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Sample records for arctic gas pipelines

  1. Gas elephants: Arctic projects revived by expanding markets and pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, G.

    2000-01-03

    The revival of interest in Arctic natural gas and the developing competition to extend the pipeline grid to Alaska and the Yukon and the Northwest territories are the subject of this report. Substantial agreement between competing interest groups is reported with respect to the need for Arctic gas and the willingness of the market to pay for bringing it south to consumers. The discussion centers on the construction of the Alliance Pipeline Project that will reportedly bring two billion cubic feet per day of excess capacity to transport natural gas from northeastern British Columbia to Chicago, and the 2,400 km long Foothills Pipelines System that carries about one-third of Canadian gas exports to middle-western states and California. Plans are to extend the line to 5,240 km by laying pipe in a giant Y pattern between Prudhoe Bay and the Mackenzie delta in the north, and the start of the Foothills System at Caroline in central Alberta. The estimated cost of the line is about $US 6 billion, using a 36-inch diameter line at increased pressures in place of the 56-inch diameter pipe used in the 1970s. Construction plans are similar for the rest of the big Y, the Dempster Lateral beside the Dempster Highway between Whitehorse and Inuvik. A competing project, the Northern Gas Pipeline Project is also discussed. This line would run east of Prudhoe Bay under the Beaufort Sea to the Mackenzie Delta; then south along the Mackenzie Valley to Alberta. Cost of this line is also estimated at $US 6 billion, however, it would have a capacity of four billion cubic feet per day, including 2.5 billion cubic feet from Alaska and 1.5 billion cubic feet from Canada. Strong revival of interest is also reported from the supply side, with BP Amoco, ARCO, Chevron Canada Resources, Ranger 0il Ltd., Paramount Resources, Berkley Petroleum Corporation, Canadian Forest Oil, Alberta Energy Company, Petro-Canada, Anderson Resources, and Poco Petroleum Ltd., all showing interest to mount new

  2. Natural Gas Liquid Pipelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Natural gas interstate and intrastate pipelines in the United States. Based on a variety of sources with varying scales and levels of accuracy and therefore accuracy...

  3. 77 FR 70543 - Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... for natural gas pipelines and for hazardous liquid pipelines. Both committees were established under... TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committee AGENCY: Pipeline and...

  4. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01

    The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by

  5. 77 FR 2126 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Operators AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... registry of pipeline and liquefied natural gas operators. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jamerson Pender... 72878), titled: ``Pipeline Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting...

  6. Anping-Nanjing Gas Pipeline Formally Commissioned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jicheng

    2006-01-01

    @@ On January 17, 2006, gas from Changqing gasfield in northern Shaanxi Province was poured into Anping-Nanjing gas pipeline, marking that the trunk line was successfully brought into operation and the West-East Gas Pipeline and No.2 Shaanxi-Beijing pipeline were successfully connected. Pressure was boosted immediately after its commissioning to ensure gas supply to Beijing and Shanghai. Gas supply to part areas along this pipeline will begin by May, 2006.

  7. PETROCHINA WEST EAST GAS PIPELINE & SALES COMPANY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ PetroChina West East Gas Pipeline & Sales Company, a regional company directly under PetroChina Company Limited (PetroChina), is responsible for the construction and operation of the West-East Gas Pipeline Project, and the gas marketing and sales of the natural gas market in China.

  8. 78 FR 70623 - Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... gas pipelines and for hazardous liquid pipelines. Both committees were established under the Federal... Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2009-0203] Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committee AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety...

  9. Kvitebjoern gas pipeline repair - baptism of remote pipeline repair system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjertveit, Erling

    2010-07-01

    On the 1st of November 2007, severe anchor damage was discovered on the 30 inch Kvitebjoern gas export pipeline. The damage constituted a localised dent and a 17deg buckle, but no leakage. Statoil has invested in building an effective repair contingency structure for the large pipeline network on the Norwegian Continental shelf, with particular focus on the large gas export pipelines. The repair method for the Kvitebjoern pipeline was remotely operated using two Morgrip couplings and a spool. The installation used the purpose built Pipeline Repair System stored at Killingoey and couplings produced and tested back in 2005. This presentation will cover the initial damage investigations, the temporary operational phase, the repair preparations, the actual repair and lessons learned. (Author)

  10. California Natural Gas Pipelines: A Brief Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuscamman, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Price, Don [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pezzola, Genny [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glascoe, Lee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-01-22

    The purpose of this document is to familiarize the reader with the general configuration and operation of the natural gas pipelines in California and to discuss potential LLNL contributions that would support the Partnership for the 21st Century collaboration. First, pipeline infrastructure will be reviewed. Then, recent pipeline events will be examined. Selected current pipeline industry research will be summarized. Finally, industry acronyms are listed for reference.

  11. Canada : oil, gas, and the new Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebert, R. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Political Science; Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Centre for Military and Strategic Studies

    2010-07-01

    This presentation provided a broad overview of the geopolitical issues affecting the massive transformation of the Arctic resulting from resource development, globalization, and climate change. Two Arctics are emerging, notably one European and one North American. Oil and gas companies are investing heavily in the North, and there is continued debate over pipelines and projects, but the viability of projects can shift abruptly from technological and political change. Recent examples include the emergence of shale gas, the possibility of the United States becoming a gas exporter, and the Deepwater Horizon disaster. In terms of Maritime jurisdictions and boundaries, a comparison was presented regarding the Canadian and Russian claims to the continental shelf. International cooperation and a commitment to peaceful means can be seen in the Ilulissat Declaration, the acceptance of the United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea as rules, the scientific cooperation of Canada, the United States, and Denmark, and the recent boundary agreement between Russia and Norway. The positions of the main players in the new geopolitics of the North were outlined, particularly with respect to Russia, the United States, Norway, Denmark, and Canada. Their recent policy statements and developing arctic force capabilities were summarized. Canada's more assertive Arctic policy was outlined in more detail along with the country's base locations and recent security actions in the North. The main issues facing nations with interests in the North will be maritime and aerospace; understanding the new players on the scene; and new technological developments. 10 figs., 5 refs.

  12. 75 FR 72877 - Pipeline Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting Requirements; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal... to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting Requirements AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials... collections from operators of natural gas pipelines, hazardous liquid pipelines, and liquefied natural......

  13. Black powder in gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherik, Abdelmounam [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-07-01

    Despite its common occurrence in the gas industry, black powder is a problem that is not well understood across the industry, in terms of its chemical and physical properties, source, formation, prevention or management of its impacts. In order to prevent or effectively manage the impacts of black powder, it is essential to have knowledge of its chemical and physical properties, formation mechanisms and sources. The present paper is divided into three parts. The first part of this paper is a synopsis of published literature. The second part reviews the recent laboratory and field work conducted at Saudi Aramco Research and Development Center to determine the compositions, properties, sources and formation mechanisms of black powder in gas transmission systems. Microhardness, nano-indentation, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques were used to analyze a large number of black powder samples collected from the field. Our findings showed that black powder is generated inside pipelines due to internal corrosion and that the composition of black powder is dependent on the composition of transported gas. The final part presents a summary and brief discussion of various black powder management methods. (author)

  14. China Oil & Gas Pipeline Survey & Design Institute, Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bureau of CNPC; Zhao Surong

    1995-01-01

    @@ China Oil/Gas Pipeline Bureau(P.B) is the only professional organization in China specialized in oil/gas pipelines design and construction since 1980s. It has ever cooperated with certain number of well known companies from Japan,USA, Germany, Canada, as well as Italy in the designs of many large oil/gas pipeline projects, during the course of which, personnel from P.B accumulated much experience in international project designs. During the execution of each particular project, they strictly followed the common-use international codes and standards with computers as the auxiliary design system combined with the self-developed software. All its clients showed their trust in this organization and gave it high praise for its outstanding survey, design and technical service.

  15. STATUS AND PROSPECT OF OIL AND GAS PIPELINES IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ With the exploration and development of natural gas and the increase of crude oil import, the industry of China's Oil and Gas Pipelines has witnessed rapid development. Especially the gas pipeline industry is entering a peak period of development. Thanks to the completion and operation of large-scale pipeline projects including West-East Gas Transportation Pipeline project,Shanxi-Beijing Gas Pipeline Ⅱ, Ji-Ning Pipeline,Huaiyang-Wuhan Pipeline, Guangdong LNG Pipeline,Western Pipeline and Pearl River Delta Oil Product Pipeline, many trans-regional gas and oil pipeline networks with initial scale have been gradually established and improved in China. Meanwhile, the metallurgy,manufacturing and construction level of pipelines has been greatly developed, achieving world top level. The next five years is still a peak period of development for China's gas and oil pipeline industry which will enjoy a broader prospect.

  16. 76 FR 28326 - Pipeline Safety: National Pipeline Mapping System Data Submissions and Submission Dates for Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... Systems and Liquefied Natural Gas Annual Reports AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... operators of gas transmission and gathering systems and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) facilities that they... to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting Requirements'' (One Rule). This rulemaking...

  17. 75 FR 5244 - Pipeline Safety: Integrity Management Program for Gas Distribution Pipelines; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... implement integrity management programs. In addition to a minor correction in terminology, this document...: Integrity Management Program for Gas Distribution Pipelines; Correction AGENCY: Pipeline and...

  18. Review of Oil and Gas Pipeline Construction in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qu Hong

    2008-01-01

    @@ China's pipeline industry has developed for 50 years till 2008. In the past 10 years, more than 50,000 kilometers of long-distance oil and gas pipelines have been constructed,of which gas pipelines reached about 30,000 kilometers,crude oil pipelines about 17,000 kilometers, and product oil pipelines about 7,000 kilometers. Oil and gas pipeline networks across regions have taken shape.

  19. 78 FR 41496 - Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Gas and Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Gas and Liquid... for natural gas pipelines and for hazardous liquid pipelines. Both committees were established under.... ACTION: Notice of advisory committee meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the...

  20. Multinational Gas Pipeline Hopeful on Schedule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Kovykta project, which will transport natural gas from Russia's Eastern Siberia to China and Republic of Korea, might come out ahead over the Sino-Russian oil pipeline project. China and Russia are negotiating the price of the piped gas and the result of negotiations will likely be seen in three to four months, TNK-BP President and Chief Executive Officer Robert Dudley recently said,adding that he is confident that natural gas from Kovykta will start flowing through the pipeline by the end of 2008 as planned.

  1. Emergency gas pipeline transportation with computer documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-08-01

    Methods developed by the staff of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission in cooperation with the natural gas industry to expedite the emergency transfer of natural gas are described. The majority of the United States' natural gas fields are concentrated in the south central region, comprised of Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas together with adjacent areas offshore in the Gulf of Mexico. This is the major source area for gas consumed in the northern, northeastern, southeastern, and far western population/industrial centers. The geographic pattern of gas flow through interstate pipelines emanates in gas producing areas and terminates in gas consuming areas. There are many other areas in the United States which produce gas but the amounts are comparatively small compared with Texas, Louisiana, and offshore Louisiana production. The various interconnections associated with a given pipeline for both receipts and deliveries are defined. The maximum volume capability in MMCFD and the volume being delivered in MMCFD are to be considered as estimated volumes. These volumes do not represent absolute volumes that are available but rather volumes for general planning purposes to define the magnitude of each interconnection. If an actual transportation route is desired, a routing may be derived from this report which then must be checked for actual volumes at a particular point in time. It is always possible that at the time of interest, there is no available capacity or deliveries.The data and information are arranged by pipeline company name followed by which companies supply gas to the named pipeline and to which companies the named pipeline delivers gas. Each receipt or delivery location is defined by the county and state.

  2. Fuel consumption impact on gas pipeline projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Sidney P. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Kurz, Rainer; Lubomirsky, Matt [Solar Turbines, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2005-07-01

    An optimized gas pipeline design requires not only a qualified management of good engineering and planning, but also accurate estimates of capital investment and O and M. Compressor stations play a very important role on the success of a gas pipeline design and a careful selection of centrifugal compressors and drivers are key aspects for the success of the project. The state of the art design available nowadays for these kind of equipment provides overall high thermodynamic performance and consequently minimizes installed power requirements and energy usage with expressive savings on operating expenses along the economic life of the project. This paper will present a guideline for proper station design and selection of its turbo-compressors giving emphasis on the impact of fuel consumption on the economics of a gas pipeline project. (author)

  3. 77 FR 16471 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ...: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Operators AGENCY: Pipeline and... registry of pipeline and liquefied natural gas operators. This notice provides updates to the information... and liquefied natural gas (LNG) operators. New operators use the national registry to obtain...

  4. PetroChina Sees Gas Pipeline Profit in Four Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Lu

    2002-01-01

    @@ Sebei-Xining- Lanzhou pipeline put into operation PetroChina, the nation's largest gas producer,recently said that the US$280-million gas pipeline in Northwest China would generate profits within four years.

  5. Foreign Giants Take Gas Pipeline Stake Equally

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Ye

    2002-01-01

    @@ Oil giants Royal/Dutch, ExxonMobil and Russia's Gazprom have agreed to take 15 percent stakes each in China's US$5.6 billion natural gas pipeline project,clearing away the final obstacles blocking the kickoff of the repeatedly delayed project, according to the latest reports from news media in early July.

  6. Research into the transmission of natural gas by gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadonneix, P.

    1998-12-31

    This paper is the press release of the talk given at the `Gaz de France scientific meeting with the press` by P. Gadonneix, chairman of Gaz de France company, on October 7, 1998. The aim of this talk concerns the new French and European supply link for bringing natural gas from the Norwegian North Sea fields. This new supply link is the first direct link between Norway and France and the NorFra gas pipeline which brings natural gas from the North Sea to France is the longest offshore pipeline in the world. The `Artere des Hauts de France` pipeline (the largest diameter gas pipeline ever laid in France) is devoted to the transfer of natural gas from Dunkerque to the Gournay-sur-Aronde underground storage site. This paper describes successively: the French European gas supply hub, the NorFra project, the Artere des Hauts de France pipeline, the network performance research, the safety and quality guaranties, the reduction of overland natural gas transmission costs (improvement of pipe-laying techniques and optimization of line route and welding operations), the specific techniques used for road and river crossing (micro-tunnel digging, river-crossing ditches) and for anchoring (buoyancy compensation). Finally, the environmental impact of the laying operations is briefly described. (J.S.)

  7. Natural gas pipeline leaks across Washington, DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert B; Down, Adrian; Phillips, Nathan G; Ackley, Robert C; Cook, Charles W; Plata, Desiree L; Zhao, Kaiguang

    2014-01-01

    Pipeline safety in the United States has increased in recent decades, but incidents involving natural gas pipelines still cause an average of 17 fatalities and $133 M in property damage annually. Natural gas leaks are also the largest anthropogenic source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the U.S. To reduce pipeline leakage and increase consumer safety, we deployed a Picarro G2301 Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer in a car, mapping 5893 natural gas leaks (2.5 to 88.6 ppm CH4) across 1500 road miles of Washington, DC. The δ(13)C-isotopic signatures of the methane (-38.2‰ ± 3.9‰ s.d.) and ethane (-36.5 ± 1.1 s.d.) and the CH4:C2H6 ratios (25.5 ± 8.9 s.d.) closely matched the pipeline gas (-39.0‰ and -36.2‰ for methane and ethane; 19.0 for CH4/C2H6). Emissions from four street leaks ranged from 9200 to 38,200 L CH4 day(-1) each, comparable to natural gas used by 1.7 to 7.0 homes, respectively. At 19 tested locations, 12 potentially explosive (Grade 1) methane concentrations of 50,000 to 500,000 ppm were detected in manholes. Financial incentives and targeted programs among companies, public utility commissions, and scientists to reduce leaks and replace old cast-iron pipes will improve consumer safety and air quality, save money, and lower greenhouse gas emissions.

  8. Natural gas pipelines for biomethane distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojcik, Monika [PGNiG SA, Warszawa (Poland). Centrala Spolki

    2011-07-01

    The study reveals natural gas pipelines of high and medium pressure in Poland and Baltic countries, such as: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Sweden, Germany, Finland and the Kaliningrad Oblast. The basic aim of the study was assessing the possibility of injecting biogas produced in biogas plants to the gas network or its use as CNG fuel delivered via pipeline directly to the station. Characterized qualitative factors for the transmission of the biogas (purified to the natural gas) in existing gas networks and proposes the location of the biogas plants in relation to the deployment of these networks. The study shows existing solutions of the distribution of biomethane in selected countries bordering the Baltic Sea, and analyzes the cross-border transmission capacity of the gas. The article also contains a characterization and assessment of legal and economic conditions affecting the use of biomethane processes as fuel for motor vehicles. It also shows the main priorities in this area and environmental and social benefits arising from the production and use of biomethane as a motor fuel. (orig.)

  9. Engineering Design of Shaanxi-Beijing Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Bo; Mei Sanqiang; Wang Wei

    1996-01-01

    @@ Steel pipes of Φ660×60 are used in the gas pipeline,totaling 860 km in length,from Shaan-Gan-Ning gas field,to Beijing(Shaan-Jing pipeline for short).The maximum operating pressure of the pipeline is designed to be 6.3Mpa,and the maximum annual natural gas deliverability is set to be 2×109m3.

  10. Development Prospect of Oil & Gas Pipelines of CNPC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Yaorong; Chen Hao; Zhang Jinjun; Zhang Kegang

    2008-01-01

    Prospect of engineering technologies for pipelines in China In recent years, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) has made remarkable achievements in the field of oil and gas transmission pipeline engineering. The demand for oil and gas has increased a lot, along with the rapid development of national economy and the improvement of people's living standard. In the days to come, China will witness an even greater development in the engineering construction of oil and gas transmission pipelines.

  11. 76 FR 70953 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... August 25, 2011, (76 FR 53086) PHMSA published in the Federal Register an Advance Notice of Proposed... by email at mike.israni@dot.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On August 25, 2011, (76 FR 53086), PHMSA... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 192 RIN 2137-AE72 Pipeline...

  12. Development Prospect of Oil & Gas Pipelines of CNPC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Yaorong; Chen Hao; Zhang Jinjun; Zhang Kegang

    2008-01-01

    @@ Technology progress of oil & gas pipelines transportation project of CNPC since the 11th Five-Year Plan period An introduction to oil & gas pipelines transportationproject As a large industrious system, pipelines transportation industry is playing a more and more important role in oil and natural gas industry even in the world economy.Thanks to the efforts of 40 years, substantial progress has been achieved in the oil & gas pipelines construction in China. Till now, long distance oil & gas transportation trunk pipelines with large caliber have been completed one after another, with a total length exceeding 50 thousand kilometers (kin). CNPC boasts a long distancel and oil transportation pipeline of 30 thousand km.

  13. Managing changes of location classes of gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Sergio B.; Sousa, Antonio Geraldo de [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    Most of the gas pipeline design codes utilize a class location system, where the design safety factor and the hydrostatic test factor are determined according to the population density in the vicinities of the pipeline route. Consequently, if an operator is requested or desires to maintain an existing gas pipeline in compliance with its design code, it will reduce the operational pressure or replace pipe sections to increase the wall thickness whenever a change in location class takes place. This article introduces an alternative methodology to deal with changes in location classes of gas pipelines. Initially, selected codes that utilize location class systems are reviewed. Afterwards, a model for the area affected by an ignition following a natural gas pipeline leak is described. Finally, a methodology to determine the MAOP and third part damage mitigation measures for gas transport pipelines that underwent changes in location class is presented. (author)

  14. Current Status and Prospects of Oil and Gas Pipelines in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pu Ming

    2010-01-01

    @@ By the end of 2009,the total length of existing oil and gas pipelines in China had reached 75×103 km.The pipelines include 38×103 km of gas pipelines,20×103km of crude oil pipelines and 17×103 km of oil product pipelines,framing a trans-regional pipeline network for the oil and gas delivery.

  15. Regular pipeline maintenance of gas pipeline using technical operational diagnostics methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volentic, J. [Gas Transportation Department, Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, Slovak Gas Industry, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1997-12-31

    Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) has operated 17 487 km of gas pipelines in 1995. The length of the long-line pipelines reached 5 191 km, distribution network was 12 296 km. The international transit system of long-line gas pipelines ranged 1 939 km of pipelines of various dimensions. The described scale of transport and distribution system represents a multibillion investments stored in the ground, which are exposed to the environmental influences and to pipeline operational stresses. In spite of all technical and maintenance arrangements, which have to be performed upon operating gas pipelines, the gradual ageing takes place anyway, expressed in degradation process both in steel tube, as well as in the anti-corrosion coating. Within a certain time horizon, a consistent and regular application of methods and means of in-service technical diagnostics and rehabilitation of existing pipeline systems make it possible to save substantial investment funds, postponing the need in funds for a complex or partial reconstruction or a new construction of a specific gas section. The purpose of this presentation is to report on the implementation of the programme of in-service technical diagnostics of gas pipelines within the framework of regular maintenance of SPP s.p. Bratislava high pressure gas pipelines. (orig.) 6 refs.

  16. Quantitative risk analysis preoperational of gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manfredi, Carlos; Bispo, Gustavo G.; Esteves, Alvaro [Gie S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to predict how it can be affected the individual risk and the public's general security due to the operation of a gas pipeline. In case that the single or social risks are considered intolerable, compared with the international standards, to be recommended measures of mitigation of the risk associated to the operation until levels that can be considered compatible with the best practices in the industry. The quantitative risk analysis calculates the probability of occurrence of an event based on the frequency of occurrence of the same one and it requires a complex mathematical treatment. The present work has as objective to develop a calculation methodology based on the previously mentioned publication. This calculation methodology is centered in defining the frequencies of occurrence of events, according to representative database of each case in study. Besides, it settles down the consequences particularly according to the considerations of each area and the different possibilities of interferences with the gas pipeline in study. For each one of the interferences a typical curve of ignition probabilities is developed in function from the distance to the pipe. (author)

  17. Gas supplies of interstate natural gas pipeline companies, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-07-01

    A statistical summary of the year-end 1976 total reserves is presented along with deliverability of the interstate pipeline companies and pertinent comparisons with information developed from annual reports filed over the preceding 13 years. Total dedicated domestic gas reserves owned and controlled by interstate pipeline companies declined in 1976 by 8.5 trillion cubic feet, or 8.0 percent, from 106.8 trillion cubic feet at the beginning of the year to 98.3 trillion cubic feet at the end of the year. A five-year tabulation shows that domestic interstate gas reserves have declined from 161.3 trillion cubic feet at the beginning of the year 1972 to 98.3 trillion cubic feet at the end of 1976, a decline of 63.0 trillion cubic feet, or 39.0 percent. The pipelines continue to show a declining annual deliverability from their year-end dedicated reserves. This is expected because of the decline since 1967 in the volume of reserves dedicated to the interstate pipeline companies. Compared with deliverability estimates made from their 1975 year-end reserves, the current deliverability estimates based on 1976 year-end reserves are approximately 5 percent less in volume than the 1975 year-end estimates for the respective accumulated deliveries during the five-year periods following the year-end estimates.

  18. Review of technology for Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackinger, W. M.

    1980-08-01

    The technical background briefing report is the first step in the preparation of a plan for engineering research oriented toward Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery. A five-year leasing schedule for the ice-prone waters of the Arctic offshore is presented, which also shows the projected dates of the lease sale for each area. The estimated peak production rates for these areas are given. There is considerable uncertainty for all these production estimates, since no exploratory drilling has yet taken place. A flow chart is presented which relates the special Arctic factors, such as ice and permafrost, to the normal petroleum production sequence. Some highlights from the chart and from the technical review are: (1) in many Arctic offshore locations the movement of sea ice causes major lateral forces on offshore structures, which are much greater than wave forces; (2) spray ice buildup on structures, ships and aircraft will be considerable, and must be prevented or accommodated with special designs; (3) the time available for summer exploratory drilling, and for deployment of permanent production structures, is limited by the return of the pack ice. This time may be extended by ice-breaking vessels in some cases; (4) during production, icebreaking workboats will service the offshore platforms in most areas throughout the year; (5) transportation of petroleum by icebreaking tankers from offshore tanker loading points is a highly probable situation, except in the Alaskan Beaufort; and (6) Arctic pipelines must contend with permafrost, making instrumentation necessary to detect subtle changes of the pipe before rupture occurs.

  19. Natural Gas Gathering and Transporting Pipeline Networks in Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Xuehou

    1995-01-01

    @@ It is over 30 years since Baxian-Chongqing Gas Transmission Pipeline has been put into operation in 1960s. So far approximately 8 000 km pipelines of various kinds have been built in Sichuan, among which about 1 800 km are gas pipelines (the maximum diameter of 720 mm ),therefor a gathering pipeline system has been established which connects more than 80 gas fields over ten of major industrial cities in Sichuan, such as Chengdu, Chongqing,Zigong, Luzhou, Daxian, Deyang, Mianyang, Nanchong,and more than 600 large and medium size end-users and the chemical fertilizer manufacturing bases in the neighboring provinces of Yunnan and Guizhou.

  20. Research on Optimization Operation of Urban Gas Pipeline Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田一梅; 迟海燕; 李鸿; 周颖

    2003-01-01

    The optimization operation of gas pipeline network is investigated in this paper. Based on the theories of system optimization and the multi-object decision, a mathematical model about the multi-object optimization operation of gas pipeline network is established, in line with the demand of urban gas pipeline network operation. At the same time, an effective solution of the mathematical model is presented. A calculating software about optimization operation is compiled, coupling the actual operation of gas pipeline network. It can be applied to the operation of the gas pipeline network. The software was examined by real examples. The results indicated that 2.13%00 energy consumption and 3.12%oo gas supply cost can be reduced through optimization operation.

  1. 77 FR 28331 - Standards for Business Practices for Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... Natural Gas Pipelines AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, DOE. ACTION: Request for additional... North American Energy Standards Board (NAESB) applicable to natural gas pipelines. The Commission... American Energy Standards Board (NAESB) applicable to natural gas pipelines. The Commission, however,...

  2. Continuously Innovating Technology of Oil and Gas Pipeline in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Shihong; Yang Tianbing

    2009-01-01

    @@ Through fifty years' development and effort,oil and gas pipeline industry in China has created a selfdevelopment way under the country's characteristics which relies on scientific and technological innovation and introduction,assimilation and re-innovation.Along with the completion and application of West-East Gas Transmission Pipeline Ⅰ and starting construction of Line West-East Gas Transmission Pipeline Ⅱ,in the main technology field such as design and construction,the whole oil and gas pipeline industry has reached the international advanced level,even some have reached the international top level at present.Thanks to the development process of current economic globalization and technology internationalization,scientific and technological innovation as the inevitable choice to realize continuous,effective,fast and harmonious development of China oil and gas pipeline technology.

  3. Environmental analysis for pipeline gas demonstration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinton, L.H.

    1978-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has implemented programs for encouraging the development and commercialization of coal-related technologies, which include coal gasification demonstration-scale activities. In support of commercialization activities the Environmental Analysis for Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plants has been prepared as a reference document to be used in evaluating potential environmental and socioeconomic effects from construction and operation of site- and process-specific projects. Effluents and associated impacts are identified for six coal gasification processes at three contrasting settings. In general, impacts from construction of a high-Btu gas demonstration plant are similar to those caused by the construction of any chemical plant of similar size. The operation of a high-Btu gas demonstration plant, however, has several unique aspects that differentiate it from other chemical plants. Offsite development (surface mining) and disposal of large quantities of waste solids constitute important sources of potential impact. In addition, air emissions require monitoring for trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, and other emissions. Potential biological impacts from long-term exposure to these emissions are unknown, and additional research and data analysis may be necessary to determine such effects. Possible effects of pollutants on vegetation and human populations are discussed. The occurrence of chemical contaminants in liquid effluents and the bioaccumulation of these contaminants in aquatic organisms may lead to adverse ecological impact. Socioeconomic impacts are similar to those from a chemical plant of equivalent size and are summarized and contrasted for the three surrogate sites.

  4. Forecasting and Evaluation of Gas Pipelines Geometric Forms Breach Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, K. S.

    2016-10-01

    Main gas pipelines during operation are under the influence of the permanent pressure drops which leads to their lengthening and as a result, to instability of their position in space. In dynamic systems that have feedback, phenomena, preceding emergencies, should be observed. The article discusses the forced vibrations of the gas pipeline cylindrical surface under the influence of dynamic loads caused by pressure surges, and the process of its geometric shape deformation. Frequency of vibrations, arising in the pipeline at the stage preceding its bending, is being determined. Identification of this frequency can be the basis for the development of a method of monitoring the technical condition of the gas pipeline, and forecasting possible emergency situations allows planning and carrying out in due time reconstruction works on sections of gas pipeline with a possible deviation from the design position.

  5. Virtual Pipeline System Testbed to Optimize the U.S. Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Prakash Krishniswami; Virg Wallentine; Mohammed Abbaspour; Revathi Ranganathan; Ravi Addanki; Jeet Sengupta; Liubo Chen

    2005-06-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a Virtual Pipeline System Testbed (VPST) for natural gas transmission. This study uses a fully implicit finite difference method to analyze transient, nonisothermal compressible gas flow through a gas pipeline system. The inertia term of the momentum equation is included in the analysis. The testbed simulate compressor stations, the pipe that connects these compressor stations, the supply sources, and the end-user demand markets. The compressor station is described by identifying the make, model, and number of engines, gas turbines, and compressors. System operators and engineers can analyze the impact of system changes on the dynamic deliverability of gas and on the environment.

  6. Gas pipeline monitoring in Europe by Satellite SAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, A.J.E.

    2002-01-01

    At present, gas pipeline networks in Europe are routinely monitored by vehicle and air patrols to protect them against damage by soil movement and third part interference. Because of the expenses, pipeline operators are investigating the possibilities to replace these traditional monitoring methods

  7. Gas Pipelines, LP and LNG, Published in unknown, DCP Midstream.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Gas Pipelines, LP and LNG dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in...

  8. A METHOD FOR MEASUREMENT OF GAS CONTENT IN SLURRY PIPELINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Most commercial slurries in hydrotransport pipelines usually contain some gas which can considerably degrade the pump performance, but this small amount of gas content can not be measured accurately online or continually using conventional methods. Based on analysis of effects of gas on pressure wave speed in slurries, an investigation was carried out to validate the feasibility of the method to determine gas content in slurries using sound speed. Moreover, its practical measuring methods were also discussed. It was found that the non-invasive measurement of the sound level noise spectrum across the pipeline should be a promising online measuring method of the slurry gas content.

  9. West-East Gas Pipeline Starts Trial Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ The eastern section of the West-East gas pipeline, which is from Jingbian County in Shaanxi Province to Shanghai, started trial operation on October 1, warming up for the commercial operation of the pipeline slated on January 1, 2004. PetroChina held a grand ceremony to celebrate the trial operation in Jingbian, a major gas production base of PetroChina Changqing Oil Field Company.

  10. 77 FR 58616 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Gas Transmission and Gathering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Systems'' and the ``Incident Report--Natural and Other Gas Transmission and Gathering Pipeline Systems... Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Gas Transmission and Gathering Pipeline Systems... Natural Gas Association of America (INGAA)--Trade Association (11) Northeast Gas Association...

  11. Optimal Control of Gas Pipelines via Infinite-Dimensional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgut, Ismail; Leblebiciolu, Kemal

    1996-05-01

    A general optimal control approach employing the principles of calculus of variations has been developed to determine the best operating strategies for keeping the outlet pressure of gas transmission pipelines around a predetermined value while achieving reasonable energy consumption. The method exploits analytical tools of optimal control theory. A set of partial differential equations characterizing the dynamics of gas flow through a pipeline is directly used. The necessary conditions to minimize the specific performance index come from the infinite-dimensional model. The optimization scheme has been tested on a pipeline subject to stepwise change in demand.

  12. 78 FR 53190 - Pipeline Safety: Notice to Operators of Hazardous Liquid and Natural Gas Pipelines of a Recall on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... Liquid and Natural Gas Pipelines of a Recall on Leak Repair Clamps Due to Defective Seal AGENCY: Pipeline... seal. Hazardous liquid and natural gas pipeline operators should ] verify if they have any TDW LRCs... and Flanged Fittings. These LRCs were manufactured for use on hazardous liquid and natural...

  13. Current Status and Prospects of Oil and Gas Pipelines in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ By the end of 2008,the total length of existing oil and gas pipelines in China had reached 6.3×104 km.These pipelines include 3.2×104 km of natural gas pipelines,1.8×104 km of crude oil pipelines and 1.3×104 km of oil products pipelines,laying the foundation for establishing a network of trans-regional oil and gas pipelines.

  14. A Low-Cost Natural Gas/Freshwater Aerial Pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, A; Bolonkin, Alexander; Cathcart, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Offered is a new type of low-cost aerial pipeline for delivery of natural gas, an important industrial and residential fuel, and freshwater as well as other payloads over long distances. The offered pipeline dramatically decreases the construction and operation costs and the time necessary for pipeline construction. A dual-use type of freight pipeline can improve an arid rural environment landscape and provide a reliable energy supply for cities. Our aerial pipeline is a large, self-lofting flexible tube disposed at high altitude. Presently, the term "natural gas" lacks a precise technical definition, but the main components of natural gas are methane, which has a specific weight less than air. A lift force of one cubic meter of methane equals approximately 0.5 kg. The lightweight film flexible pipeline can be located in the Earth-atmosphere at high altitude and poses no threat to airplanes or the local environment. The authors also suggest using lift force of this pipeline in tandem with wing devices for che...

  15. Future emissions from oil, gas, and shipping activities in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Peters

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic sea-ice is retreating faster than predicted by climate models and could become ice free during summer this century. The reduced sea-ice extent may effectively "unlock" the Arctic Ocean to increased human activities such as transit shipping and expanded oil and gas production. Travel time between Europe and the north Pacific Region can be reduced by up to 50% with low sea-ice levels and the use of this route could increase substantially as the sea-ice retreats. Oil and gas activities already occur in the Arctic region and given the large undiscovered petroleum resources increased activity could be expected with reduced sea-ice. We use a detailed global energy market model and a bottom-up shipping model with a sea-ice module to construct emission inventories of Arctic shipping and petroleum activities in 2030 and 2050. The emission inventories are on a 1× 1 degree grid and cover both short-lived pollutants and ozone pre-cursors (SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, BC, OC and the long-lived greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O. We find rapid growth in transit shipping due to increased profitability with the shorter transit times compensating for increased costs in traversing areas of sea-ice. Oil and gas production remains relatively stable leading to reduced emissions from emission factor improvements. The location of oil and gas production moves into locations requiring more ship transport relative to pipeline transport, leading to rapid emissions growth from oil and gas transport via ship. Our emission inventories for the Arctic region will be used as input into chemical transport, radiative transfer, and climate models to quantify the role of Arctic activities in climate change compared to similar emissions occurring outside of the Arctic region.

  16. THE SELECTION OF GAS PIPELINE ROUTE ON THE PLAN OF GAS SUPPLIED AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Medvedevа

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Selection of gas pipeline route exercises significant influence on the func-tioning of gas distribution system. The optimal solution of this problem would substantially reduce costs for construction and operation of gas supply system.Results and conclusions. In this paper, we give some recommendations on design of branch gas pipelines to increase the effectiveness of their operation. The results of technical and economic studies of gas distribution systems are presented. To determine the optimal variant of the gas pipe-line, we designed software package which allows to optimize simultaneously the pressure distribu-tion over the gas network and geometrical parameters.

  17. Current State and Prospect of China's Oil and Gas Pipeline Deveopment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By the end of 2010, China has completed 85,000 kilometers of oil and gas pipelines in length, of which natural gas pipelines were 45,000 kilometers, crude oil pipelines were 22,000 kilometers, and products pipelines were 18,000 kilometers. An oil and gas

  18. 76 FR 53086 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ..., including establishing programs for public awareness and damage prevention, and managing the operation of...; additional gas quality monitoring, sampling, and in-line inspection tool runs; and improved standards for... photography and patrol information be updated for IM assessments? If the commenter proposes a time period...

  19. Deliverability on the interstate natural gas pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Deliverability on the Interstate Natural Gas Pipeline System examines the capability of the national pipeline grid to transport natural gas to various US markets. The report quantifies the capacity levels and utilization rates of major interstate pipeline companies in 1996 and the changes since 1990, as well as changes in markets and end-use consumption patterns. It also discusses the effects of proposed capacity expansions on capacity levels. The report consists of five chapters, several appendices, and a glossary. Chapter 1 discusses some of the operational and regulatory features of the US interstate pipeline system and how they affect overall system design, system utilization, and capacity expansions. Chapter 2 looks at how the exploration, development, and production of natural gas within North America is linked to the national pipeline grid. Chapter 3 examines the capability of the interstate natural gas pipeline network to link production areas to market areas, on the basis of capacity and usage levels along 10 corridors. The chapter also examines capacity expansions that have occurred since 1990 along each corridor and the potential impact of proposed new capacity. Chapter 4 discusses the last step in the transportation chain, that is, deliverability to the ultimate end user. Flow patterns into and out of each market region are discussed, as well as the movement of natural gas between States in each region. Chapter 5 examines how shippers reserve interstate pipeline capacity in the current transportation marketplace and how pipeline companies are handling the secondary market for short-term unused capacity. Four appendices provide supporting data and additional detail on the methodology used to estimate capacity. 32 figs., 15 tabs.

  20. Energy geopolitics and Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Shiv Kumar [Political Geography Division, Center for International Politics, Organization and Disarmament, School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)]. E-mail: vermajnu@gmail.com

    2007-06-15

    With the growing energy demands in India and its neighboring countries, Iran-Pakistan-India (IPI) gas pipeline assumes special significance. Energy-deficient countries such as India, China, and Pakistan are vying to acquire gas fields in different parts of the world. This has led to two conspicuous developments: first, they are competing against each other and secondly, a situation is emerging where they might have to confront the US and the western countries in the near future in their attempt to control energy bases. The proposed IPI pipeline is an attempt to acquire such base. However, Pakistan is playing its own game to maximize its leverages. Pakistan, which refuses to establish even normal trading ties with India, craves to earn hundreds of millions of dollars in transit fees and other annual royalties from a gas pipeline which runs from Iran's South Pars fields to Barmer in western India. Pakistan promises to subsidize its gas imports from Iran and thus also become a major forex earner. It is willing to give pipeline related 'international guarantees' notwithstanding its record of covert actions in breach of international law (such as the export of terrorism) and its reluctance to reciprocally provide India what World Trade Organization (WTO) rules obligate it to do-Most Favored Nation (MFN) status. India is looking at the possibility of using some set of norms for securing gas supply through pipeline as the European Union has already initiated a discussion on the issue. The key point that is relevant to India's plan to build a pipeline to source gas from Iran relates to national treatment for pipeline. Under the principle of national treatment which also figures in relation to foreign direct investment (FDI), the country through which a pipeline transits should provide some level of security to the transiting pipeline as it would have provided to its domestic pipelines. This paper will endeavor to analyze, first, the significance of this

  1. China Greatly Benefits from the West-East Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Statistics of the relevant department of China show that the West-East Gas Pipeline has boosted the rate of natural gas in China's primary energy mix from 2.2% to 3%, thus improving the safety of China's energy supply.

  2. The Effect of Landslide on Gas Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valkovič Vojtech

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the calculation of stresses on the pipeline system embedded on a flexible substrate which is burdened by a landslide. As well as taking into account the probability of the influences acting on the pipe as wall thickness, and others.

  3. 78 FR 77444 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Stingray Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Stingray Pipeline Company, L.L... America LLC (Natural), 3250 Lacey Road, 7th Floor, Downers Grove, Illinois 60515-7918 and Stingray Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (Stingray), 110 Louisiana Street, Suite 3300, Houston, Texas 77002, filed a...

  4. Regulatory reform for natural gas pipelines: The effect on pipeline and distribution company share prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurman, Elisabeth Antonie

    1997-08-01

    The natural gas shortages in the 1970s focused considerable attention on the federal government's role in altering energy consumption. For the natural gas industry these shortages eventually led to the passage of the Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA) in 1978 as part of the National Energy Plan. A series of events in the decade of the 1980s has brought about the restructuring of interstate natural gas pipelines which have been transformed by regulators and the courts from monopolies into competitive entities. This transformation also changed their relationship with their downstream customers, the LDCs, who no longer had to deal with pipelines as the only merchants of gas. Regulatory reform made it possible for LDCs to buy directly from producers using the pipelines only for delivery of their purchases. This study tests for the existence of monopoly rents by analyzing the daily returns of natural gas pipeline and utility industry stock price data from 1982 to 1990, a period of regulatory reform for the natural gas industry. The study's main objective is to investigate the degree of empirical support for claims that regulatory reforms increase profits in the affected industry, as the normative theory of regulation expects, or decrease profits, as advocates of the positive theory of regulation believe. I also test Norton's theory of risk which predicts that systematic risk will increase for firms undergoing deregulation. Based on a sample of twelve natural gas pipelines, and 25 utilities an event study concept was employed to measure the impact of regulatory event announcements on daily natural gas pipeline or utility industry stock price data using a market model regression equation. The results of this study provide some evidence that regulatory reforms did not increase the profits of pipeline firms, confirming the expectations of those who claim that excess profits result from regulation and will disappear, once that protection is removed and the firms are operating in

  5. Jet fire consequence modeling for high-pressure gas pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccorullo, Ivano; Russo, Paola

    2016-12-01

    A simple and reliable approach for sizing the hazard area potentially affected by a jet fire as consequence of the failure of high-pressure pipeline is proposed. A release rate model, taking pipeline operation properties and source release properties into account, is coupled with SLAB dispersion model and point source radiation model to calculate the hazard distance. The hazard distance is set beyond the distance at which a low chance of fatality can occur to people exposed and a wooden structure is not expected to burn due to radiation heat of jet fire. The comparison between three gases with different physico-chemical properties (i.e. natural gas, hydrogen, ethylene) is shown. The influence of pipeline operating parameters, such as: pressure, pipeline diameter and length, hole size, on the hazard area for the three gases is evaluated. Finally, a simple correlation is proposed for calculating the hazard distance as function of these parameters.

  6. Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. W.; Antonia, O.; Penev, M.

    2013-03-01

    The United States has 11 distinct natural gas pipeline corridors: five originate in the Southwest, four deliver natural gas from Canada, and two extend from the Rocky Mountain region. This study assesses the potential to deliver hydrogen through the existing natural gas pipeline network as a hydrogen and natural gas mixture to defray the cost of building dedicated hydrogen pipelines.

  7. Interaction between soils and gas pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpachevskii, L. O.; Goroshevskii, A. V.; Zubkova, T. A.

    2011-03-01

    The interaction between pipelines and soils manifests itself in the soil disturbance in the course of the pipe installation, in the transformation of the water and temperature regimes in the trenches, and in the appearance of corrosion and cracks on the pipe walls. The more contrasting the soil water regime in the pipe-adjacent sections of the trench, the greater the amount of the pipe damage. The damage of the pipe insulation activates the pipe corrosion. The emission of gases (H2S, CH4, CO2, CO, and H2) and the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria are the main causes of the pipes' destruction. The humus content and the redox potential decrease, and the soil density and concentrations of ferrous compounds increase in the soils of the trench zone. Accidents along pipelines occur most often in the area of serozems and chestnut soils, and this is related to the salinization in the lower soil horizons and to the contrasting soil water regime near the pipe. The number of accidents along the pipelines installed into soddy-podzolic soils is lower.

  8. Optimal energy consumption analysis of natural gas pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enbin; Li, Changjun; Yang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    There are many compressor stations along long-distance natural gas pipelines. Natural gas can be transported using different boot programs and import pressures, combined with temperature control parameters. Moreover, different transport methods have correspondingly different energy consumptions. At present, the operating parameters of many pipelines are determined empirically by dispatchers, resulting in high energy consumption. This practice does not abide by energy reduction policies. Therefore, based on a full understanding of the actual needs of pipeline companies, we introduce production unit consumption indicators to establish an objective function for achieving the goal of lowering energy consumption. By using a dynamic programming method for solving the model and preparing calculation software, we can ensure that the solution process is quick and efficient. Using established optimization methods, we analyzed the energy savings for the XQ gas pipeline. By optimizing the boot program, the import station pressure, and the temperature parameters, we achieved the optimal energy consumption. By comparison with the measured energy consumption, the pipeline now has the potential to reduce energy consumption by 11 to 16 percent.

  9. Development Of A Centrifugal Hydrogen Pipeline Gas Compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Bella, Francis A. [Concepts NREC, White River Junction, VY (United States)

    2015-04-16

    Concepts NREC (CN) has completed a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored project to analyze, design, and fabricate a pipeline capacity hydrogen compressor. The pipeline compressor is a critical component in the DOE strategy to provide sufficient quantities of hydrogen to support the expected shift in transportation fuels from liquid and natural gas to hydrogen. The hydrogen would be generated by renewable energy (solar, wind, and perhaps even tidal or ocean), and would be electrolyzed from water. The hydrogen would then be transported to the population centers in the U.S., where fuel-cell vehicles are expected to become popular and necessary to relieve dependency on fossil fuels. The specifications for the required pipeline hydrogen compressor indicates a need for a small package that is efficient, less costly, and more reliable than what is available in the form of a multi-cylinder, reciprocating (positive displacement) compressor for compressing hydrogen in the gas industry.

  10. 75 FR 74705 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... the Natural Gas Act for a certificate of public convenience and necessity to construct, and operate certain pipeline and compression facilities to be located in Pennsylvania and New York to increase its... transportation service. In addition to the certificate authority for the facilities identified above,...

  11. 76 FR 18747 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... Project enhancements will allow for bi-directional firm transportation service for National Fuel's shipper... directed to James D. Johnston, Associate General Counsel, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002, phone: (713) 420-4998, fax: (713) 420-1601, e-mail:...

  12. 75 FR 82378 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... directed to James D. Johnston, Associate General Counsel, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002 at (713) 420-4998 or by e- mail at james.johnston@elpaso.com . Specifically... Commission staff will either complete its environmental assessment (EA) and place it into the...

  13. Means for sealing hemp packings in gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistek, P.; Kubat, J.; Novak, L.

    1981-02-15

    The means for sealing hemp packings in gas pipelines has the following composition: 25-35% diethylene glycol, 10-15% glycerin, 10-15% triethylene glycol, 5-15% high ethylene glycols with an average molecular weight of 300, 20-35% the monobutyl ether of triethylene glycol, 4-7% ethoxylated p-chlorophenol, and 5-15% monoethanol amine.

  14. Simulation of non-isothermal transient flow in gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Junior, Luis Carlos; Soares, Matheus; Lima, Enrique Luis; Pinto, Jose Carlos [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Quimica; Muniz, Cyro; Pires, Clarissa Cortes; Rochocz, Geraldo [ChemTech, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Modeling of gas pipeline usually considers that the gas flow is isothermal (or adiabatic) and that pressure changes occur instantaneously (quasi steady state approach). However, these assumptions are not valid in many important transient applications (changes of inlet and outlet flows/pressures, starting and stopping of compressors, changes of controller set points, among others). Besides, the gas properties are likely to depend simultaneously on the pipe position and on the operation time. For this reason, a mathematical model is presented and implemented in this paper in order to describe the gas flow in pipeline when pressure and temperature transients cannot be neglected. The model is used afterwards as a tool for reconciliation of available measured data. (author)

  15. Numerical Recovery of Gas Flows in Pipeline Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim E. Seleznev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal control, prevention and investigation of accidents, and detection of discrepancies in estimated gas supply and distribution volumes are relevant problems of trunkline operation. Efficient dealing with these production tasks is based on the numerical recovery of spacetime distribution of nonisothermal transient flow parameters of transmitted gas mixtures based on full-scale measurements in a substantially limited number of localities spaced considerable distances apart along the gas pipelines. The paper describes a practical method of such recovery by defining and solving a special identification problem. Simulations of product flow parameters in extended branched pipelines, involving calculations of the target function and constraint function for the identification problem of interest, are done in the 1D statement. In conclusion, results of practical application of the method in the gas industry are briefly discussed.

  16. 78 FR 18968 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on March 8, 2013, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural), 3250 Lacey Road, 7th... directed to Bruce H. Newsome, Vice President, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC, 3250 Lacey...

  17. 77 FR 65508 - Annual Charge Filing Procedures for Natural Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 154 Annual Charge Filing Procedures for Natural Gas Pipelines... filing requirements for natural gas pipelines that choose to recover Commission-assessed annual charges through an annual charge adjustment (ACA) clause. Currently, natural gas pipelines utilizing an ACA...

  18. Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks. A Review of Key Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Antonia, O. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This study assesses the potential to deliver hydrogen through the existing natural gas pipeline network as a hydrogen and natural gas mixture to defray the cost of building dedicated hydrogen pipelines. Blending hydrogen into the existing natural gas pipeline network has also been proposed as a means of increasing the output of renewable energy systems such as large wind farms.

  19. Application of Dry Air Drying Techniques on West-East Gas Pipeline Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GaoJianguo; XieLigong; DaiZongyu

    2004-01-01

    Based on the pre-eommissioning requirements of gas pipeline, the basic principles and influential factors of dry air drying adopted in long distance gas pipelines, and states in detail the technological flow and the equipment required, etc. are introduced, which will have practical significance in drying operation on gas pipeline.

  20. The research on natural gas pipeline transportation price formulation method

    OpenAIRE

    YU Wenjia; Ma, Yan

    2014-01-01

    This paper will introduce a method of natural gas pipeline transportation price on the basis of two-part tariff.Distance,investment and income have been taken into consideration.The total fee is divided into three parts:reservation fee,usage fee and peak-load regulation fee.Because there are different types of users in the natural gas market who show great difference in the continuity and reliability of gas supply,capacity of bearing price,elastic demand and balance use of gas,according to th...

  1. Satellite Radar Interferometry For Risk Management Of Gas Pipeline Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianoschi, Raluca; Schouten, Mathijs; Bas Leezenberg, Pieter; Dheenathayalan, Prabu; Hanssen, Ramon

    2013-12-01

    InSAR time series analyses can be fine-tuned for specific applications, yielding a potential increase in benchmark density, precision and reliability. Here we demonstrate the algorithms developed for gas pipeline monitoring, enabling operators to precisely pinpoint unstable locations. This helps asset management in planning, prioritizing and focusing in-situ inspections, thus reducing maintenance costs. In unconsolidated Quaternary soils, ground settlement contributes to possible failure of brittle cast iron gas pipes and their connections to houses. Other risk factors include the age and material of the pipe. The soil dynamics have led to a catastrophic explosion in the city of Amsterdam, which triggered an increased awareness for the significance of this problem. As the extent of the networks can be very wide, InSAR is shown to be a valuable source of information for identifying the hazard regions. We monitor subsidence affecting an urban gas transportation network in the Netherlands using both medium and high resolution SAR data. Results for the 2003-2010 period provide clear insights on the differential subsidence rates in the area. This enables characterization of underground motion that affects the integrity of the pipeline. High resolution SAR data add extra detail of door-to-door pipeline connections, which are vulnerable due to different settlements between house connections and main pipelines. The rates which we measure represent important input in planning of maintenance works. Managers can decide the priority and timing for inspecting the pipelines. The service helps manage the risk and reduce operational cost in gas transportation networks.

  2. Engineering considerations for corrosion monitoring of gas gathering pipeline systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, T.G.; Asperger, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    Proper corrosion monitoring of gas gathering pipelines requires a system review to determine the appropriate monitor locations and types of monitoring techniques. This paper develops and discusses a classification of conditions such as flow regime and gas composition. Also discussed are junction categories which, for corrosion monitoring, need to be considered from two points of view. The first is related to fluid flow in the line and the second is related corrosion inhibitor movement along the pipeline. The appropriate application of the various monitoring techniques such as coupons, hydrogen detectors, electrical resistance probe and linear polarization probes are discussed in relation to flow regime and gas composition. Problems caused by semi-conduction from iron sulfide are considered. Advantages and disadvantages of fluid gathering methods such as pots and flow-through drips are discussed in relation to their reliability as on-line monitoring locations.

  3. In Fair Weather Prepare for Foul ---In-service integrity inspection of oil/gas pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangZhaotian; XiongXiaoyun

    2003-01-01

    Pipeline transportation is one of the major ways for the oil/gas transmission. To ensure the safety of oil/gas transmission pipeline is very important because of its primary role in national economic development and people' s life quality improvement. In China, 20 000km of oil/gas pipelines are at work and 10 000km pipelines are being or will be constructed.

  4. Experimental Study of Surface Detection of Gas Pipeline Buried in Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Pipeline is a key segment in the transportation of city gas and its safety affects the safety of industrial and domestic application. The characteristics of Shi Dongkou east gas steel pipeline buried in soil were discussed and its parameters related to safety were measured, including the state of anticorrosive layer, the soil resistivity,the natural potential and the protective potential of gas pipeline. The experimental results were confirmed by excavating, which are of value to the knowledge of the gas pipeline buried in soil in Shanghai. The experimental data were analyzed which provide the scientific basis for the assurance of the gas pipeline safety and the reparation of anticorrosivelayer.

  5. MODELING AND AVAILABILITY ANALYZES OF A COMPLEX GAS PIPELINE NETWORK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainouche, A.; Ainouche, H.

    2007-07-01

    The network reliability, in the way of security of supply of international markets, is proved to be an essential criterion for the conservation of the market shares and the conquest of new customers. In relation with the importance and the existing configurations diversity of gas pipelines networks, the obtaining of a global availability model of a network is difficult to implement by the use of a classic approach based on the analysis of the whole of failure risks, the definition of their probability and the estimation of their impact in term of productivity. This because mainly of the huge dimensions of the phase space that would result from such a conception. To get round this problem we implemented a systemic type approach for the modeling of the availability of a complex gas pipelines network. The approach of modeling is of 'bottom-up' type. The model of coordination is a model of flow maximization whose formalization requires the representation of the gas pipeline network by the graphs theory. The developed tool can also be used as a stand of experimentation and to define by simulation the impact of every decision having the tendency to improve the availability of the network. (auth)

  6. The research on natural gas pipeline transportation price formulation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Wenjia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper will introduce a method of natural gas pipeline transportation price on the basis of two-part tariff.Distance,investment and income have been taken into consideration.The total fee is divided into three parts:reservation fee,usage fee and peak-load regulation fee.Because there are different types of users in the natural gas market who show great difference in the continuity and reliability of gas supply,capacity of bearing price,elastic demand and balance use of gas,according to the method,the different types of users can pay reasonable fee.This method not only considers the investment income recovery but also considers the different types of users paying a reasonable fee.We hope the new pricing model can give a reference to the development of China's natural gas industry.

  7. Essays on the economics of natural gas pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Matthew E.

    The natural gas pipeline transportation industry is comprised of a primary market and a secondary market. In the primary market, pipelines sell 'firm' transport capacity contracts to gas traders, local distribution companies, and other parties. The (per unit) secondary market value of transport is rarely comparable to the regulated primary market two-part tariff. When and where available capacity in the secondary market is scarce, its value can far exceed the primary market tariffs paid by firm contract holders, generating scarcity rents. The following essays demonstrate that this phenomenon has predictable effects on natural gas spot prices, firm capacity reservations, the pipeline's capacity construction and expansion decisions, and the economic welfare of producers and consumers at the market hubs connected by the pipeline. Chapter 1 provides a theoretical framework for understanding how pipeline congestion affects natural gas spot prices within the context of the current regulatory environment, and empirically quantifies this effect over a specific regional pipeline network. As available pipeline capacity over a given route connecting two hubs becomes scarce, the spot prices for gas at the hubs are driven apart---a phenomenon indicative of some market friction that inhibits the ability of spot price arbitrage to fully integrate the two prices, undermining economic efficiency. The theoretical component of Chapter 1 illuminates a potential source of this friction: the deregulated structure of the secondary market for gas transportation services. To support and quantify the predictions of the theoretical model, the empirical component demonstrates that the effect of congestion on the secondary market value of transport---the key factor in driving apart spot prices---can be quite strong. Coefficient estimates indicate that dramatic increases in transport costs are likely to result from marginal increases in congestion. This result has important implications because

  8. 75 FR 51031 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application August 12, 2010. Take notice that on July 30, 2010, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural Gas...), and sections 157.7 and 157.18 of the Commission's regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA)...

