WorldWideScience

Sample records for arctic offshore oil

  1. Review of technology for Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackinger, W. M.

    1980-08-01

    The technical background briefing report is the first step in the preparation of a plan for engineering research oriented toward Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery. A five-year leasing schedule for the ice-prone waters of the Arctic offshore is presented, which also shows the projected dates of the lease sale for each area. The estimated peak production rates for these areas are given. There is considerable uncertainty for all these production estimates, since no exploratory drilling has yet taken place. A flow chart is presented which relates the special Arctic factors, such as ice and permafrost, to the normal petroleum production sequence. Some highlights from the chart and from the technical review are: (1) in many Arctic offshore locations the movement of sea ice causes major lateral forces on offshore structures, which are much greater than wave forces; (2) spray ice buildup on structures, ships and aircraft will be considerable, and must be prevented or accommodated with special designs; (3) the time available for summer exploratory drilling, and for deployment of permanent production structures, is limited by the return of the pack ice. This time may be extended by ice-breaking vessels in some cases; (4) during production, icebreaking workboats will service the offshore platforms in most areas throughout the year; (5) transportation of petroleum by icebreaking tankers from offshore tanker loading points is a highly probable situation, except in the Alaskan Beaufort; and (6) Arctic pipelines must contend with permafrost, making instrumentation necessary to detect subtle changes of the pipe before rupture occurs.

  2. Review of technology for Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackinger, W. M.

    1980-06-06

    This volume contains appendices of the following: US Geological Survey Arctic operating orders, 1979; Det Noske Vertas', rules for the design, construction and inspection of offshore technology, 1977; Alaska Oil and Gas Association, industry research projects, March 1980; Arctic Petroleum Operator's Association, industry research projects, January 1980; selected additional Arctic offshore bibliography on sea ice, icebreakers, Arctic seafloor conditions, ice-structures, frost heave and structure icing.

  3. Development of oil and gas fields in the Arctic seas and other Russian offshore areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogoyavlensky V. I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of development of the Arctic and other Russian seas oil and gas fields have been presented. The state of the offshore seismic exploration and drilling fleets has been analysed. Seismic monitoring has been recommended for efficiency and safety of the offshore fields development increasing. Main directions of Russian oil and gas industry development have been determined

  4. Governance of Arctic Offshore Oil & Gas Activities: Multilevel Governance & Legal Pluralism at Stake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelaudeix, Cecile

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the governance process of offshore oil and gas activities in the Arctic with the concept of multilevelgovernance and legal pluralism to address both issues of management of the environment and public participation. The analysis goes beyond the single issue of fragmentation...... efficiently on the prevention of an oil spill and the response to it. A second path relates to the institutional settings and proposes considering the stress lines pertaining to the entanglement of public and indigenous rights and authorities and the consequences at the local level. A third path suggests...

  5. The changing Arctic and its effects on the development of Norway and Russia's offshore oil-spill prevention policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    Two very different nations are joined with a northern border and have worked together for decades to manage shared Arctic affairs, yet have very disparate approaches to policy development. Increased access to the Arctic and the push to develop its resources has also created a requirement for developing national policies to address the possibilities of oil spill response and remediation. Norway and Russia are the significant regional powers, with a shared arctic boundary, yet substantially differing approaches to policy development and implementation. We are exploring the variations in their approaches to Arctic offshore oil-spill policy development, in the context of policy informed by economic, social, and physical sciences.

  6. Arctic offshore oil and gas concerns: maritime law, sustainable development and human rights : a brief look at Iceland & Greenland

    OpenAIRE

    Guðmundur Egill Erlendsson

    2010-01-01

    Arctic offshore oil and gas activities are increasing with an expeditious rate in the last years, oil and gas exploitations are on the rise and just recently Iceland joined the other eight states in preparing for these kinds of undertakings. The international legal framework is proving to be fragmented when it comes to dealing with these types of activities and potentially the environment of the Arctic is not being adequately safeguarded. Here the question of whether there are internationa...

  7. Research projects needed for expediting development of domestic oil and gas resources through arctic, offshore, and drilling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canja, S.; Williams, C.R.

    1982-04-01

    This document contains the research projects which were identified at an industry-government workshop on Arctic, Offshore, and Drilling Technology (AODT) held at Bartlesville Energy Technology Center, January 5-7, 1981. The purpose of the workshop was to identify those problem areas where government research could provide technology advancement that would assist industry in accelerating the discovery and development of US oil and gas resouces. The workshop results are to be used to guide an effective research program. The workshop identified and prioritized the tasks that need to be implemented. All of the projects listed in the Arctic and Offshore sections were selected as appropriate for a Department of Energy (DOE) research role. The drilling projects identified as appropriate only for industry research have been separated in the Drilling section of this report.

  8. Exploring the practice of assessing cumulative impacts related to offshore oil activities in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkfeldt, Trine Skovgaard; Olsen, Pernille; Mortensen, Lucia;

    2016-01-01

    The Arctic Region is characterised by vulnerable ecosystems and residing indigenous people, dependent on nature for fishing and hunting. The Arctic also contains a wealth of non-living natural resources such as minerals and hydrocarbons. Synergies between increased access and growing global demand...... of methodology for assessment of cumulative impacts, knowledge gap of Arctic ecosystems and other....

  9. China Offshore Oil Logging Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Kang

    1996-01-01

    @@ China offshore oil logging business entered a faster developing stage sin-ce 1982 with the beginning of international cooperation in its offshore oil exploration. Nearly 90% of the logging expertises of China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC)are in China Offshore Oil Logging Company (COOLC), headquartered in Yanjiao, Hebei Province.

  10. Offshore oil: Correctness of perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Except for the Gulf of Mexico, the offshore oil industry has been virtually banned from the US Exclusive Economic Zone for ten years. The oil potential in Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) is also off limits. The Gulf of Mexico is the only place with prospects for future success and a number of companies both large and small are determined to move forward. The depressed price of oil does not encourage development but recently gas prices in the US have increased, making offshore gas development more feasible. Perhaps most significant is development and application of new technology and more intense management to make sure it works. The offshore oil companies and support industries have made significant technological advances, expending over and above the dollars paid in taxes, lease fees, and royalties. The ocean industries harbor a great reservoir of high technology knowledge. They have demonstrated the ability to successfully meet a vast array of challenges in exploring for, drilling, and producing oil and gas in extreme conditions. These facts beg the question as to the rational basis of each and every regulation and the ban on drilling

  11. Offshore produced water management: A review of current practice and challenges in harsh/Arctic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jisi; Chen, Bing; Thanyamanta, Worakanok; Hawboldt, Kelly; Zhang, Baiyu; Liu, Bo

    2016-03-15

    Increasing offshore oil and gas exploration and development in harsh/Arctic environments require more effective offshore produced water management, as these environments are much more sensitive to changes in water quality than more temperate climates. However, the number and scope of studies of offshore produced water management in harsh/Arctic environments are limited. This paper reviews the current state of offshore produced water management, impacts, and policies, as well as the vulnerability, implications and operational challenges in harsh/Arctic environments. The findings show that the primary contaminant(s) of concern are contained in both the dissolved oil and the dispersed oil. The application of emerging technologies that can tackle this issue is significantly limited by the challenges of offshore operations in harsh/Arctic environments. Therefore, there is a need to develop more efficient and suitable management systems since more stringent policies are being implemented due to the increased vulnerability of harsh/Arctic environments. PMID:26781453

  12. Some Aspects of Arctic Offshore Floating Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Lubbad, Raed Khalil

    2011-01-01

    The present work highlights some aspects related to the analyses of Arctic offshore floating structures. This thesis consists of five papers, which can be divided into two main categories. One category deals with the dynamics of slender structures with an emphasis on the prediction and suppression of vortex induced vibrations (VIV), and the other category examines the process of interaction between sloping structures and sea ice with focus on developing a numerical model to simulate this proc...

  13. OFFSHORE OIL OUTPUT MORE THAN SCHEDULED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    @@ China Offshore Oil Nan Hai East Corp (CONHE) is one of four subsidiaries of the China National Offshore Oil Corp.The first-quarter output was an encouraging 220 000 tons more than the planned goal for that period.

  14. China Offshore Oil Industry and Foreign Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru Ke

    1994-01-01

    @@ Offshore Oil and CNOOC The history of China's offshore oil industry can be traced back to late 1950's when geophysical surveys started in limited offshore areas. Then, in 1960's and 1970's, a few exploratory wells scattered from north down to south were drilled resulting in a number of discoveries with the total proven oil in place being merely 40 million tons. In fact, the China's offshore oil industry in a real sence did not emerge on the horizon until early 1980's when China opened its door to outside world and the China National Offshore Oil Corporation(CNOOC) was born.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF CHINA'S OFFSHORE OIL RESOURCES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Xiaojian; You Xuegang; Liu Haishan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Compared with the traditional exploitation of landbased oil and gas, to explore offshore oil and gas might exert certain influences by high-risk, high-tech and highinvestment, which attributes to determine the basic characteristics of offshore oil and gas developmentsafe, efficiency and economy.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN CHINA'S OFFSHORE OIL INDUSTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wenpu; Xu Hui

    1997-01-01

    @@ Environmental Protection in Offshore Field Development Since its establishment in 1982, China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC)has paid attention to marine environment protection, the main task in environmental protection management is to take advanced and effective measures to minimize the influence of oil development practice on marine ecologic environment.

  17. Rapid Development of China's Offshore Oil Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Haimin

    2002-01-01

    @@ Founded on February 15, 1982, China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) has experienced two decades of rapid development, in which the annual offshore oil production rose dramatically to 23.13 million tons in 2001 from 90,000 tons in 1982while the total assets jumped to 72 billion yuan from 2.8 billion yuan, but the total employees dropped to 21,000 people from 30,000. This offshore oil giant generated a profit of 9.2 billion yuan in 2001 and turned over 4 billion yuan in taxes to the State with the crude production cost lowered to US$9 per barrel.

  18. Contours--Offshore Coal Oil Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3302 presents bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of Offshore Coal Oil Point, California (vector data file is included in...

  19. Offshore oil and the coastline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    A radical, accelerated 5-year plan to offer 875 million acres (of which 20 million could actually be leased for oil and gas extraction purposes) on the outer continental shelf (OCS) could result in the release of large volumes of drilling wastes and spillage (Environ. Sci. Tech., Nov. 1981). The actual leasing, under the 5-year plan proposed by Secretary of the Interior James G. Watt, could amount to 4-5 million acres per year—about 10 times as much, on the average, as had been leased over the past 25 years. Regulations on the environmental effects may be less complicated yet more effective in that impact statements will cover large areas instead of the tract-by-tract statements now required. A number of the new offshore leasing areas, for example, the Alaska Coast (Cook Inlet, Beaufort Bay, Gulf of Alaska), the Blake Plateau and Baltimore Canyon, and the Georges Bank, are extremely valuable in terms of renewable resources and potentially fragile in terms of environmental conditions. Fishing interests in these areas have produced considerable controversy over the planned sale of petroleum rights.

  20. Screening Criteria and Considerations of Offshore Enhanced Oil Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Pan-Sang Kang; Jong-Se Lim; Chun Huh

    2016-01-01

    The application of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in offshore oil fields has received significant attention due to the potentially enormous amount of recoverable oil. However, EOR application offshore is in its very early stage due to conditions that are more complex than onshore oil fields, owing to the unique parameters present offshore. Therefore, successful EOR applications in offshore oil fields require different screening criteria than those for conventional onshore applications. A compreh...

  1. New Headway in China's Offshore Oil Cooperation with Foreign Firms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Xiaoying; WANG Keyu

    1996-01-01

    @@ In its cooperation with foreign firms this year, China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) has made new headway in attracting foreign capital and accelerating offshore oil and gas exploration and development as well as joint studies.

  2. Identifying polar bear resource selection patterns to inform offshore development in a dynamic and changing Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ryan R.; Horne, Jon S.; Rode, Karyn D.; Regehr, Eric V.; Durner, George M.

    2014-01-01

    Although sea ice loss is the primary threat to polar bears (Ursus maritimus), little can be done to mitigate its effects without global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Other factors, however, could exacerbate the impacts of sea ice loss on polar bears, such as exposure to increased industrial activity. The Arctic Ocean has enormous oil and gas potential, and its development is expected to increase in the coming decades. Estimates of polar bear resource selection will inform managers how bears use areas slated for oil development and to help guide conservation planning. We estimated temporally-varying resource selection patterns for non-denning adult female polar bears in the Chukchi Sea population (2008–2012) at two scales (i.e., home range and weekly steps) to identify factors predictive of polar bear use throughout the year, before any offshore development. From the best models at each scale, we estimated scale-integrated resource selection functions to predict polar bear space use across the population's range and determined when bears were most likely to use the region where offshore oil and gas development in the United States is slated to occur. Polar bears exhibited significant intra-annual variation in selection patterns at both scales but the strength and annual patterns of selection differed between scales for most variables. Bears were most likely to use the offshore oil and gas planning area during ice retreat and growth with the highest predicted use occurring in the southern portion of the planning area. The average proportion of predicted high-value habitat in the planning area was >15% of the total high-value habitat for the population during sea ice retreat and growth and reached a high of 50% during November 2010. Our results provide a baseline on which to judge future changes to non-denning adult female polar bear resource selection in the Chukchi Sea and help guide offshore development in the region. Lastly, our study provides a

  3. Efforts Stepped up to Curb Offshore Oil Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    China's oil sector has established the Bohai Sea Offshore Oil Environmental Protection Company to tackle worsening oil leakage pollution in north China's Bohai Sea. The bay of the Bohai Sea has been experiencing extensive offshore oil production and the oil turnover in Tianjin Port has been increasing fast, an expert with the company said.

  4. Bioremediation of offshore oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research program was directed towards the enhancement of insitu biorestoration of open sea oil spills. Bacteria possessing petroleum degrading enzymes are capable of splitting even thick, viscous oils and tars into lighter fractions. This process will occur at the oil/bacterial interface and depends upon viscosity of the oil, bacterial species, availability of ancillary nutrients, residence times and extent of mixing/oxygenation. Through the enzymatic metabolism of bacteria, a wide range of petroleum oils can be converted almost completely into CO2, water, cell mass and harmless biological waste products, usually within 60 to 90 days under favorable conditions. Specifically, this research work focused on the selection and examination of a floating medium which enhances the biodegradation process through improvement of conditions necessary for the process to occur. An additional effort was made to update previous citations of the order of magnitude of oil biodegradation rates and to compare laboratory measurements of biodegradation rates with field or mesocosm measurements

  5. Review of Offshore Oil and Gas Exploration in 2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC)maintained a sustainable and stable growth in oil and gas exploration in 2000, making good preparations for comprehensive offshore natural gas exploration and development in 2001. In the principles of economic performance and self-reliance and cooperation, CNOOC has achieved fruitful results in oil and gas exploration last year.

  6. Biodegradation of dispersed oil in Arctic seawater at -1°C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M McFarlin

    Full Text Available As offshore oil and gas exploration expands in the Arctic, it is important to expand the scientific understanding of arctic ecology and environmental impact to mitigate operational risks. Understanding the fate of oil in arctic seawater is a key factor for consideration. Here we report the chemical loss due to the biodegradation of Alaska North Slope (ANS crude oil that would occur in the water column following the successful dispersion of a surface oil slick. Primary biodegradation and mineralization were measured in mesocosms containing Arctic seawater collected from the Chukchi Sea, Alaska, incubated at -1°C. Indigenous microorganisms degraded both fresh and weathered oil, in both the presence and absence of Corexit 9500, with oil losses ranging from 46-61% and up to 11% mineralization over 60 days. When tested alone, 14% of 50 ppm Corexit 9500 was mineralized within 60 days. Our study reveals that microorganisms indigenous to Arctic seawater are capable of performing extensive biodegradation of chemically and physically dispersed oil at an environmentally relevant temperature (-1°C without any additional nutrients.

  7. SEASAT demonstration experiments with the offshore oil, gas and mining industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, A. G.; Robinson, A. C.; Balon, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Despite its failure, SEASAT-1 acquired a reasonable volume of data that can be used by industrial participants on a non-real-time basis to prove the concept of microwave sensing of the world's oceans from a satellite platform. The amended version of 8 experimental plans are presented, along with a description of the satellite, its instruments, and the data available. Case studies are summarized for the following experiments: (1) Beaufort Sea oil, gas, and Arctic operations; (2) Labrador Sea oil, gas, and sea ice; (3) Gulf of Mexico pipelines; (4) U.S. East Coast offshore oil and gas; (5) worldwide offshore drilling and production operations; (6) Equatorial East Pacific Ocean mining; (7) Bering Sea ice project; and (8) North Sea oil and gas.

  8. China's Offshore Oil Development Expected to Take Off

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China's offshore oil industry will face a high-speed development with the crude oil production expected to top 50 million tons by 2010, according to a study recently released by China's State Oceanic Administration titled "China's Oceanic Development Report." Meanwhile, the offshore natural gas production will also enter a rapid growth stage. In addition, a series of new exploration technologies suitable for China's offshore areas will be developed, including 3D seismic imaging technology,data imaging logging technology, underwater multiphase flow oil and gas development technology, marginal oil field development technology and shallow sea oil and gas development technology.

  9. Foreign Cooperation Promotes China's Offshore Oil Industrial Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Effective pattern for foreign cooperation China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) has set up the risk contract pattern for its cooperation with foreign companies on the basis of iRules of the People's Republic of China for Foreign Cooperation in Offshore Petroleum Resources Recovery() (hereinafter referred to as the Oil Rule) released by the State Council in 1982.

  10. Marine biodegradation of crude oil in temperate and Arctic water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Mette; Johnsen, Anders R; Christensen, Jan H

    2015-12-30

    Despite increased interest in marine oil exploration in the Arctic, little is known about the fate of Arctic offshore oil pollution. Therefore, in the present study, we examine the oil degradation potential for an Arctic site (Disko Bay, Greenland) and discuss this in relation to a temperate site (North Sea, Denmark). Biodegradation was assessed following exposure to Oseberg Blend crude oil (100 mg L(-1)) in microcosms. Changes in oil hydrocarbon fingerprints of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkyl-substituted PAHs, dibenzothiophenes, n-alkanes and alkyltoluenes were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In the Disko Bay sample, the degradation order was n-alkanes>alkyltoluenes (para->meta->ortho-isomers)>PAHs and dibenzothiophenes, whereas, the degradation order in the North Sea samples was PAHs and dibenzothiophenes>alkyltoluenes>n-alkanes. These differences in degradation patterns significantly affect the environmental risk of oil spills and emphasise the need to consider the specific environmental conditions when conducting risk assessments of Arctic oil pollution. PMID:26159801

  11. Screening Criteria and Considerations of Offshore Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan-Sang Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of enhanced oil recovery (EOR in offshore oil fields has received significant attention due to the potentially enormous amount of recoverable oil. However, EOR application offshore is in its very early stage due to conditions that are more complex than onshore oil fields, owing to the unique parameters present offshore. Therefore, successful EOR applications in offshore oil fields require different screening criteria than those for conventional onshore applications. A comprehensive database for onshore applications of EOR processes together with a limited offshore EOR application database are analyzed in this paper, and the important parameters for successful offshore application are incorporated into the new EOR screening criteria. In this paper, screening criteria to determine acceptable EOR processes for offshore fields, including hydrocarbon gas miscible, CO2 miscible, and polymer processes, are presented. Suggested screening criteria for these EOR processes comprise quantitative boundaries and qualitative considerations. Quantitative screening criteria are predominantly based on quantifiable data, such as oil and reservoir properties. Qualitative screening considerations mainly focus on the operational issues present offshore, including platform space constraints, limited disposal options, injectant availability, and flow assurance matters (including hydrate formation and difficulties in emulsion separation.

  12. Peregrino : a heavy oil development offshore Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliassen, H. [StatoilHydro, Trondheim (Norway)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed a commercial development plan for an offshore oil field located off the coast of Brazil. A 3-D reservoir flow model was combined with an integrated production system model in order to model water-flooding and water injection strategies as well as to determine optimal water handling capacity. Flow assurance modelling was also conducted. A 3-D geological model was developed using data from wells drilled on the field as well as data from a regional sedimentological model. Reservoir penetration will be approximately 40,500 meters. Multilateral wells will be used to increase reservoir penetration in the future. The first phase of the development will consist of a floating production, storage and offloading unit as well as 2 wellhead platforms. A combined power and heating system will be used to provide power for pumps and to heat water. It was concluded that a high recovery factor is needed to ensure the economic viability of the project. 5 figs.

  13. Design challenges for large Arctic crude oil tanker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vasily Dinkov vessel was delivered by Samsung Heavy Industries shipyard to Russian ship-owner Sovcomflot. It is the largest icebreaking tanker ever built. The vessel was designed and constructed to transport crude oil from the Varandey offshore terminal in the southeastern Barents Sea to a transshipment location near Murmansk, Russia. The vessel is under long-term charter for Naryanmarneftegas, a joint venture of Lukoil and ConocoPhillips. The new ship was constructed strictly to the requirements, specification, and concept design provided by the charterer. The Varandey oil transportation concept and the vessel operational profile resulted in some conflicting requirements, compromising technical solutions, and assumptions yet to be proven in operation. This paper described the design challenges and selected approach to solve the solution to the tanker key design elements. These included the ice transit and other Arctic environmental challenges; open water performance issues; and icebreaking hull structure design challenges associated with modern shipbuilding technology standards and cost efficiency. The principle characteristics of the Vasily Dinkov were first presented and the Varandey crude oil transportation system was also described. Several features have made the Vasily Dinkov the most advanced icebreaking tanker to date, such as the icebreaking concept which has expanded the capability of both traditional icebreaking ships fitted with the icebreaker bow and double acting ships intended to operate astern only in the ice; the largest azimuthal twin screw propulsion plant for the Arctic with highest ice torque capacity ever specified for cargo vessel; and the first customized, automated, asymmetric steering control system designed to improve open water maneuverability and steering stability of podded vessels. It was concluded that the transportation system, the overall vessel concept and many of the vessel features require validation based on operational

  14. Development of an oil spill forecast system for offshore China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonggang; Wei, Zexun; An, Wei

    2016-07-01

    An oil spill forecast system for offshore China was developed based on Visual C++. The oil spill forecast system includes an ocean environmental forecast model and an oil spill model. The ocean environmental forecast model was designed to include timesaving methods, and comprised a parametrical wind wave forecast model and a sea surface current forecast model. The oil spill model was based on the "particle method" and fulfills the prediction of oil particle behavior by considering the drifting, evaporation and emulsification processes. A specific database was embedded into the oil spill forecast system, which contained fundamental information, such as the properties of oil, reserve of emergency equipment and distribution of marine petroleum platform. The oil spill forecast system was successfully applied as part of an oil spill emergency exercise, and provides an operational service in the Research and Development Center for Offshore Oil Safety and Environmental Technology.

  15. Development of an oil spill forecast system for offshore China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonggang; Wei, Zexun; An, Wei

    2015-12-01

    An oil spill forecast system for offshore China was developed based on Visual C++. The oil spill forecast system includes an ocean environmental forecast model and an oil spill model. The ocean environmental forecast model was designed to include timesaving methods, and comprised a parametrical wind wave forecast model and a sea surface current forecast model. The oil spill model was based on the "particle method" and fulfills the prediction of oil particle behavior by considering the drifting, evaporation and emulsification processes. A specific database was embedded into the oil spill forecast system, which contained fundamental information, such as the properties of oil, reserve of emergency equipment and distribution of marine petroleum platform. The oil spill forecast system was successfully applied as part of an oil spill emergency exercise, and provides an operational service in the Research and Development Center for Offshore Oil Safety and Environmental Technology.

  16. Faults--Offshore of Coal Oil Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3302 presents data for faults for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheet 10, SIM 3302) of the Offshore of Coal Oil Point map area, California....

  17. Folds--Offshore of Coal Oil Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3302 presents data for folds for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheet 10, SIM 3302) of the Offshore of Coal Oil Point map area, California....

  18. Geology--Offshore of Coal Oil Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3302 presents data for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheet 10, SIM 3302) of the Offshore of Coal Oil Point map area, California. The vector...

  19. Canada : oil, gas, and the new Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebert, R. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Political Science; Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Centre for Military and Strategic Studies

    2010-07-01

    This presentation provided a broad overview of the geopolitical issues affecting the massive transformation of the Arctic resulting from resource development, globalization, and climate change. Two Arctics are emerging, notably one European and one North American. Oil and gas companies are investing heavily in the North, and there is continued debate over pipelines and projects, but the viability of projects can shift abruptly from technological and political change. Recent examples include the emergence of shale gas, the possibility of the United States becoming a gas exporter, and the Deepwater Horizon disaster. In terms of Maritime jurisdictions and boundaries, a comparison was presented regarding the Canadian and Russian claims to the continental shelf. International cooperation and a commitment to peaceful means can be seen in the Ilulissat Declaration, the acceptance of the United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea as rules, the scientific cooperation of Canada, the United States, and Denmark, and the recent boundary agreement between Russia and Norway. The positions of the main players in the new geopolitics of the North were outlined, particularly with respect to Russia, the United States, Norway, Denmark, and Canada. Their recent policy statements and developing arctic force capabilities were summarized. Canada's more assertive Arctic policy was outlined in more detail along with the country's base locations and recent security actions in the North. The main issues facing nations with interests in the North will be maritime and aerospace; understanding the new players on the scene; and new technological developments. 10 figs., 5 refs.

  20. Canada's east coast offshore oil and gas industry: a backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Another of the backgrounder series published by the Petroleum Communication Foundation, this booklet describes Canada's offshore oil and natural gas operations in the North Atlantic Ocean, specifically in the Hibernia (off Newfoundland, crude oil), Terra Nova (off Newfoundland, crude oil), Cohasset-Panuke (off Nova Scotia, crude oil) and Sable Island (off Nova Scotia, natural gas) fields. Together, these project represent an investment of more than 10 billion dollars and constitute a growing portion of Canada's 400,000 cubic metres of crude oil and natural gas liquids per day production. The booklet explains the importance of the offshore oil and natural gas industry to Canada, the benefits accruing to the maritime provinces locally, prospects for future offshore oil and natural gas development and provides a brief summary of each of the four current major projects. The booklet also provides an overview of the facilities required for offshore energy projects, environmental impacts and safeguards, exploration, drilling, production, processing and transportation aspects of offshore oil and gas projects. 9 refs, photos

  1. Offshore wind power and offshore oil exploration made for each other

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The offshore wind took off the last ten years in Europe and is also now being developed in China and the United States. The main driver of this development is the ability to access greater and more constant wind resources while avoiding some partially use conflicts. Still in evolution and in its learning curve, offshore wind will need to achieve a significant reduction in the cost of energy, to be deployed on a large scale. The reduction levers are partly known: development of turbines with higher power, improved reliability, improved logistics, reducing installation costs, increased competition. To achieve this, the offshore wind industry can take advantage of the offshore oil and gas industry which, with over 40 years experience in major projects at sea, may contribute to this necessary cost reduction. Various actors in the oil industry are already involved in the world of offshore wind, but we are seeing an expansion of this movement, with the recent involvement of new world class players. Entire sectors of the value chain of offshore wind are indeed common to both industries. Adaptation of the means and methods of the oil and gas industry will however be needed to meet the challenges of offshore wind projects. (authors)

  2. Canada's East Coast offshore oil and gas industry: a backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive overview of Canada's offshore oil and natural gas resources is provided, and their significance to the economy of the Maritimes and of Canada as a whole is assessed. The overview describes the ongoing offshore energy projects, the facilities used to produce offshore resources, the processing and transportation of offshore oil and natural gas, the measures taken to protect the environment, the regulatory regime in place and the scientific, technical and economic benefits accruing to the local as well as the national economy. To the end of 1998, some $ 8 billion have been invested by the oil and gas industry in seismic surveys and drilling to explore petroleum potential off Canada's East Coast, and another $ 10 billion had been earmarked for the construction of production and transportation facilities. In September 1998, companies bid a record $ 175 million for additional licences to explore for oil and gas off Newfoundland during the next five years. In 1999, companies bid yet another $ 592 million for exploration rights off Nova Scotia. Four significant projects are currently in development or in production: (1) Hibernia - a crude oil producing field off Newfoundland, (2) Terra Nova - a crude oil development off the Newfoundland coast, (3) Cohasset-Panuke - a crude oil production operation off the the Nova Scotia coast, and (4) the Sable Offshore Energy Project -- a natural gas project of Nova Scotia. A list of sources for further information is appended. Maps. tabs., figs

  3. Energy Efficient Pump Control for an Offshore Oil Processing System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Soleiman, Kian; Løhndorf, Bo

    2012-01-01

    The energy efficient control of a pump system for an offshore oil processing system is investigated. The seawater is lifted up by a pump system which consists of three identical centrifugal pumps in parallel, and the lifted seawater is used to cool down the crude oil flowing out of a threephase...

  4. China's Offshore Oil Production Expected to Rise 19% in 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ CNOOC Limited, of which CNOOC is the parent company, announced its 2005 business strategy and development plan in early February to target itself at a 19 percent increase for oil production over the previous year. The offshore oil giant planned to produce 141-146 million BOE (barrels ofoil equivalent) in 2005.

  5. Offshore Oil Drilling: Buying Energy Independence or Buying Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Stephen L.

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the issues and concerns about offshore oil drilling in the United States. The demand for energy is going up, not down, and for a long time, even as alternative sources of energy are developed, more oil will be needed. The strongest argument against drilling is that it could distract the country from the pursuit of…

  6. Legal aspects of financing Canadian offshore oil and gas developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented of the significant legal considerations involved in structuring, negotiating, and documenting commercial financing of a Canadian offshore oil and gas production facility. Emphasis is placed on the Hibernia Project in the Newfoundland offshore as an example, and more specifically the $450 million bank financing completed in November 1991. The legal framework governing offshore production financing in this case was complex, due to the project's location in international waters on the continental shelf. Complex intergovernmental arrangements have been implemented between Canada and Newfoundland to govern the offshore area and regulate the project. An agreement called the Atlantic Accord allowed the Canada Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board (CNOPB) to grant production licenses and to regulate offshore exploration and development, with matters relating to legislation, taxation, and royalties shared between the governments. Certain other acts were enacted or extended for application to the offshore area. The CNOPB administers a registry system for transfers and security interests in offshore licenses. Security interests including property are ensured by the Hibernia Act, which makes Newfoundland's existing security interest regime applicable to the offshore. The project owners are operating Hibernia as a joint venture, and the structure of project financing and inter-creditor arrangements is examined. The competing security interest of project lenders and non-defaulting participants is discussed, along with assignment of priorities on the security in case of default

  7. Offshore oil spill recovery operations in the Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On or about January 25, 1991, Iraqi forces in Kuwait discharged more than 4 million barrels of Kuwait crude oil into the Persian Gulf. The counterclockwise current carried the resulting slick southeastward along the coast of Saudi Arabia. The Saudi Arabian oil company, Aramco, chartered the multiclassed tanker and response vessel Al Waasit, based in Dubai, to assist in the offshore recovery operation. The Al Waasit's response resulted in the offshore recovery of about 100,000 barrels of oil during a 42-day period, without a recovery system failure. The authors both served on board Al Waasit as operations managers during this response operation

  8. Factors influencing future oil and gas prospects in the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article explores oil and natural gas development in the Arctic. While several commentators have argued that an increase in Arctic petroleum production in the years to come will follow directly from an increased demand for energy, our study finds that oil and natural gas production in the Arctic is dependent on a range of variables. By using climate-driven changes as a baseline, we examine spill-over effects and conditions that are important for further Arctic hydrocarbon production. Using the available literature from different scientific fields, this article provides a broad and nuanced perspective on the much debated question of whether or not the Arctic will become a region driven by oil and gas production. - Highlights: ► We study Arctic oil and gas activity. ► We consider climate changes, economic conditions, and political institutions. ► Increased Arctic activity is conditioned on several factors. ► Climate changes, energy prices, energy demand, and political incentives drives Arctic activity.

  9. Experimental study on spectral responses of offshore oil slick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU YingCheng; TIAN QingJiu; WANG JingJing; WANG XiangCheng; QI XiaoPing

    2008-01-01

    Using the seawater taken from Liaodong Bay and crude oil taken from Liaohe Oilfield, a laboratory experiment was designed to study the change of reflectance spectrum of artificial offshore oil slick with its thickness and to identify the spectrum ranges suitable for quantifying the thickness of the oil slick.During the experiment, crude oil was continuously dropped into the seawater to generate artificial oil slick with different thicknesses. After every drop of crude oil was added, reflectance spectrum of the oil slick was measured with a high resolution spectroradiometer (ASD FieldSpec Pro FR). The influence of oil slick thickness on its reflectance spectrum was explored through statistical analysis. The results show that the reflectance of oil slick changes marginally with oil slick thickness and higher than that of seawater in infrared band from 1150 to 2500 nm. This spectrum range can be practically used to distinguish oil slick from seawater. In the spectrum range from 400 to 1150 nm, the reflectance of oil slick decreases with its thickness. The negative power function is the best-fit function expressing the relationship between the reflectance and thickness. The spectral characteristics of oil slick are very distinct at 550 and 645 nm. They are the best wavelengths for monitoring the existence of offshore oil slick and estimating its thickness.

  10. An expert-based approach to production performance analysis of oil and gas facilities considering time-independent Arctic operating conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Naseri, Masoud; Barabady, Javad

    2016-01-01

    The availability and throughput of offshore oil and gas plants operating in the Arctic are adversely influenced by the harsh environmental conditions. One of the major challenges in quantifying such effects is lack of adequate life data. The data collected in normal-climate regions cannot effectively reflect the negative effects of harsh Arctic operating conditions on the reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) performance of the facilities. Expert opinions, howeve...

  11. Offshore oil and gas and offshore wind power - different in terms of safety.?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety standards in the oil and gas industry have risen to a high level over the past decades, driven in part by momentous accidents. Furthermore, an expanded framework has recently been defined through the new EU Offshore Safety Directive, which in Germany is still in the process of its transposition into national law. The installation of offshore wind farms in the North and Baltic Sea has within the shortest of time brought forth an entirely new branch of industry, most of whose players have no significant experience with offshore operations. One of the greatest challenges is the working environment, which is being approached in different ways by those involved. The supervisory authorities responsible are only just beginning to develop the competence required for their tasks, with the effect that regulations pertaining to onshore operations are often simply adopted as they are. This is in some cases impacting on the oil and gas industry, as is discussed in the present lecture.

  12. In Situ burning of Arctic marine oil spills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne

    Oil spills in ice filled and Arctic waters pose other challenges for oil spill response compared to open and temperate waters. In situ burning has been proven to be an effective oil spill response method for oil spills in ice filled waters. This thesis presents results from laboratory and field...... experiments where the ignitability of oil spill as a function of oil type and weathering conditions (time/ice) was tested. The results show that the composition of the oil and the ice cover is important for the in situ burning time-window. The results were used to develop an algorithm that was implemented in...

  13. China Offshore Oil Industry Enters a New Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Hao

    1995-01-01

    @@ China National Offshore Oil Corporation has worked out the development strategy in the period of the Ninth Five-Years Plan ,i.e., running oil and gas in parallel and moving the priority towards gas, expanding reserve production, creating the downstream, developing the overseas business and strengthening the management to develop CNOOC into an international consortium with strong strength and the integrity of the upstream and the downstream.

  14. Backscatter C [Fugro]--Offshore of Coal Oil Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3302 presents data for part of the acoustic-backscatter map (see sheet 3, SIM 3302) of the Offshore of Coal Oil Point map area, California. The...

  15. Backscatter A [CSUMB]--Offshore Coal Oil Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3302 presents data for part of the acoustic-backscatter map (see sheet 3, SIM 3302) of the Offshore of Coal Oil Point map area, California. The...

  16. Backscatter B [USGS]--Offshore of Coal Oil Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3302 presents data for part of the acoustic-backscatter map (see sheet 3, SIM 3302) of the Offshore of Coal Oil Point map area, California. The...

  17. Bathymetry--Offshore of Coal Oil Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3302 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps (see sheets 1, 2, SIM 3302) of the Offshore of Coal Oil Point map area, California....

  18. Bathymetry Hillshade--Offshore of Coal Oil Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3302 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps (see sheets 1, 2, SIM 3302) of the Offshore of Coal Oil Point map area, California....

  19. Environmental risk analysis for offshore oil and gas activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brude, Odd Willy; Aspholm, Ole O.; Rudberg, Anders [Det Norske Veritas (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Offshore oil and gas activities always have a risk for environmental impact due to potential accidental releases of oil and gas. The environmental risk can be calculated as a combination of the frequency of such accidents to occur and their environmental consequences in terms of environmental damage to habitats or populations. A method for conducting environmental risk analysis has been in use in Norwegian offshore waters for a decade, with a continuously refinement of methodology over the past years. This paper outlines the principles in the MIRA method and gives examples and discussions regarding use in different environmental compartments. The risk assessment starts with identification of oil spill scenarios with frequencies of potential release rates and spill durations. The next step is to model the oil drift for each accidental oil spill scenario. Drift and fate of oil is modeled probabilistic. Based on the oil spill scenarios and their probability of oil pollution, the potential environmental damage is quantified for each scenario. The endpoint of environmental damage is reduction of a population and the resulting recovery time (in years) for various species and habitats. Environmental risk levels are then evaluated against the operating companies' environmental acceptance criteria. (author)

  20. Arctic Oil Spill Mapping and Response Using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, K. W.

    2011-12-01

    The University of Alaska Fairbanks works extensively with unmanned aerial systems and various sensor payloads used in mapping. Recent projects with Royal Dutch Shell and British Petroleum have demonstrated that unmanned aerial systems, including fixed and rotary winged platforms, can provide quick response to oil spill mapping in a variety of flight conditions, including those not well suited for manned aerial systems. We describe this collaborative research between the University and oil companies exploring and developing oil resources in Alaska and the Arctic.

  1. Microbial methane oxidation in the Arctic Ocean offshore Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinle, Lea I.; Graves, Carolyn; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Treude, Tina; Niemann, Helge

    2013-04-01

    Large amounts of methane are released from ocean sediments, most importantly at cold seep environments. Aerobic methanotrophic bacteria in the ocean water column consume a significant fraction of this biogenic methane, preventing its emission to the atmosphere. The understanding of key environmental factors controlling the efficiency of this biological methane-filter is still incomplete. In order to elucidate possible environmental constraints on methane turnover in the ocean, we investigated the temporal and spatial variation of aerobic methane oxidation (MOx) rates at active cold seeps at water depths between 150 and 400 m, located off the coast of Svalbard. In the study area, methane concentrations were consistently elevated in bottom waters (up to 825 nM) and decreased towards the sea surface. Highest MOx rates of up to 3.1 nM/day were typically observed at ~30 m above the sea floor. Despite the constant supply of methane substrate, MOx rates displayed a high temporal variability. Comparison of the distribution of MOx rates and water temperature revealed consistent spatio-temporal patterns suggesting an oceanographic control on the magnitude of MOx: Cool Arctic bottom waters containing a comparably large standing stock of methanotrophic bacteria are episodically displaced by the warmer W-Spitsbergen current, which meanders along the Svalbard continental margin and is depleted in methanotrophic biomass. As a consequence, methane is injected into warmer water masses containing fewer methanotrophs, and overall methane oxidation is reduced. While the primary cause for the observed discrepancy in methanotrophic activity between the different water masses is still uncertain, our preliminary data indicate that MOx fluctuations in the ocean water column above the Svalbard cold seeps are modulated by ocean circulation patterns and the associated differential supply of bacterial stock.

  2. Offshore oil and gas : a community development perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A community perspective on offshore oil and gas development in British Columbia was presented. It was noted that local benefits depend greatly on the level of regulation and government intervention in the industry. Community preparedness, jurisdictional certainty and corporate ethics also play a vital role. It is also necessary to clearly understand legal, economic, environmental, social and industrial aspects of offshore development. Jurisdictional concerns include the International Free Trade Agreement, ambiguities over mineral rights, and claims by First Nations to seabed and ocean resources. It was emphasized that the impact of offshore development on ecotourism and fisheries should not be underestimated. Community-based planning is critical. Economic imperatives include international prices, recovery costs, distribution of royalties, and alternative opportunities. It was also noted that communities in British Columbia have much to learn from other gas dependent regions

  3. AMOP (Arctic Marine Oil Spill Program) studies reviewed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-05

    A discussion of the Arctic Marine Oil Spill Program organized in 1976 by the Canadian Federal Government includes: an Arctic Atlas compiled by Fenco Consultants Ltd. to give background information necessary for developing marine oil spill countermeasures for the Arctic north of 60/sup 0/ including the west Greenland coast and the Labrador shelf (geology, meteorology and oceanography, ice conditions, biology, and social factors); program in emergency transport of spill-combatting equipment; and the factors which influence the choice of conveyance, i.e., accessibility of the site, urgency for response, and quantity of material required; laboratory studies involving the release of oil under artificial sea ice in simulated ice formation and decay purposes to determine the interaction of crude oil and first-year sea ice; inability of companies and government to control a major spill in the Labrador Sea because of poor and inadequate transport facilities, communications, and navigational aids, severe environmental conditions, and logistics problems; and studies on the effects of oil-well blowouts in deep water, including formation of oil and gas hydrates, design of oil skimmers, the use of hovercraft, and specifications for an airborne multisensor system for oil detection in ice-infested waters.

  4. The effect of the 2010 Gulf oil spill on public attitudes toward offshore oil drilling and wind development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In April 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil well exploded, releasing over four million barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico. This paper presents data from two national mail surveys undertaken in 2008 and 2010 that compare public attitudes to both offshore oil drilling and offshore wind development pre- and post-spill. The results show that while there was a drop in support for expanded drilling (from 66% in 2008 to 59% in 2010) the change was not significant. There was, however, a significant decrease in support for offshore drilling among coastal residents. There was a slight, non-significant increase in support for offshore wind development which remained significantly higher than support for offshore oil (80% in 2008 and 82% in 2010). Despite there being no significant change in overall support levels, there was a shift in the strength of feeling regarding offshore oil, with 80% of Americans either less supportive or more opposed to expanded drilling in 2010 than they were in 2008. -- Highlights: •We assess whether the Gulf oil spill affected attitudes to offshore energy. •Overall support for offshore wind (82%) was greater than for offshore oil (59%). •Support for expanded offshore oil drilling decreased but not significantly. •Support for offshore wind development increased slightly, again not significantly. •Although overall support levels did not change, the strength of feeling did

  5. Amposta oil field (Spanish Mediterranean offshore)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeman, U. (Shell Espana, Madrid (Spain))

    1988-08-01

    The Amposta oil field lies some 20 km off the Mediterranean coast of Spain directly south of the Ebro delta in 70 m of water. The field is operated by Shell in association with Repsol Exploracion (the Spanish national oil company) and Coparex. The field was discovered in 1970 and came on stream in 1972, reaching a maximum production of 40,000 bbl/day. The current cumulative production of 55.7 million bbl is just 300,000 bbl short of the field's expected ultimate primary recovery. Original production was established via a single-buoy mooring system (SBM) with a permanently moored tanker acting as a floating storage vessel. Oil is produced from a fractured, karstified Lower Cretaceous limestone reservoir in a tilted fault-block structure (areal closure is 900 ha), sealed by overlying Miocene clastics. The top of the reservoir is at 1,746 m; the original oil column was 194 m. Designing the optimal production/drainage scheme for a complex reservoir such as the Amposta field with its intricate pore geometry (channels, caves, and fractures) formed an interesting challenge. The field has produced from 7 wells so far. Until recently pressure could be maintained and dry oil produced. Enhanced recovery tests (gas injection) are presently being undertaken. The heavy, undersaturated, high-sulfur crude (17{degree} API, gas-oil ratio of 380 scf/bbl, and 5.5% sulfur) is an early expulsion product generated from a marly/chalky type II source rock sequence of latest Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous age, underlying the field.

  6. The Environmental Impacts of Offshore Oil Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Mary Annette

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the author's critique on Stephen L. Baird's article in the November 2008 issue of "The Technology Teacher", which describes a contemporary debate about opening more U.S. land and coastal regions to oil and gas exploration and production (E&P). While Baird's thesis epitomizes the goal of a technologically literate citizen, his…

  7. Applications of Seasat to the offshore oil, gas and mining industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, A. G.; Robinson, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    The NASA satellite Seasat-A (to be launched in 1978) has applications to the offshore oil, gas, and mining industries including: (1) improvements in weather and wave forecasting, (2) studies of past wind and wave statistics for planning design requirements, and (3) monitoring ice formation, breakup, and movement in arctic regions. The primary geographic areas which will be monitored by Seasat-A include: the Beaufort Sea, the Labrador Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, the U.S. east coast, West Africa, Equatorial East Pacific, the Gulf of Alaska, and the North Sea. Seasat-A instrumentation used in ocean monitoring consists of a radar altimeter, a radar scatterometer, a synthetic aperture radar, a microwave radiometer, and a visible and infrared radiometer. The future outlook of the Seasat program is planned in three phases: measurement feasibility demonstration (1978-1980), data accessibility/utility demonstration (1980-1983), and operational system demonstration (1983-1985).

  8. Artificial intelligence applications in offshore oil and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) has gained considerable acceptance in virtually all fields, of engineering applications. Artificial intelligence is now being applied in several areas of offshore oil and gas operations, such as drilling, well testing, well logging and interpretation, reservoir engineering, planning and economic evaluation, process control, and risk analysis. Current AI techniques offer a new and exciting technology for solving problems in the oil and gas industry. Expert systems, fuzzy logic systems, neural networks and genetic algorithms are major AI technologies which have made an impact on the petroleum industry. Presently, these technologies are at different stages of maturity with expert systems being the most mature and genetic algorithms the least. However, all four technologies have evolved such that practical applications were produced. This paper describes the four major Al techniques and their many applications in offshore oil and gas production operations. A summary description of future developments in Al technology that will affect the execution and productivity of offshore operations will be also provided

  9. Status and Prospect of Offshore Oil and Gas Exploration and Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Jiping; Wang Yue; Feng Zhigang

    2009-01-01

    @@ A huge development of offshore oil and gas exploration has been obtained after hard working of more than 30 years.A lot of the large and middle-sized oil/gas fields are successively found to build up several large-scaled offshore oil/gas production areas,which dedicates great contributions for the development of China's economy and society.At the same time,faced difficulties are contiditioned the offshore oil/gas development and utilization.On the whole,the potential in developing offshore oil and gas is excellent with abundant resources of China,although the exploration and development degree is relatively low.

  10. Offshore oil and gas and offshore wind power - different in terms of safety.?; Offshore Oel and Gas und Offshore Wind - mit Sicherheit ''anders''.?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weise, F.; Tatulinski, M. [DNV GL - Oil and Gas Germany, Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Safety standards in the oil and gas industry have risen to a high level over the past decades, driven in part by momentous accidents. Furthermore, an expanded framework has recently been defined through the new EU Offshore Safety Directive, which in Germany is still in the process of its transposition into national law. The installation of offshore wind farms in the North and Baltic Sea has within the shortest of time brought forth an entirely new branch of industry, most of whose players have no significant experience with offshore operations. One of the greatest challenges is the working environment, which is being approached in different ways by those involved. The supervisory authorities responsible are only just beginning to develop the competence required for their tasks, with the effect that regulations pertaining to onshore operations are often simply adopted as they are. This is in some cases impacting on the oil and gas industry, as is discussed in the present lecture. [German] Die Oel und Gas Industrie hat in den vergangen Jahrzehnten einen hohen Sicherheitsstandard entwickelt, teilweise getrieben durch signifikante Unfallereignisse. Aktuell wurde zudem mit der neuen EU-Offshore Richtlinie ein erweiterter Rahmen definiert, der sich in Deutschland noch in der gesetzgeberischen Umsetzung befindet. Durch die Installation von Offshore-Windparks in der Nord- und Ostsee ist innerhalb kuerzester Zeit zusaetzlich ein neuer Industriebereich entstanden, dessen Marktteilnehmer mehrheitlich nicht ueber signifikante Offshore-Erfahrung verfuegen. Insbesondere das Arbeitsumfeld stellt dabei eine Herausforderung dar, die von den Beteiligten unterschiedlich geloest wird. Ferner beginnen auch die verantwortlichen Aufsichtsbehoerden erst mit dem Aufbau entsprechender Kompetenzen, so dass vielfach auch Regelungen aus dem Onshore-Bereich uebertragen werden. Dies fuehrt teilweise zu Auswirkungen auf die Oel- und Gasindustrie, die im Rahmen dieses Vortrages diskutiert werden.

  11. 75 FR 47584 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling AGENCY: Department of... meeting for the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling (the... Charter of the Commission can be found at: http://www.OilSpillCommission.gov . DATES: Wednesday, August...

  12. 75 FR 69652 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling AGENCY: Department of... meeting of the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling (the... Charter of the Commission can be found at: http://www.OilSpillCommission.gov . DATES: December 2, 2010,...

  13. 75 FR 37783 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling AGENCY: Department of... meeting of the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling (the... spill and develop options to guard against, and mitigate the impact of, any oil spills associated...

  14. 78 FR 66763 - Information Collection: Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities; Submitted for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... applicants can pay for cleanup and damages resulting from oil spills and other hydrocarbon discharges that... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Information Collection: Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore... requirements for 30 CFR 553, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities, as well as the...

  15. Washing ashore: The politics of offshore oil in northern Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Kristin Michelle

    This dissertation examines the political ecology of Angolan oil, by exploring state and corporate political economies; historical convergences of violence and capital; and struggles over the costs and benefits of oil production from the perspective of artisanal fishing and farming communities in the extractive zones. Angola is sub-Saharan Africa's second-largest oil producer but revenues from the enclave sector in oil rarely trickle down to the impoverished populace. The Angolan government strategically invests petrodollars in patronage networks to bolster their power; and watchdog agencies claim top officials divert the balance to offshore accounts. While the enclaved nature of production facilitates the restricted distribution of oil monies by concentrating services and revenue streams, the distortions and externalities that bleed out from these enclaves increase the misery of Angolans---especially those living in the extractive zones. By focusing on the lived experience of extraction, I explore the politics of oil through the forms of violence and degradation threatening the lives and livelihoods of local people. Most of Angola's oil is produced from offshore fields, so oil spills present a considerable risk to the health of local communities and ecosystems. The fishers and fish traders suffering from oil spills demand compensation from the liable oil corporations, yet the skewed system of disbursements only reaches the most powerful claimants. Moreover, faced with a repressive and unresponsive government, communities in extractive zones have come to rely on the same corporations for schools and health posts in a system I refer to as oil-backed development. I demonstrate that local histories of violence, national political exigencies, and transnational corporate interests govern the distribution of oil-backed development projects. Furthermore, I argue that the Angolan government leverages corporate donations for development to suit its own exclusionary interests

  16. Oil spill related contaminant data for Arctic marine mammals - Obtaining baseline oil spill-related contaminant exposure data for Arctic marine mammals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — With increasing oil exploration and ship traffic in the U.S. Arctic, there is concern about the increased potential for an oil spill event in this region of the...

  17. Remediation of oil-contaminated soil in Arctic Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Rodrigo, Ana P.;

    Oil spill is a problem in towns in Greenland, where oil is used for heating and transport. The problem may increase in the future with expected oil exploitation in Greenlandic marine areas and related terrestrial activities. Oil undergoes natural microbial degradation in which nutrients......, temperature, water content, pE and pH are important factors for the degradation rate. In particular temperature and nutrient availability are challenges in the Arctic, and alternative solutions must be sought if biodegradation is to be implemented as a low-cost and lowtech solution in this region. Experiments...... have been made with excavated oil-contaminated soil from the Greenlandic town Sisimiut to study different low-tech and low-cost solutions for remediation of oil-contamination....

  18. Remediation of oil-contaminated soil in Arctic Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Rodrigo, Ana;

    Oil spill is a problem in towns in Greenland, where oil is used for heating and transport. The problem may increase in the future with expected oil exploitation in Greenlandic marine areas and related terrestrial activities. Oil undergoes natural microbial degradation in which nutrients......, temperature, water content, pE and pH are important factors for the degradation rate. In particular temperature and nutrient availability are challenges in the Arctic, and alternative solutions must be sought if biodegradation is to be implemented as a low-cost and low-tech solution in this region....... Experiments have been made with excavated oil-contaminated soil from the Greenlandic town Sisimiut to study different low-tech and low-cost solutions for remediation of oil-contamination...

