. Based on the most recent and comprehensive data, this paper presents the diversity patterns observed among benthic invertebrates in the Baltic Sea. As expected, the total number of species per sub-region generally declined along the salinity gradient from the Danish Straits to the northern Baltic Sea. This relationship is well known from the Baltic Sea and has resulted in a general assumption of an exponentially positive relationship between species richness and salinity for marine species, and a negative relationship for freshwater species. In 1934, Remane produced a diagram to describe the hypothetical distribution of benthic invertebrate diversity along a marine-freshwater salinity gradient. Our results clearly indicated the validity of this theory for the macrozoobenthic diversity pattern within the Baltic Sea. Categorisation of sub-regions according to species composition showed both separation and grouping of some sub-regions and a strong alignment of similarity patterns of zoobenthic species composition along the salinity gradient.

  15. Health in the Arctic and climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Sloth Pedersen, Henning

    2007-01-01

    The Arctic environment is like a magnifying glass. Many of the hazards stemming from industrial activity in the South tend to concentrate in the North. This is true for DDT, PCB, heavy metals and many other substances that may endanger human health. Climate change is yet another example of how the negative impact of industrial activity may be magnified in the Arctic region.

  16. Regional Scale Variability in Background and Source δ13C of Methane in the Atlantic, Europe and the Arctic: Cautionary Tales for Isotopic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, D.; Fisher, R. E.; France, J. L.; Lanoiselle, M.; Zazzeri, G.; Nisbet, E. G.

    2013-12-01

    Modeling studies of methane δ13C, both of modern atmosphere and glacial palaeoclimates have used a global isotopic signature for each of the main source categories, whereas detailed studies of source fluxes, such as boreal wetlands, suggest that on the centimeter to meter scale there is very great variability. In recent years we have been reassessing the usefulness of using a generic source value from source up to regional scale through sampling campaigns in the European Arctic, the UK and onboard ships sailing the Atlantic up to the Arctic Ocean. Currently the boreal wetland source of methane dominates above 60°N. Within Finland this source varies at the wetland scale from -74 to -66‰ depending on wetland type and seasonal variability in temperature and water table. Lapland road trips and ship sampling suggest that these emissions are homogenized to -70 to -67‰ in the well-mixed regional atmosphere. An infrequent boreal forest fire emission adds a -30 to -26‰ component into the mix, and such inputs have been observed in the Mace Head (Ireland) isotopic record of 2002. The story is much more complex once the latitudes of heavily urbanized and agricultural areas of Northern Europe are reached. Isotopic signatures applied to UK and EC inventories suggest that national emissions can vary from -42 to -60‰ depending on source mix, but even this is too simplified. Fugitive emissions from gas distribution systems vary based on the source of the gas, with biogenic-dominated supplies from west Siberia at -50‰ to thermogenic gas of the Southern North Sea fields at -32‰. Coal emissions are also source-dependent and have a similar range to gas, but unlike pipeline-homogenized gas can vary from one mine to the next. Emissions from ruminants vary due to C3 and C4 plant diets, with C4 closer to -50‰ while C3 emissions are in the low -60's. A recent whole barn experiment in the UK recorded -66‰. Landfill signatures also vary. Sites engineered in the last decade

  17. FUELING INCUBATION : DIFFERENTIAL USE OF BODY STORES IN ARCTIC-AND TEMPERATE-BREEDING BARNACLE GEESE (BRANTA LEUCOPSIS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eichhorn, Goetz; van der Jeugd, Henk P.; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Drent, Rudolf H.; McWilliams, S.R.

    2010-01-01

    We compared the use of body stores in breeding Barnacle Geese (Branta leucopsis) in traditional Arctic colonies in the Barents Sea with that in recently established temperate-zone breeding colonies in the Baltic Sea and North Sea by studying female body-mass loss and use of fat and protein stores du

  18. Kaliningrad and Baltic security

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Arthur

    2001-01-01

    Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast (Region) has a history of being terra incognita. In defiance of geographic and historical realities, the Allied leaders of World War II carved the oblast from the northern third of East Prussia and awarded it to Stalin's Soviet Union. As the Soviet empire disintegrated around it, Kaliningrad became lost in the shuffle of a new world order. Its very existence as a Russian exclave within an increasingly interdependent Europe brings the Oblast to the forefront of the ...

  19. Timing of the Baltic Ice Lake in the eastern Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jüri Vassiljev

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A shoreline database for the Baltic, covering the Late Weichselian and Holocene, was compiled. The database includes about 1600 sites from Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Finland, NW Russia, Poland, Sweden and was used to create a GIS-based palaeogeographical reconstructions on the development of the Baltic Ice Lake (BIL. The formation of thehighest shoreline of the BIL in Estonia was connected with the development of the Pandivere ice marginal zone (Estonia and the lowest with the Salpausselkä ice-marginal formations (Finland. There was a well-accepted knowledge that the Pandivere ice marginal zone correlates with the Neva ice marginal zone in NW Russia dated to 13 300 cal yr BP. Recent studies of the late glacial sites in northern Estonia indicate that the age of the Pandivere ice marginal zone and hence the highest shoreline of the BIL A1 is about 13 800–14 000 cal yr BP. It was followed by the BIL stage A2, which formed in front ofthe Palivere ice marginal belt about 13 200–13 500 cal yr BP. The final drainage of the BIL took place about 11 650 cal yr BP. The timing of the BIL stages was derived from AMS-14C dates and correlated with varve chronology, OSL and 10Be dates.

  20. Statistical Comparison of Detrital Zircon Suites from the Arctic and Their Bearing on Plate Reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, A. V.; Miller, E. L.

    2010-12-01

    Detrital zircon (DZ) geochronology is a powerful means of establishing paleogeographic ties between regions translated or rifted apart as a consequence of plate motions. The Arctic represents a series of relatively small ocean basins formed in the Cretaceous and Tertiary that rift apart longer established, mostly shelf/shelf basin systems and orogenic belts. Over 87 sets of detrital zircon data (~ 100 grains/sample) are compared and contrasted to each other and to published data using relative age probability distribution diagrams, cumulative age probability curves and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. This comparison of data sets help establish major depositional systems, their provenance through time, and how these changed with rifting and accretion events. Late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic siliciclastic strata deposited along the paleo-Pacific margin of Siberia (Verkhoyansk) were transported by the “paleo-Lena” transcontinental river system from the actively deforming southern margin of Siberia into shelf and deep water settings (Prokopiev et al., 2008). Youngest zircons track the depositional ages of host sediments and reflect the tectonic and magmatic history of their source regions. Northern Siberia and platformal upper Paleozoic sections of the New Siberian Islands have similar sources. Importantly, a restricted range of older Precambrian detrital zircon ages (~1.8-2.0 Ga) characterize Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata flanking Siberia. In contrast, a broad Carboniferous-Permian carbonate shelf characterized the Russian Arctic between the Caledonides and the Urals. A ~ 1- 2 Ga range of detrital zircon ages in these samples is characteristic and compatible with derivation or reworking of Baltic Shield sources. Chukotka, Wrangel Island and NW Alaska are similar and were once paleogeographically linked to the flanks of Baltica. Formation of the Urals in the Permian brought Siberia and Baltica together, bringing new orogenic sources to Baltica. Soon after, Permo

  1. Vertical movements of frost mounds in sub-Arctic permafrost regions analyzed using geodetic survey and satellite interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, I.; Ludwig, R.; Bernier, M.; Strozzi, T.; Boike, J.

    2015-04-01

    Permafrost-affected soils cover about 45% of Canada. The environment in such areas, especially those located within the discontinuous permafrost zone, has been impacted more than any other by recorded climatic changes. A number of changes, such as surface subsidence and the degradation of frost mounds due to permafrost thawing have already been observed at many locations. We surveyed three frost mounds (lithalsas) close to Umiujaq, northern Quebec, sub-Arctic, using a high-precision differential Global Positioning System (d-GPS) during field visits in 2009, 2010 and 2011, thus obtaining detailed information on their responses to the freezing and thawing that occurs during the course of the annual temperature cycle. Seasonal pulsations were detected in the frost mounds and these responses were shown to vary with the state of degradation and the land cover. The most degraded lithalsa showed a maximum amplitude of vertical movement (either up or down) between winter and summer (thawing) of 0.19 ± 0.09 m over the study period, while for the least degraded lithalsa this figure was far greater (1.24 ± 0.47 m). Records from patches with little or no vegetation showed far less average vertical movement over the study period (0.17 ± 0.03 m) than those with prostrate shrubs (0.56 ± 0.02 m), suggesting an influence from the land-cover. A differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperature Radar (D-InSAR) analysis was also completed over the lithalsas using selected TerraSAR-X images acquired from April to October 2009 and from March to October 2010, with a repeat cycle of 11 days. Interferograms with baselines shorter than 200 m were computed revealing a generally very low interferometric coherence, restricting the quantification of vertical movements of the lithalsas. Vertical surface movements in the centimeter range were recorded in the near vicinity of Umiujaq.

  2. Legal tools of public participation in the Environmental Impact Assessment process and their application in the countries of the Barents Euro-Arctic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenasheva Marina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on research of existing legal tools of public participation in the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA process and on practical issues of their application in the countries of the Barents Euro-Arctic Region (BEAR. The EIA is mandatory for projects which can have negative impacts on the environment and/or human health. Public participation in the EIA is one of the instruments used both on the international and national level that helps prevent or minimise the negative consequences of the project for the environment and human health. This article is based on research of national EIA legislation and on the analysis of the findings from interviews conducted with private and public organisations during benchmarking visits and fact-finding trips to the northern regions of Finland, Norway, Sweden and Northwest Russia. In addition, feedback was collected from participants during four seminars. Participatory methods, focused on public-private communication and pariticpation during the environmental impact assessment process, provides the theoretical basis for the article. This research results from work in a two-year strategic project funded by the Finnish Funding Agency for Innovation, TEKES.

  3. Genetic structure of whitefish (Coregonus maraena) in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Jens; Florin, Ann-Britt; Mo, Kerstin; Aho, Teija; Ryman, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Stocks of whitefish ( Coregonus maraena) in the northern part of the Baltic Sea have in many areas declined drastically during recent years. Causes for the decline are yet not fully understood, but knowledge on the genetic population structure of the species is pivotal for future conservation measures. In this study we analyse the genetic variation at seven microsatellite loci for whitefish from 18 different sites along the Swedish coast of the Baltic Sea. We found a strong dependence of isolation by distance ( R = 0.73), and a week but rather fine scaled genetic structure. In addition, there were differences between more northern and southern sites in the population genetic structure, where the degree of differentiation appears to be stronger in the north compared to the south. The results suggest that whitefish is a species suitable for local management with a regional context of the management strategy. In addition, the findings corroborate what is previously known for other coastal fish species in the Baltic Sea, such as perch and pike, suggesting that the majority of gene flow occurs between adjacent areas. Finally, our results highlight the potential for genetic subdivision even when the dependence of isolation by distance is strong.

  4. A new radiation model for Baltic Sea ecosystem modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Thomas; Siegel, Herbert; Gerth, Monika

    2015-12-01

    Photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) is one of the key requirements for primary production in the ocean. The ambient PAR is determined by incoming solar radiation and optical properties of sea water and the optically active water constituents along the radiation pathway. Especially in coastal waters, the optical properties are affected by terrigenous constituents like yellow substances as well as high primary production. Numerical models for marine ecosystems account for the optical attenuation process in different ways and details. For the consideration of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and shading effects of phytoplankton particles, we propose a dynamic parametrization for the Baltic Sea. Furthermore, products from biological turnover processes are implemented. Besides PAR and its attenuation coefficient, the model calculates the Secchi disk depth, a simple measurable parameter describing the transparency of the water column and a water quality parameter in the European Water Framework Directive. The components of the proposed optical model are partly implemented from other publications respectively derived from our own measurements for the area of investigation. The model allows a better representation of PAR with a more realistic spatial and temporal variability compared to former parametrizations. The effect is that regional changes of primary production, especially in the northern part of the Baltic Sea, show reduced productivity due to higher CDOM concentrations. The model estimates for Secchi disk depth are much more realistic now. In the northern Baltic Sea, simulated oxygen concentrations in deep water have improved considerably.

  5. Bringing Western-standard service stations to the Baltic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neste is the only Western oil company so far to have established a service station presence in the Baltic, with the exception of Norway's Statoil, which has one outlet near Tallinn Airport. Neste has an important logistical advantage compared to other companies in this respect as its two Finnish refineries are ideally located for supplying the region with high-quality petroleum products. Neste's first joint venture in the Baltic, Traffic Service, based in Estonia, was set up with Eesti Kutus in 1988 and opened its first service station in 1990. Other joint ventures are now up and running in Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and St. Petersburg. A total of 10 - 15 stations, the majority strategically located along the route of the Via Baltica, are expected to be operational by the end of this year. The Neste network comprises a combination of new outlets and refurbished older stations that have been modernized to bring them up to Western standards. These offer a comprehensive range of fuels, lubricants, spare parts, and accessories, as well as food, confectionery, and coffee shop services. Some stations also offer repair and car wash facilities. Adapting to the transition from a communist economy to a Western, capitalist one has not been easy for the Baltic countries, and has inevitably created difficulties for companies like Neste, in areas such as legislation covering land ownership. Neste's joint ventures have also encountered difficulties in instilling the Western approach to business efficiency, and customer service in a workforce used to the Soviet retail system

  6. Dioxin concentrations in sediments of the Baltic Sea. A preliminary survey of existing data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verta, M.; Salo, S.; Korhonen, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Kiviranta, H. [National Public Health Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Koistinen, J.; Ruokojaervi, P.; Isosaari, P. [National Public Health Institute, Kuopio (Finland)

    2004-09-15

    The Baltic Sea region is one of the most contaminated areas with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (dioxins). The high load of dioxins in Baltic fish has lead to restrictions of the use of contaminated fish for human consumption. Uncertainties about sources, geographical distribution of these contaminants, the pathways of bioaccumulation and possible ecotoxicological and human health effects are of concern. POPs may enter the Baltic Sea from atmospheric deposition, riverine input and point sources along the coast. The ultimate sink for the majority of the compounds is the open sea and coastal sediments, although some fraction enters the food chain. Analysis of sediment has been widely used to study regional and temporal trends of dioxin pollution in freshwater and oceans and the Baltic Sea has been one of the most studied sea areas for dioxin-like compounds as well. Only a fraction (unknown) of the analytical results have been published in scientific papers, however. Here we present regional distribution of certain congeners of dioxins in surface sediments and in six sediment cores from the Baltic Sea. New data is compared with data on earlier Finnish sediment surveys. Some data from published papers and unpublished data from the Kattegat Sound is also given for reference. The purpose of this paper is to: 1. get an ''draft'' picture of regional distribution (possible hot spots, major regional differences) along the Finnish-Swedish-Danish-German coastal and open sea sites in the Baltic 2. study differences in congener distributions (source identification) 3. study temporal changes in sediment profiles 4. identify major areas with gap of data 5. call for more data (both published and grey literature as well as new sediment surveys)

  7. Extent of the northern Baltic Sea during the Early Palaeozoic Era – new evidence from Ostrobothnia, western Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Uutela, A.

    1998-01-01

    This study reports new evidence of the extent of the northern Baltic Sea during the Cambrian and Ordovician periods. A drillcore (DC304) from the Lappajärvi impact crater, western Finland, and erratics from the surrounding area were studied for acritarchs. The acritarchs from the drillcore were reworked by the explosion but indicate, however, that the Baltic Sea extended beyond the western coast of central Finland during the Lower Cambrian Vergale and the Middle Cambrian Kibartai regional sta...

  8. Pozicija mezhdunarodnogo soobshhestva po voprosu «vosstanovlenija» nezavisimosti Baltijskih respublik [The position of international community on the restoration of independence of the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portnyagina Maria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The separation of the Baltics from the Soviet Union was a difficult process accompanied by both political and economic conflicts. The third party in the negotiation process was represented by Germany and the USA. This article sets out to identify the role of the USA and Germany in the restoration of Baltic independence. Historicism and objectivity principles serve as the methodological framework for the research. The regional approach was applied in order to integrate the features of regional development into the overall picture of world politics. The scientific and practical significance of the article lies in a scientific evaluation of the Soviet-Baltic relations in 1989—1991. This study can help understand the mechanisms of formulation of foreign policy by the USA, Germany, and the USSR, as well as the practice of political interaction between these countries and the Baltic States. The materials and conclusions of this article can be used for further research on the foreign policies of the USA, Germany, the USSR, and the Baltic republics. In the process of the Baltics gaining their independence, western countries showed an ambivalent position and hesitancy regarding support for the struggle for liberation. As a result of internal contradictions in the USSR, Baltic leaders managed to achieve independence without any effective support from western powers. The research significance of this study lies in a diverse selection of sources and a new formulation of the problem of Baltic independence. The practical significance of the article results lies in the applicability of its materials in the development of Russian foreign policy in the Baltic region, further research on the history of the Baltic region, Germany, and the USA, and preparation of lectures.

  9. Arctic Wears - Perspectives on Arctic Clothing

    OpenAIRE

    Konola, Sanna; Kähkönen, Päivi

    2015-01-01

    Arctic issues are rising around us on every field at the point of view of environment, sustainability, climate change, indigenous peoples’ rights, design and society, snow and ice building knowledge, challenges and possibilities in Arctic areas. The Arctic is written in Finland’s future strategies, and in 2017 Finland assumes the chairmanship of Arctic Council. In the northernmost university of European Union, University of Lapland, the northern issues have always been written in the DNA ...

  10. Leading By Example: Canada and its Arctic Stewardship Role

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Danita Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The notion that Canada is the steward of the fragile Arctic environment is a part of the fabric of the Canadian narrative about the country’s relationship with the Arctic region. In light of political, legal and environmental changes impacting Arctic politics, this paper argues that it is important...... to examine the circumstances which led to the creation and success of Canada’s stewardship role and its implications for Canadian and international shipping in the Arctic region before any changes are made to the governance of the region through unilateral legislation changes or new international...... agreements. This paper explores the origins of Canada’s image as the steward of the Arctic environment which started with the 1970 Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act legislation and addresses the central research questions, how did Canada’s role as the steward of the Arctic environment begin and evolve...

  11. Collaborative Project. Understanding the effects of tides and eddies on the ocean dynamics, sea ice cover and decadal/centennial climate prediction using the Regional Arctic Climate Model (RACM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, Jennifer [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Joseph, Renu [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2013-09-14

    The goal of this project is to develop an eddy resolving ocean model (POP) with tides coupled to a sea ice model (CICE) within the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) to investigate the importance of ocean tides and mesoscale eddies in arctic climate simulations and quantify biases associated with these processes and how their relative contribution may improve decadal to centennial arctic climate predictions. Ocean, sea ice and coupled arctic climate response to these small scale processes will be evaluated with regard to their influence on mass, momentum and property exchange between oceans, shelf-basin, ice-ocean, and ocean-atmosphere. The project will facilitate the future routine inclusion of polar tides and eddies in Earth System Models when computing power allows. As such, the proposed research addresses the science in support of the BER’s Climate and Environmental Sciences Division Long Term Measure as it will improve the ocean and sea ice model components as well as the fully coupled RASM and Community Earth System Model (CESM) and it will make them more accurate and computationally efficient.

  12. MPC and A training needs of the NIS/Baltics States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report serves to document contract deliverables considered to be of continuing interest associated with two workshops conducted as part of an initial assessment of Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC and A) training needs of the Newly Independent and Baltic States (NIS/Baltics). These workshops were held in Kiev, Ukraine, ca. 2003-2004, with the assistance of personnel from the George Kuzmycz Training Center (GKTC) of the Kiev Institute of Nuclear Research (KINR). Because of the dominant role Ukraine plays in the region in terms of the nuclear industry, one workshop focused exclusively on Ukrainian training needs, with participants attending from twelve Ukrainian organizations (plus U.S. DOE/NNSA representatives). The second workshop included participation by a further ten countries from the NIS/Baltics region. In addition, the training needs data developed during the workshop were supplemented by the outcomes of surveys and studies conducted by the GKTC

  13. MPC&A training needs of the NIS/Baltics States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, David Franklin; Stoy-McLeod, Carol L.

