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Sample records for arcing fault fires

  1. High energy arcing fault fires in switchgear equipment : a literature review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowlen, Steven Patrick; Brown, Jason W.; Wyant, Francis John

    2008-10-01

    In power generating plants, switchgear provide a means to isolate and de-energize specific electrical components and buses in order to clear downstream faults, perform routine maintenance, and replace necessary electrical equipment. These protective devices may be categorized by the insulating medium, such as air or oil, and are typically specified by voltage classes, i.e. low, medium, and high voltage. Given their high energy content, catastrophic failure of switchgear by means of a high energy arcing fault (HEAF) may occur. An incident such as this may lead to an explosion and fire within the switchgear, directly impact adjacent components, and possibly render dependent electrical equipment inoperable. Historically, HEAF events have been poorly documented and discussed in little detail. Recent incidents involving switchgear components at nuclear power plants, however, were scrupulously investigated. The phenomena itself is only understood on a very elementary level from preliminary experiments and theories; though many have argued that these early experiments were inaccurate due to primitive instrumentation or poorly justified methodologies and thus require re-evaluation. Within the past two decades, however, there has been a resurgence of research that analyzes previous work and modern technology. Developing a greater understanding of the HEAF phenomena, in particular the affects on switchgear equipment and other associated switching components, would allow power generating industries to minimize and possibly prevent future occurrences, thereby reducing costs associated with repair and downtime. This report presents the findings of a literature review focused on arc fault studies for electrical switching equipment. The specific objective of this review was to assess the availability of the types of information needed to support development of improved treatment methods in fire Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for nuclear power plant applications.

  2. Field Guide for Testing Existing Photovoltaic Systems for Ground Faults and Installing Equipment to Mitigate Fire Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, William [Brooks Engineering, Vacaville, CA (United States); Basso, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Coddington, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Ground faults and arc faults are the two most common reasons for fires in photovoltaic (PV) arrays and methods exist that can mitigate the hazards. This report provides field procedures for testing PV arrays for ground faults, and for implementing high resolution ground fault and arc fault detectors in existing and new PV system designs.

  3. Large seismic faults in the Hellenic arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Papazachos

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Using information concerning reliable fault plane solutions, spatial distribution of strong earthquakes (Ms³ 6.0 as well as sea bottom and coastal topography, properties of the seismic faults (orientation, dimension, type of faulting were determined in seven shallow (h < 40 km seismogenic regions along the convex part of thc Hellenic arc (Hellenic trench and in four seismogenic regions of intermediate depth earthquakes (h = 40-100 km along the concave part of this arc. Except for the northwesternmost part of the Hellenic trench, where the strike-slip Cephalonia transform fault dominates, all other faults along this trench are low angle thrust faults. III thc western part of the trench (Zante-west Crete faults strike NW-SE and dip NE, while in its eastern part (east Crete-Rhodos faults strike WNW-ESE and dip NNE. Such system of faulting can be attributed to an overthrust of the Aegean lithosphere on the eastern Mediterranean lithosphere. The longest of these faults (L = 300 km is that which produced the largest known shallow earthquake in the Mediterranean area (21 July 365, Ms = 8.3 which is located near the southwestern coast of Crete. The second longest such fault (L = l 70 km is that which produced a large earthquake (December 1303, Ms = 8.0 in the easternmost part of the trench (east of Rhodos island. Both earthquakes were associated with gigantic tsunamis which caused extensive damage in the coast of many Eastern Mediterranean countries. Seismic faults of the intermediate depth earthquakes in the shallow part of the Benioff zone (h = 40- 100 km are of strike-slip type, with a thrust component. The orientations of these faults vary along the concave part of the arc in accordance with a subduction of remnants of all old lithospheric slab from the convex side (Mediterranean to the concave side (Aegean of thc Hellenic arc. The longest of these faults (L = 220 km is that which produced the largest known intermediate depth earthquake in the

  4. Series and parallel arc-fault circuit interrupter tests.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jay Dean; Fresquez, Armando J.; Gudgel, Bob; Meares, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    While the 2011 National Electrical Codeª (NEC) only requires series arc-fault protection, some arc-fault circuit interrupter (AFCI) manufacturers are designing products to detect and mitigate both series and parallel arc-faults. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has extensively investigated the electrical differences of series and parallel arc-faults and has offered possible classification and mitigation solutions. As part of this effort, Sandia National Laboratories has collaborated with MidNite Solar to create and test a 24-string combiner box with an AFCI which detects, differentiates, and de-energizes series and parallel arc-faults. In the case of the MidNite AFCI prototype, series arc-faults are mitigated by opening the PV strings, whereas parallel arc-faults are mitigated by shorting the array. A range of different experimental series and parallel arc-fault tests with the MidNite combiner box were performed at the Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) at SNL in Albuquerque, NM. In all the tests, the prototype de-energized the arc-faults in the time period required by the arc-fault circuit interrupt testing standard, UL 1699B. The experimental tests confirm series and parallel arc-faults can be successfully mitigated with a combiner box-integrated solution.

  5. Field Guide for Testing Existing Photovoltaic Systems for Ground Faults and Installing Equipment to Mitigate Fire Hazards: November 2012 - October 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, W.

    2015-02-01

    Ground faults and arc faults are the two most common reasons for fires in photovoltaic (PV) arrays and methods exist that can mitigate the hazards. This report provides field procedures for testing PV arrays for ground faults, and for implementing high resolution ground fault and arc fault detectors in existing and new PV system designs.

  6. Numerical Algorithm for Distance Protection and Arcing Fault Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoran, Radojevic; Park, K. W.; Park, J. S. [LG Industrial Systems, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    In this paper a new numerical algorithm for fault distance calculation and arcing fault recognition based on one terminal data and derived in time domain is presented. The algorithm is derived for the case of most frequent single-phase line to ground fault. The faulted phase voltage at the fault place is modeled as a serial connection of fault resistance and a rc voltage. The fault distance and ard voltage amplitude are estimated using Least Error squares Technique. The algorithm can be applied for distance protection, intelligent autoreclosure and for fault location. The results of algorithm tested through computer simulation are given. (author). 6 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Electrical and thermal finite element modeling of arc faults in photovoltaic bypass diodes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, Ward Isaac; Quintana, Michael A.; Johnson, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Arc faults in photovoltaic (PV) modules have caused multiple rooftop fires. The arc generates a high-temperature plasma that ignites surrounding materials and subsequently spreads the fire to the building structure. While there are many possible locations in PV systems and PV modules where arcs could initiate, bypass diodes have been suspected of triggering arc faults in some modules. In order to understand the electrical and thermal phenomena associated with these events, a finite element model of a busbar and diode was created. Thermoelectrical simulations found Joule and internal diode heating from normal operation would not normally cause bypass diode or solder failures. However, if corrosion increased the contact resistance in the solder connection between the busbar and the diode leads, enough voltage potentially would be established to arc across micron-scale electrode gaps. Lastly, an analytical arc radiation model based on observed data was employed to predicted polymer ignition times. The model predicted polymer materials in the adjacent area of the diode and junction box ignite in less than 0.1 seconds.

  8. Comparison between open phase fault of arc suppression coil and single phase to earth fault in coal mine distribution network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-bo; WANG Chong-lin

    2008-01-01

    When, in a coal mine distribution network whose neutral point is grounded by an arc suppression coil (ASC), a fault occurs in the ASC, compensation cannot be properly realized. Furthermore, it can damage the safe and reliable run of the network.We first introduce a three-phase five-column arc suppression coil (TPFCASC) and discuss its autotracking compensation theory.Then we compare the single phase to ground fault of the coal mine distribution network with an open phase fault at the TPFCASC using the Thévenin theory, the symmetrical-component method and the complex sequence network respectively. The results show that, in both types of faults, zero-sequence voltage of the network will appear and the maximum magnitude of this zero-sequence voltage is different in both faults. Based on this situation, a protection for the open phase fault at the TPFCASC should be estab-lished.

  9. Numerical Methods for the Analysis of Power Transformer Tank Deformation and Rupture Due to Internal Arcing Faults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenguang Yan

    Full Text Available Power transformer rupture and fire resulting from an arcing fault inside the tank usually leads to significant security risks and serious economic loss. In order to reveal the essence of tank deformation or explosion, this paper presents a 3-D numerical computational tool to simulate the structural dynamic behavior due to overpressure inside transformer tank. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a 17.3 MJ and a 6.3 MJ arcing fault were simulated on a real full-scale 360MVA/220kV oil-immersed transformer model, respectively. By employing the finite element method, the transformer internal overpressure distribution, wave propagation and von-Mises stress were solved. The numerical results indicate that the increase of pressure and mechanical stress distribution are non-uniform and the stress tends to concentrate on connecting parts of the tank as the fault time evolves. Given this feature, it becomes possible to reduce the risk of transformer tank rupture through limiting the fault energy and enhancing the mechanical strength of the local stress concentrative areas. The theoretical model and numerical simulation method proposed in this paper can be used as a substitute for risky and costly field tests in fault overpressure analysis and tank mitigation design of transformers.

  10. Numerical Methods for the Analysis of Power Transformer Tank Deformation and Rupture Due to Internal Arcing Faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chenguang; Hao, Zhiguo; Zhang, Song; Zhang, Baohui; Zheng, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Power transformer rupture and fire resulting from an arcing fault inside the tank usually leads to significant security risks and serious economic loss. In order to reveal the essence of tank deformation or explosion, this paper presents a 3-D numerical computational tool to simulate the structural dynamic behavior due to overpressure inside transformer tank. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a 17.3 MJ and a 6.3 MJ arcing fault were simulated on a real full-scale 360MVA/220kV oil-immersed transformer model, respectively. By employing the finite element method, the transformer internal overpressure distribution, wave propagation and von-Mises stress were solved. The numerical results indicate that the increase of pressure and mechanical stress distribution are non-uniform and the stress tends to concentrate on connecting parts of the tank as the fault time evolves. Given this feature, it becomes possible to reduce the risk of transformer tank rupture through limiting the fault energy and enhancing the mechanical strength of the local stress concentrative areas. The theoretical model and numerical simulation method proposed in this paper can be used as a substitute for risky and costly field tests in fault overpressure analysis and tank mitigation design of transformers.

  11. Analysis of Fault Arc in High-Speed Switch Applied in Hybrid Circuit Breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yifei; Ren, Zhigang; Feng, Ying; Li, Mei; Zhang, Hantian

    2016-03-01

    The behavior of fault arc in a high-speed switch (HSS) has been studied theoretically and experimentally. A simplified HSS setup is designed to support this work. A two-dimensional arc model is developed to analyze the characteristics of fault arc based on magnetic-hydrodynamic (MHD) theory. The advantage of such a model is that the thermal transfer coefficient can be determined by depending on the numerical method alone. The influence of net emission coefficients (NEC) radiation model and P1 model on fault arc is analyzed in detail. Results show that NEC model predicts more radiation energy and less pressure rise without the re-absorption effect considered. As a consequence, P1 model is more suitable to calculate the pressure rise caused by fault arc. Finally, the pressure rise during longer arcing time for different arc currents is predicted. supported by National Key Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (No. 2015CB251001), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51221005, 51177124, 51377128, 51323012), the Science and Technology Project Funds of the Grid State Corporation SGSNKYOOKJJS1501564 and Shaanxi Province Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 2013JM-7010)

  12. SIMULATIONS AND MEASUREMENTS OF THE PRE-ARCING TIMES IN HBC FUSES UNDER TYPICAL ELECTRIC FAULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Memiaghe, Steeve,; Rochette, David; Touzani, Rachid; André, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    International audience This work deals with the comparison between calculations and measurements of pre-arcing times in High Breaking Capacity fuses under typical fault current conditions. This paper also describes the temperature evolution and the Joule energy dissipated in a fuse element during the pre-arcing time. By varying typical electrical parameters, namely the closing angle and the power factor, we show that various prospective currents such as those observed in industrial case ca...

  13. A New Method for Recognition of Arcing Faults in Transmission Lines using Wavelet Transform and Correlation Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Ghaffarzadeh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel method based on discrete wavelet transform and correlation coefficient is presented for distinguishing between arcing and permanent faults. The algorithm includes offline and online processing. In the offline, discrete wavelet transform is used to decompose typical faulted phase voltage waveforms during arcing faults. An index is then defined and computed. The index is based on the normalised energy of detail coefficients at resolution levels 1 to 14. The online processing consists of capturing the faulted phase voltage waveform using a 20 kHz sampling rate, and decomposing it by db4. Finally, arcing faults are distinguished from permanent faults based on correlation coefficient of the computed index of the pre-stored typical arcing faults and a recorded indistinct signal. The effectiveness of the approach has been tested for numerous arcing and permanent fault conditions on a transmission line using the Electromagnetic transient Program (EMTP software tool. The simulation results show the capability of the proposed method in distinguishing between arcing faults from permanent faults.

  14. Preliminary photovoltaic arc-fault prognostic tests using sacrificial fiber optic cabling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jay Dean; Blemel, Kenneth D.; Peter, Francis

    2013-02-01

    Through the New Mexico Small Business Assistance Program, Sandia National Laboratories worked with Sentient Business Systems, Inc. to develop and test a novel photovoltaic (PV) arc-fault detection system. The system operates by pairing translucent polymeric fiber optic sensors with electrical circuitry so that any external abrasion to the system or internal heating causes the fiber optic connection to fail or detectably degrade. A periodic pulse of light is sent through the optical path using a transmitter-receiver pair. If the receiver does not detect the pulse, an alarm is sounded and the PV system can be de-energized. This technology has the unique ability to prognostically determine impending failures to the electrical system in two ways: (a) the optical connection is severed prior to physical abrasion or cutting of PV DC electrical conductors, and (b) the polymeric fiber optic cable melts via Joule heating before an arc-fault is established through corrosion. Three arc-faults were created in different configurations found in PV systems with the integrated fiber optic system to determine the feasibility of the technology. In each case, the fiber optic cable was broken and the system annunciated the fault.

  15. The plus for the safety. Active arcing faults protection in switchgears; Das Plus fuer die Sicherheit. Aktiver Stoerlichtbogenschutz in Schaltanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbinghaus, Dirk; Brandt, Andreas; Aschenbroich, Ulrich [ABB AG Calor Emag Mittelspannungsprodukte, Ratingen (Germany)

    2012-06-11

    Arcing faults in medium voltage and high voltage systems are a safety hazard for people as well as devices and thus for the efficiency of network operations and industrial processes. Active safety systems help to eliminate their devastating effect largely.

  16. Arc-oblique fault systems: their role in the Cenozoic structural evolution and metallogenesis of the Andes of central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquer, Jose; Berry, Ron F.; Scott, Robert J.; Cooke, David R.

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of the Main Cordillera of Central Chile is characterized by the formation and subsequent inversion of an intra-arc volcano-tectonic basin. The world's largest porphyry Cu-Mo deposits were emplaced during basin inversion. Statistically, the area is dominated by NE- and NW-striking faults, oblique to the N-striking inverted basin-margin faults and to the axis of Cenozoic magmatism. This structural pattern is interpreted to reflect the architecture of the pre-Andean basement. Stratigraphic correlations, syn-extensional deposits and kinematic criteria on fault surfaces show several arc-oblique structures were active as normal faults at different stages of basin evolution. The geometry of syn-tectonic hydrothermal mineral fibers, in turn, demonstrates that most of these structures were reactivated as strike-slip ± reverse faults during the middle Miocene - early Pliocene. Fault reactivation age is constrained by 40Ar/39Ar dating of hydrothermal minerals deposited during fault slip. The abundance and distribution of these minerals indicates fault-controlled hydrothermal fluid flow was widespread during basin inversion. Fault reactivation occurred under a transpressive regime with E- to ENE-directed shortening, and was concentrated around major plutons and hydrothermal centers. At the margins of the former intra-arc basin, deformation was largely accommodated by reverse faulting, whereas in its central part strike-slip faulting was predominant.

  17. Simulation of Fault Arc Based on Different Radiation Models in a Closed Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Zhang, Junpeng; Hu, Yang; Zhang, Hantian; Wu, Yifei

    2016-05-01

    This paper focuses on the simulation of a fault arc in a closed tank based on the magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) method, in which a comparative study of three radiation models, including net emission coefficients (NEC), semi-empirical model based on NEC as well as the P1 model, is developed. The pressure rise calculated by the three radiation models are compared to the measured results. Particularly when the semi-empirical model is used, the effect of different boundary temperatures of the re-absorption layer in the semi-empirical model on pressure rise is concentrated on. The results show that the re-absorption effect in the low-temperature region affects radiation transfer of fault arcs evidently, and thus the internal pressure rise. Compared with the NEC model, P1 and the semi-empirical model with 0.7<α<0.83 are more suitable to calculate the pressure rise of the fault arc, where is an adjusted parameter involving the boundary temperature of the re-absorption region in the semi-empirical model. supported by National Key Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (No. 2015CB251002), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51221005, 51177124), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University and Shaanxi Province Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 2013JM-7010)

  18. Simulation of Fault Arc Based on Different Radiation Models in a Closed Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mei; ZHANG Junpeng; HU Yang; ZHANG Hantian; WU Yifei

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the simulation of a fault arc in a closed tank based on the magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) method,in which a comparative study of three radiation models,including net emission coefficients (NEC),semi-empirical model based on NEC as well as the P1 model,is developed.The pressure rise calculated by the three radiation models are compared to the measured results.Particularly when the semi-empirical model is used,the effect of different boundary temperatures of the re-absorption layer in the semi-empirical model on pressure rise is concentrated on.The results show that the re-absorption effect in the low-temperature region affects radiation transfer of fault arcs evidently,and thus the internal pressure rise.Compared with the NEC model,P1 and the semi-empirical model with 0.7 < α < 0.83 are more suitable to calculate the pressure rise of the fault arc,where is an adjusted parameter involving the boundary temperature of the re-absorption region in the semi-empirical model.

  19. Microearthquake seismicity and fault plane solutions related to arc-continent collision in the Eastern Sunda Arc, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Robert; Molnar, Peter; Roecker, Steven W.; Joyodiwiryo, Yoko S.

    1985-05-01

    The collision of Australia with the eastern Sunda and Banda arcs of Indonesia represents a modern example of the early stages of arc-continent collision. In order to obtain a more detailed view of the tectonics of the collision zone, a microearthquake survey was conducted around the Savu Sea, the region that encompasses the transition from subduction of Indian Ocean lithosphere on the west to collision or subduction of Australian continental lithosphere on the east. Intermediate depth earthquakes were concentrated near Pantar Island, the easternmost active volcano of the Sunda arc, and outline a northwest dipping zone that strikes N65°E from 70 to 150 km depth. The seismic zone probably marks the western edge of the collision zone and its more northerly strike, and the orientations of nodal planes from fault plane solutions indicate a 25° bend in the subducted slab to a depth of at least 150 km. Because the convergence rate and the timing of collision from geologic observations on Timor suggest that the part of the slab now at 150 km depth was at the trench when Australia first collided with Timor, we infer that continental crust (or at least rifted continental margin crust) caused the bend in the convergent margin and has been subducted to 150 km depth. Fault plane solutions of several events show nearly vertical nodal planes that trend parallel to the strike of the seismic zone, along which a northwest-side-down sense of displacement is indicated: these events are concentrated at the southern (top) side of the seismic zone and suggest that the subducted lithosphere is presently detaching in the 50-100 km depth range beneath the eastern Savu Sea. Fault plane solutions for earthquakes within the upper part of the detaching slab (70-100 km depth) have P and T axes whose trends lie parallel to the strike of the seismic zone and horizontal, southeast trending B axes. These earthquakes are interpreted as due to stresses caused by the bend in the subducting plate.