  19. Market report : the offshore oil and gas market in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an overview of the oil and gas market in Mexico and describes the potential for Canadian suppliers to enter into joint ventures to establish local production facilities and transfer technology expertise. Although Mexico is among the world's top oil producers, its offshore oil and gas fields are largely underdeveloped and the reserve replacement rate was only 48 per cent in 2003 due to low investment in new and existing sites over the past 25 years. In response, the government of Mexico is trying to attract foreign private capital, technology and management expertise. Every year, approximately 80 per cent of state-owned Pemex's equipment and services purchases come through public (international and domestic) tenders. Several offshore projects are planned for the next 2 to 3 years. This report describes the key factors shaping market growth with particular reference to sector reform, and opportunities with actual and planned projects. The competitive environment was also discussed with reference to local capabilities, international competition, Canadian position, and a competitive advantage through Canadian government policies and initiatives. Considerations for market-entry in Mexico were outlined with reference to the important role that small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play in the national economies of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) countries. Some SMEs may prefer the use of a local agent or distributor for conducting business in Mexico

  20. Update of comparative occurrence rates for offshore oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates of occurrence rates for offshore oil spills are useful for analyzing potential oil-spill impacts and for oil-spill response contingency planning. With the implementation of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (US Public Law 101-380, August 18, 1990), estimates of oil-spill occurrence became even more important to natural resource trustees and to responsible parties involved in oil and gas activities. Oil-spill occurrence rate estimates have been revised based on US Outer Continental Shelf (US OCS) platform and pipeline spill data (1964 through 1999), worldwide tanker spill data (1974 through 1999), and barge spill data for US waters (1974 - 1999). These spill rates are expressed and normalized in terms of number of spills per volume of crude oil handled. All estimates of spill occurrence rates were restricted to spills greater than or equal to 1000 barrels (159 m3, 159 kl, 136 metric tonnes, 42,000 US gallons). The revisions compared to the previously published rates calculated through 1992 (Anderson and LaBelle, 1994) indicate that estimates for the US OCS platform spill occurrence rates continue to decline, primarily because no spills have occurred since 1980. The US OCS pipeline spill occurrence rates for spills greater than or equal to 1000 barrels remained essentially unchanged. However, the rate for larger OCS pipeline spills (greater than or equal to 10,000 barrels) has decreased significantly. Worldwide tanker spill rates, rates for tanker spills in US waters, and rates for barge spills in US waters decreased significantly. The most recent 15-year estimates for 1985-1999 (compared to rates for the entire data series) showed that rates for US OCS platforms, tankers, and barges continued to decline. (author)

  1. SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 3: Offshore oil and natural gas industry case study and generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The economic benefits of improved ocean condition, weather and ice forecasts by SEASAT satellites to the exploration, development and production of oil and natural gas in the offshore regions are considered. The results of case studies which investigate the effects of forecast accuracy on offshore operations in the North Sea, the Celtic Sea, and the Gulf of Mexico are reported. A methodology for generalizing the results to other geographic regions of offshore oil and natural gas exploration and development is described.

  2. Arctic climate change and oil spill risk analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William B. Samuels; David E. Amstutz; Heather A. Crowley

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to:1) describe the effects of climate change in the Arctic and its impact on circulation,2) describe hindcast data used in the Ocean Energy Management,Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE) Oil Spill Risk Analysis (OSRA) model,3)evaluate alternatives such as using forecast results in the OSRA model,and 4) recommend future studies.Effects of climate change on winds,sea ice,ocean circulation and river discharge in the Arctic and impacts on surface circulation can be evaluated only through a series of specially designed numerical experiments using highresolution coupled ice-ocean models to elucidate the sensitivity of the models to various parameterizations or forcings.The results of these experiments will suggest what mechanisms are most important in controlling model response and guide inferences on how OSRA may respond to different climate change scenarios.Climatological change in the Arctic could lead to drastic alterations of wind,sea ice cover and concentration,and surface current fields all of which would influence hypothetical oil spill trajectories.Because of the pace at which conditions are changing,BOEMRE needs to assess whether forecast ice/ocean model results might contain useful information for the purposes of calculating hypothetical oil spill trajectories.

  3. Cetacean occurrence near an offshore oil platform in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Jussara Cremer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Information about cetaceans in offshore Brazilian waters is scarce, and oil-rigs could provide an important opportunity to obtain new data. The present work was conducted on the P-XIV oil-rig (Petrobrás (26o46’02.2”S; 46o47’02.15”W, located on the border of the continental slope, in an area of 200m depth. In the period between July 2000 and August 2002, 75 sightings of cetaceans were recorded during 38 days of effort. Among the species identified, Tursiops truncatus was the most common, corresponding to 53.3% of the records. Among the misticets, only Balaenoptera acutorostrata was identified with accuracy, with 4 records (5.3%. These were the only species that approached and stayed close to the oil-rig. Many records were made at night, when the gas burner illuminated the area around the oil-rig. We recorded an aggressive interaction involving T. truncatus and B. acutorostrata.

  4. Task Force on oil spill preparedness: Offshore implementation progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industry members of the Canadian Petroleum Association (CPA) and the Independent Petroleum Association of Canada (IPAC) undertook a review of oil spill preparedness and response capabilities in 1989. The resulting report summarized the current state of readiness, focusing on oil spills resulting from exploration and production activities in Canada. The report recommended expenditures in research and development, equipment acquisition, and training to prevent and control offshore and onshore oil spills more effectively. The release of an implementation plan for the Task Force on Oil Spill Preparedness (TFOSP) in 1990 provided the impetus for a 5-year plan to improve this state of preparedness. The plan outlined the mechanisms for implementing the 45 recommendations developed by TFOSP. It also recommended how to incorporate them into the daily business activities of the CPA member companies. It identified the appropriate groups within industry to carry out the implementation of each recommendation. It also indicated the government interfaces, the implementation schedule, and cost estimates for putting each recommendation into place. It also recommended a vigorous monitoring program to follow and report on the status of implementation. Based on the TFOSP implementation plan recommendations, work plans were developed, specific work projects identified, and a budget approved for 1991 programs. The first year of implementation of recommendations is now complete and work plans have been developed for continuation in 1992. 2 refs

  5. Offshore disposal of oil-based drilling fluid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offshore drilling operations in the Gulf of Mexico may use oil-based drilling fluids to mitigate drilling problems. The result is the generation of a significant quantity of oily cuttings and mud. The transportation of this waste for onshore disposal is a concern from a standpoint of both personnel safety and potential environmental impact. A process for preparing a slurry of this waste and the subsequent disposal of the slurry through annular pumping has been put into use by ARCO Oil and Gas Company. The disposal technique has been approved by the Minerals Management Service (MMS). The slurried waste is displaced down a casing annulus into a permeable zone at a depth below the surface casing setting depth. The annular disposal includes all cuttings and waste oil mud generated during drilling with oil-based fluids. This disposal technique negates the need for cuttings storage on the platform, transportation to shore, and the environmental effects of onshore surface disposal. The paper describes the environmental and safety concerns with onshore disposal, the benefits of annular disposal, and the equipment and process used for the preparation and pumping of the slurry

  6. Arctic oil exploration Former mayor says yes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaleak, J. Sr.

    Alaska's coastal plain can sustain both wilderness values and oil production, says Jeslie Kaleak, Sr., former mayor of North Slope Borough in Borrow, Alaska. Kaleak is director is Barrow Operations for North Slope Regional Corporation. Nevertheless, Kaleak contends, [open quotes]the people in the Lower 48 want to keep us from developing this land because of some preconceived notion of the land as a wilderness paradise.[close quotes] Kaleak insists that the Inupiaq people, American Indians inhabiting the Northern Slope region, have provided for their families for thousands of years by turning to the natural environment. Their decision to support oil development is no different. Kaleak contends that the mineral and oil wealth of the North Slope has allowed the Inupiaq people to improve their standard of living drastically. Oil development on the coastal plain, Kaleak contends, could provide similar economic benefits. [open quotes]We cannot define our lives by the vision of distant people who view the North Slope as one great outdoor Disneyland where...all resources remain off limits to us,[close quotes] Kaleak concludes.

  7. Dynamic Analysis of Offshore Oil Pipe Installation Using the Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmy D; Madsen, Søren B; Hyldahl, Per Christian;

    2013-01-01

    of offshore submerged oil pipes using oceangoing vessels. In this investigation such an oil pipe is modeled using ANCF beam elements to simulate the dynamic behavior of the pipe during the installation process. Multiple physical effects such as gravity, buoyancy, seabed contact, and fluid damping......, are included to mimic the external forces acting on the pipe during installation. The scope of this investigation is to demonstrate the ability using the ANCF to analyze the dynamic behavior of an offshore oil pipe during installation...

  8. Manning the rigs: a study of offshore employment in Ghana's oil industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ablo, Austin Dziwornu

    2012-01-01

    Since the discovery of oil in Ghana, expectations for the oil to stimulate economic development are high. Essential to economic development as an outcome of resource exploitation is local participation. This study examined Ghanaian participation in the offshore sector. The general objective of the study is to explore the offshore employment opportunities, challenges and outcomes for Ghanaians in the emerging oil and gas industry. The specific objectives are to exami...

  9. Proceedings of the sixteenth Arctic and Marine Oil Spill Program (AMOP) technical seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At a conference on marine and Arctic oil spills, papers were presented on the behavior and fate of spilled oil, spill contingency planning, biological effects and bioremediation, oil spill countermeasures, spill modelling, in-situ burning of spilled oil, oil spill treatment agents, remote sensing, and shoreline protection and cleanup. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 66 papers from this conference

  10. Role of dispersants of oil on copepods in high arctic areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavson, Kim; Nørregaard, Rasmus Dyrmose; Møller, Eva Friis; Strand, Jakob; Tairova, Zhanna

    The purpose of the project is to increase the knowledge on the effects of using dispersants on oil spills in high arctic areas: more precisely, to investigate accumulation in and effects on high arctic copepods. Such knowledge is crucial for performing a robust net environmental benefit analysis...... prior to making a decision as to whether or not dispersant may be allowed as an operational oil spill response in high arctic sea areas....

  11. Engineering and Economics of the USGS Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal (CARA) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.; White, Loring P.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2008-01-01

    This Open-File report contains illustrative materials, in the form of PowerPoint slides, used for an oral presentation given at the Fourth U.S. Geological Survey Workshop on Reserve Growth of petroleum resources held on March 10-11, 2008. The presentation focused on engineering and economic aspects of the Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal (CARA) project, with a special emphasis on the costs related to the development of hypothetical oil and gas fields of different sizes and reservoir characteristics in the North Danmarkshavn Basin off the northeast coast of Greenland. The individual PowerPoint slides highlight the topics being addressed in an abbreviated format; they are discussed below, and are amplified with additional text as appropriate. Also included in this report are the summary results of a typical ?run? to generate the necessary capital and operating costs for the development of an offshore oil field off the northeast coast of Greenland; the data are displayed in MS Excel format generated using Questor software (IHS Energy, Inc.). U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) acknowledges that this report includes data supplied by IHS Energy, Inc.; Copyright (2008) all rights reserved. IHS Energy has granted USGS the permission to publish this report.

  12. Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment and Stress among Offshore Oil and Gas Platform Employees

    OpenAIRE

    Haryanni Harun; Rohani Salleh; Mumtaz Ali Memon; M Noor Rosli Baharom; Azrai Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Working offshore on an oil rig is perceived as a challenge to many people. Having to live and work at the same site, shift-work schedule with long working hours, high risks and remote work environment; are some common features of an offshore job. High job satisfaction (JS), strong organizational commitment (OC) and minimal stress (St) are key factors to retain the offshore oil and gas platform employees. This is critical to oil and gas companies as skilled and experienced employees are highly...

  13. Microbial diversity in oiled and un-oiled shoreline sediments in the Norwegian Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field trials were conducted at an oiled shoreline on the island of Spitsbergen to examine the effect of nutrient addition on the metabolic status, potential for aromatic hydrocarbon degradation, and the phylogenetic diversity of the microbial community in oiled Arctic shoreline sediments. IF-30 intermediate fuel grade oil was applied to the shoreline which was then divided into four plots. One was left untreated and two were tilled. Four applications of fertilizer were applied over a two-month period. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), gene probe and 16S microbial community analysis suggested that bioremediation stimulated the metabolic activity, increased microbial biomass and genetic potential for aromatic hydrocarbon degradation, and increased the population of hydrocarbon degradation of an oiled Arctic shoreline microbial community. The results of this study are in agreement with the results from stimulation of oil biodegradation in temperate marine environments. It was concluded that biodegradation and fertilizer addition are feasible treatment methods for oil spills in Arctic regions. 31 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  14. The value of flexibility in offshore oil field development projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, Morten Wattengaard

    1997-12-31

    Offshore oil field development projects often face substantial uncertainties and the operator`s ability to take corrective actions is very important. The main objective of this thesis was to identify the value of flexibility in such projects. Estimates obtained from exploratory wells can be dependent through common information. The effect of stochastic dependence was illustrated by an analytical model, where the dependence was expressed in terms of correlation between estimate errors. It was found that a high degree of correlation might distort the benefit of additional exploration. A prototype that covered the major phases of the project was developed to study the value of flexibility. The prototype was a Markov decision process, solved by stochastic dynamic programming. Based on discussions with Norwegian oil companies, three uncertain variables were addressed: the reservoir volume, the well rate, and the oil price. Simple descriptions were used to mimic the uncertainty. The reservoir was thus depicted as a tank model, and the well rate and oil prices were assumed to follow Markov processes. Flexibility was restricted to managerial as opposed to financial flexibility. Application of the prototype to a case study, based on an ongoing field development, showed that flexibility might be of considerable value to the project. In particular, capacity flexibility and initiation flexibility were identified as important aspects of the development. The results also emphasized the importance of a joint assessment, as the values of different flexibility types are not additive. In conclusion, the proposed model motivates further development of the decision support system presently available. Future decision making should therefore be made within a framework that gives consideration to flexibility. 129 refs., 46 figs., 23 tabs.

  15. Offshore Outsourcing Practices of United Kingdom Engineering Services Companies : Focused on Oil and Gas Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Ahsan, Kamran

    2010-01-01

    This investigate an important options of cost reductions, offshore outsourcing is found interesting, these days phenomenon of economic downturn, decreasing oil prices and credit crunch cause intense competition so this study is an attempt to understand factors that what are the driving forces for offshore outsourcing in engineering services industry. This project studies the factors of offshore outsourcing practices of engineering services companies in the UK. The scope of study limited to in...

  16. Corrosion inhibition approach of oil production systems in offshore oilfields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, L.; Tan, X. [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Teng, H.K. [Tianjin Institute of Chemical Engineering, Tianjin 300076 (China); Yang, Y.S. [School of Civil Engineering, Queens University Belfast, Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5AG (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-01

    Synthesis and modification of imidazoline were carried out based on review of the corrosion inhibitor development and application for oilfields. A series of imidazoline compounds were synthesised through the solvent dewatering and vacuum dewatering methods. After reaction of imidazoline with ethane oxide, the produced compound was used to react with halogen hydrocarbon and polyphosphoric acid respectively. Finally an agent with performance of corrosion-inhibition, sterilisation and anti-scaling was obtained. The structures of the compounds were characterised by the Fourier transformation infrared spectrum. The relationships between corrosion inhibition effectiveness of the compounds and their structures were investigated so as to determine the structure of a novel corrosion inhibitor. The selected corrosion inhibitor was evaluated by a series of experiments to understand the characteristics of imidazoline derivative and some major factors associated with oil production in the oilfields of China. The experimental results showed that this corrosion inhibitor has outstanding performance of corrosion inhibition and sterilization, and is suitable for corrosion inhibition of the oil abstraction systems with high water-content in the offshore oilfields. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Environmental implications of offshore oil and gas development in Australia. Part 6; Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total amount of oil spilled in Commonwealth offshore waters from offshore oil exploration and production has been estimated by the Commonwealth Department of Primary Industry and Energy to be 440 barrels (70 000 litres) to the end of 1991. When more recent spills are added, plus spills from coastal waters under State jurisdiction, it is estimated that the total of oil spilled is about 600 barrels (95 000 litres). This estimate does not include hydrocarbon inputs from discharge of formation waters or drill cuttings. Most of these spills have been very small (less than 20 barrels) and in only a very few instances has any of the oil reached the shore. In most cases, it has been possible to allow the oil to degrade and disperse naturally. Given the small quantities spilled it is highly unlikely that these oil spills have caused significant environmental damage although it must be added that few follow up studies to assess this have been carried out. This review concludes that oil spills affect marine ecosystems generally in the same way as many other forms of marine pollutants even though the degree of persistence is less than with heavy metals for example. That is, the system is modified and destabilized and in severe cases it can shift to a reduced biological diversity characteristic of early successional or pioneer stages. Adverse effects range from the short term (days to months), to decades. Two phases and/or effects are usually observed: (i) the short-term mortality phase particularly affects biota at or near the air/sea interface and is attributed to physical coating, ingestion and inhalation of high concentrations of low-boiling aromatic hydrocarbons; and (ii) the longer term effects of the weathered oil being incorporated into the sediment where it inhibits the growth of seedlings and larger plants as well as affecting infauna and epifauna. 584 refs., 49 tabs., 43 figs

  18. The Brazilian offshore oil and gas industry: potential and market entry for Friesland Kabel

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Project submitted as partial requirement for the conferral of Master in International Management The Brazilian oil and gas offshore exploration faces a high demand for advanced technology and know-how. For that reason, foreign suppliers of subsea equipment are increasingly attracted by this dynamic market. Against this background, this project develops an international strategy for the German marine cable distributor Friesland Kabel within the Brazilian offshore oil and gas supply chain...

  19. Icy inferno: Researchers plan oil blaze in Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the summer of 1992, industry researchers hope to spill and set ablaze tens of thousands of gallons of crude oil in the ice-choked waters of the Beaufort Sea off Alaska's northern coast. The researchers want to determine how well federal or industrial emergency response teams can deal with a future accidental oil spill in Arctic waters and learn whether fire can serve as an effective cleanup tool. First, however, they must convince federal and state regulators to sanction the test, and that's proving difficult. One reason for concern is that the standard approach to oil cleanup may not work in this area. Special hazards - the rough weather that often batters the Beaufort Sea, the darkness that envelops the area during most of the winter, and the ice - make it virtually impossible to deploy booms and collectors of the kind used for spills in warmer waters. The planned spill in the Beaufort Sea is an attempt to test alternative cleanup technologies. It is being sponsored by Alaska Clean Seas (ACS), a nonprofit organization composed of the major oil and gas companies operating in Alaska

  20. Offshore oil and gas development costs: Four decades of technical change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The worldwide offshore oil and gas business is over 40 years old, but is not, nor does it appear to be soon destined to be, in its dotage. The key role of technology played to enable the business to prosper in volatile and severe environments--physically and otherwise--examined here. Offshore oil and gas technology, like all technologies, is only effective when it shows up at the bottom line. Here the author shows how the 1970's offshore technology continued would have virtually ended the business. But that technology changed the bottom line

  1. Oil spill contingency planning for offshore oil fields - a new concept established for the Norwegian continental shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a new concept for oil spill contingency planning to be used for offshore oil fields on the Norwegian continental shelf was discussed. The factors which are important in developing a good oil spill contingency plan include a good understanding of: (1) the fate, behaviour and weathering of the specific oil, (2) relevant oil spill scenarios, (3) drift and spreading of the oil, and (4) specific requirements for the effectiveness of the chosen response options. The oil spill contingency and response (OSCAR) model was used for quantitative comparison of alternative response options. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  2. Evaluating alternatives for decommissioning California's offshore oil and gas platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Brock B

    2015-10-01

    This paper introduces a series of 6 additional papers in this issue that describe an in-depth analysis of options for decommissioning oil and gas platforms offshore southern California. Although current leases require lessees in both state and federal waters to completely remove all production facilities and restore the seafloor to its pre-platform condition, other options have emerged since these leases were signed. Laws and regulations in other jurisdictions (particularly in federal waters) have evolved to allow a number of other uses such as aquaculture, alternative energy production, and artificial reefing. In response, the California Natural Resources Agency initiated an effort to investigate the issues associated with these and other decommissioning alternatives. The papers in this series are the result of the second phase in this process, a broad investigation of the engineering, economic, and environmental costs and benefits of the most feasible and likely options. In addition to the project's final report, the authors produced an interactive mathematical decision model, PLATFORM, that enables users to explore the implications of different decommissioning projects and options, as well as the effects of different approaches to valuing the associated costs and benefits. PMID:25914401

  3. Observation of surface ozone in the marine boundary layer along a cruise through the Arctic Ocean: From offshore to remote

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Pengzhen; Bian, Lingen; Zheng, Xiangdong; Yu, Juan; Sun, Chen; Ye, Peipei; Xie, Zhouqing

    2016-03-01

    Ozone is an important reactive gas in the troposphere; it has been frequently used to estimate atmospheric oxidation capacity. However, there are few data of surface ozone over the Arctic Ocean, especially the central Arctic Ocean. Here, surface ozone in the marine boundary layer along the cruise path during the 5th Chinese Arctic Research Expedition (June to September, 2012) was investigated. The latitudes and longitudes covered in the cruise were 31.1°N-87.7°N and 9.3°E-90°E-168.4°W. The 1-h-averaged ozone varied from 9.4 ppbv to 124.5 ppbv along the cruise. The highest mixing ratios appeared in the East China Sea and the Sea of Japan while the lowest in the Chukchi Sea. The relatively high ozone levels over the East China Sea, the Sea of Japan, and offshore Iceland were caused by transport of precursors and/or ozone from the nearby continent. Ozone mixing ratio decreasing by ~ 2 ppbv/° with increasing latitude was observed during 31-45°N covering the East China Sea and the Sea of Japan, and during 62-69°N covering offshore Iceland. Over the entire Arctic Ocean, ozone levels were relatively low, varying from 9.4 ppbv to 36.1 ppbv with an average of 23.8 ± 4.6 (mean ± standard deviation) ppbv, which was not statistically different with data observed at Barrow observatory during the same period. Unlike ozone over contaminated areas, a slight increasing trend of ozone in 69-87°N was observed. This phenomenon may be ascribed to the role of both vertical transport and chemical processes due to solar radiation.

  4. Satellite Monitoring Systems for Shipping and Offshore Oil and Gas Industry in the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Kostianoy A.G.; Bulycheva E.V.; Semenov A. V.; Krainyukov A.

    2015-01-01

    Shipping activities, oil production and transport in the sea, oil handled in harbors, construction and exploitation of offshore oil and gas pipelines have a number of negative impacts on the marine environment and coastal zone of the seas. In 2004-2014 we elaborated several operational satellite monitoring systems for oil and gas companies in Russia and performed integrated satellite monitoring of the ecological state of coastal waters in the Baltic, Black, Caspian, and Kara seas, which inclu...

  5. Proceedings of the 21.International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Condition 2011 : issues related to coastal and offshore engineering in ice-covered waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the increased interest in economic development of Arctic resources and waterways, it is apparent that more needs to be known with regard to Arctic offshore structures and operations. Ice-related issues and ice interaction are big challenges in development of new offshore structures. Reviews of the techniques and experience gained from offshore fields like the Kashagan, for example, or in the Beaufort Sea, were presented. The challenge of guaranteeing safety is also an important concern for the industry. This conference brought together speakers from the international and domestic corrosion communities to present technical papers and participate in panel discussions on several themes such as ice properties and its structure interaction, logistics and ice management at offshore operations, cold climate ports and many more

  6. Oil and gas activity in the Arctic. Challenges in changing climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation reviews the oil and gas resources in the Arctic, discusses applications of experiences from the petroleum and gas activities on the Norwegian Shelf to resource development in the Arctic and concludes that the data bases should be improved for oceanographic, meteorological and ice data. The emphasis is on technological design (tk)

  7. Map Service Showing Geology, Oil and Gas Fields, and Geologic Provinces of the Arctic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The digitally compiled map includes geology, oil and gas field centerpoints, and geologic provinces of the Arctic (North Pole area encircled by 640 N Latitude). The...

  8. A review of epidemiological injury studies in the oil- and gas offshore industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf; Laursen, Lise Hedegaard

    2014-01-01

    Safety and health in offshore oil and gas production has always been important. With the aim to evaluate the preventive program effect, a literature review was done based on epidemiological occupational injuries and musculoskeletal disorders. Methods: A literature review was performed by examining...... fatal occupational injury risk in the oil- and gas platforms calls for more attention....

  9. Demonstrating multi-layered MAS in control of offshore oil and gas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard Mikkelsen, Lars; Næumann, J. R.; Demazeau, Y.;

    2013-01-01

    From a control perspective, offshore oil and gas production is very challenging due to the many and potentially conflicting production objectives that arise from the intrinsic complexity of the oil and gas domain. In this paper, we demonstrate how a multi-layered multi-agent system can be used in a...

  10. Thermodynamic Performance Indicators for Offshore Oil and Gas Processing: Application to Four North Sea Facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldsund, Mari; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian;

    2014-01-01

    Well-defined performance indicators can motivate optimal operation of offshore oil and gas platforms. We evaluate several thermodynamic performance indicators presented in the literature according to three criteria: Thermodynamic performance indicators should evaluate the use of technically...... oil and gas platforms—the best-available-technology efficiency on an exergy basis, a task exergy efficiency, and the specific exergy destruction....

  11. Can Producing Oil Store Carbon? Greenhouse Gas Footprint of CO2EOR, Offshore North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R Jamie; Haszeldine, R Stuart

    2015-05-01

    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2EOR) is a proven and available technology used to produce incremental oil from depleted fields while permanently storing large tonnages of injected CO2. Although this technology has been used successfully onshore in North America and Europe, there are currently no CO2EOR projects in the United Kingdom. Here, we examine whether offshore CO2EOR can store more CO2 than onshore projects traditionally have and whether CO2 storage can offset additional emissions produced through offshore operations and incremental oil production. Using a high-level Life Cycle system approach, we find that the largest contribution to offshore emissions is from flaring or venting of reproduced CH4 and CO2. These can already be greatly reduced by regulation. If CO2 injection is continued after oil production has been optimized, then offshore CO2EOR has the potential to be carbon negative--even when emissions from refining, transport, and combustion of produced crude oil are included. The carbon intensity of oil produced can be just 0.056-0.062 tCO2e/bbl if flaring/venting is reduced by regulation. This compares against conventional Saudi oil 0.040 tCO2e/bbl or mined shale oil >0.300 tCO2e/bbl. PMID:25789442

  12. Identification of criteria for selection of arctic offshore field development concept

    OpenAIRE

    Gordeeva, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    When the decision to study the development of an offshore field is taken, the concept phase of an offshore project development starts. The concept phase consists of the concept screening, conceptual engineering and concept selection stages. While concept screening and conceptual engineering stages represent a specific sequence of engineering calculations to determine technical feasibility and all aspects of each possible development concept for an offshore field, the concept selection stage r...

  13. Paying for the Piper. Capital and labour in Britain`s offshore oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolfson, C.; Foster, J.; Beck, M.

    1996-12-31

    This book makes the first serious appraisal of the current offshore safety regulatory regime instituted after Piper Alpha, and of the oil industry`s attempts to contain subsequent unwelcome regulatory interference. It concludes that, as yet, offshore safety is little or not at all improved. The fraught history of trade unionism in the offshore industry and the largely successful strategies of employers to sustain a virtually union-free environment is also examined. The conflict over health and safety offshore has been inextricably bound up with the sometimes brutal struggle over union rights as the workforce has attempted to achieve a collective voice in the reform of safety and production standards. Paying for the Piper shows how the offshore unions have attempted to alter the unfavourable balance of class forces shaped by some of the world`s most powerful concerns. (author)

  14. Paying for the Piper. Capital and labour in Britain's offshore oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book makes the first serious appraisal of the current offshore safety regulatory regime instituted after Piper Alpha, and of the oil industry's attempts to contain subsequent unwelcome regulatory interference. It concludes that, as yet, offshore safety is little or not at all improved. The fraught history of trade unionism in the offshore industry and the largely successful strategies of employers to sustain a virtually union-free environment is also examined. The conflict over health and safety offshore has been inextricably bound up with the sometimes brutal struggle over union rights as the workforce has attempted to achieve a collective voice in the reform of safety and production standards. Paying for the Piper shows how the offshore unions have attempted to alter the unfavourable balance of class forces shaped by some of the world's most powerful concerns. (author)

  15. Towards sustainability in offshore oil and gas operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Ibrahim

    acceptable, economically profitable and socially responsible. This dissertation discusses the framework of true 'sustainability' for practically all aspects oil and gas operations and nature-based resource operations. Sustainability of existing offshore oil and gas operations techniques are analyzed and new nature-based technologies are proposed. Also evaluated are the fate and effect, environmental impact, risk factors, and the green supply chain in the case of seismic, drilling, production and decommissioning of oil operations. It is demonstrated with detailed examples that using the new approach will be economically more beneficial than the conventional approach, even in the short-term. The dissertation also examines the present status of petroleum operations with respect to waste generation, improper resource management, and the usage of toxic compounds in the overall lifecycle. To achieve true sustainability, some innovative models and technologies are presented. They include achievement of zero emissions, zero waste of resources, zero waste in activities, zero use of toxics, and zero waste in product life-cycle. This dissertation also discusses the environmental and technological problems of the petroleum sector and provides guidelines to achieve overall sustainability in oil company activities. Finally, this dissertation shows that inherent sustainability can be achieved by the involvement of community participation. The new screening tool proposed in this dissertation provides proper guidelines to achieve true sustainability in the technology development and other resource development operations.

  16. The effects of different oil spill cleanup technologies on body burden and biomarkers in Arctic marine organisms - a laboratory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faksness, Liv-Guri; Hansen, Bjorn Henrik; Nordtug, Trond [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry (Norway)], email: livgurif@sintef.no; Borseth, Jan Fredrik; Baussant, Thierry; Tandberg, Anne Helene S.; Ingvarsdottir, Anna; Aarab, Nadia [IRIS Biomiljo (Norway); Altin, Dag [Altins BioTrix (Norway)

    2011-07-01

    This paper studies the effects and toxicity of a water soluble fraction (WSF) of oil versus chemically dispersed oil and also of WSF versus the underlying water after in situ burning (ISB). The applications of exposure concentrations were based on monitoring of WSF in the water column during an offshore field experiment. A continuous flow-through system for the dispersant experiments was set up and an Arctic amphipod was used as the test species. Seawater and gammarids were also used as samples for chemical and biological analyses. Good correlation with the data was presented by chemical analysis of the water samples. However, more PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) were measured in the gammarids exposed to oil mixed with dispersant than in those exposed to oil alone. On the other hand, a system was developed to allow water sampling after ISB and samples of seawater and of oil prior to, and immediately after, ISB were collected and a chemical analysis was conducted. The result of the analysis was that there was no increase in toxicity in the underlying water after ISB.

  17. China's Offshore Oil and Gas Development and Production Towards Another Higher Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Shengwei; Yan Hao

    1996-01-01

    @@ The oil and gas development and production of China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) have already entered a continued, speedy, and efficient developing stage. During the period of the Eighth Five-Year Plan, 12offshore oil and gas fields came on-stream, the annual crude oil production increasing range all reached more than1- 2 million tons, the total output of crude oil being 26.17million tons, and natural gas, 1.4 billion cubic meters. In1995, crude oil production reached 8.41 million tons,natural gas reached 0.37 billion cubic meters, and the construction of Ya 13-1 gas field was completed with annual productivity of 3.45 billion cubic meters. the total value of assets has increased from 1.7 billion yuan in 1983to 32.8 billion yuan in 1995.

  18. Powering oil and gas offshore operations from mainland eletrical grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeland, Asmund; Chokhawala, Rahul S.

    2010-09-15

    This paper describes principal power from shore (PFS) technologies available today, highlights their key attributes, and discusses cost-benefit aspects of these emerging solutions in comparison to decades of gas turbines generation offshore.

  19. The size and performance of offshore produced water oil-removal technologies for reinjection

    OpenAIRE

    Judd, S.; Qiblawey, H.; Al-Marri, M.; Clarkin, C.; Watson, S.; Ahmed, A.; Bach, S.

    2014-01-01

    Produced water (PW) is wastewater generated from oil exploration, and requires treating for oil and suspended solids removal. The viability of an effluent treatment unit process for this duty is dependent both on its efficacy, in terms of oil removal and - for offshore applications especially - its size, in terms of its area (FA, m/h) and volume (FV, h -1) footprint per unit volume flow. The incurred footprint applies to both the individual unit (vessel, column or tank) and the collection (or...

  20. Integration by Infrastructuring: The Case of Subsea Environmental Monitoring in Oil and Gas Offshore Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Parmiggiani, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates the development of ICT solutions for performing real-time subsea environmental monitoring during oil and gas offshore operations. The research is based on a three-year case study of an international oil and gas company headquartered in Norway. The thesis is specifically focused on aspects of integration: how new tools, systems, and approaches are developed, and how existing ones are adapted to fit the existing systems and practices of the oil and gas co...

  1. Case Study of Integrating an Offshore Wind Farm with Offshore Oil and Gas Platforms and with an Onshore Electrical Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research project explored the technical feasibility of utilizing an offshore wind farm as a supplementary power source to several electrical grids of offshore oil and gas platforms and providing surplus power to an onshore grid. Three case studies comprising wind farms rated at 20 MW, 100 MW, and 1000 MW have been studied with the focus on (i the operation benefits of CO2/NOx emission reduction, (ii the electrical grid stability, and (iii the technical implementation feasibility. The proposed 20 MW, 100 MW, and 1000 MW wind farm cases are theoretically feasible in terms of the selected technical criteria, although further detailed design operational studies, and economical analysis are required.

  2. To put an end to the oil blue. For a better regulation of offshore oil and gas activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having outlined the context of an endless race to offshore oil and gas, and the increased associated risks for the environment, this report discusses the relevance of the international regulation framework for offshore activities. While addressing the issues of responsibility and compensation, the authors analyse existing international and regional regulations, outline legal loopholes, and identify ways to address them. The objective is to propose a comprehensive analysis of the current international framework, to make some propositions to strengthen it. After an analysis of rules which now govern offshore activities, and of the framework regarding responsibility and compensation in case of accidents, the authors highlight the main loopholes of the international regulatory framework, and identify some perspectives to correct them. They discuss the main existing challenges and present some options for a better supervision of offshore activities

  3. 40 CFR 125.136 - As an owner or operator of a new offshore oil and gas extraction facility, what must I collect...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... offshore oil and gas extraction facility, what must I collect and submit when I apply for my new or... Requirements Applicable to Cooling Water Intake Structures for New Offshore Oil and Gas Extraction Facilities...) As an owner or operator of a new offshore oil and gas extraction facility, you must submit to...

  4. 40 CFR 125.138 - As an owner or operator of a new offshore oil and gas extraction facility, must I keep records...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... offshore oil and gas extraction facility, must I keep records and report? 125.138 Section 125.138... Intake Structures for New Offshore Oil and Gas Extraction Facilities Under Section 316(b) of the Act § 125.138 As an owner or operator of a new offshore oil and gas extraction facility, must I keep...

  5. 40 CFR 125.134 - As an owner or operator of a new offshore oil and gas extraction facility, what must I do to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... offshore oil and gas extraction facility, what must I do to comply with this subpart? 125.134 Section 125... Intake Structures for New Offshore Oil and Gas Extraction Facilities Under Section 316(b) of the Act § 125.134 As an owner or operator of a new offshore oil and gas extraction facility, what must I do...

  6. 40 CFR 125.137 - As an owner or operator of a new offshore oil and gas extraction facility, must I perform...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... offshore oil and gas extraction facility, must I perform monitoring? 125.137 Section 125.137 Protection of... Offshore Oil and Gas Extraction Facilities Under Section 316(b) of the Act § 125.137 As an owner or operator of a new offshore oil and gas extraction facility, must I perform monitoring? As an owner...

  7. Human factors, shift work, and alertness in the offshore oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkes, K.R.

    1993-12-31

    This report describes a two-part study of human factors, shift work and alertness in the oil industry, with particular reference to control-room personnel working offshore. Part I reports a questionnaire survey of 172 control-room operators, employed either on North Sea platforms or at onshore terminals. The main aim of the study was to compare the onshore and offshore work environments, and assess their implications for employees` physical and mental health, work satisfaction, and sleep patterns. Age and personality factors were also examined in relation to these outcomes. Part II reports a smaller-scale, but more intensive, study of alertness among offshore operators in which subjective mood, and objective reasoning, memory, and reaction-time performance, were assessed repeatedly over the two-week offshore period, with particular reference to the effects of shift patterns and work hours. (author)

  8. SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 6: Arctic operations case study and generalization. [economic benefits of SEASAT satellites to oil exploration in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The hypothetical development and transportation of Arctic oil and other resources by ice breaking super tanker fleets to the continental East Coast are discussed. The utilization of SEASAT ice mapping data is shown to contribute to a more effective transportation operation through the Arctic ice by reducing transportation costs as a consequence of reduced transit time per voyage.

  9. Plant-wide Control for Better De-oiling of Produced Water in Offshore Oil & Gas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Stigkær, Jens Peter; Løhndorf, Bo

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of plant-wide control philosophy to enhance the performance and capacity of the Produced Water Treatment (PWT) in offshore oil & gas production processes. Different from most existing facility- or material-based PWT innovation methods, the objective of this work...

  10. Methods for the determination of diesel, mineral, and crude oils in offshore oil and gas industry discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document is a compendium of analytical methods which support Subpart A of 40 CFR Part 435, effluent limitations guidelines for the Offshore subcategory of the Oil and Gas Extraction Point-Source Category. Methods 1651, 1654, 1662, and 1663 are discussed

  11. Precursor Analysis for Offshore Oil and Gas Drilling: From Prescriptive to Risk-Informed Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, Roger M.; Ross, Heather L.; Stern, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The Oil Spill Commission’s chartered mission—to “develop options to guard against … any oil spills associated with offshore drilling in the future” (National Commission 2010)—presents a major challenge: how to reduce the risk of low-frequency oil spill events, and especially high-consequence events like the Deepwater Horizon accident, when historical experience contains few oil spills of material scale and none approaching the significance of the Deepwater Horizon. In this paper, we consider ...

  12. Using decommissioned offshore oil/gas platforms for nuclear/RO desalination: the ONDP (Offshore Nuclear Desalination Platform)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil platforms are manmade concrete and steel giant structures standing high on ocean floor weighing anywhere between 10,000 tonnes and 150,000 tonnes or more and designed to withstand cruel forces of nature, having an average life of 70 years. With the declining petrol reserves within next 30 years, hundreds of platforms will be scheduled for decommissioning. This issue is a hot topic as oil companies tussle with environmentalists and state lawmakers over the future. The cash strapped oil companies have a legal obligation to remove each rig entirely, returning the ocean floor to its original condition. Lean times in oil industry mean a tight cash flow. Safely removing massive structures from deep waters and shipping the pile to the shores for reuse and recycling presents a technological challenge for operators. Some conceptual applications investigated to reuse them are the conversion of offshore structures into fish farms, prisons, military outposts, hotels, for Search and Rescue operations or Centers for Waste Processing and Disposal. Decommissioning oil and gas installation is exorbitantly expensive. On an average, removing a complete platform with or without pipeline in sea waters with 'clean sea approach' costs $15 million to $ 6 billion depending on location. Global warming has adversely affected world climate. Water levels in ground and reservoirs have shown drastic decrement. In future there will be need for more and more water all over the world. Fossil fuel energy based desalination is expensive and not eco-friendly so is dismantling of oil platform with its pipeline. The oil platforms are far located from population, have sufficient tank capacity and pipeline structure to store and pump water to shore. When found economically unviable these mammoth structures with modifications can be installed with 02 or more small or medium sized nuclear reactors such as KLT 40S with required module to desalinate water and co generate electricity which can be sent to

  13. Detection of oil spills near offshore installations using synthetic aperture radar (SAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remote sensing using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is attracting increasing interest for the detection of oil spills from offshore oil installations. Three systems are already operating and three more are planned. SAR can provide high spatial resolution and is not affected by the time of day or cloud conditions. Examples of images obtained from UK and Norwegian offshore installations are shown and their interpretation are explained. SAR image analysis is used by a satellite-based oil spill monitoring service covering the Norwegian sector of the North Sea and part of the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and the Baltic Sea. An algorithm has been developed at the Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Centre (NERSC) in Norway to help distinguish between oil spills, natural films, current shear zones and rain cells

  14. A crude solution: should the moratorium on offshore oil and gas development in BC be lifted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A discussion on the pros and cons of lifting the moratorium on offshore oil development is presented. The Federal Fisheries Minister is not convinced that technological advances have reached a point where the moratorium can be lifted and guarantee that major accidents would not occur. The Fisheries Act states that any degradation of fish habitat is illegal. Coastal communities are also opposed to lifting the moratorium, yet it is widely rumored that the provincial government is planning to set up an environmental review to investigate the possibility of developing the offshore resource. The Sierra Legal Defence Fund supports the federal government's position that lifting the moratorium on offshore oil development would seriously jeopardize many sectors of the coastal economy, and urges both levels of government to work together and instead of engaging in such potentially hazardous and costly endeavour, encourage growth and development in the domestic renewable energy sector. 37 refs., figs

  15. Satellite Monitoring Systems for Shipping and Offshore Oil and Gas Industry in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostianoy A.G.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shipping activities, oil production and transport in the sea, oil handled in harbors, construction and exploitation of offshore oil and gas pipelines have a number of negative impacts on the marine environment and coastal zone of the seas. In 2004-2014 we elaborated several operational satellite monitoring systems for oil and gas companies in Russia and performed integrated satellite monitoring of the ecological state of coastal waters in the Baltic, Black, Caspian, and Kara seas, which included observation of oil pollution, suspended matter, and algae bloom at a fully operational mode. These monitoring systems differ from the existing ones by the analysis of a wide spectrum of satellite, meteorological and oceanographic data, as well as by a numerical modeling of oil spill transformation and transport in real weather conditions. Our experience in the Baltic Sea includes: (1 integrated satellite monitoring of oil production at the LUKOIL-KMN Ltd. D-6 oil rig in the Southeastern Baltic Sea (Kravtsovskoe oil field in 2004-2014; (2 integrated satellite monitoring of the “Nord Stream” underwater gas pipeline construction and exploitation in the Gulf of Finland (2010-2013; (3 numerical modeling of risks of oil pollution caused by shipping along the main maritime shipping routes in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Proper, and in the Southeastern Baltic Sea; (4 numerical modeling of risks of oil pollution caused by oil production at D-6 oil rig and oil transportation on shore via the connecting underwater oil pipeline.

  16. Remote sensing for risk analysis of oil spills in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Malin; Hassellöv, Ida-Maja; Eriksson, Leif; Lindgren, Fredrik; Berg, Anders; Carvajal, Gisela; Landquist, Hanna

    2014-05-01

    The observed decrease in sea-ice and change from multi-year ice to first-year ice in the Arctic Ocean opens up for increased maritime activities. These activities include transportation, extraction of oil and gas, fishing and tourism. The expected growth in marine shipping in the Arctic region also increases the potential threat of accidents. Within this project we aim to provide information about the potential geographical distribution of oil pollution along prospective future shipping lanes in the Arctic. Using a combination of remote sensing products and a risk analysis thought-process we develop a method that tracks a potential oil spill from release to clean-up. We use synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images to provide input data about the changes in the Arctic sea ice cover, including sea ice drift, sea-ice concentration and information on the wind patterns over open water at 10 meters height. Combining this data with information about ocean currents we make estimates on the redistribution and spread of oil pollution scenarios. Furthermore, the method includes the biogeochemical impact of the spill on the environment. Different size of oil spills and spills with different type of oil will be included and we will include ecotoxicological effects of low concentrations of oil for possible future economic assessment of the environmental impact.

  17. Oil spill environmental risk assessment of stationary sources in offshore zones (Innovating a mathematical model)

    OpenAIRE

    Razavian, Fateme

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, risks arising from the rapid development of oil and gas industries are significantly increasing. As a result, one of the main concerns of either industrial or environmental managers is the identification and assessment of such risks in order to develop and maintain appropriate proactive measures. Oil spill from stationary sources in offshore zones is one of the accidents resulting in several adverse impacts on marine ecosystems. Considering a site's current situation and relevant re...

  18. Emissions of methane from offshore oil and gas platforms in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Nara, Hideki; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Tohjima, Yasunori; Mukai, Hitoshi; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Machida, Toshinobu

    2014-01-01

    Methane is a substantial contributor to climate change. It also contributes to maintaining the background levels of tropospheric ozone. Among a variety of CH4 sources, current estimates suggest that CH4 emissions from oil and gas processes account for approximately 20% of worldwide anthropogenic emissions. Here, we report on observational evidence of CH4 emissions from offshore oil and gas platforms in Southeast Asia, detected by a highly time-resolved spectroscopic monitoring technique deplo...

  19. Economics of Newfoundland and Labrador's offshore oil industry : separating fact from myth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation provided an analysis of the Newfoundland offshore oil sector to help inform public understanding and debate. Four questions were posed to the oil sector in order to provide answers to questions the public may have concerning oil and gas operations and their socio-economic impacts in the region. It was observed that Newfoundland's daily production, reserves and activity levels are relatively small in comparison with other major oil producing regions, accounting for only 0.4 per cent of the world's daily oil production. On a per capita basis, oil production in the region is significant in comparison to other oil-producing regions, placing fourth in the world behind the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, and Norway. The oil and gas sector is the largest single contributor to Newfoundland's economy, providing 16 per cent of Newfoundland's gross domestic product (GDP). An estimated $16 billion will be provided to the province's treasury through the exploitation of the province's resources. Production statistics for Hibernia, Terra Nova, White Rose and Hebron were presented. Price forecasts and projected royalty payments were also provided. It was noted that the Newfoundland government receives more than 50 per cent of the profits of the combined fields, and higher oil prices will yield higher shares to the government. Equity holders incur more risk and receive lower net present value than royalty and tax collectors. It was suggested that increases in local benefits will lead to increased project costs, which will in turn lead to reduced royalty incomes. It was concluded that the Newfoundland offshore oil sector is vitally important to all aspects of the province's economy. An informed debate on public policy issues that impact Newfoundland's offshore oil industry is needed. refs., tabs., figs

  20. 78 FR 25472 - Information Collection: Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ...To comply with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (PRA), the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) is inviting comments on a collection of information that we will submit to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval. The information collection request (ICR) concerns the paperwork requirements for 30 CFR 553, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore...

  1. On the impact of adequate sleep on safety in offshore oil drilling; Troett trussel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goa, Torbjoern

    2003-07-01

    Many tragedies on motor ways and work places can be attributed to mental and physical tiredness. Investigation by The Norwegian Petroleum Directorate as well as by international research conclude that tiredness caused by inadequate sleep and by shift work cause reduced alertness, slow reaction, bad decisions and many mistakes. These issues are discussed in relation to offshore oil drilling.

  2. Seafloor character, 5-m grid--Offshore of Coal Oil Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3302 presents data for the seafloor-character map (see sheet 5, SIM 3302) of the Offshore of Coal Oil Point map area, California. The raster data...

  3. Seafloor character, 2-m grid--Offshore of Coal Oil Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3302 presents data for the seafloor-character map (see sheet 5, SIM 3302) of the Offshore of Coal Oil Point map area, California. The raster data...

  4. Chemical treatments and usage in offshore oil and gas production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the uses of production treating chemicals, gas processing chemicals, and stimulation and workover chemicals in U.S. offshore oil and gas production operations. The purpose, solubility properties, primary generic chemical types, treatment methods, and typical use concentrations of each chemical group are discussed. Acute aquatic toxicity data and solubility information are presented

  5. Sinopec Adds Brazil Offshore Oil Reserves With Purchase of Galp Unit Stake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ According to Bloomberg on November 12, China Petrochemical Corp., Asia's biggest refiner, agreed to buy a 30 percent stake in Galp Energia SGPS SA (GALP)'s Brazilian unit, its second investment in offshore oil fields in Latin America's largest economy in as many years.

  6. Future emissions from oil, gas, and shipping activities in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Peters

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic sea-ice is retreating faster than predicted by climate models and could become ice free during summer this century. The reduced sea-ice extent may effectively "unlock" the Arctic Ocean to increased human activities such as transit shipping and expanded oil and gas production. Travel time between Europe and the north Pacific Region can be reduced by up to 50% with low sea-ice levels and the use of this route could increase substantially as the sea-ice retreats. Oil and gas activities already occur in the Arctic region and given the large undiscovered petroleum resources increased activity could be expected with reduced sea-ice. We use a detailed global energy market model and a bottom-up shipping model with a sea-ice module to construct emission inventories of Arctic shipping and petroleum activities in 2030 and 2050. The emission inventories are on a 1× 1 degree grid and cover both short-lived pollutants and ozone pre-cursors (SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, BC, OC and the long-lived greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O. We find rapid growth in transit shipping due to increased profitability with the shorter transit times compensating for increased costs in traversing areas of sea-ice. Oil and gas production remains relatively stable leading to reduced emissions from emission factor improvements. The location of oil and gas production moves into locations requiring more ship transport relative to pipeline transport, leading to rapid emissions growth from oil and gas transport via ship. Our emission inventories for the Arctic region will be used as input into chemical transport, radiative transfer, and climate models to quantify the role of Arctic activities in climate change compared to similar emissions occurring outside of the Arctic region.

  7. Oil spill emergency preparedness in the Russian Arctic: a study of the Murmansk region

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The issue of oil spill emergency response in north-west Russia has become increasingly important following a substantial increase in maritime transport and major offshore developments in Russian waters. This study is an initial effort to outline the public and private agencies and organizations involved in handling oil spills in the Murmansk region and the structure of the oil spill emergency response system in the region. This study examines the formal relationships between federal and regio...

  8. Assessment of the risk of shore contamination by offshore oil spills: model formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A stochastic simulation model has been developed to support the assessment of the risk of shore contamination by offshore oil spills. The model simulates the trajectory and evolution of offshore oil spills, accounting for advection by surface currents, spreading, hydrodynamic dispersion, and evaporation. The model uses wind transition matrices to account for the uncertainty in the wind direction and speed that may affect the movement of an oil slick and its point of contact with the shoreline. After the first contact with the shoreline, the model simulates the deformation of the oil slick as it approaches the shore, estimates the mass of oil that comes within the wave breaking zone, and, based on the characteristics of the shore, the oil deposited on it, and accounts for oil transport along the coast due to longshore currents. The latter may result in a much larger portion of the shore impacted than that affected by the initial contact of the oil spill with the shoreline. Risk estimates are made by performing Monte Carlo simulations. (author)

  9. Global climate change implications for coastal and offshore oil and gas development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discussion and debate about climate change and oil and gas resource development has generally focused on how fossil fuel use affects the Earth's climate. This paper explores how the changing climate is likely to affect oil and gas operations in low-lying coastal areas and the outer continental shelf. Oil and gas production in these regions comprises a large sector of the economies of many energy producing nations. Six key climate change drivers in coastal and marine regions are characterized with respect to oil and gas development: changes in carbon dioxide levels and ocean acidity, air and water temperature, precipitation patterns, the rate of sea level rise, storm intensity, and wave regime. These key drivers have the potential to independently and cumulatively affect coastal and offshore oil and gas exploration, production, and transportation, and several impacts of climate change have already been observed in North America. - Highlights: ► Climate change effects on coastal and offshore energy development have been observed in some regions. ► Key drivers include changes in temperature, precipitation, sea level rise, storm intensity and wave regime. ► These can independently and cumulatively affect coastal and offshore exploration, production, and transportation. ► A methodical vulnerability and impact assessment is needed to support adaptation in this sector of the global economy.

  10. Bridging IMO e-Navigation Policy and Offshore Oil and Gas Operations through Geospatial Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Modesto Da Rocha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In offshore industry activities, the suitable onboard provision of assets location and geospatial marine information during operations is essential. Currently, most companies use its own data structures, resulting in incompatibility between processes. In order to promote the data exchange, oil and gas industry associations have pursued initiatives to standardize spatial information. In turn, the IMO - International Maritime Organization - started the implementation of e-Navigation policy, which is the standardization of technologies and protocols applied to maritime information and navigation. This paper shows relationship and integration points between maritime activities of oil and gas industry and e-Navigation technologies and processes, highlighting geospatial information. This paper also preludes out an initiative for a suitable product specification for the offshore oil and gas industry, compliant with e-Navigation and IHO S-100 international standards.

  11. PetroChina Licensed for Nation's Offshore Oil Fields Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ With the approval by the State Council - the Chinese Government, the Ministry of State and Resources formally authorized PetroChina, China's largest oil and gas producer, with the rights for oil and gas exploration and development in South China Sea on July 6.

  12. Offshore oil exploration and impact assessment in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Merrild

    2016-01-01

    Greenland needs development. Oil and mineral extraction is pursued as a means to achieve economical growth. Fisheries, hunting and tourism are the main pillars in the Greenland economy in 2015. These businesses are however sensitive to potential negative impacts from oil and gas development. Local...... benefits are expected to derive from oil and gas projects, but these benefits cannot be achieved without careful planning and project management. To secure that negative impacts are mitigated and that positive outcomes are achieved, Impact Assessments (IA) have been implemented as in the Greenlandic...... regulation system in relation to oil and gas projects to promote sustainable development. Additional Impact Benefit Agreements (IBA) have to be negotiated between the communities potentially affected, the Government and the oil companies to assure that social investments are made to secure long-term benefits...