    2006-07-01

    This report serves to document contract deliverables considered to be of continuing interest associated with two workshops conducted as part of an initial assessment of Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) training needs of the Newly Independent and Baltic States (NIS/Baltics). These workshops were held in Kiev, Ukraine, ca. 2003-2004, with the assistance of personnel from the George Kuzmycz Training Center (GKTC) of the Kiev Institute of Nuclear Research (KINR). Because of the dominant role Ukraine plays in the region in terms of the nuclear industry, one workshop focused exclusively on Ukrainian training needs, with participants attending from twelve Ukrainian organizations (plus U.S. DOE/NNSA representatives). The second workshop included participation by a further ten countries from the NIS/Baltics region. In addition, the training needs data developed during the workshop were supplemented by the outcomes of surveys and studies conducted by the GKTC.

  14. Baltic sea level low-frequency variability

    OpenAIRE

    Kulikov, Evgueni A.; Medvedev, Igor P.; Koltermann, Klaus Peter

    2015-01-01

    The low-frequency sea level spectrum in the Baltic Sea has been analysed based on long-term time series of sea level data (15–124 yr) from three tide gauge stations in the Baltic Sea and two stations in the North Sea. The principal periodicities detected in the spectrum are seasonal and tidal oscillations including the pole tide with a period of about 14 months. Cross-spectral analysis has been applied to estimate the frequency response of sea level oscillations in the Baltic Sea relative to ...

  15. Seasonal variability in the Baltic Sea level

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Świrgoń; Małgorzata Stramska; Halina Kowalewska-Kalkowska

    2013-01-01

    Sea level is subject to spatial and temporal variability on different scales. In this paper we investigate seasonal variability in the open Baltic Sea level using daily satellite altimetry data for the period 1 January 1993-31 December 2010. Our results indicate that there is a well-pronounced seasonal cycle in the 18-year average sea level and in its standard deviation. The average annual SLA amplitude in the open Baltic Sea is about 18 cm. The seasonal cycle of the SLA in the Baltic Sea is ...

  16. Validation of SMOS sea ice thickness retrieval in the northern Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Maaß

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS mission observes brightness temperatures at a low microwave frequency of 1.4 GHz (L-band with a daily coverage of the polar regions. L-band radiometry has been shown to provide information on the thickness of thin sea ice. Here, we apply a new emission model that has previously been used to investigate the impact of snow on thick Arctic sea ice. The model has not yet been used to retrieve ice thickness. In contrast to previous SMOS ice thickness retrievals, the new model allows us to include a snow layer in the brightness temperature simulations. Using ice thickness estimations from satellite thermal imagery, we simulate brightness temperatures during the ice growth season 2011 in the northern Baltic Sea. In both the simulations and the SMOS observations, brightness temperatures increase by more than 20 K, most likely due to an increase of ice thickness. Only if we include the snow in the model, the absolute values of the simulations and the observations agree well (mean deviations below 3.5 K. In a second comparison, we use high-resolution measurements of total ice thickness (sum of ice and snow thickness from an electromagnetic (EM sounding system to simulate brightness temperatures for 12 circular areas. While the SMOS observations and the simulations that use the EM modal ice thickness are highly correlated (r 2=0.95, the simulated brightness temperatures are on average 12 K higher than observed by SMOS. This would correspond to an 8-cm overestimation of the modal ice thickness by the SMOS retrieval. In contrast, if the simulations take into account the shape of the EM ice thickness distributions (r 2=0.87, the mean deviation between simulated and observed brightness temperatures is below 0.1 K.

  17. Global warming impacts on the biogeochemical functioning of two arctic Cryo-sols in the Salluit region, Nunavik, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased organic matter decomposition rate in Arctic Cryo-sols due to warming and to permafrost thawing can lead to the release of greenhouse gases, thus potentially creating a positive feedback on climate change. We aim to assess the interactions between the thermal regime, the hydric behaviour and the biogeochemical functioning of two different permafrost-affected soils (i.e. Cryo-sols), one being developed in frozen peat (Histic Cryo-sol: H), the other being developed in post-glacial marine clays (Turbic Cryo-sol: T), both in natural conditions and under an experimental warming. Profiles were instrumented in Salluit (Nunavik, Canada; 62 deg. 14'N, 75 deg. 38'W) and monitored during summers 2010 and 2011. Both thermal monitoring and modeling results stressed differences between sites due to the insulating properties of dried peat in summer the active layer at the H site is thinner than at the T site. The induced warming increased CO2 fluxes in both soils; this impact was however more striking at H even if ecosystem respiration (ER) was lower than at T. Temperature sensitivity of ER (Q10), which decreased with warming, was higher at T than at H. We highlighted that diurnal ER cycles showed hysteretic loops as a function of soil surface temperatures. Linear models performed to explain ER variance were improved when we added daily minimum temperature and thaw front depth at H. In contrast at T, adding wind speed and solar radiation in models improved the ER variance explanation. We showed three specific CO2 flux dynamics related to northern ecosystems: 1) the large difference of ER depending on soil properties and soil solution composition; 2) environmental variables strongly alter CO2 fluxes and 3) the diurnal Q10 variations and the inter annual variability of basal respiration. Our results support the assumption that organic matter decomposition might be the major source of CO2 at H while plant-derived processes dominated ER at T. Finally, the thaw

  18. Caesium-137 distribution, inventories and accumulation history in the Baltic Sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Baltic Sea is susceptible to pollution by hazardous substances due to limited water exchange, shallowness, and the large catchment area. Radionuclides, particularly 137Cs, are one of the most hazardous anthropogenic substances present in the Baltic environment. This study was conducted to present 137Cs present contamination that should further be a subject of reliable monitoring when the new Nuclear Power Plant is put into operation in the northern Poland. The sea-wide, up to date distribution of 137Cs activities and inventories in the Baltic Sea bottom sediments are presented. The 137Cs activity concentrations were measured in 30 cm long sediment cores collected at 22 sampling stations. Sediment accumulation rates were quantified by 210Pb geochronology to follow the history of 137Cs accumulation. The 137Cs inventories and fluxes were calculated. Most of the Baltic Sea sediments accumulated 137Cs in the range from 750 to 2675 Bq m−2. The Bothnian Bay is severely contaminated by 137Cs with inventories up to 95,191 Bq m−2. This region is moreover characterized by extremely large patchiness of 137Cs inventories. The 137Cs annual fluxes are highest at the two stations located at the Bothnian Bay (342 Bq m−2 and 527 Bq m−2) due to large Chernobyl 137Cs contamination of that region and high sediment accumulation rates. When these stations are excluded, the recent, annual mean value of 137Cs load to the Baltic Sea deposits is 38 ± 22 Bq m−2. The distribution of radio-caesium inventories over the Baltic Sea nowadays reflects the pattern of Chernobyl contamination. The radio-caesium deposited in surface sediments is not permanently buried, but may be resuspended and redeposited by currents, bioturbation or anthropogenic activities. -- Highlights: • 137Cs contamination in the Baltic Sea was studied before the new NPP is put into operation. • Bothnian Sea sediments are severely contaminated by 137Cs (inventories up to 95,191 Bq m−2). • Most of the

  19. Extractive leviathan: The role of the government in the relationships between oil and gas industries and indigenous communities in the Arctic regions of Canada, United States and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorova, Evgeniia

    This comparative research analyzes the extent to which the governments of Canada, the United States and Russia affect the relationships between the petroleum extractive industries and Indigenous peoples of the Arctic in order to protect Indigenous peoples from the negative impacts of oil and gas extraction. The hypothesis of this study is that the government can protect Indigenous communities only by providing for their participation in decision-making processes about oil and gas development. The comparative analysis showed that in comparison with Canada and the United States, Russia has the worst legal protection of Indigenous peoples in petroleum-extractive regions. The recognition of Aboriginal title by Canada and the U.S. allowed Indigenous communities the best opportunities to be involved in oil and gas development, whereas Russia failed to grant this recognition. Therefore, the recognition of land claims by the government is the best way to protect traditional lands and lifestyles of Indigenous peoples from the negative externalities of petroleum extraction.

  20. Persistent organic pollutant levels and the importance of source proximity in Baltic and Svalbard breeding common eiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenstad, Anette A; Jenssen, Bjørn M; Gabrielsen, Kristin M; Öst, Markus; Jaatinen, Kim; Bustnes, Jan O; Hanssen, Sveinn A; Moe, Børge; Herzke, Dorte; Krøkje, Åse

    2016-06-01

    The distance to sources and the long-range transport potential of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are important in understanding the impact of anthropogenic pollution on natural seabird populations. The present study documented blood concentrations of POPs in the Baltic Sea (Tvärminne, Finland) population of common eiders (Somateria mollissima) in 2009 and in 2011 and compared the concentrations with the presumably less exposed Arctic population in Svalbard (Kongsfjorden, Norway). The Baltic population had 26, 10, and 5 times greater concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexane, polychlorinated biphenyls, and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene than the Svalbard population. Unexpectedly, concentrations of chlordanes were higher in Svalbard eiders, whereas concentrations of hexachlorobenzenes (HCBs) did not differ between the 2 populations. Although the similar HCB levels may partly be explained by the high transport potential of HCBs, unknown factors may have been more important than distance to sources and long-range transport potential for the chlordanes. One plausible explanation may be that the fasting-related redistribution of POPs from fat to blood was greater throughout the incubation in Arctic eiders, causing them to have higher blood levels of these POPs at the end of incubation. The blood concentrations of POPs in Baltic eiders were higher than documented in any other eider population and were comparable to levels in seabirds feeding at higher trophic positions in the food chain. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1526-1533. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26553455

  1. Status of Biodiversity in the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Ojaveer, Henn; Jaanus, Andres; MacKenzie, Brian; Martin, Georg; Olenin, Sergej; Radziejewska, Teresa; Telesh, Irena; Zettler, Michael L.; Zaiko, Anastasija

    2010-01-01

    The brackish Baltic Sea hosts species of various origins and environmental tolerances. These immigrated to the sea 10,000 to 15,000 years ago or have been introduced to the area over the relatively recent history of the system. The Baltic Sea has only one known endemic species. While information on some abiotic parameters extends back as long as five centuries and first quantitative snapshot data on biota (on exploited fish populations) originate generally from the same time, international co...

  2. Unemployment and Structural Unemployment in the Baltics

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Ebeke; Greetje Everaert

    2014-01-01

    While the unemployment rate in the Baltics has fallen sharply from its crisis-peaks, it remains close to double digits. This paper estimates the structural component of the jobless rate in the three Baltic countries and analyzes its causes. Our main findings are that the current still elevated levels of unemployment mostly reflect structural factors. We then turn to why structural unemployment is so high. This paper points to skill mismatches, high tax wedges, and unemployment and inactivity ...

  3. Cost effective reductions in the agricultural load of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elofsson, K.

    1997-11-01

    To restore the health of the Baltic Sea, the Helsinki Commission, HELCOM, suggests that the nitrogen load should be reduced by 50%. The agricultural sector accounts for about 1/3 of the total load of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea, while point sources account for about 1/4. The remaining load reaches the Baltic as atmospheric deposition. The purpose of this study is to calculate cost effective reductions in the agricultural load of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea coastal waters. The Baltic Sea drainage basin is divided into 17 regions, which differ with respect to costs, leaching and nitrogen retention. For each region, cost functions are estimated for 11 nitrogen abatement measures in the agricultural sector. It is difficult to find reliable data on both costs and biological parameters for all regions included, and several assumptions are made to obtain the cost functions. In this paper the total cost of a 50% reduction of the nitrogen load from arable land is estimated to 11,700 million SEK per year. A decrease in the use of fertilizer nitrogen is the most important measure in a cost effective policy. Other measures included in the cost effective solution are changes in land-use and in manure management practices. If, instead, each country is required to reduce its load by 50%, the total cost will increase by nearly 60%. Three out of nine countries around the Baltic Sea would gain from separate reduction targets, while all others lose by such a policy. The results are sensitive to assumptions about the biological parameters and the shape of the cost functions for reductions in chemical fertilizer. 75 refs, 3 figs, 11 tabs

  4. Baltic Pathways from Liberal Trade Model to Neo-Mercantilism in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viljar Veebel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic progress of the Baltic States after the restoration of independence has been closely related to the liberal ideology and values of their economies: openness to investments, simple tax system and low tax burden, liberal trade policy, and flexible labour market. Unlike the Baltic States, some of their main partners in the European Union (EU have focused on promoting their economic growth by the neo-mercantilist way of expanding exports, supported by the economic structure of these countries exporting high technology and capital goods. As a result, when the Baltic States are expecting that in a broader context the other eu member states share the same vision of the liberal market economy, their motives have not been fully understood among their regional trade and cooperation partners. Current study will debate whether the practical implementation and needs of the European neo-mercantilism meet the economic and social needs of the Baltic States. Additionally, the study focuses on the question whether in practice the Baltic countries should be ready for the European neo-mercantilist project in upcoming years.

  5. Atmospheric DMS in the High Arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Lundén, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    During the Arctic summer when the anthropogenic influence is limited, the natural marine source of sulfur in the form of gas-phase dimethyl sulfide viz. DMS(g), is of great importance for cloud formation. The harsh environment of the Arctic makes it difficult to perform in situ measurements of DMS(g) and hence regional model simulations can serve as a complement to increase our understanding of DMS related processes in the Arctic. In this thesis a regional scale meteorological forecast model,...

  6. Insect frass in Baltic amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari A. Kinnunen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Inclusions of wood debris loosened from pine-like trees are abundant in Baltic amber of Eocene and Oligocene age. The possibilities to find insect frass and excrement among wood debris are outlined and some examples are given. Comparison with the frass and excrement produced by present-day insects provide a possibility to identify insects even though their fossils are lacking. This information can be used to characterize former forest environments. Amber forests may have also covered Southern Finland, and this possibility is discussed. Furthermore, the presence of wood debris may be utilized to recognize amber fakes, which is important for both gem trade and paleontology. It is proposed that databases and identification keys of frass and excrement should be constructed.

  7. Transparency of the North Sea and Baltic Sea - a Secchi Depth data mining study

    OpenAIRE

    Thorkild Aarup

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a Secchi depth data mining study for the North Sea - Baltic Sea region. 40,829 measurements of Secchi depth were compiled from the area as a result of this study. 4.3% of the observations were found in the international data centers [ICES Oceanographic Data Center in Denmark and the World Ocean Data Center A (WDC-A) in the USA], while 95.7% of the data was provided by individuals and ocean research institutions from the surrounding North Sea and Baltic...

  8. Distribution of Pacific-origin water in the region of the Chukchi Plateau in the Arctic Ocean in the summer of 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Jiuxin; CAO Yong; ZHAO Jinping; GAO Guoping; JIAO Yutian; LI Shujiang

    2005-01-01

    The upper ocean thermohaline structures in the region of the Chukchi Plateau are analyzed with the hydrographic data collected by the Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition in the summer of 2003. Three types of the Pacific-origin water were found in the upper ocean, Alaska Coastal Water (ACW), summer Bering Sea Water (sBSW) and winter Bering Sea Water (wBSW) are indicated by two maximums temperature and one minimum temperature, piling up from the upper to the lower respectively. The extreme warm ACW with a maximum temperature of 1.62 ℃ was found in the southwestern Canada Basin at a depth of about 50 m. A pathway of the ACW into the basin from its adjacent area did not existed in the expedition period. So it is speculated that the extreme warm feature of the ACW was formed locally in 2003. The relative weak ACW occurred to the east of the Chukchi Cap and in the southern Chukchi Abyssal Plain. The latter one might originate from a warm downwelling that existed in a small canyon at the shelf break of the Chukchi Sea. The sBSW without the ACW was found only at the southwestern flank of the Chukchi Cap. The ACW and the sBSW were not found in the northernmost station at 81°N,which indicates the north boundary of the upper Pacific-origin water in the Canada Basin. The wBSW, which existed in all deep stations, was exactly uniform at temperature. The difference of the core potential temperature of the wBSW in the deep regions is only 0.08 ℃.

  9. CHARACTERISTICS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION IN ARCTIC CIRCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Lež

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of large quantities of hydrocarbons is supposed within the Arctic Circle. Assumed quantities are 25% of the total undiscovered hydrocarbon reserves on Earth, mostly natural gas. Over 500 major and minor gas accumulations within the Arctic Circle were discovered so far, but apart from Snøhvit gas field, there is no commercial exploitation of natural gas from these fields. Arctic gas projects are complicated, technically hard to accomplish, and pose a great threat to the return of investment, safety of people and equipment and for the ecosystem. Russia is a country that is closest to the realization of the Arctic gas projects that are based on the giant gas fields. The most extreme weather conditions in the seas around Greenland are the reason why this Arctic region is the least explored and furthest from the realization of any gas project (the paper is published in Croatian .

  10. Taxonomy, biogeography and DNA barcodes of Geodia species (Porifera, Demospongiae, Tetractinellida) in the Atlantic boreo-arctic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardenas, Paco; Rapp, Hans Tore; Klitgaard, Anne Birgitte;

    2013-01-01

    Geodia species north of 60 degrees N in the Atlantic appeared in the literature for the first time when Bowerbank described Geodia barretti and G.macandrewii in 1858 from western Norway. Since then, a number of species have been based on material from various parts of the region: G.simplex, Isops...

  11. Geometrical model of the Baltic artesian basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennikovs, J.; Virbulis, J.; Bethers, U.

    2012-04-01

    Baltic artesian basin (BAB) is a multi-layer sedimentary basin spanning around 480'000 km2. BAB is located in the territory of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, parts of Poland, Russia, Belarus and large area of the Baltic Sea, including island of Gotland. The thickness of sedimentary cover is about 5000 m in the south-western part. Crystalline bedding reaches the surface in the northern and north-western parts. The aim of the present work is development of the model of geometric structure and three dimensional finite element mesh for the hydrogeological model of the whole BAB. The information that is used to build the geometrical structure includes: (1) Stratigraphic information from boreholes in Latvia and Estonia (2) Maps of height isolines of geological layers for Latvia and Lithuania (3) Maps of sub-quaternary deposits in Latvia and Lithuania (4) Maps of fault lines on the crystalline basement surface in Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia (5) Buried valley data from Latvia and Estonia (6) Earth topography data (7) Baltic sea depth data (8) Data from published geological cross-sections, information from books and other sources. Unification of the heterogeneous information from different sources, which are employed for building of the geometrical structure of the model are performed. Special algorithms are developed for this purpose considering the priority, importance and plausibility of each of the data sources. Pre-processing of the borehole information to screen out the outlying borehole data has been performed. Model of geological structure contains 42 layers. It includes aquifers and aquitards from Cambrian up to the Quaternary deposits. Fault displacements are incorporated into the model taking into account data from the published structural maps. Four reconstructed regional erosion surfaces (upper Ordovician, Devonian, Permian and Quaternary) are included into the model Three dimensional mesh of the geological structure is constructed layer-wise. The triangular

  12. Observed changes in phenology across the USA: A regional review for the 2013 National Climate Assessment, Alaska and the Arctic Regional Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2013-01-01

    This is one in a series of eight, geographic region-focused information sheets that summarizes documented changes in plant and animal phenology over the past century across the United States. This summary is based on long-term studies (10 years or more) published in the primary scientific literature since 2001. A forthcoming manuscript synthesizes the findings of the eight regional information sheets.