  9. Leak in spiral weld in a 16 inches gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazzini, Pablo G.; Bona, Jeremias de [GIE S.A., Mar del Plata (Argentina); Otegui, Jose L. [University of Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discusses a failure analysis after a leak in the spiral weld of a 16 inches natural gas pipeline, in service since 1974. The leak was the result of the coalescence of two different defects, on each surface of the pipe wall, located in the center of the inner cord of the helical DSAW weld. Fractographic and metallographic studies revealed that the leak was a combination of three conditions. During fabrication of the pipe, segregation in grain boundary grouped in mid weld. During service, these segregations underwent a process of selective galvanic corrosion. One of these volumetric defects coincided with a tubular pore in the outer weld. Pigging of the pipeline in 2005 for cleaning likely contributed to the increase of the leak flow, when eliminating corrosion product plugs. Although these defects are likely to repeat, fracture mechanics shows that a defect of this type is unlikely to cause a blowout. (author)

  10. Practical approach on gas pipeline compression system availability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Sidney Pereira dos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Kurz, Rainer; Lubomirsky, Matvey [Solar Turbines, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2009-12-19

    Gas pipeline projects traditionally have been designed based on load factor and steady state flow. This approach exposes project sponsors to project sustainability risks due to potential losses of revenues and transportation contract penalties related to pipeline capacity shortage as consequence of compressor unit's unavailability. Such unavailability should previously be quantified during the design phase. This paper presents a case study and a methodology that highlights the practical benefits of applying Monte Carlo simulation for the compression system availability analysis in conjunction with quantitative risk analysis and economic feasibility study. Project economics main variables and their impacts on the project NPV (Net Present Value) are evaluated with their respective statistics distribution to quantify risk and support decision makers to adopt mitigating measures to guarantee competitiveness while protecting project sponsors from otherwise unpredictable risks. This practical approach is compared to load factor approach and the results are presented and evaluated. (author)

  11. Dynamical Mechanisms of Effects of Landslides on Long Distance Oil and Gas Pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Qingwen; WANG Chenghua; KONG Jiming

    2006-01-01

    According to the investigations on the oil and gas pipelines such as the Lan-Cheng-Chong pipeline and the Southwest pipeline, there are two ways of laying pipeline: pipelines paralleling (approximately) to the main slide direction and pipelines perpendicular (approximately) to the main slide direction. If earth-retaining walls have been built for pipelines paralleling to the main slide direction, they will prevent the lands from sliding; On the contrary, without earth-retaining walls, the sharp broken rocks in the backfilling soil will scratch the safeguard of the pipeline when the landslides take place. Pipelines perpendicular to the main slide direction can be classified into four types according to the relative positions between pipelines and landslides: Pipelines over the slide planes, pipelines inside the fracture strips of slide planes, pipelines below the slide planes and pipelines behind the backsides of landslides. The different dynamical mechanisms of the process in which landslide acts against pipelines are analyzed based on whether the pipelines are equipped with fixed frusta, because the sliding resistance depends on whether and how many fixed frusta are equipped and the distance between frusta.

  12. GASDUC-3: a gas pipeline with neutralization of greenhouse gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Oliveira, Celso A.; Paula, Eliane H. de; Freire, Dilian A.D. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    PETROBRAS seeks to develop its projects following the contemporary premises of sustainable development. The Cabiunas-REDUC-3 Gas Pipeline (GASDUC-3), an undertaking from the Transportadora Associada de Gas - TAG (Associated Gas Transporter) in progress by PETROBRAS, is an example showing that interfacing with the environment can overcome legal questions to reach the realm of awareness and community spirit. In addition to the many programs directed specifically towards the fulfillment of environmental regulations, as defined by competent agencies, the GASDUC-3 is also inserted in the Carbon Free Program. In the Carbon Free Program, all the GHG emissions into the atmosphere during the construction of the gas pipeline will be compensated for with the neutralization of carbon through reforestation. Such initiative is considered unheard of in works with pipelines worldwide. An inventory that quantified the emission of GHG during the implementation of GASDUC-3 made it possible to quantify the reforestation to be implemented and to calculate the number of native species to be planted for absorption - during the course of their growth - of this same amount of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The trees are being planted especially in Permanent Preservation Areas (PPA), located in the Unidades de Conservacao do Bioma Mata Atlantica (Conservation Units of the Atlantic Forest Biome), inside the influence region of the gas pipeline, in accordance with the competent environmental agencies and owners. In this way, in addition to fixing carbon and contributing to the deceleration of global warming, the project also cooperates with the preservation of hydro and soil resources and the local and regional biodiversity. The recapturing of the already emitted GHG through reforestation faces bureaucratic and economic difficulties in order to be implemented, different from the emission reduction projects which are widely disseminated by means of Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM

  13. Mechanism and Application of Air Drying for New Offshore Gas Pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Xuewen; Wang Liyang; Lin Zonghu

    2005-01-01

    @@ Introduction The hydrostatic test must be carried out on completion of submarine gas pipeline construction, after which the dewatering operation is implemented to remove as much of the fill water as possible from the pipeline. However, after the dewatering operation, there is still some free water left behind on pipeline wall as well as in some low local areas.

  14. 76 FR 62395 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on September 20, 2011, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural), 3250 Lacey Road... sections 7(b) and 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), an application to abandon and construct...

  15. 78 FR 67350 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 18, 2013 Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural), at 3250 Lacey Road... Natural Gas Act (NGA) and Part 157 of the Commission's regulations, for a certificate of...

  16. 75 FR 36376 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application June 17, 2010. Take notice that on June 8, 2010, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural..., pursuant to sections 7(b) and 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), an application to abandon two...

  17. 75 FR 35700 - Revisions to Forms, Statements, and Reporting Requirements for Natural Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... for Natural Gas Pipelines June 17, 2010. AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, DOE. ACTION... Natural Gas Pipelines, Order No. 710, FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,267 (2008), order on reh' g and... revised its financial forms, statements, and reports for natural gas companies, contained in FERC Form...

  18. Application of New Techniques, Materials and Technologies in West-East Gas Transportation Pipeline Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DongXu

    2004-01-01

    With the application of new techniques, materials and technologies in West-East Gas Transportation Pipeline (WEGTP) project, the design concept of domestic pipeline industrial construction has been updated, speeding up the development and improvement of the strength as a whole in aspects of smelting industry, pipe fabrication, pipeline construction and equipment manufacture, making China's pipeline industry catch up with the trend of development of the world advanced level.

  19. Thinking on Sichuan-Chongqing gas pipeline transportation system reform under market-oriented conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yanzhi

    2017-01-01

    The gas pipeline networks in Sichuan and Chongqing (Sichuan-Chongqing) region have formed a fully-fledged gas pipeline transportation system in China, which supports and promotes the rapid development of gas market in Sichuan-Chongqing region. In the circumstances of further developed market-oriented economy, it is necessary to carry out further the pipeline system reform in the areas of investment/financing system, operation system and pricing system to lay a solid foundation for improving future gas production and marketing capability and adapting itself to the national gas system reform, and to achieve the objectives of multiparty participated pipeline construction, improved pipeline transportation efficiency and fair and rational pipeline transportation prices. In this article, main thinking on reform in the three areas and major deployment are addressed, and corresponding measures on developing shared pipeline economy, providing financial support to pipeline construction, setting up independent regulatory agency to enhance the industrial supervision for gas pipeline transportation, and promoting the construction of regional gas trade market are recommended.

  20. Comprehensive investigation into historical pipeline construction costs and engineering economic analysis of Alaska in-state gas pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Zhenhua

    This study analyzes historical cost data of 412 pipelines and 220 compressor stations. On the basis of this analysis, the study also evaluates the feasibility of an Alaska in-state gas pipeline using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Analysis of pipeline construction costs shows that component costs, shares of cost components, and learning rates for material and labor costs vary by diameter, length, volume, year, and location. Overall average learning rates for pipeline material and labor costs are 6.1% and 12.4%, respectively. Overall average cost shares for pipeline material, labor, miscellaneous, and right of way (ROW) are 31%, 40%, 23%, and 7%, respectively. Regression models are developed to estimate pipeline component costs for different lengths, cross-sectional areas, and locations. An analysis of inaccuracy in pipeline cost estimation demonstrates that the cost estimation of pipeline cost components is biased except for in the case of total costs. Overall overrun rates for pipeline material, labor, miscellaneous, ROW, and total costs are 4.9%, 22.4%, -0.9%, 9.1%, and 6.5%, respectively, and project size, capacity, diameter, location, and year of completion have different degrees of impacts on cost overruns of pipeline cost components. Analysis of compressor station costs shows that component costs, shares of cost components, and learning rates for material and labor costs vary in terms of capacity, year, and location. Average learning rates for compressor station material and labor costs are 12.1% and 7.48%, respectively. Overall average cost shares of material, labor, miscellaneous, and ROW are 50.6%, 27.2%, 21.5%, and 0.8%, respectively. Regression models are developed to estimate compressor station component costs in different capacities and locations. An investigation into inaccuracies in compressor station cost estimation demonstrates that the cost estimation for compressor stations is biased except for in the case of material costs. Overall average

  1. Multi objective optimization of line pack management of gas pipeline system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebouba, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the Line Pack Management of the "GZ1 Hassi R'mell-Arzew" gas pipeline. For a gas pipeline system, the decision-making on the gas line pack management scenarios usually involves a delicate balance between minimization of the fuel consumption in the compression stations and maximizing gas line pack. In order to select an acceptable Line Pack Management of Gas Pipeline scenario from these two angles for "GZ1 Hassi R'mell- Arzew" gas pipeline, the idea of multi-objective decision-making has been introduced. The first step in developing this approach is the derivation of a numerical method to analyze the flow through the pipeline under transient isothermal conditions. In this paper, the solver NSGA-II of the modeFRONTIER, coupled with a matlab program was used for solving the multi-objective problem.

  2. Gas Pipelines, LP and LNG, Pipelines_gas, Published in 2008, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Buffalo County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Gas Pipelines, LP and LNG dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2008. It is described as...

  3. Stand-off Raman spectrometer for identification of liquids in a pressurized gas pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Michael; Storey, Jonathan; Stockwell, Paul; Widdup, David

    2015-02-09

    a stand-off Raman spectrometer has been developed to make observations of liquid samples within a gas pipeline. The instrument is based on a static Fourier Transform spectrometer. The high etendue offered by the instrument enabled four liquid samples to be measured from a distance of 2.4 m within a gas pipeline. Liquids were identified with depths less than 5 mm demonstrating that the concept is viable for active pipeline measurement.

  4. 78 FR 8389 - Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 157 Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits AGENCY... publishes the project cost and annual limits for natural gas pipelines blanket construction certificates for each calendar year. DATES: This final rule is effective February 6, 2013 and establishes cost...

  5. 77 FR 8724 - Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 157 Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits... (OEP) computes and publishes the project cost and annual limits for natural gas pipelines blanket... establishes cost limits applicable from January 1, 2012 through December 31, 2012. FOR FURTHER...

  6. 75 FR 8245 - Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 157 Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits...) computes and publishes the project cost and annual limits for natural gas pipelines blanket construction... limits applicable from January 1, 2010 through December 31, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  7. 76 FR 8293 - Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 157 Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits...) computes and publishes the project cost and annual limits for natural gas pipelines blanket construction.... Applicability date: This final rule establishes cost limits applicable from January 1, 2011 through December...

  8. 76 FR 66709 - Trunkline Gas Company, LLC, Sea Robin Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Trunkline Gas Company, LLC, Sea Robin Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 7, 2011, Trunkline Gas Company, LLC (Trunkline) and Sea Robin Pipeline Company, LLC (Sea Robin), together referred to as Applicants, both located at 5444 Westheimer...

  9. 77 FR 41975 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application Take notice that on June 27, 2012, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro, Kentucky 42301, filed...

  10. 77 FR 38622 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on June 4, 2012, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro,...

  11. 78 FR 68835 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on October 31, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro,...

  12. 78 FR 25264 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on April 16, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro,...

  13. 78 FR 53746 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on August 13, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro,...

  14. 77 FR 14517 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on February 21, 2012 Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 State Highway 56,...

  15. 78 FR 13663 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on February 11, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, P.O. Box...

  16. 75 FR 8053 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization February 16, 2010. Take notice that on January 29, 2010, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700...

  17. The Technical Specification and Physical Performance Level of Line Pipes for West-East Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FengBin; WangMaotang; LiuFangming; XiaoLiming

    2004-01-01

    The west-east gas transmission engineering is an important project attracting domestic and foreign attention. The gas pipeline used in this project is a gas pipeline with the longest distance, largest pipe diameter and highest transmission pressure in the history of petroleum pipeline construction of China. For the construction of top-rank gas pipeline in the world with high standard, high speed and high benefit, the key of specifying production of metallurgical and pipe-making enterprises and ensuring quality performance of the steel and steel pipe is to research and formulate a feasible and satisfactory technical Specification for engineering steel and steel pipe with international level. In this paper the author introduces the establishment of the technical specification for West-East gas pipeline project, and lays emphasis on the analysis and discussion of principle and method determining major technical indexes related to line pipes for West-East gas pipeline. The author also introduces actual material selection of gas pipeline home and abroad, and presents examination and application of the technical specification for West-East gas pipeline.

  18. ANALYSIS OF DEPENDENCE BETWEEN CAPITAL EXPENDUTURES OF CONSTRUCTION WORKS AND GAS DISTRIBUTION PIPELINE DIAMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabunshchikov Yuriy Andreevich

    2012-10-01

    The research also contemplates the structure of expenses associated with the piping of gas distribution networks. Mathematical equations have been derived to perform sufficiently accurate calculations of costs of construction of various types and various lengths of gas pipelines.

  19. PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF SYSTEM MODERNIZATION OF THE ARCTIC NATURAL GAS EXPORT ON THE EUROPEAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Selin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A research purpose is the analysis of the European natural gas market environment and the modernization opportunities of the delivery system from Russia in connection with the current geo-economic changes. The main methods are the factorial approaches and the content analysis, which allows allocate and structure this sector’s driving forces.Export of the Russian natural gas on the European market still remains the dominating activity, in terms of the total amounts of deliveries, though over the last ten years its specific weight has been considerably reduced. The situation has sharply become aggravated both in connection with the "Ukrainian" crisis, and that of the European Union policy, which is taking the active measures for the gas supply system diversification. As a result of the conducted research it is proved that the Russian gas transportation system in the Arctic regions requires the strategic upgrade which shall go in two main directions.The first direction is the forming of the new pipeline schemes replacing the unreliable transit routes. The second direction is a rather innovative development of exploration and transportation of the liquefied natural gas which amount exceeds thirty percent in world export and in Russian has not yet reached ten percent.Scientific novelty of the received results consists in system approval of the opportunities of adaptation of Russian export deliveries to the market demand changes. The proposals of increase of the liquefied natural gas exploration in the Arctic regions and formation of the basic centers (special zones have also a practical importance.

  20. Geohazard assessment lifecycle for a natural gas pipeline project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekkakis, D.; Boone, M. D.; Strassburger, E.; Li, Z.; Duffy, W. P.

    2015-09-01

    This paper is a walkthrough of the geohazard risk assessment performed for the Front End Engineering Design (FEED) of a planned large-diameter natural gas pipeline, extending from Eastern Europe to Western Asia for a total length of approximately 1,850 km. The geohazards discussed herein include liquefaction-induced pipe buoyancy, cyclic softening, lateral spreading, slope instability, groundwater rise-induced pipe buoyancy, and karst. The geohazard risk assessment lifecycle was comprised of 4 stages: initially a desktop study was carried out to describe the geologic setting along the alignment and to conduct a preliminary assessment of the geohazards. The development of a comprehensive Digital Terrain Model topography and aerial photography data were fundamental in this process. Subsequently, field geohazard mapping was conducted with the deployment of 8 teams of geoprofessionals, to investigate the proposed major reroutes and delve into areas of poor or questionable data. During the third stage, a geotechnical subsurface site investigation was then executed based on the results of the above study and mapping efforts in order to obtain sufficient data tailored for risk quantification. Lastly, all gathered and processed information was overlain into a Geographical Information database towards a final determination of the critical reaches of the pipeline alignment. Input from Subject Matter Experts (SME) in the fields of landslides, karst and fluvial geomorphology was incorporated during the second and fourth stages of the assessment. Their experience in that particular geographical region was key to making appropriate decisions based on engineering judgment. As the design evolved through the above stages, the pipeline corridor was narrowed from a 2-km wide corridor, to a 500-m corridor and finally to a fixed alignment. Where the geohazard risk was high, rerouting of the pipeline was generally selected as a mitigation measure. In some cases of high uncertainty in

  1. Planning the network of gas pipelines through modeling tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sucupira, Marcos L.L.; Lutif Filho, Raimundo B. [Companhia de Gas do Ceara (CEGAS), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Natural gas is a source of non-renewable energy used by different sectors of the economy of Ceara. Its use may be industrial, residential, commercial, as a source of automotive fuel, as a co-generation of energy and as a source for generating electricity from heat. For its practicality this energy has a strong market acceptance and provides a broad list of clients to fit their use, which makes it possible to reach diverse parts of the city. Its distribution requires a complex network of pipelines that branches throughout the city to meet all potential clients interested in this source of energy. To facilitate the design, analysis, expansion and location of bottlenecks and breaks in the distribution network, a modeling software is used that allows the network manager of the net to manage the various information about the network. This paper presents the advantages of modeling the gas distribution network of natural gas companies in Ceara, showing the tool used, the steps necessary for the implementation of the models, the advantages of using the software and the findings obtained with its use. (author)

  2. Construction of the Second Weet-East Gas Pipeline Kicked Off

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Lifeng

    2008-01-01

    @@ The operation of the second West-East Gas Pipeline was started in Xinjiang, Gansu, Ningxia, and Shaanxi on February 22, 2008. It is the nation's first large-scale pipeline project introducing natural gas from other countries, which will be used to transmit the natural gas from the Middle Asia and Xinjiang to the Pearl River Delta, the Yangtze River Delta, and the middle east China.

  3. Review of technology for Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackinger, W. M.

    1980-06-06

    This volume contains appendices of the following: US Geological Survey Arctic operating orders, 1979; Det Noske Vertas', rules for the design, construction and inspection of offshore technology, 1977; Alaska Oil and Gas Association, industry research projects, March 1980; Arctic Petroleum Operator's Association, industry research projects, January 1980; selected additional Arctic offshore bibliography on sea ice, icebreakers, Arctic seafloor conditions, ice-structures, frost heave and structure icing.

  4. The Second International Conference on Northeast Asia Natural Gas Pipeline Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ying

    1997-01-01

    @@ The Second International Conference on Northeast Asia Natural Gas Pipeline co-sponsored by the National Pipeline Research Society of Japan, the Korea Pan-Asia Natural Gas Pipeline Association and China National Petroleum Corporation was held in Beijing, during September 23-24,1996. The 145 participants were from 13 countries, i.e.,Japan, South Korea, China, Russia, Mongolia, North Korea,Thailand, the USA, UK, Canada, Australia, Germany and Italy. The Conference mainly aimed at providing an opportunity for making a discussion on the Northeast Asia Pipeline and acted as a preparatory meeting to establish an organization for joint study on an international natural gas pipeline network in the Northeast Asia region.

  5. Karst hazard assessment in the design of the main gas pipeline (South Yakutia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strokova, L. A.; Dutova, E. M.; Ermolaeva, A. V.; Alimova, I. N.; Strelnikova, A. B.

    2015-11-01

    The paper represents the description of the zonal and regional geological factors of geoengineering conditions which characterize the territory in South Yakutia crossed by the designed main gas pipeline. Cryogenic processes and karst are considered to be the most dangerous hazards for gas pipeline maintenance. Karst hazard assessment of the gas pipeline section made in the course of the research has involved a complex of geological methods: geoengineering, geophysical, hydrogeological, and mapping. Sections prone to karst development have been identified. The authors have suggested the measures to protect potentially hazardous sections and to ensure timely informing on sinkhole collapses.

  6. 78 FR 65427 - Pipeline Safety: Reminder of Requirements for Liquefied Petroleum Gas and Utility Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... operator qualification and testing requirements under Part 192. Subpart P--Distribution Pipeline Integrity... removing the exemption for small utility LP gas systems from Subpart N (Qualification of Pipeline Personnel... surveillance (Sec. 192.613). Public awareness (Sec. 192.616). Operator qualification (Subpart N)...

  7. SAFE AND EFFICIENT OPERATION OF THE WEST-EAST GAS PIPELINE FOR FIVE YEARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The West-East gas pipeline in China has been operated for five years since the commencement of operation on Oct.1st,2003,Over the past five years the pipeline has maintained its safe,stable and high efficint status and brought favorable economic ,social and environmental effects.

  8. Integrity management of Brazil-Bolivia gas pipeline to reduce risks due third party damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcellos, Carlos Renato Aragonez de; Monte, Oswaldo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Colen, Eustaquio; Cunha, Roberto de Souza; Oliveira, Hudson Regis de [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, Rogerio de Souza [RSL Consultoria Geoprojetos (Brazil); Schultz Neto, Walter [Milton Braga Assessoria Tecnica (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The Bolivia-Brazil Natural Gas Pipeline has 2.600 kilometers from Rio Grande City in Bolivia to Canoas City, in the south of Brazil. The right-of-way crosses a lot of types of topography and areas subjected to various kinds of anthropological actions, like areas in class locations 3, locals under agricultural activities, forests and minerals explorations, and near constructions of highway and railway, industrial constructions, new pipelines in the same right-of -way, channels, dams, that requires special projects to avoid that the gas pipeline could be subject to strengths that were not consider in the original design. The aim of this paper is to present the jobs developed by TBG during seven years of gas pipeline operations, as public awareness program, procedures to design, construct and inspect specials constructions along and near the right-of -way, control of mineral and forest explorations, monitoring and controlling of excavations on the right-of-way to install new pipelines and optical cables, to reduce risks of gas pipeline damage due third party, as a component of TBG' Managing Integrity Gas Pipeline Program. (author)

  9. Wave propagation versus transient ground displacement as a credible hazard to buried oil and gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The cause of damage to a natural gas pipeline during the 1994 Northridge earthquake in the San Fernando Valley in California was examined in a collaborative effort by Southern California Gas Co., Pacific Gas and Electric Co., and with support from Tokyo Gas, Osaka Gas and Toho Gas. Extensive field and laboratory studies were conducted on a 1925 gas pipeline that suffered several girth weld failures in Potrero Canyon where significant ground displacement was observed. Ground cracking and sand boils were observed in the area following the earthquake but there were few other signs of permanent ground deformation near the pipeline damage. Damage consisted mostly of girth weld tensile failure and two cases of buckling of the pipe wall. Initial evidence suggested that the damage may have been caused by wave propagation, but a detailed study has shown that wave propagation effect was not a significant factor in the pipeline damage. A simple analytical model was developed to determine the transient ground deformation that might have occurred in the area of the pipeline damage. The model also provides clues regarding the cause of the ground cracking observed at the margins of the canyon. It also provides approximate magnitudes of differential ground displacements resulting from the earthquake. The model also considers the reasons for spatial distribution of pipeline damage. 13 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  10. Alarm management in gas pipeline plant: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Juliano; Lima, Marcelo; Leitao, Gustavo; Guedes, Luiz Affonso [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Branco, Nicolau; Coelho, Robson; Elias, Gustavo Passos; Nunes, Marcelo [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil (TBG), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In order to improve the requirements of industrial processes, many decision support systems have been introduced in recent years. In this context, the alarm management systems have great relevance. On the other hand, the informatics revolution allowed a great increase of information concerning the operation of the industrial processes. Currently, process operators handle an excessive number of about 1.500 alarms per day. Thus, this overdose of information implies in the discredit of alarms. Then, in order to improve the operation activities of industrial processes, it is mandatory to incorporate procedures to evaluate and rationalize alarms. Since the EMMUA191 Standard is the reference guide to alarm management, but it does not specify how to execute an alarm management procedure, in this paper, a systematic procedure to evaluate alarms configurations in industrial processes is proposed. This procedure is in line with EMMUA191 and is composed by the following steps: to use statistics analyses to identify problematic alarms, such as occurrence, intermittency, correlation, and flooding calculation; to indicate problematic alarm group; and to propose a set of actions to be implemented. To validate our proposal, we present a case study in a gas pipeline plant using the BR-AlarmExpert software. (author)

  11. 75 FR 16337 - Standards for Business Practices for Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... natural gas pipeline business practices and electronic communications to incorporate by reference into its... has reviewed the requirements pertaining to business practices and electronic communication with... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 284 Standards for Business Practices for Interstate Natural...

  12. CNPC/EXXON/MITSUBISH Jointly Signing of Natural Gas Pipeline Study Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) ,American Exxon Corporation and Japanese Mitsubish Corporation Jointly. signed a study agreement on long-distance natural gas pipeline from Turkmenistan via Uzbekistan, Kazakstan,China to Japan in Beijing on August 22, 1995.

  13. Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Natural Gas Pipelines - Gulf of Mexico Region NAD 27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This polyline data set contains the locations of oil and gas pipelines in the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf federal waters that are associated with the oil...

  14. Social and Economic Benefits of the West-East Gas Pipeline Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xiangyang

    2002-01-01

    @@ On July 4 2002, a project attracting world attention, i.e., the West-East Gas Pipeline Project was declared in full-scale commencement. The project will write history with its enormous social and economic benefits.

  15. Cracking resistance study of steel for gas pipelines; Badania odpornosci stali przeznaczonej na rurociagi gazowe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasiak, J.; Bilous, W.; Hajewska, E.; Szteke, W.; Wagner, T. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    The results of cracking resistance of steel tubes for gas pipelines have been performed. The temperature dependence of mechanical properties of X56 steel used as tube material have been shown. 2 refs, 6 figs, 4 tabs.

  16. Oil and Gas Pipelines in the Gulf of Mexico from BOEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A line file representing locations of the pipeline infrastructure in the Gulf of Mexico associated with the oil and gas industry is presented. These layers were...

  17. GASVOL 18'' gas pipeline - risk based inspection study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoernoey, Ola H.; Etterdal, Birger A. [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Oslo (Norway); Guarize, Rosimar; Oliveira, Luiz F.S. [Det Norske Veritas (DNV) (Brazil); Faertes, Denise; Dias, Ricardo [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    This paper describes a risk based approach and inspection planning as part of the Pipeline Integrity Management (PIM) system for the 95.5 km long 18'' GASVOL gas pipeline in the South eastern region of Brazil transporting circa 5 000 000 m3 dry gas per day. Pipeline systems can be subject to several degradation mechanisms and inspection and monitoring are used to ensure system integrity. Modern pipeline regulations and codes are normally based on a core safety or risk philosophy. The detailed design requirements presented in design codes are practical interpretations established so as to fulfill these core objectives. A given pipeline, designed, constructed and installed according to a pipeline code is therefore the realization of a structure, which, along its whole length, meets the applicable safety objectives of that code. The main objective of Pipeline Integrity Management (PIM) is to control and document the integrity of the pipeline for its whole service life, and to do this in a cost-effective manner. DNV has a specific approach to RBI planning, starting with an initial qualitative assessment where pipelines and damage type are ranked according to risk and potential risk reduction by an inspection and then carried forward to a quantitative detailed assessment where the level of complexity and accuracy can vary based on availability of information and owner needs. Detailed assessment requires significant effort in data gathering. The findings are dependent upon the accuracy of the inspection data, and on DNV's interpretation of the pipeline reference system and simplifications in the inspection data reported. The following specific failure mechanisms were investigated: internal corrosion, external corrosion, third party interference, landslides and black powder. RBI planning, in general words, is a 'living process'. In order to optimize future inspections, it is essential that the analyses utilize the most recent information regarding

  18. Optimal-control of gas-pipelines via infinite-dimensional analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durgut, I. [Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering; Leblebicioglu, K. [Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering

    1996-05-15

    A general optimal control approach employing the principles of calculus of variations has been developed to determine the best operating strategies for keeping the outlet pressure of gas transmission pipelines around a predetermined value while achieving reasonable energy consumption. The method exploits analytical tools of optimal control theory. A set of partial differential equations characterizing the dynamics of gas flow through a pipeline is directly used. The necessary conditions to minimize the specific performance index come from the infinite-dimensional model. The optimization scheme has been tested on a pipeline subject to stepwise change in demand. (UK)

  19. 77 FR 43711 - Standards for Business Practices of Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 284 Standards for Business Practices of Interstate Natural Gas... (WGQ) of the North American Energy Standards Board (NAESB) applicable to natural gas pipelines. In... Gas Quadrant (WGQ) of the North American Energy Standards Board (NAESB) applicable to natural...

  20. 78 FR 19409 - Annual Charge Filing Procedures for Natural Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 154 Annual Charge Filing Procedures for Natural Gas... revise the filing requirements for natural gas pipelines that choose to recover Commission-assessed annual charges through an annual charge adjustment (ACA) clause. Currently, natural gas...

  1. Fresh Users Found for Cangzhou-Zibo Natural Gas Pipeline of PetroChina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FuHong

    2003-01-01

    On February 18, 2003,PetroChina signed a number of natural gas sales and supply contracts separately with Beijing Jinjie Energy Investment Co Ltd and Shangdong Jinjie Gas Co Ltd,identifying some new users for the Cangzhou-Zibo gas transmission pipeline. Under the agreements,

  2. Oil and Gas Resources of the Arctic Alaska Petroleum Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseknecht, David W.; Bird, Kenneth J.

    2006-01-01

    The Arctic Alaska Petroleum Province, encompassing all the lands and adjacent Continental Shelf areas north of the Brooks Range-Herald arch, is one of the most petroleum-productive areas in the United States, having produced about 15 billion bbl of oil. Seven unitized oil fields currently contribute to production, and three additional oil fields have been unitized but are not yet producing. Most known petroleum accumulations involve structural or combination structural-stratigraphic traps related to closure along the Barrow arch, a regional basement high, which has focused regional hydrocarbon migration since Early Cretaceous time. Several oil accumulations in stratigraphic traps have been developed in recent years. In addition to three small gas fields producing for local consumption, more than 20 additional oil and gas discoveries remain undeveloped. This geologically complex region includes prospective strata within passive-margin, rift, and foreland-basin sequences. Oil and gas were generated from multiple source rocks throughout the region. Although some reservoired oils appear to be derived from a single source rock, evidence for significant mixing of hydrocarbons from multiple source rocks indicates a composite petroleum system. Both extensional and contractional tectonic structures provide ample exploration targets, and recent emphasis on stratigraphic traps has demonstrated a significant resource potential in shelf and turbidite sequences of Jurassic through Tertiary age. Recent estimates of the total mean volume of undiscovered resources in the Arctic Alaska Petroleum Province by the U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Minerals Management Service are more than 50 billion bbl of oil and natural-gas liquids and 227 trillion ft3 of gas, distributed approximately equally between Federal offshore and combined onshore and State offshore areas.

  3. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF LONGITUDINAL SUBMERGED ARC WELDED STEEL PIPES USED FOR GAS PIPELINE OF OFFSHORE OIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.Z. Yang; W. Tian; Q.R. Ma; Y.L. Li; J.K. Li; J.Z. Gao; H.B. Zhang; Y.H. Yang

    2008-01-01

    Since the development of offshore oil and gas, increased submarine oil and gas pipelines were installed. All the early steel pipes of submarine pipelines depended on importing because of the strict requirements of comprehensive properties, such as,anti-corrosion, resistance to pressure and so on. To research and develop domestic steel pipes used for the submarine pipeline, the Longitudinal-seam Submerged Arc Welded (LSAW) pipes were made of steel plates cut from leveled hot rolled coils by both the JCOE and UOE (the forming process in which the plate like the letter "J", "C", "O" or "U" shape, then expansion) forming processes. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of the pipe base metal and weld metal were tested, and the results were in accordance with the corresponding pipe specification API SPEC 5L or DNV-OS-F101, which showed that domestic LSAW pipes could be used for submarine oil and gas pipelines.

  4. Case Study - internal corrosion in natural gas pipelines; Estudo de caso - corrosao interna em dutos transportadores de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega, A.C.V. da; Barbosa, A.F.F.; Silva, D.R. da [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Lab. de Corrosao]. E-mail: anacecilia@eol.com.br; andreafranciscab@yahoo.com; djalma@ccet.ufrn.br; Pimenta, G.S. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Peixoto, D.G. [PETROBRAS S.A., Natal/Fortaleza, RN/CE (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios

    2003-07-01

    One of the aspects what more characterize the gas natural is the possibility of your state physical can be adapted the conditions of transport , since the zone where is producing until the region where it is consumer (distant only one from another), you can stand out this three principal alternatives: gas pipelines; in the form of liquefied, in cryogenic ships; in the form of derive compounds that can be liquids or solid. For susceptibilities to the corrosion of the carbons steels used in the equipment and natural gas pipelines of the production reservoirs until the denominated city gates, it makes be necessary to identify the acting corrosive agents and monitoring them along time, because, the failures for internal corrosion in natural gas pipelines can carry serious environmental problems, damages to the image of the distributors companies and prejudices related to operational continuity. Some aspects of the processing of the natural gas are argued, as well as your effect regarding the internal corrosion in natural gas pipelines. To leave of this analysis, it tries establishing a monitoring and controlling methodology of the internal corrosion in field for natural gas pipelines. For chemical characterization of the samples of the black powder were used analyses for Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, X-Ray Fluorescence. (author)

  5. Optimization of the steady operation of Shaanxi to Beijing gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Changchun Wu [China University of Petroleum, Beijing (China); Peng Zhang [Beijing Huayou Gas Company (China); Hongsheng Cui [PetroChina, Beijing (China)

    2005-07-01

    Shaanxi to Beijing gas pipeline is the first one with intermediate compressor stations in China. With one reciprocating compressor station and three centrifugal compressor stations, the pipeline has an annual capacity of about 36..10{sup 8}m{sup 3}. Increasing gas demand in Beijing and commissioning of the three underground gas storage facilities connected to the pipeline make it to operate near to the capacity for most time of a year, which can be approximately considered as steady state. With the goal to minimize the energy cost of the pipeline, a dynamic programming model was established for its optimal steady operation, in which outlet pressures of each compressor station were defined as state variables and compression ratios as decision variables. The optimal solutions of the model showed that the energy cost could be reduced to different extent by means of optimal operation for the different flow-rates of the pipeline, and that the savings of the energy cost from optimal operation may be over 20% compared to the operation schemes specified by traditional experience in some cases. Furthermore, the guidelines for the optimal operation of gas pipelines were revealed from the analysis of the optimal solutions of the model. (author)

  6. Location class change impact on onshore gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Cassia de Oliveira; Oliveira, Luiz Fernando Seixas de [DNV Energy Solutions, Oslo (Norway); Leal, Cesar Antonio [DNV Energy Solutions, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Faertes, Denise [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gas and Energy

    2009-07-01

    During a pipeline life cycle, some significant changes in the population may happen along its route. Such changes are indirectly evaluated by the increase in the amount of buildings constructed along the route, which determines the so called Location Class. Such changes, after licensing, provoke differences between what is required by the standards and what is actually done. This work has two goals. One is to study the requirements of international standards and legislations as well as some solutions used in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom and Netherlands. This goal intends to provide some technical bases for a comparative analysis on how the location class changes, during the life cycle of a pipeline, are treated in each country. Another goal is to present a risk-based methodology for the guideline development which can be used in decision-making concerning what to do in case of any location class change. Particularly, it has given special attention to the requirements which are imposed for the pipeline operational license continuation. This work is of supreme importance for the Brazilian pipeline segment, since the existing Brazilian design standard, ABNT NBR12712 for transmission and distribution pipeline design, does not deal with that issue. Moreover, a summary of the main solutions found in those countries together with a guideline, customized for the Brazilian reality, is presented. (author)

  7. Development of ecologically safe method for main oil and gas pipeline trenching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmedov Asvar Mikdadovich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Constructive, technical and technological reliability of major pipeline ensures ecological safety on different stages of life circle - beginning with project preparation activities up to the end of major pipeline operation. Even in the process of transition into new life circle stage, no matter if the pipeline needs major repairs or reconstruction, such technical and technological solutions should be found, which would preserve ecological stability of nature-anthropogenic system. Development of ecology protection technologies of construction, reconstruction and major repairs of main pipelines is of great importance not only for a region, but ensures ecological safety across the globe. The article presents a new way of trenching the main oil and gas pipeline, preservation and increase of ecological safety during its service. The updated technological plan is given in the paper for overhaul of the main oil and gas pipeline using the new technology of pipeline trenching. The suggested technical solution contributes to environment preservation with the help of deteriorating shells - the shells’ material decomposes into environment-friendly components: carbon dioxide, water and humus. The quantity of polluting agents in the atmosphere decreases with the decrease of construction term and quantity of technical equipment.

  8. 76 FR 7238 - Pipeline Safety: Dangers of Abnormal Snow and Ice Build-Up on Gas Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... Build-Up on Gas Distribution Systems AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration... owners and operators of petroleum gas and natural gas facilities of the need to take the appropriate steps to prevent damage to pipeline facilities from accumulated snow or ice. Past events on natural...

  9. PetroChina Starts Construction of Zhongxian-Wuhan Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Senior Vice President of PetroChina Su Shulin made an announcement to start construction of Zhongxian-Wuhan gas pipeline at the ceremony held in Yichang, Hubei Province, on August 28 to kick off the pipeline project. Some high-ranking officials attended the kick-off ceremony, including Vice Mayor of Chongqing Municipality Wu Jianong, Vice Governor of Hunan Province Zheng Maoqing and Vice Governor of Hubei Province Ren Shimao.

  10. Mathematical model of a multi-loop network of gas pipelines at various modes of current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orifjon Sh. Bozorov

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A method of hydraulic calculation of a multi-loop network of gas pipelines based on Kirchhoff’s laws is offered. As completing relations, the formula for the change of pressure on elementary sites of the horizontal gas pipe, received on the basis of Leybenzon’s generalized formula of resistance is used.

  11. 76 FR 78636 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Supplemental Notice of Intent To Prepare an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Supplemental Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Alden Gas Storage Field Expansion Project and Request for Comments On Environmental...

  12. The characteristic of 2205 duplex stainless steel and application in natural gas pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2205 duplex stainless steel (DSS) possesses favorable mechanical property and good corrosion resistance at the same time, and has been a new material and applied widely in petroleum,natural gas, ocean and chemistry industry etc from 1980's in some advanced countries and from 1990's in China. One natural gas headstream project possesses abundant natural gas and provides 80% of total quantity gas for West-East Pipeline Project. The project includes a 13 km length pipeline and a gas treatment plant that purify gas about 12 × 109 m3 every year. The Cl- concentration in the water separated from gas is about 10%, and so the corrosion of medium is very violent to the pipeline. 2205 DSS material has been applied successfully to the project in 2004. This is the first time of such a mass of DSS material application in a project in China. The characteristic of 2205 DSS and application in natural gas pipeline project has been introduced in this paper.

  13. THE DEVELOPMENT AND THE STRATEGY OF THE OIL AND GAS PIPELINES OF RUSSIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Masumi

    The Russian oil and gas industry earns more than half of the Russian tax revenue and foreign currency, and has been playing the role of the backbone of the state economy through the eras of the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation. With the elongation of distance to the European market from the oil producing regions, starting from Baku in the era of Imperial Russia to the Second Baku (Volga-Ural) and the third Baku (West Siberia) in turn, the role of the oil pipeline system as the transportation infrastructure became more and more important and the deployment of pipelines has become one of the indispensable pillars of oil strategy. Now, the oil pipeline network is to reach the Pacific Ocean, which will enable Northeast Asia to be added as a destination for Russian oil, with a result of expanding influence for Russia in these regions. On the other hand, gas exports from the Soviet Union to Eastern Europe started in 1967 by constructing a trunk pipeline from Ukraine, which was extended to West Germany in 1973, overcoming the confrontation between the East and the West and becoming a regional stabilizer. The United States considered this pipeline as an energy weapon and criticized this deal by saying that when Soviet gas flows to Western Europe, its political influence must flow like the gas itself. However, the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, while gas transportation continued without any disruption. This is evidence that the gas pipeline from the Soviet Union was purely for a business purpose and was not politicized. Recently, Russia is aiming to export gas to northeastern Asia, which is expected to be a new stabilizer in this region, although different types of diffi culties (especially about the method of determination of the gas price) still need to be resolved.

  14. Research on Gas Hydrate Plug Formation under Pipeline-Like Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Stephan Merkel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrates of natural gases like methane have become subject of great interest over the last few decades, mainly because of their potential as energy resource. The exploitation of these natural gases from gas hydrates is seen as a promising mean to solve future energetic problems. Furthermore, gas hydrates play an important role in gas transportation and gas storage: in pipelines, particularly in tubes and valves, gas hydrates are formed and obstruct the gas flow. This phenomenon is called “plugging” and causes high operational expenditure as well as precarious safety conditions. In this work, research on the formation of gas hydrates under pipeline-like conditions, with the aim to predict induction times as a mean to evaluate the plugging potential, is described.

  15. 77 FR 2513 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Effects of Oil and Gas Activities in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... Effects of Oil and Gas Activities in the Arctic Ocean AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... the Effects of Oil and Gas Activities in the Arctic Ocean.'' Based on several written requests.../pr/permits/eis/arctic.htm . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Candace Nachman, Jolie Harrison,...

  16. 75 FR 66046 - Capacity Transfers on Intrastate Natural Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... introduced the bill amending the NGA to include section 1(c). See ANR Pipeline Co. v. Federal Energy... Commission's Public Reference Room during normal business hours (8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. Eastern time) at 888... during normal business hours. For assistance, please contact the Commission's Online Support at...

  17. Safety appraisement on building natural gas pipeline over coal mining subsidence area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wei-jia; LIU Jin-xiao; WEN Xing-lin

    2007-01-01

    The target of the text is to scientifically appraise dynamic development of surface deformation in subsidence area and its influence on groundwork stability of natural pipe and then adopt some technological measures to ensure safe circulation of natural pipeline. Analysed the influence on natural pipeline from coal mining subsidence in the way of pipeline grade variation, vertical curve variation, transverse deformation, horizontal pull and compression deformation and pipe stress variation etc., and described detailed surface subsidence product and its used time among initial phase, active phase and decline phase in the course of surface movement deformation time. In the context of considering surface subsidence that doesn't reach basic latter end and residual subsidence quantity, the text confirmed the calculation method of residual deformation in surface subsidence area, and gave the technological measures about building natural gas pipeline in subsidence area finally.

  18. Applications of ZigBee Technology in the Safety Monitoring System of Low Gas Pipeline Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Deyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing safety monitoring system of low gas pipeline transportation establishes a wired communication network monitoring system mainly on the basis of industrial bus. It has problems such as large transmission signal attenuation, complex wiring, high-labor intensity, inconvenient installation and maintenance, high maintenance cost, and so on. Featuring low cost, power-saving, reliability, stability and flexibility, the wireless sensor network established by ZigBee wireless communication technology can realize the real-time all-dimensional dynamic monitoring on parameters of low gas pipeline transportation system and overcome the shortcomings and deficiencies of wired network system.

  19. Map Service Showing Geology, Oil and Gas Fields, and Geologic Provinces of the Arctic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The digitally compiled map includes geology, oil and gas field centerpoints, and geologic provinces of the Arctic (North Pole area encircled by 640 N Latitude). The...

  20. Rehabilitation and certification of the PGPB Cactus-San Fernando gas pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graciano, L.S. [Permex Gas y Petroquimica Basica, Mexico City (Mexico); Clyne, A. [GE Energy PII Pipeline Solutions, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cazenave, P.; Willis, S. [GE Energy PII Pipeline Solutions, Houston, TX (United States); Kania, R. [GE Energy Pipeline Solutions, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The Cactus-San Fernando gas pipeline system is 650 km in length and was constructed in the late 1970s. The system transports more than 1100 million standard cubic feet per day of dry natural gas to electricity generators in Mexico. This paper described a project undertaken to re-validate the pipeline and demonstrate the future integrity of the pipeline system and ensure that it was suitable for operation to 1219 psig. Pipeline sections were inspected using high resolution magnetic flux leakage (MFL) in-line inspection (ILI) tools, and inertial mapping unit vehicles equipped with global positioning surveys (GPS). The combined inspections allowed the project team to accurately identify features of the pipeline that required repairs. External and internal corrosion were identified as the most prevalent defects. RSTRENG methodologies were used to investigate the interaction of individual corrosion anomalies. Corrosion patterns were compared, and above-ground survey data were used to establish the causes of both the external and internal corrosion, as well as to establish future corrosion growth rates. Decision tree analysis was then used to analyze the growth rates and to identify statistical differences between corrosion growth rates as a function of distance along the pipeline. After the ILI reports were generated, an integrity assessment was then conducted to identify necessary repair options. Repairs plans were then developed along with recommended re-inspection intervals for each section. After the integrity assessments were accepted by a certification company, field work was conducted to locate and measure defects. Defects characteristic of major volumetric welding flaws introduced during pipeline construction were identified and repaired with an epoxy sleeve technique. It was concluded that repairs needed to operate the pipeline at the requested pressure were accomplished within a period of 8 months. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  1. The Trans-Saharan Gas Pipeline: an illusion or a real prospect?; Le trans Saharan Gas Pipeline Mirage ou reelle opportunite?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auge, B.

    2010-07-01

    The African continent holds 8% of global natural gas reserves. Its relative economic weakness and the almost total absence of natural gas networks means there is very limited internal gas consumption - almost none outside of Algeria and Egypt - giving it considerable exporting capabilities. A pipeline joining up Sub-Saharan Africa with the European Union (EU) is therefore a reasonably logical project in economic terms. The two interested blocks have been discussing this with increasing intensity since early 2000. On the face of it the strategy seems obvious, the European area has three important gas producers: Norway (a non-EU member but closely associated with its energy policy), Great Britain and the Netherlands, with respective outputs of 99.2, 69.5 and 67.5 billion m{sup 3} in 2008. However, Norwegian and Dutch production will begin to decrease in several years time; and British production has already fallen considerably since 2000. Britain currently imports one-third of its gas for domestic consumption (93.9 billion m3 in 2008). Logically EU imports are going to increase progressively. And yet, a fear of dependency on Russian natural gas - currently the average rate of Russian gas supply amongst the EU 27 is 25% - in the near future, is leading the EU to consider diversifying its supply source. Without this diversification Russia could be supplying around 70% of the European market (27 countries) by 2050. Presently some EU countries clearly favour an increase in 're-gasification' plants in order to import more liquefied natural gas (LNG): France, Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Poland. The Persian Gulf countries, Egypt and Algeria and the U.S. will supply these new plants. The Trans-Saharan Gas Pipeline (TSGP) which would link Nigeria to Niger and Algeria, itself connected to Spain and Italy by existing pipelines or those currently under construction, could turn out to be an additional supply option in the long term. However

  2. Dynamic Analysis of Pig through Two and Three Dimensional Gas Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Mirshamsi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the dynamic analysis and simulation of Pipeline Inspection Gage (PIG through the two and three dimensional gas pipelines. Continuity, momentum and the state equations are employed to achieve the gas flow parameters like density, velocity and pressure along the pipeline since the dynamic behavior of the pig depends on the flow field characteristics. Also, a differential equation which governs the dynamic behavior of the pig is derived. The pig is assumed to be a small rigid body with a bypass hole in its body. The variation of the diameter of the bypass port, which is controlled by a valve, is considered in this research. The path of the pig or geometry of the pipeline is assumed to be 2D and 3D curve. 2D and 3D simulations of the pig motion are performed individually using Rung- Kutta method and a case has been solved and discussed for each of them. The simulation results show that the derived equations are valid and effective for online estimating of the position, velocity and forces acting on the pig in gas pipelines at any time of the motion.

  3. Comparison study on qualitative and quantitative risk assessment methods for urban natural gas pipeline network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Z Y; Weng, W G

    2011-05-15

    In this paper, a qualitative and a quantitative risk assessment methods for urban natural gas pipeline network are proposed. The qualitative method is comprised of an index system, which includes a causation index, an inherent risk index, a consequence index and their corresponding weights. The quantitative method consists of a probability assessment, a consequences analysis and a risk evaluation. The outcome of the qualitative method is a qualitative risk value, and for quantitative method the outcomes are individual risk and social risk. In comparison with previous research, the qualitative method proposed in this paper is particularly suitable for urban natural gas pipeline network, and the quantitative method takes different consequences of accidents into consideration, such as toxic gas diffusion, jet flame, fire ball combustion and UVCE. Two sample urban natural gas pipeline networks are used to demonstrate these two methods. It is indicated that both of the two methods can be applied to practical application, and the choice of the methods depends on the actual basic data of the gas pipelines and the precision requirements of risk assessment.

  4. Numerical forecasting surge in a piping of compressor shops of gas pipeline network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a method of forecasting stable operation of gas compressor unit (GCU) centrifugal supercharger (CFS) installed on a piping of compressor shops servicing gas pipelines. The stability of superchargers operation is assessed in relation to the phenomenon of surge. Solution of this problem amounts to the development and numerical analysis of a set of ordinary differential equations. The set describes transmission of gas through a compressor shop as a fluid dynamics model with lumped parameters. The proposed method is oriented to wide application by specialists working in the gas industry. The practical application of this method can use all-purpose programming and mathematical software available to specialists of gas companies.

  5. Rapid, Vehicle-Based Identification of Location and Magnitude of Urban Natural Gas Pipeline Leaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Fischer, Joseph C; Cooley, Daniel; Chamberlain, Sam; Gaylord, Adam; Griebenow, Claire J; Hamburg, Steven P; Salo, Jessica; Schumacher, Russ; Theobald, David; Ham, Jay

    2017-04-04

    Information about the location and magnitudes of natural gas (NG) leaks from urban distribution pipelines is important for minimizing greenhouse gas emissions and optimizing investment in pipeline management. To enable rapid collection of such data, we developed a relatively simple method using high-precision methane analyzers in Google Street View cars. Our data indicate that this automated leak survey system can document patterns in leak location and magnitude within and among cities, even without wind data. We found that urban areas with prevalent corrosion-prone distribution lines (Boston, MA, Staten Island, NY, and Syracuse, NY), leaked approximately 25-fold more methane than cities with more modern pipeline materials (Burlington, VT, and Indianapolis, IN). Although this mobile monitoring method produces conservative estimates of leak rates and leak counts, it can still help prioritize both leak repairs and replacement of leak-prone sections of distribution lines, thus minimizing methane emissions over short and long terms.

  6. AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSNG OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry Myers

    2005-04-15

    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. The scope of the work involved designing and developing an airborne, optical remote sensor capable of sensing methane and, if possible, ethane for the detection of natural gas pipeline leaks. Flight testing using a custom dual wavelength, high power fiber amplifier was initiated in February 2005. Ophir successfully demonstrated the airborne system, showing that it was capable of discerning small amounts of methane from a simulated pipeline leak. Leak rates as low as 150 standard cubic feet per hour (scf/h) were detected by the airborne sensor.

  7. ASSOCIATED PETROLEUM GAS EFFICIENT UTILIZATION SYSTEM IN PIPELINES OPERATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHUHAREVA N.V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available N this article is described the most common ways of associated petroleum gas utilization, is conducted a brief analysis, is selected method of disposal when using gas turbines and is suggested ways to improve their efficiency.

  8. A study on the development of repair procedure for gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, W.S.; Kim, Y.P.; Baek, J.H. [R and D Center, Korea Gas Corporation, Ansan (Korea)

    1999-06-01

    In the buried natural gas pipelines, many defects may occur by construction faults, corrosion, third-party interference and ground movement. When a segment of a pipeline is found to be defective, one of the repair methods is to remove its contents and cut out the defective segment after shutting down the pipeline. However, the cost is extremely high in terms of venting and disrupting the gas supply. Therefore, most pipeline companies have developed in-service repair methods without removing the line from service. In general, in order to avoid removing the line from service, direct deposition of weld metal, full-encirclement sleeve, patches, stopple fittings, half-sole and branch connections are required. There are three important concerns in the sleeve-repair welding like other methods of in-service repair-welding. The first concern is the possibility of burn-through which is due to the localized heating and loss of meterial strength on the inner surface of pipe during the welding process. The pipe wall may burst under internal pressure if the loss in strength is too great. The second concern is the high cooling rates by the flowing gas which quickly removes heat from the pipe wall, resulting in accelerated cooling of the weld. Such rapid cooling rates promote the formation of hard heat affected zone microstructure making these welds susceptible to hydrogen cracking. The third concern is for the load carrying ability, such as tensile strength, fracture toughness and fatigue strength. This study was taken to investigate the effect of in-service welding conditions and assess the mechanical properties for the direct deposition welding and sleeve-repair welding of in-service gas pipelines and develope the welding procedure specification for in-service pipeline repair. 81 figs., 40 tabs.

  9. Public inquiry concerning stress corrosion cracking on Canadian oil and gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollman, K.W.; Cote-Verhaaf, A.; Illing, R.

    1996-11-01

    An comprehensive inquiry was conducted into the serious problem of near-neutral pH stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in Canada`s buried oil and gas pipelines. The inquiry was prompted by evidence of the widespread nature of SCC and awareness that research was producing new insights into the problem. Two major ruptures and fires occurred on the TransCanada system in February and July of 1995. The July rupture was in a location where it was believed SCC could not occur. SCC on pipelines occurs when small cracks develop on the outside surface of the buried pipeline. With time the cracks grow large enough until the pipeline fails or ruptures. SCC results from an interaction of the following three conditions: a potent environment at the pipe surface, a susceptible pipe material, and a tensile stress. Recommendations to resolve the problem included implementation of an SCC management program by pipeline companies, changes to the design of the pipeline, continued research, establishment of an SCC database, improved emergency response practices, and information sharing. 84 refs., 8 tabs., 67 figs.

  10. 78 FR 23554 - Sierrita Gas Pipeline LLC; Supplemental Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... operation of facilities by Sierrita Gas Pipeline LLC (Sierrita) in Pima County, Arizona (the project was... process to determine whether the Project is in the public convenience and necessity. The Commission staff... construction of two meter stations and various other appurtenant facilities in Pima County, Arizona....

  11. 78 FR 62012 - Transcontinental Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-11

    ... compressor station facilities along its existing pipeline system in Pennsylvania and New Jersey to provide...,540 horsepower of compression at its existing Compressor Station 195 in York County, Pennsylvania by replacing three existing natural gas-fired reciprocating engines and appurtenant facilities with two...

  12. 75 FR 45108 - Enterprise Alabama Intrastate, LLC Yankee Gas Services Company Kinder Morgan Tejas Pipeline LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-63-000; Docket No. PR10-64-000; Docket No. PR10-66- 000] Enterprise Alabama Intrastate, LLC Yankee Gas Services Company Kinder Morgan Tejas Pipeline LLC...

  13. Research & Development of Grade X70 LSAW Steel Pipes for West-East Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangXiaoxiang; SunQi

    2004-01-01

    In this article the research and development of X70 large diameter longitudinal seam submerged arc welded (LSAW) steel pipes for West-East Gas Transportation Pipeline project (WEGTP) in China are introduced, including the key technique, fabrication of pipe production line, mass production and the latest progress of LSAW steel pipe technique.

  14. Application and numerical simulation research on biomimetic drag-reducing technology for gas pipelining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Deyuan; Luo Yuehao; Chen Huawei [Beihang Univ., Beijing (China). School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation

    2011-06-15

    For the purpose of increasing the transmission capacity of gas pipelines, the internal coating technology has been vastly put into application, and a remarkable benefit has been achieved so far. However, with the reduction of wall roughness, the small convex parts are all completely submerged in the viscous sublayer, the gas pipeline becomes a 'hydraulic smooth pipe', even by smoothing the coating surface further, it is difficult to reduce wall friction. Therefore, in order to increase the transportation capacity on the basis of internal coating, the new methods and technologies should be researched and investigated, and perhaps, the biomimetic drag-reducing technology is a good approach. In this paper, according to the planning parameters of the second pipeline of the West-to-East gas transmission project, the best drag reducing effect grooves are calculated and designed, and based on the characteristics and properties of internal coating (AW-01 epoxy resin), the Pre-Cured Micro- Rolling Technology (PCMRT) is discussed and presented, the rolling equipment is also designed and analyzed, the rolling process can be easily added on the available production line. Aiming at the field operating parameters of the gas pipeline in China, and the drag-reducing effect of the grooved surface is analyzed and discussed comprehensively. In addition, the economic benefit of adopting the biomimetic drag reduction technology is investigated. (orig.)