  13. Modelling and analysis of offshore energy systems on North Sea oil and gas platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian; Pierobon, Leonardo;

    2012-01-01

    Offshore processes are associated with significant energy consumption and large CO2 emissions. Conventional North Sea oil and gas facilities include the following operations: crude oil separation, gas compression and purification, wastewater treatment, gas lifting, seawater injection, oil and gas...... export, and power generation. In this paper, a generic model of a North Sea oil and gas platform is described and the most thermodynamically inefficient processes are identified by performing an exergy analysis. Models and simulations are built and run with the tools Aspen Plus R, DNA and Aspen HYSYS R....... Results reveal that the total exergy destruction of the system is particularly sensitive to the gas-to-oil ratio and amounts to 55-65 MW, while the total exergy losses amount to 15-20 MW. The gas compression train and the production manifold module are the most exergy-destructive operations of the oil...

  14. Screening of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from offshore oil and gas platforms in North Atlantic Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qinhong; Zhang, Baiyu; Chen, Bing; Song, Xing; Zhu, Zhiwen; Cao, Tong

    2015-05-01

    From offshore oil and gas platforms in North Atlantic Canada, crude oil, formation water, drilling mud, treated produced water and seawater samples were collected for screening potential biosurfactant producers. In total, 59 biosurfactant producers belong to 4 genera, namely, Bacillus, Rhodococcus, Halomonas, and Pseudomonas were identified and characterized. Phytogenetic trees based on 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (16S rDNA) were constructed with isolated strains plus their closely related strains and isolated strains with biosurfactant producers in the literature, respectively. The distributions of the isolates were site and medium specific. The richness, diversity, and evenness of biosurfactant producer communities in oil and gas platform samples have been analyzed. Diverse isolates were found with featured properties such as effective reduction of surface tension, producing biosurfactants at high rate and stabilization of water-in-oil or oil-in-water emulsion. The producers and their corresponding biosurfactants had promising potential in applications such as offshore oil spill control, enhancing oil recovery and soil washing treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. PMID:25903403

  15. Circumpolar oil-and-gas-bearing basins of the arctic part of the North American continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabanbark, A.; Lobkovsky, L. I.

    2015-09-01

    Major geotectonic elements of the reviewed territory of the Arctic part of the North American continent are the Hyperborean Precambrian Platform, the Franklin folding belt, the northern part of the Precambrian Canadian platform, and the Mesozoic folding belt of Canada and Alaska. The rise of the Arctic slope of Alaska, the Beaufort Sea, and the Sverdrup basin are located in the southern margins of the Hyperborean Platform. The structure and peculiarities of development of these structural elements are genetically related to the evolution of this platform, as well as the current state of petroleum potential of the most promising exploration region of Arctic in the 21st century. The forced exploration of the Arctic regions of the United States and Canada has become an important milestone in the current development of the world energetics. Up to 100 oil, gas, and gas condensate fields have been discovered as a result of violent studies, and the potential oil and gas reserves in the Arctic part of the North American continent have been estimated to 30 billiion t and 50 trillion cubic meters, respectively. Many prospects are related to the continental slopes of all three above-mentioned basins; the total potential reserves of slopes are estimated as 10-12 billion t of oil and 20-25 trillion cubic meters of gas.

  16. Information Supply Chain for Offshore Oil and Gas Production

    OpenAIRE

    Lauritsen, Ole Martin

    2009-01-01

    Commercial oil and gas production is one of the world s biggest industries and has activities all over the planet. When operating in a huge and widespread business environment it is challenging for central management and decision makers to keep track of all the company s activities. Real-time information about production operations and activities is fundamental for all decision making, future projections and risk management. In the international world of oil and gas production, standard metho...

  17. British Columbia offshore oil and gas socio-economic issue papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the key social and economic issues regarding offshore oil and gas exploration and development in British Columbia's coastal waters were examined by the Science, Technology and Environment Division of Royal Roads University in conjunction with Glenn Bridges and Associates. In 1972, the federal government imposed a moratorium to prevent crude oil tankers from travelling the west coast due to concerns over environmental impacts. A provincial moratorium on exploration followed shortly thereafter. The government of British Columbia recently suggested lifting the moratorium, and conducted public hearings and scientific reviews of issues related to offshore oil and exploration. In the Spring of 2002, the provincial government asked the federal government to consider lifting its moratorium. In response, a Federal Interdepartmental Offshore Oil and Gas Socio-Economic Issues Working Group conducted a series of study plans in the areas of science, legal, aboriginal, socio-economic, oceans and management regimes. This report provides the outcomes of the studies. It is organized in tabular form to facilitate presentation. All 8 tabs were catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. They include: (1) an introduction and overview, (2) illustrative development scenarios, (3) resource revenues report, (4) socio-economic expenditure report, (5) human resources report, (6) due diligence issues report, (7) knowledge management strategy for policy formation, and, (8) bibliography. refs., tabs., figs

  18. Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment and Stress among Offshore Oil and Gas Platform Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryanni Harun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Working offshore on an oil rig is perceived as a challenge to many people. Having to live and work at the same site, shift-work schedule with long working hours, high risks and remote work environment; are some common features of an offshore job. High job satisfaction (JS, strong organizational commitment (OC and minimal stress (St are key factors to retain the offshore oil and gas platform employees. This is critical to oil and gas companies as skilled and experienced employees are highly demanded in the industry. This study aimed to examine the level of job satisfaction, organizational commitment and stress among oil rig employees (n=214 situated in the coast of East Malaysia. This study also analyzed the relationship between the three variables. The data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The findings suggested a moderate level of stress and job satisfaction, while organizational commitment was found to be quite high among the respondents. Job satisfaction was found to have significant positive association with organizational commitment, on the other hand stress was found to be negatively correlated to OC & JS. The implications of these findings for practice and theory in the field of Human Resource Management are discussed.

  19. Microbial response to nitrate treatment in offshore oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boedtker, Gunhild

    2009-07-01

    North Sea oil reservoirs are often injected with deaerated sea water in order to enhance oil recovery. The high sulphate content of sea water combined with the anoxic conditions stimulates growth of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the water injection system and the reservoir. SRB produce the highly toxic and corrosive gas hydrogen sulphide (HZS) during anaerobic respiration with sulphate. Accumulation of HZS leads to corrosion and reservoir souring, which may result in reduced gas quality, separation problems and increased maintenance costs. Biocides have traditionally been used to prevent SRB activity in North Sea oil fields. During the last decade, however, the environmentally sound method of nitrate treatment has replaced biocides on several fields. The method is based on shifting the microbial activity from sulphate reduction to nitrate reduction by introducing nitrate as an alternative electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration. Results presented in the current thesis show that nitrate treatment has resulted in long-term inhibition of SRB activity and a reduction in corrosion of up to 40% in sea water injection systems at the Veslefrikk and Gullfaks oil fields. Molecular analysis (PCR-DGGE) of pipeline biofilm from Veslefrikk showed that sulphide-oxidizing nitrate-reducing bacteria (NR-SOB) constituted the major metabolic group during nitrate treatment, and that the bacterial community composition remained stable during years. Reduction in sulphide produced from the Gullfaks field showed that nitrate treatment was effective also at reservoir level. Analysis of back flowed injection water from a nitrate-treated Statfjord reservoir showed that heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) constituted the major metabolic group, and that the in situ HZS level was 10 fold lower than experienced during biocides treatment and 100 fold lower than experienced during produced water reinjection (PWRI). At the Norne oil field oxic sea water is injected along with

  20. Effect studies of different oil and dispersant exposures on keystone pelagic zooplankton species in arctic environments

    OpenAIRE

    Kjelsnes, Anneli Jenssen

    2013-01-01

    Expanding petroleum activities into northern marine areas have resulted in need for tools that specify Arctic specific characteristics when assessing environmental risks for these regions. In order to estimate the environmental impact of mechanically or chemically dispersed oil, on marine populations in sensitive northern environments, laboratory studies need to be developed. Such studies would be useful fir risk assessments and modelling potential effects of oil related pollution. The overal...

  1. Environmental law issues: Offshore oil and gas activities and tanker transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental law issues that arise from offshore oil/gas activities and petroleum transport are reviewed, focusing on marine oil pollution and especially on the issues surrounding accidental spills. Some observations are offered on the context of these issues, namely on the risks of oil spills, the difficulty of spill response in the ocean and on shorelines, and the possible environmental damage. Environmental control of petroleum operations is discussed with reference to Canadian regulation, the primary source of which is the Oil and Gas Production and Conservation Act. These regulations require developmental approval for offshore operations, formulation of plans for foreseeable spill emergencies, and compensation to those affected by spills, notably those in the fishing industry. Ship-source oil pollution and spill compensation is discussed with reference to international agreements and the Canada Shipping Act. Some problems and trends with oil spill compensation and recovery for environmental damage are noted in such areas as tanker ship standards, cleanup capabilities, and inadequacy of spill penalties and compensation. 18 refs., 1 fig

  2. Biomarkers in natural fish populations indicate adverse biological effects of offshore oil production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Balk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the growing awareness of the necessity of a sustainable development, the global economy continues to depend largely on the consumption of non-renewable energy resources. One such energy resource is fossil oil extracted from the seabed at offshore oil platforms. This type of oil production causes continuous environmental pollution from drilling waste, discharge of large amounts of produced water, and accidental spills. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Samples from natural populations of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua in two North Sea areas with extensive oil production were investigated. Exposure to and uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were demonstrated, and biomarker analyses revealed adverse biological effects, including induction of biotransformation enzymes, oxidative stress, altered fatty acid composition, and genotoxicity. Genotoxicity was reflected by a hepatic DNA adduct pattern typical for exposure to a mixture of PAHs. Control material was collected from a North Sea area without oil production and from remote Icelandic waters. The difference between the two control areas indicates significant background pollution in the North Sea. CONCLUSION: It is most remarkable to obtain biomarker responses in natural fish populations in the open sea that are similar to the biomarker responses in fish from highly polluted areas close to a point source. Risk assessment of various threats to the marine fish populations in the North Sea, such as overfishing, global warming, and eutrophication, should also take into account the ecologically relevant impact of offshore oil production.

  3. Review of Slug Detection, Modeling and Control Techniques for Offshore Oil & Gas Production Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic; Yang, Zhenyu

    2015-01-01

    The current offshore oil & gas multi-phase production and transportation installations have big challenges related with the slugging flow: An unstable multi-phase flow regime where the flow rates, pressures and temperatures oscillate in the considered processes. Slug can be caused by different...... these methods can simultaneously reduce the oil & gas production, which is a very big concern as the production rate is the key evaluation parameter for offshore production. We conclude that the slugging flow is a well-defined phenomenon, even though this subject has been extensively investigated in the...... operating conditions and installation structures. The most severe slugs are often induced in long vertical risers or production wells, where liquid blocks gas at the riser/well base and correspondingly it causes the pressure to accumulate and hence originates the oscillating performance. There are many...

  4. Dynamic performance of power generation systems for off-shore oil and gas platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Breuhaus, Peter; Haglind, Fredrik;

    2014-01-01

    On off-shore oil and gas platforms two or more gas turbines typically support the electrical demand on site by operating as a stand-alone (island) power system. As reliability and availability are major concerns during operation, the dynamic performance of the power generation system becomes a...... crucial aspect for stable operation and prevention of unwanted shut down in case of disturbances in the local grid. This paper aims at developing and validating a dynamic model of the gas turbine-based power generation system installed on the Draugen off-shore oil and gas platform (located in the North...... Sea, Norway). The dynamic model of the SGT-500 gas turbine includes dynamic equations for the combustion chamber and for the high pressure, low pressure and turbine shafts. The low and high pressure compressors are modeled by using quasi steady-state conditions by scaling the maps of axial compressors...

  5. Energy efficiency measures for offshore oil and gas platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Voldsund, Mari; Breuhaus, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    Oil and gas platforms are energy-intensive systems { each facility uses from a few to several hundredsMW of energy, depending on the petroleum properties, export specifcations and feld lifetime. Several technologies for increasing the energy effciency of these plants are investigated in this work...

  6. Helicopter passenger survival suit standards in the UK offshore oil industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leese, W L; Norman, J N

    1979-02-01

    Special protective clothing for helicopter passengers in transit to and from installations in the U.K. offshore oil industry is considered essential. Such clothing is required to increase the survival chances in the unlikely event of a helicopter ditching. This paper discusses the nature of the threat to life in such an event and proposes standards for the specific protective clothing required to meet it. Test criteria are also outlined, to ensure that standards set are maintained. PMID:444170

  7. Entering China: A Strategy for Electromagnetic Geoservice AS in the Offshore Oil Exploration Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Hui

    2004-01-01

    ElectroMagnetic GeoServices AS (EMGS) is a pioneer in using the SeaBed Logging (SBL) technique for offshore exploration and field management. SBL technique is a patented electromagnetic exploration method that can significantly increase reliability of discoveries of oil fields and identify the most attractive drilling sites in deep water areas. Through leading-edge SBL technology and high quality services, EMGS has established itself as a market leader in emerging electromagnetic survey indus...

  8. Recovery of oil spills by dispersants in marine arctic regions

    OpenAIRE

    Shata, Asmaa Ali Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    The initial appearance of dispersants was 1960s and 1970s; oil spill dispersants have been the topic of significant research, testing, and debate. In spite of published reports about dispersant toxicity and effectiveness vary greatly, most spill response experts agree that oil spill dispersants are a valuable tool for responding to marine oil spills. Dispersants are oil spill response chemicals that are used to disperse floating oil into the water column. Dispersant cause a temporary incre...

  9. Opportunities for marine engineering companies in the oil and gas offshore sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avis, J. [Kvaerner Masa Marine, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    British Columbia is reviewing the existing moratorium on offshore oil and gas development and has commissioned the report BC Offshore Oil and Gas Technology Update. The report suggests that there are no specific design, geohazard or environmental issues that would preclude the development of offshore oil and gas in British Columbia, but there are many regulatory and socio-political barriers that need to be addressed. This paper addresses issues related to marine engineering, such as how can engineering companies get involved. Some of the potential areas of involvement for engineers is in the development phase, development of the process for regulatory reviews, and establishment of agreements with First Nations. Marine engineering will also be necessary for 4 phases, exploration, development, production and decommissioning. The exploration phase will involve initial seismic surveys, and licensing round. The development phase will involve more concentrated geological surveys, interpretation, initial well drilling and well planning, plus environmental assessments. The production phase will provide opportunity for marine operations in terms of equipment maintenance, repair and upgrade. The decommissioning phase is of short duration and will require expertise in the areas of decommissioning and removal of facilities. 6 figs.

  10. Exergy analysis of offshore processes on North Sea oil and gas platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Pierobon, Leonardo; Elmegaard, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Offshore processes are associated with significant energy consumption and large CO2 emissions. Conventional North Sea oil and gas facilities include the following operations: crude oil separation, gas compression and purification, wastewater treatment, gas lifting, seawater injection and power...... exergy losses amount to 22.3 MW. The gas lifting train and the production-separation module are the most exergy-destructive operations of the oil and gas processing system, consuming 8.83 MW and 8.17 MW respectively, while the power generation system alone is responsible for 46.7 MW. The exergetic...... efficiency of the oil and gas processing is about 39%, while the exergetic efficiency of the utility system is about 21-27%....

  11. Offshore oil seepage visible from space : a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) based automatic detection, mapping and quantification system

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh, Gopika

    2015-01-01

    Offshore oil seepage is believed to be the largest source of marine oil, yet very few of their locations and seepage fluxes have been discovered and reported. Natural oil seep sites are important as they serve as potential energy sources and because they are hosts to a very varied marine ecosystem. These seeps can also be associated with gas hydrates and methane emissions and hence, locating natural oil seeps can provide locations where the sources of greenhouse gases could be studied and qua...

  12. Environmental implications of offshore oil and gas development in Australia. Part 3; Drilling activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report on the environmental effects of offshore drilling activities comprises a review of published literature on the subject, mostly from overseas though some with particular reference to Australia, and reports made available by offshore operators. Australian operators drill between 50 and 100 offshore wells per year, of which about 25 per cent are development wells on multi-well platforms where environmental effects can be more concentrated. The major potential environmental effects from offshore drilling operations result from the discharge of wastes, including drilling fluids and drill cuttings. Of these effects, burial and substrate modification caused by sedimentation within a few hundred metres of the well are the most important. Discharges of drilling wastes generally have been shown to have only minor effects on water quality and pelagic ecosystems. These effects are more severe where oil-based fluids are used. Many drilling fluid constituents or impurities are known to be toxic to marine organisms at very high concentrations, which are typically quantified as the 96-hr LC50 value, being the concentration at which 50 per cent of the test population dies after 96 hours of exposure. In the field such concentrations would only be found in the water column for short times after a discharge and within a few tens of metres from point of discharge, and on the sea bed typically less than 100 m from the discharge point for a single well, and up to 400 m from a multi-well platform. 430 refs., 18 tabs., 8 figs

  13. Environmental perspectives on the East Coast offshore oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this presentation, the author examined the environmental aspects affecting the offshore oil and gas development on the East Coast of Canada. Selected topics were covered to highlight what has been accomplished and the goals for the future in terms of the environment. The development of the oil and gas industry in the region has really taken off in the past twenty years, suffering from growing pains and enduring myths. An oil and gas project begins with seismic surveys, followed by exploratory wells being drilled, then proceeding to the construction and installation of the drilling production facilities, the production phase and the decommissioning of the facilities at the end of the useful life. Each phase of a project was reviewed and environmental concerns identified. Specific topics were addressed, such as drill cuttings, produced water, flaring, and decommissioning and abandonment. Selected problems were examined, notably fish and oil, spills, cumulative effects, the Oceans Act, and the regulatory evolution in the East Coast offshore. 9 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  14. Emissions of methane from offshore oil and gas platforms in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Hideki; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Tohjima, Yasunori; Mukai, Hitoshi; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Machida, Toshinobu

    2014-01-01

    Methane is a substantial contributor to climate change. It also contributes to maintaining the background levels of tropospheric ozone. Among a variety of CH4 sources, current estimates suggest that CH4 emissions from oil and gas processes account for approximately 20% of worldwide anthropogenic emissions. Here, we report on observational evidence of CH4 emissions from offshore oil and gas platforms in Southeast Asia, detected by a highly time-resolved spectroscopic monitoring technique deployed onboard cargo ships of opportunity. We often encountered CH4 plumes originating from operational flaring/venting and fugitive emissions off the coast of the Malay Peninsula and Borneo. Using night-light imagery from satellites, we discovered more offshore platforms in this region than are accounted for in the emission inventory. Our results demonstrate that current knowledge regarding CH4 emissions from offshore platforms in Southeast Asia has considerable uncertainty and therefore, emission inventories used for modeling and assessment need to be re-examined. PMID:25266041

  15. Comparing ignitability for in situ burning of oil spills for an asphaltenic, a waxy and a light crude oil as a function of weathering conditions under arctic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Brandvik, Per Johan; Villumsen, Arne;

    2012-01-01

    In situ burning of oil spills in the Arctic is a promising countermeasure. In spite of the research already conducted more knowledge is needed especially regarding burning of weathered oils. This paper uses a new laboratory burning cell (100 mL sample) to test three Norwegian crude oils, Grane...... (asphalthenic), Kobbe (light oil) and Norne (waxy), for ignitability as a function of ice conditions and weathering degree. The crude oils (9 L) were weathered in a laboratory basin (4.8 m3) under simulated arctic conditions (0, 50 and 90% ice cover). The laboratory burning tests show that the ignitability......-windows for the oil to be ignitable. The composition of the oils is important for the window of opportunity. The asphalthenic Grane crude oil had a limited timewindow for in situ burning (9 h or less), while the light Kobbe crude oil and the waxy Norne crude oil had the longest time-windows for in situ burning (from...

  16. Comparing ignitability for in situ burning of oil spills for an asphaltenic, a waxy and a light crude oil as a function of weathering conditions under arctic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Brandvik, Per Johan; Villumsen, Arne; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2012-01-01

    In situ burning of oil spills in the Arctic is a promising countermeasure. In spite of the research already conducted more knowledge is needed especially regarding burning of weathered oils. This paper uses a new laboratory burning cell (100 mL sample) to test three Norwegian crude oils, Grane...

  17. Offshore Oil and Gas Installations Decommissioning in the North Sea. An Assessment of Decommissioning Options & the Market Outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yunyi Chen, Connie

    2012-01-01

    Summary The decommissioning of offshore oil and gas installations is becoming an increasingly crucial issue to the oil and gas industry as a large number of assets within the sector are approaching the end of their economic life. Globally, there are over

  18. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco's refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R ampersand D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ''unit cost'' portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible' to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills

  19. Advancing strategic environmental assessment in the offshore oil and gas sector: Lessons from Norway, Canada, and the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstract: Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) for offshore oil and gas planning and development is utilized in select international jurisdictions, but the sector has received limited attention in the SEA literature. While the potential benefits of and rationale for SEA are well argued, there have been few empirical studies of SEA processes for the offshore sector. Hence, little is known about the efficacy of SEA offshore, in particular its influence on planning and development decisions. This paper examines SEA practice and influence in three international offshore systems: Norway, Atlantic Canada and the United Kingdom, with the intent to identify the challenges, lessons and opportunities for advancing SEA in offshore planning and impact assessment. Results demonstrate that SEA can help inform and improve the efficacy and efficiency of project-based assessment in the offshore sector, however weak coordination between higher and lower tiers limit SEA's ability to influence planning and development decisions in a broad regional environmental and socioeconomic context. - Highlights: ► SEA can inform and improve the efficacy and efficiency of project EA offshore ► Scope and deliverables of SEA offshore often differ from stakeholder expectations ► Considerable variability in influence of SEA output beyond licensing decisions ► Sector-based SEA offshore is often too restrictive to generate expected benefits

  20. P-D Effects on the Reliability of Oil Offshore Jacket Platforms in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De León-Escobedo D.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Given the important economic consequences of an oil platform failure, all the aspects of its structural behavior and safety issues need to be carefully considered. In particular, P-Δ effects on the deck legs of marine offshore jacket platforms may be relevant when the deck height and the vertical load are significant. In this paper, the impact of the moment amplification, due to slenderness of the deck legs, on the platform safety is examined and appraised from the viewpoint of the structural reliability. The formulation is applied to a typical tall deck marine platform under the environmental loading at the Bay of Campeche, Mexico, and its reliability index is calculated with and without the P-Δeffect. The results presented herein may be used to improve the current practice in the design and assessment of offshore marine platforms in Mexico and to update the current version of the code.

  1. Program and abstracts of the offshore oil and gas environmental effects monitoring workshop : approaches and technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The offshore petroleum industry in eastern Canada has expanded rapidly, with exploration and production activities taking place over a wide range of oceanographic conditions. This workshop, hosted by Canada's largest marine research institute, was held to advance the understanding of environmental impacts from offshore oil and gas activity. In particular, it examined how information derived from environmental effects monitoring (EEM) programs contribute to improved drilling and production operations, mitigation measures, and the revision of regulations for waste treatment. The workshop examined if EEM programs are providing valuable information, and how they can be improved. The themes of the 3 sessions which focused on ways to carry out EEM were: (1) EEM and environmental management, (2) EEM methodologies and lessons learned, and (3) EEM methodologies and technologies. Participants form around the world identified priority research needs and coordinated collaborative research efforts. Approximately 70 papers and posters were presented at the workshop, of which 19 have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database (Author)

  2. Cleaning the Produced Water in Offshore Oil Production by Using Plant-wide Optimal Control Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic

    2014-01-01

    To clean the produced water is always a challenging critical issue in the offshore oil & gas industry. By employing the plant-wide control technology, this paper discussed the opportunity to optimize the most popular hydrocyclone-based Produced Water Treatment (PWT) system. The optimizations of the...... efficiency control of the de-oiling hydrocyclone and the water level control of the upstream separator, are discussed and formulated. Some of our latest research results on the analysis and control of slugging flows in production well-pipeline-riser systems are also presented. The ultimate objective of this...... research is to promote a technical breakthrough in the PWT control design, which can lead to the best environmental protection in the oil & gas production, without sacrificing the production capability and production costs....

  3. Challenges of Membrane Filtration for Produced Water Treatment in Offshore Oil & Gas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Kasper Lund; Hansen, Leif; Mai, Christian;

    2016-01-01

    the Water Flooding Technology (WFT) is employed. The quality requirements for WFT and the increasing environmental concerns for produced water discharge lead to increased interest in zero-pollutant discharge. Traditional Produced Water Treatment (PWT) technologies(such as hydrocyclones) are already......Tremendous amount of produced water are discharged into the sea from offshore oil & gas installations. Along with every barrel of oil three barrels of water are produced and this is only worsen as the fields mature. Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is employed to increase production, as a part of EOR...... is to guarantee that a relatively high permeability can be kept during filtration. Another crucial issue using membrane filtration technology is its huge energy consumption, for which there is little research has been done so far to systematically investigate and optimize the filtration system’s...

  4. Radioisotope techniques for process optimisation and control in the offshore oil and gas industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For over fifty years, radioisotope technology has been used by the oil industry to solve problems and to help optimise process operations. The widespread development of offshore oil and gas fields has brought, and continues to bring, new challenges and, in response, new or modified applications of radioisotope technology have been introduced. This paper presents case studies, which illustrate the use of radioisotopes, both in the sub-sea environment and on the offshore production platforms. On the platform, radioisotope techniques applied singly or in combination, have been applied to the performance assessment of oil/gas separation and gas dehydration units. Novel nucleonic instrumentation has been developed for the control of three-phase separators. Sub-sea, radioactive tracers and/or sealed sources have been used to investigate the integrity of submerged structures and to troubleshoot pipeline problems. The continuing expansion in the use of this technology stems from industry increasing awareness of its versatility and from the fact that the benefits it confers can be obtained at a relatively modest cost. Examples of economic benefit described in the paper are associated with production enhancements derived from the ability of radioisotope technology to measure performance and diagnose problems on line, without disrupting process operations in any way. (Author)

  5. Offshore Oil Industry Activities and Fishing in Ghana: Community Perceptions and Sustainable Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Agyei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been increasing concerns from various stakeholders of the fishing industry, principally fishing communities about series of impacts introduced by the oil exploration, discovery, development and extraction. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the existing and potential impacts of the oil exploration on representative fishing communities by sampling their perceptions to assess the existing and likely impacts of oil and gas industry activities on the livelihood of the people. Representative fishing communities closer to the offshore operations were selected for the study. Questionnaires were administered to obtain responses about their perceptions and expectations on the existing oil project on their lives. The results of the questionnaires were subjected to quantitative and qualitative analysis and interpreted. The findings revealed the perceptions and expectations of the coastal communities about the likely impacts of the oil and gas exploration on them; it brings the concerns of these people to the attention of policy makers and institutions to appreciate the plight of the fishermen and propose mitigation measures to minimize the negative impact of the oil and gas industry on fishing.

  6. Field development planning for an offshore extra heavy oil in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Garcia, G.; Anguiano-Rojas, J. [PEMEX Exploration and Production, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presented a phased development strategy for an offshore extra-heavy oil development located in the Gulf of Mexico. The Ayatsil-1 oil field is located in an upper Cretaceous brecciated formation. One of the primary concerns of the project is the infrastructure that is needed to handle low reservoir temperatures and high viscosity, low gravity API oil. A delineation well was drilled in order to confirm the areal extension of the reservoir. The field contains an estimated 3.1 billion barrels of oil-in-place. The project will involve the installation of fixed platforms and production platforms. Electric submersible pumps (ESPs) and multiphase pumps will be used to transport the oil from between 17 to 25 wells. Analyses were conducted to determine transport mechanisms as well as gathering networks in both stationary and transitory regimes. The viscosity of live and dead oil in the reservoirs must be accurately measured in relation to temperature in order to define the artificial systems that will be used to reduce viscosity. Results from several studies will be used to determine the feasibility of various chemical, thermal, and diluent applications. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  7. The spatiotemporal characteristics of environmental hazards caused by offshore oil and gas operations in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingmin

    2016-09-15

    Marine ecosystems are home to a host of numerous species ranging from tiny planktonic organisms, fishes, and birds, to large mammals such as the whales, manatees, and seals. However, human activities such as offshore oil and gas operations increasingly threaten marine and coastal ecosystems, for which there has been little exploration into the spatial and temporal risks of offshore oil operations. Using the Gulf of Mexico, one of the world's hottest spots of offshore oil and gas mining, as the study area, we propose a spatiotemporal approach that integrates spatial statistics and geostatistics in a geographic information system environment to provide insight to environmental management and decision making for oil and gas operators, coastal communities, local governments, and the federal government. We use the records from 1995 to 2015 of twelve types of hazards caused by offshore oil and gas operations, and analyze them spatially over a five year period. The spatial clusters of these hazards are analyzed and mapped using Getis-Ord Gi and local Moran's I statistics. We then design a spatial correlation coefficient matrix for multivariate spatial correlation, which is the ratio of the cross variogram of two types of hazards to the product of the variograms of the two hazards, showing a primary understanding of the degrees of spatial correlation among the twelve types hazards. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first application of spatiotemporal analysis methods to environmental hazards caused by offshore oil and gas operations; the proposed methods can be applied to other regions for the management and monitoring of environmental hazards caused by offshore oil operations. PMID:27213845

  8. CO2-mitigation options for the offshore oil and gas sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Tock, Laurence; Breuhaus, Peter; Maréchal, François; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The offshore extraction of oil and gas is an energy-intensive process leading to the production of CO2and methane, discharged into the atmosphere, and of chemicals, rejected into the sea. The taxation of these emissions, in Norway, has encouraged the development of more energy-effcient and...... environmental-friendly solutions, of which three are assessed in this paper: (i) the implementation of waste heat recovery, (ii) the installation of a CO2-capture unit and (iii) the platform electrication. A North Sea platform is taken as casestudy, and these three options are modelled, analysed and compared...

  9. CO2-mitigation options for the offshore oil and gas sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Tock, Laurence; Breuhaus, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    The offshore extraction of oil and gas is an energy-intensive process leading to the production of CO2and methane, discharged into the atmosphere, and of chemicals, rejected into the sea. The taxation of these emissions, in Norway, has encouraged the development of more energy-effcient and......, using thermodynamic, economic and environmental indicators. The results indicate the benets of all these options, as the total CO2-emissions can be reduced by more than 15% in all cases, while the avoidance costs vary widely and are highly sensitive to the natural gas price and CO2-tax....

  10. Complexities of the analysis of surface shut-in DST in an offshore volatile oil reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazemi, H.; Haws, G.W.; Kunzman, W.J.; Milton, H.W.; Halbert, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    A surface shut-in drill-stem testing (DST) procedure was used on delineation wells in an offshore volatile oil reservoir. Bottom-hole pressures were recorded on all tested intervals, and surface pressures and temperatures were recorded on most of the tests. Subsequent type-curve plots and the Horner plots of the bottom hole pressure buildup data of several wells did not conform to classical theory. This report describes a new theory that explains the discrepancies, relating them to the combined effects of a set of wellbore phenomena during pressure buildup testing. 7 refs.

  11. Piecewise Deterministic Markov Processes based approach applied to an offshore oil production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is keeping with the topic of two papers which treated dynamic reliability problems and were presented in previous conferences. Its aim is to confirm the potentialities of a method which combines the high modeling ability of the piecewise deterministic processes and the great computing power inherent to the Monte Carlo simulation. This method is now applied to a simplified but realistic offshore oil production system which is a hybrid system combining continuous-time and discrete-time dynamics. The results thus obtained have been compared with those given by an ad hoc Petri net model for comparison and validation purposes

  12. Mortality of Migratory Birds from Marine Commercial Fisheries and Offshore Oil and Gas Production in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne I. Ellis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an imminent need for conservation and best-practice management efforts in marine ecosystems where global-scale declines in the biodiversity and biomass of large vertebrate predators are increasing and marine communities are being altered. We examine two marine-based industries that incidentally take migratory birds in Canada: (1 commercial fisheries, through bycatch, and (2 offshore oil and gas exploration, development, and production. We summarize information from the scientific literature and technical reports and also present new information from recently analyzed data to assess the magnitude and scope of mortality. Fisheries bycatch was responsible for the highest levels of incidental take of migratory bird species; estimated combined take in the longline, gillnet, and bottom otter trawl fisheries within the Atlantic, including the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and Pacific regions was 2679 to 45,586 birds per year. For the offshore oil and gas sector, mortality estimates ranged from 188 to 4494 deaths per year due to the discharge of produced waters resulting in oil sheens and collisions with platforms and vessels; however these estimates for the oil and gas sector are based on many untested assumptions. In spite of the uncertainties, we feel levels of mortality from these two industries are unlikely to affect the marine bird community in Canada, but some effects on local populations from bycatch are likely. Further research and monitoring will be required to: (1 better estimate fisheries-related mortality for vulnerable species and populations that may be impacted by local fisheries, (2 determine the effects of oil sheens from produced waters, and attraction to platforms and associated mortality from collisions, sheens, and flaring, so that better estimates of mortality from the offshore oil and gas sector can be obtained, and (3 determine impacts associated with accidental spills, which are not included in our current assessment. With a

  13. In Situ burning of Arctic marine oil spills:Ignitability of various oil types weathered at different ice conditions. A combined laboratory and field study

    OpenAIRE

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne

    2010-01-01

    Oil spills in ice filled and Arctic waters pose other challenges for oil spill response compared to open and temperate waters. In situ burning has been proven to be an effective oil spill response method for oil spills in ice filled waters. This thesis presents results from laboratory and field experiments where the ignitability of oil spill as a function of oil type and weathering conditions (time/ice) was tested. The results show that the composition of the oil and the ice cover is importan...

  14. Oil Spill Contingency and Response (OSCAR) analysis in support of environmental impact assessment offshore Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work reported here encompasses analyses of specific potential spill scenarios for oil exploration activity planned offshore of Namibia. The analyses are carried out with the SINTEF Oil Spill Contingency and Response (OSCAR) 3-dimensional model systems. A spill scenario using 150 m3 of marine diesel demonstrates the rapidity with which such a spill will dissipate naturally, even in light winds. Vertical and horizontal mixing bring subsurface hydrocarbon concentrations to background levels within a few days. A hypothetical 10 day blowout scenario releasing 11,000 bbl per day of light crude oil is investigated in terms of the potential for delivering oil to selected bird and marine mammal areas along the Namibian coast. Worst case scenarios are selected to investigate the potential mitigating effects of planned oil spill response actions. Mechanical recovery significantly reduces, and in some cases eliminates, potential environmental consequences of these worst case scenarios. Dispersant application from fixed wing aircraft further reduces the potential surface effects. The analysis supplies an objective basis for net environmental analysis of the planned response strategies. (Author)

  15. Toxicity associated with produced waters from inland and offshore oil and gas operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NPDES permits require that discharges from oil and gas operations meet standards for aquatic life. When these aquatic life standards are violated, it is necessary to determine the causes of toxicity and to implement treatment methodologies that will eliminate significant mortalities and/or chronic growth and reproduction effects to the test organisms. Over the last several years, monitoring has been conducted on produced waters from oil and gas operations at inland and offshore locations. This work has been done in the U.S. as well as in South America. The toxicity in these discharges has been shown to be variable and due to a broad range of causes. The objective of this paper is to review the chemistry and biology with regards to the causes of toxicity in these waters. Samples collected from the Rocky Mountain west have generally demonstrated toxicity due to high total dissolved solids, hydrogen sulfides, and non-polar organics. Toxicity has ranged from extremely toxic to non-toxic. The levels of sensitivity for fathead minnows and Ceriodaphnia dubia differ between the various produced water samples. Three samples are currently being investigated which show different sources of toxicity in spite of close proximity to one another. Preliminary studies indicate toxicity may be due to trace metals and polar organics associated with treatment products. Produced waters from offshore Gulf of Mexico platforms have been shown to produce high levels of toxicity in chronic and acute tests

  16. Natural self cleaning and enhanced self cleaning of crude oil, crude oil emulsions and diesel from Arctic shoreline sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural removal and enhanced removal by chemical treatment of crude oil, crude oil emulsion, and diesel were studied in field and basin experiments on Spitsbergen. The beach types comprised gravel beaches, sandy beaches, and mud flats. Each shoreline was divided into nine 25-m2 plots. The chemical treatment comprised Corexit 7664 and Finasol OSR12. Oil concentrations were monitored from the time of contamination and until the end of the season. The upper and lower zones of the beach were treated separately. The decrease in oil concentration during an Arctic summer season was found to be considerable in all the experiments except in the mud flat sediments. Partitioning in the sediment depends on the water level in the sediment, thus oil retention is limited in the more or less water-saturated lower beach zone. Although the overall effect of chemical treatment can be questioned, the chemicals have an effect on oil removal from the sediment. The extensive removal of oil from the control plots indicates that a leave-alone option can be viable on these types of beaches unless extreme requirements for immediate cleanliness exist. 4 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Molecular Analysis of the Bacterial Communities in Crude Oil Samples from Two Brazilian Offshore Petroleum Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenblum, Elisa; Souza, Diogo Bastos; Penna, Monica; Seldin, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    Crude oil samples with high- and low-water content from two offshore platforms (PA and PB) in Campos Basin, Brazil, were assessed for bacterial communities by 16S rRNA gene-based clone libraries. RDP Classifier was used to analyze a total of 156 clones within four libraries obtained from two platforms. The clone sequences were mainly affiliated with Gammaproteobacteria (78.2% of the total clones); however, clones associated with Betaproteobacteria (10.9%), Alphaproteobacteria (9%), and Firmicutes (1.9%) were also identified. Pseudomonadaceae was the most common family affiliated with these clone sequences. The sequences were further analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 81 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) grouped at 97% stringency. Richness estimators also calculated by MOTHUR indicated that oil samples with high-water content were the most diverse. Comparison of bacterial communities present in these four samples using LIBSHUFF and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated that the water content significantly influenced the community structure only of crude oil obtained from PA. Differences between PA and PB libraries were observed, suggesting the importance of the oil field as a driver of community composition in this habitat. PMID:22319534

  18. Reliability-Based Planning of Inspection, Operation and Maintenance for Offshore Oil & Gas Structures and Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    Reliability-based cost-optimal planning of inspection, maintenance and operation has many applications. In this paper applications for planning of inspections for oil & gas jacket structures and of operation and maintenance of offshore wind turbines are described and illustrated by examples....

  19. Economic impact analysis of final effluent limitations guidelines and standards of performance for the offshore oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document is an economic impact analysis prepared in support of the promulgation of effluent limitations guidelines and standards of performance for drilling and production wastes for the offshore oil and gas industry. The report analyzes the economic impact of alternative regulatory options considered for drilling fluids, drill cuttings, produced water, produced sand, and treatment, workover, and completion fluids

  20. Oil and Gas Development in The Faroese Islands, Iceland and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smits, Coco C.A.; Justinussen, Jens Christian Svabo; Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø

    2015-01-01

    Offshore oil and gas projects in the Arctic are to an increasing extent subject to global public opinion and scrutiny. Over the past decade the Arctic has turned into the World's back yard, where potential impacts can easily become a global topic for discussion. Looking from an industrial perspec...

  1. Complementary Microorganisms in Highly Corrosive Biofilms from an Offshore Oil Production Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneron, Adrien; Alsop, Eric B; Chambers, Brian; Lomans, Bartholomeus P; Head, Ian M; Tsesmetzis, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Offshore oil production facilities are frequently victims of internal piping corrosion, potentially leading to human and environmental risks and significant economic losses. Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) is believed to be an important factor in this major problem for the petroleum industry. However, knowledge of the microbial communities and metabolic processes leading to corrosion is still limited. Therefore, the microbial communities from three anaerobic biofilms recovered from the inside of a steel pipe exhibiting high corrosion rates, iron oxide deposits, and substantial amounts of sulfur, which are characteristic of MIC, were analyzed in detail. Bacterial and archaeal community structures were investigated by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis, multigenic (16S rRNA and functional genes) high-throughput Illumina MiSeq sequencing, and quantitative PCR analysis. The microbial community analysis indicated that bacteria, particularly Desulfovibrio species, dominated the biofilm microbial communities. However, other bacteria, such as Pelobacter, Pseudomonas, and Geotoga, as well as various methanogenic archaea, previously detected in oil facilities were also detected. The microbial taxa and functional genes identified suggested that the biofilm communities harbored the potential for a number of different but complementary metabolic processes and that MIC in oil facilities likely involves a range of microbial metabolisms such as sulfate, iron, and elemental sulfur reduction. Furthermore, extreme corrosion leading to leakage and exposure of the biofilms to the external environment modify the microbial community structure by promoting the growth of aerobic hydrocarbon-degrading organisms. PMID:26896143

  2. Mauritania and its sea: could offshore oil exploitation help better manage ecological insecurity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over centuries Mauritania societies have turned their backs to the sea until independence and, later, drought created incentives for the State and national actors to take an interest in sea resources. Whether at sea or on the mainland the relationship to the territory's resources appeared to be entrusted to the same State who was more interested in exercising control on flows rather than in management, production or transformation. However, regarding the fisheries industry and the issue of its preservation the Mauritania state has progressively increased its intervention capacities. The extraordinary ecological and economic value of Mauritania waters - with the 'banc d'Arguin' as their most famous ecosystem - certainly played a role in this evolution. The recent exploitation of offshore oil resources has reinforced the need to increase the overall capacity to regulate all aspects of the maritime area (conservation, fisheries, transport and oil and gas). The emergence of oil and gas activities re-emphasises the difficulties faced by a dependent State when trying to appropriate and manage a territory whose resources attract the attention of powerful international shareholders. (authors)

  3. Environmental implications of offshore oil and gas development in Australia. Part 5; Coastal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is emphasised that coastal facilities pertaining to petroleum exploration and production activities are of greater concern for potential deleterious environmental consequences than the offshore facilities. This is primarily because rates of dispersion and dilution of toxic wastes are generally lower in shallow coastal waters which are often subject to complex bathymetry, and more constricted water flows. The review found that the main processes (apart from oil spills) identified as having greatest potential environmental effect were: coastal discharges of produced water; sedimentation caused by dredging; spoil dumping; and pipe-laying activities. The review examines a wide range of marine environmental issues arising from the use of coastal-servicing facilities, including: practices and discharges during regular operation of coastal facilities; nature and extent of any environmental impact on the surrounding environment; and any deleterious effects stemming from these facilities. 194 refs., 13 tabs., 36 figs

  4. Review of offshore oil-spill prevention and remediation requirements and practices in Newfoundland and Labrador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report studies aspects of the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador's requirements for oil-spill prevention, response and remediation. The Canada-Newfoundland and Labrador Offshore Petroleum Board (C-NLOPB) is responsible and accountable for the industry's meeting its commitments in terms of monitoring, auditing and management. Comparisons with requirements in different regions, such as Norway, the United Kingdom, Australia and the United States demonstrate C-NLOPB practices are sound and comprehensive and meet international standards. Even though the standard established by the Board is high, further improvement is nevertheless needed and the report makes detailed recommendations for bringing this about. The four-tiered industry response system of safe practices:, safety culture, designs, standards and training and competency assurance programs is also augmented and enhanced by the C-NLOPB approval process.

  5. On the definition of exergy efficiencies for petroleum systems: Application to offshore oil and gas processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exergy-based efficiencies are measures of the thermodynamic perfection of systems and processes. A meaningful formulation of these performance criteria for petroleum systems is difficult because of (i) the high chemical exergy of hydrocarbons, (ii) the large variety of chemical components, and (iii) the differences in operating conditions between facilities. This work focuses on offshore processing plants, considering four oil platforms that differ by their working conditions and designs. Several approaches from the scientific literature for similar processes are presented and applied to the four cases. They showed a low sensitivity to performance improvements, gave inconsistent results, or favoured facilities operating under certain conditions. We suggest an alternative formulation, called the component-by-component exergy efficiency, which builds on the decomposition of the exergy flows at the level of the chemical compounds. It allows therefore for sound comparisons of separation systems, while it successfully evaluates their theoretical improvement potentials. The platform displaying the lowest efficiency (1.7%) is characterised by little pumping and compression works, at the opposite of the one displaying the highest performance (29.6%). A more realistic measure of the technical potential for improving these systems can be carried out by splitting further the exergy destruction into its avoidable and unavoidable parts. - Highlights: • Different exergy efficiency definitions for petroleum systems are reviewed. • These definitions are applied to four oil and gas platforms and are revealed to be inapplicable. • A new formulation, namely the component-by-component efficiency, is proposed. • The performance of the offshore platforms under study varies between 1.7% and 29.6%

  6. Learning control for riser-slug elimination and production-rate optimization for an offshore oil and gas production process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic; Yang, Zhenyu

    2014-01-01

    Slugging flow in the offshore oil & gas production attracts lot of attention due to it's limitation of production rate, periodic overload on processing facilities, and even direct cause of emergency shutdown. This work aims at two correlated objectives: (i) Preventing slugging flow; and meanwhile......, (ii) maximizing the production rate at the riser of an offshore production platform, by manipulating a topside choke valve through a learning switching model-free PID controller. The results show good steady-state performance, though a long settling time due to the unknown reference for no slugging...

  7. P-{Delta} effects on the reliability of oil offshore jacket platforms in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon-Escobedo, D. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: daviddeleonescobedo@yahoo.com.mx; Campos, D. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico)]. E-mail: dcampos@imp.mx

    2012-07-15

    Given the important economic consequences of an oil platform failure, all the aspects of its structural behavior and safety issues need to be carefully considered. In particular, P-{Delta} effects on the deck legs of marine offshore jacket platforms may be relevant when the deck height and the vertical load are significant. In this paper, the impact of the moment amplification, due to slenderness of the deck legs, on the platform safety is examined and appraised from the viewpoint of the structural reliability. The formulation is applied to a typical tall deck marine platform under the environmental loading at the Bay of Campeche, Mexico, and its reliability index is calculated with and without the P-{Delta} effect. The results presented herein may be used to improve the current practice in the design and assessment of offshore marine platforms in Mexico and to update the current version of the code. [Spanish] Dadas las importantes consecuencias economicas de la falla de una plataforma petrolera, todos los aspectos de su comportamiento estructural y aspectos de seguridad necesitan considerarse cuidadosamente. En particular, los efectos P-{Delta} en las piernas de la cubierta de plataformas marinas costa fuera petroleras tipo jacket pueden ser relevantes cuando la altura de la cubierta y la intensidad de cargas verticales son significativas. En este articulo se examina el impacto que sobre la seguridad de la plataforma tiene la amplificacion de momentos, debido a la esbeltez de las piernas de la cubierta, y se evalua este impacto desde el punto de vista de confiabilidad estructural. La formulacion se aplica a una plataforma marina tipica, con cubierta alta, bajo la carga ambiental de la Bahia de Campeche, Mexico y se calcula su indice de confiabilidad con y sin el efecto P-{Delta}. Los resultados presentados aqui pueden usarse para mejorar las practicas actuales de diseno y evaluacion de plataformas marinas costa fuera en Mexico y para actualizar la version actual

  8. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Characterizing and quantifying California sea lion and Pacific harbor seal use of offshore oil and gas platforms in California, 2013-2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) use offshore oil and gas platforms as resting and foraging areas. Both...

  9. Iodine speciation in aerosol particle samples collected over the sea between offshore China and the Arctic Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Hui; XU Siqi; YU Xiawei; LI Bing; LIU Wei; YANG Hongxia; XIE Zhouqing

    2015-01-01

    Iodine species collected by an onboard PM10 particle sampling system during the Second Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition (July–September 2003) were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Iodine (I−) was detected in all samples over the Arctic Ocean, whereas additional iodine species including insoluble iodine, soluble organic iodine plus I− were detected over the northwestern Paciifc Ocean. The results suggest that the main form of iodine is different within the Arctic Ocean than it is outside. Enrichment factor values showed moderate enrichment of iodine in the northwestern Paciifc, whereas a high enrichment factor was found in polar regions, implying sources other than sea salt. A potential explanation was ascribed to the role of sea ice melt in the Arctic and rapid growth of algae in seawater, which enhances the production of iodocarbon and air-sea exchange. This was conifrmed by the larger values of total iodine in 2008 than in 2003, with greater sea ice melt in the former year. In comparison with earlier reports, ratios of iodate to iodide (IO3−/I−) were much smaller than 1.0. These ratios were also different from modeling results, implying more complicated cycles of atmospheric iodine than are presently understood.

  10. Chronology and backtracking of oil slick trajectory to source in offshore environments using ultraspectral to multispectral remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammoglia, Talita; Souza Filho, Carlos Roberto de

    2015-07-01

    Offshore natural seepage confirms the occurrence of an active petroleum system with thermal maturation and migration, regardless its economic viability for petroleum production. Ocean dynamics, however, impose a challenge for correlation between oil seeps detected on the water surface and its source at the ocean floor. This hinders the potential use of seeps in petroleum exploration. The present study aims to estimate oil exposure time on the water surface via remote sensing in order to help locating ocean floor seepage sources. Spectral reflectance properties of a variety of fresh crude oils, oil films on water and oil-water emulsions were determined. Their spectral identity was used to estimate the duration of exposure of oil-water emulsions based on their temporal spectral responses. Laboratory models efficiently predicted oil status using ultraspectral (>2000 bands), hyperspectral (>300 bands), and multispectral (oil seepage recorded by the ASTER sensor on the Brazilian coast was used to test the designed predictive model. Results indicate that the model can successfully forecast the timeframe of crude oil exposure in the ocean (i.e., the relative "age" of the seepage). The limited spectral resolution of the ASTER sensor, though, implies less accurate estimates compared to higher resolution sensors. The spectral libraries and the method proposed here can be reproduced for other oceanic areas in order to approximate the duration of exposure of noticeable natural oil seepages. This type of information is optimal for seepage tracing and, therefore, for oceanic petroleum exploration and environmental monitoring.

  11. Technological change, depletion and environmental policy in the offshore oil and gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managi, Shunsuke

    Technological change is central to maintaining standards of living in modern economies with finite resources and increasingly stringent environmental goals. Successful environmental policies can contribute to efficiency by encouraging, rather than inhibiting, technological innovation. However, little research to date has focused on the design and implementation of environmental regulations that encourage technological progress, or in insuring productivity improvements in the face of depletion of natural resources and increasing stringency of environmental regulations. This study models and measures productivity change, with an application to offshore oil and gas production in the Gulf of Mexico using Data Envelopment Analysis. This is an important application because energy resources are central to sustaining our economy. The net effects of technological progress and depletion on productivity of offshore oil and gas production are measured using a unique field-level set of data of production from all wells in the Gulf of Mexico over the time period from 1946--1998. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that technological progress has mitigated depletion effects over the study period, but the pattern differs from the conventional wisdom for nonrenewable resource industries. The Porter Hypothesis was recast, and revised version was tested. The Porter Hypothesis states that well designed environmental regulations can potentially contribute to productive efficiency in the long run by encouraging innovation. The Porter Hypothesis was recast to include market and nonmarket outputs. Our results support the recast version of Porter hypothesis, which examine productivity of joint production of market and environmental outputs. But we find no evidence for the standard formulation of the Porter hypothesis, that increased stringency of environmental regulation lead to increased productivity of market outputs and therefore increased industry profits. The model is used to

  12. Evaluating the biodegradability and effects of dispersed oil using Arctic test species and conditions : phase 1 activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlin, K.M.; Perkins, R.A. [Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States); Gardiner, G.; Word, J.D [NewFields Northwest, Port Gamble, WA (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Spill prevention techniques and response options are important considerations of exploration and production operations within the Arctic Circle, where much of the world's undiscovered oil and gas is located. In the event of a marine oil spill, response teams must decide on actions such as natural recovery, mechanical recovery, in situ burning or chemical dispersion. A Net Environmental Benefit Analysis (NEBA) involves an examination of various spill response actions and their net environmental effects of key resources and habitats. Performing a NEBA requires information about the sensitivity of relevant species under conditions following various spill response techniques. This paper reported on a research project that investigated the toxic effects and biodegradation rates of dispersed oil under Arctic open water conditions. The 2 key objectives were to determine the toxicity of dispersed Alaska North Slope (ANS) crude oil to indigenous copepods and Arctic cod compared to non-dispersed oil and to compare those results to temperate species; and to determine the biodegradation rates of dispersed oil compared to non-dispersed oil. The data acquired from the study is intended to help optimize response options to minimize negative ecological effects. Natural Arctic conditions were simulated in the laboratory. All water used in this study was fresh seawater collected from the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, pH and light intensities were measured when collecting indigenous test species for simulation in the laboratory. The research is ongoing and will continue until the summer of 2010, at which time a technical report with results will be prepared. 19 refs.