  20. Results From NICLAKES Survey of Active Faulting Beneath Lake Nicaragua, Central American Volcanic Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, J.; Mann, P.; McIntosh, K.; Wulf, S.; Dull, R.; Perez, P.; Strauch, W.

    2006-12-01

    In May of 2006 we used a chartered ferry boat to collect 520 km of seismic data, 886 km of 3.5 kHz subbottom profiler data, and 35 cores from Lake Nicaragua. The lake covers an area of 7700 km2 within the active Central American volcanic arc, forms the largest lake in Central America, ranks as the twentieth largest freshwater lake in the world, and has never been previously surveyed or cored in a systematic manner. Two large stratovolcanoes occupy the central part of the lake: Concepcion is presently active, Maderas was last active less than 2000 years ago. Four zones of active faulting and doming of the lake floor were mapped with seismic and 3.5 kHz subbottom profiling. Two of the zones consist of 3-5-km-wide, 20-30-km-long asymmetric rift structures that trend towards the inactive cone of Maderas Volcano in a radial manner. The northeastern rift forms a 20-27-m deep depression on the lake bottom that is controlled by a north-dipping normal fault. The southwestern rift forms a 25-35-m deep depression controlled by a northeast-dipping normal fault. Both depressions contain mound-like features inferred to be hydrothermal deposits. Two zones of active faulting are associated with the active Concepcion stratovolcano. A 600-m-wide and 6-km-long fault bounded horst block extends westward beneath the lake from a promontory on the west side of the volcano. Like the two radial rift features of Maderas, the horst points roughly towards the active caldera of Concepcion. A second north-south zone of active faulting, which also forms a high, extends off the north coast of Concepcion and corresponds to a localized zone of folding and faulting mapped by previous workers and inferred by them to have formed by gravitational spreading of the flank of the volcano. The close spatial relation of these faults to the two volcanic cones in the lake suggests that the mechanism for faulting is a result of either crustal movements related to magma intrusion or gravitational sliding and is

  1. Fire modeling in the Brazilian arc of deforestation through nested coupling of atmosphere, dynamic vegetation, LUCC and fire spread models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourigny, E.; Nobre, C.; Cardoso, M. F.

    2012-12-01

    Deforestation of tropical forests for logging and agriculture, associated to slash-and-burn practices, is a major source of CO2 emissions, both immediate due to biomass burning and future due to the elimination of a potential CO2 sink. Feedbacks between climate change and LUCC (Land-Use and Land-Cover Change) can potentially increase the loss of tropical forests and increase the rate of CO2 emissions, through mechanisms such as land and soil degradation and the increase in wildfire occurrence and severity. However, current understanding of the processes of fires (including ignition, spread and consequences) in tropical forests and climatic feedbacks are poorly understood and need further research. As the processes of LUCC and associated fires occur at local scales, linking them to large-scale atmospheric processes requires a means of up-scaling higher resolutions processes to lower resolutions. Our approach is to couple models which operate at various spatial and temporal scales: a Global Climate Model (GCM), Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (DGVM) and local-scale LUCC and fire spread model. The climate model resolves large scale atmospheric processes and forcings, which are imposed on the surface DGVM and fed-back to climate. Higher-resolution processes such as deforestation, land use management and associated (as well as natural) fires are resolved at the local level. A dynamic tiling scheme allows to represent local-scale heterogeneity while maintaining computational efficiency of the land surface model, compared to traditional landscape models. Fire behavior is modeled at the regional scale (~500m) to represent the detailed landscape using a semi-empirical fire spread model. The relatively coarse scale (as compared to other fire spread models) is necessary due to the paucity of detailed land-cover information and fire history (particularly in the tropics and developing countries). This work presents initial results of a spatially-explicit fire spread model

  2. Investigation of firing properties of a vacuum arcs triggered by plasma injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardet, H.; Godechot, X.; Riviere, C. [SODERN, Limeil-Brevannes (France)

    1996-08-01

    The firing characteristic of a vacuum arc, by means of plasma injection, is described. In this method, a plasma, created from a trigger device, plumes away to the space between the cathode and anode. As the plasma is quasi-neutral, the electrostatic field is concentrated across the sheath at the surface of the cathode, thus, creating a high electrical field. As a result, a vacuum arc fires between the cathode and anode. The authors have investigated the firing rate as a function of the trigger cathode distance, trigger current, the anode-cathode distance and voltage. They found a firing rate between 90 to 100% for a trigger current in the range of 400-1200 A, the trigger pulse length was 4 ps, and the trigger-cathode distance was 1.6 to 3.6 cm. The anode cathode gap length changes the firing rate to a low extent for values between 2 to 5 cm. The anode cathode voltage do not change the firing rate. The effect of a magnetic field applied axially over the trigger have also been investigated. Using a version of a highly reliable trigger, the authors were able to deposit stainless steel, copper, carbon and molybdenum, thin films.

  3. Low Cost Arc Fault Detection and Protection for PV Systems: January 30, 2012 - September 30, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCalmont, S.

    2013-10-01

    Final report for Tigo Energy Incubator project. The specific objective of this 18-month research effort was to develop an off-the-shelf arc-fault detector. The starting point of the project was a prototype detector that was constructed using discrete components and laboratory equipment. An intermediate objective was to build a technically viable detector using programmable components in the detector circuitry. The final objective was to build a commercially viable detector by reducing the cost of the circuitry through the use of more sophisticated programmable components and higher levels of integration.

  4. Results from NICLAKES Survey of Active Faulting Beneath Lake Managua,Central American Volcanic arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, K.; Funk, J.; Mann, P.; Perez, P.; Strauch, W.

    2006-12-01

    Lake Managua covers an area of 1,035 km2 of the Central American volcanic arc and is enclosed by three major stratovolcanoes: Momotombo to the northwest was last active in AD 1905, Apoyeque in the center on the Chiltepe Peninsula was last active ca. 4600 years BP, and Masaya to the southeast was last active in AD 2003. A much smaller volcano in the lake (Momotombito) is thought to have been active <4500 yrs B.P. In May of 2006, we used a chartered barge to collect 330 km of 3.5 kHz profiler data along with coincident 274 km of sidescan sonar and 27 km of seismic reflection data. These data identify three zones of faulting on the lake floor: 1) A zone of north-northeast-striking faults in the shallow (2.5-7.5 m deep) eastern part of the lake that extends from the capital city of Managua, which was severely damaged by shallow, left-lateral strike-slip displacements on two of these faults in 1931 (M 5.6) and 1972 (M 6.2): these faults exhibit a horst and graben character and include possible offsets on drowned river valleys 2) a semicircular rift zone that is 1 km wide and can be traced over a distance of 30 km in the central part of the lake; the rift structure defines the deepest parts of the lake ranging from 12 to 18 m deep and is concentric about the Apoyeque stratocone/Chiltepe Peninsula; and 3) a zone of fault scarps defining the northwestern lake shore that may correlate to the northwestern extension of the Mateare fault zone, a major scarp-forming fault that separates the Managua lowlands from the highlands south and west of the city. Following previous workers, we interpret the northeast- trending group of faults in the eastern part of the lake as part of a 15-km-long discontinuity where the trend of the volcanic arc is offset in a right-lateral sense. The semi-circular pattern of the rift zone that is centered on Chiltepe Peninsula appears to have formed as a distal effect of either magma intrusion or withdrawal from beneath this volcanic complex. The

  5. 支持向量机的低压故障电弧识别方法%Detection of Low-voltage Arc Fault Based on Support Vector Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐贞华

    2012-01-01

    故障电弧是引发电气火灾事故的主要原因之一.该文将支持向量机引入故障电弧研究领域,进行不同负荷情况下故障电弧识别检测.首先参照美国UL1699标准进行实验采集电流数据,然后利用支持向量机实现故障电弧训练、检测识别,并对训练、识别结果进行分析,实验证明本文的检测方法具备一定的泛化能力.%Arc fault is one of the prime reasons causing electrical fire accidents. In this paper,the support vector machine(SVM)is applied to the field of arc faults,for the prupose of detecting arc faults under different loads. Firstly,experiment data are collected based on UL1699. Arc faults are detected and identified by applying SVM. The analysis of the results shows that this detection method has some generalization.

  6. The Application of ArcGIS in Forest Fire Prevention Work%ArcGIS在森林火灾预防预测中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张树文

    2016-01-01

    In the research and development of the forest fire prevention system,the management information system is built based on GIS (geographic information system) platform.The basic theory and technology of GIS provides effective technical sup-port for the establishment of this system.ArcGIS achieves the synergy of GIS,3D GIS,time and space integration of GIS, the GIS cloud GIS and so on,the application of ArcGIS in forest fire prevention is more intuitive and vivid, bringing help to forest fire pre-vention work.%在森林防火资源配置系统研发中,基于GIS(地理信息系统)基础平台建立了管理信息系统,其中GIS的基本理论与技术为本系统的建立提供了有效的技术支撑.ArcGIS实现了协同GIS、三维GIS、时空GIS、一体化GIS云GIS等五大飞跃,ArcGIS运用到森林防火中更加直观和逼真,给森林火灾预防预测工作提供了高效、精确、便利的帮助.

  7. Active tectonics and kinematic modeling at the triple junction between the East Anatolian Fault, the Dead Sea Fault and the Cyprus Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Ziyadin; Meghraoui, Mustapha; Masson, Frédéric; Ferry, Matthieu; Ergintav, Semih; Inan, Sedat; Karabaçak, Volkan; Altunel, Erhan

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the kinematics and slip rates of active faults at the Maras-Antakya triple junction in southern Turkey (where the Anatolian, Arabian, African plates and Iskenderun microplate meet) using GPS measurements, active tectonics, paleoseismology and block modeling. Repeated GPS surveys between 1991 and 2004 allow us to determine horizontal velocities at 22 stations located across the East Anatolian Fault (EAF), the Dead Sea Fault (DSF) and the Cyprus Arc (CA). Field observations indicate that toward the southwest at Maras the EAF branches into the SW-NE trending Karatas - Osmaniye Fault segment (KOFS) and the SSW-NNE Karasu Fault (KF) that meets the DSF and the CA around Hatay to the south. The tectonic and geodetic field investigations indicate the existence of the Iskenderun block between the Anatolian and African plates. By using a simple kinematic model, we estimate that the relative left-lateral plate motion is 8.9±0.4 mm/yr across the EAF, 5.6±1.7 mm/yr across KOFS and 3.8±2 mm/yr across the Karasu fault. We also determine 1.8±1.1 mm/yr for the Karasu normal-component. However, modeling suggest that additional GPS benchmarks are required and in consequence we have recently installed 25 new GPS points (4 permanent and 21 campaign) at the triple junction. Geomorphological and paleoseismic studies yield left-lateral slip rates of 10.8±1 mm/yr and 6.0±0.3 mm/yr, respectively for the EAF and DSF, comparable with those obtained from GPS and deduced from block modeling. The kinematic modeling that combines GPS and tectonic results reveals the predominance of the westward movement of the Anatolian block with the Karasu Valley acting as a large pull-apart basin. Furthermore, we observe that the DSF transforms the Cyprus arc subduction into transpressive tectonics on the East Anatolian fault.

  8. Growth and linkage of the quaternary Ubrique Normal Fault Zone, Western Gibraltar Arc: role on the along-strike relief segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Bonilla, Alejandro; Balanya, Juan Carlos; Exposito, Inmaculada; Diaz-Azpiroz, Manuel; Barcos, Leticia

    2015-04-01

    Strain partitioning modes within migrating orogenic arcs may result in arc-parallel stretching that produces along-strike structural and topographic discontinuities. In the Western Gibraltar Arc, arc-parallel stretching has operated from the Lower Miocene up to recent times. In this study, we have reviewed the Colmenar Fault, located at the SW end of the Subbetic ranges, previously interpreted as a Middle Miocene low-angle normal fault. Our results allow to identify younger normal fault segments, to analyse their kinematics, growth and segment linkage, and to discuss its role on the structural and relief drop at regional scale. The Colmenar Fault is folded by post-Serravallian NE-SW buckle folds. Both the SW-dipping fault surfaces and the SW-plunging fold axes contribute to the structural relief drop toward the SW. Nevertheless, at the NW tip of the Colmenar Fault, we have identified unfolded normal faults cutting quaternary soils. They are grouped into a N110˚E striking brittle deformation band 15km long and until 3km wide (hereafter Ubrique Normal Fault Zone; UNFZ). The UNFZ is divided into three sectors: (a) The western tip zone is formed by normal faults which usually dip to the SW and whose slip directions vary between N205˚E and N225˚E. These segments are linked to each other by left-lateral oblique faults interpreted as transfer faults. (b) The central part of the UNFZ is composed of a single N115˚E striking fault segment 2,4km long. Slip directions are around N190˚E and the estimated throw is 1,25km. The fault scarp is well-conserved reaching up to 400m in its central part and diminishing to 200m at both segment terminations. This fault segment is linked to the western tip by an overlap zone characterized by tilted blocks limited by high-angle NNE-SSW and WNW-ESE striking faults interpreted as "box faults" [1]. (c) The eastern tip zone is formed by fault segments with oblique slip which also contribute to the downthrown of the SW block. This kinematic

  9. GPS-derived coupling estimates for the Central America subduction zone and volcanic arc faults: El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Mora, F.; DeMets, C.; Alvarado, D.; Turner, H. L.; Mattioli, G.; Hernandez, D.; Pullinger, C.; Rodriguez, M.; Tenorio, C.

    2009-12-01

    We invert GPS velocities from 32 sites in El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua to estimate the rate of long-term forearc motion and distributions of interseismic coupling across the Middle America subduction zone offshore from these countries and faults in the Salvadoran and Nicaraguan volcanic arcs. A 3-D finite element model is used to approximate the geometries of the subduction interface and strike-slip faults in the volcanic arc and determine the elastic response to coupling across these faults. The GPS velocities are best fit by a model in which the forearc moves 14-16 mmyr-1 and has coupling of 85-100 per cent across faults in the volcanic arc, in agreement with the high level of historic and recent earthquake activity in the volcanic arc. Our velocity inversion indicates that coupling across the potentially seismogenic areas of the subduction interface is remarkably weak, averaging no more than 3 per cent of the plate convergence rate and with only two poorly resolved patches where coupling might be higher along the 550-km-long segment we modelled. Our geodetic evidence for weak subduction coupling disagrees with a seismically derived coupling estimate of 60 +/- 10 per cent from a published analysis of earthquake damage back to 1690, but agrees with three other seismologic studies that infer weak subduction coupling from 20th century earthquakes. Most large historical earthquakes offshore from El Salvador and western Nicaragua may therefore have been intraslab normal faulting events similar to the Mw 7.3 1982 and Mw 7.7 2001 earthquakes offshore from El Salvador. Alternatively, the degree of coupling might vary with time. The evidence for weak coupling indirectly supports a recently published hypothesis that much of the Middle American forearc is escaping to the west or northwest away from the Cocos Ridge collision zone in Costa Rica. Such a hypothesis is particularly attractive for El Salvador, where there is little or no convergence obliquity to drive the

  10. Reverse Faulting as a Crucial Mechanism for Magma Ascent in Compressional Volcanic Arcs: Field Examples from the Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, F. A.; Gonzalez, G.; Cembrano, J. M.; Veloso, E. E.

    2010-12-01

    The nature of crustal deformation in active arcs and the feedback mechanisms between tectonics and magma transport constitute fundamental problems in the understanding of volcanic systems. Additionally, for geothermal energy exploration, a better understanding of how crustal architecture and stress field controls fluid ascent and heat transfer from deep levels to the surface is crucial. The Central Andes volcanic belt is an excellent, modern example of such systems but, the scarcity of good outcrops has limited our ability to define the relations between structure and volcanism. In the Salar de Atacama Basin of northern Chile, there are good exposures of folded and faulted Neogene units (continental sediments, volcanic rocks and ignimbrites) and reverse faults spatially and temporally related to volcanic edifices. The subsurface of the study area has been interpreted by previous authors as a thin-skinned, 6-8 km-deep, east-vergent compressional belt. We carried out structural mapping, Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) analyses, strain tensor analyses and fault-related fold kinematic modelling to assess the causal relationship between compressional deformation and magmatism in this region. Field observations indicate that the structures deformed progressively Oligocene-Miocene continental sedimentary units, the upper sedimentary infill of the Salar de Atacama basin (Pliocene-Present), and Pliocene-Pleistocene Ignimbrites. The topographic expression of the compressional belt corresponds to a set of subparallel, asymmetric, fault-related-folds, which can be seen in the field as prominent NS-trending ridges with heights ranging between 50 and 400 m. Furthermore, we found evidence of a ~100 km-long structure along the active magmatic arc, so-called Miscanti Fault. This fault represents the easternmost expression of the above mentioned compressional belt. Pleistocene-Holocene monogenetic cones and strato-volcanoes are located either at the hinge zone of fault

  11. Tectonomagmatic characteristics of the back-arc portion of the Calama-Olacapato-El Toro Fault Zone, Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acocella, V.; Gioncada, A.; Omarini, R.; Riller, U.; Mazzuoli, R.; Vezzoli, L.

    2011-06-01

    Post-20 Ma magmatism in the Central Andes is either localized in the magmatic arc or distributed east of it, on the Altiplano-Puna Plateau. Here there is a distinct concentration of magmatic centers on NW-SE trending lineaments, such as the Calama-Olacapato-El Toro (COT), that extends into the Eastern Cordillera to the east of the Puna. Understanding the possible genetic relationship between prominent structures and magmatic centers on these lineaments is important to elucidate the tectonomagmatic evolution of the Central Andes. We investigated the back-arc area of the COT using remote sensing, geological, structural, and petrochemical data. Our study demonstrates that this portion of the COT consists of NW-SE striking faults, formed under overall left-lateral transtension that decreases in activity toward the COT termini. Deformation on the COT occurred during and after activity of prominent N-S striking transpressive fault systems and is coeval with magmatism, which is focused on the central COT. The most evolved magmatic rocks, with an upper crustal imprint, are exposed on the central COT, whereas more primitive, mantle-derived mafic to moderately evolved magmatic rocks, are found toward the COT termini. This points to a genetic relationship between upper crustal deformation and magmatic activity that led to enhanced magma storage in the central COT. COT magmas may result either from slab steepening or episodic delamination of the asthenospheric mantle.

  12. Evaluation of select heat and pressure measurement gauges for potential use in the NRC/OECD High Energy Arc Fault (HEAF) test program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Carlos; Wente, William Baker; Figueroa, Victor G.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to improve the current state of the art in fire probabilistic risk assessment methodology, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Regulatory Research, contracted Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to conduct a series of scoping tests to identify thermal and mechanical probes that could be used to characterize the zone of influence (ZOI) during high energy arc fault (HEAF) testing. For the thermal evaluation, passive and active probes were exposed to HEAF-like heat fluxes for a period of 2 seconds at the SNLs National Solar Thermal Test Facility to determine their ability to survive and measure such an extreme environment. Thermal probes tested included temperature lacquers (passive), NANMAC thermocouples, directional flame thermometers, modified plate thermometers, infrared temperature sensors, and a Gardon heat flux gauge. Similarly, passive and active pressure probes were evaluated by exposing them to pressures resulting from various high-explosive detonations at the Sandia Terminal Ballistic Facility. Pressure probes included bikini pressure gauges (passive) and pressure transducers. Results from these tests provided good insight to determine which probes should be considered for use during future HEAF testing.