  15. The strategic priorities of the national oil and gas pipeline transport system development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ірина Миколаївна Ісаєва

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The retrospective analysis of legal documents governing relations between Ukraine, Russia and the European Union as part of their energy policies was performed. The strategic interests of participating countries and the strategic priorities of the governance with national oil and gas pipeline transport system development in particular were designated

  16. Modeling the Phase Composition of Gas Condensate in Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudin, S. M.; Zemenkov, Yu D.; Shabarov, A. B.

    2016-10-01

    Gas condensate fields demonstrate a number of thermodynamic characteristics to be considered when they are developed, as well as when gas condensate is transported and processed. A complicated phase behavior of the gas condensate system, as well as the dependence of the extracted raw materials on the phase state of the deposit other conditions being equal, is a key aspect. Therefore, when designing gas condensate lines the crucial task is to select the most appropriate methods of calculating thermophysical properties and phase equilibrium of the transported gas condensate. The paper describes a physical-mathematical model of a gas-liquid flow in the gas condensate line. It was developed based on balance equations of conservation of mass, impulse and energy of the transported medium within the framework of a quasi-1D approach. Constitutive relationships are given separately, and practical recommendations on how to apply the research results are provided as well.

  17. Integral diagnostic in the failure causes of external corrosion of a natural gas transport pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Mendoza, J.L.; Saucedo-Robles, L.C.; Rodriguez-Clemente, H. [PEMEX Gas y Petroquimica Basica, Subdireccion de Ductos; Marina Nacional 329, Edificio B-1, Piso 8, Col. Huasteca, D.F., CP 11311 (Mexico); Gonzalez-Nunez, M.A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, Cuernavaca, Morelos, CP 62490 (Mexico); Zavala-Olivares, G.; Hernandez-Gayosso, M.J. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Exploracion y Produccion, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, D.F., CP 07730 (Mexico)

    2011-08-15

    The objective of this study consisted in investigating the possible causes which give rise to the presence of low wall pipe thicknesses on a 16'' natural gas transport pipeline, even though during the last 12-year period cathodic protection (CP) potentials were kept in the protection range at which external corrosion should not occur. Results from in-line inspection from a 16'' natural gas transport pipeline showed 46 indications with more than 80% wall thickness lost due to external corrosion in the second segment of the pipeline. Direct inspection at the indication locations, review of the CP system performance, pipeline maintenance programs and studies, allowed to make an integral diagnostic where it was found out that the main cause of external corrosion was an inappropriate coating application since the pipeline construction, this situation has originated the increase of CP shielding effects through time. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Oil and gas wells and pipelines on U.S. wildlife refuges: challenges for managers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ramirez

    Full Text Available The increased demand for oil and gas places a burden on lands set aside for natural resource conservation. Oil and gas development alters the environment locally and on a much broader spatial scale depending on the intensity and extent of mineral resource extraction. The current increase in oil and gas exploration and production in the United States prompted an update of the number of pipelines and wells associated with oil and gas production on National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS lands. We obtained geospatial data on the location of oil and gas wells and pipelines within and close to the boundaries of NWRS lands (units acquired as fee simple (i.e. absolute title to the surface land by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. We found that 5,002 wells are located in 107 NWRS units and 595 pipelines transect 149 of the 599 NWRS units. Almost half of the wells (2,196 were inactive, one-third (1,665 were active, and the remainder of the wells were either plugged and abandoned or the status was unknown. Pipelines crossed a total of 2,155 kilometers (1,339 miles of NWRS fee simple lands. The high level of oil and gas activity warrants follow up assessments for wells lacking information on production type or well status with emphasis on verifying the well status and identifying abandoned and unplugged wells. NWRS fee simple lands should also be assessed for impacts from brine, oil and other hydrocarbon spills, as well as habitat alteration associated with oil and gas, including the identification of abandoned oil and gas facilities requiring equipment removal and site restoration.

  19. Literature Review: Theory and Application of In-Line Inspection Technologies for Oil and Gas Pipeline Girth Weld Defection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingshan Feng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Girth weld cracking is one of the main failure modes in oil and gas pipelines; girth weld cracking inspection has great economic and social significance for the intrinsic safety of pipelines. This paper introduces the typical girth weld defects of oil and gas pipelines and the common nondestructive testing methods, and systematically generalizes the progress in the studies on technical principles, signal analysis, defect sizing method and inspection reliability, etc., of magnetic flux leakage (MFL inspection, liquid ultrasonic inspection, electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT inspection and remote field eddy current (RFDC inspection for oil and gas pipeline girth weld defects. Additionally, it introduces the new technologies for composite ultrasonic, laser ultrasonic, and magnetostriction inspection, and provides reference for development and application of oil and gas pipeline girth weld defect in-line inspection technology.

  20. Sulfate reducing bacteria detection in gas pipelines; Deteccao de bacterias redutoras de sulfato em gasodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutterbach, Marcia Teresa S.; Oliveira, Ana Lucia C. de; Cavalcanti, Eduardo H. de S. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Corrosao e Degradacao]. E-mails: marciasl@int.gov.br; analucia@int.gov.br; eduardoh@int.gov.br

    2004-07-01

    Microbiology induced corrosion (MIC) process associated with sulfate reducing bacteria (BRS) are one of the most important matter of concern for the oil and gas industry as 77% of failures have been attributed this sort of degradation. Corrosion products found present in gas transportation pipelines, the so-called 'black-powder' problem, are also a nuisance and source of economic losses for the gas industry. According to the literature, the incidence of black-powder can be ascribed to the metabolism of BRS that can be found in the gas environment. Integrity monitoring programs of gas pipelines adopt pigging as an important tool for internal corrosion monitoring. Solid residue such as the black-powder, collected by pigging, as well as the condensed, can be seen as a very valuable samples for microbiological analyses that can be used to detect and quantify bacteria related to the incidence of MIC processes. In the present work results concerning samples collected by pigging and condensed are presented. Small populations of viable BRS have been found in the pipeline. It can be seen that the inclusion of microbiological analyses of solid and liquid residues as a complementary action in the integrity monitoring programs adopted by gas transportation industry can be very helpful on the decision making concerning preventive and corrective actions to be taken in order to maintain the CIM processes under control. (author)

  1. Chapter 9: Oil and gas resource potential north of the Arctic Circle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, D.L.; Bird, K.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Grantz, A.; Houseknecht, D.W.; Klett, T.R.; Moore, T.E.; Pitman, J.K.; Schenk, C.J.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.; Sorensen, K.; Tennyson, M.E.; Valin, Z.C.; Wandrey, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    The US Geological Survey recently assessed the potential for undiscovered conventional petroleumin the Arctic. Using a new map compilation of sedimentary elements, the area north of the Arctic Circle was subdivided into 70 assessment units, 48 of which were quantitatively assessed. The Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA) was a geologically based, probabilistic study that relied mainly on burial history analysis and analogue modelling to estimate sizes and numbers of undiscovered oil and gas accumulations. The results of the CARA suggest the Arctic is gas-prone with an estimated 770-2990 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered conventional natural gas, most of which is in Russian territory. On an energy-equivalent basis, the quantity of natural gas ismore than three times the quantity of oil and the largest undiscovered gas eld is expected to be about 10 times the size of the largest undiscovered oil eld. In addition to gas, the gas accumulationsmay contain an estimated 39 billion barrels of liquids. The South Kara Sea is themost prospective gas assessment unit, but giant gas elds containingmore than 6 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas are possible at a 50%chance in 10 assessment units. Sixty per cent of the estimated undiscovered oil resource is in just six assessment units, of which the Alaska Platform, with 31%of the resource, is the most prospective. Overall, the Arctic is estimated to contain between 44 and 157 billion barrels of recoverable oil. Billion barrel oil elds are possible at a 50%chance in seven assessment units.Undiscovered oil resources could be signicant to the Arctic nations, but are probably not sufcient to shift the world oil balance away from the Middle East. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  2. The radial self-positioning algorithm of intelligent ultrasonic probe array in oil/gas pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Shoupeng; Que Peiwen

    2007-01-01

    The working principle of the pipeline intelligent pig and the structure of ultrasonic probe array used to detect defects in oil/gas pipeline are introduced.The effects of the array'S radial position in pipe on defect resolution are analyzed.The causes leading to radial positioning error are investigated.An algorithm for the radial self-positioning is presented.The experimental results show that the radial self-positioning algorithm can eliminate the array'S space position error effectively and improve the defect resolution.

  3. Urucu-Manaus gas pipeline: challenges and solutions; Gasoduto Urucu-Manaus: desafios e solucoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Mauro de O.; Machado, Otto Luiz de M.; Moura, Marcos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The challenge of building and develop a gas pipeline such as Urucu-Manaus, in the middle of Amazon rain forest, it is beyond to conventional engineering solutions that is common used in this kind of contract. The development of this venture join a large variety of activities since the several techniques of pipeline construction to the improvement the skills of the local workers but never to leave out important points such as integrated management of work, for instance, safety, environment care, health, communication with the involved parts, archaeology, goods and services acquisition, telecommunications and the mean of transportation to equipment and workers. (author)

  4. The impact of lower sea-ice extent on Arctic greenhouse-gas exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, Frans-Jan W.; Christensen, Torben R.; Sørensen, Lise Lotte; Rysgaard, Søren; McGuire, A. David; Miller, Paul A.; Walker, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    In September 2012, Arctic sea-ice extent plummeted to a new record low: two times lower than the 1979–2000 average. Often, record lows in sea-ice cover are hailed as an example of climate change impacts in the Arctic. Less apparent, however, are the implications of reduced sea-ice cover in the Arctic Ocean for marine–atmosphere CO2 exchange. Sea-ice decline has been connected to increasing air temperatures at high latitudes. Temperature is a key controlling factor in the terrestrial exchange of CO2 and methane, and therefore the greenhouse-gas balance of the Arctic. Despite the large potential for feedbacks, many studies do not connect the diminishing sea-ice extent with changes in the interaction of the marine and terrestrial Arctic with the atmosphere. In this Review, we assess how current understanding of the Arctic Ocean and high-latitude ecosystems can be used to predict the impact of a lower sea-ice cover on Arctic greenhouse-gas exchange.

  5. Evaluation of the sources of error in the linepack estimation of a natural gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marco, Fabio Capelassi Gavazzi de [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil S.A. (TBG), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The intent of this work is to explore the behavior of the random error associated with determination of linepack in a complex natural gas pipeline based on the effect introduced by the uncertainty of the different variables involved. There are many parameters involved in the determination of the gas inventory in a transmission pipeline: geometrical (diameter, length and elevation profile), operational (pressure, temperature and gas composition), environmental (ambient / ground temperature) and those dependent on the modeling assumptions (compressibility factor and heat transfer coefficient). Due to the extent of a natural gas pipeline and the vast amount of sensor involved it is infeasible to determine analytically the magnitude of resulting uncertainty in the linepack, thus this problem has been addressed using Monte Carlo Method. The approach consists of introducing random errors in the values of pressure, temperature and gas gravity that are employed in the determination of the linepack and verify its impact. Additionally, the errors associated with three different modeling assumptions to estimate the linepack are explored. The results reveal that pressure is the most critical variable while the temperature is the less critical. In regard to the different methods to estimate the linepack, deviations around 1.6% were verified among the methods. (author)

  6. Development of a Neural Fuzzy System for Advanced Prediction of Gas Hydrate Formation Rate in Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad JALALNEZHAD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the natural gas industry in the 20th century, the production, processing and distribution of natural gas under high-pressure conditions has become necessary. Under these conditions, it was found that the production and transmission pipelines were becoming blocked with what looked like to be ice. Hammerschmidt determined that hydrates were the cause of plugged natural gas pipelines. Gas hydrates and difficulties related to their formation in production and transmission pipelines and equipment, are the major concerns of the gas industry. The main objective of this study was to present a novel approach to access more accurate hydrate formation rate predicting models based on a combination of flow loop experimental data with learning power of adaptive neural-fuzzy inference systems and more than 900 data points of the , , , and i-  hydrate formation rate. Using this data set different predictive models were developed. It was found that such models can be used as powerful tools, with total errors less than 6 % for the developed models, in predicting hydrate formation rate in these cases.

  7. Operational Challenges in Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) Transportation Through Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godwin A. Chukwu; Santanu Khataniar; Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar

    2006-06-30

    Oil production from Alaskan North Slope oil fields has steadily declined. In the near future, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level (200,000 to 400,000 bbl/day) that maintaining economic operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) will require pumping alternative products through the system. Heavy oil deposits in the West Sak and Ugnu formations are a potential resource, although transporting these products involves addressing important sedimentation issues. One possibility is the use of Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) technology. Estimated recoverable gas reserves of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) on the North Slope of Alaska can be converted to liquid with GTL technology and combined with the heavy oils for a product suitable for pipeline transport. Issues that could affect transport of this such products through TAPS include pumpability of GTL and crude oil blends, cold restart of the pipeline following a prolonged winter shutdown, and solids deposition inside the pipeline. This study examined several key fluid properties of GTL, crude oil and four selected blends under TAPS operating conditions. Key measurements included Reid Vapor Pressure, density and viscosity, PVT properties, and solids deposition. Results showed that gel strength is not a significant factor for the ratios of GTL-crude oil blend mixtures (1:1; 1:2; 1:3; 1:4) tested under TAPS cold re-start conditions at temperatures above - 20 F, although Bingham fluid flow characteristics exhibited by the blends at low temperatures indicate high pumping power requirements following prolonged shutdown. Solids deposition is a major concern for all studied blends. For the commingled flow profile studied, decreased throughput can result in increased and more rapid solid deposition along the pipe wall, resulting in more frequent pigging of the pipeline or, if left unchecked, pipeline corrosion.

  8. GIS (Geographic Information Systems) based automatic tool for selection of gas pipeline corridors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Denise F.; Menezes, Paulo Cesar P.; Paz, Luciana R.L.; Garcia, Katia C.; Cruz, Cristiane B.; Pires, Silvia H.M.; Damazio, Jorge M.; Medeiros, Alexandre M.

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes a methodology developed to build total accumulated surfaces in order to better select gas pipelines corridor alternatives. The methodology is based on the minimization of negative impacts and the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), allowing an automatic method of construction, evaluation and selection of alternatives, that will contribute to the decision making process. It is important to emphasize that this paper follows the assumptions presented on the research reports of a project sponsored by the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME) and elaborated at the Electric Power Research Center (CEPEL), called 'Development of a Geographic Information System to Oil and Gas Sectors in Brazil', and also the studies d GTW Project (Gas to Wire). Gas pipelines, as for their linear characteristic, may cross a variety of habitats and settlements, increasing the complexity of their environmental management. Considering this reality, this paper presents a methodology that takes into account different environmental criteria (layers), according to the area impacted. From the synthesis of the criteria it is presented the total accumulated surface. It is showed an example of a hypothetical gas pipeline connection between two points using the total accumulated surface. To select the 'impact scores' of the features, the gas pipeline was considered as a linear feature, but the result is a region, formed by pixels, each pixel with an accumulated impact score lower than some arbitrary measure. This region is called 'corridor', and it is the final result obtained using the proposed methodology. (author)

  9. Identification and assessment of trace contaminants associated with oil and gas pipelines abandoned in place

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorne, W.E.R.; Basso, A.C.; Dhol, S.K. [Biophilia Inc., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    As more Alberta oil and gas fields become depleted, attention is being given to development of economically and environmentally sound abandonment procedures. The objective of this study was to identify and assess residual internal and external contaminants associated with abandoned pipelines, particularly those to be abandoned in place. Circumstances which might increase the risk of contaminant release, and other issues relating to residual pipeline contaminants, were also identified. It was found that there are thousands of different substances which could potentially be associated with abandoned pipelines. A wide range in the potential quantities of residual contaminants was also found. Of the issues identified, the effectiveness of pipeline pigging and cleaning procedures prior to abandonment was the most critical determinant of the potential quantities of residual contaminants. However, a number of trace contaminants, such as PCBs (Polychlorinated Biphenyls) and NORMs (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) may remain after thorough cleaning. A brief review of the legislation and regulations from a number of jurisdictions shows that pipeline abandonment has only recently become an issue of concern. Regulations specific to abandonment are lacking, and more general regulations and guidelines are being applied on a contaminant-specific basis, or in terms of waste disposal requirements.

  10. Natural gas and CO2 price variation: impact on the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvestad, Marte; Overland, Indra

    2012-06-01

    THIS ARTICLE DEVELOPS A FORMAL MODEL FOR COMPARING THE COST STRUCTURE OF THE TWO MAIN TRANSPORT OPTIONS FOR NATURAL GAS: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly of all fossil fuels, and LNG as a modern and efficient way of transporting it. Some research has been carried out into the local environmental impact of LNG facilities, but almost none into aspects related to climate change. This paper concludes that at current price levels for natural gas and CO2 emissions the distance from field to consumer and the volume of natural gas transported are the main determinants of transport costs. The pricing of natural gas and greenhouse emissions influence the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipeline transport, but only to a limited degree at current price levels. Because more energy is required for the LNG process (especially for fuelling the liquefaction process) than for pipelines at distances below 9100 km, LNG is more exposed to variability in the price of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions up to this distance. If the prices of natural gas and/or greenhouse gas emission rise dramatically in the future, this will affect the choice between pipelines and LNG. Such a price increase will be favourable for pipelines relative to LNG.

  11. 18 CFR 260.9 - Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reports by natural gas..., NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.9 Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities. (a)(1) Every natural gas company must report to...

  12. 长输天然气管道泄漏回收研究%Research on Recovery of Natural Gas in Pipeline During Long-Distance Pipeline Leakage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马焱; 刘德俊; 李小月; 高钊; 王芙; 高吉庆; 孙皓

    2013-01-01

    长输天然气管道作为重要的能源运输工具,在保障安全高效性输送的同时,全面拉动了我国天然气城市化进程。国内处理管道泄露问题时,通常先放空管道内天然气再进行抢修工作,这样就造成了对天然气的大量浪费。设计了一套对长输管道放空天然气进行回收的车载压缩机组,并进行经济可行性分析。当发生泄露后,车量迅速到达截断阀室现场,将泄露段天然气回收注入至下一段管道,既节约能源,又减少了由于放空天然气带来的环境污染。%As important energy transportation means, the long-distance natural gas pipeline promotes the natural gas urbanization process in China as it can ensure safe efficiency natural gas transmission. When dealing with the problem of pipeline leak in China, natural gas in the pipeline is usually vented before carrying out the repair work,which can cause a lot of waste of natural gas. A set of vehicle compressor was designed, it can recover natural gas in long distance pipeline, and its economic feasibility was analyzed. When a leak occurs, recycling car will quickly reach the cut-off valve room scene, recycle natural gas of leak section and inject it into the next section of pipeline. It can save energy, and reduce the environmental pollution caused by venting natural gas.

  13. An Experimental Simulation of Load-Leveling Through Adsorption for Natural Gas Pipeline System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周理; 陈海华

    2002-01-01

    A lo9adleveling method through adsorption was presented to adjust the supply quantity according to the consumption rate of natural gas with time,An experimental simulation set up was designed and used to test the load-leveling function for a real pipline system.A storage tank filled with activated carbon together with a filter constitutes the major part of the load-leveling facility,Pressure and temperature of the system,as well as the real gas output of the storage tank were recorded.It is proven that load-leveling by adsorption in technically feasible even for low pipeline pressure of natural gas supply system.

  14. Research and Design of Thermophysical Gas-Liquid Mixture Parameters in Product Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudin, S. M.; Zemenkov, Yu D.; Maier, A. V.; Shabarov, A. B.

    2016-10-01

    Operational problems are hard to overcome because of the temperature and pressure conditions of the hydrocarbon flow in the pipe, as well as the composition of the hydrocarbon system and the geometry of the pipeline. It is known that energy costs to pump a unit mass of RH in the form of gas 2-3 times exceed energy costs to pump a unit mass of RH in the form of liquid. As far as energy conservation during RH transportation is concerned, an important task is development and application of a method to calculate the gas-liquid hydrocarbons flow, and heat and mass transfer in process and trunk pipelines during their design and operation. The authors have developed a calculation method which is used to analyze the hydrodynamic state and composition of the hydrocarbon mixture in each ith section of the pipeline when temperature-pressure and hydraulic conditions change. The developed technique was tested on the hydrocarbon mixture of de-ethanized condensate and oil transported from northern oil and gas condensate fields via the main gas condensate line to the refinery.

  15. Friction factor in smooth and rough gas pipelines. An experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sletfjerding, Elling

    1999-01-01

    Flow of high pressure natural gas in pipelines has been studied experimentally. Pipeline flow of natural gas is characterized by high Reynolds numbers due to the low viscosity and relatively high density of pressurized gas. Friction factor correlations for high Reynolds number flow in smooth and rough pipes were developed. To study the effect of wall roughness on pipe flow at high Reynolds numbers 8 test pipes with different wall roughness were fabricated. The wall roughness in 6 of the test pipes was varied by adding glass beads in an epoxy coating applied on the pipe wall. One test pipe was treated with a smooth epoxy coating and one was left untreated. The inner diameter of the test pipes was 150 mm. Measurements of the pressure drop in the pipes were made in a closed flow loop at line pressures of 25, 70, 95 and 120 bar. The Reynolds number of the flow was varied in the range 2-30 million. The wall roughness of the test pipes was measured with a stylus instrument. Correlations between the directly measured wall roughness and the friction factor at fully rough flow conditions were presented. To characterize the wall roughness of the test pipes a parameter combining a measure of the roughness height (R{sub q}) and the texture of the wall roughness was used. Due to the high Reynolds number of the flow, minute irregularities of the pipe wall had significant effect on the friction factor in the pipe. The measured wall roughness of the test pipes was in the range 1.4 < R{sub q} <31 (my)m. The flow experiments in test pipes was compared with data from operating pipelines in the North Sea. The offshore pipelines are coated with the same epoxy coating as used in the test pipes. The friction factor in coated offshore gas pipelines showed smooth behavior when the additional pressure drop due to welds were accounted for. The study of coated gas pipelines showed that the friction factor was significantly lower than predicted by standard correlations.

  16. Application of four dimensional matrix for thermal analysis of Slovak transit gas pipeline by program FENIX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Széplaky, Dávid; Varga, Augustín

    2016-06-01

    The contribution describes the principle of the FENIX program operation, which was designed to determine the temperature field of the transit pipeline for the transportation of natural gas. The program itself consists of several modules which are reciprocally linked. The basis of the program is the elementary balance method by means of which the unsteady heat transfer is assigned in several layers in different directions. The first step was to assess both the pressure and temperature of the natural gas mode, the second step is to determine the heat transfer through the walls of the pipes, and the last one is to determine the distribution of the temperature field in the surroundings of the pipeline.

  17. Natural Gas Pipeline Replacement Programs Reduce Methane Leaks and Improve Consumer Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    From production through distribution, oil and natural gas infrastructure provide the largest source of anthropogenic methane in the U.S. and the second largest globally. To examine the prevalence of natural gas leaks downstream in distribution systems, we mapped methane leaks across 595, 750, and 247 road miles of three U.S. cities—Durham, NC, Cincinnati, OH, and Manhattan, NY, respectively—at different stages of pipeline replacement of cast iron and other older materials. We compare results with those for two cities we mapped previously, Boston and Washington, D.C. Overall, cities with pipeline replacement programs have considerably fewer leaks per mile than cities without such programs. Similar programs around the world should provide additional environmental, economic, and consumer safety benefits.

  18. Fuzzy Reliability Analysis for Seabed Oil-Gas Pipeline Networks Under Earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘震; 潘斌

    2003-01-01

    The seabed oil-gas pipeline network is simplified to a network w i th stochastic edge-weight by means of the fuzzy graphics theory. With the help o f network analysis, fuzzy mathematics, and stochastic theory, the problem of rel iability analysis for the seabed oil-gas pipeline network under earthquakes is t ransformed into the calculation of the transitive closure of fuzzy matrix of the stochastic fuzzy network. In classical network reliability analysis, the node i s supposed to be non-invalidated; in this paper, this premise is modified by in t roducing a disposal method which has taken the possible invalidated node into a ccount. A good result is obtained by use of the Monte Carlo simulation analysis.

  19. Phylogenetic characterization of a corrosive consortium isolated from a sour gas pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan-Roblero, J; Romero, J M; Amaya, M; Le Borgne, S

    2004-06-01

    Biocorrosion is a common problem in oil and gas industry facilities. Characterization of the microbial populations responsible for biocorrosion and the interactions between different microorganisms with metallic surfaces is required in order to implement efficient monitoring and control strategies. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis was used to separate PCR products and sequence analysis revealed the bacterial composition of a consortium obtained from a sour gas pipeline in the Gulf of Mexico. Only one species of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) was detected in this consortium. The rest of the population consisted of enteric bacteria with different characteristics and metabolic capabilities potentially related to biocorrosion. Therefore, several types of bacteria may be involved in biocorrosion arising from natural biofilms that develop in industrial facilities. The low abundance of the detected SRB was evidenced by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). In addition, the localized corrosion of pipeline steel in the presence of the consortium was clearly observed by ESEM after removing the adhered bacteria.

  20. Considerations about the Urucu-Manaus gas pipeline design; Consideracoes sobre o projeto do gasoduto Urucu-Manaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villela, Claudio Henrique Lobianco G.; Correia, Luiz de Carvalho Dias [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The main purpose of this job is to present the characteristics that influenced the elaboration of the Urucu-Manaus Gas Pipeline Project and the difference between this pipeline and other pipelines already installed on the Amazon region. In this project were emphasized the aspects related to the route definition, mapping technologies that had not been utilized in our pipeline projects, the crossing of vast flooded areas, requiring specific studies, as well the minimization of the environment impacts, in this case the existence of animal species present only in this region. Other differential factor was the Rio Negro crossing, where the pipeline will be installed in the riverbed. The know-how attained with this project consolidates ever so the activity of building pipelines in tropical forest regions. (author)

  1. Study and Application of Internal Coating Technique to Drag Reduction of the Trunk Pipeline for the West-East Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuShixin; QuShenyang; LinZhu

    2004-01-01

    Coverage layer coated in the internal wall of pipeline enables the friction drag to be reduced, the throughput and the gas transmission efficiency to be increased, the frequency of pigging and the number of the intermediate compressor station to be reduced, and the power consumption of the compressor to be decreased etc. The drag reduction is a high advanced scientific technique with outstanding economical benefit. The study and application of internal coating technique for drag reduction of 4000km trunk pipeline in West-East gas transmission pipeline (WEGTP) project are described, in which the main points are the drag reduction principle, coating process and the indoor study of this technique with own-decided knowledge property right at home.

  2. Gas Pipelines, LP and LNG, Published in 2006, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Washington County GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Gas Pipelines, LP and LNG dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2006. Data by...

  3. Controlling internal corrosion of oil and gas pipelines : the corrosion inhibitor selection software (CISS) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doiron, A.; Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2009-07-01

    The internal pitting corrosion of oil and gas pipelines can be effectively controlled through the addition of inhibitors. However, simulation of field operating conditions is necessary because the performance of corrosion inhibitors is influenced by several interacting parameters. This paper reviewed the Corrosion Inhibitor Selection Software (CISS) program. The materials transported in production pipelines are often multiphase, containing oil, aqueous (brine), and gas phases. The corrosion rate and inhibitor performance are influenced by composition, temperature, flow and pressure. Steel composition and structure also influence both the rate and type of corrosion. Improvements in corrosion test methodologies are aimed at simulating field corrosion conditions in the laboratory in a compressed time-scale. The parameters that influence the types of corrosion must be simulated in order for laboratory methodology to be relevant. The variables controlled should be quantifiable. There should also be a correlation between the influence of variables controlled in the laboratory and of the same variables in the field. The CISS program evaluates inhibitors in the following 4 steps: (1) pipeline operating conditions, (2) selection of laboratory methodology, (3) determination of operating conditions for the laboratory methodologies, and (4) selection of corrosion inhibitors. The 7 objectives of the CISS program are to optimize the strategies of inhibitor selection for pipeline applications; determine the hydrodynamic parameters of the pipe from field operating conditions; select appropriate laboratory methodologies for evaluating inhibitors; determine flow conditions for high-shear laboratory methodologies; develop a qualitative relationship between corrosion rates of non-shear laboratory methodologies and of pipelines; evaluate corrosion inhibitors based on results from different laboratory methodologies; and design cost-effective inhibitors for future applications. 47 refs

  4. Gas quality and pipeline flexibility study; Etude sur la qualite du gaz et la flexibilite des gazoducs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preecha, Kaewpun [Petroleum Authority of Thailand, Natural gas bussiness (Thailand)

    2000-07-01

    The Petroleum authority of Thailand (PTT) operates onshore and offshore gas transmission system built in early 1980's power generating industry and increasingly, also the needs of other industrial users and retail customers. The current actual gas demand of 1,600 MMSCFD has a record of customer complaint due to inconsistent heating value of the gas systems. Working closely with specialist, we have conducted gas quality and pipeline flexibility study to examine the gas quality concerns of their existing and future pipeline system. Findings from Phase 1 of the gas quality and pipeline flexibility study were: 1. Low and inconsistent heating values of the gas streams due to the high content of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} in the streams: 2. Liquid carry- over in the gas streams to customers: 3. Demand will exceed the onshore existing and parallel pipeline capacity by the year 1999 unless facilities are implemented to reduce the CO{sub 2} content of the sales gas. Phase 2 of the Gas Quality and Pipeline Flexibility study concluded that based on the current gas composition and throughput of the Rayong Facilities, the maximum capacity of the onshore pipeline system is 333.9 trillion BTU's per annum, Based on this capacity and the demand for sales gas, the pipeline capacity will be exceeded by the year 1999 by 50.1 trillion BTU's. We developed 15 case studies which were evaluated based on the following: - Supply / demand criteria; - Technical merit; - Financial and economic merit. Phase 3 of the project is current status, A common header for mixing GSP1, GSP2, GSP3, DPCU and by pass gases prior to being compressed by OCS1 and OCS2 compressors is under construction, The project is undertaken by working closely with 140 customers to use new gas quality. Note: GSP = gas separation plant; OCS = on shore compressor; DPCU - dew point control unit. There are two main gas quality problems that exist in gas quality; PTT's pipeline system. One is an inconsistent

  5. Application of groundwater aggressiveness assessment method for estimation of the karst process at main gas pipeline construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolaeva, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    Main pipelines maintenance is connected with hazard engineering and geological working conditions. The article deals with the use of groundwater aggressiveness assessment method to estimate the karst processes development during the construction of main gas pipelines. The possibility of using this method is analyzed on the example of the initial section of the designed gas pipeline “Power of Siberia” (section “Chayanda-Lensk"). The calculation of the nonequilibrium index Ca was made in accordance with the geotechnical survey data. The dependencies between the geomorphological features of the terrain and the natural waters aggressiveness were determined.

  6. A Robust Bayesian Approach to an Optimal Replacement Policy for Gas Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pablo Arias-Nicolás

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, we address Bayesian sensitivity issues when integrating experts’ judgments with available historical data in a case study about strategies for the preventive maintenance of low-pressure cast iron pipelines in an urban gas distribution network. We are interested in replacement priorities, as determined by the failure rates of pipelines deployed under different conditions. We relax the assumptions, made in previous papers, about the prior distributions on the failure rates and study changes in replacement priorities under different choices of generalized moment-constrained classes of priors. We focus on the set of non-dominated actions, and among them, we propose the least sensitive action as the optimal choice to rank different classes of pipelines, providing a sound approach to the sensitivity problem. Moreover, we are also interested in determining which classes have a failure rate exceeding a given acceptable value, considered as the threshold determining no need for replacement. Graphical tools are introduced to help decisionmakers to determine if pipelines are to be replaced and the corresponding priorities.

  7. THE OVERVIEW OF THE MAIN GAS PIPELINES IN THE BLACK SEA REGION: POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina GRIBINCEA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Topicality. The Black Sea region is very dynamic in terms of economic development, security problems and interstate relations. All of the countries in this region are heterogeneous but energy issue plays a pivotal role in their foreign policy priorities. It is the only one common denominator that can both foster cooperation and catalyze conflict in the Black Sea basin. The problem of transporting energy has an impact not only on the Black Sea countries, but also on the Southeastern Europe, Russia, the Caspian Sea, Middle East, and ultimately the European consuming markets. Thus, the issue of energy transition needs the experts’ and scientists’ attention fixed on the Black Sea region in order to come together facing the latter-day challenges. The energy challenge has a multi-dimensional nature. Aim. Thus, this paper aims to provide an overview of the energy transaction issues focusing on the economic effects of the most important gas pipelines within the Black Sea region. Particular attention is going to be paid to the problem of the energy routes’ diversification and pipelines which connect the carbon-rich countries of the Middle East and Caspian region and Europe. Also, it is aimed to give a comprehensive analysis of the energy challenge within the Black sea region, focusing on energy efficiency of the gas pipelines which go through this extremely important energy hub. Methods - scientific methods of data analysis, historical and statistical overview, predictive analysis qualitative indicators, comparative method, method of description, case study. Results. The creation of a stable markets, interconnected and transparent natural gas supply would largely counteract the risks. The flexibility transport infrastructure, numerous and capable pipelines, underground storage capacities and their management may play an important role in the sector’s ability to manage supply shocks.

  8. Numerical simulation of stress and deformation of in-service welding onto gas pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yuhua; Wang Yong; Han Bin; Wang Zhengfang

    2006-01-01

    SYSWELD was used to simulate in-service welding process of gas pipeline of X70 pipeline steel. Welding thermal cycle, stress and deformation of in-service welded joint were studied. The results show that peak temperature of coarse grain heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) of in-service welding onto gas pipeline is the same with routine welding, but t8/5 ,t8/3 and t8/1 decrease at certain degree. For the zone near welded seam, axial stress and hoop stress in the inner pipe wall are compressive stress when welding source passes through the cross-section that is studied, but residual axial stress and residual hoop stress after welded are all tensile stress. Transient deformation and residual deformation are all convex deformation compared with the original pipe diameter size. Deformation achieves maximum when welding thermal source passes through the cross-section that is studied and then decreases during the cooling process after welding.

  9. Qualification strategy for Fast-Pipetm for high pressure gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salama, Mamdouh M. [ConocoPhillips Company, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2010-07-01

    High strength pipeline steels have been developed to transport gas and oil for very long distances and under difficult conditions. The manufacture of large diameter high pressure pipelines is a challenge. This report presents the qualification results and cost evaluation of the Fast-PipeTM concept, which uses hoop winding dry glass fiberglass to provide the required high pressure capacity. This paper explains the concept of the Fast-PipeTM, a detailed qualification program, and a risk analysis. The qualification program is presented in fifteen points, from the analytical models to predict pressure and bending strain capacities to the demonstration of repair procedures. This report finds that the results of the qualification cost evaluation of the Fast-PipeTM concept demonstrate the feasibility of the concept for use in high pressure gas pipelines as an alternative to high strength steels. It highlighted the simplicity in manufacturing and construction, the weld cap efficiency and also presents some issues relating to damage tolerance.

  10. An approach to coating and cathodic protection design on long distance gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacchi, L.; Brugnetti, F.; Zanardo, F. [Snam Rete Gas, Milan (Italy); Castano, M. [Eni Gas and Power Div., Milan (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    This paper provided details of a pilot gas pipeline using X100 grade steel planned as part of the TAP project in Italy. The full-scale experimental line is located at a military base in Sardinia, and is comprised of two 48-inch diameter buried pipelines which extend for approximately 700 m. One of the lines is coated, has good cathodic protection (CP) and no mechanical damage. The other line has been mechanically damaged and has artificial defects in the pipe coating as well as areas that are subjected to bacteria cultures. The damaged line has also been divided into 3 parts that are protected with different levels of cathodic protection. The aim of the project is to examine the pipeline's susceptibility to environmentally assisted cracking, hydrogen embrittlement, and near-neutral stress corrosion cracking. A full scale burst test will be conducted on the undamaged line in order to analyze the mechanical behaviour of high-grade steel in optimal conditions. Three layer high density polyethylene (HDPE) and dual layer fusion bond epoxy lining are being considered by the project, which also aims to investigate the performance of field joint coatings. The project is also investigating power generation systems for CP. The CP systems will be monitored by periodic visits from technical operators as well as with the use of telemetry and remote control systems. Reference electrodes will be used to monitor the CP level of the pilot pipelines. A Cu-CuSO{sub 4} electrode will be used to monitor soil resistivity. It was concluded that the project will provide information concerning the reliability and duration of experimental electrodes, as well as the life cycle costs of corrosion protection in long-distance pipelines. 1 ref., 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  11. Cost Minimization Model of Gas Transmission Line for Indonesian SIJ Pipeline Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Septoratno Siregar

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of Indonesian SIJ gas pipeline network is being discussed here. Optimum pipe diameters together with the corresponding pressure distribution are obtained from minimization of total cost function consisting of investment and operating costs and subjects to some physical (Panhandle A and Panhandle B equations constraints. Iteration technique based on Generalized Steepest-Descent and fourth order Runge-Kutta method are used here. The resulting diameters from this continuous optimization are then rounded to the closest available discrete sizes. We have also calculated toll fee along each segment and safety factor of the network by determining the pipe wall thickness, using ANSI B31.8 standard. Sensitivity analysis of toll fee for variation of flow rates is shown here. The result will gives the diameter and compressor size and compressor location that feasible to use for the SIJ pipeline project. The Result also indicates that the east route cost relatively less expensive than the west cost.

  12. Reasons For The Experimental Research Of Gas Outflows Based On The Signals Of Weak Interactions Between The Tested Model Of The Gas Pipeline, And Tested Equalizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Grądzki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article applies diagnosing issues outflows of gas pipelines using specialized research equipment - equalizers. Variant with only two measuring devices (equalizers, arranged on the inlet and outlet of the pipeline, and the standard pressure transducers and flow rate were considered. The signals from the system and research equipment (equalizers are the basis for the development of new method to test outflow of gas pipeline, which is based on the quotient of the power spectral density of signals generated by the equalizer (diagnoser and signals measured using standard pressure transducers and flow rate. Possible use to analysis the signals power will allow go from signal diagnostic for more effective parametric diagnostic.

  13. Is Submarine Groundwater Discharge a Gas Hydrate Formation Mechanism on the Circum-Arctic Shelf?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, J. M.; Buffett, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Methane hydrate is an ice-like solid that can sequester large quantities of methane gas in marine sediments along most continental margins where thermodynamic conditions permit its formation. Along the circum-Arctic shelf, relict permafrost-associated methane hydrate deposits formed when non-glaciated portions of the shelf experienced subaerial exposure during ocean transgressions. Gas hydrate stability and the permeability of circum-Arctic shelf sediments to gas migration is closely linked with relict submarine permafrost. Heat flow observations on the Alaskan North Slope and Canadian Beaufort Shelf suggest the movement of groundwater offshore, but direct observations of groundwater flow do not exist. Submarine discharge, an offshore flow of fresh, terrestrial groundwater, can affect the temperature and salinity field in shelf sediments, and may be an important factor in submarine permafrost and gas hydrate evolution on the Arctic continental shelf. Submarine groundwater discharge may also enhance the transport of organic matter for methanogenesis within marine sediments. Because it is buoyancy-driven, the velocity field contains regions with a vertical (upward) component as groundwater flows offshore. This combination of factors makes submarine groundwater discharge a potential mechanism controlling permafrost-associated gas hydrate evolution on the Arctic continental shelf. In this study, we quantitatively investigate the feasibility of submarine groundwater discharge as a control on permafrost-associated gas hydrate formation on the Arctic continental shelf, using the Canadian Beaufort Shelf as an example. We have developed a shelf-scale, two-dimensional numerical model based on the finite volume method for two-phase flow of pore fluid and methane gas within Arctic shelf sediments. The model tracks the evolution of the pressure, temperature, salinity, methane gas, methane hydrate, and permafrost fields given imposed boundary conditions, with latent heat of

  14. Damage prediction of gas- and water pipelines; Schadensprognose von Gas- und Wasserrohrleitungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Syring, G.; Huettenrauch, J. [DBI Gas- und Umwelttechnik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2008-02-15

    Long-term modernisation strategies for pipeline grids rely to a large extent on damage forecasts. The contribution describes basic aspects of damage analysis and forecasting and discusses methodological problems in the application of statistical methods for a state-oriented maintenance. (GL)

  15. Total on-line monitoring system of Tokyo gas transmission pipelines; Systeme global de controle et de surveillance des canalisations de transport du gaz developpe par Tokyo gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, M. [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    As Tokyo Gas transmission pipeline is located in residential areas of Metropolitan Tokyo, more precise and advanced maintenance and inspection methods become necessary. A more efficient maintenance and inspection management system is being sought in line with the extension of gas transmission pipelines. Research and development is underway for various types of maintenance /monitoring systems that predict or detect pipeline damage or failure. Some systems have already been put to practical use. Tokyo Gas has developed a total online monitoring system featuring upgraded performance and centralized data processing. This system carries out 24-hour monitoring for damage and failure, and sends warnings to operators at the Pipeline Regional Network Office. This paper introduces the functions of the system, as well as the functions which are currently in the R and D stage. (author)

  16. Operator Splitting Method for Simulation of Dynamic Flows in Natural Gas Pipeline Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dyachenko, Sergey A; Chertkov, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We develop an operator splitting method to simulate flows of isothermal compressible natural gas over transmission pipelines. The method solves a system of nonlinear hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDEs) of hydrodynamic type for mass flow and pressure on a metric graph, where turbulent losses of momentum are modeled by phenomenological Darcy-Weisbach friction. Mass flow balance is maintained through the boundary conditions at the network nodes, where natural gas is injected or withdrawn from the system. Gas flow through the network is controlled by compressors boosting pressure at the inlet of the adjoint pipe. Our operator splitting numerical scheme is unconditionally stable and it is second order accurate in space and time. The scheme is explicit, and it is formulated to work with general networks with loops. We test the scheme over range of regimes and network configurations, also comparing its performance with performance of two other state of the art implicit schemes.

  17. Gas pipelines design for power plants supply; Diseno de gasoductos para abastecimiento de centrales electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Oscar G. [TGN Transportadora de Gas del Norte, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Carranza, Hugo A. [TOTAL Gas Transmission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Casanova, Jorge A. [CMS Energy, Jackson, Michigan (United States); Casares, Carlos A.M. [TECPETROL, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2004-07-01

    Natural gas demand continues to grow in the world and in Argentina. The thermoelectric generation increases each year its perceptual participation in a total gas demand. In Latin America, meanwhile,natural gas transport systems do not have availability of economic alternatives for storage, forced to endure severe dynamic requirements to cover peak demand time and day. Under these new conditions to study the characteristics of loads and design methods of new pipelines, and adequacy of existing, deserves revised. The old discussions about stationary design versus transitional design renew face of change in composition of demand. This work analyze the characteristics of demand, the redefinition of the status of load, the criteria for handling line pack, the differences in results by method analysis used (dynamic/stationary), analyzing conceptually and quantitatively the principle variables that affecting the design. Finally runs on a general recommendation to use design patterns when planning a network with increased integration of electricity generation.

  18. Natural gas pipeline transportation safety countermeasures%天然气管道安全输送对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐平

    2016-01-01

    For natural gas pipeline transportation safety problems in the process are analyzed,and proposed to improve the level of natural gas pipeline transportation safety and effective measures designed to contribute to a healthy development of China’s natural gas industry.%针对天然气管道安全输送过程中存在的问题进行了分析,并提出了提高天然气管道安全输送水平的有效对策,旨在为我国天然气产业的健康发展贡献一份力量。

  19. Controlling external corrosion of oil and gas pipelines : the PreCaution program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doiron, A.; Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2009-07-01

    Strategies to maintain the integrity of the pipeline coating can be developed using information available from laboratory tests, field operating conditions, above-ground survey, and below-ground measurements. The materials assessment team at Natural Resources Canada has developed a PreCaution software program to predict the external corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) rate of oil and gas pipelines. The PreCaution software program predicts the corrosion rate using the following 4 different input data: (1) projection, based on laboratory evaluation, (2) adaptation, based on field operating conditions, (3) validation, based on above-ground survey, and (4) verification, based on below-ground measurements from field excavation. The four steps are meant to be used in sequence, but can be used independently through certain sections. Within each step, there are 5 categories that consider the most useful properties of pipeline coatings for comparing laboratory test results and field performance. These include adhesion; resistance to soil stresses; chemical and physical stability; resistance to impact; and resistance to cathodic disbonding. Each of these properties are assigned a score based on a specific set of criteria. A category score is then determined from the property scores. The software program can be used to predict the corrosion rate and the lifetime of a pipe. Although a corrosion rate is predicted for each step, only 1 lifetime prediction is made based on the most accurate steps. 18 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  20. Hierarchical leak detection and localization method in natural gas pipeline monitoring sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiangwen; Yu, Yang; Wu, Yinfeng; Feng, Renjian; Yu, Ning

    2012-01-01

    In light of the problems of low recognition efficiency, high false rates and poor localization accuracy in traditional pipeline security detection technology, this paper proposes a type of hierarchical leak detection and localization method for use in natural gas pipeline monitoring sensor networks. In the signal preprocessing phase, original monitoring signals are dealt with by wavelet transform technology to extract the single mode signals as well as characteristic parameters. In the initial recognition phase, a multi-classifier model based on SVM is constructed and characteristic parameters are sent as input vectors to the multi-classifier for initial recognition. In the final decision phase, an improved evidence combination rule is designed to integrate initial recognition results for final decisions. Furthermore, a weighted average localization algorithm based on time difference of arrival is introduced for determining the leak point's position. Experimental results illustrate that this hierarchical pipeline leak detection and localization method could effectively improve the accuracy of the leak point localization and reduce the undetected rate as well as false alarm rate.

  1. Analysis of the changes in the consumption profile of the system use gas in Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline after integration with the Campinas-Rio Gas Pipeline; Analise das alteracoes do perfil de consumo de gas de sistema no Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil apos a interligacao deste gasoduto com o Campinas-Rio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Almir Beserra dos; Bisaggio, Helio da Cunha; Veloso, Luciano de Gusmao [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The natural gas pipeline transport is carried out by one or more compression stations. Each station possesses one or more compressors. The compressor's fuel is usually natural gas itself. The amount of natural gas consumed by the compressors fluctuates daily according to the demand at the city-gates. The daily operational result of a pipeline is known as imbalance. The imbalance is the difference between the natural gas entering into a in a pipeline and the volume delivered in the city-gates added to system use gas. The imbalance analyses in a pipeline that uses natural gas powered compressors requires the analyses of the system use gas. The aim of this work is to study the system use gas in the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline using the available data from the Superintendencia de Comercializacao e Movimentacao de Petroleo, seus Derivados e Gas Natural - ANP and compare the change of the volume consumed before and after the entry into operation of the Campinas-Rio gas pipeline. (author)

  2. Black carbon in the Arctic: the underestimated role of gas flaring and residential combustion emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stohl

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Arctic haze is a seasonal phenomenon with high concentrations of accumulation-mode aerosols occurring in the Arctic in winter and early spring. Chemistry transport models and climate chemistry models struggle to reproduce this phenomenon, and this has recently prompted changes in aerosol removal schemes to remedy the modeling problems. In this paper, we show that shortcomings in current emission data sets are at least as important. We perform a 3 yr model simulation of black carbon (BC with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. The model is driven with a new emission data set ("ECLIPSE emissions" which includes emissions from gas flaring. While gas flaring is estimated to contribute less than 3% of global BC emissions in this data set, flaring dominates the estimated BC emissions in the Arctic (north of 66° N. Putting these emissions into our model, we find that flaring contributes 42% to the annual mean BC surface concentrations in the Arctic. In March, flaring even accounts for 52% of all Arctic BC near the surface. Most of the flaring BC remains close to the surface in the Arctic, so that the flaring contribution to BC in the middle and upper troposphere is small. Another important factor determining simulated BC concentrations is the seasonal variation of BC emissions from residential combustion (often also called domestic combustion, which is used synonymously in this paper. We have calculated daily residential combustion emissions using the heating degree day (HDD concept based on ambient air temperature and compare results from model simulations using emissions with daily, monthly and annual time resolution. In January, the Arctic-mean surface concentrations of BC due to residential combustion emissions are 150% higher when using daily emissions than when using annually constant emissions. While there are concentration reductions in summer, they are smaller than the winter increases, leading to a systematic increase of

  3. Black carbon in the Arctic: the underestimated role of gas flaring and residential combustion emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, A.; Klimont, Z.; Eckhardt, S.; Kupiainen, K.; Shevchenko, V. P.; Kopeikin, V. M.; Novigatsky, A. N.

    2013-09-01

    Arctic haze is a seasonal phenomenon with high concentrations of accumulation-mode aerosols occurring in the Arctic in winter and early spring. Chemistry transport models and climate chemistry models struggle to reproduce this phenomenon, and this has recently prompted changes in aerosol removal schemes to remedy the modeling problems. In this paper, we show that shortcomings in current emission data sets are at least as important. We perform a 3 yr model simulation of black carbon (BC) with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. The model is driven with a new emission data set ("ECLIPSE emissions") which includes emissions from gas flaring. While gas flaring is estimated to contribute less than 3% of global BC emissions in this data set, flaring dominates the estimated BC emissions in the Arctic (north of 66° N). Putting these emissions into our model, we find that flaring contributes 42% to the annual mean BC surface concentrations in the Arctic. In March, flaring even accounts for 52% of all Arctic BC near the surface. Most of the flaring BC remains close to the surface in the Arctic, so that the flaring contribution to BC in the middle and upper troposphere is small. Another important factor determining simulated BC concentrations is the seasonal variation of BC emissions from residential combustion (often also called domestic combustion, which is used synonymously in this paper). We have calculated daily residential combustion emissions using the heating degree day (HDD) concept based on ambient air temperature and compare results from model simulations using emissions with daily, monthly and annual time resolution. In January, the Arctic-mean surface concentrations of BC due to residential combustion emissions are 150% higher when using daily emissions than when using annually constant emissions. While there are concentration reductions in summer, they are smaller than the winter increases, leading to a systematic increase of annual mean Arctic

  4. Logistic management system for natural gas transportation by pipelines; Sistema de gestao de logistica de transporte de gas por gasodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Sidney Pereira dos; Castro, Antonio Orestes de Salvo [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Leal, Jose Eugenio [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    An efficient management of the natural gas business chain, based on pipeline transmission network and taking into consideration the interaction between the main players such as shippers, suppliers, transmission companies and local distribution companies, requires the use of decision-making support systems to maximize resources and mitigate contingencies due to gas supply shortfalls, operational contingencies from scheduled and non-scheduled equipment outages as well as market demand shortfalls. This work presents a practical utilization of technologies such as thermohydraulic simulation of gas flow through pipelines, Monte Carlo simulation for compressor station availability studies and economic risk evaluation related to potential revenue losses and contractual penalties and linear programming for maximization and minimization objective function. The proposed system allows the definition of the optimum availability level to be maintained by the Transporter, by means of installing redundancy, to mitigate losses related to revenue and contractual penalties. Identifies, quantifies and justifies economically the installation of stand-by compressor units, mitigating Transporter exposure to losses due to capacity shortfalls as consequence of scheduled and non-scheduled outages. (author)

  5. Determination of flow rates of oil, water and gas in pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, G.J.; Watt, J.S.; Zastawny, H.W. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Div. of Mineral Physics

    1993-12-31

    This paper describes a multiphase flow meter developed by CSIRO for determining of the flow rates of oil, water and gas in high pressure pipelines, and the results of a trial of this flow meter on an offshore oil platform. Two gamma-ray transmission gauges are mounted about a pipeline carrying the full flow of oil, water and gas. The flow rates are determined by combining single energy gamma-ray transmission measurements which determine the mass per unit area of fluids in the gamma-ray beam as a function of time, dual energy gamma-ray transmission (DUET) which determine the approximate mass fraction of oil in the liquids, cross-correlation of gamma-ray transmission measurements, with one gauge upstream of the other, which determines flow velocity, pressure and temperature measurements, and knowledge of the specific gravities of oil and (salt) water, and solubility of the gas in the liquids, all as a function of pressure and temperature. 3 figs.

  6. Gas Pipelines, LP and LNG, Gas transmission line work provided to AIMS from Kansas Gas Service. Data is limited to CUE (Collaborative Utility Exchange) Participants and subcontractors of them., Published in 2004, Johnson County AIMS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Gas Pipelines, LP and LNG dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2004. It is described as 'Gas transmission line work provided to...

  7. 76 FR 41788 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Alden Gas Storage Field Expansion Project and Request for Comments on Environmental Issues The staff...

  8. Nord stream: not just a pipeline. An analysis of the political debates in the Baltic Sea region regarding the planned gas pipeline from Russia to Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whist, Bendik Solum

    2008-11-15

    This report is an analysis of the planned gas pipeline from Russia to Germany through the Baltic Sea known as Nord Stream. Although not yet realised, the project has, since its birth, been the subject of harsh criticism and opposition by a significant number of states that consider themselves affected by the pipeline. Whereas the Baltic States and Poland have interpreted the pipeline as a politically motivated strategy that will increase Russia's leverage on them and threaten their energy security, the debate in Sweden was at first mostly concerned with the prospect of increased Russian military presence in the Swedish Exclusive Economic Zone. The potential environmental impact of the pipeline has been, and continues to be, an overarching concern shared by all the littoral states of the Baltic Sea. Proponents of Nord Stream, most notably Germany, Russia and the Nord Stream consortium, have largely dismissed the concerns as unwarranted and argue that the pipeline is a common European project that all EU-members should embrace, as it will provide much-needed gas to an increasingly energy-thirsty union. This report is an extensive study of the divergent attitudes and debates that have surged in the region regarding Nord Stream, and the aim is to provide plausible explanations as to why the interpretations of the project have been so different in the various states. The report is based on a variety of sources, including several first-hand interviews with researchers and government officials in the Baltic Sea region. (author). refs.,fig.,tabs

  9. Vale do Aco pipeline: pipeline natural gas implementation in ArcelorMittal Monlevade steel work; Gasoduto Vale do Aco: implantacao do gas natural via gasoduto na ArcelorMittal Monlevade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Eduardo Sergio da Silva; Arantes, Luiz Flavio Mourao; Ribeiro, Vicente Aleixo Pinheiro [ArcelorMittal Monlevade, Joao Monlevade, MG (Brazil)

    2011-12-21

    Since September 2010, ArcelorMittal Monlevade has gained flexibility and an important opportunity to reduce the cost of its energy mix due to the arrival of the Natural Gas (NG) via Steel Valley Pipeline. The proposal of the project included the substitution of the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), Fuel Oil and Compressed Natural Gas for natural gas via pipeline. To support the investment decision, in addition to domestic economic and technical aspects, the macro economic environment concerning the NG was also taken into account. This paper shows the analysis for adjustment of internal equipment, the structure of the contract, the conceptual project of the gas distribution built inside the main events, the gains achieved, the alternatives for the acquisition of NG and operational flexibility of ArcelorMittal Monlevade in case of interruption of supply of natural gas. (author)

  10. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA of Gas Pipeline Transmission (Case Study: Duzduzan – Ahar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Karimi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The national gas transmission Ahar – Duzduzan, transmit fresh gas in the West north of Iran. According to Iran’s environmental regulation, construction and operation of pipelines is required EIA studies. Due to this linear project it is required to develop a particular EIA methodology on this kind of projects. Therefore at first we attempted to get a real knowledge about environmental endnotes of project with library and field studies. Along with reviewing the technical resources of the project, attempted to identify all of the construction and operation activities. Finally two methods of explanatory checklist and simplified matrix selected for EIA. In The construction phase 19 micro activities have evaluated in front of about 12 environmental factors (in the various environments. In the construction phase, activities such as; excavation, embankment and excavation show the greatest negative impact on the whole environment of area. And the most important activity with positive effects on the aforementioned factors is manpower recruitment. Also In the operation phase 15 micro activities have evaluated in front of about 15 environmental factors (in the various environments. In the Operation phase activities such as; grazing, vehicle traffic and wastewater production can have negative effects. Most positive impacts on environmental factors are revenue and welfare, employment levels, commerce and manning activities, immigration control and air quality. Most of the Operation phase effects are positive which involve; exploitation of gas or natural gas transportation and gas pipeline monitoring. According to the developed methodology it is necessary to use RS and GIS tools in the study current environment situation, routing environmental alternatives and make land use maps of transmission path. With regard to all issues presented in explanatory checklist of this project and also previous clauses from the standpoint of environmental compliance

  11. Development of the 501-KC7 gas turbine and the RFA-24 centrifugal pipeline compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapp, C. [Rolls-Royce, Mount Vernon, OH (United States)

    2002-07-01

    In 1997, Rolls-Royce was faced with the challenge of boosting the Allison 501 KC 5,500 HP gas turbine product for pipeline compression to 7,000 HP. The increase would provide high efficiency, improved reliability and better emissions performance in a cost effective manner. An extension of the 501 KC5 gas turbine was developed using the 501-KB7 boost module and the third and fourth turbine stages. This paper describes the bearing and shaft arrangements and other components of the whole 501 K gas turbine family. The ultimate effect was to provide a gas turbine with increased power of 35 per cent and improved fuel burn by approximately 7 per cent. The 501-KC7 gas generator consists of the following 6 components: (1) compressor, (2) combustion section, (3) gas generator turbine, (4) accessory drive assembly, (5) starter drive gearbox, and (6) an electronic control system. Each of the components is modular. It was concluded that the introduction of the 501-KC7 has established a new standard of excellence. 3 tabs., 15 figs.