  13. DESIGN OF ENERGY COMPLEXES ON OFFSHORE STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalashnikov Pavel Kirillovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research studies offshore oil and gas plat-forms after the exhaustion of hydrocarbon reserves. As an alternative to dismantling ways of reequipment of the promising facilities in the Arctic region for power generation are presented. Also a common problem of the infrastructure of offshore oil and gas fields after the end of their operation life is considered. One of the dif-ficult issues that is faced by oil-producing organizations is how to utilize the offshore platform? The hypothesis of infrastructure functionality of offshore platform was put forward for the other types of energy production. In the future, reequipment of offshore platforms will pro-vide an opportunity to reduce costs in the field of con-servation and optimize the environment. The methods for the development of design so-lutions selected by the authors allow us to consider an offshore platform after its operation as an element of culture development and a tool of ecological rehabilita-tion of the offshore area. This makes it possible to con-sider the prospects for the marine infrastructure growth and to improve the economy of coastal areas. The re-construction of offshore platforms with the change of their function will allow forming a developed maritime infrastructure in coastal waters. The ability to transport some of the offshore platforms after the oil and gas end will allow building a network 50 km away from the coastline. The authors carried out design experiments based mostly on fixed offshore platforms, regulated by the rules of the Rus-sian Maritime Register of Shipping and by SNIP 2.07.01—89*1. The authors developed the basic requirements for the selection of priority projects for the analysis, which are the characteristics of the waters suitable for the use of renewable energy sources and location of offshore platforms less than 50 km away from the coast with a small average water depth of 50 to 110 meters. Thus, the presented the concept of reconstruc

  14. Complexities of the analysis of surface shut-in drillstem tests in an offshore volatile oil reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazemi, H.; Halbert, W.G.; Haws, G.W.; Kunzman, W.J.; Milton, H.W. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A surface shut-in drillstem test (DST) procedure was used in an offshore volatile oil reservoir. Bottomhole shut-in devices were not used because of operational difficulties and anticipated hazardous problems. The type curve and Horner plots of the bottomhole pressures (BHP's) did not conform to classical theory. This paper explains the reasons and suggests a simulation procedure for the interpretation of data.

  15. Dethiosulfovibrio peptidovorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a new anaerobic, slightly halophilic, thiosulfate-reducing bacterium from corroding offshore oil wells

    OpenAIRE

    Magot, M; Ravot, G; Campaignolle, X.; Ollivier, Bernard; Patel, B.K.C.; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Thomas, P; Crolet, J.L.; Garcia, Jean-Louis

    1997-01-01

    A strictly anaerobic thiosulfate-reducing bacterium was isolated from a corroding offshore oil well in Congo and was designated strain SEBR 4207(T). Pure culture of the strain induced a very active pitting corrosion of mild steel, with penetration rates of up to 4 mm per year. This constitutes the first experimental evidence of the involvement of thiosulfate reduction in microbial corrosion of steel. Strain SEBR 4207(T) cells were vibrios (3 to 5 by 1 micrometer), stained gram negative, and p...

  16. Electrical Power Supply to Offshore Oil Installations by High Voltage Direct Current Transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myhre, Joergen Chr.

    2001-07-01

    This study was initiated to investigate if it could be feasible to supply offshore oil installations in the North Sea with electrical power from land. A prestudy of alternative converter topologies indicated that the most promising solution would be to investigate a conventional system with reduced synchronous compensator rating. The study starts with a summary of the state of power supply to offshore installations today, and a short review of classical HVDC transmission. It goes on to analyse how a passive network without sources influences the inverter. The transmission, with its current controlled rectifier and large inductance, is simulated as a current source. Under these circumstances the analysis shows that the network frequency has to adapt in order to keep the active and reactive power balance until the controllers are able to react. The concept of firing angle for a thyristor is limited in a system with variable frequency, the actual control parameter is the firing delay time. Sensitivity analysis showed some astonishing consequences. The frequency rises both by an increase in the active and in the reactive load. The voltage falls by an increase in the active load, but rises by an increase in the inductive load. Two different control principles for the system of inverter, synchronous compensator and load are defined. The first takes the reference for the firing delay time from the fundamental voltage at the point of common coupling. The second takes the reference for the firing delay time from the simulated EMF of the synchronous compensator. Of these, the second is the more stable and should be chosen as the basis for a possible control system. Two simulation tools are applied. The first is a quasi-phasor model running on Matlab with Simulink. The other is a time domain model in KREAN. The time domain model is primarily used for the verification of the quasi-phasor model, and shows that quasi-phasors is still a valuable tool for making a quick analysis

  17. L'exploitation pétrolière offshore : production et sécurité Offshore Oil Production and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Champlon D.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Depuis la première découverte pétrolière réalisée en 1859, l'industrie pétrolière a connu une expansion considérable. Pour faire face à l'accroissement des besoins du monde en hydrocarbures, l'exploration des bassins sédimentaires susceptibles de contenir du pétrole ou du gaz naturel s'est progressivement développée. Compte tenu du potentiel prometteur en hydrocarbures des fonds marins, la recherche de nouveaux gisements s'est étendue aux bassins sédimentaires situés sous les océans, d'abord tout près des côtes, puis sur les plateaux continentaux (par moins de 200 m d'eau et maintenant, au-delà, par des profondeurs d'eau de plusieurs milliers de mètres. Cette expansion de l'offshore repose depuis 1960 sur la mise au point de techniques originales et multiples, à la mesure de la nouveauté et de la complexité des problèmes à résoudre. Parallèlement, le développement des activités offshore et maintenant la conquête des mers difficiles ou profondes ont suscité la mise en place de normes de sécurité et de réglementations très sévères afin de garantir une protection efficace des installations, des personnes et des autres usagers de la mer, et de prévenir tout danger de pollution éventuelle. Enfin, si l'on replace aujourd'hui l'ensemble des activités offshore dans le contexte énergétique mondial, on peut se poser deux questions - Le coût des opérations marines en mer ne devient-il pas prohibitif ? - La situation énergétique justifie-t-elle la conquête des mers de plus en plus profondes ? II serait vain de prétendre apporter dès aujourd'hui une réponse précise et catégorique à toutes ces interrogations. Néanmoins, l'analyse économique des activités offshore, la prise en compte de l'expérience du passé et l'extrapolation des tendances observées apportent déjà des éléments d'appréciation fort utiles. Since oil was first discovered in 1859, the petroleum industry has expanded considerably

  18. Shallow-ocean methane leakage and degassing to the atmosphere: triggered by offshore oil-gas and methane hydrate explorations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yong; Zhai, Wei-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Both offshore oil-gas exploration and marine methane hydrate recovery can trigger massive CH4 release from seafloor. During upward transportation of CH4 plume through water column, CH4 is subjected to dissolution and microbial consumption despite the protection of hydrate and oil coating on bubbles surface. The ultimate CH4 degassing to the atmosphere appears to be water-depth dependent. In shallow oceans with water depth less than 100 m, the natural or human-induced leakages or both lead to ...

  19. Scallops as sentinel organisms for monitoring environmental effects of offshore oil and gas operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scallops are used as sensitive indicator organisms at the Hibernia offshore oil production facility to monitor waste discharges. Tests were conducted on two environmental effects monitoring (EEM) technologies in which operational waste bioavailability was assessed with reference to contaminant exposure and dosages that trigger biological effects. Six cages containing Icelandic scallops, sea scallops, mussels and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD) were placed on the seabed from 0.5 to 6 km away from the platform. Benthic community and the content of metals in the sediment was determined through video imaging and grab samples. The spatial extent of water contamination was determined from tissue and SPMD hydrocarbon measurements and from barium concentrations in the sediment. Measurement of barium concentrations was made possible due to a newly developed barium extraction technique. Spatial trends of biological effects were determined by measuring the shell and tissue growth of the bivalves and from differences in benthic species. The other EEM tool that was tested was an in situ automated biological effects monitoring system called HABITRAP that generates time-series data of drilling waste exposure and bivalve biodeposition rate. The temporal and spatial variations in metal and hydrocarbon exposure in scallops were compared with benthic community analysis results

  20. The acute and chronic effects of wastes associated with offshore oil and gas production on temperate and tropical marine ecological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the acute and chronic effects of produced formation water (PFW), drilling fluids (muds) including oil-based cutting muds, water-based cutting muds, ester-based cutting muds and chemical additives, and crude oils associated with offshore oil and gas production was undertaken in relation to both temperate and tropical marine ecological processes. The main environmental effects are summarized, often in tabular form. Generally, the temporal and spatial scales of these studies, along with the large levels of inherent variation in natural environments, have precluded our ability to predict the potential long-term environmental impacts of the offshore oil and gas production industry. A series of critical questions regarding the environmental effects of the offshore oil and gas production industry that still remain unanswered are provided for future consideration. (author)

  1. An air quality emission inventory of offshore operations for the exploration and production of petroleum by the Mexican oil industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasenor, R.; Magdaleno, M.; Quintanar, A.; Gallardo, J. C.; López, M. T.; Jurado, R.; Miranda, A.; Aguilar, M.; Melgarejo, L. A.; Palmerín, E.; Vallejo, C. J.; Barchet, W. R.

    An air quality screening study was performed to assess the impacts of emissions from the offshore operations of the oil and gas exploration and production by Mexican industry in the Campeche Sound, which includes the states of Tabasco and Campeche in southeast Mexico. The major goal of this study was the compilation of an emission inventory (EI) for elevated, boom and ground level flares, processes, internal combustion engines and fugitive emissions. This inventory is so far the most comprehensive emission register that has ever been developed for the Mexican petroleum industry in this area. The EI considered 174 offshore platforms, the compression station at Atasta, and the Maritime Ports at Dos Bocas and Cayo Arcas. The offshore facilities identified as potential emitters in the area were the following: (1) trans-shipment stations, (2) a maritime floating port terminal, (3) drilling platforms, (4) crude oil recovering platforms, (5) crude oil production platforms, (6) linking platforms, (7) water injection platforms, (8) pumping platforms, (9) shelter platforms, (10) telecommunication platforms, (11) crude oil measurement platforms, and (12) flaring platforms. Crude oil storage tanks, helicopters and marine ship tankers were also considered to have an EI accurate enough for air quality regulations and mesoscale modeling of atmospheric pollutants. Historical ambient data measure at two onshore petroleum facilities were analyzed to measure air quality impacts on nearby inhabited coastal areas, and a source-receptor relationship for flares at the Ixtoc marine complex was performed to investigate health-based standards for offshore workers. A preliminary air quality model simulation was performed to observe the transport and dispersion patterns of SO 2, which is the main pollutant emitted from the offshore platforms. The meteorological wind and temperature fields were generated with CALMET, a diagnostic meteorological model that used surface observations and upper

  2. An air quality emission inventory of offshore operations for the exploration and production of petroleum by the Mexican oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villasenor, R.; Magdaleno, M.; Quintanar, A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City, DF (MX)] (and others)

    2003-08-01

    An air quality screening study was performed to assess the impacts of emissions from the offshore operations of the oil and gas exploration and production by Mexican industry in the Campeche Sound, which includes the states of Tabasco and Campeche in southeast Mexico. The major goal of this study was the compilation of an emission inventory (EI) for elevated, boom and ground level flares, processes, internal combustion engines and fugitive emissions. This inventory is so far the most comprehensive emission register that has ever been developed for the Mexican petroleum industry in this area. The EI considered 174 offshore platforms, the compression station at Atasta, and the Maritime Ports at Dos Bocas and Cayo Arcas. The offshore facilities identified as potential emitters in the area were the following: (1) trans-shipment stations, (2) a maritime floating port terminal, (3) drilling platforms, (4) crude oil recovering platforms, (5) crude oil production platforms, (6) linking platforms, (7) water injection platforms, (8) pumping platforms, (9) shelter platforms, (10) telecommunication platforms, (11) crude oil measurement platforms, and (12) flaring platforms. Crude oil storage tanks, helicopters and marine ship tankers were also considered to have an EI accurate enough for air quality regulations and mesoscale modeling of atmospheric pollutants. Historical ambient data measured at two onshore petroleum facilities were analyzed to measure air quality impacts on nearby inhabited coastal areas, and a source-receptor relationship for flares at the Ixtoc marine complex was performed to investigate health-based standards for offshore workers. A preliminary air quality model simulation was performed to observe the transport and dispersion patterns of SO{sub 2}, which is the main pollutant emitted from the offshore platforms. The meteorological wind and temperature fields were generated with CALMET, a diagnostic meteorological model that used surface observations and

  3. Spill behaviour of Maui B crude oil (offshore Taranaki, New Zealand) under simulated wind and wave conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to improve the response capabilities of New Zealand to an oil spill by the conduct of experiments designed to identify the behaviour of indigenous crude oil when spilled in seawater. The study aimed to determine the weathering properties and the accuracy of the standard rule that oil travels at 3 per cent of the wind speed. The weathering properties, evaporation rate and the expected velocity of the oil in water were measured for the Maui B crude oil, which boasted a moderate wax and high pour point. This information was considered essential to elaborate accurate Offshore Oil Spill Contingency plans. Two cleanup aids, two chemical dispersants and one organic cleaner were evaluated to determine their suitability for clean up operations. The results showed that the behaviour of the Maui B crude oil was greatly affected by the seasonal temperature variations off the coast of Taranaki, New Zealand. The oil travelled at approximately 3 per cent of the wind velocity in the warm sea temperatures, but travelled at 3.7 per cent of the wind velocity in colder seas. In all cases, the formation of tar balls and entrained water was present. 8 refs., 9 tabs., 3 figs

  4. Environmental implications of offshore oil and gas development in Australia. The finding of an independent scientific review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is widely recognised that uncontrolled discharge of petroleum products or other materials from offshore oil and gas exploration and production wells, and from associated industrial operations including treatment and service facilities that are required to be on or near the coast, can have direct and sometimes deleterious impacts on the marine environment. In mid-1992, the Australian Petroleum Exploration Association (APEA) commissioned five scientific reviews to examine the environmental implications of offshore petroleum developments in Australia. The reviews, carried out by an Independent Scientific Review Committee on behalf of the Australian Petroleum Exploration Association (APEA) and the Energy Research and Development Corporation (ERDC) deal with: (1) the preliminary geophysical exploration of the sea bed and underlying strata using seismic surveys, and especially the effects of bursts of underwater sound energy on biological communities; (2) the drilling of offshore wells, especially the disposal of drilling fluids and drill cuttings; (3) the production of oil and gas from proven wells, especially the disposal of large quantities of produced formation water (fossil water); (4) the construction and operation of coastal support facilities and associated activities which might have consequences for marine habitats; (5) oil spills associated with any of the above operations and especially the likely short- and long-term effects of an accidental oil spill on marine biota and on the aesthetic and commercial values of an impacted coastline. Comments on the findings are preceded by a brief summary of background information, relevant technologies and the main implications for the marine environment. Some suggestions are provided for possible future research, monitoring and environmental management. refs., figs., tabs

  5. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-15

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

  6. Air emissions associated with decommissioning California's offshore oil and gas platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantle, Peter; Bernstein, Brock

    2015-10-01

    The 27 oil and gas platforms offshore southern California are nearing the end of their productive lives and will be decommissioned in the near future. Many are in deep water and are correspondingly large, with the largest, Harmony, in 1200 feet of water and weighing approximately 43,000 tons. Nearly 30% of California's platforms are in water depths that exceed those of any previous decommissioning project anywhere in the world. Decommissioning will involve the operation of diesel-powered heavy equipment for long periods in virtually all phases of the operation (e.g, at the platform, in transit to and from the platform, in port, at offloading, salvage, and recycling facilities) in a region where air quality is a crucial concern for state, federal, and local regulatory agencies, as well as the public. To support future decision making about the choice between decommissioning options, we consider potential air emissions generated under complete and partial (removal to 85 feet below water line) removal options. We describe major emissions categories, and the environmental and human health issues associated with each, and examine how the regulatory system would operate in specific projects. We then describe methods to estimate emissions for a worst-case example involving the largest platform, Harmony. We estimate that complete versus partial removal of Harmony would result, respectively, in 600 or 89 tons of NOx, 50 or 7 tons of carbon monoxide, 29,400 or 4400 tons of CO2 , 21 or 3 tons of PM10, and 20 or 3 tons of PM2.5. Complete removal of Harmony's jacket and topsides creates approximately 6.75 times more air pollution than partial removal down to 85 feet below the sea surface. We discuss how the Harmony estimate can be used as a baseline to roughly estimate emissions from decommissioning other platforms, using expected time on station for the major categories of decommissioning equipment. PMID:25914363

  7. The economic impact of proposed regulations on the discharge of drilling muds and cuttings from the offshore facilities on US undiscovered crude oil reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of an assessment of the potential economic impact of proposed regulations. on the discharge of drilling fluids (muds) and cuttings on US offshore undiscovered crude oil resources. These regulations include proposed Best Available Technology economically achievable (BAT) and New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) effluent limitations under the Clean Water Act governing the discharge of drilling fluids and drill cuttings from offshore oil and gas drilling operations. The impact of the proposed RAT/NSPS regulations for the drilling fluids and drill cuttings disposal on the cost of funding, developing, and producing Lower-48 offshore undiscovered crude oil resources will depend significantly on operators perceptions on the chances of failing toxicity or static sheen tests. If operators, in economically justifying their projects, assume that the fluids fail one of these tests, thereby prohibiting them from being discharged, up to 11% of the economically recoverable offshore resource would be considered uneconomic to produce. This would amount to 845 million barrels of oil at an oil price around $25 per barrel. On the other hand, if operators are willing co take their chances and see if their fluids fail one of these tests, then, based on EPA's assumptions concerning forecast fluid use and static sheen and toxicity test failure rates, up to 4% of the offshore undiscovered resource would be impacted, amounting to lost reserves of up to 270 million barrels

  8. Labour market assessment of the offshore oil and gas industry supply and service sector in Newfoundland and Labrador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Petroleum Industry Human Resource Committee (PIHRC) commissioned this study in December 2002 to develop a profile of the labour demand and supply for the upstream production phase of the offshore oil and gas industry. Interviews with representatives from more than 45 countries in the offshore oil and gas sector in Newfoundland and Labrador were conducted. In addition, the results of a mail survey forwarded to an additional 42 companies were included along with a review of secondary labour market research. More than 340 positions were identified in the production phase in the study. Of these, approximately 80 were identified as difficult to recruit for a variety of reasons including: insufficient experience in the oil industry; occupational shortages; short-term or project employment opportunities; very limited employment opportunities and limited occupational supply; lack of specific occupational training programs; and additional projects possibly leading to occupational shortages. The study provided valuable input concerning future labour market and human resource planning and career counselling on the 340 positions previously identified. 10 tabs

  9. Response time estimation for one oil spill originating from offshore facilities in Espirito Santo state (Brazil); Estimativa do tempo de resposta para um derrame de petroleo proveniente das instalacoes offshore do Espirito Santo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, M.B.; Sarmento, R. [Espirito Santo Univ., Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Ambiental]. E-mail: borgesbarros@bol.com.br; robsar@npd.ufes.br

    2003-07-01

    Oil and gas exploration and production activities both offshore the coast of and inland the State of E. Santo promise to heat up the state's economy, thus bringing investments, creating jobs, and generating income. Inherent to this kind of activity there is the possibility of accidents occurring in spite of the complex safety systems installed on offshore facilities, such as equipment to prevent blowouts, bursting of pipes, structural defects in the platforms, as well as ship collisions. If the oil spill reaches the coastline, damages would be catastrophic. This would be so not only because this area is home to major ecological systems but also due to the fact that a significant part of the population lives along the coastline that is used for such activities as fishing, leisure, and port installations. Being thus this research has the objective of making available information that come to contribute for elaboration of a contingency plan for the activities of exploration offshore of the Espirito Santo State (Brazil), esteeming the time response for a possible accident happened in the capixaba coast, originating from the facilities offshore, considering the force of the wind as the only force acting on the oil spot. This estimate was accomplished through a model of trajectory of oil spill. (author)

  10. Development of heavy oil fields onshore and offshore: resemblances and challenges; Desenvolvimento de campos de oleos pesados em terra e em mar: semelhancas e desafios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branco, Celso Cesar Moreira; Moczydlower, Priscila [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    The so called offshore heavy oils (API gravity lower than 19) and extra heavy oils (API lower than 10) are receiving increasing importance due to the light oil production decline and also to exploration difficulties. In countries like Canada, Venezuela, China and the US (California) there are immense onshore heavy oil resources sometimes classified as non conventional. Differently in Brazil, onshore heavy oil volumes are modest being important those located in offshore fields (although non comparable to the Canadian and Venezuelan ones). The issue raised in this paper is: the field location, whether onshore or offshore, is always the main constraint in the development process? Well, the question has both a 'yes' and 'no' as an answer. There are important differences but some similarities in the technologies that can be applied. In this text the authors intend to explore this point while at the same time depicting some of the main related aspects under research for proper exploitation of heavy and extra heavy oil assets. The most relevant difference between onshore and offshore heavy oil fields is the application of thermal methods for improved recovery: while worldwide spread and commercially applied to onshore fields, steam injection is not yet viable for offshore operations. The only option for improving recovery in offshore fields is water injection, which has the drawback of producing large volumes of water during the field life. Another aspect is the cost of the production wells: much cheaper onshore they allow well spacing in the order of 100 m or even 50 m whereas in offshore well spacing are in the 1000 m range. From the flow assurance point of view, inland installations can take use of solvents for heavy oil dilution, such as diesel or naphtha. Offshore this option is complicated by the long distances from the wellheads to the producing facilities in the platform, in the case of wet completions. There are also differences regarding the

  11. Panorama 2012 - Offshore hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technological progress is enabling production from offshore oil and gas fields at increasingly ambitious depths (3, 000 metres). Investment in offshore production is running at around $100 billion per year, accounting for one-fifth of all investment in oil exploration and development worldwide. However, the global economic crisis that broke at the end of 2008 and the accident involving the Macondo well temporarily disrupted the race to deep offshore technology. (author)

  12. Stress prevention in the offshore oil and gas exploration and production industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sutherland, Valerie J; Cary L Cooper

    1996-01-01

    This working paper is directed towards the prevention of stress in the offshore exploration and production industries. Many recommendations are given to reduce work stress, but it must be acknowledged that on any mobile drilling rig or fixed production platform there exists a great diversity of occupations and skill levels. This means that a step-by step-guide for stress prevention for each specific occupational offshore group is beyond the scope of this paper. It is suggested that the "Tripl...

  13. Rapid microbial respiration of oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill in offshore surface waters of the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Bethanie R; Reddy, Christopher M; Carmichael, Catherine A; Longnecker, Krista; Van Mooy, Benjamin A S [Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole (United States); Camilli, Richard, E-mail: bvanmooy@whoi.edu [Department of Applied Ocean Physics and Engineering, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole (United States)

    2011-07-15

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was one of the largest oil spills in history, and the fate of this oil within the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem remains to be fully understood. The goal of this study-conducted in mid-June of 2010, approximately two months after the oil spill began-was to understand the key role that microbes would play in the degradation of the oil in the offshore oligotrophic surface waters near the Deepwater Horizon site. As the utilization of organic carbon by bacteria in the surface waters of the Gulf had been previously shown to be phosphorus limited, we hypothesized that bacteria would be unable to rapidly utilize the oil released from the Macondo well. Although phosphate was scarce throughout the sampling region and microbes exhibited enzymatic signs of phosphate stress within the oil slick, microbial respiration within the slick was enhanced by approximately a factor of five. An incubation experiment to determine hydrocarbon degradation rates confirmed that a large fraction of this enhanced respiration was supported by hydrocarbon degradation. Extrapolating our observations to the entire area of the slick suggests that microbes had the potential to degrade a large fraction of the oil as it arrived at the surface from the well. These observations decidedly refuted our hypothesis. However, a concomitant increase in microbial abundance or biomass was not observed in the slick, suggesting that microbial growth was nutrient limited; incubations amended with nutrients showed rapid increases in cell number and biomass, which supported this conclusion. Our study shows that the dynamic microbial community of the Gulf of Mexico supported remarkable rates of oil respiration, despite a dearth of dissolved nutrients.

  14. Rapid microbial respiration of oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill in offshore surface waters of the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was one of the largest oil spills in history, and the fate of this oil within the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem remains to be fully understood. The goal of this study-conducted in mid-June of 2010, approximately two months after the oil spill began-was to understand the key role that microbes would play in the degradation of the oil in the offshore oligotrophic surface waters near the Deepwater Horizon site. As the utilization of organic carbon by bacteria in the surface waters of the Gulf had been previously shown to be phosphorus limited, we hypothesized that bacteria would be unable to rapidly utilize the oil released from the Macondo well. Although phosphate was scarce throughout the sampling region and microbes exhibited enzymatic signs of phosphate stress within the oil slick, microbial respiration within the slick was enhanced by approximately a factor of five. An incubation experiment to determine hydrocarbon degradation rates confirmed that a large fraction of this enhanced respiration was supported by hydrocarbon degradation. Extrapolating our observations to the entire area of the slick suggests that microbes had the potential to degrade a large fraction of the oil as it arrived at the surface from the well. These observations decidedly refuted our hypothesis. However, a concomitant increase in microbial abundance or biomass was not observed in the slick, suggesting that microbial growth was nutrient limited; incubations amended with nutrients showed rapid increases in cell number and biomass, which supported this conclusion. Our study shows that the dynamic microbial community of the Gulf of Mexico supported remarkable rates of oil respiration, despite a dearth of dissolved nutrients.

  15. Reforming Brazil's offshore oil and gas safety regulatory framework: Lessons from Norway, the United Kingdom and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose reforming the Brazilian regulatory safety framework (BRSF) for offshore oil and gas production and drilling operations. Brazil has emerged as a leading offshore producer with extensive proven reserves yet to be exploited. However, the BRSF has not been updated since 2007, and there are now major concerns about the industry's safety, particularly after the BP Deepwater Horizon accident, along with the technical challenges due to extreme conditions under which Brazil's resources are located. Drawing on experiences from three leading offshore oil and gas producers (Norway, the UK, and the US), we recommend the adoption of three best practices: the UK's ‘safety case’ approach (where operators are expected to provide convincing and valid arguments that a system is sufficiently safe for a given application in a specific environment), Norway's ‘barrier management’ (evidence that there are at least two tested and independent barriers to avoid accidents) and greater investment in safety research and development, as suggested by the US's National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling. We discuss implications for policy reform and how best practices can be applied within the Brazilian context. - Highlights: • Description of the Brazilian regulatory safety framework (BRSF). • Comparison between BRSF and regulatory frameworks of leading offshore oil and gas jurisdictions (Norway, UK and US). • Recommendations for BRSF to include the safety case, barrier management and increased investment in safety technology

  16. Redistribution of calving caribou in response to oil field development on the Arctic slope of Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerial surveys were conducted annually in June 1978-87 near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, to determine changes in the distribution of calving caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) that accompanied petroleum-related development. With construction of an oil field access road through a calving concentration area, mean caribou density (no./km2) decreased from 1.41 to 0.31 within 1 km and increased from 1.41 to 4.53, 5-6 km from the road. Concurrently, relative caribou use of the adjacent area declined apparently in response to increasing surface development. It is suggested that perturbed distribution associated with roads reduced the capacity of the nearby area to sustain parturient females and that insufficient spacing of roads may have depressed overall calving activity. Use of traditional calving grounds and of certain areas therein appears to favor calf survival, principally through lower predation risk and improved foraging conditions. Given the possible loss of those habitats through displacement and the crucial importance of the reproductive process, a cautious approach to petroleum development on the Arctic Slope is warranted. 37 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Oil spill modeling input to the offshore environmental cost model (OECM) for US-BOEMRE's spill risk and costs evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper simulates the consequences of oil spills using a planning model known as the Offshore Environmental Cost Model (OECM). This study aims at creating various predictive models for possible oil spill scenarios in marine waters. A crucial part of this investigation was the SIMAP model. It analyzes the distance and the direction covered by the spill under certain test conditions, generating a regression equation that simulates the impact of the spill. Tests were run in two different regions; the Mid-Atlantic region and the Chukchi Sea. Results showed that the higher wind speeds and higher water temperature of the Mid-Atlantic region had greater impact on wildlife and the water column respectively. However, short-line impact was higher in the Chukchi area due to the multi-directional wind. It was also shown that, because of their higher diffusivity in water, lighter crude oils had more impact than heavier oils. It was suggested that this model could ultimately be applied to other oil spill scenarios happening under similar conditions.

  18. Impact of oil on the marine environment: policy of the Paris Commission on operational discharges from the offshore industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The input of oil to the North Sea due to the offshore industry has been estimated at 29% of the total input of oil. The operational discharges consist of production water and drilling cuttings. An overview of statistics collected over the last 10 years shows that although the amount of oil discharged via production water is increasing as platforms are getting older, cuttings still account for 75% of the oil entering the sea as a result of normal operations. Spills represent a relatively small source of oil. The effects on the marine environment of discharges of production water and of discarded oily cuttings have been extensively studied, by national authorities as well as by the industry. Although it has not always been possible to reach consensus about the significance of the observed effects, a number of 'agreed facts' have led to the establishment of regulations in the framework of the Paris Commission. The 'decisions' and 'recommendations' adopted by the Commission are regularly reviewed in the light of new developments. (author)

  19. Current trends in offshore technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although this is a technical symposium concerning advances in the technology of producing oil and gas offshore, a keynote address would not be complete without mentioning non-technical factors which are extremely important for the business of producing oil and gas offshore. These are political factors and economic factors. Offshore operations are an easy target for political forces that are opposed to marine operations involving the production and transfer of hydrocarbons. For example, the oil pollution act of 1990 was a reaction to the Exxon Valdez grounding in Alaska and this act has added significantly to the risk and cost of operating offshore. Another example of this is that it is becoming more and more difficult to dispose of produced water offshore. Producing oil and gas offshore is a business that competes with other energy sources such as coal and oil and gas from wells on land. The offshore oil can only compete with these other resources by providing the same product at a competitive price. Since offshore operations are inherently more costly than land operations, the offshore oil field or gas field must be significantly larger than a land field in order to be produced. Also the offshore oil field or gas field is more susceptible to environmental risks from weather. On a more positive note, there are technical developments which are taking place and have continuously taken place to make offshore oil and gas both more economic and safer to produce. These developments are briefly discussed

  20. The interaction of the oil and gas offshore industry with fisheries in Brazil: the "Stena Tay" experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Jablonski

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the oil and natural gas produced in Brazil derive from offshore fields, virtually concentrated in the Campos Basin off the coast of Rio de Janeiro State. The area is also of intense fisheries interest, involving participation of hand-liners artisanal boats and tuna boats due to the fish aggregating effect of the oil rigs. In order to avoid accidents with the platform "Stena Tay", in operation at Santos and Campos Basins, in 2001 e 2002, an awareness project was developed aiming at avoiding the presence of fishing boats in its 500 m exclusion zone. This paper summarizes the main observations concerning the extent of the fish aggregating effect and the behavior of the fishing boats in the vicinity of the platform.

  1. Positive organizational behavior and safety in the offshore oil industry: Exploring the determinants of positive safety climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hystad, Sigurd W; Bartone, Paul T; Eid, Jarle

    2014-01-01

    Much research has now documented the substantial influence of safety climate on a range of important outcomes in safety critical organizations, but there has been scant attention to the question of what factors might be responsible for positive or negative safety climate. The present paper draws from positive organizational behavior theory to test workplace and individual factors that may affect safety climate. Specifically, we explore the potential influence of authentic leadership style and psychological capital on safety climate and risk outcomes. Across two samples of offshore oil-workers and seafarers working on oil platform supply ships, structural equation modeling yielded results that support a model in which authentic leadership exerts a direct effect on safety climate, as well as an indirect effect via psychological capital. This study shows the importance of leadership qualities as well as psychological factors in shaping a positive work safety climate and lowering the risk of accidents. PMID:24454524

  2. Comments on new technical and economic data available for EPA's proposed offshore oil and gas discharge guidelines and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to provide comments on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Notice in the Federal Register entitled, ''Oil and Gas Extraction Point Source Category, Offshore Subcategory; Effluent Limitations Guidelines and New Source Performance Standards; New Information and Request or Comments'' (53 FR 41356; October 21, 1988). This Notice announces the availability of new technical, economic and environmental assessment information relating to the development of Best Available Technology economically achievable (BAT and New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) regulations under the Clean Water Act governing the discharge of drilling fluids (muds) and drill cuttings from offshore oil and gas facilities. The Notice is part of a rulemaking process which formally began with the initial release of rules in August 1985 and which incorporates numerous comments and additional data received subsequent to the release of the 1985 rules. The comments in this paper will concentrate on the following five issues: Estimated project impacts are misrepresented by assuming weighted-average incremental costs of regulation. Economic impacts are inaccurate, since annual compliance costs will likely affect the number of wells drilled, by the effect of compliance costs on project economics and the reduction in industry cash flows on capital available for drilling. Initial well productivity assumptions for various scenarios do not vary with field size. The assumed lease costs, which are based on historical data, do not accurately reflect the future value of leases. The experimental decline rates assumed for the Pacific are too high

  3. A three-step model to assess shoreline and offshore susceptibility to oil spills: the South Aegean (Crete) as an analogue for confined marine basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tiago M; Kokinou, Eleni; Zodiatis, George

    2014-09-15

    This study combines bathymetric, geomorphological, geological data and oil spill predictions to model the impact of oil spills in two accident scenarios from offshore Crete, Eastern Mediterranean. The aim is to present a new three-step method of use by emergency teams and local authorities in the assessment of shoreline and offshore susceptibility to oil spills. The three-step method comprises: (1) real-time analyses of bathymetric, geomorphological, geological and oceanographic data; (2) oil dispersion simulations under known wind and sea current conditions; and (3) the compilation of final hazard maps based on information from (1) and (2) and on shoreline susceptibility data. The results in this paper show that zones of high to very-high susceptibility around the island of Crete are related to: (a) offshore bathymetric features, including the presence of offshore scarps and seamounts; (b) shoreline geology, and (c) the presence near the shore of sedimentary basins filled with unconsolidated deposits of high permeability. Oil spills, under particular weather and oceanographic conditions, may quickly spread and reach the shoreline 5-96 h after the initial accident. As a corollary of this work, we present the South Aegean region around Crete as a valid case-study for confined marine basins, narrow seaways, or interior seas around island groups. PMID:25113103

  4. Arctic Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, John; Baggeroer, Arthur; Mikhalevsky, Peter; Munk, Walter; Sagen, Hanne; Vernon, Frank; Worcester, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The dramatic reduction of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean will increase human activities in the coming years. This will be driven by increased demand for energy and the marine resources of an Arctic Ocean more accessible to ships. Oil and gas exploration, fisheries, mineral extraction, marine transportation, research and development, tourism and search and rescue will increase the pressure on the vulnerable Arctic environment. Synoptic in-situ year-round observational technologies are needed to monitor and forecast changes in the Arctic atmosphere-ice-ocean system at daily, seasonal, annual and decadal scales to inform and enable sustainable development and enforcement of international Arctic agreements and treaties, while protecting this critical environment. This paper will discuss multipurpose acoustic networks, including subsea cable components, in the Arctic. These networks provide communication, power, underwater and under-ice navigation, passive monitoring of ambient sound (ice, seismic, biologic and anthropogenic), and acoustic remote sensing (tomography and thermometry), supporting and complementing data collection from platforms, moorings and autonomous vehicles. This paper supports the development and implementation of regional to basin-wide acoustic networks as an integral component of a multidisciplinary, in situ Arctic Ocean Observatory.

  5. Location and sizing of off-shore platforms for oil exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of optimal location and sizing of off-shore platforms can be expressed as a multicapacitated plant Location Problem (MCPLP). A solution to MCPLP can be defined through a tabu search heuristic algorithm with partial neighborhood search and variable size extended lists of forbidden moves

  6. Supply-demand analysis. Volume II. of the offshore oil industry support craft market. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durfee, J.H.

    1977-10-01

    Volume Two of this report presents a description of the market for offshore petroleum industry support craft and an analysis of that market. Financial performance of five major operating companies is described. A forecast of support craft supply and demand for 1977, 1982, and 1987 is included.

  7. Federal Offshore Statistics, 1993. Leasing, exploration, production, and revenue as of December 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, D.K.

    1994-12-31

    This document contains statistical data on the following: federal offshore lands; offshore leasing activity and status; offshore development activity; offshore production of crude oil and natural gas; federal offshore oil and natural gas sales volume and royalties; revenue from federal offshore leases; disbursement of federal offshore revenue; reserves and resource estimates of offshore oil and natural gas; oil pollution in US and international waters; and international activities and marine minerals. A glossary is included.

  8. Arctic bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleanup of oil and diesel spills on gravel pads in the Arctic has typically been accomplished by utilizing a water flushing technique to remove the gross contamination or excavating the spill area and placing the material into a lined pit, or a combination of both. Enhancing the biological degradation of hydrocarbon (bioremediation) by adding nutrients to the spill area has been demonstrated to be an effective cleanup tool in more temperate locations. However, this technique has never been considered for restoration in the Arctic because the process of microbial degradation of hydrocarbon in this area is very slow. The short growing season and apparent lack of nutrients in the gravel pads were thought to be detrimental to using bioremediation to cleanup Arctic oil spills. This paper discusses the potential to utilize bioremediation as an effective method to clean up hydrocarbon spills in the northern latitudes

  9. Russian Arctic Petroleum Resources; Ressources petrolieres de l'Arctique russe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolotukhin, A.; Gavrilov, V. [Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, GSP-1, Leninsky prospekt, 65, 119991, Moscow - (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    The Arctic continental shelf is believed to be the area with the highest unexplored potential for oil and gas as well as for unconventional hydrocarbon resources such as gas hydrates. Despite a common view that the Arctic has plentiful of hydrocarbon resources, there are ongoing debates regarding the potential of this region as a future energy supply base. Driving forces for such discussions are geopolitics, environmental concern, assessment and delineation of Arctic resources, technology available for their successful development and the market demand for energy supply. The Russian part is recognized to be the largest among oil and gas resources owned by Arctic nations. However, scarce information and available geological data create uncertainty regarding a future role of the Russian Arctic as main base of energy supply in the second part of the 21. century. A further uncertainty is the pace at which production from northern areas including the Arctic will be brought on stream - either because of national policy, infrastructure development or investment by the state and the oil companies. These areas embrace those where development has already been started (Offshore Sakhalin, northern Timan Pechora) and those awaiting future involvement, like Barents and Pechora seas, East Siberia, Yamal, Kara Sea and Kamchatka. Offshore production levels are likely to be very important to Russia in mid and long terms, especially as most (if not all) production will go for export and, in the process, open doors to new markets. In this way, offshore production will introduce a new and very significant component to Russia's export strategy. However, active involvement of the Russian Arctic resources in the global energy supply process needs a detailed analysis and clear understanding of the market potential for Russian gas and oil (required volumes, time frame, transportations routes) and requires close attention of the government to the most important issues that should be in

  10. ARKTOS amphibious oil spill response craft for mixed ice/water conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil spill which occurred recently in the Gulf of Mexico highlighted the lack of efficient oil spill clean-up equipment for an offshore environment. With the increase in industrial operations in the Arctic Seas it is of high importance to develop an efficient oil spill response as the absence of reliable oil spill contingency plans will not be tolerated in such environmentally sensitive areas. The aim of this paper is to present the use of the ARKTOS amphibious craft for cleaning up an oil spill in the Arctic. This craft is usually used for logistical services and evacuation purposes; its use for clean-up purposes has been under study since 2000. This study showed that the ARKTOS craft could be an efficient means for oil spill clean-up in the Arctic because of its proven ice capable amphibious platforms and its hydraulic power; however oil collection trials should be performed to validate it.

  11. Offshore waste treatment guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These guidelines were prepared to aid offshore oil and gas operators in the management of waste materials related to petroleum drilling and production operations in offshore areas regulated by the Canada-Newfoundland and Labrador Offshore Petroleum Board (CNLOPB) and the Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board (CNSOPB). A description of the relevant sections of the regulatory regime applicable to Canada's offshore oil and gas operations was included. Offshore operators are expected to take all reasonable measures to minimize the volumes of waste materials generated by their operations. The guidelines included recommendations for identifying, monitoring, and reporting discharges; performance expectations for specific discharges; requirements for greenhouse gas (GHG) and other air emissions; methods of characterizing and monitoring produced water, drilling muds, and desalination brine. Operational discharges associated with the installation and maintenance of subsea systems were also reviewed, and qualifications of analytical laboratories were presented. 24 refs., 2 appendices.

  12. Evaluation of Long Term Behaviour of Polymers for Offshore Oil and Gas Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Gac P.-Y.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Polymers and composites are very attractive for underwater applications, but it is essential to evaluate their long term behaviour in sea water if structural integrity of offshore structures is to be guaranteed. Accelerated test procedures are frequently required, and this paper will present three examples showing how the durability of polymers, in the form of fibres, matrix resins in fibre reinforced composites for structural elements, and thermal insulation coatings of flow-lines, have been evaluated for offshore use. The influence of the ageing medium, temperature, and hydrostatic pressure will be discussed first, then an example of the application of ageing test results to predict long term behavior of the thermal insulation coating of a flowline will be presented.

  13. Ice induced vibrations of offshore structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Salganik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article was to analyze the process of the dynamic interaction between ice and offshore structures and find conditions of vibration beginnings. The problems of creating a full-scale finite element model of ice and offshore structure interaction and comparison of the received results of vibration conditions with the field data were solved. Modeling was realized with the finite element analysis software ANSYS. The problems of modeling cracks formation, checking the multilateral model using basic ice strength tests and finding ice loads level on different types of structures were solved in order to create a destructible ice model. The object of the investigation is the role of elastic and inertial offshore structure parameters and geometrical and dynamical ice field parameters in the process of ice-induced structure vibrations. Molikpaq drilling and oil production platform in Canada and Norströmsgrund lighthouse in Sweden were chosen as objects for modeling. The research contains verification of the results, their comparison to field data, load magnitudes from ISO 19906 «Petroleum and natural gas industries – Arctic offshore structures» algorithm and results of discrete element modeling. The results are acceptable in comparison with the results of other ice-induced vibration research.

  14. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anadromous fish species in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector arcs in this data set represent species...

  15. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data...

  16. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, freshwater, and anadromous fish species in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector...

  17. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: HABITATS (Habitat Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set...

  18. Economic benefits of final effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the offshore oil and gas industry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report provides an overview of the benefits analysis of the effluent limitation guidelines for offshore oil and gas facilities. Regulatory options were evaluated for two wastestreams: (1) drilling fluids (muds) and cuttings; and (2) produced water. The analysis focuses on the human health-related benefits of the regulatory options considered. These health risk reduction benefits are associated with reduced human exposure to various carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic contaminants, including lead, by way of consumption of shrimp and recreationally caught finfish from the Gulf of Mexico. Most of the health-risk reduction benefits analysis is based upon a previous report (RCG/Hagler, Bailly, January 1991), developed in support of the proposed rulemaking. Recreational, commercial, and nonuse benefits have not been estimated for these regulations, due to data limitations and the difficulty of estimating these values for effluent controls in the open-water marine environment

  19. Opportunities and Challenges of Robotics and Automation in Offshore Oil & Gas Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Heping Chen; Samuel Stavinoha; Michael Walker; Biao Zhang; Thomas Fuhlbrigge

    2014-01-01

    The oil and gas industry will continue to boom in the coming few decades. Obtaining oil and gas from conventional and non-conventional resources will become more and more challenging. This intensifying need will impose very considerable demands on work force, financial and technology capabilities. Since the future supplies of oil and gas are to expand, advanced technology will become increasingly necessary to obtain access to more challenging conventional and non-conven...

  20. Changes in the active layer of sub-arctic right-of-way as a result of a crude-oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of a crude oil spill on three distinct sub-arctic environments were examined. One of these was an undisturbed black spruce forest, another a moderately disturbed simulated transport corridor right-of-way, and the third a severely disturbed simulated buried pipeline trench. Trees, shrubs, ground cover and organic layers were removed and the area excavated and refilled to simulate the construction of of a buried small-diameter pipeline. Extensive work was also completed on permafrost degradation and ground subsidence related to the creation of right-of-ways and trenches. The experiment was carried on for three years. By the third year the active layer in the oiled forest increased by about 150 per cent, and in the oiled right-of-way by about 80 per cent. There was no change in the oiled trench. By the third year, the active layers in all oiled environments were significantly deeper than their unoiled counterparts and the active layer in the oiled trench was significantly deeper than in the oiled forest. It was found that this oil spill has caused the greatest increase in thaw depths ever recorded for a crude-oil spill in a sub-arctic forest. The increase in thaw depth was attributed to high oil concentration, especially in the areas where the oil had pooled on the ground. 31 refs., 4 figs

  1. Long-Term Acid-Generating and Metal Leaching Potential of a Sub-Arctic Oil Shale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn A. Mumford

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Shales are increasingly being exploited for oil and unconventional gas. Exploitation of sub-arctic oil shales requires the creation of gravel pads to elevate workings above the heaving effects of ground ice. These gravel pads can potentially generate acidic leachate, which can enhance the mobility of metals from the shale. To examine this potential, pyrite-bearing shale originating from sub-Arctic gravel pad sites were subjected to leaching tests for 600 days at initial pH values ranging from 2 to 5, to simulate potential real world conditions. At set times over the 600 day experiment, pH, oxidation reduction potential (ORP, dissolved oxygen and temperature were recorded and small liquid samples withdrawn and analysed for elemental concentrations using total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TRXRF. Six of eight shale samples were found to be acid generating, with pH declining and ORP becoming increasingly positive after 100 days. Two of the eight shale samples produced increasingly alkaline leachate conditions with relatively low ORP after 100 days, indicating an inbuilt buffering capacity. By 600 days the buffering capacity of all samples had been consumed and all leachate samples were acidic. TRXRF analyses demonstrated significant potential for the leaching of S, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mn with greatest concentrations found in reaction vessels with most acidic pH and highest ORP.

  2. Arctic bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleanup of oil and diesel spills on gravel pads in the Arctic has typically been accomplished by utilizing a water flushing technique to remove the gross contamination or excavating the spill area and placing the material into a lined pit, or a combination of both. This paper discusses the potential to utilize bioremediation as an effective method to clean up hydrocarbon spills in the northern latitudes. Discussed are the results of a laboratory bioremediation study which simulated microbial degradation of hydrocarbon under arctic conditions

  3. An evaluation of oil spill responses for offshore oil production projects in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada: Implications for seabird conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Gail S; Racine, Vincent

    2016-06-15

    Seabirds are vulnerable to oil pollution, particularly in cold-water regions. We investigated the response of small spills (environmental assessments for oil production operations Environment Canada requested monitoring and mitigation of small spills potentially impacting seabird populations; suggestions supported by two independent reviews. An industry spill response plan states that operators would collect systematic observations on spills and deploy countermeasures where possible. Operators' spill reports were obtained under an Access to Information request. There were 220 daytime spills with sheens (out of 381 spills; 1997-2010). Of these, six reported time to oil dispersion and eleven the presence or absence of seabirds. Industry self-reporting has not permitted an evaluation of the impact of chronic oil spills on seabirds. We recommend that independent observers be placed on platforms to systematically collect data on spills and seabirds. PMID:27131965

  4. Oil spill modeling in the southeastern Mediterranean Sea in support of accelerated offshore oil and gas exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Steve

    2015-12-01

    Since the discovery of major reserves in the Israeli exclusive economic zone (EEZ) 6 years ago, exploration and drilling for natural gas and oil have proceeded at an accelerated pace. As part of the licensing procedure for drilling, an environmental impact assessment and an emergency response plan must be presented to the authorities, which include several prespecified oil spill simulations. In this study, the MEDSLIK oil spill model has been applied for this purpose. The model accounts for time-dependent advection, dispersion, and physiochemical weathering of the surface slick. It is driven by currents produced by high-resolution dynamic downscaling of ocean reanalysis data and winds extracted from global atmospheric analyses. Worst case scenarios based on 30-day well blowouts under four sets of environmental conditions were simulated for wells located at 140, 70, and 20 km off the coast of central Israel. For the well furthest from the coast, the amount of oil remaining in the surface slick always exceeds the amount deposited on the coast. For the mid-distance well, the cases were evenly split. For the well closest to the coast, coastal deposition always exceeds the oil remaining in the slick. Additional simulations with the wind switched off helped highlight the importance of the wind in evaporation of the oil and in transporting the slick toward the southeastern coast.

  5. The potential of solar electric power for meeting future US energy needs: a comparison of projections of solar electric energy generation and Arctic National Wildlife Refuge oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper compares the potential contribution of solar electric power in the form of photovoltaics to meet future US energy demand with the projected volume of oil estimated to be available in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Such a comparison has practical value since it directly addresses a key policy choice under consideration in the new century, namely, that between one of the most promising untapped oil deposits in the world and one of the most rapidly growing renewable energy options

  6. Synthesis of Polymer-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles from Red Mud Waste for Enhanced Oil Recovery in Offshore Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T. P.; Le, U. T. P.; Ngo, K. T.; Pham, K. D.; Dinh, L. X.

    2016-07-01

    Buried red mud waste from groundwater refineries can cause pollution. The aim of this paper is to utilize this mud for the synthesis of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Then, MNPs are encapsulated by a copolymer of methyl methacrylate and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonate via oleic acid linker. MNPs are prepared by a controlled co-precipitation method in the presence of a dispersant and surface-modified agents to achieve a high hydrophobic or hydrophilic surface. Mini-emulsion polymerization was conducted to construct a core-shell structure with MNPs as core and the copolymer as shell. The core-shell structure of the obtained particles enables them to disperse well in brine and to stabilize at high-temperature environments. The chemical structures and morphology of this nanocomposite were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The thermal stability of the nanocomposite was evaluated via a thermogravimetric analysis method for the solid state and an annealing experiment for the liquid state. The nanocomposite is about 14 nm, disperses well in brine and is thermally stable in the solid state. The blends of synthesized nanocomposite and carboxylate surfactant effectively reduced the interfacial tension between crude oil and brine, and remained thermally stable after 31 days annealed at 100°C. Therefore, a nanofluid of copolymer/magnetic nanocomposite can be applied as an enhanced oil recovery agent for harsh environments in offshore reservoirs.

  7. Synthesis of Polymer-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles from Red Mud Waste for Enhanced Oil Recovery in Offshore Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T. P.; Le, U. T. P.; Ngo, K. T.; Pham, K. D.; Dinh, L. X.

    2016-04-01

    Buried red mud waste from groundwater refineries can cause pollution. The aim of this paper is to utilize this mud for the synthesis of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Then, MNPs are encapsulated by a copolymer of methyl methacrylate and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonate via oleic acid linker. MNPs are prepared by a controlled co-precipitation method in the presence of a dispersant and surface-modified agents to achieve a high hydrophobic or hydrophilic surface. Mini-emulsion polymerization was conducted to construct a core-shell structure with MNPs as core and the copolymer as shell. The core-shell structure of the obtained particles enables them to disperse well in brine and to stabilize at high-temperature environments. The chemical structures and morphology of this nanocomposite were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The thermal stability of the nanocomposite was evaluated via a thermogravimetric analysis method for the solid state and an annealing experiment for the liquid state. The nanocomposite is about 14 nm, disperses well in brine and is thermally stable in the solid state. The blends of synthesized nanocomposite and carboxylate surfactant effectively reduced the interfacial tension between crude oil and brine, and remained thermally stable after 31 days annealed at 100°C. Therefore, a nanofluid of copolymer/magnetic nanocomposite can be applied as an enhanced oil recovery agent for harsh environments in offshore reservoirs.

  8. Enabling technology: an overview of offshore innovations in the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amado, Luiz C.N. [Shell International Exploration and Production (E and P) Inc., Houston, TX (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Big accumulations found in the past are not likely to occur again. On the contrary several small size accumulations may still be there unless a new play be discovered such as the sub salt. With global demand for oil rapidly increasing and easy oil becoming scarcer, we need to start looking at more difficult reservoirs from which to produce hydrocarbons. To boost daily global oil supplies to 100 million barrels, against current levels of some 85 million barrels, will be 'extremely difficult to reach' as we have heard in the news. It is not a question of available oil reserves, but a combination of technology, geopolitics and actual production decline in existing fields. Geopolitics and depletion rates are highly complex variables upon which we do not have full control. However Technology can still be designed fit for purposes. (author)

  9. Evaluation of energy efficiency efforts of oil and gas offshore processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Voldsund, Mari; Breuhaus, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    Oil and gas platforms are energy-intensive systems, and each facility consumes from a few to several hundred MW of power, depending on the oil, gas and water extraction, as well as different field and export conditions. Despite these differences, several strategies can be applied to improve the...... energy performance of these facilities, by decreasing the power and heating requirements and designing more efficient processes. Several technologies that have been proposed are to (i) promote energy integration within the oil and gas processing plant, (ii) add an additional pressure extraction level......, (iii) implement multiphase expanders, and (iv) install a waste heat recovery system. The present work builds on two case studies located in the North and Norwegian Seas, which differ by the type of oil processed, operating conditions and strategies. The findings suggest that no generic improvement can...

  10. Evaluation of energy efficiency efforts of oil and gas offshore processing

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Voldsund, Mari; Breuhaus, Peter; Elmegaard, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Oil and gas platforms are energy-intensive systems, and each facility consumes from a few to several hundred MW of power, depending on the oil, gas and water extraction, as well as different field and export conditions. Despite these differences, several strategies can be applied to improve the energy performance of these facilities, by decreasing the power and heating requirements and designing more efficient processes. Several technologies that have been proposed are to (i) promote energy i...