  13. Faults

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Through the study of faults and their effects, much can be learned about the size and recurrence intervals of earthquakes. Faults also teach us about crustal...

  14. Petrography of volcaniclastic rocks in intra-arc volcano-bounded to fault-bounded basins of the Rosario segment of the Lower Cretaceous Alisitos oceanic arc, Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaglia, K. M.; Barone, M.; Critelli, S.; Busby, C.; Fackler-Adams, B.

    2016-05-01

    The Rosario segment of the Early Cretaceous Alisitos oceanic magmatic arc in Baja California displays a record of arc-axis sedimentation and volcanism that is well preserved in outcrops within a southern volcano-bounded and a northern fault-bounded basin that flanked an intervening subaerial edifice. This record includes volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks that range from felsic to mafic in composition. Volcaniclastic/tuffaceous sandstone samples from two previously published measured sections are mainly composed of volcanic clasts with moderate plagioclase content. Locally quartz and/or potassium feldspar are present in trace to moderate amounts. The proportions of volcanic lithic types exhibiting vitric, microlitic, lathwork, and felsitic textures are highly variable with no distinct stratigraphic trends, likely as a function of the mixed styles of eruption and magma compositions that produced pyroclasts, as well as erosion-produced epiclastic debris. The volcaniclastic fill of the basins is consistent with an oceanic arc setting, except for the relatively high felsitic volcanic lithic content, likely associated with subaerial, as opposed to the more common submarine felsic magmatism associated with arc extension in oceanic settings. There are no major differences in compositional modes of tuff and sandstone between the fault-bounded and volcano-bounded basin strata, even though they exhibit distinctly different volcaniclastic facies. This suggests that proximal arc-axis basins of varying types around a single major subaerial edifice provide a faithful record of volcanic trends in the arc segment, regardless of variation in transport and depositional processes.

  15. Fault tree analysis of fire and explosion accidents for dual fuel (diesel/natural gas) ship engine rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yifeng; Zhao, Jie; Shi, Tengfei; Zhu, Peipei

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, China's increased interest in environmental protection has led to a promotion of energy-efficient dual fuel (diesel/natural gas) ships in Chinese inland rivers. A natural gas as ship fuel may pose dangers of fire and explosion if a gas leak occurs. If explosions or fires occur in the engine rooms of a ship, heavy damage and losses will be incurred. In this paper, a fault tree model is presented that considers both fires and explosions in a dual fuel ship; in this model, dual fuel engine rooms are the top events. All the basic events along with the minimum cut sets are obtained through the analysis. The primary factors that affect accidents involving fires and explosions are determined by calculating the degree of structure importance of the basic events. According to these results, corresponding measures are proposed to ensure and improve the safety and reliability of Chinese inland dual fuel ships.

  16. Fault tree analysis of fire and explosion accidents for dual fuel (diesel/natural gas) ship engine rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yifeng; Zhao, Jie; Shi, Tengfei; Zhu, Peipei

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, China's increased interest in environmental protection has led to a promotion of energy-efficient dual fuel (diesel/natural gas) ships in Chinese inland rivers. A natural gas as ship fuel may pose dangers of fire and explosion if a gas leak occurs. If explosions or fires occur in the engine rooms of a ship, heavy damage and losses will be incurred. In this paper, a fault tree model is presented that considers both fires and explosions in a dual fuel ship; in this model, dual fuel engine rooms are the top events. All the basic events along with the minimum cut sets are obtained through the analysis. The primary factors that affect accidents involving fires and explosions are determined by calculating the degree of structure importance of the basic events. According to these results, corresponding measures are proposed to ensure and improve the safety and reliability of Chinese inland dual fuel ships.

  17. Fault Tree Analysis of Fire and Explosion Accidents for Dual Fuel (Diesel/Natural Gas) Ship Engine Rooms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yifeng Guan; Jie Zhao; Tengfei Shiand Peipei Zhu

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, China’s increased interest in environmental protection has led to a promotion of energy-efficient dual fuel (diesel/natural gas) ships in Chinese inland rivers. A natural gas as ship fuel may pose dangers of fire and explosion if a gas leak occurs. If explosions or fires occur in the engine rooms of a ship, heavy damage and losses will be incurred. In this paper, a fault tree model is presented that considers both fires and explosions in a dual fuel ship;in this model, dual fuel engine rooms are the top events. All the basic events along with the minimum cut sets are obtained through the analysis.The primary factors that affect accidents involving fires and explosions are determined by calculating the degree of structure importance of the basic events.According to these results, corresponding measures are proposed to ensure and improve the safety and reliability of Chinese inland dual fuel ships.

  18. Faults Activities And Crustal Deformation Along The Arc-Continent Collision Boundary, Eastern Taiwan - Observed From Persistent Scatterer SAR Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Jiun-Yee; Chang, Chung-Pai; Hooper, Andrew; Chang, Yo-Ho; Liang, Wen-Tzong; Chang, Tsui-Yu

    2010-05-01

    Located in the southeastern periphery of the Eurasian plate, eastern Taiwan marks the collional boundary between the Eurasian plate and the Philippine Sea plate. These two plates converge at about 8 cm/yr near Taiwan and nearly half of the shortening is consumed in eastern Taiwan. There have been many studies in this area about the dynamics of the plate convergence, however, most of the geodetic studies focused on small area (strainmeter), with very few data points (GPS), or only gather data along a specific profile (leveling). We applied the Persistent Scatterer SAR Interferometry in the Longitudinal Valley of eastern Taiwan to observe temporally-variable processes using both ERS and Envisat data. At the same time, leveling and GPS data were measured for the auxiliary tool to verify the deformation rate in this area. Our result indicated that although the area is under active collision, faults do not move in the same fashion along the boundary. In the very northern part of the collided arc, small subsidence has been detected, while in the north-central part very few activity is observed. In the central and southern part of the collisional boundary, patches of faults are moving as rapidly as 15 mm/yr along radar line-of-sight. In addition. between late 2004 and middle 2005 there had been an earthquake swarm consists of shallow earthquakes, which coincided with PSI observation of a large vertical displacement. The comparison between our leveling data and PS results indicated PSI is a reliable tool even in the highly vegetated area in eastern Taiwan.

  19. Neotectonic development of the El Salvador Fault Zone and implications for deformation in the Central America Volcanic Arc: Insights from 4-D analog modeling experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Henar, Jorge; Schreurs, Guido; Martinez-Díaz, José Jesús; Álvarez-Gómez, José Antonio; Villamor, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    The El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ) is an active, approximately 150 km long and 20 km wide, segmented, dextral strike-slip fault zone within the Central American Volcanic Arc striking N100°E. Although several studies have investigated the surface expression of the ESFZ, little is known about its structure at depth and its kinematic evolution. Structural field data and mapping suggest a phase of extension, at some stage during the evolution of the ESFZ. This phase would explain dip-slip movements on structures that are currently associated with the active, dominantly strike slip and that do not fit with the current tectonic regime. Field observations suggest trenchward migration of the arc. Such an extension and trenchward migration of the volcanic arc could be related to slab rollback of the Cocos plate beneath the Chortis Block during the Miocene/Pliocene. We carried out 4-D analog model experiments to test whether an early phase of extension is required to form the present-day fault pattern in the ESFZ. Our experiments suggest that a two-phase tectonic evolution best explains the ESFZ: an early pure extensional phase linked to a segmented volcanic arc is necessary to form the main structures. This extensional phase is followed by a strike-slip dominated regime, which results in intersegment areas with local transtension and segments with almost pure strike-slip motion. The results of our experiments combined with field data along the Central American Volcanic Arc indicate that the slab rollback intensity beneath the Chortis Block is greater in Nicaragua and decreases westward to Guatemala.

  20. Detection of arcing ground fault location on a distribution network connected PV system; Hikarihatsuden renkei haidensen ni okeru koko chiryaku kukan no kenshutsuho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M.; Iwaya, K.; Morooka, Y. [Hachinohe Institute of Technology, Aomori (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In the near future, it is supposed that a great number of small-scale distributed power sources, such as photovoltaic power generation for general houses, will be interconnected with the ungrounded neutral distribution system in Japan. When ground fault of commercial frequency once occurs, great damage is easily guessed. This paper discusses the effect of the ground fault on the ground phase current using a 6.6 kV high-voltage model system by considering the non-linear self-inductance in the line, and by considering the non-linear relation of arcing ground fault current frequency. In the present method, the remarkable difference of series resonance frequency determined by the inductance and earth capacity between the source side and load side is utilized for the detection of high-voltage arcing ground fault location. In this method, there are some cases in which the non-linear effect obtained by measuring the inductance of sound phase including the secondary winding of transformer can not be neglected. Especially, for the actual high-voltage system, it was shown that the frequency characteristics of transformer inductance for distribution should be theoretically derived in the frequency range between 2 kHz and 6 kHz. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Fuzzy fault tree assessment based on improved AHP for fire and explosion accidents for steel oil storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Shuai, Jian; Xu, Kui

    2014-08-15

    Fire and explosion accidents of steel oil storage tanks (FEASOST) occur occasionally during the petroleum and chemical industry production and storage processes and often have devastating impact on lives, the environment and property. To contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing the occurrence probability of FEASOST, a fault tree of FEASOST is constructed that identifies various potential causes. Traditional fault tree analysis (FTA) can achieve quantitative evaluation if the failure data of all of the basic events (BEs) are available, which is almost impossible due to the lack of detailed data, as well as other uncertainties. This paper makes an attempt to perform FTA of FEASOST by a hybrid application between an expert elicitation based improved analysis hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy set theory, and the occurrence possibility of FEASOST is estimated for an oil depot in China. A comparison between statistical data and calculated data using fuzzy fault tree analysis (FFTA) based on traditional and improved AHP is also made. Sensitivity and importance analysis has been performed to identify the most crucial BEs leading to FEASOST that will provide insights into how managers should focus effective mitigation.

  2. Geoelectrical behavior of a Fault Zone: the meaning of the electrical resistivity of metric-scale segments of the Liquiñe-Ofqui and the Arc-oblique Long-lived Fault Systems, Southern Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roquer, T.; Arancibia, G.; Yanez, G. A.; Estay, N.; Rowland, J. V.; Figueroa, R.; Iturrieta, P. C.

    2015-12-01

    The geoelectrical behavior of blind fault zones has been studied by different authors at decametric-to-kilometric scales, and inferred to reveal the dimensions of the main structural domains of a fault zone (core vs. damage zone). However, there is still a lack in the application of electrical methods in exposed fault zones, despite the importance of validating the inferences based on electrical measurements with direct geologic observation. In this study we correlate the results of structural mapping and geoelectrical measurements in two metric-scale, very well exposed segments of the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault System (LOFS) and the Arc-oblique Long-lived Fault System (ALFS), Southern Andes. The LOFS is an active dextral and dextral-normal ca. 1200-km-long Cenozoic intra-arc structure that strikes NNE to NE. Although the LOFS and the ALFS cross-cut each other, the ALFS is an apparently older basement NW-striking fault system where mainly sinistral movement is recorded. Two 22-m-long transects were mapped revealing in both examples a simple core and an assymetric damage zone with more frequency of fractures in the hanging wall than in the footwall. The LOFS outcrop showed a WNW-striking, 65°S-dipping core; the ALFS, a NW-striking, 60°SW-dipping core. A 2D direct-current electrical survey was made at each locality, orthogonal to the respective strike of the core. The field installation of the electrical survey used two electrode configurations for each outcrop: (1) electrodes were put in a vertical wall of rock, which gives a resistivity profile in plan view; and (2) electrodes were put in the ground, which gives a cross-section resistivity profile. The combined structural and electrical results suggest that: (1) it is possible to discriminate the geoelectrical response of the main metric-scale structural domains: the core and the fractured damage zones are relative conductors (20-200 ohm-m), whereas the less fractured damage zones are relative resistive volumes (500

  3. Exploring the structural controls on helium, nitrogen and carbon isotope signatures in hydrothermal fluids along an intra-arc fault system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardani, Daniele; Reich, Martin; Roulleau, Emilie; Takahata, Naoto; Sano, Yuji; Pérez-Flores, Pamela; Sánchez-Alfaro, Pablo; Cembrano, José; Arancibia, Gloria

    2016-07-01

    There is a general agreement that fault-fracture meshes exert a primary control on fluid flow in both volcanic/magmatic and geothermal/hydrothermal systems. For example, in geothermal systems and epithermal gold deposits, optimally oriented faults and fractures play a key role in promoting fluid flow through high vertical permeability pathways. In the Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ) of the Chilean Andes, both volcanism and hydrothermal activity are strongly controlled by the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault System (LOFS), an intra-arc, strike-slip fault, and by the Arc-oblique Long-lived Basement Fault System (ALFS), a set of transpressive NW-striking faults. However, the role that principal and subsidiary fault systems exert on magma degassing, hydrothermal fluid flow and fluid compositions remains poorly constrained. In this study we report new helium, carbon and nitrogen isotope data (3He/4He, δ13C-CO2 and δ15N) of a suite of fumarole and hot spring gas samples from 23 volcanic/geothermal localities that are spatially associated with either the LOFS or the ALFS in the central part of the SVZ. The dataset is characterized by a wide range of 3He/4He ratios (3.39 Ra to 7.53 Ra, where Ra = (3He/4He)air), δ13C-CO2 values (-7.44‰ to -49.41‰) and δ15N values (0.02‰ to 4.93‰). The regional variations in 3He/4He, δ13C-CO2 and δ15N values are remarkably consistent with those reported for 87Sr/86Sr in lavas along the studied segment, which are strongly controlled by the regional spatial distribution of faults. Two fumaroles gas samples associated with the northern "horsetail" transtensional termination of the LOFS are the only datapoints showing uncontaminated MORB-like 3He/4He signatures. In contrast, the dominant mechanism controlling helium isotope ratios of hydrothermal systems towards the south appears to be the mixing between mantle-derived helium and a radiogenic component derived from, e.g., magmatic assimilation of 4He-rich country rocks or contamination during the

  4. Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whether a fire happens in your home or in the wild, it can be very dangerous. Fire spreads quickly. There is no time to gather ... a phone call. In just two minutes, a fire can become life-threatening. In five minutes, a ...

  5. Design Study of An Automtic Forest Fire Monitoring System based on CCD Cameras and ArcObjects%基于CCD摄像机和ArcObjects的森林火灾自动监测系统的设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦长娥; 费鲜芸

    2011-01-01

    通过安装在监控地点的CCD摄像机,借助卫星遥感技术、图像处理技术以及网络通讯设施,结合ArcObjects组件开发方式,在探讨森林火灾自动监测系统总体框架的基础上,对系统数据库和核心模块功能进行分析设计,建立基于CCD摄像机和ArcObjects的森林火灾自动监测系统,解决了传统的以人工实地为主的监测方式,采用CCD摄像机视频监控,结合图像处理技术和人工智能技术,提高了视频监控系统的能力.%The system database and core module function were designed based on the discussion of the general framework of the Automatic Forest Fire Monitoring System (AFFMS) by using CCD cameras which were installed in monitoring spots, ArcObjects technologies, satellite remote sensing technology, image processing technology and network communication function. The automated monitoring system for forest fire disaster based on CCD camera and ArcObjects were set up to solve the traditional artificial field observation method. Using CCD camera video monitoring, and combining with image process technology and artificial intelligence technology, the ability of video monitoring system was enhanced.

  6. Space-time Impact of Forest Fire on Power Grid Fault Probability%山火灾害对电网故障率的时空影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴勇军; 薛禹胜; 陆佳政; 谢云云; 徐泰山; 李文云; 吴琛

    2016-01-01

    根据山火造成电力设备故障的途径和机理,建立输电线在山火灾害下的故障率修正模型,提出按电网故障率的时空分布预警防御算法。将山火信息与地理环境及气象信息相结合,预测山火的蔓延行为;动态评估线路闪络概率,预报输电线故障率的时空分布。使风险越大的潜在故障得到越高的关注度,提高电网停电防御系统对山火灾害的预警能力。%According to the ways and mechanisms of electrical equipment faults caused by forest fire,a modified model of transmission line fault probability is developed.And an early-warning defense method based on the spatial-temporal distribution of power grid fault probability is proposed.Firstly,by combining forest fire information,geographic environments and meteorological information,the method is able to predict the forest fire behaviors and dynamically assess the transmission line flashover probability.Then,the spatial-temporal distribution fault probability can be obtained so that the higher the risk of potential faults is,the greater concern they will receive,thus raising the early-warning ability of power grids to prevent the forest fire.

  7. Analytical Model for High Impedance Fault Analysis in Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Maximov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A high impedance fault (HIF normally occurs when an overhead power line physically breaks and falls to the ground. Such faults are difficult to detect because they often draw small currents which cannot be detected by conventional overcurrent protection. Furthermore, an electric arc accompanies HIFs, resulting in fire hazard, damage to electrical devices, and risk with human life. This paper presents an analytical model to analyze the interaction between the electric arc associated to HIFs and a transmission line. A joint analytical solution to the wave equation for a transmission line and a nonlinear equation for the arc model is presented. The analytical model is validated by means of comparisons between measured and calculated results. Several cases of study are presented which support the foundation and accuracy of the proposed model.

  8. A fault analysis of DC electric arc furnaces with SVC harmonic filters in a mini-mill plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byungju [PQ TECH INC., Youngtong-dong, Youngtong-gu, Suwon 443-813 (Korea); Lee, Hansang; Jang, Gilsoo [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong 5-ga, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea); Han, Byungmoon [Department of Electrical Engineering, Myongji University, Nam-dong, Yongin, Gyeonggi-do, 449-728 (Korea)

    2010-07-15

    This paper proposes the most feasible solution to overcome the failure of the 2nd harmonic filter in the static VAR compensator (SVC) which operates with the DC electric arc furnace (EAF) at Gwangyang Steel Mill in Korea. In order to investigate the causes of this failure, various measurements were carried out on the DC EAF and the main transformer at the PCC (point of common connection). It was concluded that the two causes for the failure are; the inrush current in the main transformer, and the parallel resonance between the system impedance and the harmonic filter. Three solutions to suppress the transformer inrush current and another three solutions to avoid the parallel resonance are suggested. The feasibility of these solutions was verified through the computer simulation with PSCAD/EMTDC. The most feasible solution to avoid further failures of the 2nd harmonic filter was selected, based on the estimated result for the six optional solutions in the point of performance and cost. (author)

  9. Submarine lava flow emplacement and faulting in the axial valley of two morphologically distinct spreading segments of the Mariana back-arc basin from Wadatsumi side-scan sonar images

    OpenAIRE

    Asada, Miho; Deschamps, Anne; FUJIWARA, Toshiya; Nakamura, Yasuyuki

    2007-01-01

    International audience High-resolution, deep-tow side-scan sonar data were collected over two distinct spreading segments in the central part of the Mariana back-arc basin. These data allow mapping of small fissures and faults and the distinguishing of hummocky from smooth lava flows. Using these data, we observe spatial variations in seafloor deformation and volcanic activity within each segment, and also significant differences in the degree of tectonic deformation between the two segmen...