  13. Laser ablation studies of solid aerosols on the Baltic coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jaworski

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A Berner cascade impactor was used for the separation of solid urban aerosols in two localities of the Baltic coastal macro-region - Słupsk and Hel - in different seasons and weathers. Ten ranges of aerodynamic diameters between 0.009 and 8.11 µm were used. The elementary composition for each diameter was obtained in a complex procedure consisting of laser ablation of deposits, then their successive ionization in an inductively coupled plasma generator, and finally, mass selection in a quadrupole spectrometer. Despite its complexity, the chemical element analysis method proved to be versatile, allowing the identification air pollution from natural and industrial sources, and road traffic.

  14. Role of Greenland meltwater in the changing Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukhovskoy, Dmitry; Proshutinsky, Andrey; Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Myers, Paul; Platov, Gennady; Bamber, Jonathan; Curry, Beth; Somavilla, Raquel

    2016-04-01

    Observational data show that the Arctic ocean-ice-atmosphere system has been changing over the last two decades. Arctic change is manifest in the atypical behavior of the climate indices in the 21st century. Before the 2000s, these indices characterized the quasi-decadal variability of the Arctic climate related to different circulation regimes. Between 1948 and 1996, the Arctic atmospheric circulation alternated between anticyclonic circulation regimes and cyclonic circulation regimes with a period of 10-15 years. Since 1997, however, the Arctic has been dominated by an anticyclonic regime. Previous studies indicate that in the 20th century, freshwater and heat exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the sub-Arctic seas were self-regulated and their interactions were realized via quasi-decadal climate oscillations. What physical processes in the Arctic Ocean - sub-Arctic ocean-ice-atmosphere system are responsible for the observed changes in Arctic climate variability? The presented work is motivated by our hypothesis that in the 21st century, these quasi-decadal oscillations have been interrupted as a result of an additional freshwater source associated with Greenland Ice Sheet melt. Accelerating since the early 1990s, the Greenland Ice Sheet mass loss exerts a significant impact on thermohaline processes in the sub-Arctic seas. Surplus Greenland freshwater, the amount of which is about a third of the freshwater volume fluxed into the region during the 1970s Great Salinity Anomaly event, can spread and accumulate in the sub-Arctic seas influencing convective processes there. It is not clear, however, whether Greenland freshwater can propagate into the interior convective regions in the Labrador Sea and the Nordic Seas. In order to investigate the fate and pathways of Greenland freshwater in the sub-Arctic seas and to determine how and at what rate Greenland freshwater propagates into the convective regions, several numerical experiments using a passive tracer to

  15. Resolving early Mid-Ordovician (Kundan) bioevents in the East Baltic based on brachiopods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christian Mac Ørum; Harper, David Alexander Taylor

    2008-01-01

    Bed-by-bed sampling of brachiopods from selected Kundan Stage localities in the East Baltic has permitted the construction of a-diversity curves, unprecedented in detail from this particular stage and region. These a-diversity curves can be correlated between the investigated sections, along an...

  16. Climate Change, Globalization and Geopolitics in the New Maritime Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, L. W.

    2011-12-01

    Early in the 21st century a confluence of climate change, globalization and geopolitics is shaping the future of the maritime Arctic. This nexus is also fostering greater linkage of the Arctic to the rest of the planet. Arctic sea ice is undergoing a historic transformation of thinning, extent reduction in all seasons, and reduction in the area of multiyear ice in the central Arctic Ocean. Global Climate Model simulations of Arctic sea ice indicate multiyear ice could disappear by 2030 for a short period of time each summer. These physical changes invite greater marine access, longer seasons of navigation, and potential, summer trans-Arctic voyages. As a result, enhanced marine safety, environmental protection, and maritime security measures are under development. Coupled with climate change as a key driver of regional change is the current and future integration of the Arctic's natural wealth with global markets (oil, gas and hard minerals). Abundant freshwater in the Arctic could also be a future commodity of value. Recent events such as drilling for hydrocarbons off Greenland's west coast and the summer marine transport of natural resources from the Russian Arctic to China across the top of Eurasia are indicators of greater global economic ties to the Arctic. Plausible Arctic futures indicate continued integration with global issues and increased complexity of a range of regional economic, security and environmental challenges.

  17. [Horse, cow and reindeer were converted into arctic domestic animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantanen, Juha

    2016-01-01

    Domestic animal production in the arctic region is often thought to be based exclusively on reindeer herding. There are, however, regions in Northern Europe and Siberia having a long tradition in rearing breeds of cattle and horse adapted to the northers conditions also. The development of these arctic animal breeds has been largely founded on old tradition rather than on the programs of breeding organizations. As a result of the selection carried out by nature and man, the domestic animals of arctic regions express characteristics that are metabolic, structural, associated with reproductive physiology and conducive to the adaptation to arctic conditions. PMID:27522831

  18. Long-Term Arctic Peatland Dynamics, Vegetation and Climate History of the Pur-Taz Region, Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteet, Dorothy; Andreev, Andrei; Bardeen, William; Mistretta, Francesca

    1998-01-01

    Stratigraphic analyses of peat composition, LOI, pollen, spores, macrofossils, charcoal, and AMS ages are used to reconstruct the peatland, vegetation and climatic dynamics in the Pur-Taz region of western Siberia over 5000 years (9300 - 4500 BP). Section stratigraphy shows many changes from shallow lake sediment to different combinations of forested or open sedge, moss, and Equisetum fen and peatland environments. Macrofossil and pollen data indicate that Larix sibirica and Betula pubescens trees were first to arrive, followed by Picea obovata. The dominance of Picea macrofossils 6000-5000 BP in the Pur-Taz peatland along with regional Picea pollen maxima indicate warmer conditions and movement of the spruce treeline northward at this time. The decline of pollen and macrofossils from all of these tree species in uppermost peats suggests a change in the environment less favorable for their growth, perhaps cooler temperatures and/or less moisture. Of major significance is the evidence for old ages of the uppermost peats in this area of Siberia, suggesting a real lack of peat accumulation in recent millennia or recent oxidation of uppermost peat.

  19. Air quality and radiative impacts of Arctic shipping emissions in the summertime in northern Norway: from the local to the regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelle, Louis; Thomas, Jennie L.; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Law, Kathy S.; Jalkanen, Jukka-Pekka; Johansson, Lasse; Roiger, Anke; Schlager, Hans; Kim, Jin; Reiter, Anja; Weinzierl, Bernadett

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we quantify the impacts of shipping pollution on air quality and shortwave radiative effect in northern Norway, using WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with chemistry) simulations combined with high-resolution, real-time STEAM2 (Ship Traffic Emissions Assessment Model version 2) shipping emissions. STEAM2 emissions are evaluated using airborne measurements from the ACCESS (Arctic Climate Change, Economy and Society) aircraft campaign, which was conducted in the summer 2012, in two ways. First, emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are derived for specific ships by combining in situ measurements in ship plumes and FLEXPART-WRF plume dispersion modeling, and these values are compared to STEAM2 emissions for the same ships. Second, regional WRF-Chem runs with and without STEAM2 ship emissions are performed at two different resolutions, 3 km × 3 km and 15 km × 15 km, and evaluated against measurements along flight tracks and average campaign profiles in the marine boundary layer and lower troposphere. These comparisons show that differences between STEAM2 emissions and calculated emissions can be quite large (-57 to +148 %) for individual ships, but that WRF-Chem simulations using STEAM2 emissions reproduce well the average NOx, SO2 and O3 measured during ACCESS flights. The same WRF-Chem simulations show that the magnitude of NOx and ozone (O3) production from ship emissions at the surface is not very sensitive (important source of pollution along the Norwegian coast, enhancing 15-day-averaged surface concentrations of NOx ( ˜ +80 %), SO2 ( ˜ +80 %), O3 ( ˜ +5 %), black carbon ( ˜ +40 %), and PM2.5 ( ˜ +10 %). The residence time of black carbon originating from shipping emissions is 1.4 days. Over the same 15-day period, ship emissions in northern Norway have a global shortwave (direct + semi-direct + indirect) radiative effect of -9.3 m Wm-2.

  20. IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrén, T; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Cotterill, Carol;

    2015-01-01

    microbiology. The sites covered the gateway to the North Sea and Atlantic Ocean, several sub-basins in the southern Baltic Sea, a deep basin in the central Baltic Sea, and a river estuary in the north. The waxing and waning of the Scandinavian ice sheet has profoundly affected the Baltic Sea sediments. During...

  1. Deep versus shallow controlling factors of the regional thermal field in the Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin (Arctic Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Sippel, J.; Lewerenz, B.

    2011-12-01

    The present-day temperature distribution of the Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin as observed in boreholes indicates large-scale thermal anomalies which have been related to specific tectonic domains and heat transported by convection along major discontinuities (Chen et al., 2008). We have integrated seismic and well data into a crust-scale 3D structural model of the basin, which we have additionally constrained by 3D gravity modelling. This structural model is composed of seven Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonostratigraphic units which - as a result of a complex foreland depositional and erosional history - tend to be younger, less compacted, and thus less thermally conductive towards the north. The underlying continental crust comprises a low-density upper part (2720 kg/m3 ) and a moderately dense lower part (2850 kg/m3), and it thins considerably towards the north where it passes over to oceanic crust (2900 kg/m2 ). We use the structural model to calculate the 3D conductive thermal field of the basin based on a Finite-Element method, thereby taking one step further towards a quantification of heat transporting processes in this petroliferous region. For the validation of the modelling results, we make use of public domain temperature data from more than 230 wells reaching depths of up to 5000 m. Thermal conductivities are assigned to the different units according to available data sets including also the observed lithology-dependent relationship between conductivity and porosity in the region. The upper boundary condition for the thermal calculations is provided by the well-known depth distribution of the base of permafrost (0 °C isotherm). Assuming a constant heat flow of 30 mW/m2 at the Moho, we find that the modelled temperatures are widely consistent with the observed temperatures in most parts of the basin. Only where large tectonic discontinuities structure the margins of the basin, the misfits are considerable, thus indicating convective heat transport to be an

  2. Arctic Glass: Innovative Consumer Technology in Support of Arctic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthkoski, T.

    2015-12-01

    The advancement of cyberinfrastructure on the North Slope of Alaska is drastically limited by location-specific conditions, including: unique geophysical features, remoteness of location, and harsh climate. The associated cost of maintaining this unique cyberinfrastructure also becomes a limiting factor. As a result, field experiments conducted in this region have historically been at a technological disadvantage. The Arctic Glass project explored a variety of scenarios where innovative consumer-grade technology was leveraged as a lightweight, rapidly deployable, sustainable, alternatives to traditional large-scale Arctic cyberinfrastructure installations. Google Glass, cloud computing services, Internet of Things (IoT) microcontrollers, miniature LIDAR, co2 sensors designed for HVAC systems, and portable network kits are several of the components field-tested at the Toolik Field Station as part of this project. Region-specific software was also developed, including a multi featured, voice controlled Google Glass application named "Arctic Glass". Additionally, real-time sensor monitoring and remote control capability was evaluated through the deployment of a small cluster of microcontroller devices. Network robustness was analyzed as the devices delivered streams of abiotic data to a web-based dashboard monitoring service in near real time. The same data was also uploaded synchronously by the devices to Amazon Web Services. A detailed overview of solutions deployed during the 2015 field season, results from experiments utilizing consumer sensors, and potential roles consumer technology could play in support of Arctic science will be discussed.

  3. The Future of the Arctic: A Key to Global Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Stipo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The USACOR Report forecasts that by 2050 the Arctic will become the major supplier of energy to the world, in particular oil and natural gas, and natural resources such as mineral water. In the coming decades, the population in the Arctic region is projected to increase significantly due to the expansion of exploration for resources. The Report recommends that a Zero emission policy be implemented throughout the Arctic area for water emissions into the seas, rivers, or estuaries and oceans. The Report recommends that the Arctic Council guarantees safe navigation and environmental protection, establishing a Fund to cover expenses to purchase icebreakers and towards the cost of the personnel in order to assist commercial navigation in the Arctic region. The Arctic Council shall also issue environmental rules to regulate the mineral exploitation in the region and ensure that the wildlife is protected and that the exploitation of resources is conducted in a sustainable manner.

  4. Regional Sea level change in the Arctic Ocean from a combination of radar and laser altimetry, tide gauges and ocean models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, O. B.; Bondo, T.; Cheng, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Lack of adequate spatial and temporal sea level observations in the Arctic Ocean is one of the most challenging problems in the study of changes in sea level and ocean circulation in the Arctic Ocean today. Especially as sea level variation in the Arctic Ocean plays an important role in the global climate system. Only a few tide gauges with long time series exists (1933-> present). Preliminarily investigations show that several of these are not indicative of sea level changes but rather of changes in river flows due to their position so a careful editing is required. The use of satellite altimetry (1992->present) is hampered due to a suite of problems. The error on sea level recovery increases, standard retracking removes most data in areas of sea ice and furthermore most of the Arctic is not covered due to the inclination of the satellites. Only the radar altimeters on board ERS and ENVISAT and the laser altimeter on board ICESAT have so far provided sparse information about Arctic sea level change. However, the combined relatively long operation period of the three satellites has now made it possible to investigate annual and decadal sea level variations. Together with similar results from ocean models like GECCO, MICOM and University of Washington Ocean model we aim to improve the recovery of sea level changes in the Arctic Ocean on annual to inter-decadal scale and the first result for this work will be presented. The presentation is a contribution to the EU supported projects MONARCH and MyOcean.

  5. Diurnal variability of water vapour in the Baltic Sea region according to NCEP-CFSR and BaltAn65+ reanalyses** The survey was supported by the Estonian Science Foundation under a postdoctoral grant JD189, by European Social Fund’s Doctoral Studies and Internationalisation Programme DoRa and project SLOOM12073T, which are carried out by the Archimedes Foundation, and by the Estonian Radiation Climate project, funded by the European Regional Development Fund.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erko Jakobson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diurnal variations in water vapour in the Baltic Sea region are examined using BaltAn65+ and NCEP-CFSR reanalyses of summer (JJA data for the period 1979–2005. A systematic difference between precipitable water (PW diurnal variability above the land and the water is revealed. Above the land, PW diurnal variability has minimal values at 00 and 06 UTC, as in previous studies, whereas above the water, the minima are at 12 and 18 UTC. Diurnal variability in the vertical humidity profile is controlled by turbulent mixing and the diurnal behaviour of sea breezes. The impacts and proportions of diurnal variability of humidity are evaluated at different vertical levels.

  6. Arctic Energy Resources: Energy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryc, George

    1984-04-01

    Arctic Energy Resources is a volume of 26 papers recording the proceedings of the Comite' Arctique International Conference, held at the Veritas Centre, Oslo, Norway, September 22-24, 1982. This was the fourth of a series of meetings on the Arctic organized by the Comite', an organization established in the Principality of Monaco with the active support of H.S.H. Prince Rainer III. The fourth Conference was opened by H.R.H. Crown Prins Harald of Norway, a noble beginning for a noble objective.The North Polar Region has drawn world attention recently because of several large hydrocarbon and other mineral discoveries and because of major political and environmental actions in the North American Arctic. Since 1923 when Naval Petroleum Reserve number 4 (NPR-4) was established, northern Alaska has been considered a major petroleum province. It was first explored systematically with modern techniques from 1943 to 1953. In 1958, Alaska became a state, and both federal and state lands in northern Alaska were available for private exploration. Building on the knowledge base provided by the Pet-4 program and its spinoff research laboratory at Barrow, industry explored the area east of NPR-4 and discovered the largest hydrocarbon accumulation (9.6 bbl crude oil and 26 Tcf (trillion cubic feet) gas) in North America at Prudhoe Bay. Concerns for environmental impacts, including oil spills, led to the passing of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1969. In 1970, over 9 million acres were set aside, now known as the Arctic National Wildlife Range, and in 1971 the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act was passed by the U.S. Congress. The Arab oil embargo of 1973 heightened the energy crisis and changed the economic basis for further exploration in the Arctic. The convergence of these events dramatically changed the balance of power and the pace of activity in the North American Arctic.

  7. Biomonitoring polluted sediments in Arctic regions - possibilities and challenges using benthic foraminifera. Case studies from northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirbekk, Kari; Dijkstra, Noortje; Junttila, Juho; Sternal, Beata; Pedersen, Kristine Bondo; Forwick, Matthias; Carroll, JoLynn

    2016-04-01

    Biomonitoring pollution in marine environments using benthic foraminifera assemblages have proven to be a valid method for many regions. Two important reasons for their suitability are their sensitivity to changes in the environment and their rapid response time due to short life cycles. In addition, they are preserved in the sedimentary record, allowing for baseline studies of conditions prior to introduction of contaminants. Species of benthic foraminifera that appear to tolerate polluted sediments are referred to as opportunistic species. This notion is in general used for species able to dominate environments that are too stressful for most species. The high latitude setting of the northern Norwegian coastal zone experience high seasonality and, hence, largely changing conditions throughout a year: variations in water mass domination, freshwater influence, temperature and current velocity. It is possible that an environment like this is inhibited by a higher amount of opportunistic species generally thriving under high stress conditions. This might make the use of benthic foraminifera for biomonitoring more challenging, as the faunal compositions may be a result of a complex set of processes. Consequently, large datasets are necessary in order to make reliable conclusions, which in time may be used as generalized guidelines for biomonitoring in this geographical area. Here, we present preliminary results of benthic foraminiferal assemblages from two sites in Finnmark, northern Norway, which have been exposed to pollution. The main site is Repparfjorden, where the inner parts of the fjord were used as a submarine waste deposal site for mine tailings from a local copper mine during the 1970´s. Results from four marine sediment cores (10-20 cm long) containing sediments classified to be in moderate to very bad state (according to Norwegian sediment quality criteria) are presented. The contamination is seen in intervals of elevated copper content dated to the 1970

  8. The role of the Arctic in future global petroleum supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholt, Lars; Glomsroed, Solveig

    2011-07-01

    The Arctic has a substantial share of global petroleum resources, but at higher costs than in most other petroleum provinces. Arctic states and petroleum companies are carefully considering the potential for future extraction in the Arctic. This paper studies the oil and gas supply from 6 arctic regions during 2010-2050 along with global economic growth and different assumptions regarding petroleum prices and resource endowments. Supply is calculated based on a global model of oil and gas markets. The data on undiscovered resources for the Arctic is based on the estimates by USGS. Sensitivity studies are carried out for two alternative price scenarios and for a 50 per cent reduction of arctic undiscovered resources compared with the USGS 2008 resource estimate. Although a major part of the undiscovered arctic petroleum resources is natural gas, our results show that the relative importance of the Arctic as a world gas supplier will decline, while its importance as a global oil producer may be maintained. We also show that less than full access to undiscovered oil resources will have minor effect on total arctic oil production and a marginal effect on arctic gas extraction. The reason is that Arctic Russia is an important petroleum producer with a sufficiently large stock of already discovered resources to support their petroleum production before 2050. (Author)

  9. Seasonal and Intra-annual Controls on CO2 Flux in Arctic Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oechel, Walter [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States); Kalhori, Aram [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    In order to advance the understanding of the patterns and controls on the carbon budget in the Arctic region, San Diego State University has maintained eddy covariance flux towers at three sites in Arctic Alaska, starting in 1997.

  10. Chitinozoan diversity in the East Baltic Silurian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor, Viiu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on the diversity of the East Baltic Silurian chitinozoans have been compared to global chitinozoan biozones that are approximately correlated with the graptolite scale. The total diversity and balanced total diversity curves have three main positive peaks in the Wenlock and Ludlow and diversity lowstands in most of the Llandovery and Pridoli. The turnover ratio and species origination curves are lowest and species extinction is highest in the lower Wenlock, correlating partly with the Ireviken Event. Chitinozoan diversity is related to the transgression–regression phases of the Silurian Baltic basin, water chemistry and temperature, and evolutionary processes of the faunal group. At the level of the Silurian standard stages the trends in the East Baltic and Swedish chitinozoan diversity curves are in general outline similar to the global diversity curve.