  12. Loading and stress analysis of gas pipeline structures; Analise de esforcos e tensoes em estruturas de gasodutos durante despressurizacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisoli, Caetano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Frota, Cristiane Souto [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Luis Fernando Figueira da; Carvalho, Marcio da Silveira [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Savi, Marcelo Amorim [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Pacheco, Pedro Manuel Calas Lopes [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Rio de Janeiro (CEFET-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Repairing and maintenance activities on Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline often need blow down lines. During the blow down process, the high speed of discharging gases imposes great efforts to the structures. A detailed analysis of this situation is essential for a safe operation. This paper describes two phases of a project, developed under TBG coordination. It consists in analyzing the stress and forces involved in this operation, in order to design facilities to blow down pipes and develop a safe blow down procedure for the gas pipeline. The first phase consists of a supersonic flowing simulation in the blow down gas pipeline device. The pressure behavior, mass flow and the speed at the device's ending point are calculated for different operational conditions. In the second phase, the equivalent loading caused by blow down operations is used as input in a stress analysis program to determine stress, critical sessions evaluation and material recommendations for blow down devices. (author)

  13. Monitoring internal corrosion in natural gas pipelines; Monitoracao da corrosao interna em gasodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega, Ana C.V.; Silva, Djalma R.; Pimenta, Gutemberg S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil); Barbosa, Andrea F.F. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2003-07-01

    For susceptibilities to the corrosion of the pipelines and equipment made in carbon steel and used by the natural gas, it makes be necessary to identify the acting corrosive agents and monitoring them along time, controlling failures for internal corrosion. Also, of that process it origins the black powder (solid particles) that can not commit the structural integrity of the equipment, but it can also bring the company other implications very serious, like quality of the sold product, as well as stops due to blockages and wastes for erosion of the equipment. The monitoring methodology and control of the corrosion in field consisted of the use of corrosion test equipment, chemical characterization of samples of black powder and liquids and analysis of the operational data of processes and plants. Like this, it was identified for the gas pipeline in analysis the most responsible parameters for the corrosive action of the fluid, establishing a controlling methodology and operational actions to maintain the corrosion rates at safe levels and structural warranty of the same. (author)

  14. Use of geographic information systems for applications on gas pipeline rights-of-way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sydelko, P.J.; Wilkey, P.L.

    1992-12-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) applications for the siting and monitoring of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) were developed for areas near Rio Vista, California. The data layers developed for this project represent geographic features, such as landcover, elevation, aspect, slope, soils, hydrography, transportation, endangered species, wetlands, and public line surveys. A GIS was used to develop and store spatial data from several sources; to manipulate spatial data to evaluate environmental and engineering issues associated with the siting, permitting, construction, maintenance, and monitoring of gas pipeline ROWS; and to graphically display analysis results. Examples of these applications include (1) determination of environmentally sensitive areas, such as endangered species habitat, wetlands, and areas of highly erosive soils; (2) evaluation of engineering constraints, including shallow depth to bedrock, major hydrographic features, and shallow water table; (3) classification of satellite imagery for landuse/landcover that will affect ROWS; and (4) identification of alternative ROW corridors that avoid environmentally sensitive areas or areas with severe engineering constraints.

  15. Use of geographic information systems for applications on gas pipeline rights-of-way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sydelko, P.J.; Wilkey, P.L.

    1992-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) applications for the siting and monitoring of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) were developed for areas near Rio Vista, California. The data layers developed for this project represent geographic features, such as landcover, elevation, aspect, slope, soils, hydrography, transportation, endangered species, wetlands, and public line surveys. A GIS was used to develop and store spatial data from several sources; to manipulate spatial data to evaluate environmental and engineering issues associated with the siting, permitting, construction, maintenance, and monitoring of gas pipeline ROWS; and to graphically display analysis results. Examples of these applications include (1) determination of environmentally sensitive areas, such as endangered species habitat, wetlands, and areas of highly erosive soils; (2) evaluation of engineering constraints, including shallow depth to bedrock, major hydrographic features, and shallow water table; (3) classification of satellite imagery for landuse/landcover that will affect ROWS; and (4) identification of alternative ROW corridors that avoid environmentally sensitive areas or areas with severe engineering constraints.

  16. Use of geographic information systems for applications on gas pipeline rights-of-way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sydelko, P.J.

    1993-10-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) applications for the siting and monitoring of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) were developed for areas near Rio Vista, California. The data layers developed for this project represent geographic features, such as landcover, elevation, aspect, slope, soils, hydrography, transportation, endangered species, wetlands, and public line surveys. A GIS was used to develop and store spatial data from several sources; to manipulate spatial data to evaluate environmental and engineering issues associated with the siting, permitting, construction, maintenance, and monitoring of gas pipeline ROWS; and to graphically display analysis results. Examples of these applications include (1) determination of environmentally sensitive areas, such as endangered species habitat, wetlands, and areas of highly erosive soils; (2) evaluation of engineering constraints, including shallow depth to bedrock, major hydrographic features, and shallow water table; (3) classification of satellite imagery for land use/landcover that will affect ROWS; and (4) identification of alternative ROW corridors that avoid environmentally sensitive areas or areas with severe engineering constraints.

  17. Underground pipeline corrosion

    CERN Document Server

    Orazem, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention. The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, n

  18. Arctic offshore oil and gas concerns: maritime law, sustainable development and human rights : a brief look at Iceland & Greenland

    OpenAIRE

    Guðmundur Egill Erlendsson

    2010-01-01

    Arctic offshore oil and gas activities are increasing with an expeditious rate in the last years, oil and gas exploitations are on the rise and just recently Iceland joined the other eight states in preparing for these kinds of undertakings. The international legal framework is proving to be fragmented when it comes to dealing with these types of activities and potentially the environment of the Arctic is not being adequately safeguarded. Here the question of whether there are internationa...

  19. Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions Level of A Natural Gas Pipeline – Case Study from A to B Point in West Java-Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianita Cindy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is one of the highest greenhouse emitters in the world. As a response of this problem, Indonesia declared the national action plan to focus on national greenhouse gas (GHG reduction by 26 % by 2020. To achieve this target, Government puts energy sector as one of the top priorities since it is the second strongest contributor to national GHG emissions. The main purpose of this paper is to apply the method of fugitive emissions calculation to the existing natural gas pipeline in Indonesia. Fugitive emissions are the major component of GHG emissions from natural gas systems and methane (CH4, the primary component of natural gas pipeline, is a potent GHG. Tiered approaches from Interstate Natural Gas Association of America (INGAA are implemented in this paper as the estimation guidelines. A case study of a natural gas pipeline system in Indonesia is analyzed to compare the GHG emissions level resulted from Tier 1 and Tier 2 methods. In these methods, the input data are pipeline length, the number of compressor stations, and the number of meter and pressure regulation stations. In this case, the GHG emissions level of Tier 2 is significantly different from Tier 1. The variation of pipeline length shows that for the length under 479.2 miles, Tier 1 gives lower amount of CO2 equivalent than Tier 2. The differences of these estimation methods and results can be furtherly developed to provide relevant information and recommendation for the Companies and Government to record the emissions level from natural gas transmission pipeline according to their needs and purposes.

  20. AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry Myers

    2003-05-13

    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. This six-month technical report summarizes the progress for each of the proposed tasks, discusses project concerns, and outlines near-term goals. Ophir has completed a data survey of two major natural gas pipeline companies on the design requirements for an airborne, optical remote sensor. The results of this survey are disclosed in this report. A substantial amount of time was spent on modeling the expected optical signal at the receiver at different absorption wavelengths, and determining the impact of noise sources such as solar background, signal shot noise, and electronic noise on methane and ethane gas detection. Based upon the signal to noise modeling and industry input, Ophir finalized the design requirements for the airborne sensor, and released the critical sensor light source design requirements to qualified vendors. Responses from the vendors indicated that the light source was not commercially available, and will require a research and development effort to produce. Three vendors have responded positively with proposed design solutions. Ophir has decided to conduct short path optical laboratory experiments to verify the existence of methane and absorption at the specified wavelength, prior to proceeding with the light source selection. Techniques to eliminate common mode noise were also evaluated during the laboratory tests. Finally, Ophir has included a summary of the potential concerns for project success and has established future goals.

  1. A Study on Inhibitors for the Prevention of Hydrate Formation in Gas Transmission Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Gas Hydrate is usually formed during the transportation and treatment of oil and gas,resulting in the plugging of gas pipeline and equipment. Three thermodynanic calculation formulas are analyzed to deal with this problem. The lowering of the freezing point of the inhibitors △T is used to calculate the formation temperature of natural gas hydrates. This is. considered to be a good approach because it is not limited by what kind and what concentration of inhibitors one uses. Besides, the rate of lowering of the freezing point could be easily measured. The result of testing methanol and mono-ethylene glycol in a reactor shows that adding 10% inhibitors to the reactor can prevent the hydrates formation.Kinetic inhibitors are favored in the present research. They are divided into two types, polymer and surface-active agents. Their characteristics, mechanisms, and application prospect are separately discussed.Polymer inhibitors exhibit better efficiency. The result of field application of VC-713 inhibiter is also given in this article. In practice, the combination of thermodynamic inhibitors and kinetic inhibitors gives better result.

  2. The Impact of a Lower Sea Ice Extent on Arctic Greenhouse Gas Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, Frans-Jan W.; Christensen, Torben R.; Lotte Sørensen, Lise; Rysgaard, Søren; McGuire, A. David; Miller, Paul A.; Walker, Donald A.

    2013-04-01

    Arctic sea ice extent hit a new record low in September 2012, when it fell to a level about two times lower than the 1979-2000 average. Record low sea ice extents such as these are often hailed as an obvious example of the impact of climate change on the Arctic. Less obvious, however, are the further implications of a lower sea ice extent on Arctic greenhouse gas exchange. For example, a reduction in sea ice, in consort with a lower snow cover, has been connected to higher surface temperatures in the terrestrial part of the Arctic (Screen et al., 2012). These higher temperatures and longer growing seasons have the potential to alter the CO2 balance of Arctic tundra through enhanced photosynthesis and respiration, as well as the magnitude of methane emissions. In fact, large changes are already observed in terrestrial ecosystems (Post et al., 2009), and concerns have been raised of large releases of carbon through permafrost thaw (Schuur et al., 2011). While these changes in the greenhouse gas balance of the terrestrial Arctic are described in numerous studies, a connection with a decline in sea ice extent is nonetheless seldom made. In addition to these changes on land, a lower sea ice extent also has a direct effect on the exchange of greenhouse gases between the ocean and the atmosphere. For example, due to sea ice retreat, more ocean surface remains in contact with the atmosphere, and this has been suggested to increase the oceanic uptake of CO2 (Bates et al., 2006). However, the sustainability of this increased uptake is uncertain (Cai et al., 2010), and carbon fluxes related directly to the sea ice itself add much uncertainty to the oceanic uptake of CO2 (Nomura et al., 2006; Rysgaard et al., 2007). Furthermore, significant emissions of methane from the Arctic Ocean have been observed (Kort et al., 2012; Shakhova et al., 2010), but the consequence of a lower sea ice extent thereon is still unclear. Overall, the decline in sea ice that has been seen in recent

  3. Controlling internal corrosion of oil and gas pipelines : the systematic treatment of pitting sequence (SToPS) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doiron, A.; Chu, F.Y.; Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2009-07-01

    The oil and gas pipeline industry relies on the use of carbon and low-alloy steels. As such, there is a need to predict the corrosivity of brines containing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) when designing production equipment and transportation facilities. A true industry-standard approach to predicting CO{sub 2} and hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S) corrosion does not exist, but there are similarities in existing approaches and models. This paper reviewed the Systematic Treatment of Pitting Sequence (SToPS) software program developed by the materials assessment team at Natural Resources Canada to predict the internal pitting corrosion rate of multiphase, oil producing, gas producing, oil transmission, and gas transmission pipelines. The main output of SToPS is the prediction of how long the pipe is safe. SToPS considers the pipeline to be safe until the depth of the deepest pit is 50 percent of the pipe wall thickness. In addition, SToPS predicts pH, wall shear stress, flow regime, as well as the probability of pitting corrosion. SToPS requires details about pipeline properties, production conditions of the pipeline and gas composition in order to accurately predict the pitting corrosion. SToPS calculates the pitting corrosion rate by combining the effect of 11 different operational parameters. This paper explained how each of these components affects the pitting corrosion rate and how to calculate their individual corrosion rates. The paper showed that each operational parameter can alter the pitting corrosion rate. There are currently 2 versions of SToPS, notably SToPS v1.1, and SToPS v2.0 which produces 7 different graphs to help the user understand the corrosion occurring in their pipeline over the production periods. 16 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  4. New test for oil soluble/water dispersible gas pipeline inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegmann, D.W.; Asperger, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    The wheel test provides good mixing of the condensate and water phases, the coupons are exposed to both phases. Therefore, the wheel test cannot distinguish between inhibitors that need continuous mixing of the these phases to maintain a water dispersion of the inhibitor and inhibitors that will self disperse into the water. This concept becomes important for pipelines in stratified flow where the water can settle out. In these cases with low turbulence, the inhibitor must self disperse into the water to be effective. The paper describes a test method to measure the effectiveness of an inhibitor and its ability to self disperse. The effectiveness of several inhibitors as predicted by the new test method is discussed relative to data from the wheel test and breaker tests. Field performance of these inhibitors in a gas gathering line, with liquids in stratified flow, are cities and compared with the results of the various laboratory tests.

  5. Real-time electronic monitoring of a pitted and leaking gas gathering pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, R.G.; Hewitt, P.G.

    1986-08-01

    Hydrogen patch, flush electrical resistance, and flush linear polarization proves wre used with flush coupons to monitor corrosion rates in a pitted and leaking sour gas gathering line. Four inhibitors were evaluated in stopping the leaks. Inhibitor residuals and the amount and ratio of water and condensate in the lines were measured at five locations along the line. The best inhibitor reduced reduced the pit-leak frequency by over a factor of 10. Inhibitor usage rate was optimized using the hydrogen patch current as a measure of the instantaneous corrosion rate. Improper pigging was identified as a cause of corrosion transients. This problem is discussed in relation to the pigging of pipelines in stratified flow where moving fluids are the carriers for continuously injected corrosion inhibitors.

  6. Simplification of executive procedures for construction and assembly of terrestrial gas pipelines through illustrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, Mario D.C.; Bresci, Claudio T.; Dantas, Augusto Cesar de C.; Machado, Clara C. Torres S. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Sobreiro, Flavia L. [Telsan Engenharia, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This study aims to show a simple, efficient and fun method that seeks to minimize the weaknesses and help to increase the perception of risk analysis and systematization the operation discipline. This project uses the methodology of images illustrated in the executive procedures, and is based on the activities of construction and assembly, HSE and social communication in gas pipeline ventures, setting and maintaining access to practical information, yet are prepared a work instructions that summarize each process, as a form of material support in training. Among several objectives that have shaped the strategies for this project, the main is to provide the workforce engaged in the activities of field, greater facility in implementing the technical information contained in the procedures, from a wider and better understanding of the guidelines described in the documentation. (author)

  7. Calculating the “pressing force” in a Sircular Gas Pipeline with two Inlets and One Outlet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malohat A. Kukanova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the use of circular arrangement which helps, on the basis of Kirchhoff’s laws, to develop formulas for calculating hydraulics in a circular gas pipeline with two inlets and one outlet. In addition, the article describes the conditions which produce the “pressing force” in the inlet with lesser pressure

  8. 77 FR 31347 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... markets in Ohio and Tennessee. \\1\\ A pipeline loop is a segment of pipe constructed parallel to an... stations to provide bi-directional natural gas flow: Station 219 in Mercer County, Station 303 in Venango... encourages electronic filing of comments and has expert staff available to assist you at (202) 502-8258...

  9. 77 FR 14006 - Proposed Development of the Alaska Stand Alone Gas Pipeline Project (ASAP), From the North Slope...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers Proposed Development of the Alaska Stand Alone Gas Pipeline... January 20, 2012, issue of the Federal Register (77 FR No. 13), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers...

  10. 76 FR 77994 - Brian Hamilton v. El Paso Natural Gas, El Paso Western Pipelines; Notice Announcing Docket Number...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Brian Hamilton v. El Paso Natural Gas, El Paso Western Pipelines; Notice Announcing Docket Number Change On December 2, 2011, the Commission issued a notice in docket number RP12-220... docket number, RP12-220-000 and give the proceeding a new docket number. This notice changes the...

  11. Risk Analysis on Leakage Failure of Natural Gas Pipelines by Fuzzy Bayesian Network with a Bow-Tie Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Shan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pipeline is the major mode of natural gas transportation. Leakage of natural gas pipelines may cause explosions and fires, resulting in casualties, environmental damage, and material loss. Efficient risk analysis is of great significance for preventing and mitigating such potential accidents. The objective of this study is to present a practical risk assessment method based on Bow-tie model and Bayesian network for risk analysis of natural gas pipeline leakage. Firstly, identify the potential risk factors and consequences of the failure. Then construct the Bow-tie model, use the quantitative analysis of Bayesian network to find the weak links in the system, and make a prediction of the control measures to reduce the rate of the accident. In order to deal with the uncertainty existing in the determination of the probability of basic events, fuzzy logic method is used. Results of a case study show that the most likely causes of natural gas pipeline leakage occurrence are parties ignore signage, implicit signage, overload, and design defect of auxiliaries. Once the leakage occurs, it is most likely to result in fire and explosion. Corresponding measures taken on time will reduce the disaster degree of accidents to the least extent.

  12. Application of pre-stressed technology in the crossing construction of the China–Myanmar Gas Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejun Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Concrete structure is commonly used in the anchorages of a large cable-suspended pipeline crossing construction. With the increase of span and load, the stress on the concrete anchorages may rise rapidly. In case of traditional anchoring structure fixed by anchor rods, concrete cracking will occur, thereby reducing the anchorage life. To solve this problem, the pre-stressed structure was designed to effectively improve the efficiency of anchoring and reduce engineering cost. In the crossing construction of China–Myanmar Gas Pipeline, the pre-stressed technology was used to establish an effective pre-stressed anchoring system, which integrates the pre-stressed structures (e.g. tunnel anchorages in the anchors and the optimization measures (e.g. positioning mode, anchorage structure, concrete placement, pre-stressed, and medium injection, in line with the crossing structure and load features of this project. The system can delay the occurrence of concrete cracking and enhance the stress durability of the structure and anchoring efficiency. This technology has been successfully applied in the crossing construction of China–Myanmar Gas Pipeline, with good economic and social benefits, indicating that this technology is a new effective solution to the optimization of suspended pipeline anchorage structures, providing technical support for the development of pipeline crossing structure.

  13. Prediction of internal corrosion of oil and gas pipelines : the Dayalan model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doiron, A.; Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2009-07-01

    The corrosivity of brines containing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) must be determined when designing oil and gas pipelines. This paper presented a newly developed computational procedure and a computer program for predicting corrosion rates of carbon steel pipelines carrying CO{sub 2}-containing flowing fluids in oil and gas field conditions. The computational procedure is based on a mechanistic model for CO{sub 2} corrosion. The model is based on the current knowledge of the CO{sub 2} corrosion mechanism and the kinetics of electrochemical reactions, chemical equilibrium reactions, and mass transfer. Initially the model was developed for predicting uniform CO{sub 2} corrosion rates in the absence of scale on the metal surface. A mechanistic model for scale formation was then developed to extend the model to conditions where FeCO{sub 3} layer formation occurs. The 3 species that undergo reduction on the metal surface and contribute to corrosion are hydrogen ions, H{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ions and HCO{sub 3} ions. The iron dissolution reaction is the corresponding anodic reaction. The general corrosion process involves 4 major steps, notably dissolution of CO{sub 2} in the aqueous solution to form the various reactive species which take part in the CO{sub 2} corrosion reaction; transportation of these reactants to the surface of the metal; cathodic and anodic electrochemical reactions taking place at the metal surface; and transportation of the products of the corrosion reaction to the bulk of the solution. The overall rate of the corrosion process depends on the rate at which each of these individual steps take place under a given set of conditions. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  14. Comparative QRA (Quantitative Risk Analysis) of natural gas distribution pipelines in urban areas; Analise comparativa dos riscos da operacao de linhas de gas natural em areas urbanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luiz Fernando S. de [Energy Solutions South America (Brazil); Cardoso, Cassia de O.; Storch, Rafael [Det Norske Veritas (DNV) (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The natural gas pipeline network grows around the world, but its operation inherently imposes a risk to the people living next to pipelines. Due to this, it is necessary to conduct a risk analysis during the environmental licensing in Brazil. Despite the risk analysis methodology is well established, some points of its application for the distribution pipelines are still under discussion. This paper presents a methodology that examines the influences of major projects and operating parameters on the risk calculation of a distribution pipeline accident in urban areas as well as the possible accident scenarios assessment complexity. The impact of some scenarios has been evaluated using a Computational Fluid Dynamics tool. The results indicate that, under certain conditions, the risks from the pipeline operation under operating pressures of 20 bar may be acceptable in location class 3 or even in class 4. These results play a very important role if management decisions on the growth of the distribution of natural gas network in densely populated areas as well as in the improvement of laws to control the activity of distribution of natural gas. (author)

  15. Pipelines integrity management in Transportadora de Gas del Sur; Gerenciamento de la integridad de gasoductos en Transportadora de Gas del Sur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espineira, Eduardo [Transportadora de Gas del Sur (TGS) (Argentina). Gerencia de Integridad de Gasoductos

    2003-07-01

    To control the integrity of a buried gas pipeline system is not an easy task for a gas pipeline operator. As the threats that affect pipeline integrity are many, it is critical to obtain, visualize, and analyze a great quantity of data in order to ensure a safe and continuous gas supply. This task becomes even more complex in the case of pipelines installed long time ago, where time pays an important role in the formation and development of defects. It is essential to maintain a policy of permanent evaluation, monitoring and repair that allows to evaluate the integrity plan developed and to make the changes that might be necessary. The TGS pipeline system consists of 7400 Km of pipe with an average age of 30 years, going across a great variety of soils and zones with distinctive geographical features that demand the continuous investment of money. This study describes the integrity plan set up by TGS and its evolution in time, including the main tasks related to information gathering and analysis, as well as all rehabilitation tasks. The evaluation of the integrity plan implementation, and the evolution of failure rates in time with respect to the related investments are also described. Finally, the analysis includes the information management systems applied by TGS such as the Geographic Information System . (author)

  16. Importance of effective contract management of GasPacifico Pipeline Project : a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, R.G.; Proctor, C. [GasPacifico Project (Argentina)

    2000-07-01

    This paper described the contracting challenges and bid evaluations for the GasPacifico Project which involved the construction of 543 km of NPS 20 and NPS 24 high pressure gas pipeline to connect natural gas reserves in the Province of Neuquen, Argentina to industrial and domestic markets in Concepcion, Chile. The line passes through difficult terrain in the Andes Mountain Range and Coastal Mountain Range. TransCanada International Ltd. (TCI) was responsible for the overall project management of the project from design, construction and contract administration. Call for bids on the project went out in March 1998 and contracts were awarded less than 5 months later in July 1998. TCI's objective was to ensure that the contractors had the experience, resources and financial ability to successfully complete the project. The work was divided into distinct contract packages on the basis of changes in pipe diameter, natural changes in topography, border between Argentina/Chile, and considerations related to the large number of landowners in agricultural and urban zones. Based on a review of pre-qualifications, 18 contractors were invited on a reconnaissance tour to familiarize the bidders with the project. When a review of the technical bids was completed, evaluation of the commercial bids began. When the difference in technical rating was very small, the lowest technically acceptable bidder was accepted. The project was constructed on schedule and under budget. It was noted that much of this success is a result of the contract selection process. 5 tabs., 3 figs.

  17. Design of a Prediction System for Hydrate Formation in Gas Pipelines using Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Raed Moukhtar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Before the evolution of the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN technology, many production wells in the oil and gas industry were suffering from the gas hydration formation process, as most of them are remotely located away from the host location. By taking the advantage of the WSN technology, it is possible now to monitor and predict the critical conditions at which hydration will form by using any computerized model. In fact, most of the developed models are based on two well-known hand calculation methods which are the Specific gravity and K-Factor methods. In this research, the proposed work is divided into two phases; first, the development of a three prediction models using the Neural Network algorithm (ANN based on the specific gravity charts, the K-Factor method and the production rates of the flowing gas mixture in the process pipelines. While in the second phase, two WSN prototype models are designed and implemented using National Instruments WSN hardware devices. Power analysis is carried out on the designed prototypes and regression models are developed to give a relation between the sensing nodes (SN consumed current, Node-to-Gateway distance and the operating link quality. The prototypes controller is interfaced with a GSM module and connected to a web server to be monitored via mobile and internet networks.

  18. Transportation of natural gas : The impact of price variation on the choice between LNG and pipeline infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The long-distance transportation of natural gas, either in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG) or by pipeline, is of great importance for both exporting and importing countries. Exporting countries depend on the revenue from exports. Energy security is a major concern for importing countries, especially for the European Union, which is dependent on imports. Long-distance transportation also requires large-scale capital investment in infrastructure involving both states, state-controlled c...

  19. Evaluation and application of data sources for assessing operating costs for mechanical drive gas turbines in pipeline service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smalley, A.J.; Mauney, D.A. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Ash, D.I. [Conoco Inc., Ponca City, OK (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The use of regression analysis of public domain data provided by interstate pipeline companies to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), combined with individual company equipment lists to generate information on cost of operations, maintenance, fuel gas used and the cost of fuel and power, is demonstrated. Methods of analysis and limitations are identified, and results of such regression analysis as average and variance of cost and fuel usage for industrial gas turbines and aeroderivative gas turbines are discussed. Comparison between gas turbine prime movers, reciprocating engine prime movers and electric motor drives are made, and annual costs per installed horsepower as a function of turbine size are calculated. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  20. On-line Detection of Gas Pipeline Based on the Real-Time Algorithm and Network Technology with Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Bo; YAN Guo-zheng; DING Guo-qing; ZHOU Bing; FU Xi-guang; ZUO Jian-yong

    2004-01-01

    The detection system integrates control technology, network technology, video encoding and decoding, video transmiss-ion, multi-single chip microcomputer communication, dat-abase technology, computer software and robot technology. The robot can adaptively adjust its status according to diameter (from 400 mm to 650 mm) of pipeline. The maximum detection distance is up to 1 000 m. The method of video coding in the system is based on fractal transformation. The experiments show that the coding scheme is fast and good PSNR. The precision of on-line detection is up to 3% thickness of pipeline wall. The robot can also have a high precision of location up to 0.03 m. The control method is based on network and characterized by on-line and real-time. The experiment in real gas pipeline shows that the performance of the detection system is good.

  1. AN ALTERNATE METHOD TO PREVENT SAND ABRASIVE EROSION IN PIPELINES FOR TRANSPORTING HIGH-SPEED NATURAL GAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an alternate method to re-move the sand carried by natural gas in the upstream pipelinestherefore preventing sand abrasive erosion in pipelines used intransporting high-speed natural gas. Conventionally, most ex-perts pay much attention to improving the anti-erosion charac-teristics of the pipeline materials to solve the problem of seri-ous abrasive erosion, but without significant success. Basedon the theory of multiphase flow and analysis of the character-istics of sandy jets, a new equipment named "Sand Catcher" isintroduced in this article. Experimental results show that theSand Catcher effectively removes most of the sand in the natu-ral gas and significantly reduces the abrasive erosion of thepipelines. The Sand Catcher can be widely applied in practicein the near future.

  2. Pipeline investigation report : natural gas compressor station occurrence : Gazoduc TQM Inc., December 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-02-01

    On December 28, 2000, a release of natural gas resulted in an explosion that destroyed the electrical and services building at the Gazoduc TQM East Hereford compressor station, damaging the compressor building. Before the occurrence, the station had been shut down due to a manual initiation of the station's emergency shutdown system. A maintenance person was sent to the station to reinitiate the electric motor-driven compressor unit. The on-site maintenance person was seriously injured. This report presents factual information about the accident, the injuries and the damage to equipment. It also reviews particulars of the pipeline system, the compressor station design, construction and operations. An analysis of the natural gas stream found an unknown product in the compressor station. A history of previous explosions, ruptures, leaks and fires was presented along with quality control programs. Findings as to the causes and contributing factors of the accident were revealed along with findings as to risk and safety actions. tabs., figs.

  3. AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry Myers

    2003-11-12

    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. This second six-month technical report summarizes the progress made towards defining, designing, and developing the hardware and software segments of the airborne, optical remote methane and ethane sensor. The most challenging task to date has been to identify a vendor capable of designing and developing a light source with the appropriate output wavelength and power. This report will document the work that has been done to identify design requirements, and potential vendors for the light source. Significant progress has also been made in characterizing the amount of light return available from a remote target at various distances from the light source. A great deal of time has been spent conducting laboratory and long-optical path target reflectance measurements. This is important since it helps to establish the overall optical output requirements for the sensor. It also reduces the relative uncertainty and risk associated with developing a custom light source. The data gathered from the optical path testing has been translated to the airborne transceiver design in such areas as: fiber coupling, optical detector selection, gas filters, and software analysis. Ophir will next, summarize the design progress of the transceiver hardware and software development. Finally, Ophir will discuss remaining project issues that may impact the success of the project.

  4. Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions Level of A Natural Gas Pipeline – Case Study from A to B Point in West Java-Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Dianita Cindy; Saputra Asep Handaya

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia is one of the highest greenhouse emitters in the world. As a response of this problem, Indonesia declared the national action plan to focus on national greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction by 26 % by 2020. To achieve this target, Government puts energy sector as one of the top priorities since it is the second strongest contributor to national GHG emissions. The main purpose of this paper is to apply the method of fugitive emissions calculation to the existing natural gas pipeline in Indo...

  5. Progress in Spiral Saw Steel Pipe Manufacturing Technology Promotes Construction of Oil/Gas Long-Distance Pipelines in West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Zhiqian

    1997-01-01

    @@ Introduction Since the tremendous development of oil and gas exploration achieved in West China at the beginning of 1990's, it is demanded to build several long-distance oil/gas pipelines to transmit the crude oil and natural gas from Tarimu Basin, Tuha Basin, Junggar Basin as well as Shaan-Gan-Ning Basin to the cities of Urumuqi,Klamayi, Xi'an and Beijing (details see Table 1). The total length of pipelines is more than 3 200 km, and the natural conditions along the pipelines are very harsh. This raises a challenge to the Chinese pipe manufacturing industry.

  6. Carbon dioxide corrosion: Modelling and experimental work applied to natural gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loldrup Fosboel. P.

    2007-10-15

    CO{sub 2} corrosion is a general problem in the industry and it is expensive. The focus of this study is an oil gas production related problem. CO{sub 2} corrosion is observed in offshore natural gas transportation pipelines. A general overview of the problem is presented in chapter 1. The chemical system consists mainly of CO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-NaHCO{sub 3}-MEG-H{sub 2}O. Sodium is injected in the pipelines as NaOH in order to pH-stabilize the pipeline to avoid corrosion and MEG is injected in order to prevent gas hydrates. There are a great number of models available in the literature which may predict CO{sub 2} corrosion. These models are not very accurate and assume ideality in the main part of the equation. This thesis deals with aspect of improving the models to account for the non-ideality. A general overview and extension of the theory behind electrochemical corrosion is presented in chapter 2 to 4. The theory deals with the basic thermodynamics of electrolytes in chapter 2, the extension and general description of electrolyte mass transport in chapter 3, and the electrochemical kinetics of corrosion in chapter 4. A literature overview of CO{sub 2} corrosion is shown in chapter 5 and possible extensions of the models are discussed. A list of literature cites is given in chapter 6. The literature review in chapter 5 shows how FeCO{sub 3} plays a main part in the protection of steel. Especially the solubility of FeCO{sub 3} is an important factor. Chapter 7 discusses and validates the thermodynamic properties of FeCO{sub 3}. The study shows that there is a discrepancy in the properties of FeCO{sub 3}. Sets of consistent thermodynamic properties of FeCO{sub 3} are given. A mixed solvent electrolyte model is regressed in chapter 8 for the CO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-NaHCO{sub 3}-MEG-H{sub 2}O system. Parameters of the extended UNIQUAC model is fitted to literature data of VLE, SLE, heat excess and validated against heat capacity data. The model is also

  7. Gas Pipelines, LP and LNG, GasPipelines-This dataset represents the natural gas distribution facilities for portions of Davis, Salt Lake, and Utah Counties. These data were digitized as part of the State of Utah Comprehensive Emergency Management Earthquake Preparedness Program, 19, Published in 1990, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Gas Pipelines, LP and LNG dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1990. It is described as...

  8. Environmental management programs of the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline; Programa de gestao ambiental do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Helio Joaquim dos [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    One of the largest South America's enterprises of energy integration of the Bolivia/Brazil gas pipeline in Brazilian side own and operated by TBG has interacted with 05 states, 137 districts and 06 environment governmental entities (IBAMA and States' department) of environment multilateral financial institutions and group of ten of other governmental and not governmental organizations. The level of approved investment was of the order of 1,5 billion dollars, of which about 29 million had been destined the ambient activities. Thus, without precedents in Brazil this work presents the plan of ambient management of the enterprise, created to develop and implement the ambient programs during the construction and operation of the gas pipeline stage. The work here presented will give prominence to the programs of ambient compensation and social communication inside Brazil. (author)

  9. Legal and regulatory possibility of connection between interstate natural gas distribution networks instead of constructing transport pipelines; Possibilidade juridoco-regulatoria da conexao interestadual entre redes de distribuicao de gas natural como alternativa a construcao de gasodutos de transporte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Gustavo Mano [Andrade, Mano - Advogados, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    According to Revista Brasil Energia (2011a), the local natural gas distribution concessionaire in the State of Sao Paulo Gas Brasiliano Distribuidora - GBD, plans to expand its distribution pipeline network in western Sao Paulo up to the border of the State of Minas Gerais, near the region known as Minas Triangle where a connection with the pipeline network of the State of Minas Gerais' natural gas distribution company, Companhia de Gas de Minas Gerais - GASMIG shall be built in order to supply natural gas to an ammonia plant to be built by PETROBRAS in the City of Uberaba. Still according to the publication, the project described above would be an alternative to the construction of a transportation pipeline that, since the enforcement of the Gas Law - Law No. 11.909/09 (Brasil, 2009), should be subject to concession contracts preceded by a complex, and probably delayed, planning and procurement. However, there is a transportation pipeline project, deriving from the Bolivia-Brazil transportation pipeline near the city of Sao Carlos, in Sao Paulo, crossing the Minas Triangle and finishing in the State of Goias. This project is owned by TGBC Company. The existence of two gas pipeline projects with very similar paths to supply virtually the same regions and based on different regulatory frameworks, one consisting of a connection between the distribution networks of different States and another based on the concept of pipeline transportation of gas under the legal and regulatory federal jurisdiction raises the discussion about the possibility of legal and regulatory interstate connections of distribution pipeline networks as an alternative to planning, allocation and construction of a transportation pipelines. This article aims to examine the legal and regulatory foundations of both alternatives and delineate the limits of performance of States and Federal Government on legislation and regulation concerning the movement of natural gas pipeline through the Country

  10. Prediction of internal corrosion of oil and gas pipelines : the Nesic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doiron, A.; Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2009-07-01

    When designing oil and gas pipelines and production equipment, it is necessary to predict the corrosivity of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2})-containing brines since they are a major cause of corrosion damage in carbon and low-alloy steels. This paper presented a model developed by Nesic in which a theoretical approach was taken to model individual electrochemical reactions occurring in an acidic water-CO{sub 2} system. The model considers the electrochemical reactions at the metal surface and the transport process of all the species in the system such as H+, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Fe++. In this study, transport processes were simplified by assuming independent diffusion of the species and by using well-established mass transfer coefficients for a rotating cylinder and pipe flow. Temperature, pH, CO{sub 2} partial pressure, oxygen concentration, steel, and flow geometry are the inputs needed for the Nesic model. Performance of the model was validated by comparing the predictions with results from glass loop experiments. It was concluded that the model contributes to a better understanding of the complex processes taking place during corrosion in the presence of surface films. 4 refs.

  11. Vulnerability assessment of critical infrastructure : activity 2 progress report : information of SCADA systems and other security monitoring systems used in oil and gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, G.P. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2007-12-15

    Many pipelines are located in remote regions and subjected to harsh environmental conditions. Damage to pipelines can have significant economic and environmental impacts. This paper discussed the use of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems to monitor and control oil and gas pipeline infrastructure. SCADA systems are a real time, distributed computerized system with an intelligent capability for condition identification and fault diagnosis. SCADA systems can be used to capture thousands of miles of pipeline system process data and distribute it to pipeline operators, whose work stations are networked with the SCADA central host computer. SCADA architectures include monolithic, distributed, and networked systems that can be distributed across wide area networks (WANs). SCADA security strategies must be implemented to ensure corporate network security. Case studies of SCADA systems currently used by oil and gas operators in Alberta were also presented. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Detecting Methane From Leaking Pipelines and as Greenhouse Gas in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riris, Haris; Numata, Kenji; Li, Steven; Wu, Stewart; Ramanathan, Anand; Dawsey, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Laser remote sensing measurements of trace gases from orbit can provide unprecedented information about important planetary science and answer critical questions about planetary atmospheres. Methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenically produced greenhouse gas. Though its atmospheric abundance is much less than that of CO2 (1.78 ppm vs. 380 ppm), it has much larger greenhouse heating potential. CH4 also contributes to pollution in the lower atmosphere through chemical reactions, leading to ozone production. Atmospheric CH4 concentrations have been increasing as a result of increased fossil fuel production, rice farming, livestock, and landfills. Natural sources of CH4 include wetlands, wild fires, and termites, and perhaps other unknown sources. Important sinks for CH4 include non-saturated soils and oxidation by hydroxyl radicals in the atmosphere. Remotely measuring CH4 and other biogenic molecules (such as ethane and formaldehyde) on Mars also has important implications on the existence of life on Mars. Measuring CH4 at very low (ppb) concentrations from orbit will dramatically improve the sensitivity and spatial resolution in the search for CH4 vents and sub-surface life on other planets. A capability has been developed using lasers and spectroscopic detection techniques for the remote measurements of trace gases in open paths. Detection of CH4, CO2, H2O, and CO in absorption cells and in open paths, both in the mid- IR and near-IR region, has been demonstrated using an Optical Parametric Amplifier laser transmitter developed at GSFC. With this transmitter, it would be possible to develop a remote sensing methane instrument. CH4 detection also has very important commercial applications. Pipeline leak detection from an aircraft or a helicopter can significantly reduce cost, response time, and pinpoint the location. The main advantage is the ability to rapidly detect CH4 leaks remotely. This is extremely important for the petrochemical industry

  13. Contribution of oceanic gas hydrate dissociation to the formation of Arctic Ocean methane plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reagan, M.; Moridis, G.; Elliott, S.; Maltrud, M.

    2011-06-01

    Vast quantities of methane are trapped in oceanic hydrate deposits, and there is concern that a rise in the ocean temperature will induce dissociation of these hydrate accumulations, potentially releasing large amounts of carbon into the atmosphere. Because methane is a powerful greenhouse gas, such a release could have dramatic climatic consequences. The recent discovery of active methane gas venting along the landward limit of the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) on the shallow continental slope (150 m - 400 m) west of Svalbard suggests that this process may already have begun, but the source of the methane has not yet been determined. This study performs 2-D simulations of hydrate dissociation in conditions representative of the Arctic Ocean margin to assess whether such hydrates could contribute to the observed gas release. The results show that shallow, low-saturation hydrate deposits, if subjected to recently observed or future predicted temperature changes at the seafloor, can release quantities of methane at the magnitudes similar to what has been observed, and that the releases will be localized near the landward limit of the GHSZ. Both gradual and rapid warming is simulated, along with a parametric sensitivity analysis, and localized gas release is observed for most of the cases. These results resemble the recently published observations and strongly suggest that hydrate dissociation and methane release as a result of climate change may be a real phenomenon, that it could occur on decadal timescales, and that it already may be occurring.

  14. Gas pipeline from North Europe through Alps tunnels; Gazoduc provenant du Nord de l'Europe et passant par des tunnels sous les Alpes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffa, D.; Pesaresi, G.; Raffaeli, E. [Snamprogetti, ENI Group (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    This paper summarises the peculiarities and problems faced during the design and construction phases for the implementation of some sections of the NPS 48 gas pipeline, inside several tunnels located in Swiss territory; in addition, the main aspects relevant to welding technologies and NDT (Non-Destructive Testing) are also outlined. The above mentioned pipeline sections were an integral part of the expansion plan for gas importation from the North Sea to Italy. The tunnels through which the pipeline was laid were already existing and the scope of the work was to replace the already existing NPS 34 gas pipeline and to install NPS 48 according to DIN 17172 (grade 445.7 TM or API grade 5L-X65, wall thicknesses 18.0, 21.2, 26.1 mm), subsequent to removal of the existing pipes. (authors)

  15. Temperature Drop Calculation for Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline%天然气输送管线温度计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高德洁; 王鑫; 王春生; 孙启冀; 孙勇; 徐国富

    2011-01-01

    The numerical computation of natural gas pipeline temperature drop will provide the reference data for design of gas pipeline, the judgment of hydrate formation,the normal production and operation. On the basis of SuHuoFu formula, considering the effect of the Joule-Thomson,according to the natural gas flowing through a pipe heat conduction basic theory,combined with engineering thermodynamics, heat transfer and fluid mechanics knowledge, establishing gas transmission pipeline temperature drop model, adopt iterative method, the natural gas temperature along the pipe is calculated,comparing some kind of factors such as gas composition,the pipeline operational factor,the heat preservation situation,and analysis how the factors influent the temperature drop, providing the theory basis for how to reduce the temperature drop in the gas tine,the heating power and the heating furnace heating temperature calculation, and energy conservation and optimization.%天然气管道温降的数值计算可以为输气管道的设计、判断水合物的生成、保证生产运行提供参考数据.在苏霍夫公式的基础上,考虑了焦耳-汤姆逊效应的影响,根据天然气在管道中流动的导热基本理论,结合工程热力学、传热学、流体力学知识,建立天然气输气管线温降模型,采用循环迭代方法计算出天然气沿程温度,对影响管道温降的各种因素,例如气体组成、管道运行参数、保温情况等进行分析比较,为减小天然气管输的温降,伴热功率、加热炉加热温度的计算及节能优化提供了理论依据.

  16. Construction and assembly of the Urucu-Coari-Manaus gas pipeline; Construcao e montagem do gasoduto Urucu-Coari-Manaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Antonio E.; Sarno, Ruy [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    This paper aims to present the strategies adopted for the development of the construction and assembly of the Urucu-Coari-Manaus Gas Pipeline and its branches, emphasizing the logistics. With 662 km of extension and crossing 7 Amazonian counties, the construction of this pipeline will take in consideration particular aspects of the region (wavy relief, local population, Amazonian forest and diverse water bodies) and its interference in the works, mainly transport of workers and equipment, distribution of supplying points of fuels and foods, and localization of support work sites. Considering the importance of the region watercourses, techniques for its passages were studied, on a case by case basis and the conventional process, directional drilling and special launching for the passage of the Black river have been adopted. Moreover, this paper presents the activities summary of both environmental licensing process and pre communication related to the communities directly affected by the works, aiming at the beginning of the services of construction and assembly, as well as a story brief of the experiences gathered during the construction of the Poliduto and the Urucu-Coari Gas Pipeline, both constructed between the years of 1997 and 1999. (author)

  17. CBERS-2B Brazilian remote sensing satellite to help to monitor the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandes, Gilberto Luis Sanches [TBG Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the results of CBERS-2B' Brazilian Remote Sensing Satellite to help to monitor the Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline. The CBERS-2B is the third satellite launched in 2007 by the CBERS Program (China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite) and the innovation was the HRC camera that produces high resolution images. It will be possible to obtain one complete coverage of the country every 130 days. In this study, 2 images from different parts of the Bolivia- Brazil Gas Pipeline were selected. Image processing involved the geometric registration of CBERS-2B satellite images with airborne images, contrast stretch transform and pseudo color. The analysis of satellite and airborne images in a GIS software to detect third party encroachment was effective to detect native vegetation removal, street construction, growth of urban areas, farming and residential/industrial land development. Very young, the CBERS-2B is a good promise to help to inspect the areas along the pipelines. (author)

  18. Prediction of internal corrosion of oil and gas pipelines : the de Waard - Milliams model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doiron, A.; Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2009-07-01

    Predicting the corrosivity of carbon dioxide (CO-)2-containing brines is necessary when designing oil and gas production equipment and transportation facilities. De Waard and Milliams have played a role towards establishing standard guidelines for predicting CO{sub 2} and hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S) corrosion. The de Waard equation determines the relationship between potential corrosivity of aqueous media for a given level of dissolved CO{sub 2}, defined by its partial pressure, at any given temperature. The model is widely used because of its relative simplicity, but input of inspection and monitoring data may be needed to refine the models' accuracy or field and well specificity. The de Waard model is the most frequently referenced model. The first version developed in 1975 was based on temperature and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} only. The model has been revised many times. The 1971 version considered the corrosion factors for the effect of hydrocarbon liquid, pH and scale. The 1993 version considered the effect of flow, notably mass transport and fluid velocity. A revised version that included steel composition was published in 1995. This model represents a best fit for various flow loop data generated. The de Waard Milliams model gives a good description of experimental CO{sub 2} corrosion rates and the effect of liquid velocity for conditions where protective films are not formed. It explains many of the observations and features of older models. It was concluded that in order to predict corrosion rates in practical situations, such as in multiphase pipelines, the model should only be used while taking the effect of dissolved iron and FeCO{sub 3} precipitation kinetics into consideration. Carbide films left behind as a result of corrosion can have a pronounced influence on the CO{sub 2} corrosion rate. 5 refs.

  19. Modeling Hydrodynamic State of Oil and Gas Condensate Mixture in a Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudin Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Based on the developed model a calculation method was obtained which is used to analyze hydrodynamic state and composition of hydrocarbon mixture in each ith section of the pipeline when temperature-pressure and hydraulic conditions change.

  20. Risk assessment in gas and oil pipelines based on the fuzzy Bow-tie technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Heyrani

    2016-04-01

      Conclusion: Considering the recognized factors leading to destruction of pipelines and their most notable outcomes, instructions on how to control and reduce the potential consequences were suggested, with emphasis on the removal of the most probable causes.

  1. An ornithological study of alternate gas pipeline routes in Alaska, Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The study was an attempt to describe and estimate the numbers of species and relative densities of birds along the two alternate pipeline routes, and to arrive at...

  2. Governance of Arctic Offshore Oil & Gas Activities: Multilevel Governance & Legal Pluralism at Stake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelaudeix, Cecile

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the governance process of offshore oil and gas activities in the Arctic with the concept of multilevelgovernance and legal pluralism to address both issues of management of the environment and public participation. The analysis goes beyond the single issue of fragmentation...... pertaining to the international and supranational levels, to encompass national and regional levels and evaluate how the interactions between those levels structure the policy process and impact the efficiency of environmental management and public participation. Four paths of reflection arise from...... and from regional government, indigenous shareholders and corporation perspectives, could be helpful in providing relevant actors with arguments to weigh the decision on seismic and drilling activities in relation to risk acceptance....

  3. Thermo-hydraulic modelling of the South East Gas Pipeline System - an integrated model; Modelagem termo-hidraulica do Sistema de Gasodutos do Sudeste : um modelo integrado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianna Neto, Armando M.; Santos, Arnaldo M.; Mercon, Eduardo G. [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents the development of an integrated simulation model, for the numerical calculation of thermal-hydraulic behaviors in the Brazilian southeast onshore gas pipeline flow system, remotely operated by TRANSPETRO's Gas Pipeline Control Centre (CCG). In its final application, this model is supposed to provide simulated results at the closer range to reality, in order to improve gas pipeline simulation studies and evaluations for the system in question. Considering the fact that numerical thermo-hydraulic simulation becomes the CCG's most important tool to analyze the boundary conditions to adjust the mentioned gas flow system, this paper seeks and takes aim to the optimization of the following prime attributions of a gas pipeline control centre: verification of system behaviors, face to some unit maintenance stop or procedure, programmed or not, or to some new gas outlet or inlet connection to the system; daily operational compatibility analysis between programmed and realized gas volumes; gas technical expedition and delivery analysis. Finally, all this work was idealized and carried out within the one-phase flow domain (dry gas) (author)

  4. Geochemical haloes as an indication of over oil and gas fields in the Arctic shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholmiansky, Mikhail; Anokhin, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    Hydrocarbon deposits at the Arctic shelf of Russia are a source of jet dispersion of heavy metals that forms haloes in sediments and in the bottom layer of sea water. The intensity of the haloes and their spatial position are jointly determined by geological structure of their source and the environment, i.e., hydrocarbon deposits in host rocks, seafloor lithodynamics and oceanographic factors. Based on theoretical works of Kholmyansky and Putikov (2000; 2006; 2008), an application of electrochemical modification of electric prospecting for offshore hydrocarbon exploration and detailed survey of the morphology of deposits was developed. Specialized equipment was developed for studies of electrochemical features of bottom water layer. With this equipment one can detect ion anomalies in water and determine the type of deposit as gas, gas hydrate, gas condensate or oil. At operation, the unit with equipment is towed underwater off the stern of research vessel. Type and configuration of deposits are determined based on occurrence of trace heavy metals detected by ion-selective electrodes. The proposed method was applied to study a few hydrocarbon fields in Barents and Kara seas in 2001 -2012 including Shtokman, Medyn, Polyarnoe, Prirazlomnoye and others. The results allowed us to trace the margins of the deposits in more detail, and geochemical data, in addition, showed the type of deposits. In general, the method has proven efficient and applicable to a wide range of hydrocarbon deposits.

  5. Gas Pipelines, LP and LNG, Major Gas Lines - large lines in County. We are working on a distribution line for 911 purposes, Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Board Of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Gas Pipelines, LP and LNG dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2010. It is described as...

  6. Surface electromagnetic technology for the external inspection of oil and gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousatov, A.; Nakamura, E.; Delgado, O.; Flores, A. [Mexican Petroleum Institute, Mexico City (Mexico); Nakamura, E. [Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shevnin, V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper we present a surface electromagnetic technology for the non-destructive pipeline coating inspection (SEMPI). This technology allows: determination of the depth and plane position of pipelines, quantitative evaluation of the insulation resistance and delimitation of zones with coating damages, estimation of the performance of the cathodic protection system (CPS) and detection of its connections to out-of-service pipes and other grounded constructions, and assessment of the soil aggressively. The SEMPI technology is based on the approximation of pipelines by heterogeneous transmission lines with variable leakage conductance and pipe impedance to represent insulation coating and wall thickness damages. Based on the result of simulations, we have optimized the field measurements and developed the interpretation procedure of experimental data. The field operations include surface measurements of magnetic field, voltage on the control posts of the CPS and soil resistivity. In zones with coating damages the detailed measurements can be performed using magnetic or electric field to increase the resolution in localizing and evaluating the insulation damages. The SEMPI technology has been applied for inspections of pipelines with different technical characteristics in complicated environmental conditions. The examples presented in this work confirm the high efficiency of the developed technology for external integrity evaluation of pipelines. (author)

  7. Integration of Wind Energy, Hydrogen and Natural Gas Pipeline Systems to Meet Community and Transportation Energy Needs: A Parametric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Garmsiri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The potential benefits are examined of the “Power-to-Gas” (P2G scheme to utilize excess wind power capacity by generating hydrogen (or potentially methane for use in the natural gas distribution grid. A parametric analysis is used to determine the feasibility and size of systems producing hydrogen that would be injected into the natural gas grid. Specifically, wind farms located in southwestern Ontario, Canada are considered. Infrastructure requirements, wind farm size, pipeline capacity, geographical dispersion, hydrogen production rate, capital and operating costs are used as performance measures. The model takes into account the potential production rate of hydrogen and the rate that it can be injected into the local gas grid. “Straw man” systems are examined, centered on a wind farm size of 100 MW integrating a 16-MW capacity electrolysis system typically producing 4700 kg of hydrogen per day.

  8. Multi-criteria aid for group decision making on gas pipeline risk analysis; Apoio multicriterio a decisao em grupo na analise de risco em gasodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Yuri G.; Cavalcante, Cristiano A.V.; Brito, Anderson J. de M.; Almeida, Adiel T. de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Risks are, by nature, subjective, and therefore, complex. They present multidimensional aspects and involve various stakeholders. The pipelines transmission and distribution of natural gas (NG) involve various scenarios of risks, resulting from the distinct environments where the supply chain of NG is inserted. This paper proposes a multi criteria model for group decision support, based on the GDSS PROMETHEE approach, for risk assessment in pipelines sections. The proposed model aims to establish a ranking between the sections of a pipeline network, in order to provide insights to the definition of risk mitigation actions. (author)

  9. GIS as a practical and powerful tool for gas pipeline design and planning; GIS como ferramenta pratica e poderosa para projeto e planejamento de gasodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Sidney P. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Gas pipeline design and planning requires the management of huge quantity of information related to environmental, socio-economic and engineering data. To optimize the design process and guarantee a high level of quality and reliability a GIS solution was implemented that proved to be worth taking and adopted the state of the art of the technology available in the market. This paper will present the GIS solution implemented at PETROBRAS Gas and Energy based on APDM, a pipeline data model that is a result of a joint work that has been developed by specialized worldwide oil and gas companies. Two applications developed in house will also be presented, one is the application called Scenario Builder that is related to gas pipeline thermo-hydraulic simulation fully integrated with GIS technology and the other is called Project Viewer that provides different ways of having quick access and visualization of the existing and ongoing projects. (author)

  10. Dry hyperbaric gas metal arc welding of subsea pipelines: experiments and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azar, Amin S.