  10. Series Arc Fault Identification in Low Voltage System Based on Autoregressive Parameter Model%基于自回归参数模型的低压系统串联电弧故障识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雍静; 桂小智; 牛亮亮; 曾礼强

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a series of experimental research results of series arc fault current characteristics in the circuits supplying for typical low-voltage single–phase electric appliances by using the arc generating device.A method based on autoregressive parameter model is proposed to identify series arc fault in low-voltage system.Its processes are as follows: built a 3-order Burg autoregressive(AR) model for the collected current signals,extracted its AR model parameters,and then realized the identification of normal circuit and series arc fault circuit by comparing distance measurement based Euclidean distance squares d 2 of their current signals.Experiments show that this approach not only be adequate for linear loads,but also for non-linear loads.In this paper,current signal recognition problem between non-linear load circuit and series arc fault circuit in low-voltage system is solved.Further more,it suggests a recommended value of the reference vector.%利用电弧发生装置对若干典型的低压单相用电设备在串联故障电弧回路中的工作电流特征进行模拟实验研究,提出了基于自回归参数模型的低压系统串联电弧故障识别方法。采用三阶Burg自回归(autoregressive,AR)模型对采集的电流信号建模,提取其AR模型参数,然后采用基于距离测度的欧氏距离平方d 2实现对低压单相负载在正常回路和串联电弧故障回路电流信号的特征识别和故障辨识。该方法不仅适用于线性负载回路,而且适用于非线性负载回路的串联电弧故障识别。自回归参数模型法有效解决了低压系统串联电弧故障回路与非线性负载回路的电流信号识别问题,论文也同时提出了使用该方法时的参考矢量建议值。

  11. 矿用高压开关柜的弧光监测与保护系统%Online monitoring and protection system for the arc fault of the mining high-voltage switchgear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 马宏伟

    2013-01-01

      煤矿工业现场特殊的生产环境对电气设备的安全运行提出了更高的要求,尤其是以故障电弧为主的电气故障蕴含着巨大的安全隐患。传统的故障电弧监测和保护手段一般基于电流、电压、弧光等单一信号的提取和判断,虽然组合式监测方法已被提出,但往往实现复杂,成本较高。提出电流和弧光双判据的监测方法,通过光敏三极管阵列的传感措施,结合专家系统的评估方法,可以有效判断并定位高压开关柜中的故障电弧,及时切除故障,进而提高设备的工作寿命和安全可靠性,为煤矿电力系统的安全稳定运行提供保障。%The specific on-site environment of the mining industry field puts forward higher request to the safe operation of electrical equipment. Especially the arc-fault is one of the most important causes of disasters in distribution system. The traditional methods of the arc-fault detection and protection are based on the extraction and diagnosis of the single signals such as electric current, voltage, arc light, etc. Though the combined methodology has been proposed, it is difficult to implement and the cost is increased. On the basis, a double-criterion monitoring and protection method is proposed, which takes both electric current and arc light as the monitoring parameters. By use of the sensing measures of photosensitive dynatron matrix and expert system evaluation method, arc-fault in the high-voltage switch cabinet can be effectively judged and located and the fault can be cut timely, then the service life and safety and reliability of switch apparatus can be enhanced, ensuring the safe and stable operation of the mining power system.

  12. Ion nitriding of steel in plasma of non-selfsustained low-pressure arc discharge: phase transitions, faulted substructure and mechanical characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the work is to find regularities of formation of phase composition, faulted substructure and mechanical characteristics of steels of martensite, ferrite-pearlite and austenite types exposed to low-temperature nitriding in plasma of non-self sustained low-pressure arc discharge with combined heated and hollow cathodes. The nitriding was made in pure nitrogen plasma with density ∼ 5 x 109 cm-3 by two temperature-time regimes. In the first case the temperature was 200oC and time was 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours. The temperature in this case was hold by following parameters of discharge: discharge current Idis = 10 A, discharge voltage Udis = 40 V and bias voltage Ubias = -200 V. In the second case the temperature was 530oC, time was 1, 2 and 5 hours and discharge parameters were discharge current Idis = 50 A, discharge voltage Udis = 40 V and bias voltage Ubias = -600 V. As the experimental materials the samples made from industrial steels 40H (0.4% C; 1.0% Cr), 12H2N4A (0.12% C, 2%Cr, 4%Ni), 12H18N10T (0.12%C, 18%Cr, 10%Ni, 1%Ti) after quenching and in initial state were used. Study of substructure and phase composition of nitrided surface of steel was made with light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Variation of mechanical characteristics was analyzed by micro- and nano-hardness, wear resistance and friction coefficient. The opportunity of low-temperature (∼ 200oC) nitriding of preliminary quenched and/or normalized steel is demonstrated. It is shown, that the volume of diffusion saturation of steel has multilayered structure and it consists of sub-layers differing by phase structure and a state of a faulted substructure. Formation on a nitriding surface a sublayer with nanocrystalline (∼ 10-30 nanometers) structure, containing crystallites of α-Fe, Fe2O3, nitride and carbon-nitride phases was found. It is found, that at nitriding steel with ferrite-pearlite structure (as against quenched) processes of a dynamic

  13. 基于层次分析法的瓦斯电厂火炬故障原因分析%Analysis on Torch Fault Cause of Gas-Fired Power Plant base Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢媛媛

    2012-01-01

    The analytic hierarchy process was applied to establish a AHP model of the torch fault cause occurred in the gas-fired power plant.With the information collection of the torch faults occurred in a gas-fired power plant of a mine in Shanxi and the marking results of the experts,the weight of the torch fault causes was found.The historical data were applied to verify the results of the model.The verification results showed that the analytic hierarchy process would have important guidance significances to analyze the torch fault causes in the gas-fired power plant.%运用层次分析法构建煤矿瓦斯电厂火炬故障原因AHP模型,利用山西省某矿瓦斯电厂火炬发生故障的资料汇总和专家评估结果,得出故障原因的权重,并利用历史数据对模型结果进行检验。检验结果表明,层次分析法在分析瓦斯电厂火炬故障原因方面有重要指导意义。

  14. Ground Fault Line Selection with Improved Residual Flow Incremental Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhong Li

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the shortcoming of single-phase ground fault line selection method in the resonant grounded system such as the uncertainty of its device by fast compensation with the automatic compensation equipment, an arc suppression and residual flow incremental method is proposed to effectively choose the earth fault line. Firstly, when the single-phase ground fault occurs, the arc suppression coil parameters are adjusted to realize compensation and arc suppression. Then the arc suppression coil inductance values are modulated to make the zero-sequence current of fault line changed, at the same time, the zero-sequence current value is detected and its change will be captured to select the fault line. The simulation experiments prove that the arc grounding over voltage damage can be effectively reduced by arc suppression coil full compensation and fault line can be effectively selected by arc suppression and residual flow increment method.

  15. 螺旋埋弧焊管焊接系统弧压波动故障分析%Analysis for the Fault of Arc Voltage Fluctuation in SAWH Pipe Welding System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建明

    2011-01-01

    介绍了螺旋埋弧焊管焊接系统的组成及其控制原理,着重介绍了螺旋埋弧焊接系统弧压的控制原理和不同的控制方式,并结合现场实际维护经验,指出了影响焊接系统弧压波动的三大主要因素:机械传动因素、电气控制因素和电磁干扰因素.同时,针对影响螺旋埋弧焊接系统弧压波动的三大主要因素进行了分析,并提出了故障的处理方法.%This article briefly introduced the components of SAWH pipe welding system, emphasized its control principle and different control mode. Combined with actual maintenance experience on site, it pointed out main three factors which affect arc voltage fluctuation of welding system, such as mechanical transmission, electric control and electromagnetism interference. Meanwhile, it analyzed these three factors of SAWH pipe welding system, and put forward disposal measure for these faults

  16. Novel Principle of Faults Arc Extinguishing & Feeder Protection Based on Flexible Grounding Control for Distribution Networks%基于配电网柔性接地控制的故障消弧与馈线保护新原理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾祥君; 王媛媛; 李健; 熊婷婷

    2012-01-01

    为解决中性点非有效接地配电网中长期存在的单相接地故障消弧与保护难题,提出基于零序电压柔性控制的配电网接地故障消弧与保护新原理。在配电网发生接地故障的初始时刻,通过脉宽调制(pulsewidthmodulation,PWM)有源逆变器注入零序电流补偿接地故障全电流,实现对零序电压的控制,促使故障点电压为0,实现瞬时故障100%消弧。接地故障发生后,经一定延时,控制电流注入,增大故障残流,精确测量零序电压和各馈线零序电流变化量,实现接地故障的动态感知和可靠保护。该技术有望降低故障建弧率,减少故障停电时间,促进配电网智能化发展。%To solve the problems of ground faults arc extinguishing and feeder protection for distribution networks with non-effective grounding, a novel flexible grounding theory and practice were proposed in this paper. When a single-phase-to-ground fault occurred, a zero-sequence current was injected by pulse width modulation (PWM) inverter to full-cojnpensate the fault current, and the value of fault phase voltage was controlled to be zero, the fault arc was thusextinguished. With little time delay, the injecting current was adjusted and the fault current was changed. The zero sequence voltage and currents of distribution network were accurately measured, and the fault feeder was dynamically detected and protected. The flexible grounding technology can extinguish grounding faults arc, reduce power outage time and make the system be smarter.

  17. 基于ArcEngine的与林火监测摄像机联动的GIS设计与实现%Design and realization of GIS for forest fire monitoring system based on ArcEngine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李龙国; 沈明霞; 丛静华

    2011-01-01

    因林区复杂的地形地貌环境,GIS在林区监测管理系统中的应用给林火定位、地形观察、测距等日常管理带来了极大的方便.视频监控系统是目前国内外监测与防范森林火灾发生的最有效、最经济的方法之一.因此,研究设计了与视频监控技术结合的GIS系统,实现了二维平面地图、三维立体场景和监控画面三者所显示区域的一致和相互间的联动控制功能.系统成功应用在内蒙古白狼林区,给森林防火提供了有效的管理平台.%For the complex geomorphic condition of forest districts, the application of Geographic Information System (GIS) in forest monitoring and management system showed great conviniences to daily management such as forest fire positioning, terrain observation, distance measuament and so on. Video monitoring system was one of the most efficient and economical systems used in monitoring and preventing forest fire at home and abroad these days. Thus a GIS integrated with video monitoring system was designed, and the function was developed that 2D map, 3D scene and video monitor screen could display the same target area and could control each other. New system has been successfully applied in BalLang-Forest of Inner-Mongolia Province. The practice shows that the system is an efficient management platform.

  18. Arc Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Meneghetti, M; Dahle, H; Limousin, M

    2013-01-01

    The existence of an arc statistics problem was at the center of a strong debate in the last fifteen years. With the aim to clarify if the optical depth for giant gravitational arcs by galaxy clusters in the so called concordance model is compatible with observations, several studies were carried out which helped to significantly improve our knowledge of strong lensing clusters, unveiling their extremely complex internal structure. In particular, the abundance and the frequency of strong lensing events like gravitational arcs turned out to be a potentially very powerful tool to trace the structure formation. However, given the limited size of observational and theoretical data-sets, the power of arc statistics as a cosmological tool has been only minimally exploited so far. On the other hand, the last years were characterized by significant advancements in the field, and several cluster surveys that are ongoing or planned for the near future seem to have the potential to make arc statistics a competitive cosmo...

  19. Modeling Arcs

    CERN Document Server

    Insepov, Zeke; Veitzer, Seth; Mahalingam, Sudhakar

    2011-01-01

    Although vacuum arcs were first identified over 110 years ago, they are not yet well understood. We have since developed a model of breakdown and gradient limits that tries to explain, in a self-consistent way: arc triggering, plasma initiation, plasma evolution, surface damage and gra- dient limits. We use simple PIC codes for modeling plasmas, molecular dynamics for modeling surface breakdown, and surface damage, and mesoscale surface thermodynamics and finite element electrostatic codes for to evaluate surface properties. Since any given experiment seems to have more variables than data points, we have tried to consider a wide variety of arcing (rf structures, e beam welding, laser ablation, etc.) to help constrain the problem, and concentrate on common mechanisms. While the mechanisms can be comparatively simple, modeling can be challenging.

  20. Fault Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a range of optimization based approaches to fault diagnosis. A variety of fault diagnosis prob-lems are reformulated in the so-called standard problem setup introduced in the literature on robust control. Once the standard problem formulations are given, the fault diagnosis pr...... problems can be solved by standard optimization tech-niques. The proposed methods include: (1) fault diagnosis (fault estimation, (FE)) for systems with model uncertainties; (2) FE for systems with parametric faults, and (3) FE for a class of nonlinear systems....

  1. Point of Rocks, Black Butte faults, Green River Basin, Wyoming (grbfltg.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a line representation of faults in a portion of the the Green River Basin. The fault data are part of the National Coal Resource...

  2. Zipper Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, J. P.; Passchier, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    Intersecting simultaneously active pairs of faults with different orientations and opposing slip sense ("conjugate faults") present geometrical and kinematic problems. Such faults rarely offset each other, even when they have displacements of many km. A simple solution to the problem is that the two faults merge, either zippering up or unzippering, depending on the relationship between the angle of intersection and the slip senses. A widely recognized example of this is the so-called blind front developed in some thrust belts, where a backthrust branches off a decollement surface at depth. The decollement progressively unzippers, so that its hanging wall becomes the hanging wall of the backthrust, and its footwall becomes the footwall of the active decollement. The opposite situation commonly arises in core complexes, where conjugate low-angle normal faults merge to form a single detachment; in this case the two faults zipper up. Analogous situations may arise for conjugate pairs of strike-slip faults. We present kinematic and geometrical analyses of the Garlock and San Andreas faults in California, the Najd fault system in Saudi Arabia, the North and East Anatolian faults, the Karakoram and Altyn Tagh faults in Tibet, and the Tonale and Guidicarie faults in the southern Alps, all of which appear to have undergone zippering over distances of several tens to hundreds of km. The zippering process may produce complex and significant patterns of strain and rotation in the surrounding rocks, particularly if the angle between the zippered faults is large. A zippering fault may be inactive during active movement on the intersecting faults, or it may have a slip rate that differs from either fault. Intersecting conjugate ductile shear zones behave in the same way on outcrop and micro-scales.

  3. Fault Diagnosis in Deaerator Using Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Srinivasan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a fuzzy logic based fault diagnosis system for a deaerator in a power plant unit is presented. The system parameters are obtained using the linearised state space deaerator model. The fuzzy inference system is created and rule base are evaluated relating the parameters to the type and severity of the faults. These rules are fired for specific changes in system parameters and the faults are diagnosed.

  4. Fire Perimeters

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2003. Some fires...

  5. Fire History

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2002. Some fires...

  6. Kinematics of the Himalayan arc from GPS geodesy and structural geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styron, R.; Taylor, M. H.

    2009-12-01

    The distribution, orientation, and kinematics of active faults in the Himalayan arc suggests arc-parallel extension. Here we use ~130 Himalayan and south Tibetan GPS geodetic vectors from published sources in ITRF2000 relative to stable Eurasia, decomposed into arc-normal and arc-parallel components, to quantify arc-parallel extension and arc-normal shortening. Arc-parallel velocities increase from zero in eastern Nepal, where India’s convergence with the Himalaya is normal to the arc, to ~20 mm /yr towards the syntaxes, where convergence is highly oblique. Arc-parallel extension of >30 mm /yr from Ladakh through Sikkim is observed, as is dextral shear of 6-7 mm /yr across the arc in the northwest Himalaya, which decreases to insignificant values in eastern Nepal. We also present results of field mapping of the active, subvertical, right-slip, Tibrikot fault, which cuts the MCT zone of western Nepal. The location and kinematics of this fault suggests it represents the southeastward propagation of the Karakoram-Humla fault system, which kinematically link rifts such as the Thakkhola graben and the Gurla Mandhata and Leo Pargil core complexes. These fault systems accommodate extension and progressive translation of the Himalaya relative to south Tibet commensurate with the progressive increase in convergence obliquity between India and the Himalaya.

  7. Faults of Europe including Turkey (flt4_2l)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs that describe faults found in the surface outcrops of bedrock of Europe including Turkey (Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and...

  8. 30 CFR 77.1112 - Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame; safeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1112 Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame; safeguards. (a) When welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame near...

  9. Arc saw development report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arc saw is one of the key components of the Contaminated Equipment Volume Reduction (CEVR) Program. This report describes the progress of the arc saw from its inception to its current developmental status. History of the arc saw and early contributors are discussed. Particular features of the arc saw and their advantages for CEVR are detailed. Development of the arc saw including theory of operation, pertinent experimental results, plans for the large arc saw and advanced control systems are covered. Associated topics such as potential applications for the arc saw and other arc saw installations in the world is also touched upon

  10. Linear volcanic segments in the Sunda Arc, Indonesia: Implications for arc lithosphere control upon volcano distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, C. G.; Pacey, A.; McCaffrey, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    in the central Sunda Arc from Java to central Flores. We focus on this section because of the complicating influences of the Great Sumatran Fault, further to the west, and the collision between the arc and Australian continental lithosphere, to the east of central Flores. Volcano distribution in the central Sunda Arc is best described as linear segments, rather than as small circles. We conclude that the stress field in the Sunda Arc lithosphere is the primary control on the distribution of its volcanoes. Changes in the location and petrographic/geochemical characteristics in magmatism from initiation, in the late-Plio-Pleistocene, until the present day can also be attributed to the evolving stress in the upper plate.

  11. Images of Ice and Fire in Jane Eyre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀美

    2011-01-01

    Ice and fire are originally natural phenomena, but in Jane Eyre,they arc raised from natural phenomena to meaningful images. The images of ice and fire are embodied through four aspects: psychological description, portrait description, word painting and detailed description. Fire represents Jane's passions, anger, and spirit, while ice symbolizes the oppressive forces trying to extinguish Jane's vitality.

  12. Gas arc constriction for plasma arc welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, William F. (Inventor); Rybicki, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A welding torch for plasma arc welding apparatus has an inert gas applied circumferentially about the arc column externally of the constricting nozzle so as to apply a constricting force on the arc after it has exited the nozzle orifice and downstream of the auxiliary shielding gas. The constricting inert gas is supplied to a plenum chamber about the body of the torch and exits through a series of circumferentially disposed orifices in an annular wall forming a closure at the forward end of the constricting gas plenum chamber. The constricting force of the circumferential gas flow about the arc concentrates and focuses the arc column into a more narrow and dense column of energy after exiting the nozzle orifice so that the arc better retains its energy density prior to contacting the workpiece.

  13. Oceanographic data collected during the Submarine Ring of Fire 2006 expedition aboard the R/V MELVILLE along the Mariana Arc in the Philippine Sea from April 18, 2006 - May 13, 2006 (NODC Accession 0010750)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multiple data types were collected during the Submarine Ring of Fire 2006 expedition sponsored by the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration.

  14. Rotating arc spark plug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whealton, John H.; Tsai, Chin-Chi

    2003-05-27

    A spark plug device includes a structure for modification of an arc, the modification including arc rotation. The spark plug can be used in a combustion engine to reduce emissions and/or improve fuel economy. A method for operating a spark plug and a combustion engine having the spark plug device includes the step of modifying an arc, the modifying including rotating the arc.