  11. Risk assessment of offshore oil and gas activities in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous health and safety protection measures are known to create large-scale effects on the environment, e.g. the application of polychlorinated biphenyls as a cooling medium in transformers and the application of the ozone-depleting halogens for efficient fire protection. Risk assessment, taking all health and safety aspects into account, may be the primary mechanism to justify operational procedures agreed by the national authorities as well as by the Exploration and Production industry. Risk assessment of health and safety aspects uses several models which are applied when designing new offshore installations. Several models, which have been developed in the last couple of years, are now available for the assessment of the environmental risk. This paper considers the need for the application of risk assessment with respect to all aspects, health, safety and environment, in order to determine a balanced set of priorities and protection measures. (author)

  12. Comparison of microbial communities involved in souring and corrosion in offshore and onshore oil production facilities in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, Chuma; Smith, Seun; Chiejina, Leo; Lumactud, Rhea; An, Dongshan; Park, Hyung Soo; Voordouw, Johanna; Lomans, Bart P; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2014-04-01

    Samples were obtained from the Obigbo field, located onshore in the Niger delta, Nigeria, from which oil is produced by injection of low-sulfate groundwater, as well as from the offshore Bonga field from which oil is produced by injection of high-sulfate (2,200 ppm) seawater, amended with 45 ppm of calcium nitrate to limit reservoir souring. Despite low concentrations of sulfate (0-7 ppm) and nitrate (0 ppm), sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) were present in samples from the Obigbo field. Biologically active deposits (BADs), scraped from corrosion-failed sections of a water- and of an oil-transporting pipeline (both Obigbo), had high counts of SRB and high sulfate and ferrous iron concentrations. Analysis of microbial community composition by pyrosequencing indicated anaerobic, methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation to be a dominant process in all samples from the Obigbo field, including the BADs. Samples from the Bonga field also had significant activity of SRB, as well as of heterotrophic and of sulfide-oxidizing NRB. Microbial community analysis indicated high proportions of potentially thermophilic NRB and near-absence of microbes active in methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation. Anaerobic incubation of Bonga samples with steel coupons gave moderate general corrosion rates of 0.045-0.049 mm/year, whereas near-zero general corrosion rates (0.001-0.002 mm/year) were observed with Obigbo water samples. Hence, methanogens may contribute to corrosion at Obigbo, but the low general corrosion rates cannot explain the reasons for pipeline failures in the Niger delta. A focus of future work should be on understanding the role of BADs in enhancing under-deposit pitting corrosion. PMID:24477567

  13. Characterizing pinniped use of offshore oil and gas platforms as haulouts and foraging areas in waters off southern California from 2013-01-01 to 2015-01-31 (NCEI Accession 0138984)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) use offshore oil and gas platforms as resting and foraging areas. Both...

  14. U.S. Geological Survery Oil and Gas Resource Assessment of the Russian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Gautier; Timothy Klett

    2008-12-31

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a study of undiscovered petroleum resources in the Russian Arctic as a part of its Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA), which comprised three broad areas of work: geological mapping, basin analysis, and quantitative assessment. The CARA was a probabilistic, geologically based study that used existing USGS methodology, modified somewhat for the circumstances of the Arctic. New map compilation was used to identify assessment units. The CARA relied heavily on geological analysis and analog modeling, with numerical input consisting of lognormal distributions of sizes and numbers of undiscovered accumulations. Probabilistic results for individual assessment units were statistically aggregated, taking geological dependencies into account. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funds were used to support the purchase of crucial seismic data collected in the Barents Sea, East Siberian Sea, and Chukchi Sea for use by USGS in its assessment of the Russian Arctic. DOE funds were also used to purchase a commercial study, which interpreted seismic data from the northern Kara Sea, and for geographic information system (GIS) support of USGS mapping of geological features, province boundaries, total petroleum systems, and assessment units used in the USGS assessment.

  15. Radioisotope techniques for problem solving in the offshore oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope technology has been used for almost half a century by the oil and gas industry to solve problems and to help optimize process operations. The use of radioactive isotopes to investigate the effectiveness of well stimulation procedures and to measure the sweep-out patterns of oil and gas in secondary recovery process is well known. The applications of radioisotopes to study features of plant and process operation has been less widely reported though the economic benefits deriving from such applications are very great. Nevertheless, there has been continuous development in the range of application and in the design of equipment to facilitate the use of the technology at remote environments such as an oil or gas platform. Some indication of the current usage of radioisotope techniques may be obtained from examination of Table I, which lists projects carried out in the UK's North Sea fields by ICI Tracerco, which is the world's largest radioisotope applications service group

  16. Application of particle swarm optimization for enhanced cyclic steam stimulation in a offshore heavy oil reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaolin; Qiu, Xun

    2013-01-01

    Three different variations of PSO algorithms, i.e. Canonical, Gaussian Bare-bone and L\\'evy Bare-bone PSO, are tested to optimize the ultimate oil recovery of a large heavy oil reservoir. The performance of these algorithms was compared in terms of convergence behaviour and the final optimization results. It is found that, in general, all three types of PSO methods are able to improve the objective function. The best objective function is found by using the Canonical PSO, while the other two ...

  17. 0-Accidents in Offshore Oil and Gas Production - the Quantitative part

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    According to data from the national authorities and operators, the injury incidence rates of lost time accidents in Danish oil and gas operators have declined significantly over the recent decades. There have been significant annual variations, but the trend points towards a zero-injury level, and...... different populations that may or may not include onshore workers. The International Association of Oil & Gas Producers (OGP) runs an international surveillance sys-tem that, however, also gives insufficient information on the methods in the OGP annual reports. We identified a number of potential threats to...

  18. Cost-Effective ERT Technique for Oil-in-Water Measurement for Offshore Hydrocyclone Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic; Hansen, Leif; Mai, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to introduce and design a cost-effective Oil-in-Water (OiW) measuring instrument, which will be investigated for its value in increasing the efficiency of a deoiling hydrocyclone. The technique investigated is based on Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), which basic...... principle is to measure the resistivity of substances from multiple electrodes and from these measurements create a 2-D image of the oil and gas component in the water. This technique requires the measured components to have different electrical resistances, such as seawater which has a lower electrical...

  19. Natural Offshore Oil Seepage and Related Tarball Accumulation on the California Coastline - Santa Barbara Channel and the Southern Santa Maria Basin: Source Identification and Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenson, T.D.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Peters, Kenneth E.; Dougherty, Jennifer A.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Gutmacher, Christina E.; Wong, Florence L.; Normark, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Oil spillage from natural sources is very common in the waters of southern California. Active oil extraction and shipping is occurring concurrently within the region and it is of great interest to resource managers to be able to distinguish between natural seepage and anthropogenic oil spillage. The major goal of this study was to establish the geologic setting, sources, and ultimate dispersal of natural oil seeps in the offshore southern Santa Maria Basin and Santa Barbara Basins. Our surveys focused on likely areas of hydrocarbon seepage that are known to occur between Point Arguello and Ventura, California. Our approach was to 1) document the locations and geochemically fingerprint natural seep oils or tar; 2) geochemically fingerprint coastal tar residues and potential tar sources in this region, both onshore and offshore; 3) establish chemical correlations between offshore active seeps and coastal residues thus linking seep sources to oil residues; 4) measure the rate of natural seepage of individual seeps and attempt to assess regional natural oil and gas seepage rates; and 5) interpret the petroleum system history for the natural seeps. To document the location of sub-sea oil seeps, we first looked into previous studies within and near our survey area. We measured the concentration of methane gas in the water column in areas of reported seepage and found numerous gas plumes and measured high concentrations of methane in the water column. The result of this work showed that the seeps were widely distributed between Point Conception east to the vicinity of Coal Oil Point, and that they by in large occur within the 3-mile limit of California State waters. Subsequent cruises used sidescan and high resolution seismic to map the seafloor, from just south of Point Arguello, east to near Gaviota, California. The results of the methane survey guided the exploration of the area west of Point Conception east to Gaviota using a combination of seismic instruments. The

  20. An investment-production-regulatory model for firms in the offshore oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This tripartite study examines the economic consequences of proposed environmental regulations on firms in the OCS oil and gas industry. The background part reviews the major issues associated with OCS oil and gas development and relevant environmental regulatory proposals. In the theoretical part, models are developed using optimal control theory and the theory of nonrenewable resources to analyze the impact of rising compliance cost on firm's behavior in terms of the investment and production rates over time. Finally, in the simulation part, an integrated investment-production-regulatory model is developed to simulate OCS development with and without the proposed environmental regulations. Effects of regulations are measured in terms of an increase in compliance costs and the associated reduction in net profits from oil and gas production. The theoretical results indicate that an increase in compliance costs will alter exploration, development and production rates. The total investments in exploration and development, and oil production will decrease as a result of rising compliance costs for exploration, development and production over the entire planning period

  1. Meals on Wheels? A Decade of Megafaunal Visual and Acoustic Observations from Offshore Oil & Gas Rigs and Platforms in the North and Irish Seas

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, Victoria Louise Georgia; Warley, Jane Clare; Todd, Ian Boyer

    2016-01-01

    A decade of visual and acoustic detections of marine megafauna around offshore Oil & Gas (O&G) installations in the North and Irish Seas are presented. Marine megafauna activity was monitored visually and acoustically by Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) qualified and experienced Marine Mammal Observers (MMO) and Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) Operators respectively, with real-time towed PAM in combination with industry standard software, PAMGuard. Monitoring was performed during ...

  2. Measuring ignitability for in situ burning of oil spills weathered under Arctic conditions: From laboratory studies to large-scale field experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Brandvik, Per Johan

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares the ignitability of Troll B crude oil weathered under simulated Arctic conditions (0%, 50% and 90% ice cover). The experiments were performed in different scales at SINTEF’s laboratories in Trondheim, field research station on Svalbard and in broken ice (70–90% ice cover...... process, and 70% ice or more reduces the weathering and allows a longer time window for in situ burning. The results from the Barents Sea revealed that weathering and ignitability can vary within an oil slick. This field use of the burning cell demonstrated that it can be used as an operational tool...... to monitor the ignitability of oil spills....

  3. The Feasibility of Wind and Solar Energy Application for Oil and Gas Offshore Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiong, Y. K.; Zahari, M. A.; Wong, S. F.; Dol, S. S.

    2015-04-01

    Renewable energy is an energy which is freely available in nature such as winds and solar energy. It plays a critical role in greening the energy sector as these sources of energy produce little or no pollution to environment. This paper will focus on capability of renewable energy (wind and solar) in generating power for offshore application. Data of wind speeds and solar irradiation that are available around SHELL Sabah Water Platform for every 10 minutes, 24 hours a day, for a period of one year are provided by SHELL Sarawak Sdn. Bhd. The suitable wind turbine and photovoltaic panel that are able to give a high output and higher reliability during operation period are selected by using the tabulated data. The highest power output generated using single wind energy application is equal to 492 kW while for solar energy application is equal to 20 kW. Using the calculated data, the feasibility of renewable energy is then determined based on the platform energy demand.

  4. Assessment of technological solutions for removal of radium discharged to sea from offshore oil and gas installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the Norwegian sector of the North-Sea the oil- and gas-producing fields Troll B and C are the main contributors to radium discharged to the sea (190 GBq/a 226Ra and 150 GBq/a 228Ra). Thus, to observe effects caused by the emission of radioactivity and to consider remedial action one should focus on these two installations. Both installations are now operated by Statoil. In a previous comprehensive study of the speciation of discharged radium the conclusion was that it is impossible to detect any effect from radiation doses. The incremental doses due to the emissions were found to be in the nSv-range. The study covered precipitation by sulfate in the sea water, absorption on organic and inorganic materials, uptake in cod eggs and in juvenile cod, effect on sediment living organisms, background levels of pelagic fish and in sediments, and modeling of the distribution in the water column as well the distribution along the coastal stream. Despite the lack of radiation effects, an assessment of possible technological solution for removal of the radium has been undertaken. Such methods must meet the severe requirements imposed by the oil recovery process at Troll B and C: High produced water rates (>1000 m3/h), high salinity and content of water soluble carboxylic acids originating from the crude oil, in addition to a relatively high content of barium (3 550 tonnes/a). For implementation on an offshore installation the footprint and weight of the equipment would have to be as low as possible. It is also imperative that the radiation doses to operators are as low as possible. This puts strict requirements on the shielding of the absorbents accumulating 226Ra and 228Ra. No commercially available methods were identified, but one new conceptual method based on absorption of radium on barite has been proposed. Barite is also a good shielding material. Tests performed at Institute for Energy Technology show, however, that the kinetics of the chemical exchange process is far

  5. Assessment of technological solutions for removal of radium discharged to sea from offshore oil and gas installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksen, Dag Oeistein [Primus.inter.pares AS, Kongsberggata 20, NO-0468 Oslo (Norway); Hylland, Ketil [University of Oslo (Norway); Andersen, Knut Inge [Statoil ASA (Norway); Sidhu, Rajdeep Singh [Institute for Energy Technology - IFE (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    On the Norwegian sector of the North-Sea the oil- and gas-producing fields Troll B and C are the main contributors to radium discharged to the sea (190 GBq/a {sup 226}Ra and 150 GBq/a {sup 228}Ra). Thus, to observe effects caused by the emission of radioactivity and to consider remedial action one should focus on these two installations. Both installations are now operated by Statoil. In a previous comprehensive study of the speciation of discharged radium the conclusion was that it is impossible to detect any effect from radiation doses. The incremental doses due to the emissions were found to be in the nSv-range. The study covered precipitation by sulfate in the sea water, absorption on organic and inorganic materials, uptake in cod eggs and in juvenile cod, effect on sediment living organisms, background levels of pelagic fish and in sediments, and modeling of the distribution in the water column as well the distribution along the coastal stream. Despite the lack of radiation effects, an assessment of possible technological solution for removal of the radium has been undertaken. Such methods must meet the severe requirements imposed by the oil recovery process at Troll B and C: High produced water rates (>1000 m{sup 3}/h), high salinity and content of water soluble carboxylic acids originating from the crude oil, in addition to a relatively high content of barium (3 550 tonnes/a). For implementation on an offshore installation the footprint and weight of the equipment would have to be as low as possible. It is also imperative that the radiation doses to operators are as low as possible. This puts strict requirements on the shielding of the absorbents accumulating {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra. No commercially available methods were identified, but one new conceptual method based on absorption of radium on barite has been proposed. Barite is also a good shielding material. Tests performed at Institute for Energy Technology show, however, that the kinetics of the

  6. Proceedings of the 22. Arctic and marine oil spill program technical seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vol. 1 of the Proceedings contain all papers dealing with the physical and chemical properties and behaviour of oil spills, oil spill treating agents, spill modelling, shore line protection and cleanup and oil spill detection, tracking and remote sensing, and biological effects of oil spills and biodegradation. Papers in vol. 2 deal with various disposal methods such as in-situ burning, near-shore dispersant experiments, oil spill prevention and contingency planning, containment and recovery, a paper concerning past and present spill incidents, a panel discussion of the 1997-1998 Svalbard shoreline experiment, and the papers presented in the Poster Session

  7. The Prospects and Challenges for Arctic Oil Development: OIES paper: WPM 56

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, James

    2014-01-01

    The role of the Arctic region in global petroleum supply over the next decades is becoming a subject of increasing interest as the potential of the region’s geology is revealed and the shrinking of the ice cap makes drilling an increasingly feasible activity. Nevertheless, significant concerns remain, not least the potential impact of any hydrocarbon E&P activity in an environmentally sensitive region. In addition, the lack of existing infrastructure and the likely high cost of any developmen...

  8. The valuation of off-shore oil-field development leases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The valuation of an oil-field development lease requires the specification of the contingent policy to be used to determine when to commit to the development. This paper demonstrates how to find a good commitment policy for each of a variety of leases using a synthetic valuation method. It is useful for the valuation of assets with complex cash-flows and simple contingent control possibilities. The fields examined are based on a real field in the UK North Sea

  9. Environmental implications of offshore oil and gas development in Australia. Part 4; Production activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The broad conclusion to be drawn from this review is that, at present, there are unlikely to be significant environmental consequences arising from oil and gas production activities. After appropriate treatment of the discharges, the environmental impacts are not expected to be worse than those associated with urban developments. The review found that the main processes (apart from oil spills) identified as having greatest potential environmental effect were: discharges causing physico-chemical or toxic effects, as well as physical effects or disruption of the environment. The discharges may include: drill fluids/muds/cuttings (covered in the drilling activities review), produced water, deck drainage, sewage and domestic waste, cooling water, produced sands ,chronic oil spills (covered in the oil spills review), platform and pipeline hydro-testing. The physical effects are related to: platform placement, pipeline placement, noise, lights/flares, aesthetics. The review presents a number of positive findings. Thus, high dilutions of effluent discharges are expected to occur at many of the sites and so any impact at these sites is expected to be small. Moreover, discharges are subject to the requirements of the Commonwealth Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act, 1967 as well as State Environment Protection Policies and in some cases the local Department of Minerals and Energy. Thus, the discharge licences for the facilities include a specification of the allowable concentrations of effluents. A range of shortcomings was also noted, including in the existing knowledge, in the specific understanding of the particular marine environments and with respect to limitations in the monitoring programs. 327 refs., 37 tabs., 88 figs

  10. 0-Accidents in Offshore Oil and Gas Production - the Quantitative part

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    2010-01-01

    According to data from the national authorities and operators, the injury incidence rates of lost time accidents in Danish oil and gas operators have declined significantly over the recent decades. There have been significant annual variations, but the trend points towards a zero-injury level, and this is probably due to the safety programmes applied by the industry. An analysis of the data and methods used by the authorities in five countries shows comparable trends, but incomparable risk le...

  11. Off-shore enhanced oil recovery in the north sea: matching CO_2 demand and supply given uncertain market conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compernolle, Tine; Welkenhuysen, Kris; Huisman, Kuno; Piessens, Kris; Kort, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Introduction CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) entails the injection of CO2 in mature oil fields in order to mobilize the oil. In particular, the injected CO2 reduces the oil's viscosity and acts as a propellant, resulting in an increased oil extraction rate (Leach et al., 2011). Given uncertainty in both oil price and CO2 price under the EU ETS system, aim of this study is to analyze under which economic conditions a CO2 exchange can be established between a CO2 supplier (an electricity producer for whom CO2 is a by-product) and a CO2 user (an offshore oil company that exploits oil fields in the North Sea and needs CO2 for enhanced oil recovery). Methodology A techno-economic simulation tool, PSS IV, was developed to provide investment decision support on integrated CO2-EOR projects (Welkenhuysen et al., 2014). Until now, a fixed onshore supply of CO2 was presumed. An economic optimization model is now developed for both the CO2 producer and the CO2 user. Because net present value and discounted cash flow methods are inadequate to deal with issues like uncertainty and the irreversibility of an investment decision, the real options theory is applied (Dixit and Pindyck, 1994). The way in which cooperation between the companies can take place, will be studied using game theoretical concepts (Lukas and Welling, 2014). Economic and technical data on CO2 capture are available from the PSS database (Piessens et al., 2012). Data on EOR performance, CO2 requirements and various costs are taken from literature (BERR, 2007; Klokk et al., 2010; Pershad et al., 2012). Results/Findings It will be shown what the impact of price uncertainty is on the investment decision of the electricity producer to capture and sell CO2, and on the decision of the oil producer to make the necessary investments to inject CO2 for enhanced oil recovery. Based on these results, it will be determined under which economic conditions a CO2 exchange and transport can take place. Furthermore, also the

  12. Effects from offshore oil production: chronic exposure of fish to produced water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holth, Tor Fredrik

    2009-07-01

    The results of this study demonstrated that environmentally relevant levels of components of produced water may affect condition factor, maturation, biochemical processes and gene expression in fish. The usefulness of bile PAH and AP metabolite measurements to evaluate exposure was demonstrated in two fish species. The development of bio marker responses was shown to depend on exposure regime as well as exposure period. Lysosomal stability (LMS) in cod kidney was related to dose, the effects were observed early (within two weeks) and remained at a stable level throughout the exposure period in fish receiving both continuous and pulsed exposure. Thus, LMS appeared to be a useful marker for effects in Atlantic cod. Formation of DNA adducts in female cod liver was also related to dose, but in contrast to LMS, more than 16 weeks was required for formation of significant levels. This parameter may therefore be underestimated following short-term exposures, such as most offshore fish caging studies (often 4-6 weeks). Although a time-dependent increase was observed, it also required a continuous exposure regime, which is not often observed in the environment. Other bio markers were demonstrated either to adapt or appeared to be insensitive to the exposures. CYP1A activity (EROD) in female cod was responsive on occasion, but a reduction of activity over time was observed. Protein levels of vitellogenin and hepatic CYP1A in zebra fish, as well as AOX in cod kidneys, were not affected in the current study. Gene transcription of several distinct cellular mechanisms was clearly affected in both species, and a predominance of differentially expressed genes in zebra fish was down regulated. This indicated that down-regulation of responsive pathways may be as important or more important than up-regulation. As both presence and absence of effects following pulsed exposure were apparent (DNA adduct formation; oocyte maturation; condition factor), the effects of exposure regime on

  13. Diet among oil-workers on off-shore oil installations in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshaug, A; Ostgård, L I; Trygg, K U

    1992-07-01

    Dietary studies based on 24 h recalls were carried out on four oil installations in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. Two hundred and three persons were interviewed about what they had eaten the previous 24 h. Food purchased for the installations in the previous 5 months was recorded. Results based on 24 h recalls showed that average daily intake of energy was 12.2 MJ of which 17% came from protein, 44% from fat and 39% from carbohydrate, including 8% from sugar. Meat, vegetables, fresh fruits, seafood (shellfish), french fries, eggs, cream and ice-cream were important components of the diet, while bread, fish and cereals played a minor role. Average daily intake (mg) of nutrients were: calcium 1244, iron 15, vitamin A 1049 micrograms, vitamin D 4.1 micrograms, thiamin 1.6, riboflavin 2.2, nicotinic acid 22, ascorbic acid 143. Dietary fibre intake, estimated as unavailable carbohydrate, was on average 19 g, and the average daily intake of cholesterol was 755 mg. Intakes were compared with the Norwegian recommended dietary allowance. Most of the employees chose a diet which when eaten over a longer period of time may contribute to the development of coronary heart diseases (CHD) and thereby increase the morbidity and mortality from CHD in the oil industry. PMID:1390597

  14. Arctic Bathymetry (batharcst)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The digitally compiled map includes geology, oil and gas field centerpoints, and geologic provinces of the Arctic (North Pole area encircled by 640 N Latitude). The...

  15. Arctic Geology (geoarcst)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The digitally compiled map includes geology, oil and gas field centerpoints, and geologic provinces of the Arctic (North Pole area encircled by 640 N Latitude). The...

  16. Framework of Offshore Oil and Gas Exploration and Development Supervision in the United States%墨西哥湾漏油事件后美国海上油气勘探开发监管新框架

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯连勇; 孙肖阳; 唐旭; 王宏伟; Michael H(o)(o)k

    2012-01-01

    目前我国海上油气勘探开发正蓬勃开展,与此同时,我国海上油气开发事故时有发生,海上监管越来越被重视,确保我国海上油气开发安全和环保具有重要意义.本文通过分析墨西哥湾漏油事件后的美国海上油气监管的调整,研究美国海上监管新框架,并剖析石油行业协会在美国海上油气开发监管中发挥的作用,总结出美国海上油气监管的特点:第一,要重视对海上油气资源的专业化管理;第二,大力培育和发展安全文化;第三,环保是各级监管的核心;第四,大力发挥石油行业协会的作用.并针对我国海上油气开发监管现状提出了一些启示,希望对完善我国海上油气开发监管起到一定的借鉴意义.%Nowadays, China offshore oil and gas exploration and development have prosperously developed. At the same time, China's offshore oil and gas exploration accidents occur frequently. Offshore supervision has been paid more and more attention. It is great significance for China to ensure its offshore oil and gas safety and environmental development. This paper analyzes the adjustment of offshore oil and gas supervision in the United States after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. After studying the US offshore oil development regulation and the role of oil industry associations in the framework, the paper summarizes the characteristics of marine oil and gas regulation in the United States, that is, First, it should attach importance to offshore oil and gas resources professional management; secondly, it should cultivate and develop safety culture vigorously; thirdly, the environmental protection is the core of the supervision at all levels; fourthly, the oil industry associations should play a great role . Then aiming at the offshore oil and gas supervising actuality in China, the paper puts forward some enlightenment, and hoping to provide some references to perfect our offshore oil and gas development regulation

  17. Offshore risk assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Vinnem, Jan-Erik

    2014-01-01

      Offshore Risk Assessment was the first book to deal with quantified risk assessment (QRA) as applied specifically to offshore installations and operations. Risk assessment techniques have been used for more than three decades in the offshore oil and gas industry, and their use is set to expand increasingly as the industry moves into new areas and faces new challenges in older regions.   This updated and expanded third edition has been informed by a major R&D program on offshore risk assessment in Norway and summarizes research from 2006 to the present day. Rooted with a thorough discussion of risk metrics and risk analysis methodology,  subsequent chapters are devoted to analytical approaches to escalation, escape, evacuation and rescue analysis of safety and emergency systems.   Separate chapters analyze the main hazards of offshore structures: fire, explosion, collision, and falling objects as well as structural and marine hazards. Risk mitigation and control are discussed, as well as an illustrat...

  18. Synthesis of preliminary system designs for offshore oil and gas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Sin, Gürkan; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The present work deals with the design of oil and gas platforms, with a particular focus on the developmentof integrated and intensified petroleum processing plants. It builds on a superstructure based approach that includes all the process steps, transformations and interconnections of relevance......, to generate and compare a large number of alternatives. The superstructure is formulated based on engineering knowledge and is coupled to process models developed in Aspen and Matlab,together with multi-objective optimisation routines and uncertainty assessments. It takes actual measurements from...... North Sea fields and three petroleum compositions as starting points. The significance of the uncertainties associated with the feed properties, and the capital costs, taxes and lifetime, is assessed. The results indicate that (i) the system performance strongly depends on the level of mass integration...

  19. Novel design methods and control strategies for oil and gas offshore power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo

    This doctoral thesis is devoted to the research of innovative design methods and control strategies for power systems supplying future and existing oshore oil and gas facilities.The author uses these methods to address five research challenges: i) the definitionof the optimal waste heat recovery...... should be employed to retrofit existing oshore facilities with extended lifetime.Steam and organic Rankine engines are competing alternatives for new installations.The findings suggest to lean toward the use of organic Rankine cycle turbogenerators,if fuel-flexibility is a main priority for the platform...... connected to an organic Rankine cycle unit. The regulator uses the linear model predictive control to maintain the quality of the power supply, and, at the same time, to track the maximum performance of the plant. The speed of the pump of the organic Rankine cycle unit is varied to maximize the energy...

  20. Acute toxicity of eight oil spill response chemicals to temperate, boreal, and Arctic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Bonaunet, Kristin; Overjordet, Ida Beathe

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the acute toxicity of selected shoreline washing agents (SWA) and dispersants, and (2) assess interspecies differences in sensitivity to the products. Eight shoreline washing agents (Hela saneringsvæske, Bios, Bioversal, Absorrep K212, and Corexit 9580) and chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500, Dasic NS, and Gamlen OD4000) were tested on five marine species, algae Skeletonema costatum, planktonic copepod species Acartia tonsa (temperate species), Calanus finmarchicus (boreal species) and Calanus glacialis (Arctic species), and benthic amphipod Corophium volutator. For most products, A. tonsa was the most sensitive species, whereas C. volutator was the least sensitive; however, these species were exposed through different media (water/sediment). In general, all copepod species displayed a relatively similar sensitivity to all products. However, A. tonsa was somewhat more sensitive than other copepods to most of the tested products. Thus, A. tonsa appears to be a candidate species for boreal and Arctic copepods for acute toxicity testing, and data generated on this species may be used as to provide conservative estimates. The benthic species (C. volutator) had a different sensitivity pattern relative to pelagic species, displaying higher sensitivity to solvent-based SWA than to water-based SWA. Comparing product toxicity, the dispersants were in general most toxic while the solvent-based SWA were least toxic to pelagic species. PMID:24754387

  1. Offshore-Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Theisen, Matias Ebbe

    2011-01-01

    This thesis has been conducted in cooperation with the Norwegian transmission system operator, Statnett, and their research on two new interconnectors linking Norway to England and Germany. The work presented in this thesis has considered one of these interconnectors, with a third terminal connected offshore to allow for integration of offshore wind power and oil platforms, as shown in fig.~ref{fig:theGrid}.Investigation of the voltage source converters (VSCs) control ability as well as opera...

  2. A multi-attribute decision analysis for decommissioning offshore oil and gas platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrion, Max; Bernstein, Brock; Swamy, Surya

    2015-10-01

    The 27 oil and gas platforms off the coast of southern California are reaching the end of their economic lives. Because their decommissioning involves large costs and potential environmental impacts, this became an issue of public controversy. As part of a larger policy analysis conducted for the State of California, we implemented a decision analysis as a software tool (PLATFORM) to clarify and evaluate decision strategies against a comprehensive set of objectives. Key options selected for in-depth analysis are complete platform removal and partial removal to 85 feet below the water line, with the remaining structure converted in place to an artificial reef to preserve the rich ecosystems supported by the platform's support structure. PLATFORM was instrumental in structuring and performing key analyses of the impacts of each option (e.g., on costs, fishery production, air emissions) and dramatically improved the team's productivity. Sensitivity analysis found that disagreement about preferences, especially about the relative importance of strict compliance with lease agreements, has much greater effects on the preferred option than does uncertainty about specific outcomes, such as decommissioning costs. It found a near-consensus of stakeholders in support of partial removal and "rigs-to-reefs" program. The project's results played a role in the decision to pass legislation enabling an expanded California "rigs-to-reefs" program that includes a mechanism for sharing cost savings between operators and the state. PMID:26415010

  3. Semi-supervised least squares support vector machine algorithm: application to offshore oil reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei-Ping; Li, Hong-Qi; Shi, Ning

    2016-06-01

    At the early stages of deep-water oil exploration and development, fewer and further apart wells are drilled than in onshore oilfields. Supervised least squares support vector machine algorithms are used to predict the reservoir parameters but the prediction accuracy is low. We combined the least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) algorithm with semi-supervised learning and established a semi-supervised regression model, which we call the semi-supervised least squares support vector machine (SLSSVM) model. The iterative matrix inversion is also introduced to improve the training ability and training time of the model. We use the UCI data to test the generalization of a semi-supervised and a supervised LSSVM models. The test results suggest that the generalization performance of the LSSVM model greatly improves and with decreasing training samples the generalization performance is better. Moreover, for small-sample models, the SLSSVM method has higher precision than the semi-supervised K-nearest neighbor (SKNN) method. The new semisupervised LSSVM algorithm was used to predict the distribution of porosity and sandstone in the Jingzhou study area.

  4. Industrial opportunities - offshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial opportunities available in the Canadian offshore petroleum industry are discussed. Oil has been produced offshore from Nova Scotia since 1992, and offshore from Newfoundland since 1997. Special needs that must be addressed in offshore operations in eastern Canada such as the cold North Atlantic environment, isolation, logistics, safety, and quality assurance, are examined. The most obvious opportunities lie with the designing, building and installing the facilities needed to extract oil and gas from beneath the sea floor and transport it to market. However, there are also opportunities in designing and fabricating clothing, customized food containers and other equipment for offshore needs. Short term opportunities also exist in the decommissioning of depleted production fields and their facilities. One of the greatest obstacles facing new entrants into the offshore oil and gas industry is the lack of a track record. To meet this challenge, the ability to seek out partners to pursue local and international opportunities through joint ventures, strategic alliances and technology sharing partnering arrangements is of great importance. It may be the difference between success and failure. 6 figs

  5. Effects of offshore oil and gas development activities in southern California on larval settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of in situ field experiments were conducted to determine effects of oil and gas drilling activities on the settlement of marine larvae in the deep ocean (180 m). The study sites were a series of three drilling rigs and three reference sites between Pt. Arguello and Pt. Conception in California. Experiments were carried out in both pre-drilling and drilling phases to test the effects of drilling activities (e.g. drilling, drilling mud release, and produced water discharges) on the ability of red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) larvae to settle using an in situ experiment. Their in situ experiment involved reciprocal transplants of settling plates that were ''filmed'' with bacteria from each site. After filming in the field at each of two heights, plates were mounted into chambers, covered with mesh and placed onto recoverable larval arrays for deployment in the field. Before deployment the authors injected approximately 300 competent red abalone larvae into each chamber. One larval array was deployed at each site for three days and each array contained plates filmed at all sites. In addition sterile plates (no surface filming) were included at each site. Upon recovery the number of settled abalone larvae were counted. Therefore, the experiment tested location-related (drilling sites versus reference), waterborne, and height effects on settlement in both the pre-drilling and drilling phases. Their results show that red abalone served as a sensitive indicator for in situ studies of larval settlement. The authors found significantly higher numbers of abalone settling onto plates that were filmed versus those that were not. The authors also found significantly lower settlement rates between the pre-drilling and drilling periods

  6. The Ideas and Enlightenments of China Offshore Oil Press%中国海洋石油报办报理念及其启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲜玉萍

    2012-01-01

    As an enterprise newspaper, China offshore oil press plays an important role in the development of China national offshore oil corporation. Facing the new requirements and challenges from the development of the times, China offshore oil press has explored new strategy constantly. In the position, it grasps the national strategy, macro economy and the development of industry accurately, and determines the direction of development accurately; in the vision, it adheres to open the door for newspapers, continuously expands the international field of vision; in the organization, it makes full use of advanced enterprise management experience to ensure the efficient operation; in talent, it creates composite editor team to make a solid foundation.%作为企业报,面对时代发展提出的新要求和新挑战,中国海洋石油报不断探索新的发展思路。在定位上,准确把握国家战略、宏观经济和行业发展规律,科学确定发展方向;在视野上,坚持开门办报,不断拓宽国际视野;在组织上,充分借鉴企业的先进管理经验,确保高效运作;在人才上,打造复合型编辑记者团队,夯实发展根基。可以说,中国海洋石油报在中国海洋石油总公司的企业发展中发挥着重要作用。

  7. Real time forecasting for an experimental oil spill in the arctic marginal ice zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference paper deals with the oil spill trajectory and weathering model OILMAP used to forecast spill trajectories for an experimental oil spill in the Barents Sea marginal ice zone. The model includes capabilities to enter graphically and display environmental data governing oil behavior: ice fields, tidal and background current fields, and wind time series, as well as geographical map information. Forecasts can also be updated from observations such as airplane overflights. The model performed well when wind was ''off-ice'' and speeds were relatively low (3-7 m/sec), with ice cover between 60% and 90%. Errors in forecasting the trajectory could be directly attributed to errors in the wind forecasts. Appropriate drift parameters for oil and ice were about 2.5% of the wind speed, with an Ekman veering angle of 35o to the right. Ice sheets were typically 1 m thick. When the wind became ''on-ice'', speeds increased to about 10 m/sec, and trajectory simulations began to diverge from the observations, with observed drift parameters being 1.5% of the wind speed with a 60o veering angle. Although, simple assumptions for the large scale movement of oil in dense ice fields appear appropriate, the importance of good wind forecasts as a basis for reliable trajectory prognoses cannot be overstated. 6 refs., 9 figs

  8. Hydrocarbons and trace metals in mussels in the Macaé coast: Preliminary assessment for a coastal zone under influence of offshore oil field exploration in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Igor U; Molisani, Mauricio M; Nudi, Adriana H; Scofield, Artur L; Wagener, Angela de L R; Limaverde Filho, Aricelso M

    2016-02-15

    Concentrations of PAHs and metals were obtained from mussels collected in beaches, coastal island and estuary of the Macaé coast, the main operational basin for offshore oil exploration in Brazil. This survey provides reference levels for scenarios of increasing exploration, as well as for other areas of the coast undergoing urbanization to support exploration. As expected, urban areas such as the Macaé river estuary presented high concentrations of PAHs, although unsuspected sites such the island also presented signs of contamination. PAH in mussels originated from pyrolytic and petrogenic sources. Metals were typical of non-contaminated coastal environments, although Cr concentrations were above Brazilian Reference Levels. PMID:26763324

  9. Risk analysis on oil and gas leakage accident in offshore oil & gas field engineer%海上油气田工程油气泄漏事故风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘大新; 霍有利

    2009-01-01

    In the engineers of offshore oil & gas field, there exists a great deal of inflammable and explosive materials such as the crude oil and natural gas. There is always a leak risk of these materials which could lead to oil spill, fire and explosion accident. Based on a typical oil & gas engineer in Bohai Bay, The source, probability, aftermath and environment risk of oil and gas leak accident were studied. It showed that blowout, fire and explosion accident on the offshore platform and submarine pipeline leak are the main sources and the submarine pipeline leak probability is the greatest. The most serious aftermath of oil and gas leak is oil spill and the comparison and analysis of extent of oil spill in the construction and production period of the oil & gas field engineer were done. Based on these factors, the fault tree of the environment risk of blowout is most serious but the probability is lesser. The efficient measures abated the environment risk of two accidents were discussed for the fire and explosion caused on the offshore platform and submarine pipeline leak.%以渤海某工程项目为例研究海上油气田工程油气泄漏的事故及其风险.文章指出井喷、平台火灾事故和海底管道泄漏是海上油气田工程油气泄漏的主要事故源,并通过类比性分析得到三种事故的发生概率.油气泄漏的最严重后果是溢油事故,文章对各种事故的溢油规模进行分析,并根据井喷、平台火灾和海底管道泄漏三种事故发生的概率和规模对其环境影响进行评价.

  10. The impact of graphene oxide particles on viscosity stabilization for diluted polymer solutions using in enhanced oil recovery at HTHP offshore reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 60% of the original oil in a place (OOIP) is retained in a reservoir after conventional methods have been exploited. Application of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technology gives an additional chance to get out possibly about 20% more oil from the reservoir. The use of water-soluble polymers improves the water–oil mobility ratio, therefore, the displacement efficiency increased, and leads to enhanced oil recovery. High-molecular-weight polyacrylamide group is widely and successfully used in EOR. But no commercial polymer composition can be used in conditions of high temperature and hardness brine offshore reservoirs yet. To avoid the time consumption and high expense for selection and synthesis of the appropriate-structural polymer for EOR application, we attempt to find additives to enhance the thermal stability of polymer solutions. In this paper, we report the results of improved viscosity stability of diluted polymer/seawater solutions aged at reservoir conditions for 31days by adding graphite-oxide particles (GOs). In the presence of 300 ppm of GOs, the viscosity stability of 1700 ppm acrylamide-based polymer in sea water solution increases from 92 °C to 135 °C. FESEM pictures show good distribution of GOs in polymer network, which is a result of integration of functional groups in GOs surfaces and hydrophilic polymer chains. (paper)

  11. The impact of graphene oxide particles on viscosity stabilization for diluted polymer solutions using in enhanced oil recovery at HTHP offshore reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung Nguyen, Ba; Kien Ngo, Trung; Bui, Truong Han; Khanh Pham, Duy; Loc Dinh, Xuan; Nguyen, Phuong Tung

    2015-03-01

    Over 60% of the original oil in a place (OOIP) is retained in a reservoir after conventional methods have been exploited. Application of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technology gives an additional chance to get out possibly about 20% more oil from the reservoir. The use of water-soluble polymers improves the water-oil mobility ratio, therefore, the displacement efficiency increased, and leads to enhanced oil recovery. High-molecular-weight polyacrylamide group is widely and successfully used in EOR. But no commercial polymer composition can be used in conditions of high temperature and hardness brine offshore reservoirs yet. To avoid the time consumption and high expense for selection and synthesis of the appropriate-structural polymer for EOR application, we attempt to find additives to enhance the thermal stability of polymer solutions. In this paper, we report the results of improved viscosity stability of diluted polymer/seawater solutions aged at reservoir conditions for 31days by adding graphite-oxide particles (GOs). In the presence of 300 ppm of GOs, the viscosity stability of 1700 ppm acrylamide-based polymer in sea water solution increases from 92 °C to 135 °C. FESEM pictures show good distribution of GOs in polymer network, which is a result of integration of functional groups in GOs surfaces and hydrophilic polymer chains.

  12. Report of the public review panel on the Government of Canada moratorium on offshore oil and gas activities in the Queen Charlotte Region, British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priddle, R.; Scott, D.; Valiela, D.

    2004-10-29

    The Public Review Panel was established to solicit the opinions of British Columbians on the lifting of the moratorium on offshore oil and gas activities in the Queen Charlotte Region, British Columbia. The issues are essentially whether or not the economic benefits outweigh the environmental risks. The consensus was that there were gaps in the knowledge of what the effects of oil and gas activity would have on the environment. What was not in agreement, however, was whether the moratorium should be kept in place until such knowledge is obtained, or whether the lifting of the moratorium is a prerequisite for obtaining this information. Many respondents considered that the Queen Charlotte Region is a priceless natural possession that should be kept pristine. Native and environmental groups were overwhelmingly opposed to the lifting of the moratorium, whereas most local governments in coastal areas were in favour. Business respondents were in favour by a fairly large, but not overwhelming, margin.

  13. Hydrogeochemical modelling of seawater injection into offshore oil fields; Modellierung hydrogeochemischer Prozesse bei der Injektion von Meerwasser in Offshore-Oellagerstaetten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Yunjiao; Berk, Wolfgang van [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Abt. Hydrogeologie; Schulz, Hans-Martin [Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam - Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ), Potsdam (Germany). Sek. 4.3 - Organische Geochemie

    2013-01-15

    Sea water is injected into offshore oilfields and coastal-near onshore fields to maintain pressure for secondary recovery. Due to compositional differences of sea water and formation water, hydrogeochemical processes are initiated. Such processes develop from the injection well along the migration path through the reservoir, and reach the production well. Ultimately, the mixing ratio of the two water types controls processes such as precipitation of minerals or dissolution of minerals from the reservoir rock. Here, we are introducing mass balance models based on chemical thermodynamics as a hydrogeochemical tool to qualitatively and quantitatively retrace such processes. It is the aim to demonstrate how mixing of sea and formation water controls type and amount of scaling and mineral dissolution, exemplarily in the UK Miller oilfield (North Sea). The presented approach and the results shall highlight the applicability of hydrogeochemical mass balance models in order to predict scale-forming processes. Finally, an outlook is presented about predictive hydrogeochemical 1D- and 3D-transport models in development. (orig.)

  14. Effect of Prudhoe crude oil on carbon assimilation by planktonic algae in an arctic pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.C.; Hater, G.R.; Vestal, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    During the summer of 1975, 240ml/m of Prudhoe crude oil was spilled on an experimental coastal pond similar to those around Prudhoe Bay. Deviaton of algal production, algal biomass and species composition was compared to an adjacent control pond. Planktonic primary productivity was initially inhibited but recovered. Algal density did not deviate in the two ponds; however, the biomass and the species composition was changed, by the elimination of the Cryptophyte Rhodomonas minuta. The time course of the effects was related to the weathering and degradation of the oil. On these ponds the effects on the phytoplankton were not significantly different than those observed in 1970 after a controlled spill at 45 times the 1975 dose rate.

  15. Marine gravity field for oil and mineral exploration — Improvements in the Arctic from CryoSat-2 SAR altimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Jain, Maulik; Knudsen, Per

    2014-01-01

    The availability of Cryosat-2 with its coverage throughout the Arctic Ocean up to 88N is a quantum leap forward for altimetric gravity field modeling and here we have tried to quantify the improvement of Cryosat-2 to global and particularly Arctic altimetric gravity field modeling through a compa...

  16. Lightweight Efficient Offshore Fenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Lars; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1996-01-01

    At offshore platforms the purpose of fenders is to protect the oil-risers against minor accidental collisions from supply vessels.Normally the fender is designed by use of thin-walled tubes. However, the tube itself is not normally capable of resisting the impact load from of the boat. Therefore ...

  17. Arctic Solutions The Frozen (Thawing) Relations of the High North

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    of the world's undiscovered oil. With US petroleum consumption of 20.7 million barrels of petroleum per day, 7.5 billion barrels per year, it is not hard to understand why the United States has interest in securing supplies of petroleum resources. No matter how powerful a state, it seeks to assure a reliable supply of oil and gas to avoid over dependency on a narrowing group of key oil and gas exporters. States with little or no domestic oil and gas feel doubly exposed to conflicts that might deny them the resources needed to feed their economies. The United States is not alone in this troublesome international game of energy supply vulnerability. Russia has had its problems supplying markets both because of its geography but also as a result of internal politics and policies. Recently, countries that separate Russia from its customers in the European Union are accused of breaking agreements and engaging in bad business practices causing disruptions in the transit of hydro-carbons. These relatively new situations in Russia's 'near-abroad' are causing lines to be drawn in the snow that did not exist in the days of the Soviet Union, lines that revolve around energy. In the days of the Soviet Union, energy had no monetary value and it was a tool of the state. The opposite is now dominant as energy is largely a commercial matter with all states seeking to acquire the oil and gas necessary for its citizen's basic needs. Both Canada and Denmark have similar problems either in the production of energy in the Arctic or negotiating the international agreements that will govern the process. Canada has a growing environmental awareness that will bear on their activities in the Arctic. Canadians are alert to the potential costs of an environmental disaster in the region either because of increased maritime transit or in the production of offshore oil or gas. In early September this year, developments putting the Arctic at risk via transport have caused a domestic outcry for the

  18. Air medical transport of patients from offshore oil and gas facilities. Historical accident data and initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, D H; Casta, R; Walker, V; Collier, F; Fromm, R E

    1993-01-01

    The offshore petroleum exploration and production industry (OSI) is isolated from traditional means of access to emergent health care and may benefit from the unique attributes of helicopter air medical transport. This study was undertaken to review the incidence of OSI-related incidents, injuries and deaths, and report the initial experience of a civilian hospital-based helicopter air transport program in the evacuation of offshore patients. It was learned that the mean annual incidence of major OSI accidents from 1980 to 1986 was 19.1 (+/- 7.0). Mean annual mortality and reported injury were 14.7 (+/- 7.6) and 36.7 (+/- 25.4) patients respectively. Fires and explosions were the most frequently reported events at 62 per year (+/- 11.5/year). Nine OSI patients were evacuated by helicopter during the study's eight-month pilot period (seven for trauma and two for medical illness). One of the nine patients had been exposed to a potentially hazardous substance, requiring changes in the air medical team's operations, aircraft and equipment. The study shows that the offshore petroleum environment is ideally suited for air medical transport, as injuries are common and medical illnesses are to be expected. However, air medical programs operating offshore must deal with additional regulatory requirements and develop operational procedures to ensure safety during these flights. PMID:10127859

  19. Effects of experimental spills of crude and diesel oil on arctic vegetation. A long-term study on high arctic terrestrial plant communities in Jameson Land, central East Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological studies were carried out in Jameson Land (70-71 deg. N) and at Mester Vig (72 deg. N), central East Greenland, in 1982 prior to oil exploration. The objective was to anticipate and take precautions for possible environmental impacts on vegetation and wildlife that might be caused by oil exploration activities. North Sea crude oil and arctic diesel oil were applied to the five major plant communities at Mester Vig in order to determine the vulnerability of plant species and to follow the recovery of plant cover in each community. The experimental spills had an intensity of 10 l m-2, and were carried out in three types of dwarf shrub heath: 1) dry Dryas-Cassiope heath, 2) dry Cassiope heath, 3) moist, mossy Vaccinium uliginosum heath, and in moist, mossy grassland and wet graminoid fen. Vegetation analyses comprising recording of species composition, frequency, and cover of vascular plants, mosses, and lichens were carried out before the spills, the following year, and six times during the period 1984-1993. The reactions of the spieces were recorded on each occasion. The spills were seen to have an immediate effect. After one year, there was a significant decline in the number of vascular species recorded, and a reduction in the total plant cover of all groups to a few percent or less in all plant communities. A delay in the reduction of moss cover was only recorded in three plots treated with diesel oil. The effects of crude oil spills seem to be more severe than the effects of diesel oil spills. Eleven years after the spills, the recovery of woody species, herbs, and graminoids was less than 1%. Mosses growing in soils with a high water content showed substantial recovery from the toxic effects of the oil. The recovery of mosses was 53% and 70% in diesel and crude oil treated fen, respectively, whereas it was c. 30% in grassland; slightly higher than in diesel oil plots. Dry habitats are more vulnerable, recovering less than 1%. (au) 17 refs

  20. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seals, whales, walruses, polar bears, and Steller sea lions in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector...

  1. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: M_MAMPT (Marine Mammal Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for Steller sea lions and polar bears in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector points in this data set...

  2. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for terrestrial mammals in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent muskoxen...

  3. Quantifying emerging local anthropogenic emissions in the Arctic region: the ACCESS aircraft campaign experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiger, Anke; Thomas, Jennie L.; Schlager, Hans; Law, Kathy; Kim, Jin; Reiter, Anja; Schäfler, Andreas; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Rose, Maximilian; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Marelle, Louis

    2014-05-01

    Arctic change has opened the region to new industrial activities, most notably transit shipping and resource extraction. The impacts that Arctic industrialization will have on pollutants and Arctic climate are not well understood. In order to understand how shipping and offshore oil/gas extraction impact on Arctic tropospheric chemistry and composition, we conducted the ACCESS (Arctic Climate Change, Economy, and Society, a European Union Seventh Framework Programme project) aircraft campaign. The campaign was conducted in July 2012 using the DLR Falcon research aircraft, based in Andenes, Norway. The Falcon was equipped with a suite of trace gas and aerosol instruments (black carbon, ozone, as well as other trace species) to characterize these emissions and their atmospheric chemistry. The Falcon performed nine scientific flights to study emissions from different ships (e.g. cargo, passenger, and fishing vessels) and a variety of offshore extraction facilities (e.g. drilling rigs, production and storage platforms) off the Norwegian Coast. Distinct differences in chemical and aerosol composition were found in emissions from these increasing pollution sources. We also studied the composition of biomass burning plumes imported from Siberian wildfires to put the emerging local pollution within a broader context. In addition to our measurements, we used a regional chemical transport model to study the influence of emerging pollution sources on gas and aerosol concentrations in the region. We will present an overview on the measured trace gas and aerosol properties of the different emission sources and discuss the impact of future local anthropogenic activities on the Arctic air composition by combining measurements with model simulations.

  4. Offshore Safety:Challenges Behind Glory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hua

    2011-01-01

    Risk behind prosperity Risk threatens the safety of offshore oil-gas operation at all times.Mr.Zhou Bin,Deputy Director of the No.1 Department of National Administration of Work Safety(offshore exploration of oil and gas safety officejintroduced that offshore oil operations are high-risk specialized operations with bad environment,limited space and hightechnical content.The density of installations,equipment and facilities is high,and there are various kinds of dangers and dangerous factors in the operating places where large amounts of inflammable and explosive materials are stored:The natural disasters like typhoon,tropical cyclone,storm surge,tsunami,earthquake and sea ice are also seriously threatening the safety of offshore oil operation.In particular,where the offshore oil operation is far away from land,it would be difficult for workers to escape and for rescue when accidents happen.

  5. The Kongsfjorden Channel System offshore NW Spitsbergen, European Arctic: evidence of down-slope processes in a contour-current dominated setting on the continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forwick, Matthias; Sverre Laberg, Jan; Hass, H. Christian; Osti, Giacomo

    2016-04-01

    The Kongsfjorden Channel System (KCS) is located on the continental slope in the eastern Fram Strait, off northwest Spitsbergen. It provides evidence that the influence of down-slope sedimentary processes locally exceeds regional along-slope sedimentation. Compared to other submarine channel systems on and off glaciated continental margins, it is a relatively short system (~120 km) occurring at a large range of water depths (~250-4000 m). It originates with multiple gullies on the Kongsfjorden Trough Mouth Fan merging to small channels that further downslope merge to a main channel. The overall location of the channel system is controlled by variations in slope gradients (0-20°) and the ambient regional bathymetry: widest and deepest incisions occur in areas of steepest slope gradients. The KCS has probably been active since ~1 Ma when glacial activity on Svalbard increased and grounded ice expanded to the shelf break off Kongsfjorden repeatedly. Activity within the system was probably highest during glacials. However, reduced activity presumably took place also during interglacials. The presentation summarizes the work of Forwick et al. (2015). Reference: Forwick, M., Laberg, J.S., Hass, H.C. & Osti, C., 2015. The Kongsfjorden Channel System offshore NW Svalbard: downslope sedimentary processes in a contour-current-dominated setting. Arktos 1, DOI: 10.1007/s41063-015-0018-4.