  11. Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea – value of water quality improvements & risk perceptions Dr. Marianne Zandersen1 Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University Abstract The Baltic Sea is heavily eutrofied and the trend has gone from bad to worse. The hypoxic zone has increased about 4...... Baltic Sea, the prevalence of oxygen depleted areas has not decreased. Two pilot projects in Sweden and Finland investigate the effects of oxygenation pumping in coastal and deepwater areas (PROPPEN and BOX projects, respectively). Oxygenation pumping moves oxygen rich water from the higher levels of the...... water column to the bottom waters/deepwater. The expected effects include a slowing down of the sediment release from the bottom and improvement of the possibilities for aerobic bacterial decomposition and over time for the establishment of fauna. The projects test a bio-engineered approach to speeding...

  12. Solar radiation at the surface in the Baltic Proper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirje Keevallik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiation data recorded at 12 sites around the central part of the Baltic Sea during 1996-2000 drawn from the BALTEX (Baltic Sea Experiment meteorological data archives are used to study the spatio-temporal variability of daily global radiation totals. The annual average daily global radiation total varies from about 10 MJ m-2 at Visby(on Gotland and Kołobrzeg (on the coast of Poland to less than 9 MJ m-2 at Zīlāni (inland Latvia, Šilutė (Lithuaniaand Jokioinen (Finland. The monthly average daily global radiation total over the whole region extends from 0.93 in December to 19.0 in June. The variability in global radiation is analysed on the basis of the fraction of the daily total at the top of the atmosphere.The spatial and temporal variability is the least in August - this shows that the variation in the cloud cover and atmospheric properties at this time of year is the smallest. The spatial correlation is the strongest between the two Finnish stations - Vantaa and Jokioinen. It is also high between Stockholm and Norrköping, on the east coast of Sweden. The correlation coefficients are the largest over the whole area in April. Radiation data from coastal stations are compared with an earlier parameterization basedon ship observations (Rozwadowska & Isemer 1998, Isemer & Rozwadowska 1999. It is concluded that in climatological research, actinometric data from Visby can be used to characterize the radiation field over the northern part of the Baltic Proper and those from Kołobrzeg to characterize the radiation field over the southern part of this sea.

  13. Major infrastructure projects and the foreign policy of the Baltic states in 2010—2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich N. M.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available At the current stage of social development, particular attention is drawn to studies that assess major infrastructure — and thus political — projects aimed at a qualitative breakthrough in the socio-economic development of the countries under investigation. The scheduled multi-billion investments into energy sector are of political rather than economic nature. The projects to develop alternative power grids and high-speed railways can result in large-scale economic downturns diminishing the prospects of balanced social development. The author addresses the classical concepts of the theory of regional economy and new economic geography and their interpretation of the interconnection between political and economic factors. The article aims to demonstrate the inconsistency between political and economic objectives of the development of the Baltics. The study contributes to a broader set of research into the issues of post-Soviet economic and political development. The Baltic States follow their own political and economic ways. The study proves the hypothesis of low efficiency of large infrastructure project and their political motivation. It is concluded that the disregard of the factor of mutually beneficial economic cooperation with Russia destabilizes the development of national economic of the Baltic States. The author believes that modern infrastructure projects in the Baltic Sea region should be integrated into both western and eastern dimensions.

  14. Major infrastructure projects and the foreign policy of the Baltic states in 2010—2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich N. M.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available At the current stage of social development, particular attention is drawn to studies that assess major infrastructure — and thus political — projects aimed at a qualitative breakthrough in the socio-economic development of the countries under investigation. The scheduled multi-billion investments into energy sector are of political rather than economic nature. The projects to develop alternative power grids and high-speed railways can result in large-scale economic downturns diminishing the prospects of balanced social development. The author addresses the classical concepts of the theory of regional economy and new economic geography and their interpretation of the interconnection between political and economic factors. The article aims to demonstrate the inconsistency between political and economic objectives of the development of the Baltics. The study contributes to a broader set of research into the issues of post-Soviet economic and political development. The Baltic States follow their own political and economic ways. The study proves the hypothesis of low efficiency of large infrastructure project and their political motivation. It is concluded that the disregard of the factor of mutually beneficial economic cooperation with Russia destabilizes the development of national economic of the Baltic States. The author believes that modern infrastructure projects in the Baltic Sea region should be integrated into both western and eastern dimensions.

  15. Arctic shipping emissions inventories and future scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    J. J. Corbett; D. A. Lack; J. J. Winebrake; Harder, S; J. A. Silberman; Gold, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents 5 km×5 km Arctic emissions inventories of important greenhouse gases, black carbon and other pollutants under existing and future (2050) scenarios that account for growth of shipping in the region, potential diversion traffic through emerging routes, and possible emissions control measures. These high-resolution, geospatial emissions inventories for shipping can be used to evaluate Arctic climate sensitivity to black carbon (a short-lived climate forcing pollutant especial...

  16. Land-Based Marine Pollution in Arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Haile, Fitsum Gebreselassie

    2014-01-01

    Land-based pollution represents the single most important cause of marine pollution. The threat of land-based pollution to the marine environment is a serious one since it mainly affects coastal waters, which are sites of high biological productivity. The occurrence of high concentrations of pollutants in the Arctic environment has been a concern for many years.. Regional and international actions over the past two decades attempting to manage pollutants in the Arctic environment from land- b...

  17. Strengthening Nordic-Baltic Defense Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    2014-01-01

    troubling challenge to the way international security has been structured in Europe since the end of the Cold War. While most of the existing defense cooperation with a view of strengthening defense capabilities has been carried out within the internationally renowned framework of NORDEFCO, there is no...... reason why this framework could not be extended to the Baltic states.36 A NORBALDEFCO would not only cement the prominent role of Sweden and Finland within NATO as premier partners, it would also formally continue the work begun with Baltic independ- ence after the Cold War, and furthermore strengthen...

  18. Grey seal predation on forage fish in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Aro; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Aho, Teija; Jounela, Pekka; Lundström, Karl; Köster, Fritz

    The mean annual growth rate of grey seal stock in the Baltic has been on average 7.5% annually during the last decade. In 2010, a total of approximately 23 100 grey seals were counted. The increase in stock size was highest in the northern areas and the predation pressure of grey seals on clupeoids...... has increased accordingly. The diet of grey seal in the Baltic consists of ca. 20 fish species. The most abundant prey items in the Baltic proper are Baltic herring, sprat, and cod, and in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay Baltic herring, Coregonus sp., Baltic salmon, and sea trout. An adult seal...... consumes on average round 4.5 kg fish per day, of which 55% are clupeoids in the Baltic Main basin and 70% in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay. According to acoustic estimates, predator– prey distribution patterns, migration patterns, and multispecies analysis (SMS), the predation effect of grey seals on...

  19. Long-term trends of the Polar and Arctic cells influencing the Arctic climate since 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Weihong; Wu, Kaijun; Leung, Jeremy Cheuk-Hin; Shi, Jian

    2016-03-01

    The strengthening and broadening trends of the Hadley cell have been revealed, while the existence of the Arctic cell has also been confirmed in previous studies. This study extends previous strengthening trend analyses of the Hadley cell to the Polar and Arctic cells in the Northern Hemisphere and explores their climate influences. Results show that the Polar cell experienced an abrupt change from a slow to a rapid strengthening trend in 1989, while the Arctic cell showed an insignificant strengthening trend and a significant weakening trend successively. The strengthening subsidence flow associated with the Polar and Arctic cells can partly explain the warming surface air temperature and declining sea ice concentration through the increasing tropospheric height and temperature trends. These results provide new insights for understanding the interdecadal relationship between atmospheric circulation and climate change in the Arctic region.

  20. Arctic Region: historical presence and current socioeconomic and cultural problems; La region artica: presencia historica y problemas socioeconomicos y culturales actuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junquera Rubio, C.

    2011-07-01

    The Circumpolar region and indigenous peoples of the North have held a very special fascination for peoples in the temperate zones. The far northern peoples of Thule fascinated the scholars of Greece and Rome. The terms which describe the Circumpolar region such as cold, inhospitable, hostile, remote, inaccessible, etcetera. The numerous ethnic minorities living along the Circumpolar margins and they are an excellent example of humans groups whose material and spiritual culture has been forced to give way to the southern majority culture. In 1976, I began a study in four small communities of hunters and fishermen on the Mackenzie River on the NWT (Canada). This investigation was supported by the Federal Government of Canada (Foreign Office, Project number D-515-I-1999). The technique I used was that of participant observation. The subject of my research was the processes of change in the settlement of Norman Wells, Fort Norman and Fort Good Hope and others small communities with Inuit, Dene Indians and Metis population. (Author)

  1. Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in arctic marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norstrom, R J; Muir, D C

    1994-09-16

    . Lawrence and ringed seal in the Baltic Sea, indicate that overall contamination of the Arctic marine ecosystem is 10-50 times less than the most highly contaminated areas in the northern hemisphere temperate latitude marine environment. Geographic distribution of residue levels in polar bears indicates a gradual increase from Alaska east to Svalbard, except PCB levels are significantly higher in eastern Greenland and Svalbard. Information on temporal trends is somewhat contradictory.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7973601

  2. Influence of sea ice on Arctic precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopec, Ben G; Feng, Xiahong; Michel, Fred A; Posmentier, Eric S

    2016-01-01

    Global climate is influenced by the Arctic hydrologic cycle, which is, in part, regulated by sea ice through its control on evaporation and precipitation. However, the quantitative link between precipitation and sea ice extent is poorly constrained. Here we present observational evidence for the response of precipitation to sea ice reduction and assess the sensitivity of the response. Changes in the proportion of moisture sourced from the Arctic with sea ice change in the Canadian Arctic and Greenland Sea regions over the past two decades are inferred from annually averaged deuterium excess (d-excess) measurements from six sites. Other influences on the Arctic hydrologic cycle, such as the strength of meridional transport, are assessed using the North Atlantic Oscillation index. We find that the independent, direct effect of sea ice on the increase of the percentage of Arctic sourced moisture (or Arctic moisture proportion, AMP) is 18.2 ± 4.6% and 10.8 ± 3.6%/100,000 km(2) sea ice lost for each region, respectively, corresponding to increases of 10.9 ± 2.8% and 2.7 ± 1.1%/1 °C of warming in the vapor source regions. The moisture source changes likely result in increases of precipitation and changes in energy balance, creating significant uncertainty for climate predictions. PMID:26699509

  3. ArcticDEM; A Publically Available, High Resolution Elevation Model of the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Paul; Porter, Claire; Cloutier, Michael; Howat, Ian; Noh, Myoung-Jong; Willis, Michael; Bates, Brian; Willamson, Cathleen; Peterman, Kennith

    2016-04-01

    A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the Arctic is needed for a large number of reasons, including: measuring and understanding rapid, ongoing changes to the Arctic landscape resulting from climate change and human use and mitigation and adaptation planning for Arctic communities. The topography of the Arctic is more poorly mapped than most other regions of Earth due to logistical costs and the limits of satellite missions with low-latitude inclinations. A convergence of civilian, high-quality sub-meter stereo imagery; petascale computing and open source photogrammetry software has made it possible to produce a complete, very high resolution (2 to 8-meter posting), elevation model of the Arctic. A partnership between the US National Geospatial-intelligence Agency and a team led by the US National Science Foundation funded Polar Geospatial Center is using stereo imagery from DigitalGlobe's Worldview-1, 2 and 3 satellites and the Ohio State University's Surface Extraction with TIN-based Search-space Minimization (SETSM) software running on the University of Illinois's Blue Water supercomputer to address this challenge. The final product will be a seemless, 2-m posting digital surface model mosaic of the entire Arctic above 60 North including all of Alaska, Greenland and Kamchatka. We will also make available the more than 300,000 individual time-stamped DSM strip pairs that were used to assemble the mosaic. The Arctic DEM will have a vertical precision of better than 0.5m and can be used to examine changes in land surfaces such as those caused by permafrost degradation or the evolution of arctic rivers and floodplains. The data set can also be used to highlight changing geomorphology due to Earth surface mass transport processes occurring in active volcanic and glacial environments. When complete the ArcticDEM will catapult the Arctic from the worst to among the best mapped regions on Earth.

  4. Fundamental differences between Arctic and Antarctic ozone depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon, Susan; Haskins, Jessica; Ivy, Diane J.; Min, Flora

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental differences in observed ozone depletion between the Arctic and the Antarctic are shown, clarifying distinctions between both average and extreme ozone decreases in the two hemispheres. Balloon-borne and satellite measurements in the heart of the ozone layer near 18−24 km altitude show that extreme ozone decreases often observed in the Antarctic ozone hole region have not yet been measured in the Arctic in any year, including the unusually cold Arctic spring of 2011. The data provi...

  5. Arctic air pollution: Challenges and opportunities for the next decade

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, S.R.; Law, K. S.; Brock, C. A.; Thomas, J L; S.M. Starkweather; Von Salzen, K.; A. Stohl; Sharma, S.; Lund, M.T.; M. G. Flanner; T. Petäjä; H. Tanimoto; Gamble, J; Dibb, J. E.; M. Melamed

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Arctic is a sentinel of global change. This region is influenced by multiple physical and socio-economic drivers and feedbacks, impacting both the natural and human environment. Air pollution is one such driver that impacts Arctic climate change, ecosystems and health but significant uncertainties still surround quantification of these effects. Arctic air pollution includes harmful trace gases (e.g. tropospheric ozone) and particles (e.g. black carbon, sulphate) and toxic substan...

  6. Past Arctic aliens have passed away, current ones may stay

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Increased human activity and climate change are expected to increase the numbers and impact of alien species in the Arctic, but knowledge of alien species is poor in most Arctic regions. Through field investigations over the last 10 years, and review of alien vascular plant records for the high Arctic Archipelago Svalbard over the past 130 years, we explored long term trends in persistence and phenology. In total, 448 observations of 105 taxa have been recorded from 28 sites. Recent surveys a...

  7. Stable isotope evidence for late medieval (14th-15th C) origins of the eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orton, D.C.; Makowiecki, D.; de Roo, T.;

    2011-01-01

    hypotheses we use stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis to determine likely catch regions of 74 cod vertebrae and cleithra from 19 Baltic archaeological sites dated from the 8th to the 16th centuries. δ13C and δ15N signatures for six possible catch regions were established using a larger sample of...

  8. Report of the ninth meeting of the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission - Helsinki Commission (HELCOM). Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the report of the ninth meeting of the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission - the Helsinki Commission - held in Helsinki 15-19 February 1988. The Commission is composed of the representatives of Denmark, Finland, Federal Republic of Germany, Poland, Sweden and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as well as national, regional and international organizations. The Meeting made a number of proposals and recommendations on the protection of the marine environment

  9. EU Engagement in the Arctic: Do the Policy Responses from the Arctic States Recognise the EU as a Legitimate Stakeholder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamrul Hossain

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic states are bound in an institutional relationship by means of their actions through the Arctic Council (AC—an organisation created by the eight Arctic states. Although a number of its European Union (EU states are both members and observers in the AC, the EU is not, despite its clear stake in the Arctic, for of a number of reasons. The AC twice postponed the application of the EU in 2013; however, it granted the EU the right to observe the AC meetings as an “observer in principle.” In addition to the significant resource and commercial interests of the EU in the Arctic, it assumes a stewardship role in the Arctic. As the leader in combating global climate change, for example, the EU is committed to assuming responsibility for protecting the Arctic environment given that climate change does have a devastating impact in the Arctic. Moreover, the EU is also concerned about its and continental Europe's only indigenous people, the Sámi, a significant proportion of whom live in its Arctic member states of Finland and Sweden. Thus, in recent years, the EU has endorsed a series of policy documents concerning the Arctic. Against the background of this development, this article examines whether the policy responses of the Arctic states with regard to the EU's increased ambition to engage in Arctic matters make it a legitimate actor or stakeholder. The article concludes that even though the Arctic states, as the primary actors, determine the region's governance approach, they see also a general partnership role for the EU with regard to the common goals of knowledge-based responsible governance and sustainable development of the Arctic.

  10. Effective Planning of the Future of the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of the Arctic region have become the most important ones in the world. Political risks hinder the industrial development of the region. This paper addresses the problem of planning and modeling the future of this region. It presents the problems of developing a model of the future due to the ideologies and strategies of two main actors in the Arctic, the United States and the Russian Federation. The effects of a bipolar perception of the future of the region and of the whole world are shown. A model of the effective planning of the future of the Arctic region is proposed

  11. Environmental marine geology of the Arctic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Arctic Ocean and its ice cover are major regulators of Northern Hemisphere climate, ocean circulation and marine productivity. The Arctic is also very sensitive to changes in the global environment because sea ice magnifies small changes in temperature, and because polar regions are sinks for air pollutants. Marine geology studies are being carried out to determine the nature and rate of these environmental changes by study of modern ice and sea bed environments, and by interpretation of geological records imprinted in the sea floor sediments. Sea ice camps, an ice island, and polar icebreakers have been used to study both western and eastern Arctic Ocean basins. Possible early warning signals of environmental changes in the Canadian Arctic are die-back in Arctic sponge reefs, outbreaks of toxic dinoflagellates, and pesticides in the marine food chain. Eastern Arctic ice and surface waters are contaminated by freon and radioactive fallout from Chernobyl. At present, different sedimentary processes operate in the pack ice-covered Canadian polar margin than in summer open waters off Alaska and Eurasia. The geological records, however, suggest that a temperature increase of 1-4C would result in summer open water throughout the Arctic, with major changes in ocean circulation and productivity of waters off Eastern North America, and more widespread transport of pollutants from eastern to western Arctic basins. More studies of longer sediment cores are needed to confirm these interpretations, but it is now clear that the Arctic Ocean has been the pacemaker of climate change during the past 1 million years

  12. Environmental marine geology of the Arctic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Arctic Ocean and its ice cover are major regulators of Northern Hemisphere climate, ocean circulation and marine productivity. The Arctic is also very sensitive to changes in the global environment because sea ice magnifies small changes in temperature, and because polar regions are sinks for air pollutants. Marine geology studies are being carried out to determine the nature and rate of these environmental changes by study of modem ice and sea-bed environments, and by interpretation of geological records imprinted in the sea-floor sediments. Sea ice camps, an ice island, and polar icebreakers have been used to study both western and eastern Arctic Ocean basins. Possible early warning signals of environmental changes in the Canadian Arctic are die-back in Arctic sponge reefs, outbreaks of toxic dinoflagellates, and pesticides in the marine food chain. Eastern Arctic ice and surface waters are contaminated by freon and radioactive fallout from Chernobyl. At present, different sedimentary processes operate in the pack ice-covered Canadian polar margin than in summer open waters off Alaska and Eurasia. The geological records, however, suggest that a temperature increase of 1-4 degree C would result in summer open water throughout the Arctic, with major changes in ocean circulation and productivity of waters off Eastern North America, and more widespread transport of pollutants from eastern to western Arctic basins. More studies of longer sediment cores are needed to confirm these interpretations, but is is now clear that the Arctic Ocean has been the pacemaker of climate change during the past 1 million years

  13. The electricity markets around the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thorough description of the electric power markets in the countries surrounding the Baltic sea is given in this book. Environmental problems and regulations and nuclear power are surveyed. Factors that may affect an expanded trade of electricity between the countries are analyzed

  14. Seasonal variability in the Baltic Sea level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Świrgoń

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sea level is subject to spatial and temporal variability on different scales. In this paper we investigate seasonal variability in the open Baltic Sea level using daily satellite altimetry data for the period 1 January 1993-31 December 2010. Our results indicate that there is a well-pronounced seasonal cycle in the 18-year average sea level and in its standard deviation. The average annual SLA amplitude in the open Baltic Sea is about 18 cm. The seasonal cycle of the SLA in the Baltic Sea is asymmetric in shape. In the autumn and winter (about 240-260 days per year, the 18-year average daily SLA are higher than the 18-year annual average SLA. In the spring and summer (about 100-120 days per year, the 18-year average daily SLA are lower than the 18-year annual average SLA. A similar asymmetry of the seasonal cycle is not observed in the North Sea and North Atlantic SLA data. The annual pattern of the sea level variability in the Baltic Sea is evident if one considers multi-year average time series, but the cycle can be obscured in some years.