  15. FUZZY FAULT DETECTION FOR PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Selvaganesan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Faults in engineering systems are difficult to avoid and may result in serious consequences. Effective fault detection and diagnosis can improve system reliability and avoid expensive maintenance. In this paper fuzzy system based fault detection scheme for permanent magnet synchronous generator is proposed. The sequence current components like positive and negative sequence currents are used as fault indicators and given as inputs to fuzzy fault detector. Also, the fuzzy inference system is created and rule base is evaluated, relating the sequence current component to the type of faults. These rules are fired for specific changes in sequence current component and the faults are detected. The feasibility of the proposed scheme for permanent magnet synchronous generator is demonstrated for different types of fault under various operating conditions using MATLAB/Simulink.

  16. Photovoltaic ground fault and blind spot electrical simulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flicker, Jack David; Johnson, Jay

    2013-06-01

    Ground faults in photovoltaic (PV) systems pose a fire and shock hazard. To mitigate these risks, AC-isolated, DC grounded PV systems in the United States use Ground Fault Protection Devices (GFPDs), e.g., fuses, to de-energize the PV system when there is a ground fault. Recently the effectiveness of these protection devices has come under question because multiple fires have started when ground faults went undetected. In order to understand the limitations of fuse-based ground fault protection in PV systems, analytical and numerical simulations of different ground faults were performed. The numerical simulations were conducted with Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (SPICE) using a circuit model of the PV system which included the modules, wiring, switchgear, grounded or ungrounded components, and the inverter. The derivation of the SPICE model and the results of parametric fault current studies are provided with varying array topologies, fuse sizes, and fault impedances. Closed-form analytical approximations for GFPD currents from faults to the grounded current carrying conductor-known as %E2%80%9Cblind spot%E2%80%9D ground faults-are derived to provide greater understanding of the influence of array impedances on fault currents. The behavior of the array during various ground faults is studied for a range of ground fault fuse sizes to determine if reducing the size of the fuse improves ground fault detection sensitivity. The results of the simulations show that reducing the amperage rating of the protective fuse does increase fault current detection sensitivity without increasing the likelihood of nuisance trips to a degree. Unfortunately, this benefit reaches a limit as fuses become smaller and their internal resistance increases to the point of becoming a major element in the fault current circuit.

  17. Reappraisal of the Arc-Arc Collision in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuzo Seno and Yoshiaki Kawanishi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Al though it is evident that Taiwan has been formed by the collision of the west-facing Luzon arc with the Eurasian continental mar gin, _ main a lot of enigmas in this collision. The major ones are: (1 a trans form fault presently connecting the Manila and Ryukyu Trenches in the Philippine Sea _ Eurasia relative motion direction is missing, and in stead, the Ryukyu Trench ex tends near off shore E. Tai wan, (2 the western edge of the intermediate-depth seismicity associated with We pro pose a new model of the collision in Tai wan to re solve these enigmas, assuming that the southern Ryukyu forearc was mi grating to the south west with respect to Eurasia for the past several m.y. and the Luzon arc has been colliding with this actively migrating Ryukyu forearc. The northern most Luzon arc is divided into two parts by the NNW line directing along the Philippine Sea - Ryukyu forearc motion from its initial intersection point with the Ryukyu Trench; the part west of this line has been obducted on the Ryukyu forearc-Eurasian mar gin, producing the collision orogen in Taiwan, and the part east of it has been subducted beneath the Ryukyu forearc. This evolutionary scenario resolves enigmas (1 and (2 kinematically. This model also predicts that the South China Sea slab has to be torn by the west ward component of the motion of the subducting Philippine Sea slab to Eurasia. This would have brought large lateral compression in the shallow portion of the Philippine Sea slab at its western border, which might lead to buck ling of the slab causing the ob served undulated gravity anomaly.

  18. Towards Understanding the Sunda and Banda Arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R.

    2014-12-01

    The present change from oceanic subduction beneath the Sunda Arc to arc-continent collision east of Sumba is merely the latest stage in a complex collision history that began more than 20 million years ago. Understanding present-day tectonics requires restoring the pre-collisional margins and unravelling the history of the entire Sunda-Banda Arc, not just a segment centred on Sumba. Seismic tomography displays a single folded slab beneath the Banda Arc around which mantle has flowed. Above this is a wide actively deforming zone of complex geology. Australian crust was first added to the Sunda margin in the Cretaceous. Early Miocene closure of the oceanic gap north of Australia led to further additions of continental crust during collision of the Sula Spur. Few microcontinental fragments were sliced from New Guinea as commonly interpreted. Most are parts of the Sula Spur fragmented by extension and strike-slip faulting during development of subduction zones and rollback into the Banda embayment. Many metamorphic 'basement' rocks are significantly younger than expected. They were metamorphosed during multiple episodes of extension which also exhumed the sub-lithospheric mantle, melted the deep continental crust, created new ocean basins, and dispersed continental crust throughout the inner and outer arc, and forearc, so that in places Australian crust is colliding with Australian crust. Thus, many of the arc volcanoes are built on continental not oceanic crust, and sediment eroded from recently emergent islands is compositionally different to subducted sediment that contributed to arc magmas. The published literature is inadequate. New fieldwork and data are required, particularly in remote areas, with integration of information from a variety of sources (e.g. industry seismic and multibeam bathymetry, remotely acquired imagery) and sub-disciplines (e.g. geochronology, geochemistry, seismology, modelling). No single methodology can provide a complete solution.

  19. Linear discriminant analysis for welding fault detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a new method for real time welding fault detection in industry based on Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). A set of parameters was calculated from one second blocks of electrical data recorded during welding and based on control data from reference welds under good conditions, as well as faulty welds. Optimised linear combinations of the parameters were determined with LDA and tested with independent data. Short arc welds in overlap joints were studied with various power sources, shielding gases, wire diameters, and process geometries. Out-of-position faults were investigated. Application of LDA fault detection to a broad range of welding procedures was investigated using a similarity measure based on Principal Component Analysis. The measure determines which reference data are most similar to a given industrial procedure and the appropriate LDA weights are then employed. Overall, results show that Linear Discriminant Analysis gives an effective and consistent performance in real-time welding fault detection.

  20. Fire hazard analysis for fusion energy experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2XIIB mirror fusion facility at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) was used to evaluate the fire safety of state-of-the-art fusion energy experiments. The primary objective of this evaluation was to ensure the parallel development of fire safety and fusion energy technology. Through fault-tree analysis, we obtained a detailed engineering description of the 2XIIB fire protection system. This information helped us establish an optimum level of fire protection for experimental fusion energy facilities as well as evaluate the level of protection provided by various systems. Concurrently, we analyzed the fire hazard inherent to the facility using techniques that relate the probability of ignition to the flame spread and heat-release potential of construction materials, electrical and thermal insulations, and dielectric fluids. A comparison of the results of both analyses revealed that the existing fire protection system should be modified to accommodate the range of fire hazards inherent to the 2XIIB facility

  1. Exemplary applications of the OECD fire database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In general, the data from NPP experience with fire events stored in the OECD FIRE Database can provide answers to several interesting questions and insights on phenomena, such as examples of frequent fire initiators and their root causes, of electrical equipment failure modes, of fire protection equipment malfunctions, and of fire barriers impaired. Exemplary applications of the OECD FIRE Database show that it is already possible to retrieve reasonable qualitative information and to get to some extent also quantitative estimations, which can support the interpretation of the operating experience for specific events in the member countries participating in the OECD FIRE Project. The quantitative information will, of course, increase with the increasing number of reported events and a careful description of the respective events to provide as much information as available. In the third phase of the Project starting in 2010, the OECD FIRE Database will be further analyzed with respect to applications for first probabilistic safety assessment considerations, e.g. the positive and negative role of human factor in the fire ignition on the one hand, and, on the other hand, in fire detection and extinguishing. This has to be investigated in more detail to generate Fire PSA results with a higher confidence. Positive effects of human behavior for fire extinguishing are already identified in the existing Database. One of the main questions which could be answered by the OECD FIRE Database is how fires can propagate from the initial fire compartment to other compartments, even if there are protective means available for prevention of fire spreading. For generating meaningful event and fault trees for various safety significant fire scenarios, a clear and as far as possible detailed (with respect to time dependencies and safety significance) description of the initial fire event sequence and its consequences are essential. The coding of events has to reflect as far as feasible

  2. Outer Rise Faulting And Mantle Serpentinization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranero, C. R.; Phipps Morgan, J.; McIntosh, K.; Reichert, C.

    Dehydration of serpentinized mantle of the downgoing slab has been proposed to cause both intermediate depth earthquakes (50-300 km) and arc volcanism at sub- duction zones. It has been suggested that most of this serpentinization occurs beneath the outer rise; where normal faulting earthquakes due to bending cut > 20 km deep into the lithosphere, allowing seawater to reach and react with underlying mantle. However, little is known about flexural faulting at convergent margins; about how many normal faults cut across the crust and how deeply they penetrate into the man- tle; about the true potential of faults as conduits for fluid flow and how much water can be added through this process. We present evidence that pervasive flexural faulting may cut deep into the mantle and that the amount of faulting vary dramatically along strike at subduction zones. Flexural faulting increases towards the trench axis indicat- ing that active extension occurs in a broad area. Multibeam bathymetry of the Pacific margin of Costa Rica and Nicaragua shows a remarkable variation in the amount of flexural faulting along the incoming ocean plate. Several parameters seem to control lateral variability. Off south Costa Rica thick crust of the Cocos Ridge flexes little, and little to no faulting develops near the trench. Off central Costa Rica, normal thick- ness crust with magnetic anomalies striking oblique to the trench displays small offset faults (~200 m) striking similar to the original seafloor fabric. Off northern Costa Rica, magnetic anomalies strike perpendicular to the trench axis, and a few ~100m-offset faults develop parallel to the trench. Further north, across the Nicaraguan margin, magnetic anomalies strike parallel to the trench and the most widespread faulting de- velops entering the trench. Multichannel seismic reflection images in this area show a pervasive set of trenchward dipping reflections that cross the ~6 km thick crust and extend into the mantle to depths of at

  3. Peek Arc Consistency

    CERN Document Server

    Bodirsky, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies peek arc consistency, a reasoning technique that extends the well-known arc consistency technique for constraint satisfaction. In contrast to other more costly extensions of arc consistency that have been studied in the literature, peek arc consistency requires only linear space and quadratic time and can be parallelized in a straightforward way such that it runs in linear time with a linear number of processors. We demonstrate that for various constraint languages, peek arc consistency gives a polynomial-time decision procedure for the constraint satisfaction problem. We also present an algebraic characterization of those constraint languages that can be solved by peek arc consistency, and study the robustness of the algorithm.

  4. US Fire Administration Fire Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The U.S. Fire Administration collects data from a variety of sources to provide information and analyses on the status and scope of the fire problem in the United...

  5. Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Stewart W.; Martina, Filomeno; Addison, Adrian C.; Ding, Jialuo; Pardal, Goncalo; Colegrove, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Depositing large components (>10 kg) in titanium, aluminium, steel and other metals is possible using Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing. This technology adopts arc welding tools and wire as feedstock for additive manufacturing purposes. High deposition rates, low material and equipment costs, and good structural integrity make Wire+Arc Additive Manufacturing a suitable candidate for replacing the current method of manufacturing from solid billets or large forgings, especially with regards to ...

  6. Welding arc plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Bruce L.

    1990-01-01

    The problems of weld quality control and weld process dependability continue to be relevant issues in modern metal welding technology. These become especially important for NASA missions which may require the assembly or repair of larger orbiting platforms using automatic welding techniques. To extend present welding technologies for such applications, NASA/MSFC's Materials and Processes Lab is developing physical models of the arc welding process with the goal of providing both a basis for improved design of weld control systems, and a better understanding of how arc welding variables influence final weld properties. The physics of the plasma arc discharge is reasonably well established in terms of transport processes occurring in the arc column itself, although recourse to sophisticated numerical treatments is normally required to obtain quantitative results. Unfortunately the rigor of these numerical computations often obscures the physics of the underlying model due to its inherent complexity. In contrast, this work has focused on a relatively simple physical model of the arc discharge to describe the gross features observed in welding arcs. Emphasis was placed of deriving analytic expressions for the voltage along the arc axis as a function of known or measurable arc parameters. The model retains the essential physics for a straight polarity, diffusion dominated free burning arc in argon, with major simplifications of collisionless sheaths and simple energy balances at the electrodes.

  7. Variation in forearc basin development along the Sunda Arc, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werff, W.

    The present forearc basin configuration along the Sunda Arc initially appears to have been controlled by extension and differential subsidence of basement blocks in response to the late Eocene collision of India with Asia. The late Oligocene increase in convergence between the South-east Asian and Indian Plates associated with a new pulse of subduction, resulted in basement uplift and the formation of a regional unconformity that can be recognized along the entire Sunda Arc. From the early to late Miocene, the Sumba and Savu forearc sectors along the eastern Sunda Arc may have been characterized by forearc extension. Submarine fan deposition on the arcward side of the evolving accretionary prism represents the first phase in forearc basin deposition. These fans were subsequently covered by basin and slope sediments derived from the evolving magmatic arc. Structural response to increased late Miocene compression varied along strike of the Sunda Arc. North of Bali, Lombok and Sumbawa, the incipient collision between Australia and the western Banda Arc caused back-arc thrusting and basin inversion. Towards the south of Java, an increase in both the size of the accretionary prism and convergence rates resulted in uplift and large scale folding of the outer forearc basin strata. Along the west coast of Sumatra, increased compression resulted in uplift along the inner side of the forearc along older transcurrent faults. Uplift of West Sumatra was followed by the deposition of a westward prograding sequence of terrigenous sediments that resulted in the development of a broad shelf. Initial forearc basin subsidence relates to the age of the subducting oceanic lithosphere, on top of which the basin is situated. Along the western Sunda Arc, both fexural loading of the evolving accretionary prism, and across arc strike-slip faulting represent additional factors that result in forearc subsidence.

  8. Bivergent thrust wedges surrounding oceanic island arcs: Insight from observations and sandbox models of the northeastern caribbean plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brink, U.S.; Marshak, S.; Granja, Bruna J. L.

    2009-01-01

    At several localities around the world, thrust belts have developed on both sides of oceanic island arcs (e.g., Java-Timor, Panama, Vanuatu, and the northeastern Caribbean). In these localities, the overall vergence of the backarc thrust belt is opposite to that of the forearc thrust belt. For example, in the northeastern Caribbean, a north-verging accretionary prism lies to the north of the Eastern Greater Antilles arc (Hispaniola and Puerto Rico), whereas a south-verging thrust belt called the Muertos thrust belt lies to the south. Researchers have attributed such bivergent geometry to several processes, including: reversal of subduction polarity; subduction-driven mantle flow; stress transmission across the arc; gravitational spreading of the arc; and magmatic inflation within the arc. New observations of deformational features in the Muertos thrust belt and of fault geometries produced in sandbox kinematic models, along with examination of published studies of island arcs, lead to the conclusion that the bivergence of thrusting in island arcs can develop without reversal of subduction polarity, without subarc mantle flow, and without magmatic inflation. We suggest that the Eastern Greater Antilles arc and comparable arcs are simply crustalscale bivergent (or "doubly vergent") thrust wedges formed during unidirectional subduction. Sandbox kinematic modeling suggests, in addition, that a broad retrowedge containing an imbricate fan of thrusts develops only where the arc behaves relatively rigidly. In such cases, the arc acts as a backstop that transmits compressive stress into the backarc region. Further, modeling shows that when arcs behave as rigid blocks, the strike-slip component of oblique convergence is accommodated entirely within the prowedge and the arc-the retrowedge hosts only dip-slip faulting ("frontal thrusting"). The existence of large retrowedges and the distribution of faulting in an island arc may, therefore, be evidence that the arc is

  9. Faults in the Hanna and Carbon Basins, from 1999 National Coal Resource Assessment (hbcbfltg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a line representation of the major faults in the Hanna and Carbon Basin areas. The shapefile is part of the National Coal resource...

  10. A highly reliable trigger for vacuum ARC plasma source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardet, H.; Godechot, X.; Jarjat, F. [SODERN, Limeil-Brevannes (France)

    1996-08-01

    The authors have developed a reliable electrical trigger and its associated circuitry to fire vacuum arc plasma or ion source. They tested different embodiments of the trigger device in order to get a highly reliable one, which is able to perform more than 1.2 x 10{sup 6} shots at 60 A and 6.5 ps pulse length. The evolution of the ion current emitted has been recorded as a function of the number of shots. They have also investigated in which direction the plasma jet is emitted : axially or radially. This device can be used to fire a vacuum arc plasma or ion source by plasma injection. It has obvious advantage to be placed outside the cathode and therefore would ease maintenance of vacuum arc devices.

  11. Arc deflection model and arc direction control for DC arc furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping Wei; Huang Zhou; Huade Li; Yuanhang Zhou

    2004-01-01

    Based on the analysis of three-dimensional power conductor for DC arc furnace, the electric arc deflection model was set up and the control system of the arc direction was configured. According to the bus bar distribution at the bottom electrodes cooled by water, the arc direction control principle and its configuration were described. The simulation results show that the control system can restrain the electric arc deflection and control the arc direction.

  12. Tokamak ARC damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokamak fusion reactors will have large plasma currents of approximately 10 MA with hundreds of megajoules stored in the magnetic fields. When a major plasma instability occurs, the disruption of the plasma current induces voltage in the adjacent conducting structures, giving rise to large transient currents. The induced voltages may be sufficiently high to cause arcing across sector gaps or from one protruding component to another. This report reviews a tokamak arcing scenario and provides guidelines for designing tokamaks to minimize the possibility of arc damage

  13. Fire Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee

    2009-01-01

    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  14. Returning Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Jon B.

    2007-01-01

    Last December saw another predictable report from the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE), a self-described watchdog group, highlighting how higher education is supposedly under siege from a politically correct plague of so-called hate-speech codes. In that report, FIRE declared that as many as 96 percent of top-ranked colleges…

  15. On fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    The title of this paper: “On fire”, refers to two (maybe three) aspects: firstly as a metaphor of having engagement in a community of practice according to Lave & Wenger (1991), and secondly it refers to the concrete element “fire” in the work of the fire fighters – and thirdly fire as a signifier...

  16. A comparative study of modelling AC electric arc by one-dimensional interpolation for power system harmonics analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yu-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric arc is a discharge phenomenon caused by particular electrical events and arc produced facilities in power system, for example the occurrence of short-circuit fault in feeders and the use of electric arc furnace for steel-making. All of these electric arcs have a highly nonlinear nature and can be considered as a significant source of power quality problems. To investigate the impacts of the electric arcs on power quality studies the development of the electric arc models for simulation analysis is became necessary. This paper thus presents the use of different one-dimensional interpolation methods for modelling the alternating current electric arc. The performances of different methods are compared by simulation results that are derived from the modelling of an alternating current electric arc furnace load and a low-frequency fluorescent tube.

  17. Tectonic history of the northern Nabitah fault zone, Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, J.E.; Bosch, Paul S.