  6. Modelling and simulation of CO2 (carbon dioxide) bottoming cycles for offshore oil and gas installations at design and off-design conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improved energy efficiency is an issue of increasing importance in offshore oil and gas installations. The power on offshore installations is generated by gas turbines operating in a simple cycle. There is an obvious possibility for heat recovery for further power generation from the exhaust heat. However, the limited space and weight available makes the inclusion of bottoming cycles challenging. Due to its high working pressure and thereby compact components CO2 (carbon dioxide) could be a viable solution, combining compactness and efficiency. An in-house simulation tool is used to evaluate the performance of CO2 bottoming cycles at design and off-design conditions. Both a simple recuperated single stage cycle and a more advanced dual stage system are modelled. Results from simulations show a potential for 10–11%-points increase in net plant efficiency at 100% gas turbine load. Also off-design simulations taking the variation in heat exchanger performance into account are performed showing that the bottoming cycle improves the off-design performance compared to the standard gas turbine solution. Even at 60% GT (gas turbine) load, the combined cycle with CO2 bottoming cycle can achieve up to 45% net plant efficiency, compared to 31% for only the gas turbine. - Highlights: • Modeling of CO2 bottoming cycles. • Comparison of single and dual stage CO2 bottoming cycles. • Efficiencies comparable to steam systems. • Good off-design characteristics

  7. Simulation based analysis and an application to an offshore oil and gas production system of the Natvig measures of component importance in repairable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natvig, Bent [Department of Mathematics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1053 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway)], E-mail: bent@math.uio.no; Eide, Kristina A. [FFI, P.O. Box 25, N-2027 Kjeller (Norway)], E-mail: Kristina-Aalvik.Eide@ffi.no; Gasemyr, Jorund [Department of Mathematics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1053 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway)], E-mail: gaasemyr@math.uio.no; Huseby, Arne B. [Department of Mathematics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1053 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway)], E-mail: arne@math.uio.no; Isaksen, Stefan L. [DNV Energy, Veritasveien 1, N-1322 Hovik (Norway)], E-mail: Stefan.Isaksen@dnv.com

    2009-10-15

    In the present paper the Natvig measures of component importance for repairable systems, and its extended version are analyzed for two three-component systems and a bridge system. The measures are also applied to an offshore oil and gas production system. According to the extended version of the Natvig measure a component is important if both by failing it strongly reduces the expected system uptime and by being repaired it strongly reduces the expected system downtime. The results include a study of how different distributions affect the ranking of the components. All numerical results are computed using discrete event simulation. In a companion paper [Huseby AB, Eide KA, Isaksen SL, Natvig B, Gasemyr, J. Advanced discrete event simulation methods with application to importance measure estimation. 2009, submitted for publication] the advanced simulation methods needed in these calculations are described.

  8. Simulation based analysis and an application to an offshore oil and gas production system of the Natvig measures of component importance in repairable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper the Natvig measures of component importance for repairable systems, and its extended version are analyzed for two three-component systems and a bridge system. The measures are also applied to an offshore oil and gas production system. According to the extended version of the Natvig measure a component is important if both by failing it strongly reduces the expected system uptime and by being repaired it strongly reduces the expected system downtime. The results include a study of how different distributions affect the ranking of the components. All numerical results are computed using discrete event simulation. In a companion paper [Huseby AB, Eide KA, Isaksen SL, Natvig B, Gasemyr, J. Advanced discrete event simulation methods with application to importance measure estimation. 2009, submitted for publication] the advanced simulation methods needed in these calculations are described.

  9. Offshoring Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum; Katayama, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to contribute to the knowledge on how production offshoring and international operations management vary across cultural contexts. The chapter attempts to shed light on how companies approach the process of offshoring in different cultural contexts. In order...... of globalisation. Yet there are clear differences in how offshoring is conducted in Denmark and Japan. The main differences are outlined in a framework and explained employing cultural variables. The findings lead to a number of propositions suggesting that the process of offshoring is not simply a uniform...

  10. Alterations in bottom sediment physical and chemical characteristics at the Terra Nova offshore oil development over ten years of drilling on the grand banks of Newfoundland, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBlois, Elisabeth M.; Paine, Michael D.; Kilgour, Bruce W.; Tracy, Ellen; Crowley, Roger D.; Williams, Urban P.; Janes, G. Gregory

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes sediment composition at the Terra Nova offshore oil development. The Terra Nova Field is located on the Grand Banks approximately 350 km southeast of Newfoundland, Canada, at an approximate water depth of 100 m. Surface sediment samples (upper 3 cm) were collected for chemical and particle size analyses at the site pre-development (1997) and in 2000-2002, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010. Approximately 50 stations have been sampled in each program year, with stations extending from less than 1 km to a maximum of 20 km from source (drill centres) along five gradients, extending to the southeast, southwest, northeast, northwest and east of Terra Nova. Results show that Terra Nova sediments were contaminated with >C10-C21 hydrocarbons and barium-the two main constituents of synthetic-based drilling muds used at the site. Highest levels of contamination occurred within 1 to 2 km from source, consistent with predictions from drill cuttings dispersion modelling. The strength of distance gradients for >C10-C21 hydrocarbons and barium, and overall levels, generally increased as drilling progressed but decreased from 2006 to 2010, coincident with a reduction in drilling. As seen at other offshore oil development sites, metals other than barium, sulphur and sulphide levels were elevated and sediment fines content was higher in the immediate vicinity (less than 0.5 km) of drill centres in some sampling years; but there was no strong evidence of project-related alterations of these variables. Overall, sediment contamination at Terra Nova was spatially limited and only the two major constituents of synthetic-based drilling muds used at the site, >C10-C21 hydrocarbons and barium, showed clear evidence of project-related alternations.

  11. Velocity models and images using full waveform inversion and reverse time migration for the offshore permafrost in the Canadian shelf of Beaufort Sea, Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S. G.; Hong, J. K.; Jin, Y. K.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y. G.; Dallimore, S.; Riedel, M.; Shin, C.

    2015-12-01

    During Expedition ARA05C (from Aug 26 to Sep 19, 2014) on the Korean icebreaker RV ARAON, the multi-channel seismic (MCS) data were acquired on the outer shelf and slope of the Canadian Beaufort Sea to investigate distribution and internal geological structures of the offshore ice-bonded permafrost and gas hydrates, totaling 998 km L-km with 19,962 shots. The MCS data were recorded using a 1500 m long solid-type streamer with 120 channels. Shot and group spacing were 50 m and 12.5 m, respectively. Most MCS survey lines were designed perpendicular and parallel to the strike of the shelf break. Ice-bonded permafrost or ice-bearing sediments are widely distributed under the Beaufort Sea shelf, which have formed during periods of lower sea level when portions of the shelf less than ~100m water depth were an emergent coastal plain exposed to very cold surface. The seismic P-wave velocity is an important geophysical parameter for identifying the distribution of ice-bonded permafrost with high velocity in this area. Recently, full waveform inversion (FWI) and reverse time migration (RTM) are commonly used to delineate detailed seismic velocity information and seismic image of geological structures. FWI is a data fitting procedure based on wave field modeling and numerical analysis to extract quantitative geophysical parameters such as P-, S-wave velocities and density from seismic data. RTM based on 2-way wave equation is a useful technique to construct accurate seismic image with amplitude preserving of field data. In this study, we suggest two-dimensional P-wave velocity model (Figure.1) using the FWI algorithm to delineate the top and bottom boundaries of ice-bonded permafrost in the Canadian shelf of Beaufort Sea. In addition, we construct amplitude preserving migrated seismic image using RTM to interpret the geological history involved with the evolution of permafrost.

  12. Novel pathways for injury from offshore oil spills: direct, sublethal and indirect effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on pelagic Sargassum communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P Powers

    Full Text Available The pelagic brown alga Sargassum forms an oasis of biodiversity and productivity in an otherwise featureless ocean surface. The vast pool of oil resulting from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill came into contact with a large portion of the Gulf of Mexico's floating Sargassum mats. Aerial surveys performed during and after the oil spill show compelling evidence of loss and subsequent recovery of Sargassum. Expanding on the trends observed in the aerial surveys, we conducted a series of mesocosm experiments to test the effect of oil and dispersants on the vertical position and weight of the Sargassum complex (Sargassum natans and S. fluitans, as well as on the dissolved oxygen concentrations surrounding the algae. Dispersant and dispersed-oil had significant effects on the vertical position of both species of Sargassum over a period of 72 hours. Similarly, dissolved oxygen concentrations were lowest in dispersant and dispersed-oil treatments, respectively. Cumulatively, our findings suggest three pathways for oil-spill related injury: (1 Sargassum accumulated oil on the surface exposing animals to high concentrations of contaminants; (2 application of dispersant sank Sargassum, thus removing the habitat and potentially transporting oil and dispersant vertically; and (3 low oxygen surrounded the habitat potentially stressing animals that reside in the alga. These pathways represent direct, sublethal, and indirect effects of oil and dispersant release that minimize the ecosystem services provided by floating Sargassum - the latter two effects are rarely considered in assessing impacts of oil spills or response procedures.

  13. Metagenomic analysis of microbial consortium from natural crude oil that seeps into the marine ecosystem offshore Southern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, Erik R.; Piao, Hailan; Scott, Nicole M.; Malfatti, Stephanie; Pagani, Ioanna; Huntemann, Marcel; Chen, Amy; del Rio, Tijana G.; Foster, Brian; Copeland, A.; Jansson, Janet K.; Pati, Amrita; Gilbert, Jack A.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Lorenson, Thomas D.; Hess, Matthias

    2014-01-02

    Crude oils can be major contaminants of the marine ecosystem and microorganisms play a significant role in the degradation of the main constituents of crude oil. To increase our understanding of the microbial hydrocarbon degradation process in the marine ecosystem, we collected crude oil from an active seep area located in the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC) and generated a total of about 52 Gb of raw metagenomic sequence data. The assembled data comprised ~500 Mb, representing ~1.1 million genes derived primarily from chemolithoautotrophic bacteria. Members of Oceanospirillales, a bacterial order belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria, recruited less than 2% of the assembled genes within the SBC metagenome. In contrast, the microbial community associated with the oil plume that developed in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout in 2010, was dominated by Oceanospirillales, which comprised more than 60% of the metagenomic data generated from the DWH oil plume. This suggests that Oceanospirillales might play a less significant role in the microbially mediated hydrocarbon conversion within the SBC seep oil compared to the DWH plume oil. We hypothesize that this difference results from the SBC oil seep being mostly anaerobic, while the DWH oil plume is aerobic. Within the Archaea, the phylum Euryarchaeota, recruited more than 95% of the assembled archaeal sequences from the SBC oil seep metagenome, with more than 50% of the sequences assigned to members of the orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales. These orders contain organisms capable of anaerobic methanogenesis and methane oxidation (AOM) and we hypothesize that these orders and their metabolic capabilities may be fundamental to the ecology of the SBC oil seep.

  14. Produced water from off-shore oil and gas production, a new challenge in marine pollution monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Produced water consists of water naturally present in the oil and gas reservoir (formation water), flood water previously injected into the formation, and/or, in the case of some gas production, condensed water. Produced water is part of the well stream together with oil and/or gas

  15. State of the Arctic Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Arctic environment, covering about 21 million km2, is in this connection regarded as the area north of the Arctic Circle. General biological and physical features of the terrestrial and freshwater environments of the Arctic are briefly described, but most effort is put into a description of the marine part which constitutes about two-thirds of the total Arctic environment. General oceanography and morphological characteristics are included; e.g. that the continental shelf surrounding the Arctic deep water basins covers approximately 36% of the surface areas of Arctic waters, but contains only 2% of the total water masses. Blowout accident may release thousands of tons of oil per day and last for months. They occur statistically very seldom, but the magnitude underlines the necessity of an efficient oil spill contingency as well as sound safety and quality assurance procedures. Contingency plans should be coordinated and regularly evaluated through simulated and practical tests of performance. Arctic conditions demand alternative measures compared to those otherwise used for oil spill prevention and clean-up. New concepts or optimization of existing mechanical equipment is necessary. Chemical and thermal methods should be evaluated for efficiency and possible environmental effects. Both due to regular discharges of oil contaminated drilled cuttings and the possibility of a blowout or other spills, drilling operations in biological sensitive areas may be regulated to take place only during the less sensitive parts of the year. 122 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs

  16. Exergy destruction and losses on four North Sea offshore platforms: A comparative study of the oil and gas processing plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldsund, Mari; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian;

    2014-01-01

    destruction take place in the gas treatment sections, 13%-29% take place in the gas recompression sections and 10%-24% occur in the production manifolds. The exergy losses with flared gas are significant for two of the platforms. The exact potential for energy savings and for enhancing system performances...... installation of flare gas recovery systems. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....... differs across offshore platforms. However, the results indicate that the largest rooms for improvement lie in (i) gas compression systems where large amounts of gas may be compressed and recycled to prevent surge, (ii) production manifolds where well-streams are depressurised and mixed, and (iii) in the...

  17. Strategic Biodiversity Risk Assessment (SBRA) of the offshore oil and gas exploration and production (E and P) plans and programs in Brazil; Avaliacao estrategica do risco a biodiversidade (AERB) nos planos e programas de E e P offshore de petroleo e gas natural no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Katia Cristina

    2007-07-15

    This thesis proposes a methodological framework, called Strategic Biodiversity Risk Assessment (SBRA), within Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), as a way to efficiently incorporate the risks to biodiversity caused by accidental spills into the strategic levels of offshore oil and gas E and P decision-making process. Moreover, this approach can also indicate the exclusion (or postponement) of bidding areas with extreme environmental sensitivity, as well as the choices for environmental-friendly E and P technologies. In order to exemplify this methodological framework application, two case studies are presented, one of the offshore O and G development program in southern Bahia state, Northeast of Brazil, and other of the offshore development plan in Abrolhos region, Brazil. (author)

  18. Effectiveness of area and dedicated water deluge in protecting objects impacted by crude oil/gas jet fires on offshore installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hankinson, G. [Loughborough Univ., Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough (United Kingdom); Lowesmith, B.J. [Advantica Technologies Ltd., Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2004-03-01

    A joint industry project (JIP) was undertaken to study the use of water deluge to reduce the hazards of fires on offshore installations. The project involved an extensive programme of large-scale experiments studying the effectiveness of area and dedicated deluge in mitigating jet and pool fires, and was sponsored by 11 oil and gas companies and the UK Health and Safety Executive. The work was conducted at the Advantica (formerly British Gas Research and Technology) Spadeadam Test Site, Cumbria, UK. This paper concentrates on a small part of the work performed during the second phase of the project that involved evaluating the effectiveness of area water deluge and dedicated (object specific), water deluge in reducing the heat loading to an object impacted by a crude oil/gas ('live' crude) jet fire. The results demonstrate that a combination of area and dedicated deluge can significantly reduce the heat loading on a critical item of plant such that its temperature is maintained below that at which catastrophic failure might occur, or such that the rate of temperature rise is reduced to a level that provides time for emergency shut down and blow-down to take place. In both cases, escalation is inhibited. (Author)

  19. Offshore seabird monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    Offshore petroleum activities have been ongoing since the 1970s in eastern Canada, a zone which supports a rich and diverse assemblage of seabirds. Seabirds are extremely vulnerable to oiling and in November 2004 an important crude oil spill occurred off the shore of Newfoundland. At that time there was no information on seabird abundance to determine the effects of the spill and a study was funded by the Environmental Studies Research Funds (ESRF) to quantify seabird abundance and distribution in areas of offshore petroleum activities in eastern Canada. A novel protocol was used under this project and over 2500 hours of observation were conducted on 50,000 km of ocean transect over a 3.5 year period. The relationship between survey intensity and the precision of density estimates is presented herein and recommendations are made for increasing the precision of the estimates. This paper recommends continued survey efforts in production areas to maintain data precision.

  20. Saurix Petroleum ja Infast Oil läksid offshore-firma kätte / Koit Brinkmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brinkmann, Koit

    2009-01-01

    Hollandi Antillidel registreeritud firmale CNP Investments N.V. kuulub 80 protsenti mootorikütuste hulgimüüja Saurix Petroleum aktsiatest ning samuti õlide ja kütuste hulgimüüja Infast Oil. Graafikud

  1. General document environmental impact report (m.e.r.) oil and gas exploitation industry. Update and supplement of the general document; Generiek document m.e.r. offshore olie- en gaswinningsindustrie. Update en aanvulling van het generiek document environmental impact report (m.e.r.) offshore, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-04-15

    The generic environmental impact assessment (EIA or MER in Dutch) in 1999 is intended to serve as a template for specific environmental impact assessments for oil and gas exploitation projects at sea. Since 1999, a number of innovations and changes were implemented. Particularly in offshore technologies and regulations new insights and ideas came up in recent years. Therefore the existing generic document has to be updated with new information, relevant in the preparation of specific environmental impact assessments in the offshore oil and gas exploitation industry in the Dutch part of the Continental Shelf [Dutch] De generieke milieu effect rapportage (MER) uit 1999 is bedoeld om te dienen als een sjabloon voor specifieke Milieueffectrapportages bij olie- en gaswinningprojecten op zee. Sinds 1999 is een aantal vernieuwingen en veranderingen doorgevoerd. Met name in offshore technologieen en wet- en regelgeving zijn de afgelopen jaren nieuwe inzichten en ideeen ontstaan. Hierdoor is de wens ontstaan om het bestaande generieke document aan te vullen met nieuwe informatie die relevant is voor het opstellen van specifieke Milieueffectrapportages in de offshore olie- en gaswinningsindustrie op het Nederlands deel van het Continentaal Plat.

  2. Summary of research and information needs for the management of selected onshore energy minerals: oil shale, tar sands, arctic oil and gas, and uranium. Final report 1982-83

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report assesses research needs for the management, regulation, reclamation, and conservation of oil shale, tar sands, arctic oil and gas, and uranium deposits currently under federal jurisdiction and concludes that additional research is required to achieve the goals of good management, including conservation, protection of life and property, and minimization of environmental degradation. The report recommends (1) establishment of a standing advisory scientific and engineering committee on onshore minerals management research to influence future research directions and implementation; (2) development of a comprehensive library and data center for research results; and (3) encouragement of the operation of demonstration-scale production facilities where they are lacking. More detailed summaries of current knowledge and perceived research needs are to be found in the four interim reports of the committee

  3. Second to none: Brazilian, Mexican oil giants turn to Canadian satellite system for eagle eye on offshore spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramp, B.

    2001-07-02

    The use by Petrobras of Canada's RADARSAT-1 earth observation satellite imaging system to determine the characteristics of the developing environmental disaster when the world's largest oil rig afloat, owned by Petrobras, was sinking of the Brazilian coast following a series of three explosions which seriously damaged the rig. RADARSAT-1 was pressed into service to determine the fate of the oil slick in terms of where it was heading and how soon it would get there, information that is vital to directing clean-up efforts to minimize the damage. RADARSAT-1 was also involved in responding to a tanker oil spill in January 2001 that threatened the Galapagos Islands off the coast of Ecuador. PEMEX, the Mexican state oil company also uses RADARSAT-1 satellite imagery to monitor its nearly 400 marine oil operations in the Gulf of Mexico. RADARSAT-1, launched in 1995 by the Canadian Space Agency, is well known for its reliability, regularity and rapidity. It is equipped with microwave sensors, which can be relied on to produce usable imagery 96 to 97 per cent of the time. It can acquire imagery day or night under any atmospheric conditions through its ability to penetrate darkness, cloud, rain or haze. This is crucial when tracking oil slicks in the ocean where clouds and haze are common, especially near or in the equatorial zones. RADARSAT-1 works by transmitting microwave energy, bouncing it off the earth's surface and back to the satellite. The returning signals are received and stored by the satellite as data. Oil slicks as small as 100 metres long can be detected from space by RADARSAT-1.

  4. Effects of the Terra Nova offshore oil development on benthic macro-invertebrates over 10 years of development drilling on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Michael D.; DeBlois, Elisabeth M.; Kilgour, Bruce W.; Tracy, Ellen; Pocklington, Patricia; Crowley, Roger D.; Williams, Urban P.; Gregory Janes, G.

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes effects of drilling with water and synthetic-based drilling muds on benthic macro-invertebrates over 10 years at the Terra Nova offshore oil development. As such, the paper provides insight on the effects of relatively new synthetic-based drilling muds (SBMs), and makes an important contribution to our understanding of the long-term chronic effects of drilling on benthic communities. The Terra Nova Field is located approximately 350 km offshore on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland (Canada). Sediment and invertebrate samples were collected in 1997 (baseline) prior to drilling, and subsequently in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010. Approximately 50 stations were sampled in each year at distances of less than 1 to approximately 20 km from drill centres. Summary benthic invertebrate community measures examined were total abundance, biomass, richness, diversity and multivariate measures of community composition based on non-Metric Dimensional Scaling (nMDS). Decreases in abundance, biomass and richness were noted at one station located nearest (0.14 km) to a drill centre in some environmental effects monitoring (EEM) years. These decreases coincided with higher levels of tracers of drill muds in sediments (barium and >C10-C21 hydrocarbons). Abundances of selected individual taxa were also examined to help interpret responses when project-related effects on summary measures occurred. Enrichment effects on some tolerant taxa (e.g., the polychaete family Phyllodocidae and the bivalve family Tellinidae) and decreased abundances of sensitive taxa (e.g., the polychaete families Orbiniidae and Paraonidae) were detected to within approximately 1-2 km from discharge source. Lagged responses three to five years after drilling started were noted for Phyllodocidae and Tellinidae, suggesting chronic or indirect effects. Overall, results of benthic community analyses at Terra Nova indicate that effects on summary measures of community composition were

  5. Meals on Wheels? A Decade of Megafaunal Visual and Acoustic Observations from Offshore Oil & Gas Rigs and Platforms in the North and Irish Seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Victoria Louise Georgia; Warley, Jane Clare; Todd, Ian Boyer

    2016-01-01

    A decade of visual and acoustic detections of marine megafauna around offshore Oil & Gas (O&G) installations in the North and Irish Seas are presented. Marine megafauna activity was monitored visually and acoustically by Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) qualified and experienced Marine Mammal Observers (MMO) and Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) Operators respectively, with real-time towed PAM in combination with industry standard software, PAMGuard. Monitoring was performed during routine O&G industrial operations for underwater noise mitigation purposes, and to ensure adherence to regulatory guidelines. Incidental sightings by off-effort MMOs and installation crew were also reported. Visual and acoustic monitoring spanned 55 non-consecutive days between 2004 and 2014. A total of 47 marine mammal sightings were recorded by MMOs on dedicated watch, and 10 incidental sightings of marine megafauna were reported over 10 years. Species included: harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), white beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), common seal (Phoca vitulina), grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) and, basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus). Passive Acoustic Monitoring was conducted on two occasions in 2014; 160 PAM hours over 12 days recorded a total of 308 individual clicks identified as harbour porpoises. These appear to be the first such acoustic detections obtained from a North Sea drilling rig whilst using a typically configured hydrophone array designed for towing in combination with real-time PAMGuard software. This study provides evidence that marine megafauna are present around mobile and stationary offshore O&G installations during routine operational activities. On this basis, Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) for decommissioning O&G platforms should be carried-out on a case-by-case basis, and must include provisions for

  6. Meals on Wheels? A Decade of Megafaunal Visual and Acoustic Observations from Offshore Oil & Gas Rigs and Platforms in the North and Irish Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Victoria Louise Georgia; Todd, Ian Boyer

    2016-01-01

    A decade of visual and acoustic detections of marine megafauna around offshore Oil & Gas (O&G) installations in the North and Irish Seas are presented. Marine megafauna activity was monitored visually and acoustically by Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) qualified and experienced Marine Mammal Observers (MMO) and Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) Operators respectively, with real-time towed PAM in combination with industry standard software, PAMGuard. Monitoring was performed during routine O&G industrial operations for underwater noise mitigation purposes, and to ensure adherence to regulatory guidelines. Incidental sightings by off-effort MMOs and installation crew were also reported. Visual and acoustic monitoring spanned 55 non-consecutive days between 2004 and 2014. A total of 47 marine mammal sightings were recorded by MMOs on dedicated watch, and 10 incidental sightings of marine megafauna were reported over 10 years. Species included: harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), white beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), common seal (Phoca vitulina), grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) and, basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus). Passive Acoustic Monitoring was conducted on two occasions in 2014; 160 PAM hours over 12 days recorded a total of 308 individual clicks identified as harbour porpoises. These appear to be the first such acoustic detections obtained from a North Sea drilling rig whilst using a typically configured hydrophone array designed for towing in combination with real-time PAMGuard software. This study provides evidence that marine megafauna are present around mobile and stationary offshore O&G installations during routine operational activities. On this basis, Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) for decommissioning O&G platforms should be carried-out on a case-by-case basis, and must include provisions for

  7. Proceedings of the 26. Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program (AMOP) Technical Seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The papers presented at this Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program (AMOP) technical seminar reviewed the latest technologies that can be applied to the recovery and mitigation of marine oil spills. The very first seminar was held back in 1976 in response to public concerns regarding the potential for oil spills associated with offshore drilling in the Beaufort Sea in the Canadian Arctic. This twenty-sixth issue includes an appendix listing more than 1,200 AMOP papers from the first 25 years of the conference. Today, the AMOP conference has become international in nature and is the only surviving technical conference on oil spill science and technology in the world. While technical presentations about oil spills are the primary focus of the conference, many presentations also deal with other topics of interest, including contingency planning and legislation. In recent years, the conference has attracted about 200 people each year from 20 countries. The different sessions at this conference were entitled: (1) physical and chemical properties and behaviour of spilled oil, (2) activity updates and contingency planning, (3) detection, tracking and remote sensing, (4) biological effects of oil and hydrocarbons and oil biodegradation, (5) technical seminar on chemical spills with a special session on counter-terrorism, (6) technical seminar on chemical spills, (7) containment and recovery, (8) BIOSS, (9) in-situ burning and shoreline protection and cleanup, (10) oil spill treating agents, (11) spill modelling, and, (12) recent spill experiences. Several presentations described the process of oil in water interactions and were aimed at optimizing response functions, strategy development for marine oil spill response, equipment deployment, containment, recovery, and shoreline assessment. Several studies also presented new treatments for oil spills. Relevant papers and/or presentations were indexed separately for inclusion in the database

  8. Evaluation and prediction of oil biodegradation: a novel approach integrating geochemical and basin modeling techniques in offshore Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudino, Roger [YPF S.A. (Argentina); Santos, Glauce Figueiredo dos; Losilla, Carlos; Cabrera, Ricardo; Loncarich, Ariel; Gavarrino, Alejandro [RepsolYPF do Brasil, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Oil fields accounting for a large portion of the world reserves are severely affected by biological degradation. In Brazil, giant fields of the Campos Basin are producing biodegraded oils with widely variable fluid characteristics (10 to 40 deg API) and no apparent logical distribution nor predictability. Modern geochemical techniques allow defining the level of biodegradation. When original (non-degraded) oil samples and other with varying degradation level are available it might be possible to define a distribution trend and to relate it to present day geological factors such as temperature and reservoir geometry. However, other critical factors must be taken into account. But most of all, it is fundamental to have a vision in time of their evolution. This can only be achieved through 3D Basin Models coupled with modern visualization tools. The multi-disciplinary work-flow described here integrates three-dimensional numerical simulations with modern geochemical analyses. (author)

  9. Extractive leviathan: The role of the government in the relationships between oil and gas industries and indigenous communities in the Arctic regions of Canada, United States and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorova, Evgeniia

    This comparative research analyzes the extent to which the governments of Canada, the United States and Russia affect the relationships between the petroleum extractive industries and Indigenous peoples of the Arctic in order to protect Indigenous peoples from the negative impacts of oil and gas extraction. The hypothesis of this study is that the government can protect Indigenous communities only by providing for their participation in decision-making processes about oil and gas development. The comparative analysis showed that in comparison with Canada and the United States, Russia has the worst legal protection of Indigenous peoples in petroleum-extractive regions. The recognition of Aboriginal title by Canada and the U.S. allowed Indigenous communities the best opportunities to be involved in oil and gas development, whereas Russia failed to grant this recognition. Therefore, the recognition of land claims by the government is the best way to protect traditional lands and lifestyles of Indigenous peoples from the negative externalities of petroleum extraction.

  10. Job Satisfaction and Quit Intentions of Offshore Workers in the UK North Sea Oil and Gas Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Dickey, Heather; Watson, Verity; Zangelidis, Alexandros

    2009-01-01

    The North Sea oil and gas industry currently faces recruitment and retention difficulties due to a shortage of skilled workers. The vital contribution of this sector to the U.K. economy means it is crucial for companies to focus on retaining existing employees. One means of doing this is to improve the job satisfaction of workers. In this paper, we investigate the determinants of job satisfaction and intentions to quit within the U.K. North Sea oil and gas industry. We analyse the effect o...

  11. 海上平台油污损害赔偿国际立法及适用%International Legislation and Its Application Concerning Offshore Platform Oil Pollution Damages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾爱玲; 黄珍

    2014-01-01

    The marine environment has become the main battlefield for human access to energy sources in the 2 1 st century.The disputes over oil pollution damages have gone beyond the national boundaries. There are legislative practices in international community concerning oil pollution damages.Because the offshore oil operations started late and oil spill rate remains low,the compensation for damages caused by the oil spill of the offshore platforms in the international community has not been paid enough attention to,thus leading to the plights in applying the law.By developing international special entity convention on oil pollution compensation or by bringing"offshore platform"oil pollution damages into the adj usted scope of the convention on"ship"oil pollution damages,we can make up for the absence of applicable international law concerning the offshore platform oil pollution damages.To ensure the effective implementation of international conventions,the domestic laws should positively respond to the international conventions.%21世纪海洋环境成为人类获取能源的主战场,油污损害赔偿纠纷已从一国国内走向国际化。对于油污损害赔偿问题国际社会存在一些立法实践,由于海上石油作业起步晚、溢油率低,对海上平台溢油事件所导致的损害赔偿问题在国际社会尚未引起足够的重视,出现法律适用的困境。通过制定海上平台油污损害赔偿的国际专项实体公约或者将“海上平台”油污损害纳入“船舶”油污损害公约的调整范围,以弥补海上平台油污损害赔偿国际法适用的缺失。为确保国际公约的有效实施,一国内国法对国际公约应给予积极的回应。

  12. Toxicity of sediment pore water associated with offshore oil and gas platforms in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of a multidisciplinary program to assess the long-term impacts of offshore petroleum production in the Gulf of Mexico, a series of sediment porewater toxicity tests were conducted. Sediments were samples from five petroleum production platforms along five radial transects. Pore water was extracted from the sediment using a pressure extraction device, centrifuged, and frozen for later toxicity testing and chemical analysis. The sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) embryological development assay and fertilization assay were used to assess porewater toxicity. Significant decreases in normal development of embryos was observed at 14 stations and fertilization was reduced at three stations. All stations with reduced fertilization also showed impaired development in the embryological development assay. All but three toxic sites were within 150 m of the platform. The six most toxic stations were at one platform near the Flower Garden reef, occurring near the platform along three radii; toxicity was always greater at the first site on a radium than at the second. Toxicity is discussed in relation to metal and hydrocarbon concentrations in whole sediment and in pore water

  13. Nova Scotia's offshore royalty regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil production from the Hibernia project in Newfoundland's offshore began in December 1997. It is estimated that by 2010 some 30 per cent of Canada's light oil production and as much as 5-10 per cent of its natural gas production will originate from offshore Newfoundland and Nova Scotia. The current level of investment in east coast offshore petroleum developments is the result of the magnitude of discovered and undiscovered petroleum resources in the region. Advances in offshore petroleum technology also contributed to lower development costs. Another reason for increased investment has been an efficient and predictable regulatory environment and government policies. Nova Scotia's royalty regimes and the evolution of royalty regimes for the Sable Offshore Energy project were discussed. The Offshore Petroleum Royalty Act gives Nova Scotia the ability to establish a royalty regime through regulations, or to enter into royalty agreements on a project by project basis, or to use a mix of both agreement and regulation. The philosophy underlying Nova Scotia's royalty regime is to find the right balance between industry and government's share of project revenues

  14. Environmental Impact Assessment of Offshore Oil Activities : A comparative analysis of Norway, Brasil and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to analyze how different jurisdictions conduct these environmental impact assessments. Not only are they crucial components of the planning stage of oil companies, these studies are also instruments of accountability to governments and the public at large, enabling a better understanding of the surrounding conditions. In general, they are required prior to petroleum activities on an area located on the continental shelf and comprise an analysis of t...

  15. Offshore Outsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bent; Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Dovgan, Olesya;

    While the extant literature on offshore outsourcing deals with this operation mode in isolation, and typically with a focus on cost effects, we address the broader question of how companies choose and use outsourcing as part of foreign operation mode development and as a contributor to internatio......While the extant literature on offshore outsourcing deals with this operation mode in isolation, and typically with a focus on cost effects, we address the broader question of how companies choose and use outsourcing as part of foreign operation mode development and as a contributor to...

  16. Offshore Outsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benito, Gabriel; Dovgan, Olesya; Petersen, Bent;

    2013-01-01

    Based on a case study of the Danish company SimCorp and the development of its operations in Kiev, Ukraine, we analyze offshore outsourcing in a broader, longitudinal foreign operation mode context, and how it may contribute to mode change in the host country over a certain span of time. Sim...

  17. The role of the Arctic in future global petroleum supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholt, Lars; Glomsroed, Solveig

    2011-07-01

    The Arctic has a substantial share of global petroleum resources, but at higher costs than in most other petroleum provinces. Arctic states and petroleum companies are carefully considering the potential for future extraction in the Arctic. This paper studies the oil and gas supply from 6 arctic regions during 2010-2050 along with global economic growth and different assumptions regarding petroleum prices and resource endowments. Supply is calculated based on a global model of oil and gas markets. The data on undiscovered resources for the Arctic is based on the estimates by USGS. Sensitivity studies are carried out for two alternative price scenarios and for a 50 per cent reduction of arctic undiscovered resources compared with the USGS 2008 resource estimate. Although a major part of the undiscovered arctic petroleum resources is natural gas, our results show that the relative importance of the Arctic as a world gas supplier will decline, while its importance as a global oil producer may be maintained. We also show that less than full access to undiscovered oil resources will have minor effect on total arctic oil production and a marginal effect on arctic gas extraction. The reason is that Arctic Russia is an important petroleum producer with a sufficiently large stock of already discovered resources to support their petroleum production before 2050. (Author)

  18. Arctic Newcomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki

    2013-01-01

    Interest in the Arctic region and its economic potential in Japan, South Korea and Singapore was slow to develop but is now rapidly growing. All three countries have in recent years accelerated their engagement with Arctic states, laying the institutional frameworks needed to better understand an...

  19. Fermentative hydrogen production by new marine Clostridium amygdalinum strain C9 isolated from offshore crude oil pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayasinghearachchi, H.S.; Singh, Sneha; Sarma, Priyangshu M.; Lal, Banwari [Environmental and Industrial Biotechnology Division, The Energy and Resource Institute, Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place, Lodhi Road, New Delhi, 110 003 (India); Aginihotri, Anil [Corporate HSF, Oil and Natural Gas Corporation, New Delhi (India)

    2010-07-15

    The present study investigated hydrogen production potential of novel marine Clostridium amygdalinum strain C9 isolated from oil water mixtures. Batch fermentations were carried out to determine the optimal conditions for the maximum hydrogen production on xylan, xylose, arabinose and starch. Maximum hydrogen production was pH and substrate dependant. The strain C9 favored optimum pH 7.5 (40 mmol H{sub 2}/g xylan) from xylan, pH 7.5-8.5 from xylose (2.2-2.5 mol H{sub 2}/mol xylose), pH 8.5 from arabinose (1.78 mol H{sub 2}/mol arabinose) and pH 7.5 from starch (390 ml H{sub 2}/g starch). But the strain C9 exhibited mixed type fermentation was exhibited during xylose fermentation. NaCl is required for the growth and hydrogen production. Distribution of volatile fatty acids was initial pH dependant and substrate dependant. Optimum NaCl requirement for maximum hydrogen production is substrate dependant (10 g NaCl/L for xylose and arabinose, and 7.5 g NaCl/L for xylan and starch). (author)

  20. Replacement of 13 valves by using an isolation plug in the 20 inches diameter main offshore gas pipeline at Cantarell oil field, Campeche Bay, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvahal Reyes, Jorge Omar; Ulloa Ochoa, Carlos Manuel [PEMEX, Exploracion y Produccion, MX (Mexico)

    2009-12-19

    In 2002 we changed 13 valves on deck of one gas production platform called Nohoch-A-Enlace at Cantarell Offshore Oil Field. The 20'' diameter gas pipeline and 200 km of length, transport and deliver gas for others production platforms in the Gas Lift System, So 2 millions of oil barrels per day depends of the operation of this gas pipeline but there was 13 valves on pig traps to be changed after 20 years of service to high pressure (64 to 63 kg/cm{sup 2}). We could not stop the operation of this pipeline and some little gas leaks were eliminated in some parts of the valves. This pipeline has two risers so the gas can be injected by two sides of the ring of 20 Km. So we found the proper technology in order to isolate one riser nad change 8 valves and the isolate the other and change the 5, and the gas lift system never stop during the plug and maintenance operations on platform. In the first isolation plug operation this tool run 20 mts inside the riser and was actionated and resists 65 Kg/cm{sup 2} of gas pressure during 44 hours so we changed 8 valves: 2 of 20'', 2 of 10'', 3 of 4'' and 1 of 8'' diameter. In the second isolation the plug run 30 mts inside the second risers and resist 64 Kg/cm{sup 2} of gas during 46 hours and we changed 5 valves of 20'' diameter. In the paper I will describe all the details of this successful operations and procedures. Also the aspects of Health, Security and Environment that we prepared one year before this operations at platform. Pemex save almost 2.5 millions of dollars because the gas lift system never stop and all valves were changed and now we can run cleaning and inspection tools inside the full ring. We used the first isolation plug in Latin America and we want to share this experience to all the pipeline operators in the world as a good practice in pipeline maintenance using plugging technology in the main and large pipelines of high pressure. (author)

  1. Oil seepage detection technique as a tool to hydrocarbon prospecting in offshore Campos Basin-Brazil; Deteccao de exsudacoes de oleo como uma ferramenta de prospeccao de hidrocarbonetos na regiao maritima da Bacia de Campos - Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castilho, Jose G.; Brito, Ademilson F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Modelagem de Bacias (LAB2M); Landau, Luiz [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Metodos Computacionais em Engenharia (LAMCE)

    2004-07-01

    With a proven capacity to identify oil slicks in offshore regions, RADARSAT-1 imagery can be useful for oil exploration purposes. The paper discusses the seepage detection method at Campos Basin, offshore Rio de Janeiro State, which is responsible for 80% of the Brazilian production of oil and gas. It is known that the horizontal migration of petroleum can occurs over tens or even hundreds of kilometers, where the source rock placed in more deep locations can be linked with shallow reservoirs or traps and even reach the ocean. It means that seepage can provide information for risking petroleum charge at basin scales, and cannot have a direct relation with the geographical position of the interpreted seeps and possible filled prospects. A good understanding of the geology, and hence the petroleum systems of a basin is the key to use seepage in exploration. The work is divided into three main steps. First step were select oil seepages interpreted at Campos Basin where is found several giant petroleum fields. Second, the geology of the study area and its structural and stratigraphic features were analyzed, in order to identify possible migration pathways related to faults generated by halokinesis. Another important aspect is the presence of 'windows' or ducts in the evaporates beds allowing the contact between the section that contains source rocks and the turbidities reservoirs, that contain the majority of the oil discovers. All these features were interpreted based on a regional dip seismic line (203 - 76), and a geologic cross section with E-W orientation, showing the structure of the Marlim Field. Finally, all the information was integrated in a Geographical Information System (GIS), and then analyzed in an interdisciplinary environment, with the intention to link possible routes of oil migration to post-evaporites reservoirs or to interpreted seeps. (author)

  2. Canada's offshore : jurisdiction, rights, and management. 3. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderbank, B. [Hydrographic Survey Consultants Intl. Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); MacLeod, A.M. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Geomatics for Sustainable Development; McDorman, T.L. [Victoria Univ., Victoria, BC (Canada). Environmental Law Centre; Gray, D.H. [Canadian Hydrographic Service, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This book addressed practical issues related to Canada's offshore oil and gas industry with particular reference to international practices, customs, laws and treaties concerning the oceans and their effects on Canada. It included arbitration decisions concerning Canada, with specific focus on ocean boundary delimitations. The book deals comprehensively and systematically with the issues pertaining to the jurisdiction, rights, and management in Canada's offshore. It is a reference book for the mechanics of describing and determining ocean boundaries, and interpreting ocean-related Canadian legislation. In November 2003, Canada ratified the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. The basis for national interests and sovereign rights beyond the traditional 3 nautical mile territorial sea was established in 1982. Through the 1997 Oceans Act, Canada also consolidated various pieces of legislation to provide a more cohesive statement on Canada's offshore interests, including the juridical continental shelf beyond the 200 nautical mile Exclusive Economic Zone. Canada's Oceans Action Plan of 2005 identified issues such as sovereignty, integrated ocean management, and health of the oceans as priorities. Ocean science and technology was identified as one of the tools to meet these priorities. The material in this book is organized from the Pacific Coast, to the Atlantic Coast and the Arctic Coast. It begins with international concepts, followed by Canadian applications and practical demonstrations. 73 refs., 23 tabs., 64 figs., 3 appendices.

  3. A remote and autonomous continuous monitoring ultrasonic system for flood detection in sub-sea members of offshore steel oil rigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mijarez-Castro, Rito

    2006-07-01

    This thesis presents a novel and autonomous continuous monitoring system for flood detection in the hollow sub-sea members of offshore steel oil rigs. The technique offers an alternative to underwater nondestructive testing methods based on ultrasound and x-rays, which have been used to detect the presence of seawater in these applications, often with divers or remote operating vehicles. The research consists of theoretical and experimental work necessary for the development of an integral system that can be used in new fixed offshore oil rig designs. The system employs a single piezoelectric transducer which can be permanently attached to the inner wall of every sub-sea structure and which is powered by a normally inert seawater battery. Upon activation, the sensor transmits ultrasonic chirp or tone encoded pulses in the range of 21 k Hz to 42 k Hz, to a monitoring system at deck level for decoding and identifying flooded members. Two approaches to the system were considered during the investigation, depending on the communication channel exploited. These were based on either using the seawater as a propagation medium or using the steel structure as a wave-guide. A system based on theoretical models was built and field experiments were conducted using a purpose built jointed steel pipe structure, 7 m in length, 0.5 m in diameter and 16 mm in thickness. This structure was flooded by complete immersion in seawater. Results obtained using water as communication medium and a frequency in the order of 38 k Hz yielded an attenuation figure of 0.4 d B m{sub -}1 over 100 m, since losses were predominantly geometric. In contrast, using the tubular structure as a wave-guide and axis symmetric guided waves as the excitation, a gross attenuation figure of 1.3 d B m{sub -}1 was attained. In the straight parts of the structure, the attenuation ranged from 0.3 d B m{sub -} 1 to 0.6 d B m{sub -}1. The modes most likely to have been excited within the structure were L(0,5) - L(0

  4. Radionuclides, Metals, and Hydrocarbons in Oil and Gas Operational Discharges and Environmental Samples Associated with Offshore Production Facilities on the Texas/Louisiana Continental Shelf with an Environmental Assessment of Metals and Hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents concentrations of radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons in samples of produced water and produced sand from oil and gas production platforms located offshore Texas and Louisiana. concentrations in produced water discharge plume / receiving water, ambient seawater, sediment, interstitial water, and marine animal tissue samples collected in the vicinity of discharging platforms and reference sites distant from discharges are also reported and discussed. An environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentration of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples

  5. Radionuclides, Metals, and Hydrocarbons in Oil and Gas Operational Discharges and Environmental Samples Associated with Offshore Production Facilities on the Texas/Louisiana Continental Shelf with an Environmental Assessment of Metals and Hydrocarbons.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This report presents concentrations of radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons in samples of produced water and produced sand from oil and gas production platforms located offshore Texas and Louisiana. concentrations in produced water discharge plume / receiving water, ambient seawater, sediment, interstitial water, and marine animal tissue samples collected in the vicinity of discharging platforms and reference sites distant from discharges are also reported and discussed. An environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentration of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

  6. Radionuclides, Metals, and Hydrocarbons in Oil and Gas Operational Discharges and Environmental Samples Associated with Offshore Production Facilities on the Texas/Louisiana Continental Shelf with an Environmental Assessment of Metals and Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Continental Shelf Associates, Inc.

    1999-08-16

    This report presents concentrations of radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons in samples of produced water and produced sand from oil and gas production platforms located offshore Texas and Louisiana. Concentrations in produced water discharge plume/receiving water, ambient seawater, sediment, interstitial water, and marine animal tissue samples collected in the vicinity of discharging platforms and reference sites distant from discharges are also reported and discussed. An environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentrations of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

  7. Evaluating pyrene toxicity on Arctic key copepod species Calanus hyperboreus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Rasmus Dyrmose; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Friis Møller, Eva;

    2014-01-01

    Calanus hyperboreus is a key species in the Arctic regions because of its abundance and role in the Arctic food web. Exploitation of the off shore oil reserves along Western Greenland is expected in the near future, and it is important to evaluate the acute and chronic effects of oil emissions...

  8. Arctic adaptation and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amplification of climatic warming in the Arctic and the sensitivity of physical, biological, and human systems to changes in climate make the Arctic particularly vulnerable to climate changes. Large areas of the Arctic permafrost and sea ice are expected to disappear under climate warming and these changes will have considerable impacts on the natural and built environment of the north. A review is presented of some recent studies on what these impacts could be for the permafrost and sea ice environment and to identify linkages with socioeconomic activities. Terrestrial adaptation to climate change will include increases in ground temperature; melting of permafrost with consequences such as frost heave, mudslides, and substantial settlement; rotting of peat contained in permafrost areas, with subsequent emission of CO2; increased risk of forest fire; and flooding of low-lying areas. With regard to the manmade environment, structures that will be affected include buildings, pipelines, highways, airports, mines, and railways. In marine areas, climate change will increase the ice-free period for marine transport operations and thus provide some benefit to the offshore petroleum industry. This benefit will be offset by increased wave height and period, and increased coastal erosion. The offshore industry needs to be particularly concerned with these impacts since the expected design life of industry facilities (30-60 y) is of the same order as the time frame for possible climatic changes. 18 refs., 5 figs

  9. Federal offshore statistics: 1992. Leasing, exploration, production, and revenues as of December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, D.K.

    1993-12-31

    The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, enacted in 1953 and amended several times, charges the Secretary of the Interior with the responsibility for administering and managing mineral exploration and development of the outer continental shelf, as well as for conserving its natural resources. This report documents the following: Federal offshore lands; offshore leasing activity and status; offshore development activity; offshore production of crude oil and natural gas; Federal offshore oil and natural gas sales volume and royalties; revenue from Federal offshore leases; disbursement of Federal offshore revenue; reserves and resource estimates of offshore oil and natural gas; oil pollution in US and international waters; and international activities and marine minerals. 11 figs., 83 tabs.

  10. Development of Offshore Wind Recommended Practice for U.S. Waters: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, W. D.; Sheppard, R. E.; Dolan, D.; Naughton, B.

    2013-04-01

    This paper discusses how the American Petroleum Institute oil and gas standards were interfaced with International Electrotechnical Commission and other wind turbine and offshore industry standards to provide guidance for reliable engineering design practices for offshore wind energy systems.

  11. Beaufort Sea oil spills state of knowledge review and identification of key issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the 1960s to the 1980s, offshore petroleum exploration activities were carried out by several companies in the Canadian Arctic and important resources of oil and gas were discovered. These reserves have not been exploited until now, but exploration activities are expected to increase in the coming years due to changing market conditions and to result in greater risks of accidental spills. The aim of this report is to review existing knowledge of oil spills in Arctic waters, identify the associated issues and provide a reference document for the stakeholders. A literature review of the subject was carried out by the study team using online database search services, in-house libraries and Environment Canada's library. In addition, the study team held a workshop in October 2009 to present their findings and discuss key issues with stakeholders. This document provides the findings of the study team.

  12. Growth and fatty acid composition of two strains of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) on diets formulated with low fish oil inclusion in a recirculating aquaculture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) is a highly desirable species to culture due to their fast growth, culture conditions and reputation as a sustainably produced fish due to closed containment culture. A study was conducted to evaluate two Arctic charr stocks (one commercial stock and one from the ...

  13. Offshore industry executives meet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future of the Gulf of Mexico is tied to the overall future of oil/gas on the international market as it relates to the US. Conquering this last frontier, possibly only through development of technology, was one of the themes covered in the 21st Annual Meeting of the National Ocean Industries Association held in early April, 1993 in Washington, D.C. Oil is the major source for foreign exchange but there are major uncertainties in predicting the future. The swing (imports vs. exports) is two million barrels per day. The big oil users (heavy industry) have reduced consumption. The last big uncertainty is the environmental policies of the West. Development of resources in the Gulf was the third record year in a row in 1992. The potential for hydrocarbon discoveries is significant, a substantial number of new fields have been made and significant discoveries are likely to continue. More than 100 trillion cubic feet of natural gas lies undiscovered offshore - 35% of undiscovered domestic resources. The oil potential exceeds nine billion barrels, more than any other basin except Alaska

  14. Arctic Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Ørts; Grønsedt, Peter; Lindstrøm Graversen, Christian;

    maritime industries (including shipping, offshore energy, ports, and maritime service and equipment suppliers) as well as addresses topics that cut across maritime industries (regulation and competitiveness). The topics and narrower research questions addressed in the initiative were developed in close...

  15. Technical Situation and Development Trend of Subsea Processing System of Offshore Oil and Gas%海洋油气水下处理系统研究现状和发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武超; 王定亚; 任克忍; 肖锐

    2012-01-01

    The oil and gas subsea processing technologies which have been put to use or are being tested and developed in today's world were introduced in the paper, including underwater multiphase mixed transportation technology, underwater seawater separation technology, underwater gas separation technology and underwater multiphase separation technology. The types and current application of subsea processing system were expounded. On the basis of in-depth analysis of development modes of subsea processing system at different stages of offshore oil and gas development, the design and development procedure of three typical subsea processing systems, including muhiphase mixed transportation, seawater separation and reinjection system and oil-gas-water three-phase separation system, were summarized. Finally, the suggestion on the research and development of offshore oil and gas subsea processing system at home was offered.%介绍了当今世界上已经投入使用或正在试验开发的油气水下处理技术,包括水下多相混输技术、水下海水分离技术、水下气体分离技术及水下多相分离技术,阐述了水下处理系统的种类和应用现状。在深入分析海洋油气田不同开发时期水下处理系统开发模式的基础上,总结了多相混输系统、海水分离回注系统和油气水三相分离系统等3种典型的水下处理系统设计开发流程。最后对国内海洋油气水下处理系统的研究开发提出了建议。

  16. Diagnosis of solid waste of oil and natural gas exploration and production activities in Brazil offshore sedimentary basins; Diagnostico dos residuos solidos das atividades de exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas natural em bacias sedimentares maritimas no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, Pedro Henrique Wisniewski; Mendonca; Gilberto Moraes de

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the generation and disposal of solid waste from the exploration and production activities of oil and natural gas in Brazilian waters. We used data from the implementation reports of pollution control project of the activities licensed by IBAMA. During 2009 the activities related to exploration and production of offshore oil and gas produced a total of 44,437 tons of solid waste, with the main waste generated corresponding to: oily waste (16,002 t); Metal uncontaminated (11,085 t); contaminated waste (5630 t), non recycling waste (4935 t); Wood uncontaminated (1,861 t), chemicals (1,146 t). Considering the total waste generated by activities during the period analyzed, it was observed that 54.3% are made up of waste Class I (hazardous waste), 27.9% of Class II wastes (waste non-hazardous non-inert); and 17.8% of waste Class IIB (non-hazardous and inert waste). The results obtained in this work enabled the scenario of waste generation by the E and P offshore activities. As a result, the survey serves as a starting point for monitoring the progress in implementing the projects sought Pollution Control of licensed projects, as well as support the monitoring of reflexes arising from the intensification of activities in certain regions. (author)

  17. Scenarios use to engage scientists and decision-makers in a changing Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, O. A.; Eicken, H.; Payne, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Scenarios provide a framework to develop more adaptive Arctic policies that allow decision makers to consider the best available science to address complex relationships and key uncertainties in drivers of change. These drivers may encompass biophysical factors such as climate change, socioeconomic drivers, and wild-cards that represent low likelihood but influential events such as major environmental disasters. We outline some of the lessons learned from the North Slope Science Initiative (NSSI) scenarios project that could help in the development of adaptive science-based policies. Three spatially explicit development scenarios were identified corresponding to low, medium and high resource extraction activities on the North Slope and adjacent seas. In the case of the high energy development scenario science needs were focused on new technology, oil spill response, and the effects of offshore activities on marine mammals important for subsistence. Science needs related to community culture, erosion, permafrost degradation and hunting and trapping on land were also identified for all three scenarios. The NSSI science needs will guide recommendations for future observing efforts, and data from these observing activities could subsequently improve policy guidance for emergency response, subsistence management and other issues. Scenarios at pan-Arctic scales may help improve the development of international policies for resilient northern communities and encourage the use of science to reduce uncertainties in plans for adapting to change in the Arctic.