    2012-07-01

    Ambitions in exploration of oil and gas fields at deeper water depth require continuous investigation and maintenance. The transportation pipelines laid in deep waters are both subjected to corrosion and buckling due to environmental phenomena. They may also often undergo branching (namely hot tapping) to redirect (or add to) the transportation paths. Mechanical joints and welding are both considered as available alternatives when sectioning and replacement of the pipes at shallow waters is necessary, yet, welding is more promising for deep waters where remote operation is central. Fusion welding on the other hand comprises several technological detractions for sound operations under high ambient pressures disregarding its low cost and flexibility. The foremost detracting phenomenon in the arc welding is called 'arc root constriction', which is defined as arc geometry shrinkage under the increased pressure. Consequently, the power delivery to the weld pool at different pressure levels is a major worry. Effects of ionization and dissociation energies of different gases and mixtures, partial pressure of environmental gases including hydrogen and oxygen, gasification and degasification of the weld metal, inclusions that affect the phase transformation, absorption and desorption kinetics, oxidation and deoxidation reactions and many more are the phenomena that can possibly be altered by the gas type and ambient pressure level. Spattering and fume generation is a problematic issue since the arc is rather unstable under high pressure. Thus, seeking the effect of different chamber gas mixtures on welding parameters, final microstructure and mechanical properties is the main objective of this work.Statistical analysis of the collected voltage and current waveforms is carried out to identify the source of arc misbehavior and instability (discussed in Paper I). The stochastic parameters is related to the electrical stability and resolved into a number of varying

  11. Application of two-phase flow modeling as a basis for scheduling corrosion maintenance activities in wet sour gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, D. [NeoCorr Engineering Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Bich, N.N. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1997-08-01

    Pipeline failures attributed to internal corrosion in the oil and gas producing industry have not been decreasing despite the many corrosion mitigation, monitoring and inspection programs implemented. This paper describes how preliminary investigations for evaluating the susceptibility of internal corrosion for wet sour gas pipelines have been based on integrating the latest knowledge in fluid flow and sour gas corrosion mechanisms. It is anticipated future efforts to correlate the onset of slug flow regime with historical corrosion and inspection data may lead to development of an improved criteria for predicting the onset of corrosive water traps and for triggering appropriate maintenance activities. This paper provides details of two corrosion failure Case Studies where application of flow modeling has improved the understanding of the operating hazards that contributed to the formation of a corrosive environment leading to high-rate initiation and growth of localized pitting corrosion. Preliminary analysis indicates slug flow pattern, and long water residence time of water within stagnant traps increases the likelihood of pitting corrosion.

  12. Gas Pipelines, LP and LNG, Pipelines-This data set represents the oil and gas transmission pipelines in Utah and portions of Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada and New Mexico that appear on the 1:100,000 scale topographical map series from the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS)., Published in 2001, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Gas Pipelines, LP and LNG dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2001. It is described as...

  13. The evaluation of archaeological impact of the Galician gas pipeline: methodological considerations and synthesis of results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayán Vila, Jorge Miguel

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a critical summary of the results of archaeological surveys carried out during the Evaluation Stage of the Archaeological Impact of the Galician Gas Pipeline by the University of Santiago Research Unit on Landscape Archaeology between 1991 and 1997. As an example of research that show s Archaeology's response to the contemporary demands of Heritage management, the results are presented in terms of archaeological knowledge, methodological development and management of the archaeological Heritage. Thus, with the outcomes of a concrete practical case we seek to contribute meaningfully to the current debate between the research dimension and the management direction of the Archaeological discipline.

    Este artículo tiene como finalidad primordial ofrecer una síntesis valorativa de los trabajos arqueológicos realizados por el Grupo de Investigación en Arqueología del Paisaje de la Universidad de Santiago de Compostela durante la Fase de Evaluación del Impacto Arqueológico de los diferentes tramos proyectados de la Red de Gasificación de Galicia entre los años 1991 y 1997. En este sentido se exponen los resultados en términos de conocimiento arqueológico, desarrollo metodológico y gestión patrimonial de un proyecto que se presenta como un ejemplo de adaptación de la Arqueología a las demandas impuestas por la Gestión del Patrimonio Arqueológico en la actualidad. A este respecto, pretendemos aportar con nuestro análisis un conjunto de consecuencias significativas de un caso práctico concreto que pueda servir de referencia en el debate mantenido en nuestros días sobre la relación entre la dimensión investigadora (la llamada. Arqueología de Investigación y la orientación patrimonial (la denominada Arqueología de Gestión de la disciplina arqueológica actual.

  14. 中亚天然气管道发展现状与特点分析%Development and characteristics of Central Asian Natural Gas Pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党学博; 李怀印

    2013-01-01

    Adjacent to China,Central Asia has significant geographic advantages on the pipelined natural gas trade.To make a good use of the natural gas resources in Central Asia,this paper makes a systematic research on the present development,distribution and recent development plan of the natural gas pipelines of Kazakhstan,Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan.Meanwhile,the paper also makes a detailed introduction to the significant natural gas export pipelines,including the Central Asia-Central District Gas Pipeline,Central Asia-China Gas Pipeline,Bukhara-Urals Gas Pipeline and Turkmenistan-Iran Gas Pipeline.Then the characteristics of the long-distance gas pipelines in Central Asia are summarized,including the uneven distribution of the pipelines,severe corrosion,difficulties in safe operation and control by national petroleum corporations or their subsidiary companies.%中亚与中国毗邻,管道天然气贸易拥有显著的地缘优势.为了更好地利用中亚天然气资源,系统研究了中亚地区哈萨克斯坦、乌兹别克斯坦、土库曼斯坦3国的天然气管道发展现状、分布特点及近期发展规划,详细介绍了中亚—中央、中亚—中国、布哈拉—乌拉尔、土库曼斯坦—伊朗等重要的天然气出口管道.在此基础上,总结了中亚天然气长输管道的特点,包括管道地区分布不均匀、腐蚀严重、安全运营难度大、基本被国家石油天然气公司或其子公司控制等.

  15. Losing the Arctic edge : Canada needs to move quickly to join international rivals exploiting the potential of the Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie-Brown, P.

    2008-07-15

    Canada's Arctic oil and gas history was outlined. Oil and gas exploration activities in the Canadian Arctic began in 1911, when explorers hunted for seepages in the region. Studies of the area prompted plans to build pipeline infrastructure, which were subsequently postponed due to World War 1. Exploration in the 1960s and 1970s showed enormous natural gas reserves and a number of small oil fields. Despite skyrocketing prices, Canada's exploration of the Arctic is now almost at a standstill when compared to the activities of other northern countries. Canada's most northerly oil production comes from the 88-year old Normal Wells field, which serves a few small towns in the Mackenzie Delta. Natural gas resources are expensive to develop, and surplus gas supplies have reduced the need for further activities. Disputes over northern pipelines with aboriginal groups have also had an impact on exploration activities. It was concluded that the liquefied natural gas (LNG) market may provide more market options for natural gas consumers. 2 figs.

  16. Gas supermarket: Dawn pipeline junction rises as a trading hub on a continental scale in southwestern Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulkner, P.

    1999-11-01

    Dawn, Ontario, a small farming community near Sarnia's famed chemical valley is the site of the Union Gas Dawn Operations Centre. The region's capacity to store gas in geological formations beneath fertile fertile farm land will be used more and more with the completion of pipelines that will transmit more Alberta natural gas to markets in the eastern United States through Ontario. Its central location, a growing Ontario-Quebec market and prospects of more incoming gas appear to have conferred upon Dawn the status of a premier trading hub in Canada and maybe in North America, spurred on by regulatory regimes on both sides of the border that favour free trade in natural gas and the growing demand in the previously under-served northeastern United States materialize. The Dawn center trades gas for more than 100 energy companies, several of them electricity providers, that have been recently allowed to step into the market territory formerly occupied by Ontario Hydro. Natural gas is replacing coal burning power stations and to some extent, nuclear power in Ontario; the trend is also strong in the New England states, hence future demand for natural gas is likely to increase. It is this reasoning that underlies the construction of new pipelines, such as the Alliance Project, which will move gas from Alberta into the United States, back to Canada at Dawn, then back again into New York. If all goes according to plan, another new route called Millennium will run east from Dawn than travel under Lake Erie to join the Columbia Gas System that feeds New York City. Another line -- Vector -- that will geographically diversify west-east trading capabilities, also received FERC and NEB approval early in 1999. Yet another line by TriState, initially denied a US permit, recently received preliminary FERC approval, conditional upon approval by NEB. It is easy to see that with the spread of deregulation and competition, Dawn's role as a trading hub and as a storage

  17. Engineering and Economics of the USGS Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal (CARA) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.; White, Loring P.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2008-01-01

    This Open-File report contains illustrative materials, in the form of PowerPoint slides, used for an oral presentation given at the Fourth U.S. Geological Survey Workshop on Reserve Growth of petroleum resources held on March 10-11, 2008. The presentation focused on engineering and economic aspects of the Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal (CARA) project, with a special emphasis on the costs related to the development of hypothetical oil and gas fields of different sizes and reservoir characteristics in the North Danmarkshavn Basin off the northeast coast of Greenland. The individual PowerPoint slides highlight the topics being addressed in an abbreviated format; they are discussed below, and are amplified with additional text as appropriate. Also included in this report are the summary results of a typical ?run? to generate the necessary capital and operating costs for the development of an offshore oil field off the northeast coast of Greenland; the data are displayed in MS Excel format generated using Questor software (IHS Energy, Inc.). U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) acknowledges that this report includes data supplied by IHS Energy, Inc.; Copyright (2008) all rights reserved. IHS Energy has granted USGS the permission to publish this report.

  18. 78 FR 70163 - Communication of Operational Information between Natural Gas Pipelines and Electric Transmission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ...-6682, anna.fernandez@ferc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Order No. 787 Table of Contents Paragraph...-Conduit Rule that prohibits subsequent disclosure of that information to a marketing function employee or... Consumers Resource Council (ELCON), Enable Interstate Pipelines (Enable), International Transmission...

  19. 加快管道建设是促进天然气消费的重要途径%Speed up the Pipeline Construction is the Major Way to Promote Gas Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚爱华

    2011-01-01

    管道运输作为天然气最主要的运输方式,在天然气的发展中起十分重要的作用.管道建设带动了天然气消费快速上升,管道运输使天然气消费区域扩大,使用气结构更趋合理.因此,大力发展天然气,管道运输必须先行.%As the main transportation way, pipelines have played a very important role in gas development.Pipeline construction has brought the rapidly rising of gas consumption. Pipeline transportation has expanded gas consumption area and made the gas utilization structure more reasonable. Therefore, to develop natural gas should develop pipelines first. To speed up gas pipeline construction and facilitate gas utilization is the implementation of the development in a green low carbon way.

  20. Green pipeline dreams; Gruene Pipeline-Traeume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, Karsten

    2010-11-15

    In theory, Germany and the other EU states would be able to cover their natural gas demand completely with pipeline-supplied biomethane. But will this be really possible in practice? The contribution takes a closer look. (orig.)

  1. The new gas law and the concession of use of pipeline; A nova lei do gas e a concessao para uso de gasoduto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiad, Patricia S. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Direito; Lima, Juliana Cardoso de [Escritorio Doria, Jacobina, Rosado e Gondinho Advogados, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The development of the gas industry and the recent energy crises in Latin America demand an adequate answer from the legal framework. There are three main projects in course in Legislative which aim at regulating the gas industry specifically: Law Project n. 226 of 2005, of ex-senator Tourinho; Law Project n. 6.673 of 2006, of Executive; and Law Project n. 6.666 of 2006, of Deputy Luciano Zica. The pipeline is the materialization of the integration among the countries of the continent. The adoption of mechanisms to make feasible the regional integration and to stimulate the private sector, in order to react against the progressive deficit between consumption and exploration of energy, becomes fundamental to the industry. In compliance with the current legislation, the transportation of gas is made through authorization. The discussion focus on the possibility of public tender for concession of the service and how it would stimulate the market. (author)

  2. 壳牌煤气化装置氧气管道和渣水管道布置设计的优化%Optimizing for Arrangement Design of Shell Coal Gasification Plant Oxygen Gas Pipeline and Slag Water Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡庆丽; 唐亮

    2014-01-01

    介绍了壳牌煤气化装置工艺中氧气系统和渣水系统的工艺流程;简述了其管道布置的优化方案。结果表明:①氧气管线布置方案可降低着火风险,旁路和放空管线的设置可最大限度地减少气流旋涡的产生,保证了氧气系统安全稳定运行;②渣水管线布置方案在满足工艺要求的前提下,最大程度地缩短了管路长度,减少了阀门数量,降低了装置投资成本。%Author has introduced the process flows for oxygen gas system and slag water system in Shell coal gasification plant;has briefly described the optimal scheme of its pipeline arrangement.Result indicates:①Arrangement scheme of oxygen gas pipeline can reduce the firing risk,arrangement of bypass and venting pipeline can furthest reduce formation of gas stream vortex ,and it has guaranteed safe and stable operation of oxygen gas system ;②Arrangement scheme of slag water pipeline can maximally shorten pipeline length ,reduce valve quantity and lower investment cost of plant under precondi-tion of satisfying process requirement.

  3. Simulations of methane gas flow in the drainage pipeline network in a coal mine. (1st report). Simulation program for calculation of gas flow in the drainage pipeline network; Tanko ni okeru gas nuki kanmo no ryuryo simulation (1). Gas nuki kanmo no ryuryo kaiseki program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oga, K.; Hiramatsu, A.; Higuchi, K. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)] Kiyono, K. [Japan Heavy Chemical Industry Co., Tokyo (Japan)] Ota, S. [Tokyo Sekkai Kogyo Co. Ltd., Tochigi (Japan)

    1998-07-25

    At present in a coal mine, various types of gas drainage borings are carried out. As the dilution process of methane by means of ventilation emits methane in the air ultimately which is a artificial greenhouse effect gas, it is a large problem taking into consideration of earth environment. In order to reduce the methane emission from mining panels into the working area, an effective methane drainage from the coal seam at the high concentrations of methane is needed. One of the methods is to control the pressure at the optimum level in methane drainage pipeline network. Authors developed a simulation program for calculation of methane gas flow in methane drainage pipelines of an underground coal mine to control the flow rate of gas and concentration of methane in the network. Some cases were calculated by modeling the practical methane drainage pipelines networks of Taiheiyo Coal Mine. As a result, there was no difference between the calculated results using the developed calculation program and the practical measured results. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Dry hyperbaric gas metal arc welding of subsea pipelines: experiments and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azar, Amin S.

    2012-07-01

    Ambitions in exploration of oil and gas fields at deeper water depth require continuous investigation and maintenance. The transportation pipelines laid in deep waters are both subjected to corrosion and buckling due to environmental phenomena. They may also often undergo branching (namely hot tapping) to redirect (or add to) the transportation paths. Mechanical joints and welding are both considered as available alternatives when sectioning and replacement of the pipes at shallow waters is necessary, yet, welding is more promising for deep waters where remote operation is central. Fusion welding on the other hand comprises several technological detractions for sound operations under high ambient pressures disregarding its low cost and flexibility. The foremost detracting phenomenon in the arc welding is called 'arc root constriction', which is defined as arc geometry shrinkage under the increased pressure. Consequently, the power delivery to the weld pool at different pressure levels is a major worry. Effects of ionization and dissociation energies of different gases and mixtures, partial pressure of environmental gases including hydrogen and oxygen, gasification and degasification of the weld metal, inclusions that affect the phase transformation, absorption and desorption kinetics, oxidation and deoxidation reactions and many more are the phenomena that can possibly be altered by the gas type and ambient pressure level. Spattering and fume generation is a problematic issue since the arc is rather unstable under high pressure. Thus, seeking the effect of different chamber gas mixtures on welding parameters, final microstructure and mechanical properties is the main objective of this work.Statistical analysis of the collected voltage and current waveforms is carried out to identify the source of arc misbehavior and instability (discussed in Paper I). The stochastic parameters is related to the electrical stability and resolved into a number of varying

  5. Rapid Arctic Changes due to Infrastructure and Climate (RATIC) in the Russian North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D. A.; Kofinas, G.; Raynolds, M. K.; Kanevskiy, M. Z.; Shur, Y.; Ambrosius, K.; Matyshak, G. V.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Kumpula, T.; Forbes, B. C.; Khukmotov, A.; Leibman, M. O.; Khitun, O.; Lemay, M.; Allard, M.; Lamoureux, S. F.; Bell, T.; Forbes, D. L.; Vincent, W. F.; Kuznetsova, E.; Streletskiy, D. A.; Shiklomanov, N. I.; Fondahl, G.; Petrov, A.; Roy, L. P.; Schweitzer, P.; Buchhorn, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Rapid Arctic Transitions due to Infrastructure and Climate (RATIC) initiative is a forum developed by the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC) Terrestrial, Cryosphere, and Social & Human working groups for developing and sharing new ideas and methods to facilitate the best practices for assessing, responding to, and adaptively managing the cumulative effects of Arctic infrastructure and climate change. An IASC white paper summarizes the activities of two RATIC workshops at the Arctic Change 2014 Conference in Ottawa, Canada and the 2015 Third International Conference on Arctic Research Planning (ICARP III) meeting in Toyama, Japan (Walker & Pierce, ed. 2015). Here we present an overview of the recommendations from several key papers and posters presented at these conferences with a focus on oil and gas infrastructure in the Russian north and comparison with oil development infrastructure in Alaska. These analyses include: (1) the effects of gas- and oilfield activities on the landscapes and the Nenets indigenous reindeer herders of the Yamal Peninsula, Russia; (2) a study of urban infrastructure in the vicinity of Norilsk, Russia, (3) an analysis of the effects of pipeline-related soil warming on trace-gas fluxes in the vicinity of Nadym, Russia, (4) two Canadian initiatives that address multiple aspects of Arctic infrastructure called Arctic Development and Adaptation to Permafrost in Transition (ADAPT) and the ArcticNet Integrated Regional Impact Studies (IRIS), and (5) the effects of oilfield infrastructure on landscapes and permafrost in the Prudhoe Bay region, Alaska.

  6. Satellite observation of pollutant emissions from gas flaring activities near the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Hsu, N. Christina; Sayer, Andrew M.; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Fu, Joshua S.; Lamsal, Lok N.; Lee, Jaehwa; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2016-05-01

    Gas flaring is a common practice in the oil industry that can have significant environmental impacts, but has until recently been largely overlooked in terms of relevance to climate change. We utilize data from various satellite sensors to examine pollutant emissions from oil exploitation activities in four areas near the Arctic. Despite the remoteness of these sparsely populated areas, tropospheric NO2 retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is substantial at ˜1 × 1015 molecules cm-2, suggesting sizeable emissions from these industrial activities. Statistically significant (at the 95% confidence level, corresponding uncertainties in parentheses) increasing trends of 0.017 (±0.01) × 1015 and 0.015 (±0.006) × 1015 molecules cm-2 year-1 over 2004-2015 were found for Bakken (USA) and Athabasca (Canada), two areas having recently experienced fast expansion in the oil industry. This rapid change has implications for emission inventories, which are updated less frequently. No significant trend was found for the North Sea (Europe), where oil production has been declining since the 1990s. For northern Russia, the trend was just under the 95% significance threshold at 0.0057 (±0.006) × 1015 molecules cm-2 year-1. This raises an interesting inconsistency as prior studies have suggested that, in contrast to the continued, albeit slow, expansion of Russian oil/gas production, gas flaring in Russia has decreased in recent years. However, only a fraction of oil fields in Russia were covered in our analysis. Satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) data revealed similar tendencies, albeit at a weaker level of statistical significance, due to the longer lifetime of aerosols and contributions from other sources. This study demonstrates that synergetic use of data from multiple satellite sensors can provide valuable information on pollutant emission sources that is otherwise difficult to acquire.

  7. Replacement of 13 valves by using an isolation plug in the 20 inches diameter main offshore gas pipeline at Cantarell oil field, Campeche Bay, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvahal Reyes, Jorge Omar; Ulloa Ochoa, Carlos Manuel [PEMEX, Exploracion y Produccion, MX (Mexico)

    2009-12-19

    In 2002 we changed 13 valves on deck of one gas production platform called Nohoch-A-Enlace at Cantarell Offshore Oil Field. The 20'' diameter gas pipeline and 200 km of length, transport and deliver gas for others production platforms in the Gas Lift System, So 2 millions of oil barrels per day depends of the operation of this gas pipeline but there was 13 valves on pig traps to be changed after 20 years of service to high pressure (64 to 63 kg/cm{sup 2}). We could not stop the operation of this pipeline and some little gas leaks were eliminated in some parts of the valves. This pipeline has two risers so the gas can be injected by two sides of the ring of 20 Km. So we found the proper technology in order to isolate one riser nad change 8 valves and the isolate the other and change the 5, and the gas lift system never stop during the plug and maintenance operations on platform. In the first isolation plug operation this tool run 20 mts inside the riser and was actionated and resists 65 Kg/cm{sup 2} of gas pressure during 44 hours so we changed 8 valves: 2 of 20'', 2 of 10'', 3 of 4'' and 1 of 8'' diameter. In the second isolation the plug run 30 mts inside the second risers and resist 64 Kg/cm{sup 2} of gas during 46 hours and we changed 5 valves of 20'' diameter. In the paper I will describe all the details of this successful operations and procedures. Also the aspects of Health, Security and Environment that we prepared one year before this operations at platform. Pemex save almost 2.5 millions of dollars because the gas lift system never stop and all valves were changed and now we can run cleaning and inspection tools inside the full ring. We used the first isolation plug in Latin America and we want to share this experience to all the pipeline operators in the world as a good practice in pipeline maintenance using plugging technology in the main and large pipelines of high pressure. (author)

  8. 77 FR 17119 - Pipeline Safety: Cast Iron Pipe (Supplementary Advisory Bulletin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Cast Iron Pipe (Supplementary... operators of natural gas cast iron distribution pipelines and state pipeline safety representatives. Recent deadly explosions in Philadelphia and Allentown, Pennsylvania involving cast iron pipelines installed...

  9. Weight-of-evidence environmental risk assessment of dumped chemical weapons after WWII along the Nord-Stream gas pipeline in the Bornholm Deep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik; Thomsen, Marianne; Larsen, Jørn Bo

    2012-05-15

    In connection with installation of two natural gas pipelines through the Baltic Sea between Russia and Germany, there has been concern regarding potential re-suspension of historically dumped chemical warfare agents (CWA) in a nearby dump site and the potential environmental risks associated. 192 sediment and 11 porewater samples were analyzed for CWA residues, both parent and metabolites in 2008 and 2010 along the pipeline corridor next to the dump site. Macrozoobenthos and background variables were also collected and compared to the observed CWA levels and predicted potential risks. Detection frequencies and levels of intact CWA found were low, whereas CWA metabolites were more frequently found. Re-suspension of CWA residue-containing sediment from installation of the pipelines contributes marginally to the overall background CWA residue exposure and risk along the pipeline route. The multivariate weight-of-evidence analysis showed that physical and background parameters of the sediment were of higher importance for the biota than observed CWA levels.

  10. Hot tapping and plugging in gas pipeline - GASCAB-I and GASDUC-I; Furacao em carga e plugueamento em gasodutos - GASCAB-I e GASDUC-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Jeziel; Ciuffo, Mauro Cunha; Santa Cruz, Sergio de Freitas [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    It is difficult to accomplish interventions avoiding the shutdown on of the main lines during the operation of process plants or gas pipelines. It involves unit halt as well supply contract interruption, which can result heavy financial penalties with fines or cost due to profit loss. In such case it is necessary to use special techniques as hot tapping or line plugging. This paper aim to present the technical feasibility of applying line-plugging technique in a gas pipeline submitted to high pressure (82 kg f/cm{sup 2}) in non-straight section. It also presents the technical feasibility of repairing the fastening system of the connection plug. (author)

  11. Pipelines. Economy's veins; Pipelines. Adern der Wirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizlmayr, Adolf; Goestl, Stefan [ILF Beratende Ingenieure, Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    According to the existing prognoses more than 1 million km of gas pipelines, oil pipelines and water pipelines are built up to the year 2030. The predominant portion is from gas pipelines. The safe continued utilization of the aging pipelines is a large challenge. In addition, the diagnostic technology, the evaluation and risk assessment have to be developed further. With the design of new oil pipelines and gas pipelines, aspects of environmental protection, the energy efficiency of transport and thus the emission reduction of carbon dioxide, the public acceptance and the market strategy of the exporters gain in importance. With the offshore pipelines one soon will exceed the present border of 2,000 m depth of water and penetrate into larger sea depths.

  12. Authority in Arctic governance: changing spheres of authority in Greenlandic offshore oil and gas developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, C.C.A.; Tatenhove, van J.; Leeuwen, van J.

    2014-01-01

    The Arctic has rapidly transformed from a ‘‘frozen desert’’ into a theater for high-level politics. Climate change and socioeconomic interdependencies bring the World more and more to the Arctic and vice versa. Increased geological knowledge, new technologies, and high-energy prices make it possible

  13. 中俄油气管道运行标准差异分析%Analysis on difference between Chinese and Russian oil and gas pipeline operation standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马伟平; 张晓明; 刘士超; 潘腾; 吴凯旋; 曹燕; 张妮

    2013-01-01

    To ensure safe operation of the Russia-China Oil Pipeline, Russian oil and gas pipeline operation standards are sorted comprehensively. The difference between Chinese and Russian pipeline operation standards is studied deeply from four aspects such as pipe pressure testing, crude oil, product oil and natural gas pipeline operation technology. In addition, advancements in Russian standards are systematically described, including pressure re-testing in the case of pipeline operation delay, mandatory pressure testing and periodic pressure testing of operating pipeline, pigging operation, emergency shutdown principle of pumping station, contamination cutting and blending, operating procedures of compressors under abnormal conditions and auxiliary equipment inspections. Finally, it is recommended to revise Chinese oil and gas pipeline operation standards in accordance with Russian standards.%为保障中俄原油管道安全运行,全面梳理了俄罗斯油气管道运行标准.从管道试压及原油、成品油、天然气管道运行技术4个方面,深入研究了中国和俄罗斯管道运行标准的差异.系统阐述了俄罗斯标准的先进性,包括管道投产延迟条件下重新试压、运行管道强制性试压和周期性试压、清管作业、输油站紧急停输准则、混油控制切割和掺混、压缩机异常条件操作程序和辅助设备检验等.建议借鉴俄罗斯标准对我国油气管道运行标准进行修订.

  14. 风险评分法在储气库集输管道上的应用%Application of EST in Gathering Pipeline of Gas Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡克; 罗金恒; 赵新伟; 李丽锋; 王珂

    2011-01-01

    比较了储气库集输管道和长输管道的运行特点.对专家评分法进行了改进,制定了适用于集输管道的风险评分体系.以西气东输二线东段某储气库单井管道为例,利用改进后的风险评分法对其进行了评分,提出了缓解风险的措施.改进后的风险评分法适用于油田、储气库、炼化厂的拟建、在建和在役的集输管线初步风险评价,可达到识别管道沿线高风险后果区域、风险预警、策划事故应急方案及指导管道运营、改建、维护等安全管理工作.%This paper compared the running characteristics between the gathering pipeline of gas storage and long-distance pipeline, made improvement to expert evaluation method, worked out a suitable risk evaluation system. It took the case of single well pipeline in east section of the Second West to East Gas Pipeline, utilized the improved risk evaluation system to score, and put forward some measures to ease risks. The results showed that this improved risk EST applied to the initial risk evaluation of gathering pipeline which is planned construction, under construction and in service in oil field, gas storage and refining and chemical factories, it can identify high risk areas along pipeline,pre-warning, planning accident emergent program, and provide guidance to safety management, such as pipeline running, modification and maintenance.

  15. Arctic Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, John; Baggeroer, Arthur; Mikhalevsky, Peter; Munk, Walter; Sagen, Hanne; Vernon, Frank; Worcester, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The dramatic reduction of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean will increase human activities in the coming years. This will be driven by increased demand for energy and the marine resources of an Arctic Ocean more accessible to ships. Oil and gas exploration, fisheries, mineral extraction, marine transportation, research and development, tourism and search and rescue will increase the pressure on the vulnerable Arctic environment. Synoptic in-situ year-round observational technologies are needed to monitor and forecast changes in the Arctic atmosphere-ice-ocean system at daily, seasonal, annual and decadal scales to inform and enable sustainable development and enforcement of international Arctic agreements and treaties, while protecting this critical environment. This paper will discuss multipurpose acoustic networks, including subsea cable components, in the Arctic. These networks provide communication, power, underwater and under-ice navigation, passive monitoring of ambient sound (ice, seismic, biologic and anthropogenic), and acoustic remote sensing (tomography and thermometry), supporting and complementing data collection from platforms, moorings and autonomous vehicles. This paper supports the development and implementation of regional to basin-wide acoustic networks as an integral component of a multidisciplinary, in situ Arctic Ocean Observatory.

  16. Financing is next step in Brazil-Bolivia natural gas project. [Economic costs and benefits of a new natural gas pipeline project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cajueiro Costa, A.S. (Petroleo Brasileiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

    1993-11-01

    This paper reviews a new four billion dollar arrangement which would start a major gas network between Brazil and Bolivia. The proposed 2,200 mile long, 28 and 14 inch pipeline network would connect Bolivian reserves with the undeserved markets of southern Brazil. The paper briefly reviews the economic involvement and impacts on both countries and the current market for natural gas in Brazil. Because most of Brazil's energy is currently from hydroelectric power or petroleum, the new distribution network will have dramatic effects on industries which need this high-grade fuel source for operation. Financing of this project will be by Petrobras and 49 percent through stock options.

  17. Recommendations for main line block valves installation in gas pipelines; Recomendacoes para instalacao de valvulas de bloqueio de linha tronco em gasodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisoli, Caetano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, Valeriano Duque de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Cases of gas pipelines block valves and its pneumatic actuators presenting problems during the final pipeline commissioning and pre-operation phases, like internal leaks, leaking to the atmosphere, pneumatic circuit defects caused by water and debris, are nearly common. The majority can be avoided if a series of measuring are to be planned and implemented, as well as if an adequate planning of commissioning operations and line gasification, valves and actuators, are to be applied. This paper shows the practical experience in the construction and commissioning of valves and its actuators in the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline, which, in the first construction phase had a series of problems. After the diagnosis a set of procedures was implemented in the secondary construction phase, resulting in insignificant problems detected. All measures and procedures taken in the planning process, as well as additional aspects related to the main line valve design, its by-passes and supports, are demonstrated. (author)

  18. Technological Change and Its Labor Impact in Five Energy Industries. Coal Mining/Oil and Gas Extraction/Petroleum Refining/Petroleum Pipeline Transportation/Electric and Gas Utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This bulletin appraises major technological changes emerging in five American industries (coal mining, oil and gas extraction, petroleum refining, petroleum pipeline transportation, and electric and gas utilities) and discusses the impact of these changes on productivity and occupations over the next five to ten years. Its separate reports on each…

  19. Preliminary Geospatial Analysis of Arctic Ocean Hydrocarbon Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Philip E.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Sullivan, E. C.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Bradley, Donald J.

    2008-10-01

    Ice coverage of the Arctic Ocean is predicted to become thinner and to cover less area with time. The combination of more ice-free waters for exploration and navigation, along with increasing demand for hydrocarbons and improvements in technologies for the discovery and exploitation of new hydrocarbon resources have focused attention on the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Basin and its margins. The purpose of this document is to 1) summarize results of a review of published hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic, including both conventional oil and gas and methane hydrates and 2) develop a set of digital maps of the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Ocean. These maps can be combined with predictions of ice-free areas to enable estimates of the likely regions and sequence of hydrocarbon production development in the Arctic. In this report, conventional oil and gas resources are explicitly linked with potential gas hydrate resources. This has not been attempted previously and is particularly powerful as the likelihood of gas production from marine gas hydrates increases. Available or planned infrastructure, such as pipelines, combined with the geospatial distribution of hydrocarbons is a very strong determinant of the temporal-spatial development of Arctic hydrocarbon resources. Significant unknowns decrease the certainty of predictions for development of hydrocarbon resources. These include: 1) Areas in the Russian Arctic that are poorly mapped, 2) Disputed ownership: primarily the Lomonosov Ridge, 3) Lack of detailed information on gas hydrate distribution, and 4) Technical risk associated with the ability to extract methane gas from gas hydrates. Logistics may control areas of exploration more than hydrocarbon potential. Accessibility, established ownership, and leasing of exploration blocks may trump quality of source rock, reservoir, and size of target. With this in mind, the main areas that are likely to be explored first are the Bering Strait and Chukchi

  20. Research on On-line detection system for natural gas pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuo Jianyong; Yan Guozheng; Ding Guoqing; Fu Xiguang; Zhang Yunwei

    2005-01-01

    Four methods for testing the thickness and defect of pipeline are compared and analyzed in this paper. The testing principle of magnetic leakage flux based on electromagnetism is discussed in detail. From the experiments of sensor character, the effects caused by some factors are found, which give some important information for sensor design, and this method is proved reasonable and effective. The mechanical and electrical structures of inspection equipment, as well as its working principle and technical features are introduced. In this paper, control flow and software design are discussed, too. This detection system has been successfully developed. Experiments show that this detection system has high resolution and can be put into practice.

  1. State and residual service life of gas and water pipelines of the first PE generation. Results of a DVGW research project; Integritaet von PE-Gas- und Wasserleitungen der ersten Generation. Ergebnisse eines DVGW-Forschungsvorhabens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, Juergen; Wenzel, Mirco [SKZ, Wuerzburg (Germany); Scholten, Frans; Wolters, Mannes [Kiwa Gas Technology, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Heinemann, Juergen; Bockenheimer, Alexander [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (DE). Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt Darmstadt (MPA)

    2010-10-15

    Within the scope of a DVGW research project the KIWA, SKZ and MPA Darmstadt research institutes examined the condition and possible residual service life of gas and water pipelines of the first PE generation operating for more than 30 years. The creep rupture curves determined on the old pipelines are very similar to the ones ascertained approx. 40 years ago, allowing an extrapolation over at least another 25 years at service temperature upon expiry of the originally predicted service life of 50 years. Both the gas and water pipelines still show an actively effective thermal stabilization so that an early thermo-oxidative failure is not to be expected even after expiry of the originally estimated service life of 50 years. Nevertheless, public utilities operating gas and water pipelines made of PE of the first generation are recommended to closely observe the damage statistics/damage progression within the scope of the regular inspections of the pipeline network, thus being in a position to recognise ageing phenomena which indicate an end of the service life of the pipeline system in time and perform further examinations. (orig.)

  2. Push Force Analysis of Anchor Block of the Oil and Gas Pipeline in a Single-Slope Tunnel Based on the Energy Balance Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yifei; Zhang, Lisong; Yan, Xiangzhen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a single-slope tunnel pipeline was analysed considering the effects of vertical earth pressure, horizontal soil pressure, inner pressure, thermal expansion force and pipeline-soil friction. The concept of stagnation point for the pipeline was proposed. Considering the deformation compatibility condition of the pipeline elbow, the push force of anchor blocks of a single-slope tunnel pipeline was derived based on an energy method. Then, the theoretical formula for this force is thus generated. Using the analytical equation, the push force of the anchor block of an X80 large-diameter pipeline from the West-East Gas Transmission Project was determined. Meanwhile, to verify the results of the analytical method, and the finite element method, four categories of finite element codes were introduced to calculate the push force, including CAESARII, ANSYS, AutoPIPE and ALGOR. The results show that the analytical results agree well with the numerical results, and the maximum relative error is only 4.1%. Therefore, the results obtained with the analytical method can satisfy engineering requirements.

  3. Advances in riser and pipeline technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, Wan C.; Mortazavi, Mehrdad; Weir, Michael S. [ExxonMobil Development Company, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2009-12-19

    As oil and gas production continues to move into new frontier areas, novel applications of the existing riser and pipeline technologies need to be developed to meet the often more stringent requirements encountered in these environments. The challenges include ultra deep water, harsh environments, aggressive fluid conditions, and local content objectives, etc. They will require industry to constantly extend, expand, and enhance the broad range of solution options. Also, the existing design criteria in industry may need to be revised or new criteria may need to be developed to satisfy these needs. Exxon Mobil (Em) employs, and works with others in industry to promote robust design and operating practices. This approach requires in-depth understanding, sound engineering principles, advanced analysis, uncertainty management, and supportive qualification test data. It enables confident selection, extrapolation, and innovation of technologies to address new riser system and pipeline challenges. Focus on fundamental is imperative to ensure integrity of the selected systems during fabrication, installation, and operation phases. Recent and past project experience in deep water Gulf of Mexico and West Africa provides many successful examples of this approach. This paper reviews several examples of the key riser system and pipeline technology enhancements recently achieved by EM to provide confidence in addressing technical and project application challenges. Riser system technology enhancements addressed in this paper include steel catenary riser (SCR) application on turret-moored FPSO with severe motions, pipe-in-pipe (PIP) hybrid production riser to effectively manage gas lift and flow assurance requirements, irregular wave analysis methodology for flexible risers and umbilicals to reduce conservatism, and qualification of riser and pipeline VIV prediction and mitigation methods. Pipeline technology enhancements detailed in this paper include lateral buckling prediction

  4. 77 FR 5472 - Pipeline Safety: Miscellaneous Changes to Pipeline Safety Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... amendments to the pipeline safety regulations (76 FR 73570). On January 12, 2012, the Interstate Natural Gas... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 191, 192 and 195 RIN 2137-AE59 Pipeline Safety: Miscellaneous Changes to Pipeline Safety Regulations AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous...

  5. 基于城市燃气管道防腐设计的研究%Research on the Anticorrosion Design of Urban Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王有之

    2015-01-01

    作为城市发展的重要燃气资源,天然气的正常输送是保障社会效益和企业经济效益的关键。为保证燃气资源的输送质量,必须采取有效措施控制燃气管道的腐蚀,尽可能减少燃气输送安全事故,降低管道输送成本,提高燃气输送的安全性。主要深入探究了城市燃气管道防腐设计的相关内容。%As the important gas resource of urban development, the normal transportation of natural gas is the key to protect the social benefit and the economic benefit of the enterprise. In order to ensure the transportation quality of gas resources, we must take effective measures to corrosion control of gas pipeline, as far as possible to reduce safety accidents in gas transportation, reducing the transportation cost of a pipeline, to improve the safety of gas transmission. The contents of anticorrosion design for urban gas pipeline are mainly explored in the main.

  6. Influence of Partitioning Process on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of High Deformability Oil-Gas Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ma

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiphase structure of bainite and M/A constituent can be obtained for X80 oil-gas pipeline through a novel heat online partitioning (HOP technology. The effects of partitioning temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the experimental steels were researched by means of mechanical properties test, microscopic analysis, and X-ray diffraction. The results show that with the increase of the partitioning temperature, the strength of the experimental steel decreases and the ductility increases because of the increase of bainite lath width, the decrease of dislocation density, the increase of retained austenite content, and carbides coarsening. The decrease of the volume content and stability of retained austenite is the key factor, which leads to the increase of strength and the decrease of plasticity in a high range of partitioning temperature.

  7. Study on safety management of long distance natural gas pipeline%天然气长输管道安全管理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈云; 于培林

    2015-01-01

    对天然气长输管道的安全管理进行研究分析,探讨加强安全管理方法.%This paper investigates the safety management of natural gas pipeline to offer advice of strengthening safety management.

  8. Countermeasures and Suggestions of Environmental Management of oil and gas Pipeline Disposal%油气管道弃置环境管理对策建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨爽

    2014-01-01

    在对我国油气废弃管道进行潜在环境影响分析的基础上,借鉴欧美发达国家油气废弃管道环境管理经验,指出了我国老旧管道环境管理存在的老旧管道现状不清、环境风险隐患大,管道弃置环境管理缺失,管道弃置技术薄弱、基础研究不足等问题,提出了开展现状调查、摸清底数、评估风险,明确主体责任、建立管道环境管理机制,开展相关试点研究、建立弃置管理技术规范,开展管道规划,优化新线路由等对策建议。%On the basis of potential environmental impact analysis of waste oil and gas pipeline in our country,Learning from the developed countries in Europe and America oil and gas waste pipeline environment management experience, the Article point out the existing problerm that environmental situation of the old pipeline is not clear, the hidden environmental risks is bigger, environmental management of disposed pipeline is deficiencied, disposal technology of pipeline is weak, basic research is lack. So the Article proposes countermeasures and suggestions that the development present situation investigation, find out the real situation, assess the risk, define the main body of responsibility, establish the pipeline environment management mechanism and Pilot study, establish related disposal management technical specification, developing the pipeline planning, new routing optimization and so on.

  9. TBG program on preventing third part action in gas pipelines; Prevencao de acoes de terceiros em gasodutos: esclarecimentos a prefeituras, concessionarias de energia/estradas de rodagem/distribuicao de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Rosana P.; Hernandes, Gilberto L.S.; Noda, Kiyoshi [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia Regional do Sudeste (GRSE)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents the proceedings of TBG's Southeast Regional, responsible by Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline on Sao Paulo's State, related to meetings with External Entity in order to prevent Third Party Action. The Entities are town halls, power concessionaires, roads departments/concessionaires and gas natural distribution concessionaires. Every year, TBG's Southeast Regional to make contact with External Entity for actualization of information, like telephones, address, contact person, material and human resources available. For each town hall or concessionaire is prepared a 'book' with information of TBG, like TBG presentation, One Call, excavation on pipeline zone, satellite images, telephones list, maps and 'as built' plants. The 'book' is delivered to External Entity in the course of the meeting, where TBG presents for authority and responsible by Entity the precautions that Gas Pipeline require to security operation. (author)

  10. Contamination of medical gas and water pipelines in a new hospital building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, J H; Bancroft, M L; Laasberg, L H; du Moulin, G C; Saubermann, A J

    1977-04-01

    Medical gases and water were sampled and tested for purity prior to the opening of a 176-bed addition to a 450-bed general hospital. Contamination was found. In delivered oxygen, compressed air, and nitrous oxide, this consisted of a volatile hydrocarbon at an initial concentration of 10 parts per million and a dust of fine gray particulate matter. In water from new taps bacterial contamination with as many 400,000 organisms per 100 ml was present. All these contaminants were considered potential hazards to patient safety. Studies were done to help delineate the nature and origin of these contaminants. Each contaminant was eventually largely eliminated by purging the respective pipeline systems with continuous flows. Planners, builders, and responsible medical personnel must be aware of the potential for such hazards in a new hospital building.

  11. Microbial corrosion and cracking in steel. A concept for evaluation of hydrogen-assisted stress corrosion cracking in cathodically protected high-pressure gas transmission pipelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo

    of high-strength pipeline steel and the concentration of hydrogen present in the steel. B. Determine the degree hydrogen absorption by cathodically protected steel exposed in natural soil sediment, which include activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). C. Compare the above points with fracture......An effort has been undertaken in order to develop a concept for evaluation of the risk of hydrogen-assisted cracking in cathodically protected gas transmission pipelines. The effort was divided into the following subtasks: A. Establish a correlation between the fracture mechanical properties...... in this steel....

  12. CORROSION RESISTANCE OF Fe–Al/Al2O3 DUPLEX COATING ON PIPELINE STEEL X80 IN SIMULATED OIL AND GAS WELL ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    MIN HUANG; YU WANG; PING-GU WANG; QIN-YI SHI; MENG-XIAN ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion resistant Fe–Al/Al2O3 duplex coating for pipeline steel X80 was prepared by a combined treatment of low-temperature aluminizing and micro-arc oxidation (MAO). Phase composition and microstructure of mono-layer Fe–Al coating and Fe–Al/Al2O3 duplex coating were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Corrosion resistance of the coated pipeline steel X80 in a simulated oil and gas well condition was also investig...

  13. A Frequency Model of Vibrational Processes in Gas-Turbine Drives of Compressor Stations of Main Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekardovskiy, M. N.; Chekardovskiy, S. M.; Razboynikov, A. A.; Ponomareva, T. G.

    2016-10-01

    At compressor stations, systematic measurements of noise and vibration of power equipment - gas compressor units - are carried out. The article presents basic equations for calculating natural and forced frequencies at which the main defects appear. According to the studied dependences, results of calculations are obtained on the following types of drives for gas-compressor units GTK-10-4, Avon-1534, DG-90.

  14. A new integrated planning model for gas compression and transmission through a complex pipeline network; Um novo modelo de planejamento integrado de compressao e escoamento de gas para uma rede complexa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iamashita, Edson K. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Galaxe, Frederico; Arica, Jose [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to show a new approach to solve integrated gas balance planning problems that defines the best compression and transmission strategy for a system with a large number of platforms or compression units that are interlinked with the delivery points through a complex gas pipeline network. For solving the proposed optimization problem is used a genetic meta-heuristic technique, where the fitness function of the algorithm is the Profit function of the gas balance, being considered the incomes and costs besides the pipeline network constraints, representing the compression system and transmission network near to the real operational condition. Newton Raphson's method is used to solve the nonlinear system that represents the calculation of the pressure drop in the gas pipeline network that can contain various cycles. This model could be used for design and optimization of gas pipeline networks, as well as for the gas balance planning of an existent network looking for the profit maximization. (author)

  15. High Resolution CH4 Emissions and Dissolved CH4 Measurements Elucidate Surface Gas Exchange Processes in Toolik Lake, Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Sontro, T.; Sollberger, S.; Kling, G. W.; Shaver, G. R.; Eugster, W.

    2013-12-01

    Approximately 14% of the Alaskan North Slope is covered in lakes of various sizes and depths. Diffusive carbon emissions (CH4 and CO2) from these lakes offset the tundra sink by ~20 %, but the offset would substantially increase if ebullitive CH4 emissions were also considered. Ultimately, arctic lake CH4 emissions are not insignificant in the global CH4 budget and their contribution is bound to increase due to impacts from climate change. Here we present high resolution CH4 emission data as measured via eddy covariance and a Los Gatos gas analyzer during the ice free period from Toolik Lake, a deep (20 m) Arctic lake located on the Alaskan North Slope, over the last few summers. Emissions are relatively low (Gatos gas analyzer. Thus, having both the flux and the CH4 gradient across the air-water interface measured directly, we can calculate k and investigate the processes influencing CH4 gas exchange in this lake. Preliminary results indicate that there are two regimes in wind speed that impact k - one at low wind speeds up to ~5 m s-1 and another at higher wind speeds (max ~10 m s-1). The differential wind speeds during night and day may compound the effect of convective mixing and cause the diurnal variation in observed fluxes.

  16. Pipeline engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Henry

    2003-01-01

    PART I: PIPE FLOWSINTRODUCTIONDefinition and Scope Brief History of PipelinesExisting Major PipelinesImportance of PipelinesFreight (Solids) Transport by PipelinesTypes of PipelinesComponents of PipelinesAdvantages of PipelinesReferencesSINGLE-PHASE INCOMPRESSIBLE NEWTONIAN FLUIDIntroductionFlow RegimesLocal Mean Velocity and Its Distribution (Velocity Profile)Flow Equations for One-Dimensional AnalysisHydraulic and Energy Grade LinesCavitation in Pipeline SystemsPipe in Series and ParallelInterconnected ReservoirsPipe NetworkUnsteady Flow in PipeSINGLE-PHASE COMPRESSIBLE FLOW IN PIPEFlow Ana

  17. Energy Equation Derivation of the Oil-Gas Flow in Pipelines Dérivation de l’équation d’énergie de l’écoulement huile-gaz dans des pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan J.M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the simulation of oil-gas pipeline multiphase flow, thermodynamic computation is an important process interacting with the hydraulic calculation and it influences the convergence of the program and the accuracy of the results. The form of the energy equation is the key to the thermodynamic computation. Based on the energy equation of oil-gas flow in pipeline, the Explicit Temperature Drop Formula (ETDF is derived for oilgas steady state temperature calculation. This new energy equation has considered many factors, such as Joule-Thomson effect, pressure work, friction work and impact of terrain undulation and heat transfer Oil & Gas Science and Technology – Rev. IFP Energies nouvelles with the surroundings along the line. So it is an overall form of energy equation, which could describe the actual fact of multiphase pipeline accurately. Therefore, some standpoints in literatures on the temperature calculation of oil-gas two-phase flow in pipelines are reviewed. Elimination of temperature iteration loop and integration of the explicit temperature equation, instead of enthalpy energy equation, into the conjugated hydraulic and thermal computation have been found to improve the efficiency of algorithm. The calculation applied to both the component model, also applied to the black-oil model. This model is incorporated into the component model and black-oil model, respectively, and two simulations are carried out with two practical pipeline Yingmai-Yaha and Lufeng multiphase pipeline and the temperature results are compared with the simulation calculated by the OLGA and the measured. It is shown that this model has simulated the temperature distribution very well. Finally, we analyzed the influence of the specific heat capacity of oil and gas on the temperature of the mixture of fluids and the influence of the Joule-Thomson effect on the temperature distribution on the pipeline. It is shown that the Joule-Thomson coefficient is a key factor to

  18. Mobile Measurement of Methane and Ethane for the Detection and Attribution of Natural Gas Pipeline Leaks Using Off-Axis Integrated Output Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leen, J. B.; Spillane, S.; Gardner, A.; Hansen, P. C.; Gupta, M.; Baer, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    Natural gas leaks pose a risk to public safety both because of potential explosions as well as from the greenhouse gas potential of fugitive methane. The rapid and cost effective detection of leaks in natural gas distribution is critical to providing a system that is safe for the public and the environment. Detection of methane from a mobile platform (vehicles, aircraft, etc.) is an accepted method of identifying leaks. A robust approach to differentiating pipeline gas (thermogenic) from other biogenic sources is the detection of ethane along with methane. Ethane is present in nearly all thermogenic gas but not in biogenic sources and its presence can be used to positively identify a gas sample. We present a mobile system for the simultaneous measurement of methane and ethane that is capable of detecting pipeline leaks and differentiating pipeline gas from other biogenic sources such as landfills, swamps, sewers, and enteric fermentation. The mobile system consists of a high precision GPS, sonic anemometer, and methane/ethane analyzer based on off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS). In order to minimize the system cost and facilitate the wide use of mobile leak detection, the analyzer operates in the near-infrared portion of the spectrum where lasers and optics are significantly less costly than in the mid-infrared. The analyzer is capable of detecting methane with a precision of gas with 6% ethane). Finally, analysis of wind data provides an estimate of leak direction and distance. The system presented provides a robust, cost effective solution to natural gas leak detection and attribution to maximize safety and minimize greenhouse gas impacts of distribution systems.

  19. The ocean's role in polar climate change: asymmetric Arctic and Antarctic responses to greenhouse gas and ozone forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, John; Armour, Kyle C; Scott, Jeffery R; Kostov, Yavor; Hausmann, Ute; Ferreira, David; Shepherd, Theodore G; Bitz, Cecilia M

    2014-07-13

    In recent decades, the Arctic has been warming and sea ice disappearing. By contrast, the Southern Ocean around Antarctica has been (mainly) cooling and sea-ice extent growing. We argue here that interhemispheric asymmetries in the mean ocean circulation, with sinking in the northern North Atlantic and upwelling around Antarctica, strongly influence the sea-surface temperature (SST) response to anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing, accelerating warming in the Arctic while delaying it in the Antarctic. Furthermore, while the amplitude of GHG forcing has been similar at the poles, significant ozone depletion only occurs over Antarctica. We suggest that the initial response of SST around Antarctica to ozone depletion is one of cooling and only later adds to the GHG-induced warming trend as upwelling of sub-surface warm water associated with stronger surface westerlies impacts surface properties. We organize our discussion around 'climate response functions' (CRFs), i.e. the response of the climate to 'step' changes in anthropogenic forcing in which GHG and/or ozone-hole forcing is abruptly turned on and the transient response of the climate revealed and studied. Convolutions of known or postulated GHG and ozone-hole forcing functions with their respective CRFs then yield the transient forced SST response (implied by linear response theory), providing a context for discussion of the differing warming/cooling trends in the Arctic and Antarctic. We speculate that the period through which we are now passing may be one in which the delayed warming of SST associated with GHG forcing around Antarctica is largely cancelled by the cooling effects associated with the ozone hole. By mid-century, however, ozone-hole effects may instead be adding to GHG warming around Antarctica but with diminished amplitude as the ozone hole heals. The Arctic, meanwhile, responding to GHG forcing but in a manner amplified by ocean heat transport, may continue to warm at an accelerating rate.

  20. 油气管道机器人技术研发进展%Research and development progress in oil and gas pipeline robotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹建树; 林立; 李杨; 李魁龙

    2013-01-01

    Pipeline robots integrated with smart mobile carrier and pipeline defect nondestructive testing technology are mainly used for detection, coating spraying, joint welding, foreign material removal and other maintenances of industrial pipelines such as oil and gas pipelines. Mode of motion is core technology of the pipeline robots, including active and passive modes. This paper elaborates technical features and difficulties of the pipeline robots using active motion modes such as bionic type, crawler type, screw driven type, vehicle type and supporting wheel type and those using passive motion mode are elaborated and enumerates products and technologies at home and overseas. Based on the above technology, a comparative analysis is carried out for overall performance of various technologies and key technical problems required to resolve for R&D of pipeline robots are proposed.%管道机器人综合了智能移动载体技术和管道缺陷无损检测技术,主要用于输油气管道的检测、喷涂、接口焊接、异物清理等检修维护作业.运动方式是管道机器人的技术核心,包括主动运动方式和被动运动方式两大类.系统阐述了仿生式、履带式、螺旋驱动式、车型式和支撑轮式等5种主动运动方式管道机器人及被动运动方式管道机器人PIG的技术特点和难点,例举了国内外现有产品和技术.对比分析了各种技术的综合性能,提出了管道机器人研发需要重点解决的技术问题.

  1. Security resolution minute for natural gas distribution pipeline; Minuta de resolucao de seguranca na distribuicao do gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teles, Marcus de Barros [ARCE - Agencia Reguladora de Servicos Publicos Delegados do Estado do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    In the current scenery of natural gas distribution regulation, there is no specific resolution about security. The security is boarded in few concession contracts of some private gas companies, but not as principal theme. The security resolution minute presented in this paper aim break the direct and indirect causes of accidents, eliminating their potential. In this new point of view, the quality of services is the principal cause to guarantee the security of natural gas distribution systems. The methodology used to develop the minute was based on the research of Brazilian and American resolutions of state regulation agencies, concession contracts of private distribution gas companies, American code of federal regulation, ASME code for pressure piping B31.8 - 1999 edition and the NBR 12712 standard. The result of the research was the elaboration of an specific minute resolution of security that can be used as reference in the fiscalization of the natural gas distribution piping companies activities. This minute, can be an important instrument to avoid accidents and incidents, eliminating prejudices to the people, to properties, to environment and to the image of natural gas distribution companies and regulation agencies. (author)

  2. Economic and Strategic Expectations from Trans Anatolian Natural Gas Pipeline Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elchin Suleymanov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the successful implementation of the oil strategy, Azerbaijan began to define strategic objectives in relation to gas export policy. Currently, Azerbaijan is the only country in the region exporting gas to the international markets (Turkey, Russia, Georgia. For this reason, it is seen as “the provider and participant” of Southern Gas Corridor by EU. In this direction, Azerbaijan aims to be the country of an important and strategic natural gas exporter. From Shahdeniz field to the end European user, it targets to take part in the every ring of the value chain. These assumptions bring Azerbaijan to the position of a remarkable natural gas supplier for the export of large amount of gas to the European markets through Nabucco West. The implementation of the project with financial and technical capabilities of Azerbaijan and Turkey has made it a project to be realized between Turkey-Azerbaijan. TANAP means Turkey and Azerbaijan will emerge together in the European market for energy transportation. Along with Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan and Baku-Tbilisi-Erzurum, TANAP has reinforced Turkey’s position as a necessary energy corridor in delivering the energy resources of the Caspian Sea to the Western markets. In this paper, expected strategic and economic outcomes of TANAP are analyzed.

  3. Air-drying Models for New-built Offshore Gas Pipelines%新建海底天然气管道干空气干燥模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹学文; 王立洋; 林宗虎

    2005-01-01

    Drying (conditioning) is an important procedure to prevent hydrate formation during gas pipeline gas-up and to protect pipelines against corrosion. The air-drying method is preferred in offshore gas pipelines pre-commissioning. The air-drying process of gas pipelines commonly includes two steps, air purging and soak test. The mass conservation and the phase equilibrium theory are applied to setting up the mathematical models of air purging, which can be used to simulate dry airflow rate and drying time. Fick diffusion law is applied to setting up the mathematical model of soak test, which can predict the water vapor concentration distribution. The results calculated from the purging model and the soak test model are in good agreement with the experimental data in the DF1-1 offshore production pipeline conditioning. The models are verified to be available for the air-drying project design of offshore gas pipelines. Some proposals for air-drying engineering and operational procedures are put forward by analyzing the air-drying process of DF1-1 gas-exporting pipelines.