    1990-01-01

    Geologic mapping combined with structural, petrographic, and geochemical investigations were used to evaluate the motion and paleogeographic setting of the northern Nabitah fault zone. The orientation and asymmetry of small structures in three areas along the fault zone suggest that motion was primarily left-lateral strike slip. East of the fault zone, the Afif terrane is underlain by a north-trending granodioritic batholith that is interpreted to be the plutonic core of a volcanic arc (herein named the Nabitah arc) whose activity was coincident with Nabitah faulting. Available geochronologic data indicate that the Nabitah fault zone and arc were active at 710 Ma and that activity may have continued until about 670 Ma. Relicts of a prebatholithic island-arc ophiolite crop out as roof pendants and septa east of the fault zone. Analysis of petrologic, geochemical, and geochronologic data suggests that these rocks may have formed a terrane older than 800 Ma that was continuous from the Nabitah fault zone to the Nuqrah belt. These rocks may have been moved northward by Nabitah faulting from an original position opposite the Asir terrane.

  18. Anatomy of Intra-Oceanic Arc Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, R. J.

    2007-12-01

    Intra-oceanic arc systems (IOAS) are ultimately embedded in orogenic belts and added to the continental crust. Reconstructing fossil IOASs in collision zones requires understanding the salient features of a typical IOAS. IOASs have the relative dimensions of tagliatelle (flat) pasta: much wider (~250 km) than thick (10-30 km), much longer (1000's of km) than wide. IOASs begin to form when subduction begins, either spontaneously (SNSZ) or by forced convergence (INSZ). For SNSZ, IOASs start as broad zones of seafloor spreading associated with subsidence of the adjacent lithosphere, whereas INSZ IOASs are built on trapped crust. IOAS magmatism manifests the evolution of its subduction zone and indirectly the breadth of the subducted ocean. Two stages in SNSZ IOAS magmato-tectonic evolution exist: infancy and maturity. Infancy lasts 5-10 Ma and results in broad zones of seafloor spreading of tholeiite/boninite; this becomes forearc for the mature IOAS and is emplaced as ophiolite during collision (subduction zone failure). Arc maturity begins with true subduction, as the subducted slab reaches depths ~130 km, focusing magmatism to begin building the magmatic arc ~200km away from the trench and allowing the forearc to cool and hydrate. Mature magmatic arcs mostly yield low-K tholeiitic and medium-K calc-alkaline magmas. Magmatic focusing begins crustal thickening beneath the magmatic arc, at ~500m/Ma for the Izu-Bonin-Mariana IOAS. No systematic compositional evolution to more LIL-enriched primitive magmas occurs once IOAS maturity is reached, except when upper plate stress regime (BAB formation, strike- slip faulting) or the nature of subducted material (more/different sediments, young oceanic crust) changes. Thickening is accompanied by processing of crust beneath the magmatic arc, with progressive differentiation into upper volcanic, middle tonalitic, and lower mafic layers, producing an increasingly effective density filter for magma ascent. Crustal layer formation

  19. Detailed Seismic Reflection Images of the Central American Volcanic Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, K. D.; Fulthorpe, C. S.

    2005-12-01

    New high-resolution seismic reflection profiles across the Central American volcanic arc (CAVA) reveal an asymmetric deformation pattern with large-scale folding and uplift of basinal strata in the forearc contrasted by intrusive bodies, normal faults, and possible strikes-slip faults in the backarc. Since Miocene times the CAVA has migrated seaward, apparently impinging on the Sandino forearc basin and creating or modifying the low-lying Nicaragua depression, which contains the backarc and much of the arc. However the structural nature of the depression and its possible relationship to forearc sliver movement is poorly known. In November-December 2004 we recorded a large, high-resolution, seismic reflection dataset largely on the Pacific shelf (forearc) area of Central America, extending from NW Costa Rica to the SE edge of El Salvador's territorial waters. We seized an opportunity to study the nature of the CAVA by recording data into the Gulf of Fonseca, a large embayment at the intersection of Nicaragua, Honduras, and El Salvador. With 3 GI airguns and a 2100 m streamer we recorded data with typical penetration of 2-3 seconds in the Sandino basin and frequency content of ~10-250 Hz (at shallow levels). Penetration was limited over the arc summit with high velocity volcanic rocks encountered at depths as shallow as a few hundred meters. To the NE the edge of the Nicaragua depression occurs abruptly; our data show a well-developed sedimentary basin 1.5-3 km thick separated by numerous steeply-dipping faults. The broadband signal and good penetration of this dataset will help us determine the chronology of arc development in this position and the styles of deformation in the forearc, arc, and backarc areas. In turn, this will help us understand the regional tectonic and stratigraphic development of this margin due to the profound affects of the arc.

  20. Integrated seismic interpretation of the Carlsberg Fault zone, Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars; Thybo, Hans; Jørgensen, Mette Iwanouw

    2005-01-01

    recorded seismic signals in a fan geometry from shots detonated both inside the low-velocity fault zone and up to ~500 m away from the fault zone. The seismic energy was recorded on three receiver arrays (1.5- to 2.4-km-long arcs) across the expected location of the ~400- to 700-m-wide fault zone at...... distances of up to ~7 km from the shots. Shots detonated inside the fault zone result in (1) weak and delayed first arrivals on the receivers located inside the fault zone compared to earlier and stronger first arrivals outside the fault zone; (2) strong guided P and S waves as well as surface waves inside...... the fault zone. The fault zone is a shadow zone to shots detonated outside the fault zone. Finite-difference wavefield modelling supports the interpretations of the fan recordings. Our fan recording approach facilitates cost-efficient mapping of fault zones in densely urbanized areas where seismic...

  1. The Fault Block's Framework in Boli Basin and its Control Over the Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Chengrun; Shan Xuanlong; Wang Dongpo; Wang Xianmin; Yao Ping

    2001-01-01

    Boli basin, between Yishu fracture belt and Dunmi fracture belt, is the biggest Mesozoic coal basin in the east of Heilongjiang Province. Now it is a fault - fold remnant basin. The basin' s shape is generally consistent with the whole distribution of the cover folds, an arc protruding southwards. The basement of the basin can be divided into three fault blocks or structural units. The formation and evoluation of the basin in Mesozoic was determined by the basement fault blocks' displacement features rusulted from by the movement of the edge faults and the main basement faults.

  2. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel 36 feet (11.8 meters) or more in length...

  3. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel must be equipped with a self-priming, power driven...

  4. Nuclear power plant fire protection: philosophy and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report combines a fire severity analysis technique with a fault tree methodology for assessing the importance to nuclear power plant safety of certain combinations of components and systems. Characteristics unique to fire, such as propagation induced by the failure of barriers, have been incorporated into the methodology. By applying the resulting fire analysis technique to actual conditions found in a representative nuclear power plant, it is found that some safety and nonsafety areas are both highly vulnerable to fire spread and impotant to overall safety, while other areas prove to be of marginal importance. Suggestions are made for further experimental and analytical work to supplement the fire analysis method

  5. Information Based Fault Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2008-01-01

    Fault detection and isolation, (FDI) of parametric faults in dynamic systems will be considered in this paper. An active fault diagnosis (AFD) approach is applied. The fault diagnosis will be investigated with respect to different information levels from the external inputs to the systems...

  6. ALICE - ARC integration

    OpenAIRE

    Anderlik, Csaba; Gregersen, Anders Rhod; Kleist, Josva; Peters, Andreas; Siaz, Pablo

    2007-01-01

    AliEn or Alice Environment is the Gridware developed and used within the ALICE collaboration for storing and processing data in a distributed manner. ARC (Advanced Resource Connector) is the Grid middleware deployed across the Nordic countries and gluing together the resources within the Nordic Data Grid Facility (NDGF). In this paper we will present our approach to integrate AliEn and ARC, in the sense that ALICE data management and job processing can be carried out on the NDGF infrastructur...

  7. Study on Seismic Zoning of Sino-Mongolia Arc Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G.

    2015-12-01

    According to the agreement of Cooperation on seismic zoning between Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration and Research Center of Astronomy and Geophysics, Mongolian Academy of Science, the data of geotectonics, active faults, seismicity and geophysical field were collected and analyzed, then field investigation proceeded for Bolnay Faults, Ar Hutul Faults and Gobi Altay Faults, and a uniform earthquake catalogue of Mongolia and North China were established for the seismic hazard study in Sino-Mongolia arc areas. Furthermore the active faults and epicenters were mapped and 2 seismic belts and their 54 potential seismic sources are determined. Based on the data and results above mentioned the seismicity parameters for the two seismic belts and their potential sources were studied. Finally, the seismic zoning with different probability in Sino-Mongolia arc areas was carried out using China probabilistic hazard analysis method. By analyzing the data and results, we draw the following main conclusions. Firstly, the origin of tectonic stress field in the study areas is the collision and pressure of the India Plate to Eurasian Plate, passing from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. This is the reason why the seismicity is higher in the west than in the east, and all of earthquakes with magnitude 8 or greater occurred in the west. Secondly, the determination of the 2 arc seismic belts, Altay seismic belt and Bolnay-Baikal seismic belt, are reasonable in terms of their geotectonic location, geodynamic origin and seismicity characteristics. Finally, there are some differences between our results and the Mongolia Intensity Zoning map published in 1985 in terms of shape of seismic zoning map, especially in the areas near Ulaanbaatar. We argue that our relsults are reasonable if we take into account the data use of recent study of active faults and their parameters, so it can be used as a reference for seismic design.

  8. Transient Fault Locating Method Based on Line Voltage and Zero-mode Current in Non-solidly Earthed Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Linli; XU Bingyin; XUE Yongduan; GAO Houlei

    2012-01-01

    Non-solidly earthed systems are widely used for middle voltage distribution network at home and abroad. Fault point location especially the single phase-to-earth fault is very difficult because the fault current is very weak and the fault arc is intermittent. Although several methods have been developed, the problem of fault location has not yet been resolved very well. A new fault location method based on transient component of line voltage and 0-mode current is presented in this paper, which can realize fault section location by the feeder automation (FA) system. Line voltage signal can be obtained conveniently without requiring any additional equipment. This method is based on transient information, not affected by arc suppression coil.

  9. Fire safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keski-Rahkonen, O.; Bjoerkman, J.; Hostikka, S.; Mangs, J. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland); Huhtanen, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Palmen, H.; Salminen, A.; Turtola, A. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-07-01

    According to experience and probabilistic risk assessments, fires present a significant hazard in a nuclear power plant. Fires may be initial events for accidents or affect safety systems planned to prevent accidents and to mitigate their consequences. The project consists of theoretical work, experiments and simulations aiming to increase the fire safety at nuclear power plants. The project has four target areas: (1) to produce validated models for numerical simulation programmes, (2) to produce new information on the behavior of equipment in case of fire, (3) to study applicability of new active fire protecting systems in nuclear power plants, and (4) to obtain quantitative knowledge of ignitions induced by important electric devices in nuclear power plants. These topics have been solved mainly experimentally, but modelling at different level is used to interpret experimental data, and to allow easy generalisation and engineering use of the obtained data. Numerical fire simulation has concentrated in comparison of CFD modelling of room fires, and fire spreading on cables on experimental data. So far the success has been good to fair. A simple analytical and numerical model has been developed for fire effluents spreading beyond the room of origin in mechanically strongly ventilated compartments. For behaviour of equipment in fire several full scale and scaled down calorimetric experiments were carried out on electronic cabinets, as well as on horizontal and vertical cable trays. These were carried out to supply material for CFD numerical simulation code validation. Several analytical models were developed and validated against obtained experimental results to allow quick calculations for PSA estimates as well as inter- and extrapolations to slightly different objects. Response times of different commercial fire detectors were determined for different types of smoke, especially emanating from smoldering and flaming cables to facilitate selection of proper detector

  10. Magmatic control along a strike-slip volcanic arc: The central Aeolian arc (Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Ruch, Joel

    2016-01-23

    The regional stress field in volcanic areas may be overprinted by that produced by magmatic activity, promoting volcanism and faulting. In particular, in strike-slip settings, the definition of the relationships between the regional stress field and magmatic activity remains elusive. To better understand these relationships, we collected stratigraphic, volcanic and structural field data along the strike-slip Central Aeolian arc (Italy): here the islands of Lipari and Vulcano separate the extensional portion of the arc (to the east) from the contractional one (to the west). We collected >500 measurements of faults, extension fractures and dikes at 40 sites. Most structures are NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE oriented, eastward dipping, and show almost pure dip-slip motion; consistent with an E-W extension direction, with minor dextral and sinistral shear. Our data highlight six eruptive periods during the last 55 ka, which allow considering both islands as a single magmatic system, in which tectonic and magmatic activity steadily migrated eastward and currently focus on a 10 km long x 2 km wide active segment. Faulting appears to mostly occur in temporal and spatial relation with magmatic events, supporting that most of the observable deformation derives from transient magmatic activity (shorter-term, days to months), rather than from steady longer-term regional tectonics (102-104 years). More in general, the Central Aeolian case shows how magmatic activity may affect the structure and evolution of volcanic arcs, overprinting any strike-slip motion with magma-induced extension at the surface.

  11. Magmatic control along a strike-slip volcanic arc: The central Aeolian arc (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, J.; Vezzoli, L.; De Rosa, R.; Di Lorenzo, R.; Acocella, V.

    2016-02-01

    The regional stress field in volcanic areas may be overprinted by that produced by magmatic activity, promoting volcanism and faulting. In particular, in strike-slip settings, the definition of the relationships between the regional stress field and magmatic activity remains elusive. To better understand these relationships, we collected stratigraphic, volcanic, and structural field data along the strike-slip central Aeolian arc (Italy): here the islands of Lipari and Vulcano separate the extensional portion of the arc (to the east) from the contractional one (to the west). We collected >500 measurements of faults, extension fractures, and dikes at 40 sites. Most structures are NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE oriented, eastward dipping, and show almost pure dip-slip motion, consistent with an E-W extension direction, with minor dextral and sinistral shear. Our data highlight six eruptive periods during the last 55 ka, which allow considering both islands as a single magmatic system, in which tectonic and magmatic activities steadily migrated eastward and currently focus on a 10 km long × 2 km wide active segment. Faulting appears to mostly occur in temporal and spatial relation with magmatic events, supporting that most of the observable deformation derives from transient magmatic activity (shorter term, days to months), rather than from steady longer-term regional tectonics (102-104 years). More in general, the central Aeolian case shows how magmatic activity may affect the structure and evolution of volcanic arcs, overprinting any strike-slip motion with magma-induced extension at the surface.

  12. Summary: beyond fault trees to fault graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fault Graphs are the natural evolutionary step over a traditional fault-tree model. A Fault Graph is a failure-oriented directed graph with logic connectives that allows cycles. We intentionally construct the Fault Graph to trace the piping and instrumentation drawing (P and ID) of the system, but with logical AND and OR conditions added. Then we evaluate the Fault Graph with computer codes based on graph-theoretic methods. Fault Graph computer codes are based on graph concepts, such as path set (a set of nodes traveled on a path from one node to another) and reachability (the complete set of all possible paths between any two nodes). These codes are used to find the cut-sets (any minimal set of component failures that will fail the system) and to evaluate the system reliability

  13. Modeling of Arc Force in Plasma Arc Welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Zhonglin; HU Shengsun; YIN Fengliang; WANG Rui

    2008-01-01

    A three. dimensional mathematical model for the transferred-type argon arc was developed to describe arc force on the anode surface. The software ANSYS was employed to solve the model. The model includes a part of torch and tungsten electrode to achieve m ore reasonable results. The arc temperature and flow fields were derived. And the influences of welding parameters on arc force were also studied. The simulated results show that arc pressure at the anode are dependent on the welding current, plasma gas flow rate and electrode neck-in, while not sensitive to arc length.

  14. Similar and Contrasting Response of Rifting and Transtension in the Gulf of California and Walker Lane to Preceding Arc Magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, C. D.; Faulds, J. E.

    2006-12-01

    The Gulf of California (GC) and Walker Lane (WL) have undergone strikingly similar development with strike- slip faulting following initial extension. They differ significantly in the amount of Pacific-North American plate motion taken up by each: essentially all relative motion in the GC and ~25% in the WL. In both areas, ancestral arc magmatism preceded and probably focused deformation, perhaps because heating and/or hydration weakened the lithosphere. However, differences in migration of the Rivera (RTJ) and Mendocino triple junctions (MTJ) related to differences in the orientation of plate boundaries determined how strike-slip faulting developed. Abrupt southward jumps in the RTJ led to abrupt cessation of magmatism over arc lengths of as much as 1000 km and initiation of east-northeast extension within the future GC. The best known jump was at ~13 Ma, but an earlier jump occurred at ~18 Ma. Arc magmatism has been best documented in Baja California, Sonora, and Nayarit, although Baja constituted the most-trenchward fringe of the ancestral arc. New and published data indicate that Sinaloa underwent a similar history of arc magmatism. The greatest volume of the arc immediately preceding RTJ jumps was probably in mainland Mexico. Arc magmatism shut off following these jumps, extension began in the future GC, and strike-slip faulting either followed or accompanied extension in the GC. In contrast, the MTJ migrated progressively northward. New and published data indicate magmatism generally shut off coincident with this retreat, but distinct nodes or zones of magmatism, presumably unrelated to subduction, persisted or initiated after arc activity ceased. We have suggested that the WL has grown progressively northward, following the retreating arc, and that the northern WL is its youngest part. However, the timing of initiation of strike-slip faulting in most of the WL is poorly known and controversial. Testing our hypothesis requires determining initiation and

  15. Fault tree handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This handbook describes a methodology for reliability analysis of complex systems such as those which comprise the engineered safety features of nuclear power generating stations. After an initial overview of the available system analysis approaches, the handbook focuses on a description of the deductive method known as fault tree analysis. The following aspects of fault tree analysis are covered: basic concepts for fault tree analysis; basic elements of a fault tree; fault tree construction; probability, statistics, and Boolean algebra for the fault tree analyst; qualitative and quantitative fault tree evaluation techniques; and computer codes for fault tree evaluation. Also discussed are several example problems illustrating the basic concepts of fault tree construction and evaluation

  16. ALICE-ARC integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AliEn or Alice Environment is the Grid middleware developed and used within the ALICE collaboration for storing and processing data in a distributed manner. ARC (Advanced Resource Connector) is the Grid middleware deployed across the Nordic countries and gluing together the resources within the Nordic Data Grid Facility (NDGF). In this paper we will present our approach to integrate AliEn and ARC, in the sense that ALICE data management and job processing can be carried out on the NDGF infrastructure, using the client tools available in AliEn. The inter-operation has two aspects, one is the data management part and the second the job management aspect. The first aspect was solved by using dCache across NDGF to handle data. Therefore, we will concentrate on the second part. Solving it, was somewhat cumbersome, mainly due to the different computing models employed by AliEn and ARC. AliEN uses an Agent based pull model while ARC handles jobs through the more 'traditional' push model. The solution comes as a module implementing the functionalities necessary to achieve AliEn job submission and management to ARC enabled sites

  17. Carbon emissions associated with forest fires in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alencar, A.; Nepstad, D.; Moutinho, P. [Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazonia, Belem, Para (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Forest fires or 'understory fires' that burn beneath forest canopies are one of the most important types of forest impoverishment in the Amazon causing large emissions of carbon to the atmosphere. The occurrence and the damage intensity of these fire events are related to the synergetic influence of selective logging, forest fragmentation and severe droughts especially such as that associated with El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episodes. In addition, forest fires occurrence also depends on landscape variables and forest structure. In this chapter we review the feedbacks that increase the susceptibility of the forest to understory fires, evaluate the impact of the fire events on forest biomass, analyze the spatial relationship of these forest fires with landscape characteristics for different regions along the arc of deforestation and estimate the area affected by forest fires in El Nino and non El Nino years. The results indicate that the area of forest burned by understory forest fire during the severe drought (ENSO) year (approximately 43.9 millions of hectares) was 13 times greater than the area burned during the average rainfall year (0.2 million hectares), and twice the area of annual deforestation. Our estimate of aboveground forest carbon that will eventually be released to the atmosphere through decomposition of dead trees due to understory fires in the Amazon arc of deforestation ranged from 0.024 to 0.165 Pg during the ENSO and from 0.001 to 0.011 Pg during the non ENSO years.