  15. Baltic air wars intensify / Dorian Ziedonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ziedonis, Dorian

    2008-01-01

    Leedu lennufirma FlyLAL pidi maksma ära 40 000 euro suuruse trahvi, et firma lennuk saaks Riia lennuväljalt lahkuda. Varem oli FlyLAL nõudnud Riia Lennujaamalt kompensatsiooni, kuna lennujaam oli võimaldanud Läti lennufirmal airBaltic maksta väiksemaid lennujaamatasusid

  16. Nato enlarging into the Baltic States

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Prahas 21.-22. novembrini 2002 toimunud NATO tippkohtumisest ja seal vastu võetud otsusest Balti riikide alliansiga ühinemise kohta. Vt. samas: Russia's attitude to the NATO enlargement; Bush in Vilnius; Baltic states' prime ministers' met; Supporting USA?

  17. Baltic Ring may soon become reality

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Põhja-Euroopa energiasüsteemide ühendamiseks loodud projekti Baltic Ring raames kirjutasid Leedu ja Poola alla elektrivõrkude ühendamise lepingule. Välisminister Urmas Paet tõdeb, et Eesti on huvitatud Leedu tuumaenergia tulevikust

  18. Density and Absolute Salinity of the Baltic Sea 2006–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Feistel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The brackish water of the Baltic Sea is a mixture of ocean water from the Atlantic/North Sea with fresh water from various rivers draining a large area of lowlands and mountain ranges. The evaporation-precipitation balance results in an additional but minor excess of fresh water. The rivers carry different loads of salts washed out of the ground, in particular calcium carbonate, which cause a composition anomaly of the salt dissolved in the Baltic Sea in comparison to Standard Seawater. Directly measured seawater density shows a related anomaly when compared to the density computed from the equation of state as a function of Practical Salinity, temperature and pressure.

    Samples collected from different regions of the Baltic Sea during 2006–2009 were analysed for their density anomaly. The results obtained for the river load deviate significantly from similar measurements carried out forty years ago; the reasons for this decadal variability are not yet fully understood. An empirical formula is derived which estimates Absolute from Practical Salinity of Baltic Sea water, to be used in conjunction with the new Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10, endorsed by IOC/UNESCO in June 2009 as the substitute for the 1980 International Equation of State, EOS-80. Our routine measurements of the samples were accompanied by studies of additional selected properties which are reported here: conductivity, density, chloride, bromide and sulphate content, total CO2 and alkalinity.

  19. Density and Absolute Salinity of the Baltic Sea 2006–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Feistel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The brackish water of the Baltic Sea is a mixture of ocean water from the Atlantic/North Sea with fresh water from various rivers draining a large area of lowlands and mountain ranges. The evaporation-precipitation balance results in an additional but minor excess of fresh water. The rivers carry different loads of salts washed out of the ground, in particular calcium carbonate, which cause a composition anomaly of the salt dissolved in the Baltic Sea in comparison to Standard Seawater. Directly measured seawater density shows a related anomaly when compared to the density computed from the equation of state as a function of Practical Salinity, temperature and pressure.

    Samples collected from different regions of the Baltic Sea during 2006–2009 were analysed for their density anomaly. The results obtained for the river load deviate significantly from similar measurements carried out forty years ago; the reasons for this decadal variability are not yet fully understood. An empirical formula is derived which estimates Absolute from Practical Salinity of Baltic Sea water, to be used in conjunction with the new Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10, endorsed by IOC/UNESCO in June 2009 as the substitute for the 1980 International Equation of State, EOS-80. Our routine measurements of the samples were accompanied by studies of additional selected properties which are reported here: conductivity, density, chloride, bromide and sulphate content, total CO2 and alkalinity.

  20. Radioactive contamination in Arctic - present situation and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is currently a focus on radioactivity and the Arctic region. The reason for this is probably the high number of nuclear sources in parts of the Arctic and the vulnerability of Arctic systems to radioactive contamination. The Arctic environment is also perceived as a wilderness and the need for the protection of this wilderness against contamination is great. In the last decade information has also been released concerning the nuclear situation which has caused concern in many countries. Due to such concerns, the International Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (IAEPS) was launched in 1991 and the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) was established. AMAP is undertaking an assessment of the radioactive contamination of the Arctic and its radiological consequences. In 1996 IAEPS became part of the Arctic Council. AMAP presented one main report in 1997 and another in 1998. There are also several other national, bilateral and international programmes in existence which deal with this issue. This paper summarises some of current knowledge about sources of radioactive contamination, vulnerability, exposure of man, and potential sources for radioactive contamination within Arctic and some views on the future needs for work concerning radioactivity in Arctic. (au)

  1. Radioactive contamination in Arctic - present situation and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, Per [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraes (Norway)

    2002-04-01

    There is currently a focus on radioactivity and the Arctic region. The reason for this is probably the high number of nuclear sources in parts of the Arctic and the vulnerability of Arctic systems to radioactive contamination. The Arctic environment is also perceived as a wilderness and the need for the protection of this wilderness against contamination is great. In the last decade information has also been released concerning the nuclear situation which has caused concern in many countries. Due to such concerns, the International Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (IAEPS) was launched in 1991 and the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) was established. AMAP is undertaking an assessment of the radioactive contamination of the Arctic and its radiological consequences. In 1996 IAEPS became part of the Arctic Council. AMAP presented one main report in 1997 and another in 1998. There are also several other national, bilateral and international programmes in existence which deal with this issue. This paper summarises some of current knowledge about sources of radioactive contamination, vulnerability, exposure of man, and potential sources for radioactive contamination within Arctic and some views on the future needs for work concerning radioactivity in Arctic. (au)

  2. Towards an ice free Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article surveys the rate of ice melting in Arctic and forecasts that the region will be free of ice during this century. Observations of the atmospheric and sea climate, total ice areas for the period 1978 to 1998 and predictions for the areas from 1990 to 2040 by using two different models are presented. Possible reasons for the changes are discussed and some views on the consequences for the Norwegian climate presented

  3. Interact - Access to the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, M.; Callaghan, T. V.

    2013-12-01

    INTERACT is currently a network of 50 terrestrial research stations from all Arctic countries, but is still growing. The network was inaugurated in January 2011 when it received an EU 7th Framework award. INTERACT's main objective is to build capacity for identifying, understanding, predicting and responding to diverse environmental changes throughout the wide environmental and land-use envelopes of the Arctic. Implicit in this objective is the task to build capacity for monitoring, research, education and outreach. INTERACT is increasing access to the Arctic: 20 INTERACT research stations in Europe and Russia are offering Transnational Access and so far, 5600 person-days of access have been granted from the total of 10,000 offered. An INTERACT Station Managers' Forum facilitates a dialogue among station managers on subjects such as best practice in station management and standardised monitoring. The Station Managers' Forum has produced a unique 'one-stop-shop' for information from 45 research stations in an informative and attractive Station Catalogue that is available in hard copy and on the INTERACT web site (www.eu-interact.org). INTERACT also includes three joint research activities that are improving monitoring in remote, harsh environments and are making data capture and dissemination more efficient. Already, new equipment for measuring feedbacks from the land surface to the climate system has been installed at several locations, while best practices for sensor networking have been established. INTERACT networks with most of the high-level Arctic organisations: it includes AMAP and WWF as partners, is endorsed by IASC and CBMP, has signed MoUs with ISAC and the University of the Arctic, is a task within SAON, and contributes to the Cold Region community within GEO/GEOSS. INTERACT welcomes other interactions.

  4. Future-Proofing Japan’s Interests in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki

    2014-01-01

    In May 2013 the Arctic states convened in Kiruna, Sweden, in part to decide on whether six new states should be admitted as observers to the Arctic Council. Japan’s application was accepted along with those of China,India, Italy, Singapore, and South Korea. At a glance, one might ask what...... credentials Japan has to be involved in the leading Arctic forum. However, a closer look at its engagement in the Arctic indicates that Japan has genuine interests in political, economic, and environmental developments there. This essay examines Japan’s interests in the Arctic, its new role as an observer to...... the Arctic Council, and the international relationships that will affect Japan’s engagement in the region....

  5. CARVE: The Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Charles E.; Dinardo, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    The Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) is a NASA Earth Ventures (EV-1) investigation designed to quantify correlations between atmospheric and surface state variables for the Alaskan terrestrial ecosystems through intensive seasonal aircraft campaigns, ground-based observations, and analysis sustained over a 5-year mission. CARVE bridges critical gaps in our knowledge and understanding of Arctic ecosystems, linkages between the Arctic hydrologic and terrestrial carbon cycles, and the feedbacks from fires and thawing permafrost. CARVE's objectives are to: (1) Directly test hypotheses attributing the mobilization of vulnerable Arctic carbon reservoirs to climate warming; (2) Deliver the first direct measurements and detailed maps of CO2 and CH4 sources on regional scales in the Alaskan Arctic; and (3) Demonstrate new remote sensing and modeling capabilities to quantify feedbacks between carbon fluxes and carbon cycle-climate processes in the Arctic (Figure 1). We describe the investigation design and results from 2011 test flights in Alaska.

  6. Arctic shipping emissions inventories and future scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Corbett

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is a sensitive region in terms of climate change and a rich natural resource for global economic activity. Arctic shipping is an important contributor to the region's anthropogenic air emissions, including black carbon – a short-lived climate forcing pollutant especially effective in accelerating the melting of ice and snow. These emissions are projected to increase as declining sea ice coverage due to climate change allows for increased shipping activity in the Arctic. To understand the impacts of these increased emissions, scientists and modelers require high-resolution, geospatial emissions inventories that can be used for regional assessment modeling. This paper presents 5 km×5 km Arctic emissions inventories of important greenhouse gases, black carbon and other pollutants under existing and future (2050 scenarios that account for growth of shipping in the region, potential diversion traffic through emerging routes, and possible emissions control measures. Short-lived forcing of ~4.5 gigagrams of black carbon from Arctic shipping may increase climate forcing; a first-order calculation of global warming potential due to 2030 emissions in the high-growth scenario suggests that short-lived forcing of ~4.5 gigagrams of black carbon from Arctic shipping may increase climate forcing due to Arctic ships by at least 17% compared to warming from these vessels' CO2 emissions (~42 000 gigagrams. The paper also presents maximum feasible reduction scenarios for black carbon in particular. These emissions reduction scenarios will enable scientists and policymakers to evaluate the efficacy and benefits of technological controls for black carbon, and other pollutants from ships.

  7. The security aspects in the Arctic : the potential role of NATO

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Zhilina

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses military security issues in the Arctic region and assesses in particular NATO’s Arctic agenda by giving a historical retrospective on the militarization of the High North. Also, it provides a theoretical background to understand the contemporary strategic situation and analyze how the enduring nuclear-weapon-based security strategies can influence the future international relations in the Arctic.

  8. Exploring the practice of assessing cumulative impacts related to offshore oil activities in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkfeldt, Trine Skovgaard; Olsen, Pernille; Mortensen, Lucia;

    2016-01-01

    The Arctic Region is characterised by vulnerable ecosystems and residing indigenous people, dependent on nature for fishing and hunting. The Arctic also contains a wealth of non-living natural resources such as minerals and hydrocarbons. Synergies between increased access and growing global demand...... of methodology for assessment of cumulative impacts, knowledge gap of Arctic ecosystems and other....

  9. Arctic air pollution: Challenges and opportunities for the next decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Arnold

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Arctic is a sentinel of global change. This region is influenced by multiple physical and socio-economic drivers and feedbacks, impacting both the natural and human environment. Air pollution is one such driver that impacts Arctic climate change, ecosystems and health but significant uncertainties still surround quantification of these effects. Arctic air pollution includes harmful trace gases (e.g. tropospheric ozone and particles (e.g. black carbon, sulphate and toxic substances (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that can be transported to the Arctic from emission sources located far outside the region, or emitted within the Arctic from activities including shipping, power production, and other industrial activities. This paper qualitatively summarizes the complex science issues motivating the creation of a new international initiative, PACES (air Pollution in the Arctic: Climate, Environment and Societies. Approaches for coordinated, international and interdisciplinary research on this topic are described with the goal to improve predictive capability via new understanding about sources, processes, feedbacks and impacts of Arctic air pollution. Overarching research actions are outlined, in which we describe our recommendations for 1 the development of trans-disciplinary approaches combining social and economic research with investigation of the chemical and physical aspects of Arctic air pollution; 2 increasing the quality and quantity of observations in the Arctic using long-term monitoring and intensive field studies, both at the surface and throughout the troposphere; and 3 developing improved predictive capability across a range of spatial and temporal scales.

  10. Chapter 3: Circum-Arctic mapping project: New magnetic and gravity anomaly maps of the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaina, C.; Werner, S.C.; Saltus, R.; Maus, S.; Aaro, S.; Damaske, D.; Forsberg, R.; Glebovsky, V.; Johnson, K.; Jonberger, J.; Koren, T.; Korhonen, J.; Litvinova, T.; Oakey, G.; Olesen, O.; Petrov, O.; Pilkington, M.; Rasmussen, T.; Schreckenberger, B.; Smelror, M.

    2011-01-01

    New Circum-Arctic maps of magnetic and gravity anomalies have been produced by merging regional gridded data. Satellite magnetic and gravity data were used for quality control of the long wavelengths of the new compilations. The new Circum-Arctic digital compilations of magnetic, gravity and some of their derivatives have been analyzed together with other freely available regional and global data and models in order to provide a consistent view of the tectonically complex Arctic basins and surrounding continents. Sharp, linear contrasts between deeply buried basement blocks with different magnetic properties and densities that can be identified on these maps can be used, together with other geological and geophysical information, to refine the tectonic boundaries of the Arctic domain. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  11. The genetic prehistory of the New World Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavan, Maanasa; DeGiorgio, Michael; Albrechtsen, Anders;

    2014-01-01

    The New World Arctic, the last region of the Americas to be populated by humans, has a relatively well-researched archaeology, but an understanding of its genetic history is lacking. We present genome-wide sequence data from ancient and present-day humans from Greenland, Arctic Canada, Alaska...

  12. Evaluating pyrene toxicity on Arctic key copepod species Calanus hyperboreus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Rasmus Dyrmose; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Friis Møller, Eva;

    2014-01-01

    Calanus hyperboreus is a key species in the Arctic regions because of its abundance and role in the Arctic food web. Exploitation of the off shore oil reserves along Western Greenland is expected in the near future, and it is important to evaluate the acute and chronic effects of oil emissions...

  13. Review of Arctic fox. Life at the top of the world, by Gary Hamilton

    OpenAIRE

    Ims, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    The Arctic fox is the only truly Arctic species among the terrestrial carnivorous mammals of the world. It is distributed across the circumpolar Arctic region. Like polar bears, Arctic foxes regularly traverse the pack ice of the polar basin, a fact that astonished Fridtjof Nansen during his attempt to reach the North Pole more than 100 years ago. However, despite its unique lifestyle, which in some respects is more fascinating than that of the polar bear, there has been no popular book (exce...

  14. The Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A): July–August 1988

    OpenAIRE

    Harriss, R. C.; Wofsy, Steven Charles; Bartlett, D. S.; Shipham, M. C.; Jacob, Daniel James; Hoell, J. M.; Bendura, R. J.; Drewry, J. W.; McNeal, R. J.; Navarro, R. L.; Gidge, R. N.; Rabine, V. E.

    1992-01-01

    The Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A) used measurements from ground, aircraft, and satellite platforms to characterize the chemistry and dynamics of the lower atmosphere over Arctic and sub-Arctic regions of North America during July and August 1988. The primary objectives of ABLE 3A were to investigate the magnitude and variability of methane emissions from the tundra ecosystem, and to elucidate factors controlling ozone production and destruction in the Arctic atmosphere. This pape...

  15. Arctic Climate Tipping Points

    OpenAIRE

    Lenton, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    There is widespread concern that anthropogenic global warming will trigger Arctic climate tipping points. The Arctic has a long history of natural, abrupt climate changes, which together with current observations and model projections, can help us to identify which parts of the Arctic climate system might pass future tipping points. Here the climate tipping points are defined, noting that not all of them involve bifurcations leading to irreversible change. Past abrupt climate changes in the A...

  16. Indicator Properties of Baltic Zooplankton for Classification of Environmental Status within Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Postel, Lutz; Rubene, Gunta; Amid, Callis; Lesutiene, Jurate; Uusitalo, Laura; Strake, Solvita; Demereckiene, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the EU Member States to estimate the level of anthropogenic impacts on their marine systems using 11 Descriptors. Assessing food web response to altered habitats is addressed by Descriptor 4 and its indicators, which are being developed for regional seas. However, the development of simple foodweb indicators able to assess the health of ecologically diverse, spatially variable and complex interactions is challenging. Zooplankton is a key element in marine foodwebs and thus comprise an important part of overall ecosystem health. Here, we review work on zooplankton indicator development using long-term data sets across the Baltic Sea and report the main findings. A suite of zooplankton community metrics were evaluated as putative ecological indicators that track community state in relation to Good Environmental Status (GES) criteria with regard to eutrophication and fish feeding conditions in the Baltic Sea. On the basis of an operational definition of GES, we propose mean body mass of zooplankton in the community in combination with zooplankton stock measured as either abundance or biomass to be applicable as an integrated indicator that could be used within the Descriptor 4 in the Baltic Sea. These metrics performed best in predicting zooplankton being in-GES when considering all datasets evaluated. However, some other metrics, such as copepod biomass, the contribution of copepods to the total zooplankton biomass or biomass-based Cladocera: Copepoda ratio, were equally reliable or even superior in certain basin-specific assessments. Our evaluation suggests that in several basins of the Baltic Sea, zooplankton communities currently appear to be out-of-GES, being comprised by smaller zooplankters and having lower total abundance or biomass compared to the communities during the reference conditions; however, the changes in the taxonomic structure underlying these trends vary widely across the sea basins due to

  17. Indicator Properties of Baltic Zooplankton for Classification of Environmental Status within Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorokhova, Elena; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Postel, Lutz; Rubene, Gunta; Amid, Callis; Lesutiene, Jurate; Uusitalo, Laura; Strake, Solvita; Demereckiene, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the EU Member States to estimate the level of anthropogenic impacts on their marine systems using 11 Descriptors. Assessing food web response to altered habitats is addressed by Descriptor 4 and its indicators, which are being developed for regional seas. However, the development of simple foodweb indicators able to assess the health of ecologically diverse, spatially variable and complex interactions is challenging. Zooplankton is a key element in marine foodwebs and thus comprise an important part of overall ecosystem health. Here, we review work on zooplankton indicator development using long-term data sets across the Baltic Sea and report the main findings. A suite of zooplankton community metrics were evaluated as putative ecological indicators that track community state in relation to Good Environmental Status (GES) criteria with regard to eutrophication and fish feeding conditions in the Baltic Sea. On the basis of an operational definition of GES, we propose mean body mass of zooplankton in the community in combination with zooplankton stock measured as either abundance or biomass to be applicable as an integrated indicator that could be used within the Descriptor 4 in the Baltic Sea. These metrics performed best in predicting zooplankton being in-GES when considering all datasets evaluated. However, some other metrics, such as copepod biomass, the contribution of copepods to the total zooplankton biomass or biomass-based Cladocera: Copepoda ratio, were equally reliable or even superior in certain basin-specific assessments. Our evaluation suggests that in several basins of the Baltic Sea, zooplankton communities currently appear to be out-of-GES, being comprised by smaller zooplankters and having lower total abundance or biomass compared to the communities during the reference conditions; however, the changes in the taxonomic structure underlying these trends vary widely across the sea basins due to

  18. Capital Markets and Financial Intermediation in the Baltic States

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes the capital markets and financial intermediation in the Baltic States. It provides a comprehensive overview of the structure and level of development of the financial system, discussing some of the unique characteristics of the Baltics, such as leasing; and comparing the structure of the Baltic financial systems to other European Union accession countries and/or euro zone averages, both of which serve as benchmarks. The paper also addresses some of the broader analytical q...