  4. Urban natural gas pipeline prewarning system and SCADA technology%城市天然气管道预警系统&SCADA技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭道新

    2012-01-01

    随着我国近年来管道的大力发展,管道周边的第三方施工以及恶意破坏对管道安全带来了极大的危害.尤其是天然气管道,一旦发生第三方施工或者破坏导致的管道泄漏,后果很严重.如何在管道遭受破坏之前发现并制止危害事件是管道业主最为关心的问题!因此管道光纤预警技术的出现对于管道安全具有不可估量的意义.该文重点阐述西宁环城高压工程项目燃气通信光缆安全预警系统解决方案.%With the rapid development of natural gas pipeline in recent years, the third party construction around the pipeline and malicious damage have brought great harm to the pipeline safety. If natural gas leakage caused by third-party construction or malicious damage occurred, the consequence would be horrific. How to detect and stop the destruction before the pipeline is damaged is the deep concern for pipeline constructors. So the occurrence of optical fiber pipe warning technology has immeasurable significance for pipe security. This paper mainly describes the solutions of communication optical cable security warning system for Xining city high pressure gas project.

  5. Engineering Calculation Method of Electromagnetic Effect on Oil/Gas Pipelines from 1 000 kV AC Transmission Line Having Single-phase Ground Fault

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wenliang; JIANG Jun; GUO Jian; LU Jiayu

    2012-01-01

    There will be more and more AC transmission lines near oil/gas pipelines in the future.So in order to determine the safe distance between them,simple and effective methods are required for engineers to efficiently evaluate the electromagnetic effect on oil/gas pipelines due to faults of AC transmission lines.In this paper,an easily handled fitting formula is obtained based on multiple calculation results,which is the maximum voltage on the pipeline anticorrosive coating produced by 1 000 kV AC transmission line under single phase ground fault.Although the calculation results obtained from the fitting formula differ from those gained by precise calculation with softwares,the verification of the formula shows that it is applicable for engineering calculation.This research could be applied to evaluate the electromagnetic effect of 1 000 kV AC transmission line under single-phase ground fault on nearby pipelines,as well as to determine the safe distance or the maximum parallel length.

  6. Proposal and design of a natural gas liquefaction process recovering the energy obtained from the pressure reducing stations of high-pressure pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hongbo; Zhao, Qingxuan; Sun, Nannan; Li, Yanzhong

    2016-12-01

    Taking advantage of the refrigerating effect in the expansion at an appropriate temperature, a fraction of high-pressure natural gas transported by pipelines could be liquefied in a city gate station through a well-organized pressure reducing process without consuming any extra energy. The authors proposed such a new process, which mainly consists of a turbo-expander driven booster, throttle valves, multi-stream heat exchangers and separators, to yield liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquid light hydrocarbons (LLHs) utilizing the high-pressure of the pipelines. Based on the assessment of the effects of several key parameters on the system performance by a steady-state simulation in Aspen HYSYS, an optimal design condition of the proposed process was determined. The results showed that the new process is more appropriate to be applied in a pressure reducing station (PRS) for the pipelines with higher pressure. For the feed gas at the pressure of 10 MPa, the maximum total liquefaction rate (ytot) of 15.4% and the maximum exergy utilizing rate (EUR) of 21.7% could be reached at the optimal condition. The present process could be used as a small-scale natural gas liquefying and peak-shaving plant at a city gate station.

  7. Ability for construction of administrative serve from gas pipelines; Competencia para constituicao de servidao administrativa dos dutos de gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Neto, Gaudencio Jeronimo de; Araujo, Izabella Maria Medeiros e; Mendonca, Fabiano Andre de Souza [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Faculdade de Direito

    2004-07-01

    The work in focus longs for to elucidate the relative question to the institution of administrative servitude for the passage of the natural gas ducts. Preliminarily, we will deal with the question of the the citizen's access of fuels, dedicating to the social function of the national system of supplying. We objectify to demonstrate the importance of the industry of the natural gas for the economic development of the country because it's an energy alternative to oil, more vulnerable to the oscillations of the international market. In this context, we stand out the relevance of the activities of transport and distribution as way of access to the natural gas and the necessary legal instrument to the viability of these activities, that it is the administrative servitude, through which the passage of the gas-lines in particular properties is possible. We will define who in the State is competent to declare the public utility of areas to institute the servitude and to forward the resultant of the authorization of the administrative proceeding. The used criterion is the principle of the predominance of the interest, that it is the general principle of the distribution of the abilities in the Federal Constitution. (author)

  8. 77 FR 10415 - Standards for Business Practices for Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... the terms Reliability Coordinator and Power Plant Gas Coordinator to replace existing terminology of... management responsibilities of the service requester. E. Waste Heat Recovery Feasibility 13. NAESB sought to.... Office of Management and Budget Circular A-119 (section 11) (February 10, 1998) provides that...

  9. Renovation of gas- and water pipelines. The new DVGW-worksheet GW 320-1; Erneuerung von Gas- und Wasserrohrleitungen. Das neue DVGW-Arbeitsblatt GW 320-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penski, Thomas [NBB Netzgesellschaft Berlin-Brandenburg mbH und Co. KG, Berlin (Germany). Betrieb Netze

    2009-07-01

    After ten year application a comprehensive revise of DVGW-worksheet GW 320-1 has taken place. Metallic pipe materials have been gathered and state-of-the-art taken into account. Examples from gas pipeline grid at Berlin make clear practice suitability of the worksheet. (orig./GL)

  10. Environmental assessment on PETROBRAS pipeline projects: case study of Cacimbas-Catu gas pipeline; Engenharia de avaliacao ambiental no processo de concepcao de projetos de dutos da PETROBRAS - estudo de caso do Gasoduto Cacimbas (ES) - Catu (BA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Wilson Jose de; Pereira Junior, Edson R.; Fonseca, Renata A. Almeida; Rocha, Marcelo de Andrade; Soares, Luis Felipe [PETROBRAS Engenharia, RJ (Brazil). Engenharia de Avaliacao Ambiental

    2005-07-01

    The environmental assessment process is one of the most important phases in the implementation of pipeline projects. For that reason, new technologies and work procedures are used to perform the environmental assessment of areas where pipeways will be implemented. Since the quality of environmental assessment studies influences the social acceptance of projects and, consequently, the time required to obtain the environmental permits, PETROBRAS (Engenharia/IETEG/ETEG/EAMB) applies advanced technological tools to acquire remote sensing data (conventional / digital aero-surveys and satellite images), as well as software for digital image processing and integration and spatial analysis of information. Information about the physical, biological and socioeconomic environments are further verified and complemented through field trips using helicopters. This process makes it possible to identify environmentally favorable corridors to develop guidelines for the implementation of the pipeline, assuring its environmental feasibility, and produces relevant data to support the Environmental Impact Assessment Study, the Environmental Impact Assessment Report and the Risk Analysis Study. As an example of the application of this methodology, this paper presents results of the assessment of the Cacimbas / Catu gas pipeline, which is currently being permitted and is planned to be implemented in areas of high environmental complexity. (author)

  11. U.S. Geological Survery Oil and Gas Resource Assessment of the Russian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Gautier; Timothy Klett

    2008-12-31

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a study of undiscovered petroleum resources in the Russian Arctic as a part of its Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA), which comprised three broad areas of work: geological mapping, basin analysis, and quantitative assessment. The CARA was a probabilistic, geologically based study that used existing USGS methodology, modified somewhat for the circumstances of the Arctic. New map compilation was used to identify assessment units. The CARA relied heavily on geological analysis and analog modeling, with numerical input consisting of lognormal distributions of sizes and numbers of undiscovered accumulations. Probabilistic results for individual assessment units were statistically aggregated, taking geological dependencies into account. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funds were used to support the purchase of crucial seismic data collected in the Barents Sea, East Siberian Sea, and Chukchi Sea for use by USGS in its assessment of the Russian Arctic. DOE funds were also used to purchase a commercial study, which interpreted seismic data from the northern Kara Sea, and for geographic information system (GIS) support of USGS mapping of geological features, province boundaries, total petroleum systems, and assessment units used in the USGS assessment.

  12. LNG versus pipelines: a case study applied to the actual unbalance in Northeastern natural gas market; GNL versus gasodutos: um estudo applicado ao atual desequilibrio do mercado nordestino de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechelo Neto, Carlos A. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-graduacao em Energia; Sauer, Ildo L. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Gas e Energia

    2005-07-01

    Against the backdrop of global oil industry trends and the specificity of the Brazilian energy sector, this study evaluates whether the option to develop a national market linked with a plan to export liquefied natural gas produced in Brazil is financially advantageous relative to the traditional pipeline alternative for the aim of satisfying the current natural gas deficit in the Northeast region. To this end, this dissertation analyses the economic conditions for Brazilian LNG in the international gas market, mainly for European and North-American gas markets. Employing a probabilistic analysis based on the Monte Carlo method and given the premises adopted and the amount of information available at the time of writing, the study concludes that, while the international LNG market has enjoyed vigorous growth in recent years, the option of using it as a strategy to develop local market is a less attractive investment choice compared with the pipeline alternative. (author)

  13. Correlation between designed wall thickness of gas pipelines and external and internal corrosion processes; Adequacao de espessura de parede projetada em funcao de processos de corrosao externa e interna em gasodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Jose Antonio da Cunha Ponciano [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Metalurgica

    2004-07-01

    Corrosion control on gas pipelines plays an important role on the assessment of pipeline integrity and reliability. In many countries a great extension of buried pipelines is used on transport and distribution systems. This extension will be certainly increased in a near future due to the increasing consumption of natural gas. Inadequate corrosion control can drive to pipeline failures, bringing up the possibility of accidents in populated or environmental protected areas, bringing together severe economical, legal and environmental consequences. Corrosion is frequently considered as a natural and inevitable phenomenon. Based upon this assumption, some recommendations are included on design standards of gas pipelines in order to compensate its detrimental effect. The aim of this work is to present a review of the correlation between external corrosion process and the guidelines established during the project phase of gas pipelines. It is intended to contribute for a better understanding of the impacts of corrosion on integrity, reliability and readiness of gas transport and distribution systems. Some aspects regarding external corrosion of pipelines extracted from technical papers will be summarised. Information provided will be compared to design criterion prescribed by the NBR 12712 Standard. (author)

  14. Fundamental study on leak detection of underground gas pipeline using passive acoustic method; Judogata onkyo keisoku ni yoru maisetsu gas dokan hason kasho no kenshutsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinguji, M.; Imaizumi, H.; Kunimatsu, S.; Isei, T. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    With an objective to detect gas leaking from an underground gas pipeline, discussions have been given on a method which utilizes acoustic characteristics of leakage. On leaking sound generated from damaged portions, the form of damaging was hypothesized as pinholes, and spectra of leaking sounds from holes with different diameters were measured. The dominant frequency decreases as the hole diameter increases, while it is in a region of relatively high frequency of 1 kHz or higher. However, detection from the ground surface was impossible when cover soil has thickness from 0.5 to 1.5 m. In an experiment to measure leaking sound inside the pipe, pressure in the pipe was adjusted to 0.02 atm which is a standard pressure for a low-pressure pipe, and the sound was measured when the hole diameters were varied. In any of the results obtained by varying the hole diameter, spectra having the dominant frequency in the region of 1 kHz or higher were measured. In addition, it was found that sound pressure difference of as much as 50 dB at maximum is generated as compared with a case of no sound leakage. The above results verified that monitoring the high frequency of 1 kHz or higher is effective in detecting leakage from small damages. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Prediction of internal corrosion of oil and gas pipelines : the Srinivasan model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doiron, A.; Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2009-07-01

    The corrosivity of carbon dioxide (CO-)2-containing brines must be predicted when designing oil and gas production equipment and transportation facilities. De Waard and Milliams have played a role towards establishing an industry-standard approach to predicting CO{sub 2} and hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S) corrosion. The de Waard equation was developed as an engineering tool to determine the relationship between potential corrosivity of aqueous media for a given level of dissolved CO{sub 2}, defined by its partial pressure, at any given temperature. The relative simplicity of this approach and its ease of use have contributed to its broad acceptance. However, input of inspection and monitoring data may be needed to refine the models' accuracy or field and well specificity. This paper presented the Predict TM2 model developed by Srinivasan. The basis for this software tool is the de Waard-Milliams relationship for CO{sub 2} corrosion, but other correction factors are also used. A flow chart delineating the hierarchical reasoning structure of the predictive model was included in this paper. The following factors are considered when determining corrosivity: H2{sub S} partial pressure; maximum operating temperature; dissolved chlorides; gas-to-oil ratio; water-to-gas ratio/water cut; oil type and its persistence; elemental sulfur/aeration; fluid velocity; type of flow; inhibition type and efficiency. This paper also reviewed the effects of the following parameters on corrosivity: pH and CO{sub 2}; layer formation; role of H{sub 2}S; temperature effects; chlorides; bicarbonates; velocity; water/gas/oil ratio; and aeration sulphur. The paper also explained why it is necessary to examine the parameter interactions before capturing the synergistic effects of these parameters on corrosion. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Analysis of CO2 Separation from Flue Gas, Pipeline Transportation, and Sequestration in Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2007-09-01

    This report was written to satisfy a milestone of the Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration task of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration project. The report begins to assess the costs associated with separating the CO2 from flue gas and then injecting it into an unminable coal seam. The technical challenges and costs associated with CO2 separation from flue gas and transportation of the separated CO2 from the point source to an appropriate sequestration target was analyzed. The report includes the selection of a specific coal-fired power plant for the application of CO2 separation technology. An appropriate CO2 separation technology was identified from existing commercial technologies. The report also includes a process design for the chosen technology tailored to the selected power plant that used to obtain accurate costs of separating the CO2 from the flue gas. In addition, an analysis of the costs for compression and transportation of the CO2 from the point-source to an appropriate coal bed sequestration site was included in the report.

  17. 埋地输气管线腐蚀综合评价%Comprehensive Assessment for the Corrosion of Buried Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓存; 薛继军

    2015-01-01

    为了保证输气管道的安全平稳运行,通过对某沙漠地区输气管线的腐蚀情况进行综合评价,包括PCM检测,阴极保护有效性检测,管体内腐蚀缺陷检测、成像与剩余强度评价以及剩余寿命评价。结果表明,该埋地输气管线的外防腐层存在漏点80个,阴极保护全部达标,管体外表面腐蚀是由防腐层破损而引起的,管体壁厚减薄处最小值为5.45 mm,该管道腐蚀缺陷在接受范围内,管道平均腐蚀速率较低。。%To ensure the gas pipeline running safely and smoothly, this paper focused on a comprehensive assessment for the corrosion of a gas pipeline in desert area by the methods of PCM detection, cathodic protection system detection, internal corrosion defect detection, imaging and residual strength valuation and remaining lifetime assessment. The results showed that there are 80 leak sources on the external anti-corrosion coating, the cathodic protection system is qualified, the external surface corrosion of the pipeline is caused by coating damages, the outer surface corrosion of pipe body is caused by coating damage, the minimum wall thickness of the pipeline is 5.45 mm, the corrosion defects on the pipeline are acceptable and the average corrosion rate is low.

  18. Estimation of Corrosion Induced Flaw Sizes on Buried Gas Pipeline in the Nigerian Sector of Niger Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.F. Evans

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A geoelectrical survey was conducted to investigate pipeline corrosion in the coastal plain sands of the Nigerian sector of the Niger Delta. The objective is to estimate corrosion flaw sizes on the pipeline quantitatively instead of direct excavation of the pipeline and eventual use of measuring tape to measure the flaws on the pipeline. The pipelines buried in the Benin sands at Ikot Abasi, South of the Niger Delta Basin became instructive for this study. The survey consisted of electrical potential profiling using Close Interval Pipe-Soil potential survey (CIPS and Horizontal Electrical Profiling (HEP according to Wenner electrodes arrangement. Two permanent test points (PS were used for the study and the flaw sizes were estimated at points delineated to be of high corrosion risk in the study area. The data for close interval potential and HEP were analyzed and interpreted in line with the threshold protective potential (-850 mV as well as the American Water Works Association (AWWA soil corrosivity rating. Results indicate high risk zones due to external corrosion at pipeline length 25-30 m from PS1 and 80 m from PS2. These locations contain significant saline groundwater that facilitates corrosion of metal pipes buried within the area. The results also suggest that the corrosion protection systems for the pipeline need to be reinforced to mitigate further growth of the flaws on the pipeline segment. The impact of the flaws could be severe if allowed to continue.

  19. 77 FR 43586 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... Line V Retirement Project Name Agency Address City-------- State---- Zip Code---- Please send me a... Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Line V Pipeline Retirement Project and Request for Comments On... environmental assessment (EA) that will discuss the environmental impacts of the Line V Pipeline...

  20. Integrated natural gas pipeline control and customer service system of Gasum; Le systeme integre de controle des canalisations de gaz et de service au consommateur chez Gasum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho, J.; Manty, O.; Ahlnas, B. [Gasul Oy (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    Due to the rapid development of the information technology, ageing is not the only driving force for replacing old computer systems with more sophisticated ones. The Finnish natural Gas company, Gasum Oy, has recently taken into use a new control and monitoring system for natural gas pipeline. A special customer service system, developed by Gasum Oy, is closely connected to monitoring system. It provides up-to-date information to all customers of Gasum Oy. The information is layered in three confidential levels: general information, operational data and invoicing information. The system is operating interactively in confidential Extranet. Inside Gasum Oy to meet the needs of departments outside the control room, a new GID system is developed. GID is a way to present pipeline process data and its further modifications with a very user-friendly interface based on geographical map. The system is based on data warehouse architecture and it is working on company's Intranet. This makes it possible to present various secrecy level information based on user ID. Gasum's new SCADA is not only the base for operating the pipeline, but it also provides lot of vital information to other systems serving different user groups within natural gas business in Finland. (authors)

  1. Gas pipeline internal painting: an economical advantage; Uso da pintura interna em gasodutos: uma vantagem economica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Christian E.; Santos, Paulo T. [Soco-Ril do Brasil S.A., Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil)]|[Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica de Lorena (FAENQUIL), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Oliveira, Luiz C. [Confab Industrial S.A., Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil)]|[Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica de Lorena (FAENQUIL), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Campos, Paulo H. [Confab Industrial S.A., Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Focusing the fabulous financial losses due to the corrosion problems, it had been necessary increase the range of new technologies and developments regarding material protection. The application of internal painting systems have become the most employed protection technical, showing a lot of benefits: improved flow characteristics of gas, reduced energy consumption of pumping, reduced pressure drops, easily application, inspection and maintenance, faster commissioning, reduced deposition of condensate and microorganism, excellent preventing corrosion during storage and operation, and others. The present paper describe the advantages and the technical and financial benefits of liquid epoxy internal coating. (author)

  2. Atmospheric concentration characteristics and gas/particle partitioning of PCBs from the North Pacific to the Arctic Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhen; NA Guangshui; GAO Hui; WANG Yanjie; YAO Ziwei

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in atmospheric samples collected from the North Pacific to the Arctic Ocean between July and September 2012 to study the atmospheric concentration characteris-tics of PCBs and their gas/particle partitioning. The mean concentration of 26 PCBs (vapor plus particulate phase) (ƩPCBs) was 19.116 pg/m3with a standard deviation of 13.833 pg/m3. Three most abundant conge-ners were CB-28, -52 and -77, accounting for 43.0% toƩPCBs. The predominance of vapor PCBs (79.0% toƩPCBs) in the atmosphere was observed.ƩPCBs were negative correlated with the latitudes and inverse of the absolute temperature (1/T). The significant correlation for most congeners was also observed between the logarithm of gas/particle partition coefficient (logKP) and 1/T. Shallower slopes (from −0.15 to −0.46, average −0.27) were measured from the regression of the logarithm of sub-cooled liquid vapor pressures (logpºL) and logKP for all samples. The difference of the slopes and intercepts among samples was insignifi-cant (p>0.1), implying adsorption and/or absorption processes and the aerosol composition did not differ significantly among different samples. By comparing three models, the J-P adsorption model, the octanol/air partition coefficient (KOA) based model and the soot-air model, the gas/particle partitioning of PCBs in the Arctic atmosphere was simulated more precisely by the soot-air model, and the adsorption onto el-emental carbon is more sensitive than the absorption into organic matters of aerosols, especially for low-chlorinated PCB congeners.

  3. 深挖沟铺管技术在渤西南联网供气项目上的应用%Application of the Pipeline-Laying Technology for Deep Trenching on the Gas Pipeline Network System of Boxi & Bonan Oil/Gas Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲玉成

    2012-01-01

    There is a great deal of methods in the submarine pipeline-laying, methods adopted are different from each other due to the various situations of seawater depth, geological conditions and so on. In order to avoid the damage by any kind of vessel anchoring at anchorage, and to ensure the safety of submarine pipelines, The project of the Gas Pipeline Network System of Boxi & Bonan Oil/gas Fields is carried out by Offshore Oil Engineering Co., Ltd. (COOEC) and Tianjin Junhao Offshore Engineering Co., Ltd. (JHHG) by the use of the contact type submersible jet flow spray gas lift type trenching machine (it's the patent facility), the submarine pipeline-laying and post-trenching works are first successfully completed with burial depth up to 4m for domestic deep trenching operation pipeline with. It is shown that the initiate procedure could be applied to more deep trenching works of the submarine pipeline in the future through this methodological description of the deep trenching, as well as could be recommended to that the submarine pipeline crossing sea-routes or the anchorage and the similar pipeline constructions which not only be able to protect pipelines but also have to ensure the sea-route unobstructed.%海底管道的铺设有很多种挖沟方法,因海水深度,地质条件等情况的不同,采用的方法也不相同.渤西南联网供气项目为避免锚地的各类船只抛描破坏,保证海管的安全,海洋石油工程股份有限公司和天津俊昊海洋工程有限公司在海底管道铺设和后挖沟施工中进行合作,采用接触武潜水射流喷冲气举式挖沟机(此系专利设备),首次成功完成了国内海管埋深达到4米的深挖沟作业.通过这次深挖沟埋管的实施,证明这种新的工艺,可以应用到更多的海底管道深挖沟埋管工程中,也可以应用到海管穿越航道、锚地等类似的既要保护管道又要保证通航安全的管道施工工程中.

  4. Economic environment of the Arctic natural gas supplies to Europe, "the Ukrainian crisis"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selin V. S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The current economic conjuncture of Russian gas supplies to the European market has been analyzed. It has been shown that it develops in a complex of two strategic factors: the first is the dominant role of Europe for Russian exports, the second – the European Union's policy on diversification of routes including the reduction of supplies from Russia. The objective impact of the recent "Ukrainian crisis" has influenced on the supply and has reduced reliability of the transit gas-transport complex. It has been noted that even in such circumstances the Russian natural gas exports to the European market in the coming five years may increase. Therefore, the transit system requires innovative solutions aimed at the reconstruction of pipeline systems and significant development of the production and transportation of liquefied natural gas. Произведен анализ современной экономической конъюнктуры поставок российского газа на европейский рынок. Показано, что она складывается в сложном переплетении двух стратегических факторов: первый обусловлен доминирующей ролью Европы для российского экспорта, второй – политикой Европейского союза, направленной на диверсификацию маршрутов, в том числе путем снижения поставок из России. На них наслаивается объективное влияние "украинского кризиса", что значительно снижает надежность транзитного газотранспортного комплекса. Отмечено, что даже в таких условиях российский экспорт природного газа на е

  5. Prediction of internal corrosion of oil and gas pipelines : the Crolet model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doiron, A.; Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2009-07-01

    The oil and gas industry relies heavily on the use of carbon and low-alloy steels for production equipment. Predicting the corrosivity of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2})-containing brines is therefore necessary when designing wells. This paper presented Crolet's CORMED model which predicts the probability of corrosion in wells. The model, which is based on a detailed analysis of field experience on CO{sub 2} downhole corrosion, can predict low, medium or high risk for tubing perforation within 10 years. The 3 complementary conditions required for local attack are that water must be present in contact with the metal; the water must have a sufficient potential corrosivity (PC); and the conditions must be favourable for corrosion to develop locally. The model consists of approximately 20 equations that take into account parameters such as pH, H{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, CO{sub 2}, acetic acid, temperature and flow rate. Of all parameters relating to CO{sub 2} corrosion, PC is the simplest to measure experimentally. The model requires the following input data: reservoir data; production water, with concentrations of all major cation and anion species; gas content; production data; type of gas lift and nature of well equipment; corrosion data; observed damage; and time elapsed since attainment of a significant water-cut. Based on the input data, the model calculates the following parameters of a well: CO{sub 2} partial pressure in the conditions where the corrosion is severe; the minimum in-situ pH of the production water; the in-situ acetic concentration, under the conditions of maximum acidity; and the maximum PC corresponding to the production conditions. The model describes the character of the wells qualitatively, as either corrosive, with a lifetime of less than 2 to 3 years; possibly corrosive where the absence of problems is not definitive; and non-corrosive where no corrosion problems have been encountered over a period of at least eight years, despite significant water

  6. Investment decisions in electricity transmission in Argentina: The role of earmarked funds and gas pipeline expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisari, Omar O. [Universidad Argentina de la Empresa (Argentina); Romero, Carlos A. [Centro de Estudios Economicos de la Regulacion, Universidad Argentina de la Empresa (Argentina)

    2008-07-15

    This paper reexamines the problem of collective decisions of investment in electricity transmission in Argentina in the nineties. We summarize our previous results on the existence of a fundamental flaw in the evaluation of willingness-to-pay and on the need to consider the votes of groups of generators integrated through common ownership rather than individual generators. We discuss the workings of the SALEX account for financing expansions and confirm that the imperfect identification of voters could affect the evaluation of expansion projects. We also study an integrated model that considers two alternatives to electricity transmission: gas transmission and the location of generators; we show that location in the demand node voting against expansions in electricity transmission could be justified to maximize profits. (author)

  7. Nearshore Pipeline Installation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    179. 5. Aldridge, R. G., and Bomba , J. G., "Deep Water Pipelines - Interdependence of Design and Construction", ASCE Paper. 6. American Society Civil...October 13, 1967. 24. Bomba , J. G. and Seeds, K. J., "Pipelining in 600 feet of water .... A Case Study of Washington Natural Gas Company’s Puget Sound...Crossing", Offshore Technology Conference, paper OTC 1188, 1970. 25. Bomba , J., "Submarine Pipe Construction Methods", Petroleum Engineer, Vol. 32

  8. Transport diphasique de gaz et de condensat. Aspects techniques et économiques Technical and Economic Aspects of Two-Phase Pipelining of Gas and Condensate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourgeois T.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'évacuation diphasique de la production d'un gisement de gaz à condensat présente des avantages importants, en particulier sur le plan économique. Les caractéristiques des écoulements diphasiques sont exposées, avec les conséquences principales sur la définition d'un schéma d'exploitation. Une comparaison économique est ensuite présentée, pour illustrer la réduction des investissements qui peut être apportée par l'évacuation diphasique de la production. Enfin, les recherches françaises sur les écoulements diphasiques dans les conduites pétrolières sont brièvement décrites, ainsi qu'un exemple de calcul sur une conduite de gaz à condensat en exploitation diphasique. The two-phase pipelining of a wet gas field production presents many advantages, especially from an economic point of view. The characteristics of two-phase flow are described, together with their main consequences on the operational scheme. Then an economic comparison is made to illustrate the reduction in investment costs that can by achieved with two-phase pipelining. Research in France on two-phase flow in gas and condensate pipelines is briefly described, and an example is given of the designing of a wet-gas pipeline currently being operated in the two-phase mode.

  9. 城市燃气管道泄漏的风险评估方法%Leakage Risk Assessment Method of City Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成金剑

    2016-01-01

    The aging of city gas pipeline, third party damage and corrosion is the main cause of the leak accident. Personal injury, waste of resources, environmental pollution and economic losses are the consequences of the gas pipeline leak. Therefore, the establishment of a city gas pipeline leakage risk assessment methodology is very important. The research in this area is blank in domestic. In this paper, a city gas pipeline leakage risk assessment methodology was given, according to the Delphi method, hierarchical analysis methods combined with risk control theory. The method mainly includes: identify the risk of leakage, assess the possibility and classification the leakage risk. Finally, the control and prevention measures of gas pipeline leakage risk were given.%城市燃气管道的老化、第三方破坏和腐蚀等原因是因起泄漏事故的主因,人身伤害、资源浪费、污染环境及经济损失是燃气管道泄漏造成的后果。因此,建立一套科学的城市燃气管道泄漏风险评估方法显得尤为重要。目前国内在这方面的研究属于空白。本文采用德尔菲法、层次分析方法结合风险控制理论,提出了一种城市燃气管道泄漏的风险评估方法,该方法主要包含的内容有:识别泄漏风险、评估泄漏风险的可能性、对泄漏风险进行分级,最后,制定出燃气管道泄漏风险的控制及防范措施。

  10. Design and Research of Medical Gas Pipeline System Based on Redundancy Design%冗余医用气体管道系统设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨斌

    2012-01-01

    目的 解决传统医用气体管道系统在维护关键控制节点时遇到的风险.方法 采用冗余设计方法,将医用气体管道系统从气源敷设双主管到医疗建筑,通过双立管到护理单元,采用U型管道结构,用维修隔离阀将气体终端划分成较小区域.结果 此系统增加了管道结构的复杂度,增加了15%~30%的前期投入成本,但提高了系统的可靠性,降低后期维护费用和医疗维护风险成本.在管道分配系统中,任何部位出现故障需要维护时,气体终端的连续供气不受影响,或仅影响几间病房.结论 适用于规模较大的医院和局部生命支持区域.%Objective To solve the high risk when maintaining the key node of medical gas pipeline systems in large scale hospitals. Methods Adopting redundancy design method, medical gas pipeline system could transfer the air across double main pipes to medical building, through the double riser pipe to nursing unit, maintenance isolation valve, using U pipe structure, also could divide gas terminal into smaller area. Results On one hand, the medical gas pipeline system based on redundancy increases 15%~30% cost of installation, and makes the structure of pipeline complex, on the other hand, it improves the reliability of this system and reduces the follow-up maintenance cost and risk. It can also guarantee the continuous gas supply of terminal not be affected when fixing the failure, or only effect several wards. Conclusion The pipeline system is suitable to large scale hospitals and lifeline support areas.

  11. 我国周边跨界油气管道运营安全威胁及对策%The Security Threats Faced by Cross-border Oil and Gas Pipeline Operations around China and the Countermea―sures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晨曦

    2015-01-01

    Four major onshore oil and gas transportation corridors have formed around China, including China-Central Asia natural gas pipeline (ABC line), China-Russia oil pipeline, China-Kaza-khstan oil pipeline and China-Myanmar oil and gas pipeline, and China-Russia natural gas pipeline at the east section and Chi-na-Central Asia natural gas pipeline (D line) are under construc-tion. The security of pipeline operations includes supplying and maintaining reasonable transportation costs and the implementa-tion of projects under construction. Its influencing factors include politics and diplomacy, security, economy, international laws, technology, natural geography and so on. We should eliminate the one-way dependence on transit countries, establish pipeline e-mergency maintenance mechanism, carry out preventative diplo-matic activities, and include pipeline security into regional coop-eration framework.%我国周边已形成中国-中亚天然气管道(ABC线)、中俄石油管道、中哈石油管道、中缅油气管道四大陆上油气运输通道,并在建中俄东段天然气管道和中国-中亚天然气管道(D线).管道运营安全包括稳定供应、维护合理运输成本和在建项目实施.其影响因素包括政治与外交、安全、经济、国际条法、技术及自然地理等.我国应改变对过境国单向依赖,建立管道应急维修机制,开展预防性外交,并将管道安全纳入区域合作框架.

  12. Prediction of internal corrosion of oil and gas pipelines : miscellaneous models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doiron, A.; Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2009-07-01

    There is a need to predict the corrosivity of brines containing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) when designing production equipment and transportation facilities because CO{sub 2} and hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S) corrosion of carbon and low-alloy steels is a major cause of corrosion damage in oil and gas field operations. This paper presented eight CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S prediction models that have been developed by oil companies and research institutions. The Mishra Model derives a corrosion rate equation on the basis of the fundamental reaction rate theory and compares it with empirically determined relationships reported in the literature. The predictive equation is developed as a function of pH, partial pressure of CO{sub 2} and temperature. The Anderko Model combines a thermodynamic model that provides realistic speciation of aqueous systems with an electrochemical model for partial cathodic and anodic processes on the metal surface. The partial processes taken into account by the model include the oxidation of iron and reduction of hydrogen ions, water, carbonic acid and H{sub 2}S. The Oddo Model takes into consideration the protective films that form by the deposition of mineral scales and which reduce or eliminate corrosion. The Pots Model predicts the CO{sub 2} corrosion rate on the basis of mechanistic modelling that considers the effect of fluid flow. The Limiting Corrosion Rate (LCR) model provides a theoretical upper limit for the corrosion rate based on the assumption that the rate-determining steps are the transport and production of protons and carbonic acid in the diffusion and reaction boundary layers. The LIPUCOR Model calculates corrosion rates based on temperature, CO{sub 2} concentration, water chemistry, flow regime, flow velocity, characteristics of the produced fluid, and material composition. The SSH Model is a worst case-based model derived primarily from laboratory data at low temperature and a combination of laboratory and field data at

  13. Numerical research of parameters of interaction of the gas flow with rotary valve of the gas pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldyrev, A. V.; Karelin, D. L.; Muljukin, V. L.

    2016-11-01

    Conducted numerical research of static characteristics of the rotary gate valve at different angles of its deviation. for this purpose were set different values of pressure differential on the valve depending on which, was determined the mass flow and torque on valve axes. The mathematical model is provided by continuity equations, average on Reynolds, Navier-Stokes and energy, the equation of the perfect gas, the equations of two-layer k-e of model of turbulence. When calculating the current near walls are used Wolfstein's model and the hybrid wall functions of Reichardt for the speed and temperature. The task is solved in three-dimensional statement with use of conditions of symmetry. The structure of the current is analyzed: zones of acceleration and flow separation, whirlwinds, etc. Noted growth of hydraulic resistance of the valve with reduction of slope angle of the valve and with the increase in mass flow. Established increase of torque with reduction of the deviation angle of the valve and with increase in the mass expense.

  14. Leak detection technologies for oil and gas pipelines; Tecnologias para deteccao e localizacao de vazamento em dutos de oleo e ou gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Julio R. [MTT Aselco Automacao Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Two concepts are available for leak detection in oil and/or gas pipelines: On-line leak detection system and off-line leak detection technique. The off-line leak detection technique is, usually, portable and does net configure a 'system'. This technique includes hydro-test, acoustic emission of high frequency, tracer of chemical substances, ultrasonic flow meter (UT), thermographic infra-red mapping, electromagnetic offset registration, etc. Since most of those methods requests stop of the system or depend on direct and detailed inspection of the whole monitored piping they are limited to the off-line inspection. In the current days there are only two technologies applied to detect and locate leaks on-line: The acoustic Leak Detection System and the modeling of computerized simulation also called as RTM (Real Time Modeling), RTTM or Mass Balance. There are still other techniques in the market, as acoustic emission, pressure analysis (PPA) beyond other rough techniques, without good results. Even some of these techniques are working without success, they are still used to accomplish with government standards. (author)

  15. 1998 Annual Study Report. Standardization of methods for evaluating characteristics of high-strength, large-diameter steel pipes for superhigh-pressure natural gas pipelines; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Chokoatsu tennen gas pipeline yo kokyodo daikei kokan no tokusei hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The pipelines for safely transmitting superhigh-pressure natural gas should have excellent characteristics. The steel pipe is required to have a sufficient toughness, more concretely Charpy impact-absorbing energy, to prevent propagating shear fracture characteristic of natural gas pipelines. Recently, the natural gas pipeline is increasingly required to have higher design pressures (15 Mpa or higher) and grade (X80 or higher). In order to develop the techniques for simulating crack propagation in the propagating shear fracture of natural gas pipe lines as part of the programs to cope with these trends, the 1998 efforts were directed to reviewing the research results obtained so far and analysis of the problems to be solved and tasks to be taken, based on which the analytical procedure for gas releasing phenomena during the fracture process was basically developed, the material characteristic data were collected by the laboratory scale toughness tests, and the preliminary tests with rupture disks were conducted to verify the above analytical procedure. These efforts have established the bases for evaluating the characteristics of high-strength, large-diameter steel pipes in the light of safety against fracture, and greatly advanced the program towards the final target of developing the international specification drafts for toughness. (NEDO)

  16. Numerical investigations of the fluid flows at deep oceanic and arctic permafrost-associated gas hydrate deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Jennifer Mary

    , allows us a unique opportunity to study the response of methane hydrate deposits to warming. Gas hydrate stability in the Arctic and the permeability of the shelf sediments to gas migration is thought to be closely linked with relict submarine permafrost. Submarine permafrost extent depends on several environmental factors, such as the shelf lithology, sea level variations, mean annual air temperature, ocean bottom water temperature, geothermal heat flux, groundwater hydrology, and the salinity of the pore water. Effects of submarine groundwater discharge, which introduces fresh terrestrial groundwater off-shore, can freshen deep marine sediments and is an important control on the freezing point depression of ice and methane hydrate. While several thermal modeling studies suggest the permafrost layer should still be largely intact near-shore, many recent field studies have reported elevated methane levels in Arctic coastal waters. The permafrost layer is thought to create an impermeable barrier to fluid and gas flow, however, talik formation (unfrozen regions within otherwise continuous permafrost) below paleo-river channels can create permeable pathways for gas migration from depth. This is the first study of its kind to make predictions of the methane gas flux to the water column from the Arctic shelf sediments using a 2D multi-phase fluid flow model. Model results show that the dissociation of methane hydrate deposits through taliks can supersaturate the overlying water column at present-day relative to equilibrium with the atmosphere when taliks are large (> 1 km width) or hydrate saturation is high within hydrate layers (> 50% pore volume). Supersaturated waters likely drive a net flux of methane into the atmosphere, a potent greenhouse gas. Effects of anthropogenic global warming will certainly increase gas venting rates if ocean bottom water temperatures increase, but likely won't have immediately observable impacts due to the long response times.

  17. 高含硫天然气管道泄漏数值模拟%Numerical simulation of high suffur-contained natural gas pipeline leakage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李朝阳; 马贵阳

    2011-01-01

    高含硫天然气管道经长期的内外腐蚀,经常发生泄漏事故.为了减少和降低天然气管道泄漏事故对人的危害,对甲烷及硫化氢的扩散规律进行研究日趋重要.利用计算流体力学的方法,采用仿真软件对高含硫天然气架空及埋地管道穿孔泄漏后的甲烷、硫化氢气体的扩散进行了数值模拟.架空管道泄漏初期为体积分数等值线呈对称分布的射流,泄漏至60s后无爆炸危险;泄漏90s后地面硫化氢体积分数较大,180 s后无中毒危险.埋地管道泄漏短时间内泄漏口地面附近聚集大量的高浓燃气,与架空管道泄漏相比地面其爆炸范围和中毒范围较低,但地面附近受危害的时间较长.为天然气管道的维修和安全输送提供了理论依据.%Because of long-term internal and external corrosion to the high sulfur-contained natural gas pipeline, the leakage accidents often occur. In order to reduce the harm to people due to gas pipeline leakage accidents, the research on the diffusion of methane and hydrogen sulphide is becoming more and more important. Methane and hydrogen sulfide gas diffusion from overhead and underground pipelines was numerically simulated by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method and simulation software. The result shows that in the early stage of overhead pipeline leakage, the volume fraction isoline presents a symmetrical distributing jet, and no explosion danger after 60 s; H2S volume fraction on the ground is higher after 90 s, and no poisoning danger after 180 s. The leakage of buried pipeline gathers a lot of high concentration gas near the surrounding ground of leakage point in a short time, and the explosion range and poisoning range of which are lower than those of overhead pipeline, but the time of hazard to the surrounding ground lasts longer. This simulation provides the theoretical basis for natural gas pipeline maintenance and gas safety transportation as well as environmental

  18. Pipeline integrity : control by coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, A.S. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Bombay (India)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation provided background information on the history of cross-country pipelines in India. It discussed the major use of gas. The key users were described as being the power and fertilizer industries, followed by vehicles using compressed natural gas to replace liquid fuels and thereby reduce pollution. The presentation also addressed the integrity of pipelines in terms of high production, safety, and monitoring. Integrity issues of pipelines were discussed with reference to basic design, control of corrosion, and periodic health monitoring. Other topics that were outlined included integrity by corrosion control; integrity by health monitoring; coatings requirements; classification of UCC pipeline coatings; and how the pipeline integrity approach can help to achieve coatings which give design life without any failure. Surface cleanliness, coating conditions, and the relationship between temperature of Epoxy coating and the time of adhesive coating were also discussed. Last, the presentation provided the results of an audit of the HBJ pipeline conducted from 1999 to 2000. tabs., figs.

  19. Impacts of fuel oil substitution by natural gas in a pipeline network scheduling; Impactos da substituicao do oleo combustivel por gas natural na programacao de uma rede de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Filho, Erito M.; Bahiense, Laura; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio J.M. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In recent decades, due to the advancement and computational methods for solving optimization problems, the number of articles addressing the scheduling of products has grown. The mathematical models developed have proved useful to schedule from a single pipeline with multiple products to complex networks of multiple pipelines. Moreover, the planning of these activities is of even greater importance when considering the existence of new environmental requirements to be applied to production and marketing of petroleum products. An example of this paradigm shift is the reduction in fuel oil consumption due to increased share of natural gas in the Brazilian energy matrix. In this context, this paper proposes a mathematical model to obtain feasible solutions for problems of scheduling a network of pipelines considering replacing all or part of the demand for fuel oil to natural gas. We tested the model on three real instances of a multi commodity network consists of 4 terminals, 4 refineries and 8 unidirectional pipelines, considering a planning horizon of one week. (author)

  20. Energy saving measures of Shaanxi-Beijing Natural Gas Pipeline System%陕京天然气管网系统的节能措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋明智; 程凤亭

    2012-01-01

    To reduce energy consumption of gas in logistics, Shannxi-Beijing Natural Gas Pipeline System is taken as a case to analyze the natural gas storage and transportation systems. In accordance with operating characteristics and energy consumption conditions of natural gas pipelines, compressor stations, distribution stations and gas storages as well as electric power and natural gas energy consumption in the production, by the use of thermal equilibrium of energy flow, energy cascade utilization, thermodynamic exergy value and other analysis methods, energy-saving measures are researched from different aspects. It is indicated that waste heat utilization, differential pressure power generation and gas storage transformation can be used for energy saving, and the feasibility of various energy-saving measures is analyzed. Exhaust temperature of gas compressor units in the natural gas pipeline network is higher, so the waste heat has a larger potential and value for recycling. Differential pressure, enthalpy and internal energy are calculated on the basis of differential pressure energy of pipeline network distribution stations and converted by the exergy analysis principle to indicate a higher energy use value. In accordance with relevant geological conditions, it is indicated that gas-fired unit exhaust, inert gas or CO2 can replace the natural gas as the bedding gas of the gas storage. This measure can reduce more than 50% of production energy consumption. The research results can provide a reference to the natural gas logistics enterprises to improve production processes and reduce energy consumption.%为降低天然气物流能耗,以陕京天然气管网系统为例,针对天然气储运体系展开分析,根据天然气运输管道、压气站、分输站和储气库运行特征和能耗情况,运用能源流动热平衡、能量梯阶利用和热力学值等分析方法,结合生产中电力和天然气能耗情况,进行不同角度的节能措施研究.指出

  1. Preventive, reducing and compensation actions for environmental impacts of Coari-Manaus gas pipeline; Medidas preventivas, mitigadoras e compensatorias de impactos socioambientais do Projeto Gasoduto Coari-Manaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannarino, Ronaldo P. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rangel, Antonio Carlos F. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Projetos Especiais da Area de Gas e Energia

    2004-07-01

    The estimated reserve of natural gas of 124,5 billions m3 existent in the Solimoes basin it's the big thermometrical market existent on the Manaus city, actually supplied with liquid fuels, they had become economically viable the construction of a gas pipeline establishing connection it offers of the demand. However, given the complexity of the Amazonian landscape, the ambient aspects need to be studied with use of tools and methodologies integrators, also contemplating the social aspects. A multi discipline group of researches, led for Centro de Ciencias Ambientais from Universidade Federal do Amazonas - CCA/UFAM they had carried through diagnosis of the influences area of Coari-Manaus gas pipeline had as base research developed for PIATAM (Potenciais Impactos e Riscos Ambientais do Transporte de Petroleo e Gas no Amazonas) project during 24 months in the region enclosed for the tracing considered. During the study of UFAM and in the Official Audiences of the licence process had done consultation for the involved communities, and the results served of base for proposal to the prevention of negative impacts, reduce and compensation of inevitable impacts. The legal and institutional requisites are argued and are considered a way to consolidate the existing regulation on the subject having as basic premise the compatibility of the local and regional interests with the necessity of economic development of the country. (author)

  2. Research on influence factors of hydrate formation in natural gas pipeline%天然气管线水合物生成影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海秀; 周锡堂

    2013-01-01

    介绍了天然气管线中水合物生成条件、以及水合物的生成对管线正常输送和安全运行的影响;提出了天然气管线水合物生成影响因素比较框图,对不同输送工况下管道中水合物的生成进行了分析,得出天然气管线中水合物生成影响因素有输量、起点压力、起点温度和管径,其中输量影响最大,起点压力影响最小,适当增大输量、提高起点温度、降低起点压力和减小管径,可以缩小水合物生成范围甚至避免水合物生成。%The formation of gas hydrate in natural gas pipeline could cause a serious impact on the normal and safe transportation of natural gas. The formation conditions of hydrate in the pipeline were introduced, and a block diagram for comparison of the influence factors of hydrate formation in the pipeline was proposed. Through analyzing the hydrate formation under the different transportation conditions in a concrete example, it was found that the factors affecting the formation of the hydrate contained transportation amount, initial pressure, initial temperature and pipe diameter, among them the most significant was the transportation amount and the lowest in importance was the initial pressure. The formation of gas hydrate could be reduced even avoided by properly increasing transportation amount, raising initial temperature and decreasing initial pressure and pipe diameter.

  3. Design and stabilization works of the km 767 slope of Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline; Projeto e obra de estabilizacao do talude do km 767 do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Hudson R.; Vasconcellos, Carlos Renato Aragonez de [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The Bolivia-Brazil Natural Gas Pipeline starts at Santa Cruz de La Sierra city, in Bolivia, and goes until Canoas City (RS) in Brazil, with a total extent of 3,150 km. The pipeline crosses in the 2,593 km established in Brazilian soil, the most diverse types of geology and geomorphology. Along the line, the right-of-way (ROW) also crosses a lot of roads, railways, rivers and lakes. During a routine inspection (foot patrol), signs of instability were detected at an embankment slope of a highway of the Santa Catarina state, at the pipeline crossing. An eventual failure of this slope could put the pipeline at risk. The aim of this paper is to present the aspects of the stabilizations phases, since field investigation, design, works, instrumentation, until monitoring. Emphasis is given to the design criteria to pipeline safety. The solution adopted is composite by soil nailing, a changing of slope inclination and superficial drainage system. (author)

  4. 77 FR 34458 - Pipeline Safety: Requests for Special Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ..., Alaska. The pipeline is intended to transport natural gas from the oil and gas producers on the Alaskan... received from Norgasco, Inc., and BreitBurn Energy Company LP, two natural gas pipeline operators, seeking... permits from two natural gas pipeline operators, Norgasco, Inc., (``NI''), and BreitBurn Energy Company...

  5. Offshore oil in the alaskan arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, W F; Weller, G

    1984-07-27

    Oil and gas deposits in the Alaskan Arctic are estimated to contain up to 40 percent of the remaining undiscovered crude oil and oil-equivalent nature gas within U.S. jurisdiction. Most (65 to 70 percent) of these estimated reserves are believed to occur offshore beneath the shallow, ice-covered seas, of the Alaskan continental shelf. Offshore recovery operations for such areas are far from routine, with the primary problems associated with the presence of ice. Some problems that must be resolved if efficient, cost-effective, environmentally safe, year-round offshore production is to be achieved include the accurate estimation of ice forces on offshore structures, the proper placement of pipelines beneath ice-produced gouges in the sea floor, and the cleanup of oil spills in pack ice areas.

  6. Methanotrophic activity in the water column above shallow gas flares west of Prins Karls Forland, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gründger, Friederike; Svenning, Mette M.; Niemann, Helge; Silyakova, Anna; Serov, Pavel; Pavlov, Alexey K.; Granskog, Mats A.; Ferre, Bénédicte; Carroll, JoLynn

    2016-04-01

    Numerous gas flares, interpreted to be streams of methane bubbles, were discovered in shallow waters (average water depth about 90 m) on the continental shelf west of Prins Karls Forland (Western Svalbard) in the Arctic Ocean. Gas is released from the seabed to the water column and potentially transferred into the atmosphere where it acts as a potent greenhouse gas. In order to resolve the fate of dissolved methane in the water column, we carried out grid-pattern biogeochemical measurements in the study area of 30 x 15 km. Specifically, we measured concentrations of dissolved methane and microbial methane oxidation (MOx) rates at 8 water depths at 31 sampling stations and performed 16S rRNA sequencing analysis on selected samples to characterize the microbial community composition. Availability of dissolved methane is essential for the process of microbial methane oxidation. However, our measurements reveal that high concentrations of dissolved methane in the water column do not necessarily lead to high MOx rates. Our results indicated that the presence of marine methanotrophic biomass as well as dissolved organic matter is of larger importance for the process of microbial methane oxidation. For example, we found MOx hot spots with values up to 13 nmol l-1 d-1 at bottom water depth with dissolved methane concentrations less than 160 nmol l-1. In contrast, at stations where bottom methane concentration values reached 640 nmol l-1, MOx rates were less than 0.7 nmol l-1 d-1. To interpret observed interconnection between methane concentrations and MOx rates, we use vertical distributions of seawater temperature, salinity and properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). This information helps us characterize the oceanographic setting and circulation patterns in the area, which we believe has a major impact on the origin and distribution of methanotrophic microbial biomass and methane oxidation in methanerich bottom water. This study is part of the Centre for

  7. Theoretical study and design of a low-grade heat-driven pilot ejector refrigeration machine operating with butane and isobutane and intended for cooling of gas transported in a gas-main pipeline

    KAUST Repository

    Petrenko, V.O.

    2011-11-01

    This paper describes the construction and performance of a novel combined system intended for natural gas transportation and power production, and for cooling of gas transported in a gas-main pipeline. The proposed system includes a gas turbine compressor, a combined electrogenerating plant and an ejector refrigeration unit operating with a hydrocarbon refrigerant. The combined electrogenerating plant consists of a high-temperature steam-power cycle and a low-temperature hydrocarbon vapor power cycle, which together comprise a binary vapor system. The combined system is designed for the highest possible effectiveness of power generation and could find wide application in gas-transmission systems of gas-main pipelines. Application of the proposed system would enable year-round power generation and provide cooling of natural gas during periods of high ambient temperature operation. This paper presents the main results of a theoretical study and design performance specifications of a low-grade heat-driven pilot ejector refrigeration machine operating with butane and isobutane. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and IIR. All rights reserved.

  8. Arctic Bathymetry (batharcst)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The digitally compiled map includes geology, oil and gas field centerpoints, and geologic provinces of the Arctic (North Pole area encircled by 640 N Latitude). The...

  9. Arctic Geology (geoarcst)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The digitally compiled map includes geology, oil and gas field centerpoints, and geologic provinces of the Arctic (North Pole area encircled by 640 N Latitude). The...

  10. Pressure-velocity model and speed adjustment strategy for in-pipe detector in gas pipeline%输气管道内检测器压力-速度模型及速度调整策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨理践; 赵洋; 高松巍

    2012-01-01

    The operation speed of in-pipeline detector will affect the accuracy of the data detection during non-destructive testing of gas pipeline. So speed regulation problem of in-pipeline detector is studied in this paper. The speed regulation of in-pipeline detector can be seen as the speed change under different steady states. In this paper, the in-pipeline detector and up-down stream gas are regarded as a whole. According to the principles of fluid mechanics, the relationship between the pipeline pressure and speed of in-pipeline detector is analyzed under stable state; and the pressure-speed model of in-pipeline detector is built. The speed of in-pipeline detector is calculated under different steady states based on the pressure-speed model, which is used as the basis of speed adjustment of in-pipeline detector. The results of simulation operation in the Second Pipeline of West-East natural gas pipeline show that the speed of in-pipeline detector can be accurately calculated and effectively adjusted with the proposed model.%内检测器的运行速度在输气管道无损检测过程中会影响数据检测的精度.针对内检测器运行速度调节问题进行研究,内检测器速度调节可以看作不同稳态条件下速度的变化.将漏磁内检测器与上下游气体视为一个整体,并根据流体力学原理分析了平稳状态下管道压力与内检测器运行速度之间的关系,建立了内检测器的压力-速度模型.通过所建立的压力-速度模型,计算出管道不同稳态条件下的内检测器速度,并以此作为内检测器速度调节的依据.通过在西气东输二线管道模拟运行表明该模型可以准确地计算出内检测器的运行速度并可以有效的进行速度调节.

  11. MATLAB在天然气管道工程中的应用%Application of MATLAB to Natural Gas Pipeline Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付雅辉; 彭昆鹏; 姚良静; 王北福

    2012-01-01

    在输气管道的设计、泄漏故障诊断、动态模拟计算等过程中,必须对输气管道进行静态数值模拟,以得到稳态时的工作压力、输气量等参数。本文采用MATLAB编程的方法进行计算,从而大大缩短计算时间、提高运算速度,便于今后在工程中的应用。%In the design of gas transmission pipeline, the leakage fault diagnosis, dynamic simulation calculation and other process, it was necessary to do the numerical simulation to the gas pipeline to get the work parameters such as pres-sure, gas transmission volume under the steady state. Using MATLAB programming to calculate can greatly reduce the computation time, increase the speed, and ease of future applications in engineering.

  12. The value analysis of oil-gas currents' flowing process in pipeline%气液两相流在管内流动的数值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢黎明; 朱绪胜; 王岩

    2011-01-01

    Through the flow field computation model in the Fluent, it can simulate the transportation process of the oil-gas lubrication system in pipeline. To identify the influence of Reynold's number regarding two phase currents in the oil dripping size, and whether the oil dripping is continuous. Through simulation,when the Reynold's number value is reasonable, it forms continual oil-gas mixture in the pipeline,futhemore, the lubricating oil turns to dripping shape. All of the above conforms to the oil gas lubrication specification.%通过在Fluent建立流场计算模型,对油气润滑系统中润滑油在管道中的输送过程进行数值计算,对雷诺数在两相流中对油滴大小的影响及油滴是否连续的影响进行研究.通过模拟发现,当雷诺数取值合理时,在管道中形成连续的油气混合物,且润滑油被离散为油滴状,符合油气润滑的技术要求.