  18. Arctic Submarine Slope Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, D.; Geissler, W.

    2010-12-01

    Submarine landsliding represents aside submarine earthquakes major natural hazard to coastal and sea-floor infrastructure as well as to coastal communities due to their ability to generate large-scale tsunamis with their socio-economic consequences. The investigation of submarine landslides, their conditions and trigger mechanisms, recurrence rates and potential impact remains an important task for the evaluation of risks in coastal management and offshore industrial activities. In the light of a changing globe with warming oceans and rising sea-level accompanied by increasing human population along coasts and enhanced near- and offshore activities, slope stability issues gain more importance than ever before. The Arctic exhibits the most rapid and drastic changes and is predicted to change even faster. Aside rising air temperatures, enhanced inflow of less cooled Atlantic water into the Arctic Ocean reduces sea-ice cover and warms the surroundings. Slope stability is challenged considering large areas of permafrost and hydrates. The Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide (HYM) north of Svalbard is the first and so far only reported large-scale submarine landslide in the Arctic Ocean. The HYM exhibits the highest headwalls that have been found on siliciclastic margins. With more than 10.000 square kilometer areal extent and app. 2.400 cubic kilometer of involved sedimentary material, it is one of the largest exposed submarine slides worldwide. Geometry and age put this slide in a special position in discussing submarine slope stability on glaciated continental margins. The HYM occurred 30 ka ago, when the global sea-level dropped by app. 50 m within less than one millennium due to rapid onset of global glaciation. It probably caused a tsunami with circum-Arctic impact and wave heights exceeding 130 meters. The HYM affected the slope stability field in its neighbourhood by removal of support. Post-megaslide slope instability as expressed in creeping and smaller-scaled slides are

  19. Occupational Diversification, Offshoring and Labor Market Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Bardhan, Ashok; Tang, John

    2006-01-01

    This paper asks a simple question: Are occupations that are well diversified across sectors less volatile, and maybe less susceptible to external shocks? Most external shocks (e.g. manufacturing offshoring, oil shocks) impact the labor market along sectoral lines, i.e. they impact product and output markets, and as a consequence they affect employment in various occupations. Some shocks, however, such as services offshoring affect horizontals or occupations. We find that an occupation spread ...

  20. The Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global climate change in the Arctic is a growing concern. Research has already documented pronounced changes, and models predict that increases in temperature from anthropogenic influences could be considerably higher than the global average. The impacts of climate change on Arctic ecosystems are complex and difficult to predict because of the many interactions within ecosystem, and between many concurrently changing environmental variables. Despite the global consequences of change in the Arctic climate the monitoring of basic abiotic as well as biotic parameters are not adequate to assess the impact of global climate change. The uneven geographical location of present monitoring stations in the Arctic limits the ability to understand the climate system. The impact of previous variations and potential future changes to ecosystems is not well understood and need to be addressed. At this point, there is no consensus of scientific opinion on how much of the current changes that are due to anthropogenic influences or to natural variation. Regardless of the cause, there is a need to investigate and assess current observations and their effects to the Arctic. In this chapter examples from both terrestrial and marine ecosystems from ongoing monitoring and research projects are given. (LN)

  1. Arctic Energy Resources: Energy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryc, George

    1984-04-01

    Arctic Energy Resources is a volume of 26 papers recording the proceedings of the Comite' Arctique International Conference, held at the Veritas Centre, Oslo, Norway, September 22-24, 1982. This was the fourth of a series of meetings on the Arctic organized by the Comite', an organization established in the Principality of Monaco with the active support of H.S.H. Prince Rainer III. The fourth Conference was opened by H.R.H. Crown Prins Harald of Norway, a noble beginning for a noble objective.The North Polar Region has drawn world attention recently because of several large hydrocarbon and other mineral discoveries and because of major political and environmental actions in the North American Arctic. Since 1923 when Naval Petroleum Reserve number 4 (NPR-4) was established, northern Alaska has been considered a major petroleum province. It was first explored systematically with modern techniques from 1943 to 1953. In 1958, Alaska became a state, and both federal and state lands in northern Alaska were available for private exploration. Building on the knowledge base provided by the Pet-4 program and its spinoff research laboratory at Barrow, industry explored the area east of NPR-4 and discovered the largest hydrocarbon accumulation (9.6 bbl crude oil and 26 Tcf (trillion cubic feet) gas) in North America at Prudhoe Bay. Concerns for environmental impacts, including oil spills, led to the passing of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1969. In 1970, over 9 million acres were set aside, now known as the Arctic National Wildlife Range, and in 1971 the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act was passed by the U.S. Congress. The Arab oil embargo of 1973 heightened the energy crisis and changed the economic basis for further exploration in the Arctic. The convergence of these events dramatically changed the balance of power and the pace of activity in the North American Arctic.

  2. Estimating Potential Effects of Hypothetical Oil Spills on Polar Bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Durner, G.M.; McDonald, T.L.; Johnson, W.R.

    2006-01-01

    Much is known about the transport and fate of oil spilled into the sea and its toxicity to exposed wildlife. Previously, however, there has been no way to quantify the probability that wildlife dispersed over the seascape would be exposed to spilled oil. Polar bears, the apical predator of the arctic, are widely dispersed near the continental shelves of the Arctic Ocean, an area also undergoing considerable hydrocarbon exploration and development. We used 15,308 satellite locations from 194 radiocollared polar bears to estimate the probability that polar bears could be exposed to hypothetical oil spills. We used a true 2 dimensional Gausian kernel density estimator, to estimate the number of bears likely to occur in each 1.00 km2 cell of a grid superimposed over near shore areas surrounding 2 oil production facilities: the existing Northstar oil production facility, and the proposed offshore site for the Liberty production facility. We estimated the standard errors of bear numbers per cell with bootstrapping. Simulated oil spill footprints for September and October, the times during which we hypothesized effects of an oil-spill would be worst, were estimated using real wind and current data collected between 1980 and 1996. We used ARC/Info software to calculate overlap (numbers of bears oiled) between simulated oil-spill footprints and polar bear grid-cell values. Numbers of bears potentially oiled by a hypothetical 5912 barrel spill (the largest spill thought probable from a pipeline breach) ranged from 0 to 27 polar bears for September open water conditions, and from 0 to 74 polar bears in October mixed ice conditions. Median numbers oiled by the 5912 barrel hypothetical spill from the Liberty simulation in September and October were 1 and 3 bears, equivalent values for the Northstar simulation were 3 and 11 bears. In October, 75% of trajectories from the 5912 barrel simulated spill at Liberty oiled 9 or fewer bears while 75% of the trajectories affected 20 or

  3. Petroleum geology of offshore North Sumatra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiya, E.; Inomata, T.

    1967-07-01

    Oil exploration in the Strait of Malacca, North Sumatra, is controlled by P.N. Permina (Persuhaan Negara Pertambangan Minjak Masional) oil company, owned by the government of Indonesia. In 1963, the company granted some rights for developing that area to REFICAN (Refining Associates of Canada). In 1966, the exploration activites were transferred to NOSOPEX (North Sumatra Offshore Petroleum Exploration Co. Ltd.). Up to the present time, the company has continued to explore at that area. The geologic structure of the land and offshore areas was studied. This report reviews the literature on that area in detail. The inland geological structure is based on a report by Mayer and Morgan and the first and second geological report of NOSODECO (North Sumatra Oil Development Co. Ltd.). The offshore geological structure is based on well information supplied by REFICAN. (25 refs.)

  4. Offshore 2010. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the accomplishments of the various projects that have received support from the Norwegian Research Council's program 'Offshore 2010'. The following projects are presented, some have English and some Norwegian project names: 'Critical parameters influencing inhibitor performance in multiphase flow', 'Development of the drilling optimization simulator (DDS) and a totally integrated drilling optimization system', 'Produksjonsoptimalisering og automatisk styring av broenner og roerledninger (PETRONICS)', 'Termisk isolerte undervannsroer for sikring av broenntransport over store avstander', 'Utvikling av magnetisk frekvensformer for styring av store subsea pumper paa havdyp ned mot 4000 meter', 'Flerfase stroemningsmaaler for permanent nedihulls installasjon', 'Hastighetsmaaling i flerfase stroemning ved passiv akustikk', 'Oil/water seperation offshore: optimized flow- and seperation behavior', 'Stroemningshastighet', 'A rock mechanics based reservoir simulation', 'MultiTool fase 2 - et flerbruksverktoey for nedihulls applikasjoner', 'Utvikling av undervanns olje-i-vann monitor for kontinuerlig maaling av lave oljekonsentrasjoner basert paa TR-LIFS', 'Subsea multipath ultrasonic liquid flow meter', 'Fluid characterization at elevated pressures and temperatures (Flucha II)'. The two main goals for the research program are 1. The development of new technology and competency in the field of downhole- and subsea processing and multiphase transportation, and 2. Innovation and commercialisation in small and medium sized companies (less than 100 employees). Some details on the financing and results are included (ml)

  5. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Brown, Philip J., II; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Shah, Anjana; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the West Greenland?East Canada Province as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal effort. The West Greenland?East Canada Province is essentially the offshore area between west Greenland and east Canada and includes Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Lancaster Sound, and Nares Strait west of and including Kane Basin. The tectonic evolution of the West Greenland?East Canada Province led to the formation of several major structural domains that are the geologic basis for the five assessment units (AU) defined in this study. The five AUs encompass the entire province. Each AU was assessed in its entirety for undiscovered, technically recoverable (assuming absence of sea ice) oil and gas resources, but the assessment results reported here are only for those portions of each AU that are north of the Arctic Circle, as that latitude defines the area of the Circum-Arctic oil and gas assessment.

  6. 大排量螺杆泵技术在海上稠油油田的应用%The Application of Large Displacement Electric Submersible Pump in Offshore Heavy Oil Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴怀志; 管虹翔; 何保生; 武广瑷; 于继飞

    2013-01-01

    Electric submersible pump as the main method of mechanical recovery in the offshore oilfield, but in the heavy oil fields, there is the problem of the low efficiency of the electric submersible pump and electric submersible pumps can not be used for super heavy oil.The application of electric submersible pump in the offshore oilfield is limited by the displacement, only in a lower yield of well applications, and in the actual use of the electric submersible sea screw pump.The actual service life are shorter, can not meet the high flow rate and the long-life requirements.The main components of the electric submersible pump-type screw pump, coupling, reducer improvements developed displacement to 200 cubic meter/day, the actual life of more than one year of electric submersible screw pump, and in the success of the offshore oil field application, and achieved good results.%目前海上油田主要以电潜泵为主要的机采手段,但是在稠油油田,电潜泵存在着泵效低的问题,并且对于超稠油电潜泵无法使用.但是目前电潜螺杆泵在海上的应用,主要受限制于排量低的制约,仅能在产量较低的井中应用;并且在海上实际使用的电潜螺杆泵中,实际使用寿命均较短,不能满足海上油田大排量、长寿命的要求.探讨了对电潜螺杆泵泵型、联轴器、减速器等主要部件进行改进,开发出了排量达到200 m3/d,实际使用寿命超过一年的电潜螺杆泵,并在海上油田成功应用,取得了较好的效果.

  7. Prediction of oil spill occurrence probabilities in the Alaskan Beaufort and Chukchi Seas OCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates of oil spill occurrences are used by the Minerals Management Service (MMS) Alaska OCS Region for the development of environmental impact statements for hypothetical offshore development scenarios resulting from the sale of leases for the United States Beaufort and Chukchi Sea Outer Continental Shelf. Although estimates of expected values of oil spill probabilities and sizes provide a simple basis for estimating environmental impacts, the magnitude and distribution of uncertainties can alter the significance of these expected values. In order to develop the probability distributions of oil spill occurrences, this paper presented a study that used non-Arctic empirical data together with their variance as a starting point. In addition, Arctic effect distributions and their impact on both the original data variance as well as additional unique Arctic effect distributions such as those for ice gouging and scour were integrated. In addition, an oil spill occurrence model based on fault tree methodology was developed and evaluated using Monte Carlo methods with all significant inputs in distributed form in order to provide the expected values and their variability. The study involved the quantification of four principal spill occurrence indicator probability distributions, including annual spill frequency; annual spill frequency per barrel produced; spill index, which refers to the product of spill size and spill frequency; and life of field averages of the above indicators. The paper summarized the methodology and presented the results of its application to the estimation of oil spill probabilities and their characteristics for the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas region for typical future offshore development scenarios. It was recommended that the use of the Monte Carlo spill occurrence indicator model should be continued for new scenarios to support MMS needs, as it is the best model available for estimating spill occurrence. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs

  8. Psychosocial aspects of work and health in the North Sea oil and gas industry. Pt. 3: Sleep, mood, and performance in relation to offshore shift rotation schedules. Pt. 4: The offshore environment in the mid-1990s: a survey of psychosocial factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This report describes a study of offshore shift rotation patterns, the aim of which was to compare fixed-shift and rollover schedules in terms of sleep, mood, and cognitive performance. Two rollover patterns, night followed by days (7N + 7D) and days followed by nights (7D + 7N), and one fixed-shift pattern in which day and night shifts were worked on alternate tours (14D + 14N), were studied. Data were collected on four North Sea oil and gas platforms. For analysis purposes, the two-week work cycle was divided into three test phases, each covering three consecutive shifts. Prior to the first two phases, ``practice`` shifts (during which data were collected but not analysed) were scheduled, and phases were separated by one or two ``rest`` shifts (during which no data were collected). Assessments were carried out at the start, middle, and end of each test shift. (author)

  9. Technologies for waste heat recovery in off-shore applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Haglind, Fredrik; Kandepu, Rambabu; Fermi, Alessandro; Rossetti, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    In off-shore oil and gas platforms the selection of the gas turbine to support the electrical and mechanical demand on site is often a compromise between reliability, efficiency, compactness, low weight and fuel flexibility. Therefore, recovering the waste heat in off-shore platforms presents both...

  10. Investigation of Multi-degradation Mechanisms in Different Stainless Steels in Direct Riser Tensioning Systems for Offshore Oil&Gas Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzejewski, Maciej Wladyslaw

    2015-01-01

    Many components utilized in offshore industry are complex tribological systems, for instance Direct Riser Tensioner (DRT) cylinders which include the use of seals, guide bands, hydraulic fluids/lubricants and materials in relative movement. However, those components are often load bearing elements and thus fail due to the combined effect of multi-degradation processes (wear, corrosion and mechanical stresses). Moreover, the requirements for material selection and pre-qualification testing do ...

  11. Offshore wind energy developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias; Buhl, Thomas; Sumer, B. Mutlu;

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will give a brief overview of a few of the activities within offshore wind energy research, specifically 1) Support structure optimization, 2) Blade coatings for wind turbines; 3) Scour protection of foundations, 4) Offshore HVDC and 5) Offshore wind services.......This chapter will give a brief overview of a few of the activities within offshore wind energy research, specifically 1) Support structure optimization, 2) Blade coatings for wind turbines; 3) Scour protection of foundations, 4) Offshore HVDC and 5) Offshore wind services....

  12. Offshoring and International Competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Pedersen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    advanced offshoring, exploring what causes firms to offshore some of their more advanced tasks. Our findings indicate that while the lower cost of unskilled, labor-intensive processes is the main driver for firms that offshore less advanced tasks, the offshoring of advanced tasks is part of firms’ strategy...... to achieve international competitiveness through access to cross-border knowledge flows and foreign knowledge resources. Furthermore, offshoring of advanced manufacturing tasks seems to be more widespread and experience-based than the offshoring of advanced service tasks....

  13. Facility engineering for Arctic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, D.M.; McClusky, K.R.; Shirley, R.; Spitzenberger, R. [Mustang Engineering Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The Northstar Development Project is located on Seal Island in the Beaufort Sea, north of Prudhoe Bay. The design and engineering of the facilities for the Northstar Development Project was fraught with challenges. Mustang Engineering Incorporated was involved in the design and engineering of the pipe rack, pump house, process and compressor modules. All the characteristics of an offshore facility are present, even though the project is land-based on a man-made island. A number of the strategies developed for offshore platforms of the Gulf of Mexico were adapted to the fabrication, logistics and installation of the modules. To reduce yard fabrication time, a modularized design concept was adopted. Cost savings and onsite fabrication efficiencies were realized through open communication with the operator, early discussions with vendors, regulatory agencies, and local fabrication and installation contractors. Some improvisation and deviations were required to meet the stringent requirements for operation under Arctic conditions. The lessons learned on this project will be of use in future Arctic projects. 1 tab., 6 figs.

  14. The Application of Cyclone Dust Collection on the Offshore Oil Pneumatic Conveying%旋风除尘在海洋石油输灰系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏国强; 沙豪; 赵岩; 张玉柱

    2011-01-01

    The pneumatic conveying system of powder materials has been applied widely on the offshore oil drilling.However,the dust gas from the end of pneumatic conveying system was evacuated to the atmosphere usually,so it brought some problems,such as the dust pollution,resources wasting,and so on.In respond to the government policy "Energy Saving and Emission Reduction",the dust collect system would be the necessary choice in the pneumatic conveying system.It discussed that the new cyclone,designed and studied by our company,was applied successfully on the offshore oil modular drilling rig HZ25-3/1.%粉体水泥、土粉、重晶石的气力输送在海洋石油钻井、固井等方面已得到广泛应用,然而,气力输灰系统末端排气口排出的含粉尘气体直接放空,不但对空气及海洋环境造成污染,还造成水泥等粉体资源的浪费,加重了本来就比较繁重的海上运输作业的负担。为响应目前国家节能减排的号召,在海洋输灰系统中增加粉尘回收设备是必然的趋势。

  15. Application of unsupervised semivariogram textural classification of RADARSAT-1 data for the detection of natural oil seeps offshore the Amazon River mouth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of RADARSAT-1 imagery to identify oil slicks on the sea surface has proven to be one of the most cost-effective means of locating natural oil seeps which provide invaluable information to exploration geologists. CEGEQ has developed a satellite imagery processing technology to enhance the detection of oil seeps. A one year pilot project has been conducted in the deepwater mouth of the Amazon River in Brazil in which a fully operational image processing procedure was used to identify potential natural oil seeps based on sea-surface textures

  16. Accessing offshoring advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mykhaylenko, Alona; Motika, Agnes; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum;

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to advance the understanding of factors that affect offshoring performance results. To do so, this paper focuses on the access to location-specific advantages, rather than solely on the properties of the offshoring company, its strategy or environment....... Assuming that different levels of synergy may exist between particular offshoring strategic decisions (choosing offshore outsourcing or captive offshoring and the type of function) and different offshoring advantages, this work advocates that the actual fact of realization of certain offshoring advantages...... (getting or not getting access to them) is a more reliable predictor of offshoring success. Design/methodology/approach – Aset of hypotheses derived from the extant literature is tested on the data from a quantitative survey of 1,143 Scandinavian firms. Findings – The paper demonstrates that different...

  17. Tertiary thrust systems and fluid flow beneath the Beaufort coastal plain (1002 area), Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher J.; Grow, John A.; Perry, William J., Jr.; Moore, Thomas E.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Saltus, Richard W.

    2004-01-01

    Beneath the Arctic coastal plain (commonly referred to as "the 1002 area") in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, northeastern Alaska, United States, seismic reflection data show that the northernmost and youngest part of the Brookian orogen is preserved as a Paleogene to Neogene system of blind and buried thrust-related structures. These structures involve Proterozoic to Miocene (and younger?) rocks that contain several potential petroleum reservoir facies. Thermal maturity data indicate that the deformed rocks are mature to overmature with respect to hydrocarbon generation. Oil seeps and stains in outcrops and shows in nearby wells indicate that oil has migrated through the region; geochemical studies have identified three potential petroleum systems. Hydrocarbons that were generated from Mesozoic source rocks in the deformed belt were apparently expelled and migrated northward in the Paleogene, before much of the deformation in this part of the orogen. It is also possible that Neogene petroleum, which was generated in Tertiary rocks offshore in the Arctic Ocean, migrated southward into Neogene structural traps at the thrust front. However, the hydrocarbon resource potential of this largely unexplored region of Alaska's North Slope remains poorly known.

  18. Panorama of CNOOC's Recent Oil & Gas Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Offshore oil industry promising for China Vice President of CNOOC Jiang Longsheng recently pointed out that the incremental amount of China's crude production will come mainly from the offshore oil fields in the country's 11 th FiveYear Plan Period (2006-2010). He added that some onshore oil fields have entered their depletion stage while the offshore oil industry is experiencing a rapid business development.

  19. System for modelling and monitoring of offshore discharge water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of a feasibility and definition study of the EUREKA project Modelling and Monitoring of Discharges from Offshore Oil and Gas Platforms (M and M). The study, executed between October 1990 and June 1991, concluded that the development of a system to predict the behaviour and effect of discharges from offshore oil and gas platforms is feasible. Such a M and M system could be accomplished by adapting existing software and hardware modules and developing the necessary interfaces

  20. Offshore wind energy developments

    OpenAIRE

    Stolpe, Mathias; Buhl, Thomas; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Kiil, Søren; Holbøll, Joachim; Piirainen, Kalle

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will give a brief overview of a few of the activities within offshore wind energy research, specifically 1) Support structure optimization, 2) Blade coatings for wind turbines; 3) Scour protection of foundations, 4) Offshore HVDC and 5) Offshore wind services.

  1. APPLICATION OF BP NEURAL NETWORK TO ASSESS THE POLLUTION LEVEL OF OIL SPILL ON THE OFFSHORE PLATFORM%BP网络海上石油平台溢油污染等级评估方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎印海; 刘洁; 贾永刚; 崔文林

    2011-01-01

    Assessment index system of oil spill for the offshore oil platform was established for the first time by analyzing the influenced factors related to the degree of oil pollution. To solve the problem of non-samples, every assessment index was divided into several grades and the Rand function was used to generate enough training samples and test samples. A more reasonable network structure was established and a BP neural network model of the degree of oil pollution was finally set up. The results showed that the model had good generalization, and it not only could be used to evaluate unknown samples but also had a strong practical value.%通过分析与溢油污染程度有关的影响因素,首次构建了海上石油平台溢油污染程度评价指标体系.针对模型无样本的难题,对评价指标进行分级,利用Rand函数在各分级标准内随机生成足够数量的训练和测试样本,建立了较合理的网络结构,构建了石油平台溢油污染等级BP网络模型.研究结果表明BP网络模型具有很强的泛化能力,能够用于评判未知样本,具有较强的实用性.

  2. Arctic Wears - Perspectives on Arctic Clothing

    OpenAIRE

    Konola, Sanna; Kähkönen, Päivi

    2015-01-01

    Arctic issues are rising around us on every field at the point of view of environment, sustainability, climate change, indigenous peoples’ rights, design and society, snow and ice building knowledge, challenges and possibilities in Arctic areas. The Arctic is written in Finland’s future strategies, and in 2017 Finland assumes the chairmanship of Arctic Council. In the northernmost university of European Union, University of Lapland, the northern issues have always been written in the DNA ...

  3. Subsea prizes : companies pushing the envelope offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, R.

    2009-06-15

    In order to make projects economic, companies are going farther offshore and deeper to find oil and gas or to use existing offshore platforms and longer horizontals. Companies such as StatoilHydro are reworking strategies on how to approach future oil finds. This article discussed examples of ultra deep and long horizontal oil finds such as Statoil's complicated but highly successful Gulltopp project. Although drilling ultra-deep wells or long horizontal wells is risky, they can also be very lucrative. The article also discussed McMoRan Exploration Company of New Orleans' high-risk deeper targets in the Gulf of Mexico and its exploration strategy. The longest well in the world, drilled by Maersk Oil Qatar AS was also described. The article noted that the Danish company reported that the entire horizontal section of the well was placed within a reservoir target which was only 20 feet thick. Schlumberger helped Maersk Oil Qatar break several records with extended reach drilling (ERD) offshore well. This well set 10 records, including the longest well ever drilled; longest along-hole departure; longest 8 and a half inch section; highest ERD ratio; highest directional drilling difficulty index; deepest directional control; deepest downlink, MWD transmission and LWD geosteering; deepest battery-less operation; longest reservoir contact; and longest open hole. Last, the article discussed an unsuccessful well drilled by Murphy Oil Corporation known as the Manhattan well. 8 figs.

  4. Decommissioning of offshore installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeen, Sigrun; Iversen, Per Erik; Stokke, Reidunn; Nielsen, Frantz; Henriksen, Thor; Natvig, Henning; Dretvik, Oeystein; Martinsen, Finn; Bakke, Gunnstein

    2010-07-01

    expertise and overall assessments, and is best dealt with at central level. When new regulations have entered into force, the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority will be responsible for regulating radioactive releases and waste from the same facilities under the Pollution Control Act. This will require close coordination between the two agencies and makes it more important to transfer authority to the Climate and Pollution Agency. In addition, decommissioning of offshore facilities involves the oil and gas industry and may involve the import and export of waste, both areas where the Climate and Pollution Agency is already the competent authority. The costs of decommissioning the roughly 500 installations on the Norwegian continental shelf are uncertain, but a preliminary estimate suggests that the overall cost will be about NOK 160 billion. This estimate does not include the removal of fixed concrete substructures, since the costs of this are very uncertain at present.

  5. Climate Change, Globalization and Geopolitics in the New Maritime Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, L. W.

    2011-12-01

    Early in the 21st century a confluence of climate change, globalization and geopolitics is shaping the future of the maritime Arctic. This nexus is also fostering greater linkage of the Arctic to the rest of the planet. Arctic sea ice is undergoing a historic transformation of thinning, extent reduction in all seasons, and reduction in the area of multiyear ice in the central Arctic Ocean. Global Climate Model simulations of Arctic sea ice indicate multiyear ice could disappear by 2030 for a short period of time each summer. These physical changes invite greater marine access, longer seasons of navigation, and potential, summer trans-Arctic voyages. As a result, enhanced marine safety, environmental protection, and maritime security measures are under development. Coupled with climate change as a key driver of regional change is the current and future integration of the Arctic's natural wealth with global markets (oil, gas and hard minerals). Abundant freshwater in the Arctic could also be a future commodity of value. Recent events such as drilling for hydrocarbons off Greenland's west coast and the summer marine transport of natural resources from the Russian Arctic to China across the top of Eurasia are indicators of greater global economic ties to the Arctic. Plausible Arctic futures indicate continued integration with global issues and increased complexity of a range of regional economic, security and environmental challenges.

  6. Methodologies, solutions, and lessons learned from heavy oil well testing with an ESP, offshore UK in the Bentley field, block 9/3b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, Barny; Lucas-Clements, Charles; Kew, Steve [Xcite Energy Resources (United Kingdom); Shumakov, Yakov; Camilleri, Lawrence; Akuanyionwu, Obinna; Tonoglu, Ahmet [Schlumberger (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    Over the past decade, there has been an increase in hydrocarbon demand that led to the production of heavy oil fields in the United Kingdom continental shelf (UKCS). Most of the activity has been confined to exploration and appraisal drilling, the reason being the high uncertainty of the reservoir and fluid properties. Due to the operational complexity inherent to heavy oil, the use of conventional appraisal-well testing technology is limited. A novel technique developed to determine the most appropriate technology for testing wells with heavy oil using an electrical submersible pump (ESP) is presented in this paper. This technique was applied in the Bentley field. Some of the technical challenges include, maintaining fluid mobility using a surface-testing equipment, obtaining accurate flow measurements, a short weather window, and oil and gas separation for metering. Combining technologies such as dual-energy gamma ray venturi multiphase flowmeter, realtime monitoring, and ESP completion made it possible to execute the well test.

  7. Research and development on recovering techniques for response of major oil spill incident in offshore (research activity of Tsukuba Institute, Ship and Ocean Foundation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With financial assistance from the Sasakawa Foundation (Chairman Mr. Ryoichi Sasakawa), Tsukuba Institute of the Ship and Ocean Foundation was established in April 1978 to evaluate oil booms and oil recovery devices. The Institute boasts two special test facilities -- a rectangular tank and a large circulating water channel -- which can perform the experiments discharging oil on the water surface. Informations on the facilities possessed by OHMSETT was of great help to us for construction of our facilities. It is a strong proof of the tank's advantages that we were entrusted with model tests for IMO comparative study on oil tanker design last year. The principal particulars of these facilities are shown in Figures 1 and 2

  8. Thermomechanical cuttings cleaner – qualification for offshore treatment of oil contaminated cuttings on the norwegian continental shelf and martin linge case study

    OpenAIRE

    Ormeloh, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to introduce and qualify the Thermomechanical Cuttings Cleaner (TCC) technology for treatment of oil contaminated cuttings on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) with particular reference to the Martin Linge field development. In the first part, a summary of drilling waste, related regulation and waste management techniques is given to present the possible treatment and disposal options of oil contaminated cuttings. The thesis then informs about the TCC techn...

  9. The Arctic DP Research Project: Effective Stationkeeping in Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Skjetne

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Stress on the environment from a potentially growing energy use is set to rise. Without doubt the energy resources in Arctic regions will be developed. An important goal will be to exploit the resources offered by for instance the Barents Sea as a new European energy province, and to do this in accordance with the principles of sustainable development that have successfully been used e.g. in the North Sea. The special edition of MIC on Arctic DP presents a set of articles that summarize to an extent the activities of the research project Arctic DP: Safe and green dynamic positioning operations of offshore vessels in an Arctic environment. This project was awarded in 2010 by the Research Council of Norway (RCN as a competence-building project (KMB project to NTNU and its partners Kongsberg Maritime, DNV GL, and Statoil. The objective was to target some of the challenges related to safe Arctic offshore operations by dynamic positioning. In this first article of the Arctic DP special edition we discuss the background for and establishment of the project, its planning and execution, and project closure. An overview is given for the scientific and engineering research performed in the project, with an account of what we have considered as Effective stationkeeping in ice by dynamic positioning. The corresponding research activities conducted under this main theme is summarized.

  10. Arctic response strategy: Canadian Coast Guard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The revision of the Canadian Coast Guard's Arctic response strategy was described with particular focus on the consultative method used to ensure that all perspectives were taken into consideration. Some tankers used to re-supply fuel to remote Arctic communities carry more than 30,000 tonnes of product, putting them at risk for major spills. The Arctic response strategy was revised to emphasize recommendations for prevention, preparedness and response. Prevention was recognized as the most effective solution to oil spills in the Arctic. The leadership and coordination roles of the Canadian Coast Guard were demonstrated in relation to ship-source oil pollution. The new strategy also outlined the equipment requirements needed to respond to a large spill in the Arctic. Categorization of spill sizes as tier 1 to 4 was determined by examining southern regimes as was the characterization of corresponding equipment. Implementation of the new recommendations of the revised Arctic response strategy will take place over the next 2 years. The prevention aspect will include some legislative changes or stricter guidelines

  11. Arctic response strategy: Canadian Coast Guard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, J.C. [Canadian Coast Guard, Sarnia, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The revision of the Canadian Coast Guard's Arctic response strategy was described with particular focus on the consultative method used to ensure that all perspectives were taken into consideration. Some tankers used to re-supply fuel to remote Arctic communities carry more than 30,000 tonnes of product, putting them at risk for major spills. The Arctic response strategy was revised to emphasize recommendations for prevention, preparedness and response. Prevention was recognized as the most effective solution to oil spills in the Arctic. The leadership and coordination roles of the Canadian Coast Guard were demonstrated in relation to ship-source oil pollution. The new strategy also outlined the equipment requirements needed to respond to a large spill in the Arctic. Categorization of spill sizes as tier 1 to 4 was determined by examining southern regimes as was the characterization of corresponding equipment. Implementation of the new recommendations of the revised Arctic response strategy will take place over the next 2 years. The prevention aspect will include some legislative changes or stricter guidelines.

  12. Operational management of offshore energy assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolios, A. J.; Martinez Luengo, M.

    2016-02-01

    Energy assets and especially those deployed offshore are subject to a variety of harsh operational and environmental conditions which lead to deterioration of their performance and structural capacity over time. The aim of reduction of CAPEX in new installations shifts focus to operational management to monitor and assess performance of critical assets ensuring their fitness for service throughout their service life and also to provide appropriate and effective information towards requalification or other end of life scenarios, optimizing the OPEX. Over the last decades, the offshore oil & gas industry has developed and applied various approaches in operational management of assets through Structural Health and Condition Monitoring (SHM/CM) systems which can be, at a certain level, transferable to offshore renewable installations. This paper aims to highlight the key differences between offshore oil & gas and renewable energy assets from a structural integrity and reliability perspective, provide a comprehensive overview of different approaches that are available and applicable, and distinguish the benefits of such systems in the efficient operation of offshore energy assets.

  13. Arctic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) conducted a study of contamination of the Arctic Ocean and surrounding areas in order to better understand the severity of the problem and identify possible parallels in the United States. The findings were published in a quarterly report as a part of this technical task plan (TTP). While many radioactive and hazardous material contamination sites in this region have been identified, official Russian statements indicate that contaminant concentrations are within normal limits and are currently confined to specific areas

  14. The EU Offshore Safety Directive and its potential effects. Opportunity or handicap?; Die EU Offshore Safety Directive und ihre moeglichen Auswirkungen. Chance oder Handicap?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwiederowski, Claudia [RWE Dea AG, Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of the EU Offshore Safety Directive, which took effect on 18 July 2013, is to define minimum requirements for the prevention of severe accidents in connection with offshore crude oil or natural gas activities of any kind and the containment of the follow-on effects of such accidents. This is without question a logical consequence of the offshore incidents seen around the globe over the past decades. An interesting question in this context is for whom the EU Offshore Safety Directive has become an opportunity and for whom a handicap. [German] Ziel der am 18. Juli 2013 in Kraft getretenen EU Offshore Safety Direktive ist die Festlegung von Mindestanforderungen fuer die Verhinderung schwerer Unfaelle bei Offshore-Erdoel- bzw. - Erdgasaktivitaeten und die Begrenzung etwaiger Unfallfolgen. Nach den weltweiten Offshore- Ereignissen der vergangenen Jahrzehnte ist dies ohne Zweifel eine logische Entwicklung. Nun stellt sich die Frage: Fuer wen entwickelt sich die EU Offshore Safety Directive zur Chance, fuer wen zum Handicap?.

  15. New approach to the transportation and installation of heavy-weighted equipment offshore

    OpenAIRE

    Chernov, Dmitrii

    2015-01-01

    Installation of offshore equipment is a huge branch of business in the oil and gas industry. Almost every offshore project requires heavy-weighted equipment, which should be installed on the seabed. Recently, oil and gas companies instead of producing from platforms prefer to develop fields as subsea factories. Mentioned changes result in growing opportunities for offshore service companies, working in the field of transportation and installation, as the workload constantly ...

  16. Arctic Research of the United States, Spring 1990, volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jerry; Bowen, Stephen

    This is a journal for national and international audiences of government officials, scientists, engineers, educators, Arctic residents, and other people interested in Arctic-related topics. Reports cover a broad spectrum of life in the Arctic including such topics as fish, game, health, social services, science, engineering, environment, oceanography, international activities, international cooperation, global change, conferences, polar libraries, data, policies, research, and history. The emphasis in this issue is on the importance of the Arctic Ocean and its marginal seas to U.S. national interests, including fisheries, the oil and gas industries, and global climate change processes.

  17. 基于动态风险平衡的海洋平台事故连锁风险研究%On the risk chain of the offshore oil-drilling platform accidents based on the dynamic risk balance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭恒; 陈国明; 朱渊

    2012-01-01

    The present paper is aimed at introducing a dynamic model for the offshore oil-drilling platform accidents proposed by the authors based on the two concepts, that is, the accident impetus and accident obstruction. As is well known, due to its own restricted conditions, offshore platforms, on the event of fire or explosion, are likely to suffer tragic casualties and material losses, letting alone the environmental contamination. Based on investigating and analyzing plenty of offshore platform accidents both at home and abroad, we have brought forward a new approach to dealing with such tragic accidents, that is, to finding the accident dynamic model characterized as dynamic nature and transient stability. As a matter of fact, a regular oil-drilling platform tends to present a dynamic equilibrium state between the accident impetus and the accident obstruction, while the accident dynamic state indicates a kind of energy that tends to lead to the happening of an accident whereas there exists some kind of transmitting impetus that passes on the energy that may obstruct or prevent the accident from occurring. In view of the dynamic risk balance, we have come up with the accident dynamic model consisting of four steps: first of all, the offshore platform likely to lead to grave accidents are chosen as an object of study, and next, the corresponding factors likely to cause the accidents are analyzed from the points of view of accident-incidence process, and, last of all, the countermeasures were taken in engineering, technology and management. What's more, the risk statistical data and information concerning the accident chains are to be built up when the elementary accident impetus has been determined. And, by this moment, it would be necessary to work out the probability distribution of all transmitting impetus and obstruction factors in the circumstance that the elementary accident-incidence dynamic has been calculated. Furthermore, the analysis results should be made

  18. Emergency response in the Newfoundland offshore industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation reviewed current offshore oil activities with respect to safety issues regarding year-round marine operations in a harsh environment. Considerable logistics support is required for all offshore activities, including seismic and geotechnical surveys; exploration and production drilling; well testing; subsea construction; on-site production; and, delivery to market. Response to an offshore emergency must address the urgency of the incident along with stakeholder concerns. This presentation described the different types of emergencies and addressed issues regarding contingency planning; preventative measures; response philosophy; response scope; response at site; emergency management; communications links; and, oil spill response. The following current operations were highlighted: ExxonMobil's production drilling from the gravity-based concrete platform at Hibernia; Petro-Canada's production drilling at the Terra Nova FPSO; Husky Energy's production drilling at White Rose; and Chevron Canada's exploration drilling at the Orphan Basin. It was noted that in an emergency situation, the focus is on the welfare of offshore personnel. On an average day, the total offshore population is in the order of 1000 workers, all registered in the Personnel Logistics System which is updated with the departure of every helicopter from St. John's, Newfoundland or from the offshore platform. It is possible to prepare for foreseeable emergency incidents such as fire, explosion or gas leaks; spills to the marine environment; structural damage or collisions; persons lost at sea; helicopter or support vessel accidents; vessel sinking; sabotage; serious injuries or loss of life; severe ice events; and, loss of well control. The establishment of permanent safety zones at the Hibernia, White Rose and Terra Nova production fields are among the preventative measures, along with standby vessels that provide a rescue service for offshore installations. Supply vessels are also

  19. Does oil promote or prevent coups?

    OpenAIRE

    Nordvik, Frode Martin

    2014-01-01

    A large literature investigates the relation between oil and conflict, yet no empirical study has found any link between oil and coups d’´etat. Using a new data set on oil production separated into onshore and offshore production, and covering 172 countries from 1900 to 2012, onshore oil is seen to promote coup while offshore oil prevents them. A likely mechanism is that onshore oil motivates military build-ups, while offshore oil does not. From a political leader’s point of view, a large mil...

  20. The Future of the Arctic: A Key to Global Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Stipo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The USACOR Report forecasts that by 2050 the Arctic will become the major supplier of energy to the world, in particular oil and natural gas, and natural resources such as mineral water. In the coming decades, the population in the Arctic region is projected to increase significantly due to the expansion of exploration for resources. The Report recommends that a Zero emission policy be implemented throughout the Arctic area for water emissions into the seas, rivers, or estuaries and oceans. The Report recommends that the Arctic Council guarantees safe navigation and environmental protection, establishing a Fund to cover expenses to purchase icebreakers and towards the cost of the personnel in order to assist commercial navigation in the Arctic region. The Arctic Council shall also issue environmental rules to regulate the mineral exploitation in the region and ensure that the wildlife is protected and that the exploitation of resources is conducted in a sustainable manner.

  1. Characterisation of Gas-Liquid Interfaces related to Offshore Produced Water Treatment.: The Influence of Crude Oil Composition and different Brines with various pH.

    OpenAIRE

    Kløcker, Kaja Neeb

    2013-01-01

    Produced water is an environmental toxic and complex mixture, which is co-produced during gas and oil production. The aim of this study is to investigate the surface tension of the produced water with a bubble pressure tensiometer, BP100. The influence of the pH of the brine and the brine composition were studied together with the effect of the crude oil composition. The results were supposed to be related to flotation, which is a common separation technique regarding produced water treatment...

  2. International participation in Russia's oil sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The active role of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) in the oil and gas sector of the former Soviet Union was discussed. The EBRD was formed in 1991 with a mandate to help Central and Eastern European countries, particularly countries of the former Soviet Union, to make a transition from the command economy to a market economy. To date, the EBRD has made 15 investments in oil and gas projects with total project costs of nearly $2 billion US. The first projects were joint venture projects with western oil companies. Some of these were the Chernogorskoye project in the Nizhnevortovsk oil region, the Polar Lights project in the Russian Timan-Pechora region, the KomiArctic Oil project in the Komi region of the Russian Federation, two Fracmaster projects and the Geoilbent project. The first years of the projects were difficult, due to the strains of trying to adapt to new challenges and changes. The fiscal regime has changed with time and new taxes have been added and others changed. Many of the legal issues with past projects have been solved. One area of concern with the joint ventures is the export of the produced oil to western markets to achieve international market prices. At present, the joint ventures export between 30 to 50 per cent of their production, but the the Russian Federation would like to increase its export capacity. Production Sharing Agreements (PSAs) have been found to be particularly suitable for the development of large oil fields such as the offshore Sakhalin Island project in the far east of the Russian Federation. Western companies such as Shell, Marathon, Mitsui and Mitsubishi are involved in the first of these developments. Azerbaijan and the Caspian Sea area are other regions outside the Russian Federation which have important potential for international participation in the development of oil fields. Efforts are being made to rehabilitate the fields and to partially rebuild existing pipelines and to construct new

  3. Canadian offshore standards become world model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newfoundland's emerging offshore industry is becoming known not only for its frontier petroleum exploration and development expertise, but it is also gaining international recognition for making good use of its experience to provide advice to future developers on how to deal with multiple levels of governments and community groups, infrastructure development, adverse effects on the local environment, society and the economy. The companies active offshore-Newfoundland have acquired world-class expertise from working their offshore oil fields on the Grand Banks. There is a steady demand for that expertise for application in other regions, mostly from oil-industry personnel. Requests for sharing that experience have come from the United States, Norway and Australia, but also from within Canada, particularly from British Columbia. In British Columbia, coastal exploration has been going on since the early 1900s, with increasing concern for the impact of petroleum activity on the coastal environment, culminating with the imposition of a moratorium in 1959. Now, the British Columbia government is interested in learning about the procedures it should follow to reach a decision on whether to lift the moratorium in effect (on and off) since 1959. The interest in possible resumption of exploration and development activity is motivated by recent studies by the Geological Survey of Canada, which suggest a hydrocarbon potential five times greater than the Hibernia oil field off Newfoundland. An indication of this interest in opening up the west coast to offshore exploration is the recent seminar at Memorial University in St. John's. Speakers at the seminar presented an overview of the lessons learned from the east coast, the social and economic impacts of offshore oil and gas development and how such development might co-exist with British Columbia's marine ecosystem and fishery resources

  4. From Offshoring to Backshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Madsen, Erik Skov

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolution of offshoring over time. The paper employs qualitative methodology and on the basis of two case studies of Danish companies, it develops a framework conceptualizing the stages of offshoring and highlights the factors driving the transition...... between these stages. The framework challenges the linear nature of offshoring and proposes the existence of ‘the pendulum effect’. The pendulum effect suggests that the modes of offshoring (i.e. captive and non-captive) and geographies of offshoring (i.e. home and abroad) are not static; rather, they...... attention of academia and practitioners. The paper discusses the possible implications of offshoring in the next era of Chinese manufacturing and closes with limitations and possible future extensions of the study....

  5. Application of Modular Construction Technology in Offshore Oil Platform Fabrication%模块化建造技术在海洋平台建造中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国中; 高指林; 孙瑜; 韩小康; 郑晓娟

    2014-01-01

    Traditional ways of offshore oil platform construction often feature long construction period, large human resource inputs, lots of temporary construction facilities, greater impact on surrounding environment, numerous cross-operations and great difficulty in safety management and project management. In the paper, the idea of modular design and construction was applied in the construction process of oil platforms. Through simultaneous construction of these modules in different locations, assembling and debugging on slides, the whole platform was finished. In the end, the modular construction process, application of modularization in design and construction of platforms and relative noti-fications were proposed and advantages of modular construction were summarized to provide references for the con-struction of offshore platforms and similar structures.%针对传统的海洋石油平台建造工期长,人力、建造资源投入量大,需要建设大量的临时施工设施,对周边环境影响较大,在同一时间、同一地点存在大量的交叉作业,安全管理和项目管理难度较大等特点,将模块化设计、建造技术的建造思路应用于石油平台的建造过程中,在不同的地点并行建造模块,尽可能多地完成模块上工作,然后在滑道上进行总装和调试,进而完成整平台的建造。提出模块化建造流程、模块化在平台设计与建造中的应用及注意事项,总结了模块化建造的优势,为海洋平台及类似结构物的建造提供借鉴。

  6. Why offshore wind energy?

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban Pérez, María Dolores; Diez Gonzalez, Jose Javier; López Gutiérrez, José Santos; Negro Valdecantos, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    At the beginning of 2010, only 2000 wind megawatts had been installed offshore. Although the first offshore wind farm experiment took place in 1990, most of the facilities built up to now have been pilot projects. Then, offshore wind power can be considered as an incipient market. However, just at this moment, the growth of this technology finally seems to be happening, being several countries at the top of its development (the United Kingdom, Denmark, Holland, Sweden and Germany). This curre...

  7. Offshore vindindustri i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejer, Ina; Andersen, Poul Houman; Gjerding, Allan Næs

    Rapporten giver en karakteristik af forretningssystemet for offshore vindenergi i Danmark, og undersøger som et led heri hvordan virksomhedernes aktiviteter er organiseret, og i hvilken retning systemet udvikler sig. Rapporten præsenterer en status over danskbaserede virksomheder med aktiviteter...... inden for offshore vindenergi og giver et indblik i hvilke udviklingsudfordringer, offshore vindområdet står overfor....

  8. Verdivurdering av BW Offshore

    OpenAIRE

    Kalleberg, Carl-Fredrik; Storebø, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Målet med oppgaven var å gjennomføre en verdivurdering av BW Offshore. Problemstillingen var å finne egenkapitalverdien for en privat investor i BW Offshore og deretter komme med en handelsanbefaling på BWO aksjen. For å gjennomføre verdivurderingen valgte vi en fundamentalanalyse ved bruk av den diskonterte kontantstrømmodellen. Vi supplerte verdivurderingen med en komparativ- og sensitivitetsanalyse. BW Offshore opererer innenfor exploration & production (E&P) i offshorebr...

  9. Emulation and Control of Slugging Flows in a Gas-Lifted Offshore Oil Production Well Through a Lab-sized Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Kasper Lund; Hansen, Leif; Mai, Christian;

    2013-01-01

    In the oil and gas industry, the gas-lift assist approach is often used in the roduction wells when the reservoir pressure is insufficient to ensure cost-effective production. However the side-effect of this approach is the often occurrence of regular/irregular large oscillations of the production...

  10. Markets for Canadian oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference presentation presented charts and graphs on the market for Canadian oil. Graphs included crude oil and natural gas prices and heavy oil discount differential. Graphs depicting heavy oil economics such as bitumen blending with condensate were also included along with global crude oil reserves by country. Information on oil sands projects in the Athabasca, Peace River, and Cold Lake deposits was presented along with graphs on oil sands supply costs by recovery type; Canadian production for conventional, oil sands and offshore oil; new emerging oil sands crude types; and 2003 market demand by crude type in the United States and Canada. Maps included Canada and United States crude oil pipelines; western Canadian crude oil markets; long term oil pipeline expansion projects; Canadian and United States crude oil pipeline alternatives; and potential tanker markets for Canadian oil sands production. Lastly, the presentation provided graphs on 2003 refinery crude demand and California market demand. tabs., figs

  11. Oil companies make cutbacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As oil prices are falling, the oil sector faces company restructuring, merger projects, closure of oil fields, and so on. Restructuring is motivated by the costs of offshore exploration and oil production projects. Saudi Arabia tries to fight the emergence of shale gases by reducing oil prices, and somehow succeeds as some projects in the USA are put into question again. Experts perceive this situation as an opportunity for the sector to improve its efficiency and reduce over-staffing

  12. From Cold War to Arctic Battle?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Boris Brorman

    2012-01-01

    Greenland and the whole Arctic region is becoming a geopolitical hot spot. The opening of new potential sail routes to Asia and the possible exploitation of oil, gas and other natural resources like rare earth minerals are creating a window of opportunity for Greenland. What are the risks and who...

  13. Project alliancing in the offshore industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the shift towards new types of project organisation within the offshore industry is explained and discussed. Special focus is given to the organisational concept of project alliancing. The principles, structure and culture of a project alliance as applied within the offshore industry are described. In the paper the organisational concept of project alliancing is discussed on its potential to reduce project costs and enhance profits, both for the operator (oil and gas company) as well as for participating contractors. A risk and reward mechanism developed to share project risks and rewards between allied parties is explained for an alliance case. Based upon an in-depth study carried out within a contractor company in the offshore industry the organisational and financial implications of project alliancing are presented. (author)

  14. Oil Rig Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather observations taken at offshore platforms along the United States coastlines. The majority are located in oil-rich areas of the Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of...

  15. Sea-ice hazards, associated risks and implications for human activities in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicken, Hajo; Mahoney, Andrew; Jones, Joshua

    2014-05-01

    Arctic sector, major reductions in summer sea ice extent and presence of multiyear ice have exposed large stretches of coastline to warmer waters and increased fetch, contributing to increased coastal erosion and thermal subrosion of permafrost. Changing ice dynamics, with reductions in the persistence and stability of shorefast ice and increases in sediment transport by sea ice, aggravate these processes. A case study from our coastal ice observatory at Barrow, Alaska in conjunction with analysis of remote sensing data on coastal ice persistence and stability illustrates some of these processes. For maritime activities, sea-ice hazards can result in substantial risks, e.g., of major oil spills or accidents, if conflated with faults or failures of equipment, procedures or decision-making. Our current understanding of key sea-ice processes that govern its role as a hazard needs to be updated in light of rapid changes in Arctic marine environments. This will be illustrated by examples drawn from a study to provide baseline data in the evaluation of threats to coastal and offshore infrastructure.

  16. Waste management guidelines for remote (Arctic) regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, E.H.; Taylor, E. [Polaris Applied Sciences Inc., Bainbridge Island, WA (United States); O' Connell, K.; Smith, C. [Oil Spill Training Co., Inverness, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Oil spill response operations in Arctic regions involve well planned logistics support due to the remoteness and lack of infrastructure in most locations. The waste material generated by oil spill response field activities must be managed, recycled or disposed. In remote areas, in-situ shoreline treatment options are preferred since they require minimal manpower and generate very little waste. The Emergency Prevention, Preparation and Response Working Group of the Arctic Council has developed guidelines and strategies for oil spill waste management in Arctic regions. In addition, a waste management calculator software program was developed to provide a planning framework to illustrate the potential consequences of different options for different shore types and oil types. Potential shoreline treatment waste generation volumes and waste types can then be identified. The planning tool identifies the preferred shoreline treatment options, estimates the amount of waste that would be generated and identifies the amount and per cent of the types of waste that are associated with each treatment option. A review of 11 case studies has shown that there is no correlation between the volumes of waste generated by shoreline treatment response activities and the original volume of spilled oil. Rather, the volume of waste generated during a response operation is a function of the nature of the spill, location, and length of oiled shoreline, combined with decisions made by the spill management team and the selected treatment methods. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  17. 基于粗糙理论的海上石油平台溢油污染风险评价权重确定%Determining Weight of Risk Assessment of Oil Spill on Offshore Platform Based on Rough Set Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琼; 陆能枝

    2013-01-01

    Establishes assessment index system of oil spill for the offshore oil plat form by analyzing the influenced factors related to the degree of oil pollution. Combining with attribute rough set sig-nificance, translates determining weight into estimating significance of attributes among rough sets. Establishes a relation data model about Oil Spill on Offshore Platform risk assessment, cal-culates the risk assessment model weights. The proposed approach overcomes the subjectivity of traditional determination to weight, and makes risk assessment more objective, the model could provide new method for oil pollution index weight calculation.%通过分析与溢油污染程度有关的影响因素,构建海上石油平台溢油污染程度评价指标体系。结合粗糙集属性重要度理论,将权重确定问题转化为粗糙集中属性重要性评价问题,建立海上石油平台溢油风险的关系数据模型,计算出风险评价模型的权重。该方法克服了传统权重确定方法的主观性,使风险评价方法更具客观性,为计算溢油污染指标权重提供新方法。

  18. Climate change impacts on northern offshore petroleum operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented of the possible impacts of climate change on Arctic offshore petroleum operations, focusing on those in the Beaufort Sea region. About 140 wells have been drilled to date in this area, about half from artificial islands, a third from ships, and the rest from offshore platforms. The presence of ice cover nine months of the year, coupled with the variability of the open-water season, makes offshore operations in the Beaufort costly and requires unconventional technological approaches, including the use of ice itself as a construction material for offshore platforms. Changes to be expected in the Beaufort region under climate change scenarios involving a doubling of atmospheric CO2 are summarized. In the Atmospheric Environment Service/Canadian Climate Centre model, results show a 8 degree C rise in February temperatures, a decrease in ice thickness, a 30-d increase in the open water season at 72 degree North Latitude, and higher extreme wave heights. In general, if ice conditions become less severe under a climate warming scenario, offshore petroleum operations will become easier and less costly. Specific examples of easier and less costly operations are illustrated. There would be a tendency to a greater use of floating systems, a longer open-water season would facilitate construction and tanker transport, and could reduce ice-load factors on platforms. The economics of Beaufort operations would still be in question, as conventional offshore technology would still not be possible. 16 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Offshoring research directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuijsen, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Outsourcing and offshoring provide companies with ways to achieve their business objectives better or more cost effectively or despite a shortage of specific resources. From a research point of view, outsourcing and offshoring have mostly been studied as something that large companies do, not small

  20. Technological and economic factors in the future development and utilization of Arctic natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of Arctic gas reserves will be accelerated during the next two decades in response to higher oil prices, environmental and safety advantages of gas, and the potentially low costs of tapping giant reservoirs. Total Arctic gas reserves are estimated at over 63 trillion m3. Due to low population and industrial activity in the Arctic, only limited markets for Arctic gas exist in the Arctic itself. The main part of Arctic gas must therefore be transported over long distances. Giant Arctic gas fields will provide a basis for different production alternatives including both pipeline gas, liquefied gas, and converted gas products. Transportation systems are the most critical part of Arctic natural gas development and the sector requiring the greatest investment. Major investment decisions will depend on accurate estimates of gas transport technology and economics, as well as on perceived energy market share growth and geopolitical stability. 27 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Simulation and Optimization in Offshore Wind Turbine Structural Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zwick, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The public interest in renewable energy resources is continuously growing as issues of pollution and shortage of limited resources as coal or oil become evident. One promising technical solution for the extraction of renewable energy is to install wind turbines offshore. Stronger and more steady winds as well as the reduced need for land area are substantial advantages compared to onshore wind turbine installations. However, higher costs for offshore installations as well as op...