  19. Arctic wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltola, E. [Kemijoki Oy (Finland); Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Tammelin, B. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  20. Arctic wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  1. Satellite mapping of Baltic Sea Secchi depth with multiple regression models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Andy

    2015-08-01

    Secchi depth is a measure of water transparency. In the Baltic Sea region, Secchi depth maps are used to assess eutrophication and as input for habitat models. Due to their spatial and temporal coverage, satellite data would be the most suitable data source for such maps. But the Baltic Sea's optical properties are so different from the open ocean that globally calibrated standard models suffer from large errors. Regional predictive models that take the Baltic Sea's special optical properties into account are thus needed. This paper tests how accurately generalized linear models (GLMs) and generalized additive models (GAMs) with MODIS/Aqua and auxiliary data as inputs can predict Secchi depth at a regional scale. It uses cross-validation to test the prediction accuracy of hundreds of GAMs and GLMs with up to 5 input variables. A GAM with 3 input variables (chlorophyll a, remote sensing reflectance at 678 nm, and long-term mean salinity) made the most accurate predictions. Tested against field observations not used for model selection and calibration, the best model's mean absolute error (MAE) for daily predictions was 1.07 m (22%), more than 50% lower than for other publicly available Baltic Sea Secchi depth maps. The MAE for predicting monthly averages was 0.86 m (15%). Thus, the proposed model selection process was able to find a regional model with good prediction accuracy. It could be useful to find predictive models for environmental variables other than Secchi depth, using data from other satellite sensors, and for other regions where non-standard remote sensing models are needed for prediction and mapping. Annual and monthly mean Secchi depth maps for 2003-2012 come with this paper as Supplementary materials.

  2. Seal dynamics on the Swedish west coast: Scenarios of competition as Baltic grey seal intrude on harbour seal territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Carl Johan

    2012-07-01

    The Kattegat-Skagerrak region on the Swedish west coast is home to an abundant harbour seal population (Phoca vitulina) and a small scattered grey seal population (Halichoerus grypus). In addition, grey seal from the growing population in the Baltic Sea frequently migrate into the Kattegat-Skagerrak. Harbour seals on the west coast of Sweden show relatively high population growth (approximately 9%) compared to the Baltic grey seal in ice-free habitats (approximately 6%), which, in theory, makes harbour seal the stronger competitor of the two in this region. However, incidents of disease in harbour seals that lower population growth are becoming more frequent. These epidemics are primarily caused by the Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV), and may reduce population size with up to 70%. This study models the average development under potential scenarios of competing harbour- and Baltic grey seal populations using Leslie matrices and the Lotka-Volterra model of inter-specific competition. The model is parameterised with previously published data, and resource overlap is incorporated through density dependent pup survival. Using numerical methods short- and long-term abundances are simulated under weak, moderate and strong competition and for different frequencies of PDV epidemics. Results show that the harbour seals are resilient to competition while exerting a negative effect on grey seal abundance under moderate to strong competition. Hence Baltic grey seal benefit from weaker levels of competition. Under moderate and strong competition grey seal abundance is a direct function of the PDV frequency as this reduces the competitive strength of harbour seals. Theoretically this means that higher frequencies of PDV or other pathogens epidemics could facilitate an expansion of Baltic grey seal into Kattegat-Skagerrak. Independent of interaction strength and frequency of epidemics the projected changes to abundances are slow (50-100 years), and even in exceedingly stable

  3. Nationality and ethnicity among young people as mental borders in the construction of the Baltic Sea as an imagined community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yndigegn, Carsten

    The paper addresses borders and spatial identity from the perspective of transgressing borders and developing supranational identities. It differs from the approach of nationality and nationalism research that works up the specificities of historical and cultural artefacts. It also differs from the...... tradition on research in spatial identity, especially the multifaceted works and long-term discussion about European Identity. The specific aim is to discuss a Baltic Sea identity among young people in the region. The paper draws on existing literature in addressing the theme of constructing the Baltic Sea...

  4. Artificial radionuclides in the surface waters of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea in the fall of 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors compare data from the literature with data taken in the fall of 1984 on the concentrations of cesium 137, strontium 90, cesium 144, and tritium in the waters of the Baltic and North seas. Sampling was conducted along the coastal regions as well as offshore and the consequent concentration and distribution profiles are mapped. They attempt to assess the weight of meteorological and water current as well as seasonal factors on the determined levels and also point to possible sources of the isotopes, including nuclear power plants situated along Baltic and North Sea shorelines and an atmospheric test of a thermonuclear bomb carried out by China

  5. Arctic Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Nils

    2013-01-01

    of the general security situation and to identify both the explicit and the implicit agendas of the primary state actors. The region contains all the ingredients for confrontation and conflict but the economical potential for all the parties concerned creates a general interest in dialogue and cooperation...

  6. Simulating Baltic Sea climate for the period 1902-1998 with the Rossby Centre coupled ice-ocean model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, H.E. Markus [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Inst., Rossby Centre, Norrkoeping (Sweden); Kauker, Frank [Alfred Wegener Inst. for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    Hindcast simulations for the period 1902-1998 have been performed using a 3D coupled ice-ocean model for the Baltic Sea. Daily sea level observations in Kattegat, monthly basin-wide discharge data, and reconstructed atmospheric surface data have been used to force the Baltic Sea model. The reconstruction utilizes a statistical model to calculate daily sea level pressure and monthly surface air temperature, dew point temperature, precipitation, and cloud cover fields on a 1 deg x 1 deg regular horizontal grid for the Baltic Sea region. An improved turbulence scheme has been implemented into the Baltic Sea model to simulate saltwater inflows realistically. The results are validated against available observational datasets for sea level, salinity, saltwater inflow, volume transport, and sea ice. In addition, a comparison is performed with simulations for the period 1980-1993 using 3-hourly gridded atmospheric observations from synoptic stations. It is shown that the results of the Baltic Sea model forced with the reconstructed data are satisfactory. Sensitivity experiments have been performed to explore the impact of internal mixing, fresh and saltwater inflows, sea ice, and the sea level in Kattegat on the salinity of the Baltic Sea. It is found that the decadal variability of mean salinity is explained partly by decadal volume variations of the accumulated freshwater inflow from river runoff and net precipitation and partly by decadal variations of the large-scale sea level pressure over Scandinavia. During the last century two exceptionally long stagnation periods are found, the 1920s to the 1930s and the 1980s to the mid 1990s. During these periods precipitation, runoff and westerly winds were stronger than normal. Stronger westerly winds caused increased eastward surface-layer transports. Consequently, the mean eastward lower layer transports through the Stolpe Channel is reduced. The response time scale of the Baltic Sea is of the order of 30-40 years. The large

  7. Vertical distribution of 241Pu in the southern Baltic Sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The unique study on 241Pu in sediments from the southern Baltic Sea was presented. • 241Pu was determined using alpha spectrometry by indirect method. • The biggest amount of 241Pu existed in the surface layers of all analyzed sediments. • The highest 241Pu amount comes from the Chernobyl accident. - Abstract: The vertical distribution of plutonium 241Pu in marine sediments can assist in determining the deposition history and sedimentation process of analyzed regions. In addition, 241Pu/239+240Pu activity ratio could be used as a sensitive fingerprint for radioactive source identification. The present preliminary studies on vertical distribution of 241Pu in sediments from four regions of the southern Baltic Sea are presented. The distribution of 241Pu was not uniform and depended on sediment geomorphology and depth as well as location. The highest concentrations of plutonium were found in the surface layers of all analyzed sediments and originated from the Chernobyl accident

  8. Vital arctic graphics. People and global heritage on our last wild shores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vital Arctic Graphics is a compilation of illustrations and case studies intended to describe the Arctic, the livelihoods of Arctic indigenous peoples and the future well-being of this region. It summarizes some of the key threats to the future sustainability of the Arctic including the rapid pace of climate change, worrying levels of persistent organic and heavy metal pollutants, and increasing natural resource exploration. The coastal regions are particularly important to the peoples of the Arctic and their current protection status is therefore given particular focus

  9. Rapid Arctic change and implications for sea-ice use and its management at the local and regional level: An example from Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicken, H.; Lovecraft, A. L.; Meek, C. L.; Druckenmiller, M. L.

    2008-12-01

    Reductions in sea-ice thickness and summer extent over the past few decades have been particularly pronounced in Alaska. This rapid environmental change coincides with significant socio-economic transformations, including increased ship traffic and offshore oil and gas development. Adaptation and response to these changes and regulation of coastal and offshore activities require environmental data and projections on seasonal to decadal timescales. Nascent Arctic observation networks are of great potential value in this context. However, in order for such observing and associated modeling activities to be useful, several criteria have to be met: (1) observations need to be relevant to stakeholders adapting or responding to a changing ice regime, (2) data products need to be accessible and interpretable by those they are meant to serve, and (3) institutions and governance strategies need to be in place to allow effective utilization of environmental data and information on changing ice conditions. We show how the concept of sea-ice system services can help guide observing programs, in particular in situations with conjoined uses of the ice cover. An example from our work in Arctic Alaska illustrates this concept for the use of sea ice as a platform by indigenous hunters, industry and marine mammals. Adaptive responses by different user groups to the substantial variability observed in local-scale ice conditions will require a significant effort in downscaling standard sea-ice data products and integrating new types of measurements. The challenge for ice-covered waters is that current approaches governing utilization of the sea-ice environment may not always be effective in addressing conjoined, potentially conflicting uses. The major transformations underway in the Arctic now provide us with an opportunity to explore and evaluate different approaches of observing, adapting and responding to change.

  10. Ship-based observations of atmospheric potential oxygen and regional air-sea O2 flux in the northern North Pacific and the Arctic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Ishidoya, Shigeyuki; Uchida, Hiroshi; Sasano, Daisuke; Kosugi, Naohiro; Taguchi, Shoichi; Ishii, Masao; Morimoto, Shinji; Tohjima, Yasunori; Nishino, Shigeto; Murayama, Shohei; Aoki, Shuji; Ishijima, Kentaro; Fujita, Ryo; Goto, Daisuke; Nakazawa, Takakiyo

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of atmospheric potential oxygen (APO=O2+1.1×CO2) and air–sea O2 flux, derived from dissolved oxygen in surface seawater, were carried out onboard the research vessel MIRAI in the northern North Pacific and the Arctic Ocean in the autumns of 2012–2014. A simulation of the APO was also carried out using a three-dimensional atmospheric transport model that incorporated a monthly air–sea O2 flux climatology. By comparing the observed and simulated APO, as well as the obs...

  11. NODC Standard Product: International ocean atlas Volume 6 - Zooplankton of the Arctic Seas 2002 (NODC Accession 0098570)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and biological data for the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions extending from the Barents Sea to the Northwest Pacific, sampled during 25 scientific cruises for...

  12. Günther Grass and the Pirates: The Stuff of Myth and the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J Knoespel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Grass’s Flounder contributes to our work of locating, dislocating, and relocating literature in the Baltic Sea region by challenging us to give attention to the lost or hidden stories that are ignored or played off against each other in the official versions of history that would fix our position in space. While Grass counters the seduction of the big story — universal history — he also reveals himself by getting caught in the contradiction of his own storytelling.

  13. Identifying potentially high risk areas for environmental pollution in the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Andreas; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Getzlaff, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The study aims at the identification of areas in the Baltic Sea from where potential pollution is transported to vulnerable regions. Generally, there is higher risk of ship accidents along the shipping routes and along the approaching routes to the harbors. The spreading of harmful substances is mainly controlled by prevailing atmospheric conditions and wind-induced local sea surface currents. Especially, spawning, nursery and tourist areas are considered high-vulnerable areas. With sophistic...

  14. Influence of the arrival of radioactive industrially contaminated North Sea water upon the radiation conditions in the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present and evaluate data from a four-year period of monitoring the movement of radioactive effluents from the radiochemical plants of Western Europe from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea and determine the concentrations at various regions along this pathway for cesium 134 and 137 and strontium 90 isotopes

  15. New airBaltic owner on board

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Transatlantic Holdings Company on ostnud 9,6 miljoni euro eest 59 110 airBalticu aktsiat. Läti majandusminister Artis Kampars soovib raskustesse sattunud lennufirma juhi Bertolt Flicki väljavahetamist. airBaltic plaanib koondamist. Riigikogu liige Arto Aas rõhutas, et airBalticu kadumine turult ei ole Eesti reisijate huvides, kuna ta on suuruselt kolmas lennukompanii Tallinna Lennujaamas

  16. Radioactivity in the Baltic Sea 1992-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Since 1984, the Contracting Parties to the Helsinki Convention have collected monitoring data on radionuclides in the Baltic Sea. The data covers concentrations of radioactivity in the Baltic marine environment and discharges from nuclear installations (nuclear power plants and nuclear research facilities) in the catchment area of the Baltic Sea. Additionally, important sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the Baltic Sea have been considered - namely atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons testing and the Chernobyl accident, and discharges into sea from European reprocessing facilities at Sellafield in the UK and La Hague in France. Due to the relatively slow exchange of water between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, contaminants such as anthropogenic radionuclides have a prolonged residence time in the Baltic Sea. Levels of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs are consequently still high in the Baltic Sea compared with other water bodies around the world. Strontium-90 contamination originates from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing, which peaked in the 1960's and led to direct input to the Baltic Sea from atmospheric fallout, and to delayed input via rivers. Caesium-137 was also released during atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, but the related input was small compared to the direct input from the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The delayed input of {sup 137}Cs to the Baltic Sea from rivers is smaller than the direct atmospheric fallout of {sup 137}Cs, and also much smaller than delayed inputs of {sup 90}Sr, since due to its chemical properties, caesium is less mobile in the environment than strontium. The anthropogenic radionuclides present in the Baltic Sea originate from several sources and modes of input. Direct atmospheric fallout has accounted for the main inputs, from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests and from the Chernobyl accident. Run-off from the land into sea via rivers has also contributed significantly for {sup 90}Sr, and to a lesser extent for {sup

  17. Climate Change and China as a Global Emerging Regulatory Sea Power in the Arctic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassotta Pertoldi-Bianchi, Sandra; Hossain, Kamrul; Ren, Jingzheng;

    2015-01-01

    on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and the Arctic Council (AC) are taken into consideration under climate change effects, to assess how global legal frameworks and institutions can deal with China’s strategy in the Arctic Ocean. China’s is moving away from its role as “humble power” to one of “informal......The impact of climate change in the Arctic Ocean such as ice melting and ice retreat facilitates natural resources extraction. Arctic fossil fuel becomes the drivers of geopolitical changes in the Arctic Ocean. Climate change facilitates natural resource extractions and increases competition...... imperialistic” resulting in substantial impact on the Arctic and Antartic dynamism. Due to ice-melting, an easy access to natural resources, China’s Arctic strategy in the Arctic Ocean has reinforced its military martitime strategy and has profoundly changed its maritime military doctrine shifting from regional...

  18. The sound speed anomaly of Baltic seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rohden, C.; Weinreben, S.; Fehres, F.

    2016-02-01

    The effect of the anomalous chemical composition of Baltic seawater on the speed of sound relative to seawater with quasi-standard composition was quantified at atmospheric pressure and temperatures of 1 to 46 °C. Three modern oceanographic time-of-flight sensors were applied in a laboratory setup for measuring the speed-of-sound difference δw in a pure water diluted sample of North Atlantic seawater and a sample of Baltic seawater of the same conductivity, i.e., the same practical salinity (SP = 7.766). The average δw amounts to 0.069 ± 0.014 m s-1, which is significantly larger than the resolution and reproducibility of the sensors and independent of temperature. This magnitude for the anomaly effect was verified with offshore measurements conducted at different sites in the Baltic Sea using one of the sensors. The results from both measurements show values up to 1 order of magnitude smaller than existing predictions based on chemical models.

  19. To what extent does the salinity flux influence phytoplankton blooms? - Baltic Sea modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszyńska, Agata; Stramska, Małgorzata

    2016-04-01

    This work is focused on numerical modeling of biological-physical interactions and their influence on phytoplankton production and vertical distribution of biomass and its variability in the surface waters of the Baltic Sea. The area of interest is an inland sea with water salinity much smaller than observed in the global ocean (about one fifth of the open ocean value). Vertical distribution of the salinity has a significant influence on water column density stratification, and therefore influences intensity of mixing and the depth of mixed layer. This, in turn, defines environmental conditions for phytoplankton growth. Vertical distribution of water salinity in the basin is controlled by processes such as evaporation/precipitation, freezing/melting of sea ice and runoff of freshwater from land. There are a lot of different phytoplankton species in the area of the Baltic Sea. Every single one has its own characteristics and is sensitive to distinct complex environmental conditions. Biological-physical interactions controlling these microorganisms' life cycles are multiplicitous and because of their complexity difficult to quantify. The best and probably only way to study presented issue is the usage of numerical modeling tool. The results presented here are based on 1D numerical simulations carried out with Princeton Ocean Model (POM, http://www.ccpo.odu.edu/POMWEB/) merged with the Ecological Regional Ecosystem Model (ERGOM, http://ergom.net/) developed for the Baltic Sea research by German scientists from the Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research in Warnemünde. In model simulations surface salinity flux was determined from the difference between the precipitation and evaporation rate at the air-sea interface. Data for parameterization of atmospheric forcing were defined based on data sets from National Centers of Environmental Prediction (NCEP). We carried out systematic calculations using different values of surface fluxes encompassing the range of

  20. Arctic Ocean Scientific Drilling: The Next Frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruediger Stein

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The modern Arctic Ocean appears to be changing faster than any other region on Earth. To understand the potential extent of high latitude climate change, it is necessary to sample the history stored in the sediments filling the basins and covering the ridges of the Arctic Ocean. These sediments have been imaged with seismic reflection data, but except for the superficial record, which has been piston cored, they have been sampled only on the Lomonosov Ridge in 2004 during the Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX-IODP Leg 302; Backman et al., 2006 and in 1993 in the ice-free waters in the Fram Strait/Yermak Plateau area (ODP Leg 151; Thiede et al., 1996.Although major progress in Arctic Ocean research has been made during the last few decades, the short- and long-term paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic history as well as its plate-tectonic evolution are poorly known compared to the other oceans. Despite the importance of the Arctic in the climate system, the database we have from this area is still very weak. Large segments of geologic time have not been sampled in sedimentary sections. The question of regional variations cannot be addressed.