  13. Advanced functions using VBA for the Yacuiba Rio Grande (GASYRG) gas pipeline; Funcoes avancadas usando VBA no gasoduto Yacuiba Rio Grande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Vega, Raul [TRANSIERRA S.A., Santa Cruz (Bolivia)

    2005-07-01

    The Yacuiba - Rio Grande Gas Pipeline is remote operated from the Supervision and Control Center (CSC) located in the offices of Transierra S.A. in Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia. This operation is made by means of a SCADA system based on satellite communication, it starts off at Yacuiba and finishes in Rio Grande, where it deliveries the export gas to Brazil. An Advanced Functions application was developed at the Transierra's CSC, This application runs under Intellution's iFix (HMI of the SCADA) in a Windows platform. It gathers transportation data in real time and by means of a mathematical process and a steady state simulation it makes the following on line calculations: Line Pack, Leak Detection, Transport Efficiency, Pressure Estimate in intermediate points and gas real velocity in the pipeline. The application was developed using Visual BASIC for Applications (VBA) (included in Intellution's iFix) and by means of an interphase to a historical server (iHistorian, Intellution) it is possible to store the obtained results, this integration also allows for the creation of graphs and trends with a great flexibility and to activate alarm points. With a practically null investment, this application replaces high cost specialized packages that are accessories to simulation or SCADA applications. (author)

  14. Drag reduction by polymer addition in single and two-phase gas-liquid flows in pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizotto, Vanessa Cristina; Paes, Diogo Melo; Franca, Fernando de Almeida [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudos de Petroleo. LabPetro]. E-mails: vanessa@cepetro.unicamp.br; diogopaes10@hotmail.com; Sabadini, Edvaldo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mails: sabadini@iqm.unicamp.br; ffranca@fem.unicamp.br

    2008-07-01

    Turbulence mechanisms, as the eddies formation frequency and size, promote energy dissipation that appears as pressure drop in pipe flows. Adding minute amounts of polymers - ppm - of high molecular weight to the solution can lead to the reduction of the viscous dissipation. The formed macromolecules interact with the eddies, cause the eddies coherence breakdown, damp the energy transport and reduces the pressure drop. This phenomenon is known as the hydrodynamic drag reduction (DR, for short). Thus, for a given pipe flow rate there is decrease in pressure head, which is a desired operating strategy when transporting liquids. Studies on the hydrodynamic drag reduction in polymeric systems have been carried out in collaboration by the Chemistry Institute and the Petroleum Laboratory - LabPetro, UNICAMP. These studies have allowed microscopic approaches to the engineering scales, tackling the most usual processes - single phase flows, as well as gas-liquid two-phase flows in pipelines, which are quite common in the chemical and the petroleum industries. Tests conducted in the Chemistry Institute comprised over-the-bench experimentations made with a rotational double-gap type rheometer. These quick performed tests used small amount of polymers, and provided information on the additive concentration, the drag reduction and the solution mechanical stability along a turbulent shearing process. The results indicated that 17% is the limiting drag reduction achieved when a 2 ppm aqueous solution of polyacrylamide - PAM - was tested. These tests, besides giving preliminary estimations, are limited in terms of engineering application due to the low shearing rates applied by the viscometer. The tests performed at LabPetro comprised pressure drop measurements in actual pipe flows, both water single and air-water two-phase flows, using the previous knowledge acquired with the viscometer tests. In the former case, the Prandtl-von Karman map has been drawn to show the %DR in terms

  15. The influence of pipeline wettability and crude oil composition on deposition of gas hydrates during petroleum production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspenes, Guro

    2009-07-01

    At specific temperature and pressure conditions, hydrates can sometimes plug production pipelines. It has been shown that some oils contain natural inhibiting compounds (NICs) that prevent hydrate plug formation even though the pressure and temperature are within the hydrate formation conditions. Thus, the hydrate plugging tendency is influenced by the crude oil composition. The mechanisms by which deposition of hydrates occur in a petroleum production system are also likely to be related to pipeline surface properties, e.g. pipeline material, surface free energy and roughness. The ultimate aim of this work is to develop an understanding of the deposition of hydrates on the pipeline wall. Most of the work in this thesis deals with contact angle measurements that determine the wettability of various solids. Different materials and oil compositions have been tested including both model oil systems and crude oil systems. Micromechanical force experiments have been used to determine the adhesion force between hydrates and solids with different amounts of petroleum acids present in the oil phase. The factors that have been identified in this work as most likely influencing deposition of hydrates to the pipeline wall are the presence of free water, surface material and crude oil composition. It may seem as if hydrate deposition will not occur unless free water is present. When the pipeline wall material has a low surface free energy, such as epoxy coated surfaces, deposition seems to be reduced. Crude oils that are assumed as non-plugging and contain high concentrations of acids seems to reduce the probability for deposition to occur. (Author)

  16. Four years of oil-free full-metal shut-off slides for gas pipelines; Vier Jahre oelfreie rein metallisch dichtende Gasabsperrschieber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linstedt, Holger; Seewald, Gerhard; Fugmann, Kay [TEC artec valves GmbH und Co. KG, Oranienburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    After several years of operation, oil-filled shut-off slides will slowly have soiled gas pipelines. Oil-free full-metal shut-off slides are advantageous both from an ecological and technical view. Serial production will reduce the cost and shorten delivery times. The slide presented in this contribution also enables double block and bleed testing after installation. Horizontal slides open up new fields of application. Complete cross-joint slides have a particularly high cost reduction effect. Radio monitoring and control is possible in remote areas. (orig.)

  17. Simulation and Optimization of Peak Shaving Scenario for Natural Gas Pipeline Network%天然气集输管道调峰优化策略分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冉; 许淘淘; 张延祥; 张光通

    2015-01-01

    在本论文中,笔者首先介绍了天然气集输管道的现状及发展趋势,而后对天然气集输管道调峰优化的原则进行了分析,最后对调峰优化的策略进行了深入探讨.%The status in quo and trends of the natural gas pipeline are introduced in this paper along with the principles and tactics of optimization for peak load regulation.

  18. 天然气长输管道火炬放空扩散规律研究%Study on Diffusion Law of Gas During Long Distance Gas Pipeline Venting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁俊奕

    2016-01-01

    天然气的放空扩散非常危险,研究天然气长输管道火炬放空扩散的规律,可以为其安全放空提供指导依据。PHAST 软件是公认的最权威最准确的后果分析软件,可以用于长输管道的天然气放空扩散计算。采用该软件建立天然气长输管道系统的亚临界流不点火放空的扩散模型,确定天然气在不点火放空过程中可能燃烧的危险区域。以某实际长输管道为例,计算两种工况下天然气扩散规律。结果显示,在放空过程中风速影响天然气的扩散。低风速时,天然气会向上扩散,在高风速时,天然气向水平方向扩散。天然气50%LFL 云团水平距离随风速的增大而增加,云团高度随风速的增加而减小。%Diffusion of gas is very dangerous during flare venting. The research on the diffusion law of gas during long distance gas pipeline flare venting can provide guidance for gas blowdown.PHAST is recognized as the most authoritative and accurate consequence analysis software and can be used to calculate the flare venting. The software is adopted to establish subcritical flow diffusion model of gas during long distance gas pipeline venting. Danger zone of gas ignition can be determined. In this paper, taking a practical long-distance pipeline as an example, diffusion law of natural gas was calculated under the two conditions. The results show that wind speed can affect the gas diffusion.The gas upward diffuses when wind speed is low; the gas horizontally diffuses when wind speed is high.Natural gas 50%LFL cloud horizontal distance increases with the increase of wind speed and cloud height decreases with the increase of wind speed.

  19. Co-Production of Olefins, Fuels, and Electricity from Conventional Pipeline Gas and Shale Gas with Near-Zero CO2 Emissions. Part I: Process Development and Technical Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Khojasteh Salkuyeh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel polygeneration process is presented in this paper that co-produces olefins, methanol, dimethyl ether, and electricity from conventional pipeline natural gas and different kinds of shale gases. Technical analyses of many variants of the process are performed, considering differences in power generation strategy and gas type. The technical analysis results show that the efficiency of the plant varies between 22%–57% (HHV depending on the product portfolio. The efficiency is higher than a traditional methanol-to-olefin process, which enables it to be competitive with traditional naphtha cracking plants.

  20. 75 FR 2926 - Pipeline Safety: Reporting Drug and Alcohol Test Results for Contractors and Multiple Operator...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... notice advises operators of gas, hazardous liquid, and carbon dioxide pipelines and liquefied natural gas...: Operators of Gas, Hazardous Liquid, and Carbon Dioxide Pipelines and Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Reporting Drug and Alcohol...

  1. ANSYS法对含腐蚀含缺陷管道的剩余强度评价%RESIDUAL STRENGTH EVALUATION OF NATURAL GAS PIPELINE WITH DEFECTS BASED ON ANSYS METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 方江敏; 王伟

    2013-01-01

    The strength of the pipeline with corrosion defects may change greatly. The aim to e-valuate the residual strength of the long-distance gas pipeline with corrosion defects is to study whether such pipeline can be used in normal operation under certain operating pressure and the maximum working pressure which is allowed to exist under certain defects. This may help to guide the maintenance plan of the pipeline and the management of safe production. In this paper, the residual strength of the gas pipeline which has defects is analyzed by using the finite element analysis software-ANSYS including the influence of the length and depth of the axial corrosion defect on residual strength of the pipeline, the influence of the general corrosion and the uniform corrosion on residual strength of the pipeline. The analysis shows that the finite element method is viable in calculating the residual strength of pipeline with corrosion defects and the residual strength of the corroded pipeline is obtained under a variety of corrosion parameters. The results indicate that finite element method can provide great theoretical reference to practical engineering application.%文章采用ANSYS有限元法对含有缺陷的天然气管道的剩余强度进行分析,分析轴向腐蚀缺陷的长度和深度对管道剩余强度的影响,以及周向腐蚀、均匀腐蚀对管道剩余强度的影响.分析表明:采用有限元方法对含腐蚀缺陷管道计算剩余强度是可行的,以及各种腐蚀状况下管道的剩余强度.有限元分析法可为实际工程应用提供理论参考依据.

  2. 75 FR 64303 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... be restored and allowed to revert to former uses. As planned, the new pipeline loops would primarily... 12, 2010. For your convenience, there are four methods you can use to submit your comments to the... assist you at (202) 502-8258 or efiling@ferc.gov . 1. You may file your comments electronically by...

  3. Market evaluation and investment planning in natural gas industry in Brazil: development of the net distribution pipeline; Avaliacao de mercado e planejamento de investimentos na industria de gas natural no Brasil: perspectivas de crescimento da malha de gasodutos de distribuicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Pedro L.; Pamplona, Edson O. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper proposes to develop a real options model to decision-making investments in flexible technologies. As a result, finding a closed-form solution, derived from the partial differential equation of the value of flexibility provided by alternative fuels. However, you can present and analysis the results of a practical application using the method to solve real options problems known as binomial model. Initially presents a brief explanation on the method of discounted cash flow, its failures and changes to the real options analysis. In the sequence chart an overview of the natural gas industry on Brazil, emphasizing the need for consistent investments evaluations in the sector. The next section shows the proposed development of mathematical model for assessing the flexibility to choose, obtained by the exchange of fuel for transport of gas pipeline distribution of natural gas. The model takes as the case scenario where the flexible pipeline can carry both natural gas and hydrogen, and the evaluation of the option of exchanging input gives more value to the investment opportunity, and consider the optimum conditions where the option to be exercised. Keywords: Decision Making, Real Options; Natural Gas, Flexible Technology. (author)

  4. 城市埋地钢质燃气管道预警系统研究%Study on the Early Warning System of Urban Buried Steel Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁金彪; 乔武康

    2012-01-01

    Pipeline risk disaster early warning is one of the important non-engineering measures in the risk defense of pipeline accidents in urban buried gas pipe network.Pipeline risk early warning system is actually to analyze the pipeline risk status and the development trend of pipeline dangerous risk factors,and to obtain the grade of pipeline safety warning.As a result,the corresponding action notice may be delivered to the affected areas.Therefore,enterprises and community can make timely,effective,appropriate responses.In the paper,the goal of the early warning system of urban buried steel gas pipeline was presented,and the four phases of the system were analyzed.The early warning system of urban buried steel gas pipeline was set up and the corresponding process was proposed.%管道风险灾害预警是城市燃气埋地管网防御管道事故风险中重要的非工程措施之一。管道风险预警系统实际上是对管道危险状态和管道危险危害因素的发展趋势进行客观分析,得出管道安全预警等级,并对可能受影响的区域发出相应的行动通告,以便企业、社会做出及时、有效、恰当的响应。文章提出城市埋地钢质燃气管道预警系统目标,分析系统的四个阶段,研发了城市埋地钢质燃气管道预警系统的构建方法,并阐述了相应的流程。

  5. Dual-tree complex wavelet transform and SVD based acoustic noise reduction and its application in leak detection for natural gas pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xuchao; Liang, Wei; Zhang, Laibin; Jin, Hao; Qiu, Jingwei

    2016-05-01

    During the last decades, leak detection for natural gas pipeline has become one of the paramount concerns of pipeline operators and researchers across the globe. However, acoustic wave method has been proved to be an effective way to identify and localize leakage for gas pipeline. Considering the fact that noises inevitably exist in the acoustic signals collected, noise reduction should be enforced on the signals for subsequent data mining and analysis. Thus, an integrated acoustic noise reduction method based on DTCWT and SVD is proposed in this study. The method is put forward based on the idea that noise reduction strategy should match the characteristics of the noisy signal. According to previous studies, it is known that the energy of acoustic signals collected under leaking condition is mainly concentrated in low-frequency portion (0-100 Hz). And ultralow-frequency component (0-5 Hz), which is taken as the characteristic frequency band in this study, can propagate a relatively longer distance and be captured by sensors. Therefore, in order to filter the noises and to reserve the characteristic frequency band, DTCWT is taken as the core to conduct multilevel decomposition and refining for acoustic signals and SVD is employed to eliminate noises in non-characteristic bands. Both simulation and field experiments show that DTCWT-SVD is an excellent method for acoustic noise reduction. At the end of this study, application in leakage localization shows that it becomes much easier and a little more accurate to estimate the location of leak hole after noise reduction by DTCWT-SVD.

  6. Metrological control of the gas flow and analysis of mass conservation in Bolivia-Brasil gas pipeline; Controle metrologico da vazao de gas e analise da conservacao de massa no gasoduto Bolivia-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palhares, Julio Cesar [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Orlando, Alcir de Faro; Frota, Mauricio Nogueira [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao em Metrologia para Qualidade Industrial

    2005-07-01

    International gas pipelines reflect a integrated commerce and impose a metrological challenge for the custody transferences that indistinctly imply in significant economic impact. This work argues the complex analysis of the mass balance and expression of uncertainties of the Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil (3.150 Km of length, 557 Km in Bolivian territory and 2.593 Km that cross Brazil of West for East), today carrying approximately 60% from its maximum capacity (30 million of cubic meters daily), operating for the Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., a enterprise controlled by PETROBRAS Gas S/A (GASPETRO). The TBG measuring methods always taking care of the necessities of the customers as well as being lined up with the changes of the natural gas market. In six years of existence, the TBG came along with the legislation created for regulating agency in formation and adjusted to the establishment of the contract inspector, important landmarks of the evolution of the market. This work presents the definitions that guide the metrological subjects of the TBG, making use of efficient tools in answers for each demand and searching to satisfy its proper necessities, the necessities of its customers and the new demands of the regulating agency. (author)

  7. Fluid-structure interaction analysis and lifetime estimation of a natural gas pipeline centrifugal compressor under near-choke and near-surge conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yaping; Liu, Hui; Yao, Ziyun; Xing, Peng; Zhang, Chuhua

    2015-11-01

    Up to present, there have been no studies concerning the application of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis to the lifetime estimation of multi-stage centrifugal compressors under dangerous unsteady aerodynamic excitations. In this paper, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of a three-stage natural gas pipeline centrifugal compressor are performed under near-choke and near-surge conditions, and the unsteady aerodynamic pressure acting on impeller blades are obtained. Then computational structural dynamics (CSD) analysis is conducted through a one-way coupling FSI model to predict alternating stresses in impeller blades. Finally, the compressor lifetime is estimated using the nominal stress approach. The FSI results show that the impellers of latter stages suffer larger fluctuation stresses but smaller mean stresses than those at preceding stages under near-choke and near-surge conditions. The most dangerous position in the compressor is found to be located near the leading edge of the last-stage impeller blade. Compressor lifetime estimation shows that the investigated compressor can run up to 102.7 h under the near-choke condition and 200.2 h under the near-surge condition. This study is expected to provide a scientific guidance for the operation safety of natural gas pipeline centrifugal compressors.

  8. 天然气管道泄漏爆炸事故风险分析%Analysis of the Leak Explosion Risk of Natural Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国军; 高志国; 申龙涉; 王秋莎; 代堪亮; 赵虎; 袁玉

    2012-01-01

    针对天然气管道泄漏爆炸,采用爆炸冲击波超压模型,结合TNT当量法对超压进行理论计算,确定了其爆炸事故的伤害范围,找到了影响超压的主要影响因素,提出了减小冲击波超压的措施,为制订天然气管道安全运行及应急预案提供了依据.%Aiming at leak explosion of the natural gas pipeline, blast shock wave overpressure model was used, combining with TNT equivalent method to calculate the overpressure. Then the range of explosion damage was determine, and the main factors that affect the overpressure were found. Therefore the measures to reduce the overpressure were put forward, which provides the basis for the natural gas pipeline operation safe and emergency.

  9. The importance of environmental communications in gas pipeline projects; A importancia da pre-comunicacao ambiental no licenciamento, implantacao e operacao de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Marcia Bartolini; Sarno, Ruy Alberto Campos [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The Environmental Pre-Communication is a tool developed to identify the profiles of communities surrounding the marked area (lifestyle, resources, fragilities, beliefs, culture and wishes), how they make their living, and production (community dependence relationship with ecosystems, such as rivers and subsistence areas), social organization, needs and expectations. Besides developing a social economic diagnostic, pre-communication prepares a community perception study. Regarding gas pipelines, the area of study comprehends 200 m towards each side of gas pipeline right-of-way in rural areas and 400 m towards each side in urban areas. Pre-Communication diagnostic, which is included in the process of environmental licensing, is aimed at subsidizing EIS (Environmental Impact Statement), providing data which help to elaborate mitigating and compensatory plans and programs. Moreover, diagnostic information make it possible to run public forums before Public Hearings take place, aiming at clarifying specific community issues related to construction and reduction of resistances, avoiding problems and conflicts. Also, during the entrepreneurship implementation phase, there is the advantage to know the bordering community and its daily activities, increasing the effectiveness of Environmental Programs. (author)

  10. Modeling the evolution of climate-sensitive Arctic subsea permafrost in regions of extensive gas expulsion at the West Yamal shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnov, Alexey; Mienert, Jurgen; Serov, Pavel

    2014-11-01

    Thawing subsea permafrost controls methane release from the Russian Arctic shelf having a considerable impact on the climate-sensitive Arctic environment. Expulsions of methane from shallow Russian Arctic shelf areas may continue to rise in response to intense degradation of relict subsea permafrost. Here we show modeling of the permafrost evolution from the Late Pleistocene to present time at the West Yamal shelf. Modeling results suggest a highly dynamic permafrost system that directly responds to even minor variations of lower and upper boundary conditions, e.g., geothermal heat flux from below and/or bottom water temperature changes from above permafrost. Scenarios of permafrost evolution show a potentially nearest landward modern extent of the permafrost at the West Yamal shelf limited by ~17 m isobaths, whereas its farthest seaward extent coincides with ~100 m isobaths. The model also predicts seaward tapering of relict permafrost with a maximal thickness of 275-390 m near the shoreline. Previous field observations detected extensive emissions of free gas into the water column at the transition zone between today's shallow water permafrost (20 m). The model adapts well to corresponding heat flux and ocean temperature data, providing crucial information about the modern permafrost conditions. It shows current locations of upper and lower permafrost boundaries and evidences for possible release of methane from the seabed to the hydrosphere in a warming Arctic.

  11. Sweden and the NEGP: A Pilot Study of the North European Gas Pipeline and Sweden's Dependence on Russian Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Robert L.

    2006-06-15

    Developments between 2004 and 2006 indicate that a North European Gas Pipeline (NEGP) through the Baltic Sea, from Russia to Germany, may be realised in the coming decade. This would provide Europe with yet another opportunity to diversify its import channels of gas. It is however reasonable to assume that the NEGP also could change the strategic pattern and be a source of friction. The NEGP may rock the regional stability and reduce the potential of the new EU members to become security providers in Europe's northern dimension. It also gives increased leverage and influence to Russia, a state that has moved in an authoritarian direction under President Putin. The aim of this pilot study is to elucidate on the NEGP pipeline and Sweden's increasing dependence on Russian energy. A subsidiary aim is to outline a set of concerns that have bearing on the situation for the EU and Baltic Sea Region and that need to be further addressed. In conclusion, the NEGP will enhance Russia's direct leverage on Poland, Ukraine, and Belarus, as it will allow Russia to turn off gas supplies without affecting exports to other parts of Europe. Russia will also increase its leverage over the states that will or may be connected to the NEGP (Germany, and possibly Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands and the UK). Even if Sweden is not embracing the NEGP, it is today highly sensitive as it imports most of its energy. It is increasingly dependent on Russian oil and is partly dependent on imports of electricity from Russia. Should the NEGP materialise and Sweden becomes connected in the future, it would likely be dependent also on natural gas. It is of paramount importance for the energy security of the connected states how the pipeline is constructed and operated. If there will be technical possibilities for Russia to tamper with the flow of gas to individual states without affecting supply to others, there are tangible threats to the importing states.

  12. Leadership Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer grundlaget for Leadership Pipeline modellen med henblik på en vurdering af substansen bag modellen, og perspektiverne for generalisering af modellen til en dansk organisatorisk kontekst.......Artiklen analyserer grundlaget for Leadership Pipeline modellen med henblik på en vurdering af substansen bag modellen, og perspektiverne for generalisering af modellen til en dansk organisatorisk kontekst....

  13. An Experimental Simulation of Load-Leveling Through Adsorption for Natural Gas Pipeline System%天然气管网吸附调峰可行性的模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周理; 王怡琳; 陈海华; 周亚平

    2002-01-01

    A load-leveling method through adsorption was presented to adjust the supply quantity according to the consumption rate of naturalgas with time. An experimental simulation set up was designed and used to test the load-leveling function for a real pipeline system. A storagetank filled with activated carbon together with a filter constitutes the major part of the load-leveling facility. Pressure and temperature of thesystem, as well as the reai gas output of the storage tank were recorded. It is proven that load-leveling by adsorption is technically feasible evenfor low pipeline pressure of natural gas supply system.

  14. 20 Years of Air-Water Gas Exchange Observations for Pesticides in the Western Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantunen, Liisa M; Wong, Fiona; Gawor, Anya; Kylin, Henrik; Helm, Paul A; Stern, Gary A; Strachan, William M J; Burniston, Deborah A; Bidleman, Terry F

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic has been contaminated by legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and currently used pesticides (CUPs) through atmospheric transport and oceanic currents. Here we report the time trends and air-water exchange of OCPs and CUPs from research expeditions conducted between 1993 and 2013. Compounds determined in both air and water were trans- and cis-chlordanes (TC, CC), trans- and cis-nonachlors (TN, CN), heptachlor exo-epoxide (HEPX), dieldrin (DIEL), chlorobornanes (ΣCHBs and toxaphene), dacthal (DAC), endosulfans and metabolite endosulfan sulfate (ENDO-I, ENDO-II, and ENDO SUL), chlorothalonil (CHT), chlorpyrifos (CPF), and trifluralin (TFN). Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB and quintozene) and its soil metabolite pentachlorothianisole (PCTA) were also found in air. Concentrations of most OCPs declined in surface water, whereas some CUPs increased (ENDO-I, CHT, and TFN) or showed no significant change (CPF and DAC), and most compounds declined in air. Chlordane compound fractions TC/(TC + CC) and TC/(TC + CC + TN) decreased in water and air, while CC/(TC + CC + TN) increased. TN/(TC + CC + TN) also increased in air and slightly, but not significantly, in water. These changes suggest selective removal of more labile TC and/or a shift in chlordane sources. Water-air fugacity ratios indicated net volatilization (FR > 1.0) or near equilibrium (FR not significantly different from 1.0) for most OCPs but net deposition (FR < 1.0) for ΣCHBs. Net deposition was shown for ENDO-I on all expeditions, while the net exchange direction of other CUPs varied. Understanding the processes and current state of air-surface exchange helps to interpret environmental exposure and evaluate the effectiveness of international protocols and provides insights for the environmental fate of new and emerging chemicals.

  15. Decommissioning end of life oilfield facilities and pipelines : the first step to the safe and efficient remediation of oil and gas sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitchen, J.; Thygesen, S. [JSK Consulting Ltd., Red Deer, AB (Canada)

    2005-06-30

    Environmentally sound decommissioning practices in the remediation and reclamation process were reviewed, with reference to abandoned oil and gas facilities and pipelines. There are inherent dangers associated with aged infrastructure, and decommissioning companies should be the first service on site to ensure that all facilities have been located, removed and cleaned. All licensed, unlicensed and on-lease pipelines are required to be properly abandoned. Site research is needed to identify any industry or government regulated requirements that may impact the decommissioning process. Decommissioning companies are also responsible for recording all relevant site information so that it can be conveyed to remediation and reclamation companies. A knowledge of landowner sensitivities, weather affected access, unlicensed facilities and locations of historic contamination are crucial to all parties involved. Additional documentation, such as photographs and survey drawings, can assist remediation and reclamation companies in locating areas of concern. Once a well has been abandoned in Alberta, surface equipment, cement pads, debris and produced liquids associated with the well license must be removed within 12 months of the cutting and capping operation. Records of the removal and cleanup activities must be retained by the licensee. Many sites have been sitting dormant for several years and can be harboring dangerous production fluids, asbestos, Hantavirus and other hazardous materials. All equipment must be steam-cleaned by qualified personnel and all production fluids and contaminated water from the cleaning process must be captured and transported to a waste facility. All equipment that is deemed re-usable can be returned to inventory or re-used. Equipment that can not be salvaged is sold for recycling at a steel mill. All pipelines are required to be cleaned of hydrocarbons, purged and left with a medium of inert gas or atmospheric air. Residual fluids left in a

  16. 49 CFR 192.10 - Outer continental shelf pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outer continental shelf pipelines. 192.10 Section... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 192.10 Outer continental shelf pipelines. Operators of transportation pipelines on the Outer Continental Shelf (as defined in...

  17. Dynamic Simulation on the Pattern of End Section Storage of Gas Pipelines%输气管道末段储气规律动态仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑志炜; 吴长春

    2012-01-01

    末段储气是输气管道短期调峰的重要手段,工程上经常用稳态计算法估算输气管道末段储气量,而末段储气过程是一个复杂的非稳态过程,因此用稳态计算法估算末段储气量具有一定的偏差.本文通过对管道末段进行多种工况下的非稳态模拟来界定末段储气量稳态计算法的偏差范围,并得到了若干管道末段的储气规律.针对影响输气管道末段储气的各种因素,分别按不同管径、管长、进口压力和流量设计了6种工况并利用国际上通用的管道仿真软件SPS 9.6(Stoner Pipeline Simulator 9.6)进行动态仿真.结果表明,在非稳态工况下,稳态法计算末段储气量比非稳态计算末段储气量低约14%-25%;输气管道末段储气量的变化受用气负荷变化规律的影响,在不同工况下末段最大储气量出现的时间一般比管道末端最大用气负荷出现的时间有所提前或时间相近;当管道末端用气流量发生变化时,管道末段起点压力的变化较终点压力的变化具有滞后性,管段越长、管径越大,滞后越明显.%The end section storage is an important mean for short term peak shaving of gas pipeline. Steady state calculation is usually adopted to estimate end section inventory, however the process of end section storage is a complicated dynamic process, and the end section inventory obtained by steady state calculation has some deviation. The deviation range of steady state calculation is defined via dynamic simulations on end section storage in many conditions. And some patterns involving end section storage are obtained. According to the factors which affect end section storage of gas pipelines, six conditions which have different inner diameters, lengths, inlet pressures, and flow rates of end section are simulated by using an internationally popular pipeline simulation software of Stoner Pipeline Simular (SPS) 9.6. The simulation results indicate that with dynamic

  18. Technical and economic aspects of high-pressure gas pipeline rehabilitation - the Czech way; Les aspects techniques et economiques des rehabilitations des gazoducs a haut pression - la route Tcheque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petr, Crha; Petr, Paoized; Jano, Zvada [CEPS, (Czech Republic)

    2000-07-01

    The Czech gas industry is more than 150 years old. The first high-pressure pipelines were built at the end of the 1930's. At present, more than 4,800 km of pipelines older than 30 years are in operation. These lines are therefore approaching the age at which their technical condition needs to be examined to guarantee their safe and reliable operation. Moreover most of these lines were originally designed for town gas distribution at a pressure of 25 bar. Nevertheless, the pipe material's actual parameters usually permit an increase in MAOP, which is very desirable in natural gas distribution. Verifying fitness for purpose; the actual level of safety; the pipelines ability to meet the requirements of current regulations; the actual material properties; as well as repairing the defects identified - all of these are components of a comprehensive approach known as pipeline rehabilitation. Its purpose is to achieve at least the original technical condition of the pipeline and, wherever possible, exploit the original technical parameters more than in pre-rehabilitation operation. This poster describes a method of high-pressure rehabilitation developed on the basis of more than 15 years of research into steel pipe reliability and applied on an industrial scale in the Czech Republic over the past ten years. In addition to the technical description, the economic benefits offered by this method are indicated. (authors)

  19. Northern pipelines : challenges and needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, D.; Brownie, D. [ProLog Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Fafara, R. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Working Group 10 presented experiences acquired from the operation of pipeline systems in a northern environment. There are currently 3 pipelines operating north of 60, notably the Shiha gas pipeline near Fort Liard, the Ikhil gas pipeline in Inuvik and the Norman Wells oil pipeline. Each has its unique commissioning, operating and maintenance challenges, as well as specific training and logistical support requirements for the use of in-line inspection tools and other forms of integrity assessment. The effectiveness of cathodic protection systems in a permafrost northern environment was also discussed. It was noted that the delay of the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline Project by two to three years due to joint regulatory review may lead to resource constraints for the project as well as competition for already scarce human resources. The issue of a potential timing conflict with the Alaskan Pipeline Project was also addressed as well as land use issues for routing of supply roads. Integrity monitoring and assessment issues were outlined with reference to pipe soil interaction monitoring in discontinuous permafrost; south facing denuded slope stability; base lining projects; and reclamation issues. It was noted that automatic welding and inspection will increase productivity, while reducing the need for manual labour. In response to anticipated training needs, companies are planning to involve and train Aboriginal labour and will provide camp living conditions that will attract labour. tabs., figs.

  20. Application of Pipeline Current Mapping Technology in Anti-corrosion Coating Detection of Underground Gas Pipeline%管道电流测绘技术在地下燃气管道防腐层检测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄奕昶; 杨博; 李炜; 黄琴

    2016-01-01

    城镇地下燃气管道的运行状况直接关乎城镇的安全。管道电流测绘技术可以在非开挖条件下对埋地管道的阴极保护有效性做出评价,有效地检测出埋地钢质管道外防腐层缺陷。在工程应用中,采用这种新颖的检测技术可以快速检测和定位某处地下燃气管道的外防腐层缺陷。%The running state of theurban underground gas pipeline is crucial to the city safety. The pipeline current mapping technology is able to evaluate the effectiveness of the cathodic protection of the underground pipeline without excavation and effectively detect the defects of the anti-corrosion coating of the underground steel pipeline. In engineering application, the defects of the anti-corrosion coating of the underground gas pipeline can be detected and located rapidly by using this new detection technology.

  1. 75 FR 14243 - Pipeline Safety: Girth Weld Quality Issues Due to Improper Transitioning, Misalignment, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... compliance with the Federal pipeline safety regulations in 49 CFR Parts 192 and 195. Operators of natural gas... constructed large diameter natural gas pipeline and hazardous liquid pipeline systems of the potential for... require operators of natural gas transmission, distribution, and hazardous liquids pipeline systems...

  2. Construction of new tie-in in the Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline (GASBOL) using hot tapping techniques; Derivacao do Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil com a tecnica de hot-tapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisoli, Caetano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Frota, Cristiane Souto; Leite Filho, Ismael Casono; Lobao Filho, Jesualdo Pereira; Saavedra, Marcelo Curto [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    To supply 2,4 MM m3/d of natural gas to Tres Lagoas thermo electric plant, it was necessary to install a new delivery point of 12'' in the 32'' trunk line of Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline. The most efficient method for executing new delivery points and maintenance repairs in pipelines is using the 'hot-tapping' technique, because there is no need to stop flow and blow down lines. This paper shows the project, specifications, planning and a detailed job execution to support this new city-gate, using a T split sleeve welded in the pipeline, explaining all the activities. Complex and innovative aspects related to the welding and inspection processes, executed in a API 5L X70 pipe at 92 kgf/cm{sup 2}, are also reported. (author)

  3. 油气长输管道风险管理技术探讨%Discussion on risk management technology of oil and gas long pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翔宇; 董兰凤; 王生新

    2012-01-01

    This paper described the necessity of oil and gas long pipeline risk management, introduced the basic concepts and method steps of risk management, focus described the indicator grading method widely used in current risk evaluation method, and pointed out the deficiencies in the current risk management methods, proposed the applied GIS technology and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to long pipeline risk management.%阐述了油气长输管道风险管理的必要性,介绍了风险管理的基本概念和方法步骤,重点描述了现行风险评价方法中应用较广的指标评分法,并指出了现行风险管理方法中的不足,提出了将GIS技术和模糊综合评判法应用于长输管道风险管理之中。

  4. Cryogels for oil and gas field construction under the conditions of arctic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunina, L. K.; Manzhay, V. N.; Fufaeva, M. S.

    2016-11-01

    The results of investigation of elastic and thermal properties of cryogels filled with used mineral oil are presented. A new chemical-biological method for oil and gas field construction in the northern regions is proposed and tested. The field experiments carried out in the territory of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District are described. The formation of cryotropic polymer systems occurring at shallow freezing from 0 to -3°C and the impact of crystructured soil on the viability, enzymatic activity of native soil microflora and growth of perennial herbs have been investigated. Cryogels are harmless to humans and safe for the environment.

  5. China's First Digital Pipeline Moves Forward Completely

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhanbin

    2005-01-01

    @@ The construction of China's first digital natural gas pipeline-Jining Branch of the West-East Gas Pipelinehas been accelerated completely. Up to May 8, the accumulative welded length of whole line exceeded 612 km, more than two thirds of the total length of the trunk pipeline of Jining Branch.

  6. Pipeline Protection Has Its Own Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Oil and Natural Gas Pipelines (hereinafter called "the Law") will be implemented officially on October 1 this year.This is the first time that oil and natural gas pipelines were protected and managed on legal basis.

  7. G IS 在油气管道工程全生命周期中的应用%The Application of GIS in the Life Cycle of Oil and Gas Pipeline Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏振生; 杨琪; 吴旭阳; 吉晓峰; 顾珂

    2013-01-01

    According to the characteristics of the existing pipeline life cycle and integrated with the construction process of a gas pipe -line, we analyzed and studied the application of GIS in the management of pipeline life cycle .This paper introduces a pipeline life cy-cle management system which is built and centered on management .Pipeline life cycle management contains the whole process of pipeline design, construction, operation, maintenance and scarping .The system provides strong data support for pipeline construc-tion, operation and management , therefore it can facilitate decision -making and improve the level of operation , management and safe production.%针对当前管道全生命周期管理的特点,结合某天然气管道信息化建设过程,分析与研究GIS在管道全生命周期管理中的应用。本文介绍基于SuperMap GIS为核心搭建的管道全生命周期管理系统,内容涉及管道设计、施工、运行维护到报废的全过程。本系统为管道建设、运营管理提供强大的数据支持,辅助决策分析,从而提高管道运行管理水平、安全生产水平。

  8. Yacuiba - Rio Grande Gas Pipeline (GASYRG), in Bolivia. The development of a company and the construction of the pipeline in a regulated and competitive environment; Gasoducto Yacuiba - Rio Grande (GASYRG), in Bolivia - experiencias de la creacion de una empresa y de la construccion del gasoducto bajo las condiciones de un escenario competitivo e regulado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Mauro de Oliveira; Montano, Jose Ruben [Transierra S.A. (Bolivia)

    2003-07-01

    In order to fulfill contractual agreements, three Bolivian companies decided to create Transierra S.A., a gas transportation company that would increase the gas transportation capacity from the gas fields, located in the Southern part of Bolivia. The overall objective was to build and operate a gas pipeline from Yacuiba to Rio Grande in time to comply with already agreed dates to star commercial operation. The creation of the company and the construction process were conducted in a highly competitive and regulated environment. Construction completion schedules were tight; therefore, under the previously mentioned scenario, the company implemented creative strategies to achieve its goals. (author)

  9. Weldability of the Anti-sulfide Corrosion X60 Gas Pipeline Steel%抗硫化物腐蚀的X60输气管线钢的焊接性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米秋占

    2001-01-01

    Introduced the weldability of the X60 pipeline steel transmittingof gas with high H2S and analyzed the result of the test.%介绍了输送含H2S较高的天然气X60管线钢焊接性。并对试验结果进行了分析。

  10. Dispatch optimization of gathering pipeline network based on quality indices of natural gas processing plant%基于天然气处理厂气质指标的集输管网调度优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐源; 艾慕阳; 刘武; 师春元; 刘春艳

    2013-01-01

    在建立符合实际工况的多气源组分平衡计算模型的基础上,以处理厂原料气气质指标为目标函数,建立优化模型并求解,得到在满足管网运行约束及各处理厂原料气气质指标前提下的管网运行参数.实例应用表明,建立的集输管网优化调度模型既可体现各气源点气质的差异性,又能满足各天然气处理厂对原料气气质的不同要求,计算结果能够准确地反映管网中的气质状况,从而确保净化装置的平稳运行.将该模型应用于实际管网,可为其生产运行调度提供重要的参考依据.%This paper,based on the construction of multi-gas sources component equilibrium calculation model in line with real working conditions,takes quality indices of raw gas in natural gas processing plant as objective function,sets up an optimized model to search solutions and finally get operational parameters of pipeline network under the condition of sound pipeline network running constraints and quality indices for the raw gas in gas processing plants.The field cases show that optimized dispatch model for gathering pipeline network can represent the differential gas quality of gas source locations,meet the needs of the natural gas processing plants for raw gas quality,and enable the calculation results to reflect gas quality status in the pipeline network,faithfully and accordingly ensure steady running of purification units.The model,if applied in the real pipeline networks,will provide important basis to the production/operation dispatch of the pipeline networks.

  11. Hydroacoustic quantification of free-gas venting offshore Svalbard, Arctic: Changes in space and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greinert, J.; Veloso, M.; De Batist, M. A.; Mienert, J.

    2013-12-01

    Hydroacoustic data from a seep site area offshore Spitsbergen have been collected since 2009 by RV Helmer Hanssen (U. Tromsoe) in order to monitor the dynamics of gas bubble seepage and evaluate the amount of CH4 released at the seafloor. A large number of acoustic flares have been detected during four years of data acquisition at an intensely seeping area close to the shelf edge in 240m water depth and further down-slope between 330 and 450m water depth covering the top of the gas hydrate stability zone. Water column data were collected with an EK60 split-beam echosounder system. Seep positions were determined by accounting for motion and using split-beam information to determine the ';flare spine' for seep location as accurately as possible. The inverse hydroacoustic method for flux estimation developed by Muyakshin et al. (2010) has been adapted to be used with the angle information derived from split-beam data and using gridding algorithms for generating acoustic maps for each of the four surveys. The method evaluates the flux using the backscattering volume strength (SV) above the seafloor produced by free gas release, a bubble size distribution (BSD) function obtained from video footage and models for bubble rising speed (BRS) taken from the literature. Methane flux calculations depending on these input parameters vary from 187 T/yr to 250 T/yr assuming a continuous discharge for the 240m deep shelf-edge site, when all data sets are merged. Compared to other fluxes e.g. from specific seep areas in the Black Sea (683 T/yr Greinert et al., 2010 JGR; 1376 T/yr Römer et al., 2012 MarGeo) or the Håkon Mosby mud volcano (181 T/yr Sauter et al., 2006 EPSL) the fluxes from offshore Svalbard are similar in range but on the lower end. However, studying the ';common area' which was insonified during all four years reveals a decreasing flux of about 20% although the actual seep positions have been very persistent. The reason for this is currently unknown. The

  12. Optical Fiber Pipeline Security Forewarning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Qishan; Ren Ruijun; Ren Peikui

    2010-01-01

    @@ With the rapid development of China's economy,such incidents occurring to oil & gas pipelines as industrial and agricultural production,natural disasters,oil stealing,etc.have been prevailing and brought negative influences to the normal operation of pipelines.On account of all such destructive activities,firstly the soil around the pipeline should be vibrated,and then the cable laid in the pipe trench could respond to the vibration.Using this technology,the Department of Science & Technology of CNPC has embarked on the research of relevant equipment to monitor pipeline activities along the pipeline since 2001.

  13. 75 FR 13644 - TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas Deepwater Port License...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Maritime Administration TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas...) for the TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal (BOET) Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG... Natural Gas Pipeline, Williams Natural Gas Pipeline, Destin Natural Gas Pipeline, and Viosca...

  14. RUSSIA AND ITS PIPELINE WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FODOR Cosmin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we intend to present the new power which is given to Russia upon EU due to her great natural resources and due to her control upon pipelines. Now Moscow can exert influence upon countries in Europe not through its revolutionary zeal and its tanks and army, but through its resources. And she knows how to use them and how make the EU dependent on her will: this is a new geopolitics, a 21-th century geopolitics, which is centered upon the control of gas pipelines in Central Asian states and upon EU states great dependence on Russian pipeline system.

  15. A Numerical Study of Pore Fluid and Gas Migration Patterns Within Arctic Shelf Sediments Associated With Relict Off-Shore Permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, J. M.; Buffett, B. A.

    2012-12-01

    Permafrost-associated methane hydrate deposits along the shallow Arctic continental shelf are thought to be a relict of glacial periods, when a large volume of Earth's water was locked up in polar ice and sea levels were lower, exposing the continental shelves to sub-freezing temperatures. Because of the cold surface temperatures, hydrate deposits are potentially stable here at unusually shallow depths, creating an extensive near-surface carbon reservoir. However, re-submergence of the shelf due to rising sea levels since the last glacial maximum 18 kyr ago has brought a temperature change of roughly +18C to the surface sediments. The evolution of permafrost-associated methane hydrate deposits is potentially complex, and an understanding of the temperature field alone is not sufficient. Salt, which is concentrated in pore fluids when permafrost forms, substantially changes the growth and decay of both permafrost and methane hydrate. The permafrost, in particular, has a strong influence on the mobility of gas within the shelf sediments. In order to quantify these complex interactions we have developed a two-dimensional, finite-volume model for two-phase flow of pore fluid and methane gas within Arctic shelf sediments. We track the evolution of temperature, salinity, and pressure fields with prescribed boundary conditions, and account for latent heat of water ice formation during growth or decay of permafrost. The permeability structure of the sediments is coupled to changes in permafrost. The model can be run over several glacial cycles to simulate the natural environment in which Arctic hydrate deposits form, while also allowing us to explore the consequences of addition warming due to anthropogenic forcing. Preliminary results show that pore fluid and gas migration is strongly influenced by the permeability variations imposed by the overlying permafrost. When permafrost grows, high salinity pore fluids form as salt is excluded from ice. Increasing salinity

  16. CHARACTERISTICS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION IN ARCTIC CIRCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Lež

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of large quantities of hydrocarbons is supposed within the Arctic Circle. Assumed quantities are 25% of the total undiscovered hydrocarbon reserves on Earth, mostly natural gas. Over 500 major and minor gas accumulations within the Arctic Circle were discovered so far, but apart from Snøhvit gas field, there is no commercial exploitation of natural gas from these fields. Arctic gas projects are complicated, technically hard to accomplish, and pose a great threat to the return of investment, safety of people and equipment and for the ecosystem. Russia is a country that is closest to the realization of the Arctic gas projects that are based on the giant gas fields. The most extreme weather conditions in the seas around Greenland are the reason why this Arctic region is the least explored and furthest from the realization of any gas project (the paper is published in Croatian .

  17. Effect of gas-transfer velocity parameterization choice on air-sea CO2 fluxes in the North Atlantic Ocean and the European Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, Iwona; Piskozub, Jacek

    2016-09-01

    The oceanic sink of carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important part of the global carbon budget. Understanding uncertainties in the calculation of this net flux into the ocean is crucial for climate research. One of the sources of the uncertainty within this calculation is the parameterization chosen for the CO2 gas-transfer velocity. We used a recently developed software toolbox, called the FluxEngine (Shutler et al., 2016), to estimate the monthly air-sea CO2 fluxes for the extratropical North Atlantic Ocean, including the European Arctic, and for the global ocean using several published quadratic and cubic wind speed parameterizations of the gas-transfer velocity. The aim of the study is to constrain the uncertainty caused by the choice of parameterization in the North Atlantic Ocean. This region is a large oceanic sink of CO2, and it is also a region characterized by strong winds, especially in winter but with good in situ data coverage. We show that the uncertainty in the parameterization is smaller in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Arctic than in the global ocean. It is as little as 5 % in the North Atlantic and 4 % in the European Arctic, in comparison to 9 % for the global ocean when restricted to parameterizations with quadratic wind dependence. This uncertainty becomes 46, 44, and 65 %, respectively, when all parameterizations are considered. We suggest that this smaller uncertainty (5 and 4 %) is caused by a combination of higher than global average wind speeds in the North Atlantic (> 7 ms-1) and lack of any seasonal changes in the direction of the flux direction within most of the region. We also compare the impact of using two different in situ pCO2 data sets (Takahashi et al. (2009) and Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) v1.5 and v2.0, for the flux calculation. The annual fluxes using the two data sets differ by 8 % in the North Atlantic and 19 % in the European Arctic. The seasonal fluxes in the Arctic computed from the two data sets disagree with each

  18. Transmission pipeline calculations and simulations manual

    CERN Document Server

    Menon, E Shashi

    2014-01-01

    Transmission Pipeline Calculations and Simulations Manual is a valuable time- and money-saving tool to quickly pinpoint the essential formulae, equations, and calculations needed for transmission pipeline routing and construction decisions. The manual's three-part treatment starts with gas and petroleum data tables, followed by self-contained chapters concerning applications. Case studies at the end of each chapter provide practical experience for problem solving. Topics in this book include pressure and temperature profile of natural gas pipelines, how to size pipelines for specified f

  19. Leadership Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård

    2013-01-01

    I artiklen undersøges det empiriske grundlag for Leader- ship Pipeline. Først beskrives Leadership Pipeline modellen om le- delsesbaner og skilleveje i opadgående transitioner mellem orga- nisatoriske ledelsesniveauer (Freedman, 1998; Charan, Drotter and Noel, 2001). Dernæst sættes fokus på det...... forholdet mellem kontinuitet- og diskontinuitet i ledel- seskompetencer på tværs af organisatoriske niveauer præsenteres og diskuteres. Afslutningsvis diskuteres begrænsningerne i en kompetencebaseret tilgang til Leadership Pipeline, og det foreslås, at succesfuld ledelse i ligeså høj grad afhænger af...

  20. 改进遗传算法在输气管道运行优化中的应用%Application of Improved Genetic Algorithm in Optimal Operation of Long-distance Natural Gas Pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋毅; 陈次昌; 陈芬

    2009-01-01

    Aiming at the issues existed in conventional genetic algorithm(GA)widely used in operation optimization of natural gas pipelines,improvement is made combined with operational characteristics of the pipelines.Optimized calculation with the improved GA is carried out to actual gas pipeline and results show that the improved GA is better than dynamic programming method and conventional genetic algorithm,which demonstrates a practical value in the process of operational optimization of long distance gas pipelines.%针对在天然气长输管道运行优化中广泛使用的传统遗传算法存在的诸多问题,结合天然气长输管道的运行特点,对传统遗传算法加以改进.使用改进后的遗传算法对管道运行优化的计算结果表明,改进遗传算法优于动态规划算法和传统遗传算法,在天然气长输管道的运行优化过程中具有实用价值.

  1. Gas pipelines involved in sliding movements: safeguard actions Este site (Padova - Italy); Conduites de gaz concernees par les glissements de terrain: mesures preventives dans la commune d'Este (Padoue - Italie)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomassini, D.; Glavina, S.; Raffaeli, E.; Stelluti, S. [Snamprogetti, ENI Group (Italy); Giurlani, G. [SNAM, ENI Group (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the design and the construction methodology of local re-routing on buried gas pipelines involved in sliding movements. The re-routing layouts are defined on the basis of the results obtained by structural analysis concerning pipe-soil interaction, by research and development studies and by the indications of International Codes and Standards regarding this argument. The analysis of slide movement permits to define the displacement field in terms of extension and direction, to be used in the following pipe-soil interaction analysis. In order to protect the pipeline from future slide displacements, the re-routing pipeline layout is optimised and aimed construction specifications are defined, even considering possible road crossings. In particular the definition of the local re-routing on the Alfonsine - S. Bonifacio DN 300 (12'') gas pipeline, in Este site is described. The realised intervention permits to guarantee safe operations of the gas transportation, even if large sliding displacements occurs, and to limit maintenance interventions aimed to remove the stresses due to the cumulated slow slide movements. (authors)

  2. Network transportation model with capacity restrictions for the Bolivia Brazil gas pipeline influence area; Modelo de transporte em rede com restricoes de capacidade para a area de influencia do Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Patricia Mannarino; Carpio, Lucio Guido Tapia [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2004-07-01

    We present the application of a network transportation model, with capacity restrictions, to determine the minimal cost of supply of a group of markets at the Bolivia Brazil Gas Pipeline influence area, as a function of city gate price. We consider the potential of integration of pipeline transportation at the South Cone, looking forward to supply the Brazilian market. The city gate price consists of the sum of commodity price plus transportation tariffs over every gas pipeline through which the gas passes (except distribution pipelines). There is no distinction related to product quality (e.g. heating value) among suppliers, or among end uses (thermal, thermoelectric or chemical). The model is numerically solved by linear programming. Flow direction alternatives and transportation tariffs alternatives (postal and by zone) are proposed. The model allows, among other applications: identification of the lowest cost supply strategy, identification of network flow capacity bottlenecks, determination of operation and expansion marginal costs using dual solution analysis, investigation of alternative sceneries through sensibility analysis and appreciation of non-optimal solutions that might be attractive. (author)

  3. Development of hot-pressed plugging T-joint for oil and gas pipelines%油气管道热压封堵三通的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞利; 勾冬梅; 夏国发; 陶伟莉; 贾世民

    2013-01-01

    管道封堵三通是对管道进行开孔封堵作业必备的维修机具,其承压安全性直接关系主管道的运行安全.为了满足高压大口径油气管道维抢修的需要,结合有限元分析方法,开发了一种新型φ1 016大口径X70管线钢热压封堵三通.选定X70高强度材质作为三通护板,相比Q345R材质减轻了三通质量,提高了焊接效率,降低了焊接应力.管道封堵三通消除了相贯线焊缝,解决了传统焊接式封堵三通相贯线焊缝无法检测的技术难题,提高了封堵三通的使用安全,并首次利用应力应变测试仪器进行了三通带压模拟应用监测,采集数据具有较好的重复性和规律性,为今后同类产品的设计、制造、质量监控工作积累了宝贵经验.(图5,参4)%Plugging T-joint is a maintenance tool required for hole plugging operations on pipeline,and its safety under pressure directly determines operational safety of the main pipeline.To meet the needs for maintenance and emergency repair of high-pressure large-diameter oil and gas pipelines,a new type of φ 1016 large-diameter X70 pipeline hotpressed plugging steel T-joint is developed using the finite element analysis method.The X70 high-strength material is used as the T-joint back plate,so that the T-joint weight is reduced,welding efficiency is improved and welding stress is decreased in contrast to Q345R.Eliminating intersecting welding seams,such pipeline plugging T-joint has overcome the technical challenge in traditional welded plugging T-joints that intersecting welding seams can not be detected,improved the operational safety of plugging T-joints,and utilized the stress/strain testing instrument for the first time to conduct pressurized T-joint simulated application monitoring.Valuable experiences have been gathered for future design,manufacture and quality control of similar products,because the data collected offer good reproducibility and regularity.(5 Figures,4 References)

  4. Overview of the design, construction, and operation of interstate liquid petroleum pipelines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pharris, T. C.; Kolpa, R. L.

    2008-01-31

    approximately 55,000 miles of crude oil trunk lines (usually 8 to 24 inches in diameter) in the United States that connect regional markets. The United States also has an estimated 30,000 to 40,000 miles of small gathering lines (usually 2 to 6 inches in diameter) located primarily in Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and Wyoming, with small systems in a number of other oil producing states. These small lines gather the oil from many wells, both onshore and offshore, and connect to larger trunk lines measuring 8 to 24 inches in diameter. There are approximately 95,000 miles of refined products pipelines nationwide. Refined products pipelines are found in almost every state in the United States, with the exception of some New England states. These refined product pipelines vary in size from relatively small, 8- to 12-inch-diameter lines, to up to 42 inches in diameter. The overview of pipeline design, installation, and operation provided in the following sections is only a cursory treatment. Readers interested in more detailed discussions are invited to consult the myriad engineering publications available that provide such details. The two primary publications on which the following discussions are based are: Oil and Gas Pipeline Fundamentals (Kennedy 1993) and the Pipeline Rules of Thumb Handbook (McAllister 2002). Both are recommended references for additional reading for those requiring additional details. Websites maintained by various pipeline operators also can provide much useful information, as well as links to other sources of information. In particular, the website maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) (http://www.eia.doe.gov) is recommended. An excellent bibliography on pipeline standards and practices, including special considerations for pipelines in Arctic climates, has been published jointly by librarians for the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company (operators of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System [TAPS]) and the

  5. Differences Analysis on Domestic and Foreign Process Pipeline Pressure Testing Standards for Oil and Gas Transportation Stations%国内外输油气站工艺管道试压标准差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余运复; 张继霞; 吴俊松; 于宏庆

    2014-01-01

    Domestic process pipeline pressure testing standards for oil and gas transportation stations were classified and assessed, with prompting the idea of adopting foreign standards to improve the domestic design and operating level of oil and gas transportation stations. The advancement of foreign process pipeline pressure testing standards for oil and gas transportation stations were systematacially expounded, including integration strength testing and leakage testing, or leakage testing alone for low operating pressure pipeline, and classification principle of process pipeline, and air inspection method and pressure reducing procedure during pressure testing, and pressure testing periods of process pipeline. In addition, advanced technology and construction cases of domestic and foreign process pipeline pressure testing for oil and gas transportation stations were also introduced, such as the determination of reasonable sustaining time based on leakage mathematical model, and the determination of air pressure testing damage radius based on high pressure air explosion energy calculation method, etc. Finally, by means of learning foreign standards, recommendations are made to raise the level of Chinese process pipeline pressure testing standards for oil and gas transportation stations.%梳理评价了国内输油气站工艺管道试压标准,提出了借鉴国外标准的先进理念,提高国内输油气站设计和运行水平的思路。国外输油气站工艺管道试压标准的先进性主要体现在以下几个方面:管道运行压力较低,强度试验和严密性试验合并进行,或者仅进行严密性试验;工艺管道划分原则;试压过程空气含量检测方法和降压程序;工艺管道试压周期等。此外还介绍了国内外关于输油气站工艺管道试压的先进技术和施工实例,包括利用严密性数学模型确定合理稳压时间;利用高压气体爆炸能量计算方法确定气试压损伤半径

  6. 基于TZS法分析天然气管道运输的个人风险%Assessment of individual risk for transmission pipeline carrying natural gas based on TZS method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭庆妮; 邓顺熙; 江鸿宾; 邱兆文

    2012-01-01

    采用TZS法,对天然气管道运输潜在的个人风险进行定量评估,分析过程中引入致死长度来表征天然气管道运输对位于某一特定点的人造成的危险程度,评估结果用风险廓线来表达.以靖边-西安天然气输送工程为实例进行风险计算,结果表明:靖西线的安边到赵家口段,距天然气管道60m处的个人风险值在1.37×10-5-3.38×10-51/a之间,处于风险合理可接受区域.其中,由外部干扰导致的个人风险值在7.10×10-6-1.80×10-5 1/a之间,约占总个人风险值的1/2,说明外部干扰是引发该段天然气管道运输风险的主要原因.研究结果为靖西线的安全管理及现有管线的调整提供科学依据.%A quantitative assessment of potential individual risk for transmission pipeline carrying natural gas was conducted by TZS method. Fatal length was introduced to describe the individual risk at a specified location along a pipeline. The individual risk was usually expressed with a risk contour plot. The individual risk for Jingbian-Xian natural gas pipeline was analyzed. The calculation result showed; The individual risk is 1. 37 × 10-5 -3. 38 × 10-5 I/a for the people who located 60 meters away from the Anbian-Zhao Jiakou natural gas pipeline, which is acceptable for most people reasonably. Also, the risk caused by external interference is 7. 10 × 10-6 - 1. 80 × 10-51/a, accounting for half of the total risk. It means that external interference is the dominate factor of the risk for natural gas pipeline transmission. The result can be useful for safety management of Jing-Xi natural gas transmission pipeline and the modification of a buried pipeline.