  18. The effect of earth fault protection practices on the frequency of outages in MV lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikander, A.; Lakervi, E. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    In this presentation methods to improve extinction of the earth fault arc in the medium voltage network and reducing the short interruptions to customers are discussed. Earth fault distance estimation with permanent faults and determination of the key parameters of the compensated system are also studied. The three essential targets of this study are the following: An economic principle to improve fault arc extinction without a reclosing function is introduced. This novel compensation and protection practice is tested in one rural distribution network The selective functioning of the active current based earth fault protection was ensured by simulations and field tests. The influence of the star point impedance to the number of short interruptions is discussed. The determination of the key parameters of a compensated distribution system by utilizing the simulated and measured data is introduced. The earth fault distance estimation by rearranging the affected feeder into a closed ring over an adjacent feeder, is studied. This method was also tested in one rural distribution network. In the latter part of the chapter different methods to improve extinction of the earth fault arc in the medium voltage network and reducing the short interruptions to customers are discussed. The disadvantages of the rapid autoreclosing functions to customers are studied. Then the influence of star point impedance on the number of short interruptions is discussed. Finally, the feasibility of utilizing shunt circuit-breakers in the Finnish MV networks to extinguish the arc, is studied

  19. MODELING PARAMETERS OF ARC OF ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.N. Khrestin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim is to build a mathematical model of the electric arc of arc furnace (EAF. The model should clearly show the relationship between the main parameters of the arc. These parameters determine the properties of the arc and the possibility of optimization of melting mode. Methodology. We have built a fairly simple model of the arc, which satisfies the above requirements. The model is designed for the analysis of electromagnetic processes arc of varying length. We have compared the results obtained when testing the model with the results obtained on actual furnaces. Results. During melting in real chipboard under the influence of changes in temperature changes its properties arc plasma. The proposed model takes into account these changes. Adjusting the length of the arc is the main way to regulate the mode of smelting chipboard. The arc length is controlled by the movement of the drive electrode. The model reflects the dynamic changes in the parameters of the arc when changing her length. We got the dynamic current-voltage characteristics (CVC of the arc for the different stages of melting. We got the arc voltage waveform and identified criteria by which possible identified stage of smelting. Originality. In contrast to the previously known models, this model clearly shows the relationship between the main parameters of the arc EAF: arc voltage Ud, amperage arc id and length arc d. Comparison of the simulation results and experimental data obtained from real particleboard showed the adequacy of the constructed model. It was found that character of change of magnitude Md, helps determine the stage of melting. Practical value. It turned out that the model can be used to simulate smelting in EAF any capacity. Thus, when designing the system of control mechanism for moving the electrode, the model takes into account changes in the parameters of the arc and it can significantly reduce electrode material consumption and energy consumption

  20. Fault Tolerant Feedback Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.

    2001-01-01

    An architecture for fault tolerant feedback controllers based on the Youla parameterization is suggested. It is shown that the Youla parameterization will give a residual vector directly in connection with the fault diagnosis part of the fault tolerant feedback controller. It turns out...... that there is a separation be-tween the feedback controller and the fault tolerant part. The closed loop feedback properties are handled by the nominal feedback controller and the fault tolerant part is handled by the design of the Youla parameter. The design of the fault tolerant part will not affect the design...... of the nominal feedback con-troller....

  1. Arc Plasma Torch Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Trelles, J P; Vardelle, A; Heberlein, J V R

    2013-01-01

    Arc plasma torches are the primary components of various industrial thermal plasma processes involving plasma spraying, metal cutting and welding, thermal plasma CVD, metal melting and remelting, waste treatment and gas production. They are relatively simple devices whose operation implies intricate thermal, chemical, electrical, and fluid dynamics phenomena. Modeling may be used as a means to better understand the physical processes involved in their operation. This paper presents an overview of the main aspects involved in the modeling of DC arc plasma torches: the mathematical models including thermodynamic and chemical non-equilibrium models, turbulent and radiative transport, thermodynamic and transport property calculation, boundary conditions and arc reattachment models. It focuses on the conventional plasma torches used for plasma spraying that include a hot-cathode and a nozzle anode.

  2. Digital release of the Alaska Quaternary fault and fold database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, R. D.; Farrell, R.; Burns, P.; Combellick, R. A.; Weakland, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    (i.e., well constrained, moderately constrained, or inferred), and mapped scale. Each fault is assigned a three-integer CODE, based upon age, slip rate, and how well the fault is located. This CODE dictates the line-type for the GIS files. To host the database, we are developing an interactive web-map application with ArcGIS for Server and the ArcGIS API for JavaScript from Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (Esri). The web-map application will present the database through a visible scale range with each fault displayed at the resolution of the original map. Application functionality includes: search by name or location, identification of fault by manual selection, and choice of base map. Base map options include topographic, satellite imagery, and digital elevation maps available from ArcGIS on-line. We anticipate that the database will be publically accessible from a portal embedded on the DGGS website by the end of 2011.

  3. Mesozoic fault systems, deformation and fault block rotation in the Andean forearc: a crustal scale strike-slip duplex in the Coastal Cordillera of northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. K.; Grocott, J.; Pope, A.; Randall, D. E.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper we discuss the evolution and tectonic significance of the Mesozoic trench-parallel fault systems which affected the Coastal Cordillera and their relation to magmatism and crustal rotation. The oldest, extensional, fault system separates basement from rift-related Late Triassic and younger sedimentary units. This system [I] subsequently developed into a wider extensional fault system which acted as the locus of magma ascent and emplacement of the Coastal Batholith during much of the Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous period. This extensional fault system defined the forearc sliver during this period and was the consequence of a retreating subduction boundary. During the Early Cretaceous (c. 132-125 Ma) the kinematics of this fault system changed to transtension [II] and accommodated a major component of left-lateral strike-slip motion, the principal fault being the Atacama Fault Zone along which plutons continued to be emplaced. The final phase of pluton emplacement within the Coastal Cordillera appears to be c. 106 Ma, after which this magmatic arc and fault system was abandoned. An Late Cretaceous arc and fault system [III] developed some 20 Ma later and located some 50 km to the east in what is now the Central Valley of northern Chile. This paper seeks to show that the Coastal Cordillera was deformed as a whole by this Late Cretaceous fault system [III] which formed a crustal-scale left-lateral transpressional duplex. During this deformation the thermally weakened crust was dissected into a series of large-scale blocks bounded by NW-trending left-lateral strike-slip faults which merge into a NNE-SSW fault zone which forms the eastern boundary to the duplex. We term this eastern boundary zone the Central Valley Fault Zone (CVFZ) and this together with the NW-trending faults defines the duplex system which we refer to as a whole as the Coastal Cordillera Fault System (CCFS) [III]. We have traced the CCFS duplex between 25°S and 29°S and suspect that it

  4. null Faults, null Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Through the study of faults and their effects, much can be learned about the size and recurrence intervals of earthquakes. Faults also teach us about crustal...

  5. Fault detection and isolation in systems with parametric faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1999-01-01

    The problem of fault detection and isolation of parametric faults is considered in this paper. A fault detection problem based on parametric faults are associated with internal parameter variations in the dynamical system. A fault detection and isolation method for parametric faults is formulated...

  6. Research on Fault Evaluation of Armament Equipment Based on ADAMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The levels of simulation are introduced, and the importance of virtual prototyping of armament equipment is discussed and steps of virtual prototyping are outlined. The faults that affect firing performance are discussea, ADAMS is first to be introduced to armament equipment,and a virtual prototyping model of artillery is established with the help of Fortran language based on analysis of topology of artillery and forces applied on it. The plan of fault evaluation is brought forward, the modules are analyzed, and the concept of fault evaluation function is introduced Finally, the perspective of virtual technology is presented.

  7. Software fault tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Kazinov, Tofik Hasanaga; Mostafa, Jalilian Shahrukh

    2009-01-01

    Because of our present inability to produce errorfree software, software fault tolerance is and will contiune to be an important consideration in software system. The root cause of software design errors in the complexity of the systems. This paper surveys various software fault tolerance techniquest and methodologies. They are two gpoups: Single version and Multi version software fault tolerance techniques. It is expected that software fault tolerance research will benefit from this research...

  8. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz Abd Malek, Muhamad; Hayati Saad, Nor; Kiyai Abas, Sunhaji; Mohd Shah, Noriyati

    2013-06-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  9. ALICE: ARC integration

    CERN Document Server

    Anderlik, C; Kleist, J; Peters, A; Saiz, P

    2008-01-01

    AliEn or Alice Environment is the Grid middleware developed and used within the ALICE collaboration for storing and processing data in a distributed manner. ARC (Advanced Resource Connector) is the Grid middleware deployed across the Nordic countries and gluing together the resources within the Nordic Data Grid Facility (NDGF). In this paper we will present our approach to integrate AliEn and ARC, in the sense that ALICE data management and job processing can be carried out on the NDGF infrastructure, using the client tools available in AliEn. The inter-operation has two aspects, one is the data management part and the second the job management aspect. The first aspect was solved by using dCache across NDGF to handle data. Therefore, we will concentrate on the second part. Solving it, was somewhat cumbersome, mainly due to the different computing models employed by AliEn and ARC. AliEN uses an Agent based pull model while ARC handles jobs through the more 'traditional' push model. The solution comes as a modu...

  10. Performance based fault diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Different aspects of fault detection and fault isolation in closed-loop systems are considered. It is shown that using the standard setup known from feedback control, it is possible to formulate fault diagnosis problems based on a performance index in this general standard setup. It is also shown...

  11. Active Fire Mapping Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active Fire Mapping Program Current Large Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS Data Fire Data in Google Earth ...

  12. Fire Research Enclosure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Simulates submarine fires, enclosed aircraft fires, and fires in enclosures at shore facilities . DESCRIPTION: FIRE I is a pressurizable, 324 cu m(11,400...

  13. Geodynamics of the Dead Sea Fault: Do active faulting and past earthquakes determine the seismic gaps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghraoui, Mustapha

    2014-05-01

    The ~1000-km-long North-South trending Dead Sea transform fault (DSF) presents structural discontinuities and includes segments that experienced large earthquakes (Mw>7) in historical times. The Wadi Araba and Jordan Valley, the Lebanese restraining bend, the Missyaf and Ghab fault segments in Syria and the Ziyaret Fault segment in Turkey display geometrical complexities made of step overs, restraining and releasing bends that may constitute major obstacles to earthquake rupture propagation. Using active tectonics, GPS measurements and paleoseismology we investigate the kinematics and long-term/short term slip rates along the DSF. Tectonic geomorphology with paleoseismic trenching and archeoseismic investigations indicate repeated faulting events and left-lateral slip rate ranging from 4 mm/yr in the southern fault section to 6 mm/yr in the northern fault section. Except for the northernmost DSF section, these estimates of fault slip rate are consistent with GPS measurements that show 4 to 5 mm/yr deformation rate across the plate boundary. However, recent GPS results showing ~2.5 mm/yr velocity rate of the northern DSF appears to be quite different than the ~6 mm/yr paleoseismic slip rate. The kinematic modeling that combines GPS and seismotectonic results implies a complex geodynamic pattern where the DSF transforms the Cyprus arc subduction zone into transpressive tectonics on the East Anatolian fault. The timing of past earthquake ruptures shows the occurrence of seismic sequences and a southward migration of large earthquakes, with the existence of major seismic gaps along strike. In this paper, we discuss the role of the DSF in the regional geodynamics and its implication on the identification of seismic gaps.

  14. Fault-Tree Compiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1993-01-01

    Fault-Tree Compiler (FTC) program, is software tool used to calculate probability of top event in fault tree. Gates of five different types allowed in fault tree: AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, INVERT, and M OF N. High-level input language easy to understand and use. In addition, program supports hierarchical fault-tree definition feature, which simplifies tree-description process and reduces execution time. Set of programs created forming basis for reliability-analysis workstation: SURE, ASSIST, PAWS/STEM, and FTC fault-tree tool (LAR-14586). Written in PASCAL, ANSI-compliant C language, and FORTRAN 77. Other versions available upon request.

  15. Fire Brigade

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    With effect from 15 April 2004, the Fire Brigade will no longer issue master keys on loan. Contractors' personnel requiring access to locked premises in order to carry out work must apply to the CERN staff member responsible for the contract concerned.

  16. Arc parallel extension in Higher and Lesser Himalayas, evidence from western Arunachal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sharmistha De Sarkar; George Mathew; Kanchan Pande

    2013-06-01

    The existence of E–W extensional features from northeast (NE) Himalaya is poorly documented. Our investigation in the western part of Arunachal Himalaya provides evidences of active Quaternary E–W arc-parallel extensional features in the Higher and Lesser Himalayas. They are represented by arcperpendicular normal faults and arc-parallel sinistral strike-slip faults. We discuss the occurrences of these arc-parallel extensional features in terms of oblique convergence and radial expansion models. The partitioning of stress due to oblique convergence is argued based on evidences of left-lateral slip in NEHimalaya, right-lateral slip in NW-Himalaya and absence of translation in the central part. The amount of arc-parallel extension in the hinterland regions is correlated to the amount of radial shortening in the foreland. The computation of arc-parallel extension in the NE Himalayan arc is carried out by defining a small-circle centered at 88° 39′ ± 0.7′E longitude and 33° 40′ ± 0.6′N latitude having a radius of 770.7 ± 15.1 km, for the segment between 92° 01′ and 95° 16′E longitudes. The amount of arc-parallel extension estimated is ∼110 km for the NE Himalayan segment. Our result agrees closely with the 104 km extension determined based on geodetically computed extension rate and age of initiation of rifting in southern Tibet.

  17. Experimental study of HBC fuses working at short and medium pre-arcing times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pre-arcing stage is the first working step in high breaking capacity (HBC) fuse operation and affects the following step, namely, the arcing step. We have performed realistic HBC fuse tests for short (10 ms) pre-arcing times by varying the phase angle of the electrical fault (defined as the phase angle of the fault current once the supplied voltage is applied to the fuse) in the range from 00 to 1600, for two values of the power factor (cosψ ∼ 0.9 and cosψ ∼ 0.1). Experimental values of the pre-arcing time and the arcing time (tarc) are given for tprearc/tarc ∼< 1 to ∼4.2, and discussed from the energetic point of view by taking into account the inductive source term. The adiabatic assumption classically used in the modelling is also examined. The influence of the pre-arcing step on the arcing step is analysed by means of the Joule integral, the energy dissipated in the fuse and the mass and length of the fulgurite.

  18. Object Replication and CORBA Fault-Tolerant Object Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Arc hitecture) provides 16Common Object Services for distributed application develo pment, but none of them are fault-tolerance related services. In this paper, we propose a replicated object based Fault-Tolerant Object Service (FTOS) for COR BA environment. Two fault-tolerant mechanisms are provided in FTOS including dy namic voting mechanism and object replication mechanism. The dynamic voting mech anism uses majority-voting strategy to ensure object state consistency in failu re situations. The object replication mechanism can help system administrators t o replicate and start-up objects easily. Our implementation provides a library according to the style of COSS. With this library, programmers can develop distr ibuted applications with fault-tolerance capability very easily.

  19. Semicircular Rashba arc spin polarizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bin Siu, Zhuo, E-mail: a0018876@nus.edu.sg [NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117456 (Singapore); Advanced Concepts and Nanotechnology, Data Storage Institute, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1 (Off Kent Ridge Crescent, NUS), Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Jalil, Mansoor B. A. [NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117456 (Singapore); Ghee Tan, Seng [Advanced Concepts and Nanotechnology, Data Storage Institute, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1 (Off Kent Ridge Crescent, NUS), Singapore 117608 (Singapore)

    2014-05-07

    In this work, we study the generation of spin polarized currents using curved arcs of finite widths, in which the Rashba spin orbit interaction (RSOI) is present. Compared to the 1-dimensional RSOI arcs with zero widths studied previously, the finite width presents charge carriers with another degree of freedom along the transverse width of the arc, in addition to the longitudinal degree of freedom along the circumference of the arc. The asymmetry in the transverse direction due to the difference in the inner and outer radii of the arc breaks the antisymmetry of the longitudinal spin z current in a straight RSOI segment. This property can be exploited to generate spin z polarized current output from the RSOI arc by a spin unpolarized current input. The sign of the spin current can be manipulated by varying the arc dimensions.

  20. Utilization of steel melting electric arc furnace slag for development of vitreous ceramic tiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ritwik Sarkar; Nar Singh; Swapan Kumar Das

    2010-06-01

    Steel melting through electric arc furnace route is gaining popularity due to its many advantages, but generates a new waste, electric arc furnace slag, which is getting accumulated and land/mine filling and road construction are the only utilization. This slag has been tried to be value added and utilized to develop vitreous ceramic tiles. Slag, to the extent of 30–40 wt% with other conventional raw materials, were used for the development in the temperature range 1100–1150°C. The fired products showed relatively higher density with shorter firing range and good strength properties. Microstructural and EDAX studies were also done to evaluate the developed products.

  1. ALICE-ARC integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderlik, Csaba; Gregersen, Anders Rhod; Kleist, Josva;

    2008-01-01

    Data Grid Facility (NDGF). In this paper we will present our approach to integrate AliEn and ARC, in the sense that ALICE data management and job processing can be carried out on the NDGF infrastructure, using the client tools available in AliEn. The interoperation has two aspects, one is the data......AliEn or Alice Environment is the Gridware developed and used within the ALICE collaboration for storing and processing data in a distributed manner. ARC (Advanced Resource Connector) is the Grid middleware deployed across the Nordic countries and gluing together the resources within the Nordic...... management part and the second the job management aspect. The first aspect was solved by using dCache across NDGF to handle data. dCache provides support for several data management tools (among them for xrootd the tools used by AliEn) using the so called "doors". Therefore, we will concentrate on the second...

  2. ALICE - ARC integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderlik, Csaba; Gregersen, Anders Rhod; Kleist, Josva;

    Data Grid Facility (NDGF). In this paper we will present our approach to integrate AliEn and ARC, in the sense that ALICE data management and job processing can be carried out on the NDGF infrastructure, using the client tools available in AliEn. The interoperation has two aspects, one is the data......AliEn or Alice Environment is the Gridware developed and used within the ALICE collaboration for storing and processing data in a distributed manner. ARC (Advanced Resource Connector) is the Grid middleware deployed across the Nordic countries and gluing together the resources within the Nordic...... management part and the second the job management aspect. The first aspect was solved by using dCache across NDGF to handle data. dCache provides support for several data management tools (among them for xrootd the tools used by AliEn) using the so called "doors". Therefore, we will concentrate on the second...