  1. Arctic Environmental Data Directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Arctic Environmental Data Directory (AEDD) is being developed in cooperation with the US Global Change Research Plan. The AEDD Working Group, with members from US and Canadian agencies and academia, have described more than 300 Arctic data sets in a subset of an online data directory maintained by the US Geological Survey (USGS), ESDD (the Earth Science Data Directory). Through various links known as the Inter-operable Directory, the contents of AEDD are made available to scientists who use the NASA, NOAA, NSF and USGS data directories. Thus, scientists studying global change have access to Arctic data, and scientists studying the Arctic have access to global change data. The AEDD Working Group has sponsored development of a prototype Compact Disc Read Only Memory (CDROM) containing the indexed contents of the AEDD. Named Arctic Data Interactive (ADI), the disc was developed for use on Apple Macintosh and IBM PC-compatible computers, and uses a graphical and intuitive hypermedia user interface. The disc also contains portions of an Arctic Bibliography prepared in concert with the Polar Library Colloquy, sample full-text articles with illustrations, and selected data sets, including tabular data, text, and imagery. The ADI prototype is prepared as a model for organizing, presenting and distributing large quantities of Arctic and global change data and information to the science community. It is intended to be the first series of CDROMs with a consistent graphic design and user interface to place Arctic data and information on the desktop. The data are packaged with a powerful set of intuitive tools to navigate through and preview data sets from many disciplines and institutions. AEDD and ADI are sponsored by the Inter-agency Arctic Research Policy Committee and the Inter-agency Working Group on Data Management for Global Change, with guidance from the US Arctic Research Commission

  2. A Pan-Arctic Assessment of High-Latitude Lake Change ~25 Years Apart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Y.; Smith, L. C.; Li, J.; Lyons, E. A.; Wang, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic and Sub-Arctic regions are the home to the world's largest quantity of terrestrial lakes. These lakes play a preeminent role in the global water cycle and balance, are sensitive to global warming, and are vital for human and animal water supply. However, they are poorly observed, and a uniform lake inventory is unavailable at the pan-Arctic scale. Though there have been studies of Arctic lake dynamics at local scales, the general picture of Arctic lake change stays unclear. A systematic regional-scale assessment of Arctic lake change in the past ~30 years is crucial for us to address "How have Arctic lakes responded to global warming?" The presentation reports a systematic effort of high-latitude (45N and north) lake inventory using recently available high-resolution satellite imagery. Since Arctic lakes are abundant in small-size classes and their seasonality varies from region to region, pan-Arctic lake mapping requires the use of thousands of cloud-free Landsat images acquired in lake-stable seasons. Nearly eight million lakes have been mapped in various landscapes of the pan-Arctic using automated lake identification algorithms with high replicability. Lake-abundant regions are selected using a systematic sampling strategy to detect decadal lake change using the mid-1970s and circa-2000 Landsat imagery. Spatial patterns of the observed lake dynamics are analyzed at regional scales and the relationship between lake abundance and size distribution is investigated.

  3. airBaltic claims to be subsidizing Ryanair

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Riia lennujaama väitel võlgneb airBaltic neile 3,5 miljoni euro väärtuses lennujaamatasusid ning annab lennufirma kohtusse. airBaltic on aga lennujaama diskrimineeriva käitumise tõttu pöördunud konkurentsiameti poole

  4. BALCOFISH - a BONUS+ project in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Jakob

    The project BALCOFISH, acronym for "Integration of pollutant gene responses and fish ecology in Baltic coastal fisheries and management" is a newly started 3-years BONUS+-project funded by Baltic Organisations Network for Funding Science EEIG (www.bonusportal.org) with focus on contaminants and...

  5. Military aspects of Russia's Arctic policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zysk, Katarzyna

    2013-03-01

    Russia's Arctic policies have a strong bearing on the regional strategic environment for a number of factors. One obvious reason is the geography and the fact that Russia's Arctic shoreline covers nearly half of the latitudinal circle, which gives the country a unique potential to influence future Arctic activities. Second, despite radical changes in the regional security environment after the end of the Cold War, the Arctic and the High North (the European Arctic), in particular has maintained its central role in Russian strategic thinking and defense policy. Russia still has a strong military presence in the region, with a variety of activities and interests, despite weaknesses and problems facing the Russian armed forces. Third, and finally, Russia has enormous petroleum and other natural riches in the Arctic, and the leadership is laying on ambitious plans for development of commercial activities in the region. Understanding Russia's approaches to security is thus clearly important to surrounding Arctic nations and other stakeholders. Russian military activity in the Arctic has tangibly increased in recent years, adding perhaps the most controversial topic in debates on the region's future security. Combined with political assertiveness and rhetorical hostility toward the West, which was a particular feature of Vladimir Putin's second presidential term (2004#En Dash#2008), the intensified presence of the Russian naval and air forces operating in the region has drawn much of the international attention and contributed to the image of Russia as the wild card in the Arctic strategic equation.(Author)

  6. Gender Segregated Labour Markets in the Baltics: What are Prevailing – Similarities or Differences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rein Vöörmann

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on men and women and the gender segregation of jobs in the Baltic countries. Based on the Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian labour force survey data, a look is taken at the employment structure of men and women by industries and occupations, as well as at the question whether or not gender segregation in the labour market has been increased after the collapse of the communist systems in the region under consideration. Empirical data demonstrate that in respect to industrial gender segregation there is some increase in Estonia and Latvia, but not in Lithuania. Occupational gender segregation demonstrates more stability in all three Baltic States. Compared to the Western European countries, the main trend is towards bigger similarities.

  7. Early 2015 Performance In Baltic Sea Ports: Forecasts Of Estonian Performance For Entire Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmola Olli-Pekka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many changes have appeared in year 2015. In Europe economic malaise has continued since debt crisis started in year 2010, and although its effects on Northern Europe have started to diminish, new economic dark clouds have appeared through sanctions set by both European Union and Russia to each other during year 2014. Together with these, shipping sector has been under pressure due to strict sulphur regulation implemented from early 2015 onwards in the entire Baltic Sea Region. Due to these factors, sea ports at Baltic Sea have been under pressure during the first months of 2015, this particularly concerning container handling. Based on our regression model forecast, Estonia and Port of Tallinn shall have clearly declining container handling year ahead. However, overall handling at sea port is not so easy to forecast.

  8. The future of Arctic benthos: Expansion, invasion, and biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Paul E.; Sejr, Mikael K.; Bluhm, Bodil A.; Sirenko, Boris; Ellingsen, Ingrid H.

    2015-12-01

    One of the logical predictions for a future Arctic characterized by warmer waters and reduced sea-ice is that new taxa will expand or invade Arctic seafloor habitats. Specific predictions regarding where this will occur and which taxa are most likely to become established or excluded are lacking, however. We synthesize recent studies and conduct new analyses in the context of climate forecasts and a paleontological perspective to make concrete predictions as to relevant mechanisms, regions, and functional traits contributing to future biodiversity changes. Historically, a warmer Arctic is more readily invaded or transited by boreal taxa than it is during cold periods. Oceanography of an ice-free Arctic Ocean, combined with life-history traits of invading taxa and availability of suitable habitat, determine expansion success. It is difficult to generalize as to which taxonomic groups or locations are likely to experience expansion, however, since species-specific, and perhaps population-specific autecologies, will determine success or failure. Several examples of expansion into the Arctic have been noted, and along with the results from the relatively few Arctic biological time-series suggest inflow shelves (Barents and Chukchi Seas), as well as West Greenland and the western Kara Sea, are most likely locations for expansion. Apparent temperature thresholds were identified for characteristic Arctic and boreal benthic fauna suggesting strong potential for range constrictions of Arctic, and expansions of boreal, fauna in the near future. Increasing human activities in the region could speed introductions of boreal fauna and reduce the value of a planktonic dispersal stage. Finally, shelf regions are likely to experience a greater impact, and also one with greater potential consequences, than the deep Arctic basin. Future research strategies should focus on monitoring as well as compiling basic physiological and life-history information of Arctic and boreal taxa, and

  9. 大兴安岭地区北极狐生产性能的相关研究%Study on Correlations of the Production Performance of Arctic Fox in Daxinganling Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 白秀娟; 杜智恒

    2009-01-01

    [目的]通过数量遗传学的方法寻求提高北极狐群的品质及生产性能的依据,为北极狐育种提供主要数据.[方法]利用Minitab软件和SPSS13.0软件对大兴安岭图强林业局北极狐生产性能的变异系数、回归系数、通径系数进行了统计和分析.[结果]大兴安岭地区北极狐体重的变异系数是21.64;体长的变异系数是50.58;腹围的变异系数是11.29.体重和体长的Pearson 相关系数为0.047;体重和腹围的Pearson相关系数达到了0.868 ;体长和腹围之间的Pearson 相关系数是0.028 ;皮张长和针毛长的 Pearson 相关系数为0.003.体长对体重的通径系数是0.023 1;腹围对体重的通径系数是 0.866 7;针毛长对皮张长的通径系数是 0.003 1.运用了SSPS13.0软件针对群体的生长性能进行多重比较,北极狐体重、体长、腹围、皮张长、针毛长等性状在各个群体之间差异显著(P<0.05).对北极狐生产性能的数据进行分析可得,体重和体长基本不相关的;体重和腹围是呈极显著正相关的;体长和腹围之间基本不相关.[结论]大兴安岭图强林业局的北极狐各个群体生产性能之间存在着显著差异.%[Objective]The study aimed to seek for the basis of increasing quality and production performance of Arctic fox by the method of quantitative genetics. [Method]Minitab and SPSS13.0 soft wares were used to made the statistics and analysis on the coefficients of variation, regress and pathway for Arctic fox from Tuqiang Forest Bureau in Daxinganling region and the multiple comparison and analysis were conducted for the production performance of 7 populations of the Arctic fox. [Result]The variation coefficient of body weight for Arctic fox in Daxinganling region was 21.64, that of the body length was 50.58, that of the abdominal circumference was 11.29. The Pearson correlative coefficients between the body weight and body length was 0.047, that between the body weight and abdominal

  10. Arctic Climate Systems Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivey, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robinson, David G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boslough, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Backus, George A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peterson, Kara J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); van Bloemen Waanders, Bart G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swiler, Laura Painton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Desilets, Darin Maurice [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reinert, Rhonda Karen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This study began with a challenge from program area managers at Sandia National Laboratories to technical staff in the energy, climate, and infrastructure security areas: apply a systems-level perspective to existing science and technology program areas in order to determine technology gaps, identify new technical capabilities at Sandia that could be applied to these areas, and identify opportunities for innovation. The Arctic was selected as one of these areas for systems level analyses, and this report documents the results. In this study, an emphasis was placed on the arctic atmosphere since Sandia has been active in atmospheric research in the Arctic since 1997. This study begins with a discussion of the challenges and benefits of analyzing the Arctic as a system. It goes on to discuss current and future needs of the defense, scientific, energy, and intelligence communities for more comprehensive data products related to the Arctic; assess the current state of atmospheric measurement resources available for the Arctic; and explain how the capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories can be used to address the identified technological, data, and modeling needs of the defense, scientific, energy, and intelligence communities for Arctic support.

  11. Shelf-to-basin iron shuttling enhances vivianite formation in deep Baltic Sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Daniel C.; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Slomp, Caroline P.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal hypoxia is a growing and persistent problem largely attributable to enhanced terrestrial nutrient (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus) loading. Recent studies suggest phosphorus removal through burial of iron (II) phosphates, putatively vivianite, plays an important role in nutrient cycling in the Baltic Sea - the world's largest anthropogenic dead zone - yet the dynamics of iron (II) phosphate formation are poorly constrained. To address this, a reactive-transport model was used to reconstruct the diagenetic and depositional history of sediments in the Fårö basin, a deep anoxic and sulphidic region of the Baltic Sea where iron (II) phosphates have been observed. Simulations demonstrate that transport of iron from shelf sediments to deep basins enhances vivianite formation while sulphide concentrations are low, but that pyrite forms preferentially over vivianite when sulphate reduction intensifies due to elevated organic loading. Episodic reoxygenation events, associated with major inflows of oxic waters, encourage the retention of iron oxyhydroxides and iron-bound phosphorus in sediments, increasing vivianite precipitation as a result. Results suggest that artificial reoxygenation of the Baltic Sea bottom waters could sequester up to 3% of the annual external phosphorus loads as iron (II) phosphates, but this is negligible when compared to potential internal phosphorus loads due to dissolution of iron oxyhydroxides when low oxygen conditions prevail. Thus, enhancing vivianite formation through artificial reoxygenation of deep waters is not a viable engineering solution to eutrophication in the Baltic Sea. Finally, simulations suggest that regions with limited sulphate reduction and hypoxic intervals, such as eutrophic estuaries, could act as important phosphorus sinks by sequestering vivianite. This could potentially alleviate eutrophication in shelf and slope environments.

  12. Link or sink: a modelling interpretation of the open Baltic biogeochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Baretta

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A 1-D model system, consisting of the 1-D version of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM coupled with the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM has been applied to a sub-basin of the Baltic Proper, the Bornholm basin. The model has been forced with 3h meteorological data for the period 1979-1990, producing a 12-year hindcast validated with datasets from the Baltic Environmental Database for the same period. The model results demonstrate the model to hindcast the time-evolution of the physical structure very well, confirming the view of the open Baltic water column as a three layer system of surface, intermediate and bottom waters. Comparative analyses of modelled hydrochemical components with respect to the independent data have shown that the long-term system behaviour of the model is within the observed ranges. Also primary production processes, deduced from oxygen (oversaturation are hindcast correctly over the entire period and the annual net primary production is within the observed range. The largest mismatch with observations is found in simulating the biogeochemistry of the Baltic intermediate waters. Modifications in the structure of the model (addition of fast-sinking detritus and polysaccharide dynamics have shown that the nutrient dynamics is linked to the quality and dimensions of the organic matter produced in the euphotic zone, highlighting the importance of the residence time of the organic matter within the microbial foodweb in the intermediate waters. Experiments with different scenarios of riverine nutrient loads, assessed in the limits of a 1-D setup, have shown that the external input of organic matter makes the open Baltic model more heterotrophic. The characteristics of the inputs also drive the dynamics of nitrogen in the bottom layers leading either to nitrate accumulation (when the external sources are inorganic, or to coupled nitrification-denitrification (under strong organic inputs. The model indicates the

  13. Evaluating Arctic warming mechanisms in CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzke, Christian L. E.; Lee, Sukyoung; Feldstein, Steven B.

    2016-07-01

    Arctic warming is one of the most striking signals of global warming. The Arctic is one of the fastest warming regions on Earth and constitutes, thus, a good test bed to evaluate the ability of climate models to reproduce the physics and dynamics involved in Arctic warming. Different physical and dynamical mechanisms have been proposed to explain Arctic amplification. These mechanisms include the surface albedo feedback and poleward sensible and latent heat transport processes. During the winter season when Arctic amplification is most pronounced, the first mechanism relies on an enhancement in upward surface heat flux, while the second mechanism does not. In these mechanisms, it has been proposed that downward infrared radiation (IR) plays a role to a varying degree. Here, we show that the current generation of CMIP5 climate models all reproduce Arctic warming and there are high pattern correlations—typically greater than 0.9—between the surface air temperature (SAT) trend and the downward IR trend. However, we find that there are two groups of CMIP5 models: one with small pattern correlations between the Arctic SAT trend and the surface vertical heat flux trend (Group 1), and the other with large correlations (Group 2) between the same two variables. The Group 1 models exhibit higher pattern correlations between Arctic SAT and 500 hPa geopotential height trends, than do the Group 2 models. These findings suggest that Arctic warming in Group 1 models is more closely related to changes in the large-scale atmospheric circulation, whereas in Group 2, the albedo feedback effect plays a more important role. Interestingly, while Group 1 models have a warm or weak bias in their Arctic SAT, Group 2 models show large cold biases. This stark difference in model bias leads us to hypothesize that for a given model, the dominant Arctic warming mechanism and trend may be dependent on the bias of the model mean state.

  14. From Cold War to Arctic Battle?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Boris Brorman

    2012-01-01

    Greenland and the whole Arctic region is becoming a geopolitical hot spot. The opening of new potential sail routes to Asia and the possible exploitation of oil, gas and other natural resources like rare earth minerals are creating a window of opportunity for Greenland. What are the risks and who...

  15. The seasonal dynamics of Arctic surface hydrology in permafrost environments

    OpenAIRE

    Trofaier, Anna Maria

    2014-01-01

    Climate-induced landscape evolution is resulting in changes to biogeochemical and hydrologi- cal cycling. In the Arctic and sub-Arctic permafrost zones, rising air temperatures are warming, and in some regions even thawing, the frozen ground. Permafrost is a carbon sink. The thermal state of the ground therefore has important implications on carbon exchange with the atmo- sphere. Permafrost thaw mobilises previously sequestered carbon stocks, potentially turning these high latitude regions in...

  16. The Arctic Grand Challenge: Abrupt Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkniss, P. E.

    2003-12-01

    products as greenhouse gases to their regions of origin. Thus multinational company operations are affected by their own activities. There is a strong, convincing case, that these industrial giants must be involved in Arctic partnerships of the grand challenge. A most instructive, very successful example is the collaboration by the chemical companies after the discovery of the polar ozone holes, followed by the replacement of the culprit chlorofluorocarbon compounds. Public relations and involvement/education: The IPY offers a unique opportunity to showcase and drive home, into homes, the seriousness of the issue, Hollywood/Madison Avenue/ NASA style, nothing else will do. Ultimately we need to be mindful that "civilizations are ephemeral compared to species. -What we need is a primer on science, clearly written and unambiguous in its meaning-a primer for anyone interested in the state of the Earth and how to survive and live well on it." (James Lovelock, Science, 08/05/98). - Let's start in the Arctic-NOW.

  17. Arctic shipping emissions inventories and future scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Corbett

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents 5 km×5 km Arctic emissions inventories of important greenhouse gases, black carbon and other pollutants under existing and future (2050 scenarios that account for growth of shipping in the region, potential diversion traffic through emerging routes, and possible emissions control measures. These high-resolution, geospatial emissions inventories for shipping can be used to evaluate Arctic climate sensitivity to black carbon (a short-lived climate forcing pollutant especially effective in accelerating the melting of ice and snow, aerosols, and gaseous emissions including carbon dioxide. We quantify ship emissions scenarios which are expected to increase as declining sea ice coverage due to climate change allows for increased shipping activity in the Arctic. A first-order calculation of global warming potential due to 2030 emissions in the high-growth scenario suggests that short-lived forcing of ~4.5 gigagrams of black carbon from Arctic shipping may increase global warming potential due to Arctic ships' CO2 emissions (~42 000 gigagrams by some 17% to 78%. The paper also presents maximum feasible reduction scenarios for black carbon in particular. These emissions reduction scenarios will enable scientists and policymakers to evaluate the efficacy and benefits of technological controls for black carbon, and other pollutants from ships.

  18. Fate of mercury in the Arctic (FOMA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, H.; Christensen, J.; Asmund, G.;

    This report is the final reporting of the project FONA, funded by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency with means from the MIKA/DANCEA funds for Environmental Support to the Arctic Region. The aim of the project is to study the intercompartment mercury transport chain in the arctic area. From...... atmospheric deposition of mercury on sea surfaces to uptake in marine organisms, bio-accumulation, and finally mercury levels in mammals. The studies in the project are focused on the behaviour of mercury during the spring period where special phenomena lead to an enhanced deposition of mercury in the Arctic...... environment, at a time where the marine ecosystem is particularly active. The studies also include a comprehensive time trend study of mercury in top carnivore species. Each of these studies contributes towards establishing the knowledge necessary to develop a general model for transport and uptake of mercury...

  19. Astaxanthin dynamics in Baltic Sea mesozooplankton communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeijs, Pauline; Häubner, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    The red pigment astaxanthin is a powerful antioxidant, which occurs in eggs and body tissues of crustaceans and fish. It is produced by crustaceans from algal carotenoids. In a two-year field study we assessed natural concentrations and dynamics of astaxanthin in mesozooplankton communities in the brackish Baltic Sea area. Astaxanthin levels varied between 0.37 and 36 ng L- 1. They increased with salinity along the Baltic Sea gradient and were linked to zooplankton biomass and phytoplankton community composition. Astaxanthin concentrations showed typical seasonal patterns and varied from 0.2 to 5.1 ng ind- 1, 0.2 to 3.4 ng (μg C)- 1 and 6 to 100 ng mm- 3. These concentrations were inversely related to water temperature and strongly linked to zooplankton community composition. Communities dominated by the calanoid copepods Temora longicornis, Pseudocalanus acuspes and Eurytemora spp. generally held the highest concentrations. With increasing cladocerans:copepods biomass ratios community astaxanthin concentrations decreased and with higher relative biomass of Acartia spp. the proportion of astaxanthin diesters decreased. Diesters prevailed in the cold season and they are thought to improve the antioxidant protection of storage lipids during winter. Climate change causes higher temperature and lower salinity in the Baltic Sea proper. This modifies zooplankton community composition, but not necessarily into a community with lower concentrations of astaxanthin since T. longicornis (high concentrations) has been reported to increase with higher temperature. However, decreased astaxanthin production in the ecosystem is expected if a basin-wide increase in the cladocerans:copepods biomass ratios would occur with further climate change.