  7. An analysis of the thickness influence in performance and structural integrity of gas pipelines; Um estudo sobre a influencia de rigidez de dutos no desempenho e na integridade de gasodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Waldir T.; Pinto, Rosa Irene T. [Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This work presents an analysis on the influence of the changes on pipe rigidity on the safety of buried gas pipelines. The work consists of the adoption of a parameter defined by the ratio between the wall thickness and the diameter of the pipe to assess the pipeline structural performance under several loading conditions, such as internal pressure, external pressure, external loading, longitudinal analysis, and corrosion. Results for a 14 inches pipe with wall thicknesses of 5.6 mm, 7.1 mm, and 7.9 mm are presented for each one of the loading conditions. These results show that for most cases a small increase in the wall thickness leads to significant increase of the pipeline safety. This suggests that in many cases the adoption of wall thicker than them minimum thickness suggested by technical codes present a better cost/benefit relation. (author)

  8. TBG's equipment for gas pipeline repair and bypass in service; Equipamentos da TBG para execucao de reparos e bypass em operacao no Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemgruber, Nelson Arthur Pinto; Vasconcellos, Carlos Renato Aragonez de; Frota, Cristiane Souto [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The Bolivia-Brazil Natural Gas Pipeline - GASBOL - begins in the city of Santa Cruz of La Sierra, in Bolivia, arriving in Canoas (RS), in Brazil, traveling an extension of 3.150 km. TBG is the owner and operator from 2.593 km in Brazilian soil, with maximum nominal diameter 32 inches, capacity of transportations until 30 million cubic meter a day, and MAOP 100 bar. This work presents the main available resources in TBG for repair of the gas pipeline, as clamps for small repairs, bolt-on clamps, equipment for hot tapping and execution of by pass in-service, cold cutter machine, air movers for removal the gas of the line, and movable systems of emergency illumination. The location of the equipment is detailed, the main technical and operational characteristics, as well as aspects observed in simulated accomplished in the operational units of TBG and presents the planning for acquisition of new equipment. (author)

  9. 分布式光纤油气长输管道泄漏检测及预警技术%Distributed fiber oil and gas pipeline leak detection and warning technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张富斌

    2015-01-01

    管道用于油气运输有着独特的优势,因此成为了运输油气的主要手段。在实际油气的运输过程中因为人为因素和自然因素等原因,经常会导致运输油气的管道发生泄漏事故,这不仅造成环境污染,而且会威胁到人们的生命财产安全。本文介绍了分布式光纤油气长输管道泄漏检测及预警技术在油田的应用。%For oil and gas transportation pipeline has a unique advantage, it became the primary means of transportation of oil and gas. In the actual transportation of oil and gas, man-made and natural factors and other reasons often resulted the transport of oil and gas pipeline leak accident, which not only affected environmental pollution, but also threatened people’s life and property safety.This article introduced distributed fiber oil and gas pipeline leak detection and warning technology.

  10. 输气管道系统供气调峰技术进展%Advances in Peak Shaving Technology of Gas Pipeline System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑志炜; 吴长春

    2011-01-01

    介绍了国外关于输气管道系统供气调峰的4个主要研究方向,包括调峰可以采取的措施、地下储气库采气计划的制定、应用稳态模型分析中长期调峰问题以及短期调峰过程的仿真.对生产中所采用的主要调峰措施进行了详细介绍.根据国内外研究状况和运行调度经验,提出了3种短期调峰方案模式.对调峰方案的优化进行了论述,提出了短期调峰方案的多目标优化原则.对下GNET,SPS,SIMONE等主流输气管道仿真软件的特点进行了介绍.分析归纳了目前短期调峰方案优化研究的难点在于建立合理的多目标优化原则体系、对该体系中模糊因素的处理方法,以及多目标模糊优化模型的高效求解方法等.%Four abroad research directions of peak shaving problems involving gas pipeline system are summarized, they include the measures of peak shaving, how to set up the withdrawal schedules of underground gas storage, how to apply the steady model to analyze middle or long-term peak shaving problems, and the simulation of short-term peak shaving problems. Several main peak shaving measures in the production are introduced. Three short-term peak shaving scenarios are proposed based on research achievements at home and abroad and the operators' experience. The optimization of peak shaving scenarios is discussed and a multi-objective optimization guideline for short-term peak shaving scenarios is proposed. The characteristics of some popular gas pipeline simulation software, such as TGNET, SPS, and SIMONE, are introduced. The current difficulties in the short-term peak shaving optimization are reviewed, these difficulties include how to set up a sensible multi-objective optimization guideline, how to deal with the fuzzy factors in the multi-objective optimization guideline and pursue an effective algorithm to solve the multi-objective fuzzy optimization.

  11. The history and future of thermal sprayed galvanically active metallic anticorrosion coatings used on pipelines and steel structures in the oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodijnen, Fred van [Sulzer Metco, Duisburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Since its invention by M. U. Schoop in the beginning of the 20th century, thermal spray has been used for corrosion protection applications in naval, on-shore, submerged and atmospheric environments. Thermally sprayed coatings of zinc, zinc alloys, aluminum and aluminum alloys are currently the most popular materials used for active corrosion protection of steel and concrete, which can be applied using either of the widely known thermal spray processes of combustion wire or electric arc wire. In the oil and gas exploration and production industry, corrosion protection applications using these technologies have evolved since the early sixties. Thermal spray technology has successfully been used to protect steel-based materials from corrosion in many different fields of application like platforms and pipelines. The most used material in the oil and gas industry is TSA (Thermally Sprayed Aluminum) coating. TSA coatings, with a lifetime of 25 to 30 years, require no maintenance except for cosmetic reasons when painted. The surface temperature of a TSA can go as high as 480 deg C. Although TS (Thermal Spray) is an older process, the number of applications and the number of m{sup 2} it is applied to is still increasing resulting from its maintenance-free and reliable active corrosion-protection features. (author)

  12. Control of a subsea gas pipeline. Safety, availability and communications; Controllo di un gasdotto sottomarino. Sicurezza, disponibilita' e comunicazioni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, P. [International Sales Europe, Hima Paul Hildebrandt, Mannheim (Germany); Maritan, R. [Logitech Automazione, Milan (Italy)

    2001-01-01

    The article considers an installation for the Europipe 2. subsea gas pipeline, to meet particularly critical technical requirements. The application is an example of perfect integration of safety related controls, Dcs's and safety related long distance satellite communications. Safety related controls by Hima, both the programmable and of the hardwired technology, have been respectively used to meet the most severe requirements in terms of safety (RC6/7, conforming to Sil 3/4) and of availability, typically in the minimum range of 99,99%. Hima is a leading manufacture of safety related control, recording more than thirteen thousand installed applications worldwide. [Italian] Il trasporto del gas e' spesso caratterizzato da un elevato potenziale di pericolo nei riguardi dell'ambiente, degli impianti utilizzati e della vita umana. Al fine di evitare gravi danni e ottenere i migliori risultati economici, e' necessario che i gasdotti siano dotati di opportuni sistemi di protezione definiti Hipps (High Integrity Pressure Protection Systems). Le condotte sottomarine, in particolare quelle su lunghe distanze, necessitano anche di comunicazioni sicure, tanto piu' critiche se riferite a impianti non presidiati. L'articolo descrive un esempio in cui particolare attenzione e' stata posta nella realizzazione di sistemi di sicurezza e telemetria del tipo safety related e tolleranti il guasto, per ottenere i massimi livelli di sicurezza e di disponibilita' dell'insieme.

  13. Energy policy and cooperation in Southeast Asia. The history, challenges, and implications of the trans-ASEAN gas pipeline (TAGP) network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-06-15

    This article explores the proposed multibillion dollar Trans-ASEAN Gas Pipeline (TAGP) network in Southeast Asia, focusing on the interests that have promoted the TAGP and why. Based on extensive field research, textual analysis of government reports, and more than 100 research interviews at government institutions, multilateral development banks, universities, consulting firms, energy companies, and nongovernmental organizations, this article assesses the challenges facing the TAGP in terms of promotion, implementation, and operation. It explores the genesis of the TAGP project and the drivers pushing Southeast Asian investment in natural gas, with a special emphasis on the development needs of the region. It also investigates the numerous technical, economic, legal, political, social, and environmental impediments to the TAGP project. The article concludes that the rhetoric of regional energy cooperation touted by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) does not match its actual practice, and that in many cases discussions of regionalism and energy security are intended to obscure opportunistic thinking within individual countries. (author)

  14. Energy policy and cooperation in Southeast Asia: The history, challenges, and implications of the trans-ASEAN gas pipeline (TAGP) network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore)], E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.sg

    2009-06-15

    This article explores the proposed multibillion dollar Trans-ASEAN Gas Pipeline (TAGP) network in Southeast Asia, focusing on the interests that have promoted the TAGP and why. Based on extensive field research, textual analysis of government reports, and more than 100 research interviews at government institutions, multilateral development banks, universities, consulting firms, energy companies, and nongovernmental organizations, this article assesses the challenges facing the TAGP in terms of promotion, implementation, and operation. It explores the genesis of the TAGP project and the drivers pushing Southeast Asian investment in natural gas, with a special emphasis on the development needs of the region. It also investigates the numerous technical, economic, legal, political, social, and environmental impediments to the TAGP project. The article concludes that the rhetoric of regional energy cooperation touted by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) does not match its actual practice, and that in many cases discussions of regionalism and energy security are intended to obscure opportunistic thinking within individual countries.

  15. 基于定量递归分析的天然气管线输送流量均衡调度方法%Balance scheduling method for natural gas pipeline transportation flow based on quantitative recursive analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤冬石; 刘亚龙; 殷若鹏

    2016-01-01

    通过对天然气管线输送流量进行优化均衡调度设计,实现对天然气管线运行工况的准确监测。传统方法采用线性时间序列Wolf一步预测方法进行天然气管线输送流量调度,没能有效挖掘天然气管线输送网络中天然气流量的非线性特征,导致调度的准确性不好。提出一种基于定量递归分析的天然气管线输送流量均衡调度方法。首先构建了天然气管线的网络配置结构模型,进行输送流量序列的信号模型构建和非线性时间序列分析,对天然气流量进行相空间重构,在高维相空间中进行递归图构建,实现对天然气管线输送流量的定量递归分析,达到流量准确预测和均衡调度的目的,实现算法改进。仿真实验分析结果表明,采用该方法进行天然气管线输送流量均衡调度,天然气输送运行的工况得到改善,输送配置的均衡性较好,流量预测精度较高,调度效能增强。%Through the optimization of the natural gas pipeline transportation flow to optimize the balanced scheduling design, to achieve an accurate monitoring of the operating conditions of natural gas pipeline. Traditional method using one step prediction method for linear time series Wolf for natural gas pipeline transportation scheduling flow, could not effectively tap nonlinear characteristic of natural gas pipeline to transport gas flow in a network, and lead to the bad accuracy of the scheduling. A natural gas pipeline transportation flow balancing scheduling method based on quantitative recursive analysis is proposed. First construct a network configuration structure model of natural gas pipeline, propose transportation flow sequence signal model construction and nonlinear time series analysis; Next provide the gas flow of phase space reconstruction, recursive graph construction in a high-dimensional phase space, realize recurrence quantification analysis of natural gas pipeline

  16. Russia: the pipeline diplomacy; Russie: la diplomatie du pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdillon, Y

    2005-01-15

    First world producer of oil and gas, Russia wishes to use its mastery of energy distribution to recover its great power status. The oil and gas pipelines network is the basement used by Russia to build up its hegemony in Europe. The Russian oil and gas companies are also carrying out a long-term strategy of international expansion, in particular thanks to investments in the neighboring countries for the building of new infrastructures or the purchase of oil refineries. (J.S.)

  17. Risk analysis of jet fire radiation in the leakage accident of natural gas pipeline%天然气输气管道泄漏事故热辐射危害风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建文; 雷达

    2011-01-01

    Leakage of natural gas from the pipelines imposes a serious threat to the lives and property near the leakage source. In this paper, three leakage scenarios of West-East Pipeline Project (WEPP) are analyzed in detail. When rupture or perforation occurs, the gas continuously spreads from the leakage point. A suitable leakage source model and Pasquill-Gifford dispersion model are established for such circumstances. The initial momentum and buoyancy of the leaked natural gas are taken into consideration and the concentration distribution of the natural gas is obtained which provides a theoretical foundation for the planning of emergency response. The risks have been analyzed when the leakage occurred in rural area or city. The results of present study show that the risk of natural gas pipeline leakage in the city is more serious. Based on the present models, quantitative assessments of individual risk and societal risk are carried out for the leakage of natural gas pipeline and the thermal effect of jet fire is considered due to the serious consequences caused. The corresponding societal risk curves are plotted, and the possible individual and societal risks are discussed as well. Societal risk varies significantly with the factors such as population density, probability of death and so on. From the analysis, the individual risks and societal risks of the leakage scenarios in this paper a-e found all unacceptable. The hole diameter of the leakage is in correlation positively with the number of fatalities within a certain range. Hence, safety management should be strengthened and the leakage of large hole should be eliminated while some additional measures should be taken to prevent a small hidden hazard from developing into huge disaster. The quantitative risk assessment can be widely used in safety management and safety production during the planning and construction stages of a pipeline as well as the modification of a buried pipeline.%针对天然气输气管道

  18. Bolivia-Brazil gas-pipeline implantation. The employment generation according to Leontief's matrix; Implantacao do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil. A geracao de empregos segundo a matriz de Leontief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieroni, Fernando de Paiva; Guerra, Sinclair Mallet Guy [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Grupo de Energia

    1999-07-01

    During the past 15 years, a strong evolution in the concept of the use of energy for industrial purpose was brought in step by step by the Governments and users themselves. The progress within the fields of energy savings, thermal control and reduction of air pollution must be pointed out. Within this scheme the natural gas technology has overcome many technical difficulties and the solutions using natural gas rank among the most efficient to tackle current problems. The aim of this work is to analyse Bolivia-Brazil gas-pipeline implantation and it influences in the Brazilian economy.

  19. 架空天然气管道泄漏数值模拟%Numerical Simulation on Leakage of Overhead Natural Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高永强

    2014-01-01

    Based on the CFD software, making use of components transport models, the control equation of leakage and diffusion of natural gas was established, numerical simulation for leakage of overhead high sulfur natural gas pipeline was carried out, two conditions including steady-state leakage and unsteady-state leakage were studied. Effect of wind speed, gravity, leakage amount, working conditions, transport pressure and other factors on the diffusion process of natural gas after the leakage was analyzed, diffusion law and safe regional cloud of hydrogen sulfide in different working conditions were obtained. Combined with the simulation results, the diffusion law of high sulfur natural gas was analyzed, and effect of different wind speed on the leakage of natural gas was obtained, the simulation results can provide guidance on formulating related emergency plan and safe practice for oil and natural gas industry.%以计算流体力学软件为基础,利用组分输运模型,建立了天然气泄漏扩散控制方程,对高含硫架空天然气管道泄漏数值模拟,研究稳态泄漏和非稳态泄漏两种情况。分析了风速、重力、泄漏量、工况、输送压力等因素对天然气泄漏后扩散过程的影响,得到了硫化氢在不同工况下的扩散规律及安全区域云图。结合模拟结果,分析了高含硫天然气的泄漏扩散规律,得到了不同风速条件对架空天然气管道泄漏的影响,且其模拟结果可以为石油天然气行业制定相关应急预案及制定安全规章提供指导意义。

  20. Supervision system for safety valves and operative metering station of the Yacuiba-Rio Grande Gas Pipeline; Sistema de supervisao para valvulas de seguranca e estacoes de medicao operativas do gasoducto Yacuiba-Rio Grande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, Fernando; Marques, Ailton [Transierra S.A., La Paz (Bolivia)

    2005-07-01

    One of the most critical points for the opportune intervention that compromises the operations of TRANSIERRA S.A., is the integrity of the facilities, the adjacent communities and the environment are the Shut Down Valves (SDV) of the GASYRG Gas pipeline. The GASYRG (Yacuiba Rio Grande Gas pipeline) with an extension of 432 Km and a Pipeline diameter of 32 inches presents 2 Receipt Stations, 1 Delivery Point and 11 Line Valves. The pipeline operation is made by satellite and SCADA applications; it is supervised and controlled on-line at the points of delivery and receipt; monitoring of the SDV's was left aside; because of this it was necessary to develop a Remote Supervision System. This system combines remote devices with the Control Philosophy of Report By-Exception, Low Orbit Satellite System, Internet application and Intranet. The mentioned information is sent in e-mail format to a Satellite Teleport located in London, England. The process information is sent via Internet to TRANSIERRA's SCADA Servers for its interpretation and display in the HMI of the GASYRG supervisory system. (author)

  1. Prediction of mineral scale formation in wet gas condensate pipelines and in MEG (mono ethylene glycol) regeneration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandengen, Kristian

    2006-12-20

    Gas hydrate formation is a serious problem in the oil and gas industry, since its formation can plug wells and prevent production. The gas hydrate is a crystalline solid with a natural gas molecule surrounded by a cage of water molecules. It forms at high pressures and low temperatures. This is a problem for offshore gas wells, where the temperature is low in transport lines from well to the production facilities. Mono Ethylene Glycol (MEG) is commonly used as hydrate inhibitor. Classified as a thermodynamic inhibitor, this additive functions just as antifreeze in an automotive radiator. When producing oil and gas there will in most cases also be produced some water, which can contain dissolved salts. These salts may precipitate and they tend to deposit on surfaces. Deposition of inorganic minerals from brine is called scale. Generally MEG has the adverse effect of lowering the solubility of most salts. A common method to prevent corrosion in flow lines is to increase pH by adding basic agents (e.g. NaOH, NaHCO{sub 3}) to the MEG stream. In such cases, carbonate salts are particularly troublesome since an increase in pH by one unit, will reduce the solubility by two orders of magnitude. Thus there will be a trade off between good corrosion protection (high pH) and scale control (low pH). The aim of this work has been to develop a model that can predict mineral solubility in the presence of MEG. Experimental solubility data, together with thermodynamic data taken from literature, have been utilized to construct empirical functions for the influence of MEG on mineral scale formation. These functions enabled the expansion of an already existing aqueous scale model into a model valid for water+MEG mixed solutions. The aqueous scale model combines an equation of state (gas+oil phase) with the Pitzer ion interaction model (water phase) to describe the multiphase behaviour of gas-oil-water systems. This work summarizes the theoretical foundation and proposes how to work

  2. PIPELINES AS COMMUNICATION NETWORK LINKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelvin T. Erickson; Ann Miller; E. Keith Stanek; C.H. Wu; Shari Dunn-Norman

    2005-03-14

    This report presents the results of an investigation into two methods of using the natural gas pipeline as a communication medium. The work addressed the need to develop secure system monitoring and control techniques between the field and control centers and to robotic devices in the pipeline. In the first method, the pipeline was treated as a microwave waveguide. In the second method, the pipe was treated as a leaky feeder or a multi-ground neutral and the signal was directly injected onto the metal pipe. These methods were tested on existing pipeline loops at UMR and Batelle. The results reported in this report indicate the feasibility of both methods. In addition, a few suitable communication link protocols for this network were analyzed.

  3. 76 FR 72666 - Pipeline Safety: Expanding the Use of Excess Flow Valves in Gas Distribution Systems to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ..., supply chain management, and training. For EFVs, maintenance costs include the cost of analyzing the.... Department of Transportation (DOT), Docket Management System, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12- 140, 1200... system supplies natural gas, including hospitals, schools, and commercial enterprises; (C) The...

  4. The investigation of dangerous geological processes resulting in land subsidence while designing the main gas pipeline in South Yakutia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strokova, L. A.; Ermolaeva, A. V.; Golubeva, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    The number of gas main accidents has increased recently due to dangerous geological processes in underdeveloped areas located in difficult geological conditions. The paper analyses land subsidence caused by karst and thermokarst processes in the right of way, reveals the assessment criteria for geological hazards and creates zoning schemes considering the levels of karst and thermorkarst hazards.

  5. Anchor Loads on Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Anchor hooking on a subsea pipeline has been investigated in this thesis. Anchor loads on pipelines is in general a rarely occurring event, however, the severity when it occurs could easily jeopardize the integrity of any pipeline. It is considered as an accidental load in the design of pipelines. Pipeline Loads, limit state criteria and anchor categories are defined by the DNV standards. For pipeline, DNV-OS-F101 (08.2012), Submarine Pipeline Systems is adopted. Offshore standard DNV-RP...

  6. Assessing Hydrate Formation in Natural Gas Pipelines Under Transient Operation / Ocena zjawiska tworzenia się hydratów w warunkach nieustalonego przepływu gazu w gazociągach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiadacz, Andrzej

    2013-03-01

    This work presents a transient, non-isothermal compressible gas flow model that is combined with a hydrate phase equilibrium model. It enables, to determine whether hydrates could form under existing operating conditions in natural gas pipelines. In particular, to determine the time and location at which the natural gas enters the hydrate formation region. The gas flow is described by a set of partial differential equations resulting from the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. Real gas effects are determined by the predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong group contribution method. By means of statistical mechanics, the hydrate model is formulated combined with classical thermodynamics of phase equilibria for systems that contain water and both hydrate forming and non-hydrate forming gases as function of pressure, temperature, and gas composition. To demonstrate the applicability a case study is conducted.

  7. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  8. Overview of the design, construction, and operation of interstate liquid petroleum pipelines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pharris, T. C.; Kolpa, R. L.

    2008-01-31

    approximately 55,000 miles of crude oil trunk lines (usually 8 to 24 inches in diameter) in the United States that connect regional markets. The United States also has an estimated 30,000 to 40,000 miles of small gathering lines (usually 2 to 6 inches in diameter) located primarily in Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and Wyoming, with small systems in a number of other oil producing states. These small lines gather the oil from many wells, both onshore and offshore, and connect to larger trunk lines measuring 8 to 24 inches in diameter. There are approximately 95,000 miles of refined products pipelines nationwide. Refined products pipelines are found in almost every state in the United States, with the exception of some New England states. These refined product pipelines vary in size from relatively small, 8- to 12-inch-diameter lines, to up to 42 inches in diameter. The overview of pipeline design, installation, and operation provided in the following sections is only a cursory treatment. Readers interested in more detailed discussions are invited to consult the myriad engineering publications available that provide such details. The two primary publications on which the following discussions are based are: Oil and Gas Pipeline Fundamentals (Kennedy 1993) and the Pipeline Rules of Thumb Handbook (McAllister 2002). Both are recommended references for additional reading for those requiring additional details. Websites maintained by various pipeline operators also can provide much useful information, as well as links to other sources of information. In particular, the website maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) (http://www.eia.doe.gov) is recommended. An excellent bibliography on pipeline standards and practices, including special considerations for pipelines in Arctic climates, has been published jointly by librarians for the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company (operators of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System [TAPS]) and the

  9. Pipe-string relining on a 950 m long high-pressure gas pipeline. Use of a DA 180 mm PE100 pipeline; Rohrstrangrelining an einer 950 m langen Gas-Hochdruckleitung. Einsatz einer PE 100 RC-Rohrleitung DA 180 mm mit Schutzmantel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomott, M. [Niederrheinische Versorgung und Verkehr AG (NW AG), Moenchengladbach (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    The selection of piping materials for the construction of new supply and disposal systems, and for the large range of procedures available for the repair and refurbishing of existing facilities, is generally dependent on the particular system operator's maintenance strategy. PE materials, thanks to their excellent properties for use in buried pipeline engineering and the potentials for trouble-free utilization of existing pipes for guidance, coupled with the significant cost-benefits achievable, are gaining ever larger market shares in this sector. Selection of the best material and method must take particular account of operational needs for repair, integration and inspection and for the deployment of specific refurbishing procedures. In six individual operations, NVV AG in Moenchengladbach has rehabilitated an approximately 950 m long DN 200 steel high-pressure natural gas pipeline by pulling-in of a DA 180 (DP 10) PE 100 pipe string with a protective sheath. The procedures applied at the planning, preparation and implementation stages of this project are described below. (orig.)

  10. 油气管道CO2/H2 S腐蚀及防护技术研究进展%Research Progress of CO2/H2 S Corrosion in Oil and Gas Pipelines and the Protection Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹; 袁世娇; 吴小卫; 谢飞; 赵启慧; 杨帆; 程贵鑫

    2016-01-01

    CO2和H2 S是油气管道中主要的腐蚀介质,两者往往同时存在于原油和天然气之中,是造成油气输送管道内腐蚀发生的主要原因之一,甚至会导致管道失效、穿孔、泄漏、开裂等现象,严重威胁了管网的安全运行及正常生产。因此CO2和H2 S引起的管道腐蚀问题,已成为当前研究的热点问题。针对油气管道日益严重的CO2和H2 S腐蚀问题,综述了CO2单独存在、H2 S单独存在以及CO2和H2 S共同存在三种体系中油气管道的腐蚀过程,得出了在这三种腐蚀体系下油气管道出现的主要腐蚀行为规律以及腐蚀机理。阐述了CO2和H2 S共同存在体系下,缓蚀剂、耐蚀性管材、电化学防腐技术、管道内涂层技术等先进的油气管道腐蚀防护技术,并剖析了这些防护措施各自的特点及在实际工程使用中的优势和局限性。最后,展望了CO2和H2 S共存体系的进一步研究方向以及更经济、更有效的防腐措施发展前景。%ABSTRACT:CO2 and H2 S are the major corrosion media in oil and gas pipeline, often existing in both crude oil and natural gas. Their presence is one of the main causes for internal corrosion in oil and gas pipelines, and even leads to pipeline failure, perfora-tions, leaks and cracks. It′s a serious threat to the safe operation of the pipeline network and normal production. So pipeline corro-sion problems caused by CO2 and H2 S have become a hot issue of current research. For the growing oil and gas pipeline corrosion problems caused by CO2 and H2 S, the corrosion behaviors of oil and gas pipelines in CO2 alone, H2 S alone and the co-existence of CO2 and H2 S system were systematically compared in this paper. The law and mechanism of pipeline corrosion behavior in these three corrosion systems were obtained. And the protection techniques against oil and gas pipeline corrosion were listed, such as cor-rosion inhibitors, corrosion resistant pipes

  11. Research Progress of Material Selection and Protection Technology on Oil and Gas Pipeline%油气管道选材及防护技术的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙方红; 马壮; 宋晓龙; 刘应瑞; 李福永

    2013-01-01

    The research progress of common materials on the oil and gas pipeline was summarized. The research results of macromolecular compound coating, glass coating, metal coating, corrosion inhibitor and cathodic protection were reviewed. The merits and demerits of different protection technologies were analyzed. The development trends of material selection and protection technology on oil and gas pipeline were proposed.%叙述了油气管道常用材料的研究现状;介绍了高分子化合物涂料、玻璃涂层和金属镀层、缓蚀剂、阴极保护等防护措施的研究成果;分析了各种防护技术的优缺点;展望了今后油气管道选材和防护措施的发展方向.

  12. Phase I: the pipeline-gas demonstration plant. Demonstration plant engineering and design. Volume 18. Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-05-01

    Contract No. EF-77-C-01-2542 between Conoco Inc. and the US Department of Energy provides for the design, construction, and operation of a demonstration plant capable of processing bituminous caking coals into clean pipeline quality gas. The project is currently in the design phase (Phase I). This phase is scheduled to be completed in June 1981. One of the major efforts of Phase I is the process and project engineering design of the Demonstration Plant. The design has been completed and is being reported in 24 volumes. This is Volume 18 which reports the design of Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment. The objective of the Waste Water Treatment system is to collect and treat all plant liquid effluent streams. The system is designed to permit recycle and reuse of the treated waste water. Plant Section 2700 is composed of primary, secondary, and tertiary waste water treatment methods plus an evaporation system which eliminates liquid discharge from the plant. The Waste Water Treatment Section is designed to produce 130 pounds per hour of sludge that is buried in a landfill on the plant site. The evaporated water is condensed and provides a portion of the make-up water to Plant Section 2400 - Cooling Water.

  13. 煤层气输送管道安全监测系统研究%Study on Safety Monitoring System of Coal Bed Gas Conveying Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯晋刚

    2014-01-01

    For the Safety detection based on coal seam gas pipeline ,the risk factors may exist in the conveying process is analyzed , the technology is putted for data collection ,processing ,transmission and computer management ,through the test point selection , installation of pressure ,flow ,temperature sensor ,and the design of the acquisition unit ,realize remote data wireless transmission based on the GPRS technology ,the PC configuration software to realize data centralized monitoring and fault warning .%针对煤层气输送管道的安全检测问题,分析了在输送过程中可能存在的危险因素,提出了数据采集、处理、传输与上位机管理的技术方案,通过测点选择,安装压力、流量、温度等传感器,并设计了采集单元,依托GPRS技术实现数据远程无线传输,最后通过上位机组态软件实现数据集中监测与故障预警。

  14. 低频导波在场站管道检测中的应用研究%Apply low-frequency ultrasonic guided wave testing system to inspect pipelines in gas station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋日生; 喻建胜; 何莎; 王文韬; 彭星煜

    2012-01-01

    There is no effective means for wholly comprehensive inspection of pipelines in the gas station because of the complex laying environment. In response to this situation, the UK GUL's WaveMaker G3 low-frequency ultrasonic guided wave testing system was introduced. In order to check the performances of this system, such as detection sensitivity, defects positioning accuracy, detection range and type of defect, and so on, the experiment of inspecting pipelines was carried in the gas station of PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gas Field Company. The test results showed that WaveMaker G3 low -frequency ultrasonic guided wave testing system can be used for inspecting the location of corrosion and the decrease of wall thickness. It also can position the defects precisely through identifying the typical characteristics signal, e.g., welds etc. Thus, the corrosion of the whole pipeline can be inspected. It will provide a strong technical support for detecting and evaluating the station pipelines, gathering & transportation pipelines and long-distance pipelines in oil and gas fields.%针对输气场站内管道敷设环境复杂,一直没有有效的手段进行100%的全面检测这一状况,引进英国GUL公司的WaveMaker G3低频导波检测系统对中国石油西南油气田公司的某场站输气管道进行了检测试验,来验证系统检测灵敏度、缺陷定位准确度、检测距离和检测缺陷类型等性能指标.试验表明:WaveMaker G3低频导波检测系统可以检出管道局部腐蚀以及壁厚减薄情况,并通过对典型的特征信号如焊缝等的识别可以实现对缺陷准确定位,从而掌握管道的整体腐蚀状况,为各大油气田的场站管道、集输管道以及长输管道的维护决策提供技术支持.

  15. An optimization method based on GA-ACA for gas gathering pipeline network in a gas field%基于遗传蚁群算法的气田集输管网优化方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪元; 卜莹; 潘操

    2012-01-01

    The gas gathering pipeline network is an investment huge and complex engineering in gas field construction process. If to optimization, it will bear good economic and social benefits. The gas gathering pipeline network optimization is to reasonably solve the allocation issues, including station sites, the layout of the pipe network and the process parameters such as diameter, wall thickness, which is a nondeterministic polynomial problem. Through hierarchical optimization method, using the Kruskal algorithm to determine the network optimal layout,the article puts forward the combination with genetic an ant colony algorithm for optimization parameter scheme, with the minimum cost of gathering and transportation main network as objective function, pipe diameter and wall thickness as optimization variable, set up a network optimization model of the actual project. According to the complex environment in which transportation pipeline network is, the model determines a series of constraint equations, such as the flow continuity pipeline specifications, node pressures. According to the structural features of the model, in the solving process of GA-ACO, the selection, intercross and variation modes of chromosome which is in line with the actual data. And in the best moment of the convergence of the genetic algorithm and ant colony algorithm, two algorithms are fused to form a heuristic algorithm which is excellent in time efficient and solution efficiency. Simulation results show that, GA-ACA scheme save more network cost, and in solution speed and accuracy is significantly better than the single genetic algorithm and the ant colony algorithm.%气田集输管网是气田建设过程中一个投资巨大的复杂工程,如果能够对其进行整体优化,将取得良好的经济效益和社会效益.气田集输管网的优化设计,即寻求站址、管网布局以及管径、壁厚等工艺参数的合理分配,属于NP难点问题.文章通过分级优化的方法,在

  16. Analysis of the generation and monitoring of impact on fauna in the gas pipeline works in the current environmental legislation; Analise da geracao e monitoramento do impacto sobre a fauna silvestre em obras de gasodutos face a legislacao ambiental vigente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldas, Flaviana V.; Serricchio, Claudio [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Akahori, Lisa [TELSAN Engenharia e Servicos Ltda, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Nascimento, Reinaldo R. [IMC Saste - Construcoes, Servicos e Comercio Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The impacts to wildlife in areas where gas pipelines will be implemented are considerable, changing the existing balance. The main environmental measure adopted in the cases is the deployment of the Fauna Management Programme. This programme is sub - divided into two: Monitoring and Rescue of the fauna. The tracking step starts before the installation of the venture, with the completion of a first in order to identify the impacts before the venture, and finishes two years after the end of the works. These studies are based on guidelines set in the Normative Instruction of the environmental licensor agency, in which the criteria for implementation are restrictive, often without making a license agency distinction of methodology for enterprises with different characteristics. This article intended to review the criteria and the procedures established by the legislation and its real applicability in gas pipeline projects face to the environmental impacts identified to this activity. For this analysis, the methodology used was the case study of two gas pipelines: Cabiunas - Vitoria (GASCAV) and Cacimbas - Catu (GASCAC). The results allowed to conclude that the actions developed to the Sub-Programme of Rescue of the fauna are satisfactory to control environmental impacts and that the Sub-Programme of Monitoring of the fauna just confirm behaviors and information's previous detected. (author)

  17. 燃气管道阴极保护在线数据监测管理系统探讨%Exploration of on -Line Monitoring and Assessment System for Cathodic Protection of Gas Pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝君第

    2012-01-01

    For the lack of gas pipeline conventional cathodic protection method, one kind of gas transmission and dis- tribution pipeline cathodic protection system on line was introduced. The system mainly included four units of the field measurement equipment and data acquisition unit, data communication and transmission unit, a data processing unit, and WEB release unit module. The system in Europe got a better development and can effectively monitor and control the gas pipeline cathodic protection.%针对燃气管道常规阴极保护方法的不足,介绍一种燃气输配管线在线阴极保护系统。整个系统主要包括现场测量设备及数据采集单元、数据通信和传输单元、数据处理单元、WEB发布单元等四个模块单元。该系统在欧洲得到较好的发展,能够有效监控燃气管道阴极保护情况。

  18. Flexibility, savings chief returns of new pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadbent, G.E.; Williams, T. (Pipelines Authority of South Australia, Glenside (AU))

    1990-04-30

    This paper reports on the development of an optimization system for operation of a gas-pipeline network. The system employs a steady-state model to predict pipeline compressor configurations and setpoints. The system allowed greater accuracy in operations of the pipeline network even when subject to highly transient flows. This article provides a detailed description of the system.

  19. 18 CFR 284.265 - Cost recovery by interstate pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... interstate pipeline. 284.265 Section 284.265 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... § 284.265 Cost recovery by interstate pipeline. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b), an interstate... directly assign the emergency gas costs to the recipient. (b) If an interstate pipeline cannot...

  20. 49 CFR 192.755 - Protecting cast-iron pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protecting cast-iron pipelines. 192.755 Section... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.755 Protecting cast-iron pipelines. When an operator has knowledge that the support for a segment of a buried...

  1. 18 CFR 284.122 - Transportation by intrastate pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Commission approval, transport natural gas on behalf of: (1) Any interstate pipeline; or (2) Any local... interstate pipeline or local distribution company has physical custody of and transports the natural gas at... REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978...

  2. 76 FR 11853 - Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... received from several natural gas and hazardous liquid pipeline operators, seeking relief from compliance... is located in Coos County, New Hampshire and is a 24-inch mainline natural gas pipeline, 595 feet in... PNGTS natural gas mainline in Coos County, New Hampshire. This segment has changed from a Class...

  3. Environmental assessment on karstic formations for implantation of a terrestrial pipeline: case study of the Cacimbas-Catu gas pipeline; Avaliacao ambiental para implantacao de dutos terretres em terrenos carsticos: estudo de caso Gasoduto Cacimbas-Catu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado, Shanty Navarro; Oliveira, Wilson Jose de; Braun, Oscar [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)] (and others)

    2008-07-01

    This work concerns in the development of a study on mapping and detection of structures and geological and geotechnical features associated with karstic relief and its implications in terms of ground stability to support the pipeline as well as from the point of view of cavities / caves conservation, potentially impacted by this activity. The limited mobility of track, carried by the existing restrictions, make the route of the Cacimbas-Catu pipeline pass through the cities of Itapebi (BA), Belomonte (BA), Mascote (BA) e Camaca (BA), where the local geology is characterized by rocks of Rio Pardo Group, dating from the Superior proterozoic (lower sequence predominantly carbonatic and upper sequence predominantly terrigenous). The study included a survey of secondary data, a field survey confirming karstic features, a 2D and subsequently 3D tomography survey, and a drilling survey to direct research at points of geo-electrical anomalies. The work did not identify underground cavities on the Cacimbas-Catu pipeline route. Even taking the studies presented geo-electric anomalies the direct investigation did not confirm the presence of voids in sub-surface, which enables the implementation of pipelines in this place, however the presence of electric anomalies with high resistivity indicate geotechnical areas where special care should be taken in relation to the stability of the ground. (author)

  4. Habitat diversity in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico: Selected video clips from the Gulfstream Natural Gas Pipeline digital archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabe, Ellen A.; D'Anjou, Robert; Pope, Domonique K.; Robbins, Lisa L.

    2011-01-01

    This project combines underwater video with maps and descriptions to illustrate diverse seafloor habitats from Tampa Bay, Florida, to Mobile Bay, Alabama. A swath of seafloor was surveyed with underwater video to 100 meters (m) water depth in 1999 and 2000 as part of the Gulfstream Natural Gas System Survey. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in St. Petersburg, Florida, in cooperation with Eckerd College and the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), produced an archive of analog-to-digital underwater movies. Representative clips of seafloor habitats were selected from hundreds of hours of underwater footage. The locations of video clips were mapped to show the distribution of habitat and habitat transitions. The numerous benthic habitats in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico play a vital role in the region's economy, providing essential resources for tourism, natural gas, recreational water sports (fishing, boating, scuba diving), materials, fresh food, energy, a source of sand for beach renourishment, and more. These submerged natural resources are important to the economy but are often invisible to the general public. This product provides a glimpse of the seafloor with sample underwater video, maps, and habitat descriptions. It was developed to depict the range and location of seafloor habitats in the region but is limited by depth and by the survey track. It should not be viewed as comprehensive, but rather as a point of departure for inquiries and appreciation of marine resources and seafloor habitats. Further information is provided in the Resources section.

  5. Communication systems vital to Colombian pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrato, E. [Ecopetrol, Bogota (Colombia); Mailloux, R. [Bristol Babcock Inc., Watertown, CT (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Construction of the Centro Oriente Gas Pipeline represents a major step in Colombia`s goal to strengthen the emerging natural gas business. With construction beginning in 1995, the Centro Oriente is scheduled to begin operation early this year transporting 150 MMcf/d. The 779-kilometer (484-mile) pipeline ranging in diameter from 22-inch to 12-inches, provides the central transportation link between major gas suppliers in both the northern and western regions of Colombia and new markets throughout their immediate regions as well as in the central and eastern regions. TransCanada, operating company for the Centro Oriente pipeline, will develop and manage the support organizations required to operate and maintain the system. The central control system for the CPC is the Gas SCADA system, ADACS, provided by Bristol Babcock Inc. (BBI). This control system provides the data acquisition and control capabilities necessary to operate the entire pipeline safely and efficiently from Burcaramanga.

  6. Vulnerability of pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2006-07-01

    Although pipelines may be damaged due to natural sources such as stress corrosion cracking (SCC) or hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC), most pipeline damages are a result of third-party interference, such as unauthorized construction in a right of way. Pipelines are also among the prime targets for sabotage because interruptions in energy distribution can render large segments of a population debilitated. The importance of protecting critical infrastructure was emphasized in this theme issue which disseminated information on vulnerability of pipelines due to third-party intrusions, both intentional and unintentional. It summarized the 10 presentations that were delivered at a pipelines security forum in Calgary, Alberta, addressing Canadian and U.S. government and industry approaches to oil and natural gas pipeline security. The opening keynote address remarked on the evolution of international terror networks, the targeting of the energy sector, and the terrorist threat and presence in Canada. Policies towards critical energy infrastructure protection (CIP) were then examined in light of these threats. A policy shift away from traditional defensive protective security towards an offensive intelligence-led strategy to forestall terrorist threats was advocated. Energy sector representatives agreed that Canada needs an effective national lead agency to provide threat assessments, alert notification, and coordination of information pertaining to CIP. It was agreed that early warning information must come from Canadian as well as U.S. sources in order to be pertinent. The conference session on information collection concentrated on defining what sort of threat information is needed by the energy sector, who should collect it and how should it be shared. It was emphasized that government leadership should coordinate threat reporting and disseminate information, set standards, and address the issues of terrorism risk insurance. Concern was raised about the lack of

  7. Dynamic Risk Assessment for Natural Gas Pipelines Based on Variable Weights Comprehensive Theory%基于变权综合理论的天然气管道动态风险评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡翩; 刘书海; 王德国; 何仁洋

    2012-01-01

    To conduct effective risk assessment for the natural gas pipeline, a dynamic risk assessment method based on variable weights comprehensive theory was worked out. FTA was used to judge the main risk factors of gas pipeline in different condition in order that real-time updating of the risk index system can be realized. Meanwhile, variable weights comprehensive theory was introduced to build a variable weights model in which weights change with indexes. Then comprehensive evaluation for natural gas pipeline is conducted to know the pipeline's risk level. Risk assessment for a certain section of Shanjing 3 pipeline was carried out. The result shows that the section is at a medium risk level now and should be monitored intensively. The combination of variable weights and dynamic index system enables this method to reflect the risk level of pipe in real time and apply to all sections of pipeline.%为对天然气管道进行有效的风险评估,提出基于变权综合理论的天然气管道动态风险评价法.利用故障树分析法(FTA)确定天然气管道不同时间空间下的主要风险因素,实时更新风险指标体系;同时引入变权综合原理,建立权重跟随指标值动态变化的变权赋值模型;然后对天然气管道进行综合评定,确定管道当前状态的风险程度.以陕京3线中某管段为例进行分析,得出该管段当前风险等级为中等,在后期运行中应被重点监控.变权赋值与动态指标体系的结合使该方法能实时反映管道风险状况,并适用于天然气管线各段.

  8. Developing Pipeline Transportation in West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Chenghan; Wang Wei

    1997-01-01

    @@ Since the late 1980s, focus of exploration and development for oil & gas has been diverted to thewest of China, resulting in the discovery and development of Shaanbei gas field followed by large-scale exploration and development of Tarim,Turpan and Hami basins. Responding to this situation, pipeline construction focus has also been transferred to west China where large-scale development of pipeline transportation, an opportunity as well as a challenge, is expected.

  9. Dynamics of a Coupled System: Multi-Resolution Remote Sensing in Assessing Social-Ecological Responses during 25 Years of Gas Field Development in Arctic Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Stammler

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon exploration has been underway in the north of West Siberia for several decades. Giant gas fields on the Yamal Peninsula are expected to begin feeding the Nord Stream pipeline to Western Europe in late 2012. Employing a variety of high- to very high-resolution satellite-based sensors, we have followed the establishment and spread of Bovanenkovo, the biggest and first field to be developed. Extensive onsite field observations and measurements of land use and land cover changes since 1985 have been combined with intensive participant observation in all seasons among indigenous Nenets reindeer herders and long-term gas field workers during 2004–2007 and 2010–2011. Time series and multi-resolution imagery was used to build a chronology of the gas field’s development. Large areas of partially or totally denuded tundra and most forms of expanding infrastructure are readily tracked with Landsat scenes (1985, 1988, 2000, 2009, 2011. SPOT (1993, 1998 and ASTER (2001 were also used. Quickbird-2 (2004 and GeoEye (2010 were most successful in detecting small-scale anthropogenic disturbances as well as individual camps of nomadic herders moving in the vicinity of the gas field. For assessing gas field development the best results are obtained by combining lower resolution with Very High Resolution (VHR imagery (spatial resolution < 5 m and fieldwork. Nenets managing collective and privately owned herds of reindeer have proven adept in responding to a broad range of intensifying industrial impacts at the same time as they have been dealing with symptoms of a warming climate. Here we detail both the spatial extent of gas field growth and the dynamic relationship between Nenets nomads and their rapidly evolving social-ecological system.

  10. Leakage Causes of Ground Pipeline Measurement Valve in a Gas Well%某气井井口管线计量阀刺漏原因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李循迹; 李先明; 陈东风; 王福善; 常泽亮; 何银达; 林冠发

    2013-01-01

    The pitting leakage of ground pipeline measurement valve in a gas well and its producing condition were investigated,and the failure reasons were analyzed by field research,metallographic structure,spectroscopy and chemical composition analyses.The results show that the microstructure and chemical composition of the valve and the chemical compositions of the inner surface plating,sealing ring and top cover meet the demands of the standards.There was serious erosion corrosion in the substrate and upstream of the valve.The ring ditch on the top cover of the valve ball resulted from the simultaneous action of erosion corrosion and crevice corrosion,which related to the structure defect of the ring crevice in the top cover.The finally formed ditch between the top cover and the ball resulted from erosion corrosion,gas corrosion and galvanic corrosion.The reason of the corrosion ditch on the inner surface of the valve was also the results of erosion corrosion,gas corrosion and galvanic corrosion on the coarse and uneven surface.%针对某高产气井单井管线的计量阀发生刺漏,进行了现场失效情况和相关生产参数的调研,并进行了金相组织、能谱和化学成分分析.结果表明,阀体铸铁的金相组织和化学成分符合标准要求,内表面镀层、密封环和压盖材质化学成分也符合标准要求.计量阀本体和上游存在严重的冲刷腐蚀;计量阀阀球压盖上的环形沟槽的腐蚀是冲刷腐蚀与缝隙腐蚀的结果,这与压盖留有一环形缝隙结构缺陷有关.压盖与球体间暴露出来的铸铁是形成腐蚀坑槽的起因,但腐蚀沟槽的最终形成则是由冲蚀、气蚀和电偶腐蚀共同作用的结果.阀室内表面的腐蚀沟槽起因在于阀室内表面粗糙不均匀而受到冲蚀和气蚀作用,而后由冲蚀、气蚀和电偶腐蚀共同作用.

  11. 氢气输送管线开裂原因分析%Cause Analysis for Cracking of Hydrogen Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙杰文; 湛小琳; 姚飞; 刘德宇; 蒋卫东; 赵彦修

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the cause for cracking of hydrogen gas pipeline in order to provide reference for failure of the same type of pipes. Methods For hydrogen gas pipeline with a design pressure of 4. 8 MPa and a design temperature of 50 ℃which was put in service in 1998, the macro morphology was observed, the mechanical properties were analyzed through tensile test and hardness test. In addition, optical microscopy analysis and scanning electron microscope ( SEM) observation were conducted, and the composition of corrosion products was analyzed by Energy Dispersive Spectrometer ( EDS) . Results The pipe wall had no obvious corrosion thinning. The overall mechanical properties of the pipe wall conformed to the standard, the tested samples had relatively good toughness and there was no material degradation. The Matrix microstructure was normal ferrite + pearlite, and the structure distribution was even. Some martensite structure occurred in the weld area of T-branch pipe and bending pipe, which was easy to induce the occurrence of sulfide stress corrosion cracking. The internal wall of the pipe had cracks and pitting corrosion, Crack propagation was deep, with split ends, which was a typical characteristic of stress corrosion. The corrosion pits showed gath-ered phenomenon and had the trend of micro cracks formation. The existence of corrosion products on the internal wall of the pipe indicated that the transported medium was not pure. The corrosion products contained sulfur element, showing that the medium contained impurities such as sulfide. Conclusion The relatively high operating pressure of the pipeline, in combination with other joint action of stress and medium, led to hydrogen sulfide stress corrosion cracking of the pipeline internal wall.%目的:对氢气管道内表面开裂原因进行分析,为同类型管道的失效提供参考。方法针对设计压力4.8 MPa、设计温度50℃并在1998年投用的氢气管道,观察其宏观形貌

  12. Clostridium kogasensis sp. nov., a novel member of the genus Clostridium, isolated from soil under a corroded gas pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yeseul; Kang, Seok-Seong; Paek, Jayoung; Jin, Tae Eun; Song, Hong Seok; Kim, Hongik; Park, Hee-Moon; Chang, Young-Hyo

    2016-06-01

    Two bacterial strains, YHK0403(T) and YHK0508, isolated from soil under a corroded gas pipe line, were revealed as Gram-negative, obligately anaerobic, spore-forming and mesophilic bacteria. The cells were rod-shaped and motile by means of peritrichous flagella. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolates were members of the genus Clostridium and were the most closely related to Clostridium scatologenes KCTC 5588(T) (95.8% sequence similarity), followed by Clostridium magnum KCTC 15177(T) (95.8%), Clostridium drakei KCTC 5440(T) (95.7%) and Clostridium tyrobutyricum KCTC 5387(T) (94.9%). The G + C contents of the isolates were 29.6 mol%. Peptidoglycan in the cell wall was of the A1γ type with meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major polar lipid was diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), and other minor lipids were revealed as phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), two unknown glycolipids (GL1 and GL2), an unknown aminoglycolipid (NGL), two unknown aminophospholipids (PN1 and PN2) and four unknown phospholipids (PL1 to PL4). Predominant fatty acids were C16:0 and C16:1cis9 DMA. The major end products from glucose fermentation were identified as butyrate (12.2 mmol) and acetate (9.8 mmol). Collectively, the results from a wide range of phenotypic tests, chemotaxonomic tests, and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the two isolates represent novel species of the genus Clostridium, for which the name Clostridium kogasensis sp. nov. (type strain, YHK0403(T) = KCTC 15258(T) = JCM 18719(T)) is proposed.

  13. 腐蚀坑形貌对油气管道失效压力的影响%Corrosion pit morphology on the impact of oil and gas pipeline failure pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔铭伟; 曹学文; 封子艳

    2014-01-01

    ASME B 31G规范把复杂的腐蚀坑剖面曲线简化成矩形或抛物线投影,是造成ASME B 31G规范预测结果出现保守和不稳定性的重要原因。文章采用非线性有限元方法,综合分析了腐蚀坑剖面面积和腐蚀坑形状系数对腐蚀管道失效压力的影响,提出一种新的以腐蚀坑剖面面积和腐蚀坑形状系数描述腐蚀坑形貌的B31G修正公式,实际算例表明新提出的B31G修正公式的预测结果保守性低,预测误差稳定。%The failure pressure of oil and gas pipeline with different morphology of corrosion pits was anal-ysed by using the nonlinear finite element method. The impact of the cross-section area of corrosion pit on pipeline failure pressure with the axial and circumferential corrosion was researched. The analysis showed that the cross-section area of corrosion pits seriously influenced the failure pressure of pipeline with axial corrosion, however, which was not enough to fully describe the effects of the morphology of corrosion pits on pipeline failure pressure. The research considered the effects of the morphology of corrosion pits by us-ing the cross-section area of corrosion pit and form factor of corrosion pit to descripe on pipeline failure pressure, and proposed a new B31G correction formula. The results show that forecast error and the fluctu-ation range of the error are little using the formula.

  14. The redefinition of the american and british gas industries: the regulation of the access load to the gas pipelines networks; La restructuration des industries gazieres americaine et britannique: la reglementation de la charge d'acces aux reseaux de gazoducs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, L

    2000-10-01

    The transport and distribution networks regulation is the main stakes of the regulation reform of the gas industries. This thesis analyzes the models applied in The Usa and in the United Kingdom. The first part deals with the gas industries deregulation in these two countries, the impacts on the economy and the organization of the gas industries. The second part presents a theoretical approach of the regulation applied to the prices of the natural ags transport by gas pipelines. Regulation by the service cost price and by price cap are compared. (A.L.B.)

  15. Arctic Newcomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki

    2013-01-01

    Interest in the Arctic region and its economic potential in Japan, South Korea and Singapore was slow to develop but is now rapidly growing. All three countries have in recent years accelerated their engagement with Arctic states, laying the institutional frameworks needed to better understand an...

  16. Arctic methane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dyupina, E.; Amstel, van A.R.

    2013-01-01

    What are the risks of a runaway greenhouse effect from methane release from hydrates in the Arctic? In January 2013, a dramatic increase of methane concentration up to 2000 ppb has been measured over the Arctic north of Norway in the Barents Sea. The global average being 1750 ppb. It has been sugges

  17. 大口径天然气管道音波信号的降噪方法%Noise Reduction for Large-Diameter Gas Pipeline Acoustic Signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁伟; 张来斌; 郭磊

    2012-01-01

    According to the characteristics of nonlinear system when large-diameter gas pipeline runs, lo-cal-projective noise reduction method is used to reduce the strong background noises mixed in acoustic signals. The theoretical basis, the algorithm steps as well as the mathematical model of local-projective noise reduction method are introduced. Furthermore, the key parameters of algorithm, embedding dimension and delay time, are described respectively and calculated by corresponding methods. The original acoustic signals of three different field operation conditions are de-noised, and the results show that the signal-to-noise ratio is increased by 20. 7~38. 2 dB, which illustrates the effective and practical local-projective noise reduction method can realize correct separation of acoustic feature signals from noises.%针对大口径天然气管道运行的非线性系统的特点,利用局部投影降噪方法对高含噪声的音波信号进行降噪处理.介绍了局部投影降噪方法的理论基础、算法步骤和数学模型,对该算法中的关键参数嵌入维数和时间延迟分别进行了说明,并用相应的方法进行求解计算.对现场3种不同工况的原始音波数据进行降噪分析,结果显示信噪比提高了20.7~38.2 dB,说明了局部投影降噪方法对音波信号降噪的有效性和实用性,能实现噪声与特征信号的正确分离.

  18. Tools and techniques for schedule's controlling: tracking system and control of Urucu-Manaus gas-pipeline construction, stretch B1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuany, Valdenise Marques; Dias, Jose Luiz Gomes [CONCREMAT Engenharia e Tecnologia S/A, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The goal is to show the monitoring systems and deadline control, using the PMBOK{sup R} project management tools, in the Construction and Assembly of the Coari-Manaus Gas-pipeline, stretch B1, which includes the cities of Coari, Codajas, Anori and Anama, in the state of Amazon, in the Northern Undertaking Implementation (IENOR), an Engineering division of the PETROBRAS System. This report presents the practical effects of the usage of three schedule control tools of the project: Performance Measurement, using the technique of the Earned Value Management (EVM), which integrates cost, schedule and physical progress of the enterprise to determine the variations of schedule and performance; Project Management Software, MSProject, which allows schedule's elaboration and makes the tracking of the planned dates possible (baseline) in relation to real dates and forecasts the trend level, the effects of changes in the project's schedule, demonstrating its utility as a schedule control tool; and Schedule Variance Analysis, which adopts practical data to reach the pessimistic, most likely and optimistic expectations. The implantation of these tools was based in the Work Breakdown Structure of the enterprise. The application of these three tools in the tracking and control of the enterprise demonstrates that, the use of information and techniques deriving from the planning and control can be an important support for project management and decision taking, comparing the results gotten in the implantation of the plan with its actual realization, defining, thus, the necessary corrective actions, generating learned lessons to use in future projects. (author)

  19. 30 CFR 250.1752 - How do I remove a pipeline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I remove a pipeline? 250.1752 Section... GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Decommissioning Activities Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1752 How do I remove a pipeline? Before removing a pipeline, you must: (a) Submit a...

  20. Tubular lining material for pipelines having bends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moringa, A.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Hyodo, M.; Yagi, I.

    1987-03-24

    A tubular lining material for pipelines having bends or curved portions comprises a tubular textile jacket made of warps and wefts woven in a tubular form overlaid with a coating of a flexible synthetic resin. It is applicable onto the inner surface of a pipeline having bends or curved portions in such manner that the tubular lining material with a binder onto the inner surface thereof is inserted into the pipeline and allowed to advance within the pipeline, with or without the aid of a leading rope-like elongated element, while turning the tubular lining material inside out under fluid pressure. In this manner the tubular lining material is applied onto the inner surface of the pipeline with the binder being interposed between the pipeline and the tubular lining material. The lining material is characterized in that a part of all of the warps are comprised of an elastic yarn around which, over the full length thereof, a synthetic fiber yarn or yarns have been left-and/or right-handedly coiled. This tubular lining material is particularly suitable for lining a pipeline having an inner diameter of 25-200 mm and a plurality of bends, such as gas service pipelines or house pipelines, without occurrence of wrinkles in the lining material in a bend.