  2. Strategic Trajectories in the Offshoring and Offshore Outsourcing Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we examine the offshoring and offshore outsourcing process and the strategic trajectories underlying it, including both the internal venturing and the external outsourcing process. We define and present various perspectives on the offshoring and offshore outsourcing process. We then...

  3. Indian offshore wind energy policy - lessons from Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, S.; Dhingra, T. [Univ. of Petroleum and Energy Studies (UPES), Dehradun (India)

    2012-07-01

    Indian Economy is growing at 8% for the past few years and is expected to continue this momentum into the foreseeable future. To sustain this growth, power sector needs to build additional generation capacity at an unprecedented pace. However, continued dependence on fossil fuels (especially Coal and Oil) to power the growth of electricity generation capacity, is hardly sustainable in the long run. The reasons are well known - Environmental concerns, depleting fossil fuel resources, excessive dependency on Oil imports - that it hardly merits repetition. Renewable Energy source forms a miniscule portion (25 GW, {approx} 12%) of India's overall Energy consumption today (202 GW). The share of wind energy (17 GW) is 67% of the total renewable energy basket. But the contribution from offshore wind farms is non-existent, as all the wind energy generated in India is only through onshore Wind farms. India needs a policy framework to encourage the development of offshore wind farms. Several European countries, most notably the UK, Germany and Denmark, have effective offshore wind energy policies that have helped them to accelerate the growth of their offshore wind energy sector. This paper does an exhaustive study to identify the building blocks of a successful offshore wind energy policy initiative adopted by selected European countries, which can be leveraged by India to articulate its own offshore wind energy policy. This paper also suggests a model to predict the log-odds of growth of offshore wind energy sector in India. (Author)

  4. Risk-based Inspection Planning Optimisation of Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, José Rangel; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    inspection strategies to ‘control’ the deterioration in facilities such as offshore wind turbines (OWT), where fatigue and corrosion are typically affecting these structures. This article considers an RBI approach applied to OWT based on the developed methodologies for oil and gas installations, but......Wind industry is substantially propelled and the future scenarios designate offshore locations as important sites for energy production. With this development, offshore wind farms represent a feasible option to accomplish the needed energy, bringing with it technical and economical challenges...

  5. Rapid Arctic change and implications for sea-ice use and its management at the local and regional level: An example from Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicken, H.; Lovecraft, A. L.; Meek, C. L.; Druckenmiller, M. L.

    2008-12-01

    Reductions in sea-ice thickness and summer extent over the past few decades have been particularly pronounced in Alaska. This rapid environmental change coincides with significant socio-economic transformations, including increased ship traffic and offshore oil and gas development. Adaptation and response to these changes and regulation of coastal and offshore activities require environmental data and projections on seasonal to decadal timescales. Nascent Arctic observation networks are of great potential value in this context. However, in order for such observing and associated modeling activities to be useful, several criteria have to be met: (1) observations need to be relevant to stakeholders adapting or responding to a changing ice regime, (2) data products need to be accessible and interpretable by those they are meant to serve, and (3) institutions and governance strategies need to be in place to allow effective utilization of environmental data and information on changing ice conditions. We show how the concept of sea-ice system services can help guide observing programs, in particular in situations with conjoined uses of the ice cover. An example from our work in Arctic Alaska illustrates this concept for the use of sea ice as a platform by indigenous hunters, industry and marine mammals. Adaptive responses by different user groups to the substantial variability observed in local-scale ice conditions will require a significant effort in downscaling standard sea-ice data products and integrating new types of measurements. The challenge for ice-covered waters is that current approaches governing utilization of the sea-ice environment may not always be effective in addressing conjoined, potentially conflicting uses. The major transformations underway in the Arctic now provide us with an opportunity to explore and evaluate different approaches of observing, adapting and responding to change.

  6. Offshore Gas-to-Liquid Production

    OpenAIRE

    Urazgaliyeva, Gaukhar

    2013-01-01

    Gas-to-liquid (GTL) production technology is a process by which associated natural gas is chemically converted into liquid products, such as liquefied natural gas (LNG), methanol and liquid transportation fuels. The process is an attractive alternative for the utilization of large amounts of the world?s offshore associated gas which is normally stranded, flared or re-injected. It is well known that the most stranded oil and gas fields are in deep water, and the recovered associated gas cannot...

  7. Assessing offshore wind potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantifying wind potential is a pivotal initial step in developing and articulating a state’s policies and strategies for offshore wind industry development. This is particularly important in the Great Lakes States where lessons from other offshore environments are not directly applicable. This paper presents the framework developed for conducting a preliminary assessment of offshore wind potential. Information on lake bathymetry and wind resources were combined in simulating alternative scenarios of technically feasible turbine construction depths and distance concerns by stakeholders. These yielded estimates of developable offshore wind areas and potential power generation. While concerns about the visibility of turbines from shore reduce the power that can be generated, engineering solutions that increase the depths at which turbines can be sited increase such potential power output. This paper discusses the costs associated with technical limitations on depth and the social costs related to public sentiments about distance from the shoreline, as well as the possible tradeoffs. The results point to a very large untapped energy resource in the Michigan’s Great Lakes, large enough to prompt policy action from the state government. - Highlights: ▶ We build a theoretical framework for modeling offshore wind power production. ▶ Illustration of the impact of technology and social limitations on offshore wind energy development. ▶ Geospatial modeling of the offshore wind potential of the Great Lakes.

  8. Offshore wind energy prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In last two years offshore wind energy is becoming a focal point of national and non national organisations particularly after the limitations of fossil fuel consumption, adopted by many developed countries after Kyoto conference at the end of 1997 on global climate change. North Europe is particularly interested in offshore for the limited land areas still available, due to the intensive use of its territory and its today high wind capacity. Really the total wind capacity in Europe could increase from the 1997 value of 4450 MW up to 40 000 MW within 2010, according the White Paper 1997 of the European Commission; a significant percentage (25%) could be sited offshore up to 10 000 MW, because of close saturation of the land sites at that time. World wind capacity could increase from the 1997 value of 7200 MW up to 60 000 MW within 2010 with a good percentage (20%) offshore 12 000 MW. In last seven years wind capacity in shallow water of coastal areas has reached 34 MW. Five wind farms are functioning in the internal seas of Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden; however such siting is mostly to be considered as semi-offshore condition. Wind farms in real offshore sites, open seas with waves and water depth over 10 m, are now proposed in North Sea at 10-20 km off the coasts of Netherlands, Denmark using large size wind turbine (1-2 MW). In 1997 an offshore proposal was supported in Netherlands by Greenpeace after the OWEMES '97 seminar, held in Italy on offshore wind in the spring 1997. A review is presented in the paper of European offshore wind programs with trends in technology, economics and siting effects. (Author)

  9. Russian Arctic Petroleum Resources Ressources pétrolières de l’Arctique russe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolotukhin A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic continental shelf is believed to be the area with the highest unexplored potential for oil and gas as well as for unconventional hydrocarbon resources such as gas hydrates. Despite a common view that the Arctic has plentiful of hydrocarbon resources, there are ongoing debates regarding the potential of this region as a future energy supply base. Driving forces for such discussions are geopolitics, environmental concern, assessment and delineation of Arctic resources, technology available for their successful development and the market demand for energy supply. The Russian part is recognized to be the largest among oil and gas resources owned by Arctic nations. However, scarce information and available geological data create uncertainty regarding a future role of the Russian Arctic as main base of energy supply in the second part of the XXI century. A further uncertainty is the pace at which production from northern areas including the Arctic will be brought onstream – either because of national policy, infrastructure development or investment by the state and the oil companies. These areas embrace those where development has already been started (Offshore Sakhalin, northern Timan Pechora and those awaiting future involvement, like Barents and Pechora seas, East Siberia, Yamal, Kara Sea and Kamchatka. Offhore production levels are likely to be very important to Russia in mid and long terms, especially as most (if not all production will go for export and, in the process, open doors to new markets. In this way, offshore production will introduce a new and very significant component to Russia’s export strategy. However, active involvement of the Russian Arctic resources in the global energy supply process needs a detailed analysis and clear understanding of the market potential for Russian gas and oil (required volumes, time frame, transportations routes and requires close attention of the government to the most important issues that

  10. Robots for applications in deep water for development of offshore oil and gas fields; Meeresroboter fuer die Erschliessung mariner Oel- und Gasfelder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aust, E. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofforschung; Niemann, H.R. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofforschung

    1996-12-31

    About 10 years ago the use of industrial robots e.g. in facilities for the production of oil and gas in deep water was a forward-looking vision. Today the first robot prototype exists and is qualified for work in 1 100 m water depth. German scientistis have particular knowledge in this subject and are leading in this robot development. The report highlights the course and main development steps and indicates some fields of future applications. (orig.) [Deutsch] Noch vor 10 Jahren war der Einsatz unterwassertauglicher Industrieroboter z.B. im Bereich der Oel- und Gasgewinnung aus dem Meer eine Zukunftsvision. Heute hat diese Vision mit dem ersten Roboter-Prototyp fuer 1 100 m Wassertiefe konkrete Gestalt angenommen. Noch stehen deutsche Forscher mit in vorderster Front dieser Roboter-Spezialentwicklung. Der Bericht gibt einen Ueberblick ueber den Weg bis zur abschliessenden Erprobung, wesentliche Schritte der Entwicklung und Moeglichkeiten zukuenftiger Anwendungen. (orig.)

  11. Import, Offshoring and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosse, Henrik Barslund; Maitra, Madhura

    ) because all existing workers get higher pay (rent sharing effect). Using Danish worker-firm data we explain how much each channel contributes to higher wages. To estimate the causal effect of offshoring on wages we use China’s accession to the WTO in December 2001 - and the soon after boom in Chinese...... exports - as positive exogenous shocks to the incentive to offshore to China. Both skill composition and rent sharing effects are found to be important in explaining the resultant gain in wages. We also show that the firm’s timing in the offshoring process determines the relative importance of a channel...

  12. Panorama 2015 - New conventional oil and gas discoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exploration expenditure rose sharply in 2013, as in the previous year. The overall results for 2014 are likely to show more modest growth at around 5%. In ten years, exploration budgets have increased fivefold, which has led to some major discoveries; but since 2010, the volumes discovered have fallen every year despite the continuing increase in spending. In 2013, 17 billion barrels of oil equivalent (Gboe) were discovered. This is less than both the amount for the previous year and the ten-year average. The initial estimates for 2014 suggest a stabilization of volumes discovered at the same level as 2013. The continuing decline in offshore discoveries in Brazil and East Africa, where operators have cut back on their exploration programmes, appears to have been partly offset by the increase in border areas, such as the pre-salt reservoirs in West Africa and the Russian Arctic. (authors)

  13. Arctic Legal System: a New Sustainable Development Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sahu Manjeet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, the term ‘Arctic’ was used synonymously with the term ‘ice’, but climate change and Arctic hydrocarbon grabbed the attention of the world community as an opportunity to make the Arctic an ‘Energy Hub’. Exploration of oil and gas over the past six decades in the Arctic has made the region as places in the world. All major players in the market have endeavored to approach this new energy basket to utilize its maximum benefit. Commercial exploitation of natural resources has made this place a center for the regulation of oil and gas activities. However, petroleum exploration and its operation have had significant local detrimental impacts on the atmosphere, inhabitants and marine environment. Geologists have always believed in the huge reserves of oil and gas in the Arctic Region. However, the exploration of oil and gas started as recently as the mid-1950s. An increase in the demand of oil and gas in the international market, as well as its growing scarcity, compelled the world to locate oil and gas reserves in various regions. It is significant to note that the Arctic states are strategically going to control the excessive exploitation of Arctic hydrocarbon with much profitability. However, it is still a far sighted question ‘whether Arctic will provide direct competition to the Middle East’ and become another hub in the energy market.

  14. Offshore Wind Power Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Zeni, Lorenzo;

    2012-01-01

    – Storm management at national and European level. For that, detailed scenarios for offshore wind power development by 2020 and 2030 were required. The aggregation level that is suitable for the analysis to be done is at wind farm level. Therefore, the scenarios for offshore wind power development offer...... details about the wind farms such as: capacity and coordinates. Since the focus is on the impact of storm fronts passage in Northen Europe, the offshore wind power scenarios were estimated only for the countries at North and Baltic Sea. The sources used are public sources, mentioned in the reference list...... this work was to create a dataset containing forecast and realised wind power time series with hourly resolution. The database should cover all Europe, i.e. onshore and offshore and it will be further used in the project for the economic assessment impact, Tasks 16.2.2 and 16.2.3. For the onshore wind...

  15. Offshoring R&D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2010-01-01

    Companies are increasingly offshoring R&D activities. Many firms, however, experience difficulties related to virtual teamwork across cultures and time zones. The research question is: How does increasing R&D offshoring impact transparency of communication structures and knowledge sharing? Using...... case studies from Danish multinational corporations with R&D activities in China, India or Eastern Europe this paper analyses the impact observed in these companies in regard to communication structures and knowledge sharing in management of offshored R&D activities. The findings show that companies...... complexity of the R&D activity. This paper shows that management of offshored R&D activities touches upon many key management dilemmas like trust, control and knowledge sharing....

  16. Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslyng Olesen, Thomas

    challenges and opportunities for the companies engaged in the different parts of the sector. The report is developed from interviews with top management of key players in the Danish supply industry combined with studies on management literature. The macro- and meso levels of the offshore sector are examined...... at Copenhagen Business School with a focus on value creation in the maritime industries. The project embraces various maritime segments from shipping and offshore to ports and suppliers. The research questions for the individual projects have been formulated by researchers at CBS Maritime in...... cooperation with companies in the maritime sector. This report “Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics – Business strategies in the offshore supply industry” is the second report in mapping project D. It examines the markets and business strategies of various suppliers and furthermore presents an analysis of the...

  17. Offshoring in Textile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    MONTÓN GARCÍA, JORGE

    2015-01-01

    [ EN] This project is about offshoring in the textile industry, focusing in the rights violated in this process, this concept can be defined as the moving of various operations of a company to another country for reasons such as lower labor costs or more favorable economic conditions in that other country. The project describes the evolution of offshoring, which started in 1960’s and has continued since then; it was characterized primarily by the transferring of factories from the develope...

  18. Confiabilidad Operativa de Sistemas para Compresión de Gas y Generación Eléctrica en Complejos Petroleros Operating Reliability of Gas Compression and Power Generation Systems in Offshore Oil Installations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco P Flores

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una comparación de tres alternativas tecnológicas para generación eléctrica y compresión de gas en complejos procesadores de aceite crudo, factibles de instalar en México. La comparación se realiza con base en los resultados de evaluaciones de confiabilidad operativa utilizando el método de diagramas de bloques. Se incluyen algunos conceptos relativos a la teoría de confiabilidad de sistemas y se define el tipo de modelo de confiabilidad utilizado, el cual corresponde a un arreglo en paralelo con redundancia en reserva pasiva y sin incluir mantenimiento en sus componentes. Asimismo, se describen las alternativas y los escenarios operativos analizados, se presentan los diagramas de bloques para cada alternativa, así como los resultados de confiabilidad, los cuales indican que el uso de motores eléctricos para compresión de gas y motores de combustión interna para generación eléctrica resulta más confiable que usar turbinas de gas.This paper presents a study that compares operative results for three technological alternatives to produce electricity and compress gas in offshore crude oil processing facilities to be installed in Mexico. The comparison of alternatives is made based on system reliability estimations by using the “reliability block diagram” method. The fundamental concepts of the systems reliability theory are pointed out, and the reliability model is defined as a parallel arrangement with redundancy in passive reserve and without maintenance for any component. Likewise, the alternatives, and the analyzed operative scenarios are described, including the block diagrams and reliability results for each option. The results of the study show that using electrical motors to compress gas and internal combustion engines to produce electricity is more reliable than using gas turbines.

  19. Offshore Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strach-Sonsalla, Mareike; Stammler, Matthias; Wenske, Jan; Jonkman, Jason; Vorpahl, Fabian

    2016-07-27

    In 1991, the Vindeby Offshore Wind Farm, the first offshore wind farm in the world, started feeding electricity to the grid off the coast of Lolland, Denmark. Since then, offshore wind energy has developed from this early experiment to a multibillion dollar market and an important pillar of worldwide renewable energy production. Unit sizes grew from 450 kW at Vindeby to the 7.5 MW-class offshore wind turbines (OWT ) that are currently (by October 2014) in the prototyping phase. This chapter gives an overview of the state of the art in offshore wind turbine (OWT) technology and introduces the principles of modeling and simulating an OWT. The OWT components -- including the rotor, nacelle, support structure, control system, and power electronics -- are introduced, and current technological challenges are presented. The OWT system dynamics and the environment (wind and ocean waves) are described from the perspective of OWT modelers and designers. Finally, an outlook on future technology is provided. The descriptions in this chapter are focused on a single OWT -- more precisely, a horizontal-axis wind turbine -- as a dynamic system. Offshore wind farms and wind farm effects are not described in detail in this chapter, but an introduction and further references are given.

  20. ARCTIC LEGAL SYSTEM: A N EW SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    KUMAR SAHU MANJEET

    2016-01-01

    Historically, the term ‘Arctic’ was used synonymously with the term ‘ice’, but climate change and Arctic hydrocarbon grabbed the attention of the world community as an opportunity to make the Arctic an ‘Energy Hub’. Exploration of oil and gas over the past six decades in the Arctic has made the region as places in the world. All major players in the market have endeavored to approach this new energy basket to utilize its maximum benefit. Commercial exploitation of natural resources has made t...

  1. Reestruturação produtiva, terceirização e relações de trabalho na indústria petrolífera offshore da Bacia de Campos (RJ Productive reorganization, outsourcing and labor relations in an offshore oil industry in Campos Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Alvarez

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as correlações do uso intensivo da tercerização com as relações de trabalho nas plataformas offshore da Bacia de Campos (RJ. Abordamos prioritariamente o intervalo que abrange os últimos 10 anos, período em que acompanhamos de forma sistemática o referido campo empírico. O referencial teórico-metodológico utilizado no curso da pesquisa, na qual se insere esta contribuição, inspira-se com maior ênfase no instrumental da Ergonomia da Atividade e da Psicodinâmica do Trabalho numa perspectiva ergológica. Em nossa análise, além da tendência à precarização do trabalho em sentido mais global, merecem destaque as possíveis perdas no ativo de conhecimento formal e informal (um patrimônio longamente acumulado devido à fragmentação dos coletivos de trabalho, já que consideramos a coesão destes um elemento crucial para a confiabilidade do sistema. Em verdade, a precarização do trabalho contribui para esta fragmentação, e tem como uma de suas causas o avanço pouco criterioso da terceirização, na esteira das várias iniciativas de flexibilização organizacional ligadas à reestruturação produtiva do setor. Isto acarretou conseqüências nefastas para a saúde e a segurança dos trabalhadores indicando que a opção pela terceirização como instrumento de gestão, da forma com que vinha sendo conduzida até recentemente, não estaria considerando tais implicações com o devido rigor.This paper analyses the correlations between the intensive use of outsourcing and labor organizations on offshore oil platforms in the Campos Basin (Rio de Janeiro. We studied and followed the reported empirical field over the last 10 years in a systematic way. The theorist-methodological referential applied in our research, in which this work can be found, was inspired by Ergonomics of the Activity and the Psycho Dynamic of the Work. In our analysis, two aspects should be mentioned: the tendency of increasing

  2. High-tech First Used in Sino-Foreign Offshore Cooperative Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Yin; Yan Hao; WANG Keyu

    1996-01-01

    @@ China's largest offshore cooperative oilfield - Liuhua 11-1 Oilfield, which has been jointly developed by China Offshore Oil Nanhai East Corp. and Amoco Orient Petroleum Co. as well as Kerr-McGee China Ltd., was put intoproduction at the end of March 1996.

  3. Federal offshore statistics: 1995 - leasing, exploration, production, and revenue as of December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaechter, R.A.

    1997-07-01

    This report provides data on federal offshore operations for 1995. Information is included for leasing activities, development, petroleum and natural gas production, sales and royalties, revenue from federal offshore leasing, disbursement of federal revenues, reserves and resource estimates, and oil pollution in U.S. and international waters.

  4. Federal offshore statistics: 1995 - leasing, exploration, production, and revenue as of December 31, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides data on federal offshore operations for 1995. Information is included for leasing activities, development, petroleum and natural gas production, sales and royalties, revenue from federal offshore leasing, disbursement of federal revenues, reserves and resource estimates, and oil pollution in U.S. and international waters

  5. Arctic Climate Tipping Points

    OpenAIRE

    Lenton, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    There is widespread concern that anthropogenic global warming will trigger Arctic climate tipping points. The Arctic has a long history of natural, abrupt climate changes, which together with current observations and model projections, can help us to identify which parts of the Arctic climate system might pass future tipping points. Here the climate tipping points are defined, noting that not all of them involve bifurcations leading to irreversible change. Past abrupt climate changes in the A...

  6. Russian Arctic Petroleum Resources Ressources pétrolières de l’Arctique russe

    OpenAIRE

    Zolotukhin A.; Gavrilov V.

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic continental shelf is believed to be the area with the highest unexplored potential for oil and gas as well as for unconventional hydrocarbon resources such as gas hydrates. Despite a common view that the Arctic has plentiful of hydrocarbon resources, there are ongoing debates regarding the potential of this region as a future energy supply base. Driving forces for such discussions are geopolitics, environmental concern, assessment and delineation of Arctic resources, technology ava...

  7. Compensation guidelines respecting damages relating to offshore petroleum activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These guidelines described the many compensation sources available to potential claimants for loss or damage associated with offshore petroleum activity in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador and the province of Nova Scotia. Offshore petroleum exploration and production in these two provinces are regulated by the Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board (CNOPB) and the Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board (CNSOPB). The Canada-Newfoundland Atlantic Accord Implementation Act and the Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Resources Accord Implementation Act are the authorities that deal with matters of compensation. In particular, the compensation guidelines described in this report refer to damages that may occur as a result of spills or of debris left on the ocean floor. They are especially important along Canada's east coast where fishing is a major factor in the economy. The CNOPB and the CNSOPB each have a mandate that allows property owners and fishermen to recover economic loss resulting from an oil spill or debris that was caused by an oil company. Also, the petroleum industry and the fishing industry have both voluntarily established a fisheries compensation strategy for damages resulting from seafloor debris for those instances where a responsible party cannot be identified. The guidelines outline the regulatory and administrative roles which the Boards uses for payments for actual loss or damage directly caused by offshore operators. This document replaces the original edition of these Guidelines published in September 1991. 1 fig

  8. Review of arctic Norwegian bioremediation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional oil spill onshore clean up in arctic and sub-arctic parts of Norway involves methods that are both time-consuming, and labor intensive. The applicability of the methods depends both on the environmental constraints of the area, and the availability of man-power. If oil exploration is successful this will mean that the exploitation of oil moves north into the arctic regions of Norway. This area is remote, both in terms of accessability and lack of inhabitants. The threat to natural resources that always accompanies oil activities, will move into areas that are considered vulnerable, and which are also highly valued in terms of natural resources. Contingency measures must be adapted both to be feasible and to meet the framework in which they must operate. This situation has increased the focus on alternative methods for oil spill clean-ups, especially on shorelines. SINTEF (The Foundation for Scientific and Industrial Research at the Norwegian Institute of Technology) Applied Chemistry has evaluated the application of fertilizers as a practical measure in oil spill treatment for years. Several fertilizers have been assessed, in different environments. The effect of these products is difficult to establish categorically since their efficiency seems to be greatly dependent on the environment in which the test is conducted, as well as the design of the test. The aim of this paper is to summarize and evaluate a series of tests conducted with INIPOL EAP22, an oil soluble fertilizer developed by Elf Aquitaine, and water soluble fertilizers. The paper will emphasize treatment failure and success, and point out some necessary prerequisites that must be met for fertilizers to work. 14 refs., 3 figs

  9. Arctic wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltola, E. [Kemijoki Oy (Finland); Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Tammelin, B. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  10. Arctic wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  11. Backyard of the Rich North: The Climate Change-related Vicious Circle of the Arctic Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Arctic zone is full of controversies, unknowns, contrasts, and challenges. The following example is enlightening. Saudi Arabia is a country that has been considered to have almost unlimited possibilities because of its enormous oil earnings. The country has US$60 thousand million purchasing power parity oil income each year for its mere 22 million inhabitants. Astonishingly, the Arctic zone's income from oil, gas, and minerals is at least as large as that of Saudi Arabia, modestly estimated, but the Arctic has less than 4 million people. Most money, however, flows away from the tundra, yet social and environmental problems remain there. A part of the side effect of consuming these resources - largely fossil fuels - returns to the Arctic in the form of greenhouse warming and all its consequences. The Arctic zone now warms at approximately double the rate of the world average

  12. Three-dimensional mapping of the sea ice underside from AUVS and applications to the offshore industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadhams, P.; Doble, M.J. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge, (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics; Wilkinson, J.P. [Scottish Association for Marine Science, Oban (United Kingdom). Dunstaffnage Marine Laboratory

    2008-09-15

    The first multibeam digital terrain mapping of the sea ice underside was performed in August 2004 by the Autosub-2 autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), operating off northeast Greenland, using a Kongsberg EM2000 sonar. This paper presented some of the high-quality imagery from the experiment, and discussed its implications for ice thickness mapping and other applications. A second mapping experiment took place in April 2007, but this time using a small ice-launched Gavia AUV, equipped with a GeoSwath 500 kHz interferometric sonar system. Gavia could be launched and recovered manually through 3 by 1 metre holes while Autosub required a ship and a crane. The paper also described and contrasted the greater range of Autosub with the greater flexibility of Gavia in multisensor programs. Finally, the paper addressed how AUV techniques could be applied to problems such as mapping rubble fields around drilling platforms, oil containment by sea ice, and other topics of interest to the offshore industry. It was concluded that the combination of an AUV and a multibeam sonar provides a new dimension to under-ice studies, and is important for work on ice thickness changes, the disappearance of deep ridges from the Arctic, navigability in ice, the effects of oil and other pollutants, the interactions between sea ice and under-ice currents and water structure, the underside as biological habitat, and many other studies critical to the role of ice in polar climate change and ice mechanics. 22 refs., 5 figs.

  13. The offshore trend: Structural changes in the wind power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, the wind power sector has begun to move offshore, i.e. to use space and good wind speeds on the open sea for large scale electricity generation. Offshore wind power, however, is not just technologically challenging but also a capital intensive and risky business that requires particular financial and organizational resources not all potential investors might have. We therefore address the question, what impact offshore wind power may have on ownership and organizational structures in the wind power sector. We compare on- and offshore wind park ownership in Denmark, the UK and Germany. The analysis shows that offshore wind power in all three countries is dominated by large firms, many of which are from the electricity sector. In Denmark and the UK, also investors from the gas and oil industry play an important role in the offshore wind business. This development represents a major shift for countries such as Germany and Denmark, in which the wind power sector has grown and matured on the basis of investments by individuals, farmers, cooperatives and independent project developers. The structural changes by which offshore wind power is accompanied have consequences for turbine manufacturers, project developers, investors, associations and policy makers in the field.

  14. The Offshoring Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mery Patricia Tamayo Plata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains some definitions which are necessary in order to understand the offshoring concept, going through the most relevant works about the development of the offshoring phenomenon and its impact on the demand for labor and on the most skilled workers' income. It is evidenced that the offshoring processes not only deal with the purchase and sale of goods anymore, but that the service sector has an increasingly important role, and that the lower cost is not the only aspect that matters when offshoring, but aspects such as the language and culture are also considered. It is also found that technology and research related services flow not only from the parent companies towards its subsidiaries, but from firms in less developed countries to other companies in advanced countries. It concludes with a review of the works that explores the relationship between offshoring, employment and wages, from both, a macro and microeconomic outlook. In the latter case, special consideration is given to the work carried out by Amity and Wei (2006, Crinó (2010, and Geishecker and Görg (2013.

  15. Arctic Methane: the View from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, I.; Yurganov, L.; Xiong, X.

    2014-12-01

    Global increase of methane that started in 2007-2008 after a decade of stability requires investigation and explanation. Recent Arctic warming has stimulated speculation about dissociation of Arctic Ocean methane hydrates providing a potentially important new climatic positive feedback. Satellite thermal infrared (TIR) data do not require sunlight, providing key advantages for Arctic data collection compared to shortwave infrared spectroscopy. The US Atmospheric IR Sounder (AIRS) has been delivering CH4 tropospheric data since 2002; NOAA CH4 retrievals from the European Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) radiation data are available since 2008 and analyzed here since 2009. Accuracy of TIR satellite retrievals, especially for the lower troposphere, diminishes for a cold, underlying surface. In this analysis the dependence is parameterized using the Thermal Contrast (a difference between surface temperature and air temperature at the altitude of 4 km, defined THC). A correction function was applied to CH4 data based on a data-derived relationship between THC and retrieved CH4 for areas with positive THC (in other words, without temperature inversions). The seasonal cycles of the adjusted low tropospheric data are in agreement with the surface in situ measurements. Instantaneous IASI retrievals exhibit less variability than AIRS v6 data. Maximum positive deviation of methane concentration measured by IASI for the study period was found for Baffin Bay in November-December, 2013 (Figure). It was concluded that the methane anomaly could indicate both coastal and off-shore emissions. Off-shore data were spatially consistent with a hydrate dissociation mechanisms, active for water depths below the hydrate stability zone top at ~300 m. These are hypothesized to dissociate during seasonal temperature maximum in the bottom layer of the ocean, which occurs in fall. IASI data may be considered as a reliable source of information about Arctic CH4 for conditions

  16. Research on offshore petroleum oil spilling detection using SAR echo signal%基于合成孔径雷达回波信号的海洋溢油监测方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙健; 胥亚; 陈方玺; 彭仲仁

    2014-01-01

    Oil spilling is one of the major sources for in marine pollutions,which are widely distributed and can bring cause terrible significant environmental damages.In recent years,due to the increase in offshore human activities and development of petroleum processing industries,oil spill accidents are also increasing,which are mostly caused by well blowouts,explosions of drilling platforms and ship collisions.Therefore,monitoring oil spilling has impor-tant significance in both economical and social aspects.As an all-weather high-resolution active microwave imaging sensor,Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)can greatly improve the resolution of images and the accuracy of fore-casts,and thus takes an important role in oil spill monitoring.This paper aims to realize the semi-automatic identi-fication of various targets on SAR images.We have conducted a convincing contrast of different neural networks, using Matlab as the tool through image preprocessing (image correction and enhancement),feature extraction and neural network recognition.First,oil spilli images are preliminarily manually identified,followed by image prepro-cessing (such as geometric correction,filtering,etc.)and feature extraction based on gray level co-occurrence ma-trix.Then,two types of neural networks,namely RBF and BP ,are introduced to classify the oil spill area and other suspected areas.Finally,the processed images are analyzed,indicating the capability in classifying oil,sea water,and land targets.The results reveal that the outputs from the RBF neural network are more accurate compared to those from the BP neural network.%海洋油污染是各类海洋污染中最常见、分布面积最广且危害程度最大的污染之一。近年来,海洋特别是近海人类活动频繁,且随着海上运输和石油加工业的发展,油田井喷、钻井平台爆炸、船舶碰撞等所造成的溢油事故增多,因而,监测海洋溢油具有重要的经济和社会现实意义。研究采用 Mat

  17. White Arctic vs. Blue Arctic: Making Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Newton, R.; Schlosser, P.; Pomerance, R.; Tremblay, B.; Murray, M. S.; Gerrard, M.

    2015-12-01

    As the Arctic warms and shifts from icy white to watery blue and resource-rich, tension is arising between the desire to restore and sustain an ice-covered Arctic and stakeholder communities that hope to benefit from an open Arctic Ocean. If emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere continue on their present trend, most of the summer sea ice cover is projected to be gone by mid-century, i.e., by the time that few if any interventions could be in place to restore it. There are many local as well as global reasons for ice restoration, including for example, preserving the Arctic's reflectivity, sustaining critical habitat, and maintaining cultural traditions. However, due to challenges in implementing interventions, it may take decades before summer sea ice would begin to return. This means that future generations would be faced with bringing sea ice back into regions where they have not experienced it before. While there is likely to be interest in taking action to restore ice for the local, regional, and global services it provides, there is also interest in the economic advancement that open access brings. Dealing with these emerging issues and new combinations of stakeholders needs new approaches - yet environmental change in the Arctic is proceeding quickly and will force the issues sooner rather than later. In this contribution we examine challenges, opportunities, and responsibilities related to exploring options for restoring Arctic sea ice and potential pathways for their implementation. Negotiating responses involves international strategic considerations including security and governance, meaning that along with local communities, state decision-makers, and commercial interests, national governments will have to play central roles. While these issues are currently playing out in the Arctic, similar tensions are also emerging in other regions.

  18. The Arctic Grand Challenge: Abrupt Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkniss, P. E.

    2003-12-01

    Trouble in polar paradise (Science, 08/30/02), significant changes in the Arctic environment are scientifically documented (R.E. Moritz et al. ibid.). More trouble, lots more, "abrupt climate change," (R. B. Alley, et al. Science 03/28/03). R. Corell, Arctic Climate Impact Assessment team (ACIA), "If you want to see what will happen in the rest of the world 25 years from now just look what's happening in the Arctic," (Arctic Council meeting, Iceland, 08/03). What to do? Make abrupt Arctic climate change a grand challenge for the IPY-4 and beyond! Scientifically:Describe the "state" of the Arctic climate system as succinctly as possible and accept it as the point of departure.Develop a hypothesis and criteria what constitutes "abrupt climate change," in the Arctic that can be tested with observations. Observations: Bring to bear existing observations and coordinate new investments in observations through an IPY-4 scientific management committee. Make the new Barrow, Alaska, Global Climate Change Research Facility a major U.S. contribution and focal point for the IPY-4 in the U.S Arctic. Arctic populations, Native peoples: The people of the North are living already, daily, with wrenching change, encroaching on their habitats and cultures. For them "the earth is faster now," (I. Krupnik and D. Jolly, ARCUS, 2002). From a political, economic, social and entirely realistic perspective, an Arctic grand challenge without the total integration of the Native peoples in this effort cannot succeed. Therefore: Communications must be established, and the respective Native entities must be approached with the determination to create well founded, well functioning, enduring partnerships. In the U.S. Arctic, Barrow with its long history of involvement and active support of science and with the new global climate change research facility should be the focal point of choice Private industry: Resource extraction in the Arctic followed by oil and gas consumption, return the combustion

  19. Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Courtney, Michael;

    2015-01-01

    The technology behind constructing wind farms offshore began to develop in 1991 when the Vindeby wind farm was installed off the Danish coast (11 Bonus 450 kW turbines). Resource assessment, grid connection, and wind farm operation are significant challenges for offshore wind power just as it is...... for the more traditional onshore wind power, which has been under development since the 1970s. However, offshore projects face extra technical challenges some of which requires in-depth scientific investigations. This article deals with some of the most outstanding challenges concerning the turbine...... structure: the rotor, the nacelle, the tower, and the foundation. Further the determinations of the essential environmental conditions are treated: the wind field, the wave field, the sea current, and the soil conditions. The various options for grid connections, advantages, and disadvantages are discussed...

  20. Offshore Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negra, Nicola Barberis

    The aim of the project is to investigate the influence of wind farms on the reliability of power systems. This task is particularly important for large offshore wind farms, because failure of a large wind farm might have significant influence on the balance of the power system, and because offshore...... for the installers, such as the dimension of the wind farm and the difficulty of reaching failed components in case of harsh weather. Each component that affects the assessment must be included and proper models for them are investigated in this thesis. The project provides a survey of available offshore wind farm...... Carlo simulation is used for these calculations: this method, in spite of an extended computation time, has shown flexibility in performing reliability studies, especially in case of wind generation, and a broad range of results which can be evaluated. The modelling is then extended to the entire power...

  1. Arctic resource development. Risks and responsible management. The geopolitics of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    A new study about crucial risk management issues relating to Arctic operations is released by DNV (Det Norske Veritas) and the Fridtjof Nansen Institute (FNI). This concludes that, in order to safely develop Arctic resources, there is a need for improved technology, oil spill preparedness and close cooperation between the authorities, industry and society.

  2. Scour around Offshore Windturbine Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Brian Juul; De Vos, Leen; Frigaard, Peter

    For the present report a testprogramme has been performed to determine the scour around offshore windturbine foundations.......For the present report a testprogramme has been performed to determine the scour around offshore windturbine foundations....

  3. Offshore atomic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various merits of offshore atomic power plants are illustrated, and their systems are assessed. The planning of the offshore atomic power plants in USA is reviewed, and the construction costs of the offshore plant in Japan were estimated. Air pollution problem may be solved by the offshore atomic power plants remarkably. Deep water at low temperature may be advantageously used as cooling water for condensers. Marine resources may be bred by building artificial habitats and by providing spring-up equipments. In the case of floating plants, the plant design can be standardized so that the construction costs may be reduced. The offshore plants can be classified into three systems, namely artificial island system, floating system and sea bottom-based system. The island system may be realized with the present level of civil engineering, but requires the development of technology for the resistance of base against earthquake and its calculation means. The floating system may be constructed with conventional power plant engineering and shipbuilding engineering, but the aseismatic stability of breakwater may be a problem to be solved. Deep water floating system and deep water submerging system are conceivable, but its realization may be difficult. The sea bottom-based system with large caissons can be realized by the present civil engineering, but the construction of the caissons, stability against earthquake and resistance to waves may be problems to be solved. The technical prediction and assessment of new plant sites for nuclear power plants have been reported by Science and Technology Agency in 1974. The construction costs of an offshore plant has been estimated by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry to be yen71,026/kW as of 1985. (Iwakiri, K.)

  4. New Exploration Blocks In China's Offshore Areas Open to Foreign Firms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ CNOOC is offering 10 new exploration blocks offshore China to international oil and gas companies for PSC (Production Sharing Contract) exploration and 2 new areas for contracts or agreements, according to the statement announced by the offshore oil giant on June 6, 2003. All interested companies can make their inquiries with CNOOC's legal and contract department. In addition, the remaining deepwater blocks continue to be open to interested parties.

  5. Offshoring and financial markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Battisti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the nature and extent of the offshore world, a grey area that is playing a major role in present-day economy. The main institutions moulding this peculiar environment are discussed: preferential tax regimes, tax havens and offshore financial centers. Their role in the globalised world is outlined after a scrutiny of the specialized literature, reports by non-governmental bodies and companies’ advertisings. Finally, we present a tentative reconstruction of its geographical organization, inclusive of cartographic representations of the main international networks.

  6. Organizational Adaptation in Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Møller Larsen, Marcus; Pedersen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    of these two strategies depends on nontrivial interactions among the costs of communication, the distance to the offshoring location, and the level of noise in the firm’s performance function. In particular, the difficulties of interpreting performance signals in noisy situations suggest that there......-based learning). Thus, by formalizing these two learning strategies for acquiring architectural knowledge in offshoring, we show that important contingencies can lead to significant performance trade-offs in the search for new organizational configurations that span international borders....

  7. Oil and Gas in a New Arctic. Developments of the Energy Issue and Regional Strategic Dynamic; Olja och gas i ett nytt och foeraendrat Arktis. Energifraagans utveckling mot bakgrund av regionens strategiska dynamik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granholm, Niklas; Kiesow, Ingolf

    2010-03-15

    This study has as its point of departure that large reserves of energy and minerals are deposited in the Arctic. There is uncertainty on how large these reserves are and if extraction of them is technically and economically feasible. As the Arctic gradually becomes more accessible as the melting of the sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean progresses, the region becomes more open to human activities than ever before. The energy issue in the Arctic develops against the background of the region's increasing geostrategic importance. Russia shows no hesitation, Norway also put considerable resources into energy extraction in the Arctic. Environ-mental protection is a more prominent issue in Norway, Canada and the USA than in Russia. In addition to the energy issue, other factors in the Arctic are also changing. Shipping, climate change, military strategy, nuclear weapons, overlapping territorial claims, developments in international security and national policies and efforts, are all parts of a development that does not easily let itself be described and analysed. The different factors under change develop according to their own character and inner logic and how they interact will be hard to foresee. Uncertainties of future developments in the Arctic therefore remain. The Arctic will become more clearly linked into developments in the rest of the world than hitherto. The region will no longer be exclusively an issue for the states in the region. The interest in the Arctic is on the increase, not only from the Arctic states, but also from external state actors in Europe and Asia, as well as multilateral organisations such as the European Union and NATO

  8. Evolution of continuous coiled line pipe into the offshore pipeline industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunlap, Dennis C. [Precision Tube Technology, LP, Houston, TX (United States). Flowline Division

    2003-07-01

    The use of coiled line pipe has been demonstrated to be a technically capable and cost effective alternative for small diameter offshore pipeline applications. Extensive utilization throughout the offshore oil and gas producing areas of the world, for varying applications and installed by numerous offshore contractors, has demonstrated the capability and cost effectiveness of coiled line pipe. This paper will review the manufacturing process of coiled line pipe and will review case histories as they relate to the use of coiled line pipe in the offshore Brazil market. (author)

  9. 浅谈海洋石油多功能支持平台的安全管理%Discussion on safety management about multi-functional support platform of offshore oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周伟兴

    2012-01-01

    简单介绍了海洋石油多功能支持平台的基本情况,总结了多功能支持平台现有的三种安全管理工具,分别是工作许可证、工作安全风险分析( JSA)和“五想五不干”行为安全观察卡;同时结合海洋石油多功能支持平台自身特点,分析了如何做好平台的安全教育培训、安全检查和班组安全建设以及应急演练等安全管理工作;通过增强全员的安全意识、及时消除事故隐患及增强基层的安全管理和加强平台的应急反应能力,提高海洋石油多功能支持平台的安全管理水平,以期达到海洋石油平台安全、健康、和谐发展的目的,可供同行借鉴和参考.%In this paper, the basic status of the multi-functional support platform was introduced, and the three safety management tools of the multifunctional platform were summarized, including permit to work , JSA and five "no work" behavior observation card. Considering the overall of the multi-functional platform, how to do well the safety management was discussed, including the safety educationm, the safety check, the safety construction of the team and emergency drills. By enhancing the safety consciousness of all the staff, removing the hidden perils of the accident and enhancing emergency response ability, we can improve the safety management level of the platform, and achieve the objective of safety, health, and harmonious development in the offshore oil multi-functional support platform, which might be reference to the profession.

  10. The Economic Geography of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Pedersen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    We draw from the literature on economic geography and from the thematic offshoring literature, and propose three hypotheses that rest on the assumption that the choice of offshoring location is based on the fit between the attributes of different destinations and the attributes of the offshored...

  11. Investment Analysis of Offshore Concessions in The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, Han

    1997-01-01

    textabstractDescribes the valuation of a complex capital project, the staged development of an oil field concession in the Netherlands. Stages of offshore petroleum development on the Dutch continental shelf; Asset valuation based on replication in financial markets; Major insights and conclusions.

  12. 77 FR 63849 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Docket: For... related to safety of operations and other matters affecting the oil and gas offshore industry. These... Hobby Airport Hotel, 9100 Gulf Freeway, Houston, TX 77017, http://www.marriott.com/houhh . The...

  13. Arctic Environmental Data Directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Arctic Environmental Data Directory (AEDD) is being developed in cooperation with the US Global Change Research Plan. The AEDD Working Group, with members from US and Canadian agencies and academia, have described more than 300 Arctic data sets in a subset of an online data directory maintained by the US Geological Survey (USGS), ESDD (the Earth Science Data Directory). Through various links known as the Inter-operable Directory, the contents of AEDD are made available to scientists who use the NASA, NOAA, NSF and USGS data directories. Thus, scientists studying global change have access to Arctic data, and scientists studying the Arctic have access to global change data. The AEDD Working Group has sponsored development of a prototype Compact Disc Read Only Memory (CDROM) containing the indexed contents of the AEDD. Named Arctic Data Interactive (ADI), the disc was developed for use on Apple Macintosh and IBM PC-compatible computers, and uses a graphical and intuitive hypermedia user interface. The disc also contains portions of an Arctic Bibliography prepared in concert with the Polar Library Colloquy, sample full-text articles with illustrations, and selected data sets, including tabular data, text, and imagery. The ADI prototype is prepared as a model for organizing, presenting and distributing large quantities of Arctic and global change data and information to the science community. It is intended to be the first series of CDROMs with a consistent graphic design and user interface to place Arctic data and information on the desktop. The data are packaged with a powerful set of intuitive tools to navigate through and preview data sets from many disciplines and institutions. AEDD and ADI are sponsored by the Inter-agency Arctic Research Policy Committee and the Inter-agency Working Group on Data Management for Global Change, with guidance from the US Arctic Research Commission

  14. Pricing offshore wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offshore wind offers a very large clean power resource, but electricity from the first US offshore wind contracts is costlier than current regional wholesale electricity prices. To better understand the factors that drive these costs, we develop a pro-forma cash flow model to calculate two results: the levelized cost of energy, and the breakeven price required for financial viability. We then determine input values based on our analysis of capital markets and of 35 operating and planned projects in Europe, China, and the United States. The model is run for a range of inputs appropriate to US policies, electricity markets, and capital markets to assess how changes in policy incentives, project inputs, and financial structure affect the breakeven price of offshore wind power. The model and documentation are made publicly available. - Highlights: → We calculate the Breakeven Price (BP) required to deploy offshore wind plants. → We determine values for cost drivers and review incentives structures in the US. → We develop 3 scenarios using today's technology but varying in industry experience. → BP differs widely by Cost Scenario; relative policy effectiveness varies by stage. → The low-range BP is below regional market values in the Northeast United States.

  15. Nearshore versus Offshore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Hevia Koch, Pablo Alejandro; Wolter, Christoph

    Currently there exist high expectations for the development of wind energy, particularly in Europe, out of whichoffshore wind turbine developments will be central as tools to achieve current energy targets. The question betweennearshore and (far)-offshore is particularly relevant, both because of...

  16. Offshore Wind Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, P.

    1978-01-01

    Explores the possibility of installing offshore windmills to provide electricity and to save fuel for the United Kingdom. Favors their deployment in clusters to facilitate supervision and minimize cost. Discusses the power output and the cost involved and urges their quick development. (GA)

  17. The offshore petroleum industry: The formative years, 1945-1962

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreidler, Tai Deckner

    1997-12-01

    This dissertation is the first to examine the offshore oil industry that was born in the calm waters of the Gulf of Mexico. It describes the industry's origins and tracks its development as a consequence of a search for new oil frontiers. In addition, it elaborates how the oil industry moved into the marine province using available technology, and was driven by the economic urgency to compete and develop new territories. Enterprising drilling contractors and operators seized the offshore gamble, finding it possible to lower the economic and technological threshold by drawing directly from wartime research and surplus equipment. Though large oil companies had placed its indelible stamp upon the industry, the smaller, independent oil operators set the pace of early offshore development. As a technological frontier, offshore development depended upon creative and unconventional engineering. Unfamiliar marine conditions tested the imagination of oil industry engineering. The unorthodox methods of John Hayward of Barnsdall Oil and R. G. LeTourneau of LeTourneau, Inc. among others transformed the industry by blending petroleum and marine engineering. Grappling with alien marine conditions and lacking formal training, Hayward and LeTourneau merged a century of practical oil field knowledge and petroleum engineering with 2,000 years of shipbuilding experience. The Gulf of Mexico served as a fertile and protective environment for the development of a fledgling industry. With calm waters, lacking the tempestuous and stormy character of the Atlantic Ocean, with a gradual sea-floor slope and saturated with the highly productive salt dome reservoirs, the Gulf became the birth place of the modern offshore oil industry. Within its protective sphere, companies experimented and developed various technical and business adaptations. Operators used technology and business strategies that increased the opportunity for success. In addition, regional academic research institutes arose as

  18. Offshore Space Center (offshore launch site)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, D. G.

    1980-01-01

    Any activity requiring the development of the HLLV can benefit by operations from an offshore space center (OSC) since operating near the equator provides a twenty percent increase in payload in an ecliptic plan orbit. Some OSC concepts considered include a moored floating (semisubmersible) design, a stationary design supported by fixed piles, and a combination of these two. The facility supports: a 15,000 foot long, 300 foot wide runway, designed to accommodate a two staged winged launch vehicle, with a one million pound payload capacity to low earth orbit; an industrial area for HLLV maintenance; an airport terminal, control and operation center, and observation tower; liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen production and storage, and fuel storage platforms; a power generation station, docks with an unloading area; two separate launch sites; and living accommodations for 10,000 people. Potential sites include the Paramount Seamount in the Pacific Ocean off the north coast of South America. Cost estimates are considered.

  19. Arctic Climate Systems Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivey, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robinson, David G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boslough, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Backus, George A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peterson, Kara J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); van Bloemen Waanders, Bart G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swiler, Laura Painton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Desilets, Darin Maurice [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reinert, Rhonda Karen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This study began with a challenge from program area managers at Sandia National Laboratories to technical staff in the energy, climate, and infrastructure security areas: apply a systems-level perspective to existing science and technology program areas in order to determine technology gaps, identify new technical capabilities at Sandia that could be applied to these areas, and identify opportunities for innovation. The Arctic was selected as one of these areas for systems level analyses, and this report documents the results. In this study, an emphasis was placed on the arctic atmosphere since Sandia has been active in atmospheric research in the Arctic since 1997. This study begins with a discussion of the challenges and benefits of analyzing the Arctic as a system. It goes on to discuss current and future needs of the defense, scientific, energy, and intelligence communities for more comprehensive data products related to the Arctic; assess the current state of atmospheric measurement resources available for the Arctic; and explain how the capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories can be used to address the identified technological, data, and modeling needs of the defense, scientific, energy, and intelligence communities for Arctic support.

  20. Offshore concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the offshore industry there are two possible materials for the construction of the hull of a structure; the steel and concrete, with the first one widely used until now, as in the rest of the shiphuidling industry of merchant ships, warships, etc. Materials such as aluminum, GRP or timber areused in small units with lengths lower than 100 m, and in less adverse conditions than in the offshore industry. Nevertheless, some ships/barges have been built of concrete in the past, but have been rather isolated cases which have not changed the practice in the industry. In the First and Second World War were built by the scarcity of materials, while the series of barges by Alfred A. Yee was a rare exception. Other units were also made in concrete, but almost anecdotal. Still, the behaviour of these concrete structures, especially in terms of maintenance, has been excellent. Therefore, the fact that the concrete has not had an adequate reception so far in shipbuilding, does not mean that in will not be the material best suited for the offshore industry in the future. The extra displacement and associated fuel costs in concrete ships have been found prohibitive in the past. But the loss of mobility of a concrete hull in relation to a steel hull can be perfectly offset by the advantages offered by the concrete, as the shipping and offshore industry have very different priorities. One of the main differences in these priorities is in terms of maintenance and resistance to fatigue, precisely where the concrete performs better. ships can easily be dry docked for maintenance and repair, while in the offshore platforms these works have to be done in situ so maintenance and fatigue are crucial to them. Besides these, the concrete has other advantages according to findings of several studies. And although they are interested in the conclusions that the makes as they came from people in the concrete industry, the fact that in recent years concrete offshore unit shave been built