  20. Factors influencing future oil and gas prospects in the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article explores oil and natural gas development in the Arctic. While several commentators have argued that an increase in Arctic petroleum production in the years to come will follow directly from an increased demand for energy, our study finds that oil and natural gas production in the Arctic is dependent on a range of variables. By using climate-driven changes as a baseline, we examine spill-over effects and conditions that are important for further Arctic hydrocarbon production. Using the available literature from different scientific fields, this article provides a broad and nuanced perspective on the much debated question of whether or not the Arctic will become a region driven by oil and gas production. - Highlights: ► We study Arctic oil and gas activity. ► We consider climate changes, economic conditions, and political institutions. ► Increased Arctic activity is conditioned on several factors. ► Climate changes, energy prices, energy demand, and political incentives drives Arctic activity.

  1. Sea ice in the Canadian Arctic in the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate warming will occur first and most intensely in Arctic regions, according to the numerical simulations of future climate performed with different Global Climate Models (GCMs). It includes the simulations performed by the Meteorological Service of Canada. The observations gathered in the Arctic indicate that the present warming has no precedent over the past four hundred years. Since the 1970s, data acquired mainly by satellite indicates that the extent of Arctic sea ice decreased at a rate of approximately three per cent per decade. Over the period 1969-2000, a similar rate of decrease has been observed within Canadian Arctic waters. Over the past forty years, estimates of the thickness of ice in the Arctic, based on submarine measurements, show a 40 per cent decrease. By 2050, if all the conditions remain as they are, the Arctic Ocean could be ice free. The most widely held scientific opinion seems to be that in the future there will be less ice in the Arctic than what was observed in the past, an opinion that is still being debated by scientists. The development of local natural resources and trans-shipment between Europe and Asia could increase dramatically in a future with less ice. Marine transportation in the Canadian Arctic would be expanded. Climatological analysis results of Canadian ice information is presented by the authors, and they have chosen to discuss various probable scenarios related to ice conditions during this century. 13 refs., 8 figs

  2. Arctic Landscape Within Reach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image, one of the first captured by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander, shows flat ground strewn with tiny pebbles and marked by small-scale polygonal cracking, a pattern seen widely in Martian high latitudes and also observed in permafrost terrains on Earth. The polygonal cracking is believed to have resulted from seasonal contraction and expansion of surface ice. Phoenix touched down on the Red Planet at 4:53 p.m. Pacific Time (7:53 p.m. Eastern Time), May 25, 2008, in an arctic region called Vastitas Borealis, at 68 degrees north latitude, 234 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired at the Phoenix landing site by the Surface Stereo Imager on day 1 of the mission on the surface of Mars, or Sol 0, after the May 25, 2008, landing. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. The Baltic Meetings 1957 to 1967

    OpenAIRE

    Høg, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The Baltic meetings of astronomers from Northern Germany and Scandinavia began in 1957 and gathered up to 70 participants. Reports of the presentations are available from all meetings, providing an overview of the interests of astronomers in this part of the world 50 years ago. Most interesting to see for a young astronomer in our days, I think, is that a large part of the time was about astrometry. This focus on astrometry was the basis for the scientific knowhow which made the idea of space...

  4. Beyond Thin Ice: Co-Communicating the Many Arctics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckenmiller, M. L.; Francis, J. A.; Huntington, H.

    2015-12-01

    Science communication, typically defined as informing non-expert communities of societally relevant science, is persuaded by the magnitude and pace of scientific discoveries, as well as the urgency of societal issues wherein science may inform decisions. Perhaps nowhere is the connection between these facets stronger than in the marine and coastal Arctic where environmental change is driving advancements in our understanding of natural and socio-ecological systems while paving the way for a new assortment of arctic stakeholders, who generally lack adequate operational knowledge. As such, the Arctic provides opportunity to advance the role of science communication into a collaborative process of engagement and co-communication. To date, the communication of arctic change falls within four primary genres, each with particular audiences in mind. The New Arctic communicates an arctic of new stakeholders scampering to take advantage of unprecedented access. The Global Arctic conveys the Arctic's importance to the rest of the world, primarily as a regulator of lower-latitude climate and weather. The Intra-connected Arctic emphasizes the increasing awareness of the interplay between system components, such as between sea ice loss and marine food webs. The Transforming Arctic communicates the region's trajectory relative to the historical Arctic, acknowledging the impacts on indigenous peoples. The broad societal consensus on climate change in the Arctic as compared to other regions in the world underscores the opportunity for co-communication. Seizing this opportunity requires the science community's engagement with stakeholders and indigenous peoples to construct environmental change narratives that are meaningful to climate responses relative to non-ecological priorities (e.g., infrastructure, food availability, employment, or language). Co-communication fosters opportunities for new methods of and audiences for communication, the co-production of new interdisciplinary

  5. Arctic Bathymetry (batharcst)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The digitally compiled map includes geology, oil and gas field centerpoints, and geologic provinces of the Arctic (North Pole area encircled by 640 N Latitude). The...

  6. Arctic_Bathymetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Models project the Arctic Ocean will become undersaturated with respect to carbonate minerals in the next decade. Recent field results indicate parts may already be...

  7. Arctic survey, 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a survey and game patrol conducted to twelve villages in the Arctic from April 24 to May 2 1957. The report covers animals take for income...

  8. Arctic Geology (geoarcst)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The digitally compiled map includes geology, oil and gas field centerpoints, and geologic provinces of the Arctic (North Pole area encircled by 640 N Latitude). The...

  9. Geological Storage od CO2 in the Southern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Richard; O'Neill, Nick; Pasquali, Riccardo; Niemi, Auli

    2014-05-01

    Geological Storage of CO2 in the Southern Baltic Sea Region The BASTOR project identifies and characterises the potential CO2 storage sites in the southern Baltic Sea. A regional theoretical storage capacity of 16Gt of CO2 in the Middle Cambrian sandstone beneath 900 metres of cap rock was estimated. 1.9Gt of this storage potential is estimated in the Dalders Monocline with some 743Mt CO2 in individual hydrocarbon and saline aquifer structures located mainly offshore Latvia and 128Mt in the Dalders Structure. Although the study has established a relatively large theoretical storage capacity, there is no effective capacity proven within these totals. Dynamic modelling undertaken in the Southern Swedish sector suggests that the relatively poor permeability and porosity characteristics would limit the injection rate to 0.5Mt per well per annum and restrict the reservoir pressure increase to 50% above the hydrostatic pressure for an injection period of 50 years. The dynamic modelling for this area suggests that an injection strategy for this sector would be limited to 5 injection wells giving a total injection capacity of 2.5 Mt per annum. Based on these results, the potential of the Southern Swedish offshore sector to sustain injection rates of CO2 required for regional industrial capture, even when using horizontal wells, brine extraction and hydraulic fracturing, would appear to be very low. Areas to the north east of the Monocline, such as offshore Latvia have been identified as having better reservoir quality despite limited data being available. These areas could sustain higher rates of injection and prove suitable areas for commercial storage. Furthermore, the regional storage capacity assessment demonstrated that there are sweet spots in the Cambrian reservoir such as onshore Latvia, where there is commercial gas storage, and both onshore and offshore Kaliningrad, where there is ongoing hydrocarbon production. The potential for seal failure was investigated as

  10. Arctic-COLORS (Coastal Land Ocean Interactions in the Arctic) - a NASA field campaign scoping study to examine land-ocean interactions in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernes, P.; Tzortziou, M.; Salisbury, J.; Mannino, A.; Matrai, P.; Friedrichs, M. A.; Del Castillo, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic region is warming faster than anywhere else on the planet, triggering rapid social and economic changes and impacting both terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Yet our understanding of critical processes and interactions along the Arctic land-ocean interface is limited. Arctic-COLORS is a Field Campaign Scoping Study funded by NASA's Ocean Biology and Biogeochemistry Program that aims to improve understanding and prediction of land-ocean interactions in a rapidly changing Arctic coastal zone, and assess vulnerability, response, feedbacks and resilience of coastal ecosystems, communities and natural resources to current and future pressures. Specific science objectives include: - Quantify lateral fluxes to the arctic inner shelf from (i) rivers and (ii) the outer shelf/basin that affect biology, biodiversity, biogeochemistry (i.e. organic matter, nutrients, suspended sediment), and the processing rates of these constituents in coastal waters. - Evaluate the impact of the thawing of Arctic permafrost within the river basins on coastal biology, biodiversity and biogeochemistry, including various rates of community production and the role these may play in the health of regional economies. - Assess the impact of changing Arctic landfast ice and coastal sea ice dynamics. - Establish a baseline for comparison to future change, and use state-of-the-art models to assess impacts of environmental change on coastal biology, biodiversity and biogeochemistry. A key component of Arctic-COLORS will be the integration of satellite and field observations with coupled physical-biogeochemical models for predicting impacts of future pressures on Arctic, coastal ocean, biological processes and biogeochemical cycles. Through interagency and international collaborations, and through the organization of dedicated workshops, town hall meetings and presentations at international conferences, the scoping study engages the broader scientific community and invites participation of

  11. Arctic Tourism: Realities & Possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Pashkevich, Albina

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses human capital in the Arctic in relation to tourism. More specifically, with an ever-increasing number oftourists recognizing the attractiveness of the Arctic, tour companies are increasingly recognizing the opportunities. The media(typically southern media) sells the image, either before or after the tourists arrive, and communities are often left to deal with therepercussions – whether those are social, economic, environmental, or the like. Many of the repercussions are ...

  12. Arctic River Mobility: A Baseline Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, J. C.; Wilson, C. J.; Brumby, S. P.; Pope, P. A.

    2009-12-01

    In many arctic river systems, permafrost and the presence of frozen floodplain materials provides a significant source of bank cohesion. Due to this cohesion, permafrost may play an important control of arctic river mobility and meandering dynamics. Whether changes in the rates of permafrost thawing has had or will have as significant a geomorphic impact on arctic river meandering as has already been observed for arctic coastline retreat, lake size and distribution, and hillslope stability is at present an unanswered question. The potential impact of climate driven changes in arctic river meandering has important implications for river planform morphology, floodplain dynamics, river ecology, and the export of carbon and nutrients to coastal oceans. We present results of remote sensing analysis of river mobility for the Yukon River in Alaska and sections of the Siberian Rivers including the Lena, the Kolyma and the Indigirka Rivers. Comparisons of river location at successive intervals in time were conducted using Landsat imagery archives and higher resolution aerial photographs and satellite imagery. Extraction of river channel locations was accomplished using the GeniePro automated feature extraction software. Over the period of Landsat coverage (mid-1980s to present) arctic rivers show limited to no movement at the resolution of the Landsat data (30 m per pixel). On the Yukon Flats regions of the Yukon River, the most mobile sections of the river have migration rates comparable to reach-average values reported for temperate rivers; given that large portions of the Yukon display no detectable movement, reach-averaged values are far less than observed in temperate systems. Field inspection of areas of high erosion along the Yukon River indicate that erosional processes associated with the thermal degradation of permafrost play a dominant role in many of these areas. Thermal niching and large scale bank collapse due to undercutting play a large role in bank erosion

  13. Arctic freshwater synthesis: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prowse, T.; Bring, A.; Mârd, J.; Carmack, E.

    2015-11-01

    In response to a joint request from the World Climate Research Program's Climate and Cryosphere Project, the International Arctic Science Committee, and the Arctic Council's Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program, an updated scientific assessment has been conducted of the Arctic Freshwater System (AFS), entitled the Arctic Freshwater Synthesis (AFSΣ). The major reason for joint request was an increasing concern that changes to the AFS have produced, and could produce even greater, changes to biogeophysical and socioeconomic systems of special importance to northern residents and also produce extra-Arctic climatic effects that will have global consequences. Hence, the key objective of the AFSΣ was to produce an updated, comprehensive, and integrated review of the structure and function of the entire AFS. The AFSΣ was organized around six key thematic areas: atmosphere, oceans, terrestrial hydrology, terrestrial ecology, resources and modeling, and the review of each coauthored by an international group of scientists and published as separate manuscripts in this special issue of Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences. This AFSΣ—Introduction reviews the motivations for, and foci of, previous studies of the AFS, discusses criteria used to define the domain of the AFS, and details key characteristics of the definition adopted for the AFSΣ.

  14. The influence of Arctic haze and radiatively active trace gases on the arctic climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing fossil fuel consumption and industrial activities have raised concerns of possible man-induced climate changes. The changes result mostly from increased radiatively active trace gases (RAG) and anthropogenic aerosols in the atmosphere. Among the by-products of combustion, carbon dioxide is the leading RAG. Fossil fuel combustion also generates sulfates and soot, the principal constituents of the Arctic haze. Both CO2 and Arctic haze interact with radiative processes to produce external climate forcing. Due to their strong tendency to absorb visible solar radiation, soot particles result in strong diabatic heating in the Arctic. With a mixing ratio of 10-10, a concentration 1 million times less than H2O, the solar radiative heating produced by particulate soot is still comparable to that of H2O. The Canadian Climate Centre (CCC) has recently completed a climate simulation with a double carbon dioxide scenario. Version 2 of the CCC-GCM includes a mixed-layer ocean and thermodynamic ice model. It allows for the evaluation of climate changes due to an external forcing. The aim of this paper is to compare the climate changes induced by increasing CO2 and Arctic haze. Since both signals are occurring simultaneously, the authors must investigate the individual contributions with a climate model. A preliminary sensitivity study of the Arctic haze (February to May) with interactive sea ice was done. The analysis suggests that the excess of solar radiative heating leads to increasing rates of snow and ice melt during spring and summer. The most sensitive regions are the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and the Greenland Sea. In both regions, the ice is substantially reduced. The anomaly of sea ice amount continues its propagation northward in June and July even though the Arctic haze is absent during that period

  15. CLIMLINK: Climate forcing factors for marine environmental change during the mid- and late Holocene - a link between the NE Atlantic and the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polovodova Asteman, Irina; Risebrobakken, Bjørg; Bąk, Małgorzata; Binczewska, Anna; Borówka, Ryszard; Dobosz, Sławomir; Jansen, Eystein; Kaniak, Aleksandra; Moros, Matthias; Perner, Kerstin; Sławinska, Joanna

    2015-04-01

    Climate change has a strong amplifying effect on the environment of marginal seas such as the Baltic Sea. Owing to the connection of the Baltic Sea with the Atlantic (and the resultant pathway of water exchange via the narrow Danish Straits), changes in the Baltic region are suggested to be driven by external oceanic and atmospheric forcing originating in the Atlantic, particularly in the eastern Nordic seas, the Skagerrak, and the Kattegat. CLIMLINK aims to reconstruct mid- to late Holocene ecosystem changes in these regions and identify linkages, common forcing factors and effects for the Baltic Sea on a millennial to decadal time scale. High-resolution sediment records from selected key sites in the Norwegian Trench, and central Baltic Sea are studied by using a multi-proxy approach. Micropalaeontological studies of diatoms and foraminifera are combined with geochemical proxies, such as stable isotopes, Mg/Ca, TOC, TIC, C/N, XRF and magnetic susceptibility in order to achieve a more comprehensive view on environmental changes during the last 6000 to 8000 years. The chronology of the sediment cores is secured by using multiple dating tools: Hg-pollution records, 137Cs, 210Pb, 14C and tephra layers. Herein we present the initial results of the project.

  16. Oil pollution in the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostianoy, Andrey G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). P.P. Shirshov Inst. of Oceanology; Lavrova, Olga Yu. (ed.) [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Russian Space Research Institute

    2014-04-01

    This thorough review is based on observational satellite, airborne and in-situ data, scientific literature and technical reports, as well as the substantial experience of the authors, who hail from several Baltic Sea countries. They pay special attention to national practices, HELCOM and EMSA CleanSeaNet activities in oil pollution monitoring, and show different applications of the Seatrack Web model for oil spill drift prediction and the identification of illegal polluters, as well as for environmental risk assessment. Furthermore, some of the results on satellite monitoring of the Nord Stream gas pipeline construction in the Gulf of Finland are presented. This volume addresses the needs of specialists working in different fields of marine, environmental, and remote sensing sciences. It is a useful handbook on oil pollution for international and governmental agencies, as well as for policy makers who plan and manage oil and gas projects, the construction of ports and terminals, shipping, fishery, recreation, and tourist activities in the Baltic Sea.

  17. Oil pollution in the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thorough review is based on observational satellite, airborne and in-situ data, scientific literature and technical reports, as well as the substantial experience of the authors, who hail from several Baltic Sea countries. They pay special attention to national practices, HELCOM and EMSA CleanSeaNet activities in oil pollution monitoring, and show different applications of the Seatrack Web model for oil spill drift prediction and the identification of illegal polluters, as well as for environmental risk assessment. Furthermore, some of the results on satellite monitoring of the Nord Stream gas pipeline construction in the Gulf of Finland are presented. This volume addresses the needs of specialists working in different fields of marine, environmental, and remote sensing sciences. It is a useful handbook on oil pollution for international and governmental agencies, as well as for policy makers who plan and manage oil and gas projects, the construction of ports and terminals, shipping, fishery, recreation, and tourist activities in the Baltic Sea.

  18. The Arctic Visiting Speakers Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Fahnestock, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic Visiting Speakers Program (AVS) is a program of the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS) and funded by the National Science Foundation. AVS provides small grants to researchers and other Arctic experts to travel and share their knowledge in communities where they might not otherwise connect. The program aims to: initiate and encourage arctic science education in communities with little exposure to arctic research; increase collaboration among the arctic research community; nurture communication between arctic researchers and community residents; and foster arctic science education at the local level. Individuals, community organizations, and academic organizations can apply to host a speaker. Speakers cover a wide range of arctic topics and can address a variety of audiences including K-12 students, graduate and undergraduate students, and the general public. Preference is given to tours that reach broad and varied audiences, especially those targeted to underserved populations. Between October 2000 and July 2013, AVS supported 114 tours spanning 9 different countries, including tours in 23 U.S. states. Tours over the past three and a half years have connected Arctic experts with over 6,600 audience members. Post-tour evaluations show that AVS consistently rates high for broadening interest and understanding of arctic issues. AVS provides a case study for how face-to-face interactions between arctic scientists and general audiences can produce high-impact results. Further information can be found at: http://www.arcus.org/arctic-visiting-speakers.

  19. Analysing Sovereign Credit Default Swaps of Baltic Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvydas Kregzde

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses development of the Baltic sovereign CDS market. The level of commonalities and differences in credit risk of the Baltic countries with regard to CDS spreads is investigated. We apply principal component analysis, regression analysis, correlation analysis methods and Granger causality test. Driving forces for changes of CDS spreads in the individual country are established. We discover that the main impact of CDS spread changes arrives from external sources. Our study reveals interdependence between CDS spreads of the Baltic countries and analyses a contagion effect of the change of CDS spreads.

  20. ARCTIC LEGAL SYSTEM: A N EW SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    KUMAR SAHU MANJEET

    2016-01-01

    Historically, the term ‘Arctic’ was used synonymously with the term ‘ice’, but climate change and Arctic hydrocarbon grabbed the attention of the world community as an opportunity to make the Arctic an ‘Energy Hub’. Exploration of oil and gas over the past six decades in the Arctic has made the region as places in the world. All major players in the market have endeavored to approach this new energy basket to utilize its maximum benefit. Commercial exploitation of natural resources has made t...