  3. Seismological constraints and speculations on Banda arc tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Robert

    Fault plane solutions of shallow earthquakes show that the collision of the Australian continent with the Banda Arc shortens the overriding Indonesian plate in the north-south direction and elongates it in the east-west direction by a combination of strike-slip and thrust faulting. The shallow tectonics and the distribution of deep earthquakes beneath the Banda Basin both indicate that two plates subduct beneath the Banda Arc; the Australia-Indian Ocean plate northward beneath the Java Trench, Timor Trough, and Aru Troughs, and the Bird's Head southwestward beneath the Seram Trough. The slab of the Indian Ocean plate forms a westward plunging synform beneath the Banda Basin. Its unusual shape in interpreted to have been caused by subduction beneath the westward moving Pacific plate which transported slivers of New Guinea into the back arc. The lithosphere of the Bird's Head was subducted beneath the Seram Trough and now reaches 300 km depth. At the surface decoupling between Australian and the Bird's Head probably occurs by left-lateral strike slip at the Tarera-Aiduna fault zone in western Irian Jaya and by convergence in the New Guinea fold-and-thrust belt. Seismic quiescence occurs at depths of 50 to 380 km beneath both Timor and the inactive volcanic arc to its north but the efficient propagation of S-waves through the same volume suggests that the lithospheric slab is continuous there. The lack of seismic and volcanic activity may result from removal of part of the Australian continental crust prior to subduction of the lower part of the lithosphere. This crust was stacked up to form the island of Timor.

  4. Vacuum Arc Ion Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, I.

    2014-01-01

    The vacuum arc ion source has evolved into a more or less standard laboratory tool for the production of high-current beams of metal ions, and is now used in a number of different embodiments at many laboratories around the world. Applications include primarily ion implantation for material surface modification research, and good performance has been obtained for the injection of high-current beams of heavy-metal ions, in particular uranium, into particle accelerators. As the use of the sourc...

  5. Soft-Fault Detection Technologies Developed for Electrical Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center, partner universities, and defense contractors are working to develop intelligent power management and distribution (PMAD) technologies for future spacecraft and launch vehicles. The goals are to provide higher performance (efficiency, transient response, and stability), higher fault tolerance, and higher reliability through the application of digital control and communication technologies. It is also expected that these technologies will eventually reduce the design, development, manufacturing, and integration costs for large, electrical power systems for space vehicles. The main focus of this research has been to incorporate digital control, communications, and intelligent algorithms into power electronic devices such as direct-current to direct-current (dc-dc) converters and protective switchgear. These technologies, in turn, will enable revolutionary changes in the way electrical power systems are designed, developed, configured, and integrated in aerospace vehicles and satellites. Initial successes in integrating modern, digital controllers have proven that transient response performance can be improved using advanced nonlinear control algorithms. One technology being developed includes the detection of "soft faults," those not typically covered by current systems in use today. Soft faults include arcing faults, corona discharge faults, and undetected leakage currents. Using digital control and advanced signal analysis algorithms, we have shown that it is possible to reliably detect arcing faults in high-voltage dc power distribution systems (see the preceding photograph). Another research effort has shown that low-level leakage faults and cable degradation can be detected by analyzing power system parameters over time. This additional fault detection capability will result in higher reliability for long-lived power systems such as reusable launch vehicles and space exploration missions.

  6. Kinematic study at the junction of the East Anatolian fault and the Dead Sea fault from GPS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Yasser; Masson, Frederic; Meghraoui, Mustapha; Cakir, Ziyadin; Alchalbi, Abdulmutaleb; Yavasoglu, Hakan; Yönlü, Onder; Daoud, Mohamed; Ergintav, Semih; Inan, Sedat

    2013-07-01

    The Hatay Triple Junction (HTJ) is a tectonically complex area located at the intersection between the left-lateral East Anatolian fault (EAF), the Cyprus subduction arc and the left-lateral Dead Sea fault (DSF) which is a transform boundary between the Arabian and Sinai plates as they converge toward Eurasia. Previous GPS studies indicate a left-lateral strike-slip rate across the DSF varying from 5 mm/yr (along the southern part) to 2 mm/yr (along the northern part) (Alchalbi et al., 2010; Gomez et al., 2007; Le Béon et al., 2008; Mahmoud et al., 2005; Al-Tarazi et al., 2011). In contrast, the EAF has a roughly constant velocity along strike estimated at 9.7 + 0.9 mm/yr (Reilinger et al., 2006). The HTJ contains several well-identified active fault segments (DSF, EAF, Osmaniye fault, Karasu fault, Latakia fault, Jisr-al-shuggur fault, Idleb fault and Afrin fault) (Meghraoui et al., 2011), the fault-slip rates for which are poorly constrained. In order to constrain better the slip rate on faults, we established a network of 57 GPS sites in NW Syria and in SE Turkey. The first campaign was carried out in September 2009; a second took place in September and November 2010 and a third (only in Turkey) in September 2011. Although the velocity field vectors computed from the 2009, 2010 and 2011 measurements appear consistent with other local studies, the results are hampered by large uncertainties due to the short observation period. However, preliminary interpretations are consistent with decreasing velocity along the DSF from south to north reported previously.

  7. Circular arc structures

    KAUST Repository

    Bo, Pengbo

    2011-07-01

    The most important guiding principle in computational methods for freeform architecture is the balance between cost efficiency on the one hand, and adherence to the design intent on the other. Key issues are the simplicity of supporting and connecting elements as well as repetition of costly parts. This paper proposes so-called circular arc structures as a means to faithfully realize freeform designs without giving up smooth appearance. In contrast to non-smooth meshes with straight edges where geometric complexity is concentrated in the nodes, we stay with smooth surfaces and rather distribute complexity in a uniform way by allowing edges in the shape of circular arcs. We are able to achieve the simplest possible shape of nodes without interfering with known panel optimization algorithms. We study remarkable special cases of circular arc structures which possess simple supporting elements or repetitive edges, we present the first global approximation method for principal patches, and we show an extension to volumetric structures for truly threedimensional designs. © 2011 ACM.

  8. Fire Symfonier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Svend Hvidtfelt

    2009-01-01

    sidste fire symfonier. Den er måske snarere at opfatte som et præludium til disse. At påstå, at symfonierne fra Holmboes side er planlagt til at være beslægtede, ville være at gå for vidt. Alene de 26 år, der skiller den 10. fra den 13., gør påstanden - i bedste fald - dubiøs. Når deres udformning...... udkrystallisering som i de sidste små 30 år af hans virke har afkastet disse fire variationer over en grundlæggende central holmboesk fornemmelse for form, melodi, klang og rytme. Denne oplevelse har fået mig til at udforske symfonierne, for at finde til bunds i dette holmboeske fællestræk, som jeg mener her står...

  9. Arc-preserving subsequences of arc-annotated sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Popov, Vladimir Yu

    2011-01-01

    Arc-annotated sequences are useful in representing the structural information of RNA and protein sequences. The longest arc-preserving common subsequence problem has been introduced as a framework for studying the similarity of arc-annotated sequences. In this paper, we consider arc-annotated sequences with various arc structures. We consider the longest arc preserving common subsequence problem. In particular, we show that the decision version of the 1-{\\sc fragment LAPCS(crossing,chain)} and the decision version of the 0-{\\sc diagonal LAPCS(crossing,chain)} are {\\bf NP}-complete for some fixed alphabet $\\Sigma$ such that $|\\Sigma| = 2$. Also we show that if $|\\Sigma| = 1$, then the decision version of the 1-{\\sc fragment LAPCS(unlimited, plain)} and the decision version of the 0-{\\sc diagonal LAPCS(unlimited, plain)} are {\\bf NP}-complete.

  10. Active Subduction Beneath The Gibraltar Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutscher, M.-A.; Malod, J.; Rehault, J.-P.; Contrucci, I.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Spakman, W.; Sismar Scientific Team

    The Gibraltar region features the arcuate Betic - Rif mountain belt with outward di- rected thrusting, surrounding a zone of strong Neogene subsidence and crustal thin- ning in the Western Alboran Sea. Until now its geodynamic interpretation has re- mained controversial. The Gibraltar Arc is located at the eastern end of the Azores- Gibraltar transform, a diffuse transpressional plate boundary between the Iberian and African Plates. Attention has recently been focussed on this plate boundary, while seeking the likely source of the destructive Lisbon great earthquake (M 8.5 - 9) and tsunami of 1755. The SISMAR marine seismic survey conducted in April 2001 ac- quired over 3000 km of 360-channel seismic data with a 4.5 km long streamer and 1000 km of wide-angle data recorded by ocean bottom seismometers (OBS), com- pletely spanning the actively deforming region between the margins of Portugal and northwest Morocco. Results from this seismic survey reveal a thick chaotic sedimen- tary mass west of Gibraltar to be an actively deforming accretionary wedge, with east dipping thrust faults disrupting the seafloor and soleing out to an east dipping decolle- ment. New travel-time tomographic results image a continuous east dipping body with high seismic velocities (i.e. a cold slab of oceanic lithosphere) descending from the Atlantic domain of the Gulf of Cadiz, passing through intermediate depth (60 - 120 km) seismicity beneath the Gibraltar Arc and Western Alboran Sea, and merging with a region of deep focus earthquakes 600 - 660 km below Granada Spain. Together these provide compelling evidence for an active east dipping subduction zone. Slab rollback towards the west provides a plausible mechanism for extension and subsidence in the Alboran Sea, while the associated westward advance of the Gibraltar Arc drives com- pressional deformation in the accretionary wedge where active mud volcanoes have recently been discovered.

  11. An Analytical Study of Fire Out of Battery Using Magneto Rheological Dampers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ahmadian

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of magneto rheological dampers for controlling the dynamics of a fire out-of-battery recoil system is examined, using a dynamic simulation of a 105mm cannon. Upon providing a brief background on MR dampers and fire out-of-battery dynamics, we will describe the simulation model, along with some of the results obtained from the model. The simulation results show that although conventional hydraulic recoil dampers can be designed and tuned to control fire out-of-battery dynamics as effectively as MR dampers, they are not able to perform well when firing faults are encountered. The results show that MR dampers are able to adapt to the firing faults such as pre-fire, hang-fire, and misfire and provide "soft recoil" under all firing conditions. The inability of conventional hydraulic dampers to adapt to the firing faults can yield recoil dynamics that seriously jeopardize the performance of the gun. Therefore, the results presented here show that MR dampers may provide an enabling technology in achieving fire out-of-battery under all firing conditions.

  12. Zaca Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    On August 7, 2007, the Zaca fire continued to burn in the Los Padres National Forest near Santa Barbara, California. The fire started more than a month ago, on July 4, and has burned 69,800 acres. The fire remains in steep, rocky terrain with poor access. The continued poor access makes containment difficult in the wilderness area on the eastern flank. So far only one outbuilding has been destroyed; but over 450 homes are currently threatened. Over 2300 fire personnel, aided by four air tankers and 15 helicopters, are working to contain this massive fire. Full containment is expected on September 1. The image covers 45.2 x 46.1 km, and is centered near 34.6 degrees north latitude, 119.7 degrees west longitude. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 45.2 by 46

  13. Kozu-Matsuda fault system in northern Izu collision zone, western part of Kanagawa Prefecture, central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odawara, K.; Aketagawa, T.; Yoshida, A.

    2010-12-01

    Western area of Kanagawa Prefecture is techtonically highlighted by its geological setting that the Izu-Bonin volcanic arc collides with the Japan Island arc there. The Kozu-Matsuda fault system which consists of the Kozu-Matsuda fault, the Matsuda-kita fault, the Hinata fault and the Hirayama fault is a surface manifestation of the plate boundary. Research of the Kozu-Matsuda fault has advanced dramatically after the 1995 Kobe Earthquake. Having conducted a trench survey, Kanagawa Prefectural Government (2004) reported that the Kozu-Matsuda fault was activated at least four times in the past 4000 years and the latest activity occurred 650-950 years ago (AD. 1350-1050). However, details of the activity of the Hinata and Hirayama faults, the northern extension of the Kozu-Matsuda fault, are not well understood. The Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Urban areas (DaiDaiToku) made a 2040 m deep drilling in 2004 in Yamakita Town (Hayashi et al., 2006). DaiDaiToku also carried out the seismic reflection profiling along a route from Odawara to Yamanashi in 2005 (Sato et al., 2005). The study done by DaiDaiToku elucidated presence of two north-dipping thrusts. The northern thrust corresponds to the Hinata fault, and the southern one which is also considered to be a continuation of the Kozu-Matsuda fault probably represents a frontal thrust (Miyauchi et al., 2006). We have conducted paleoseismic investigations using data from boreholes across these thrusts.

  14. Fire patterns in the Amazonian biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragao, Luiz E. O. C.; Shimabukuro, Yosio E.; Lima, Andre; Anderson, Liana O.; Barbier, Nicolas; Saatchi, Sassan

    2010-05-01

    This paper aims to provide an overview of our recent findings on the interplay between climate and land use dynamics in defining fire patterns in Amazonia. Understanding these relationships is currently a fundamental concern for assessing the vulnerability of Amazonia to climate change and its potential for mitigating current increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases. Reducing carbon emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation (REDD), for instance, could contribute to a cumulative emission reduction of 13-50 billion tons of carbon (GtC) by 2100. In Amazonia, though, forest fires can release similar quantities of carbon to the atmosphere (~0.2 GtC yr-1) as deforestation alone. Therefore, to achieve carbon savings through REDD mechanism there is an urgent need of understanding and subsequently restraining related Amazonian fire drivers. In this study, we analyze satellite-derived monthly and annual time-series of fires, rainfall and deforestation in Amazonia to: (1) quantify the seasonal patterns and relationships between these variables; (2) quantify fire and rainfall anomalies to evaluate the impact of recent drought on fire patterns; (3) quantify recent trends in fire and deforestation to understand how land use affects fire patterns in Amazonia. Our results demonstrate a marked seasonality of fires. The majority of fires occurs along the Arc of Deforestation, the expanding agricultural frontier in southern and eastern Amazonia, indicating humans are the major ignition sources determining fire seasonality, spatial distribution and long-term patterns. There is a marked seasonality of fires, which is highly correlated (pslash-and-burn of Amazonian vegetation for implementation of pastures and agricultural fields. The cumulative number of hot pixels is exponentially related to the monthly rainfall, which ultimately defines where and when fire can potentially strike. During the 2005 Amazonian drought, the number of hot pixels increased 33% in relation

  15. Transformer Internal Faults Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOOCHAKI, A.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method of modeling internal faults in a power transformer. The method leads to a model which is compatible with commercial phasor-based software packages. Consequently; it enables calculation of fault currents in any branch of the network due to a winding fault of a power transformer. These currents can be used for evaluation of protective relays' performance and can lead to better setting of protective functions.

  16. Hybrid laser-arc welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) is a combination of laser welding with arc welding that overcomes many of the shortfalls of both processes. This important book gives a comprehensive account of hybrid laser-arc welding technology and applications. The first part of the book reviews...... the characteristics of the process, including the properties of joints produced by hybrid laser-arc welding and ways of assessing weld quality. Part II discusses applications of the process to such metals as magnesium alloys, aluminium and steel as well as the use of hybrid laser-arc welding in such sectors as ship...... building and the automotive industry. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Hybrid laser-arc welding, will be a valuable source of reference for all those using this important welding technology. Professor Flemming Ove Olsen works in the Department of Manufacturing...

  17. The erect of earth fault protection practices on the frequency of outages in MV lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakervi, E.; Nikander, A. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    In this presentation different methods to improve extinction of the earth fault arc in the medium voltage network and reducing the short interruptions to customers are discussed. First the disadvantages of the rapid autoreclosing functions to customers are studied. Then the influence of the star point impedance to the number of short interruptions is discussed. Finally, the feasibility of utilizing shunt circuit-breakers in the Finnish MV networks to extinguish the arc, is studied

  18. Geology of coal fires: case studies from around the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn B. Stracher (ed.)

    2008-01-15

    Coal fires are preserved globally in the rock record as burnt and volume-reduced coal seams and by pyrometamorphic rocks, explosion breccias, clinker, gas-vent-mineral assemblages, fire-induced faulting, ground fissures, slump blocks, and sinkholes. Coal fires are responsible for coronary and respiratory diseases and fatalities in humans, as well as arsenic and fluorine poisoning. Their heat energy, toxic fumes, and solid by-products of combustion destroy floral and faunal habitats while polluting the air, water, and soil. This volume includes chapters devoted to spontaneous combustion and greenhouse gases, gas-vent mineralogy and petrology, paralavas and combustion metamorphic rocks, geochronology and landforms, magnetic signatures and geophysical modeling, remote-sensing detection and fire-depth estimation of concealed fires, and coal fires and public policy.

  19. Fire Protection for Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Jane

    1972-01-01

    Reviews attack on fire safety in high rise buildings made by a group of experts representing the iron and steel industry at a recent conference. According to one expert, fire problems are people oriented, which calls for emphasis on fire prevention rather than reliance on fire suppression and for fire pretection to be built into a structure.…

  20. The kinematic and geodynamic significance of the Atacama fault zone, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuber, Ekkehard; Andriessen, Paul A. M.

    The Atacama fault zone (AFZ) is the dominant feature in the structure of the North Chilean Coastal Cordillera. Left lateral displacement took place along its system of longitudinal faults during the Jurassic and early Cretaceous. This development was contemporaneous with arc magmatism and was later reactivated, resulting in a steep normal fault. Strike-slip movements along the AFZ consist of two sets of ductile shear zones of different ages: one Jurassic, formed under amphibolite-facies conditions; the other early Cretaceous, with greenschist-facies mylonites. Structural asymmetries point to a sinistral sense of shear in both sets. The AFZ can be interpreted as a magmatic arc structure which accommodated the oblique subduction of an oceanic plate (trench-linked strike-slip fault). The sinistral sense of shear is consistent with reconstructions of late Jurassic to early Cretaceous plate configurations in the SE Pacific.

  1. A decision support system for managing forest fire casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonazountas, Marc; Kallidromitou, Despina; Kassomenos, Pavlos; Passas, Nikos

    2007-09-01

    Southern Europe is exposed to anthropogenic and natural forest fires. These result in loss of lives, goods and infrastructure, but also deteriorate the natural environment and degrade ecosystems. The early detection and combating of such catastrophes requires the use of a decision support system (DSS) for emergency management. The current literature reports on a series of efforts aimed to deliver DSSs for the management of the forest fires by utilising technologies like remote sensing and geographical information systems (GIS), yet no integrated system exists. This manuscript presents the results of scientific research aiming to the development of a DSS for managing forest fires. The system provides a series of software tools for the assessment of the propagation and combating of forest fires based on Arc/Info, ArcView, Arc Spatial Analyst, Arc Avenue, and Visual C++ technologies. The system integrates GIS technologies under the same data environment and utilises a common user interface to produce an integrated computer system based on semi-automatic satellite image processing (fuel maps), socio-economic risk modelling and probabilistic models that would serve as a useful tool for forest fire prevention, planning and management. Its performance has been demonstrated via real time up-to-date accurate information on the position and evolution of the fire. The system can assist emergency assessment, management and combating of the incident. A site demonstration and validation has been accomplished for the island of Evoia, Greece, an area particularly vulnerable to forest fires due to its ecological characteristics and prevailing wind patterns. PMID:16928418

  2. Influence of safeguards and fire protection on criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several positive influences of safeguards and fire protection on criticality safety. Experts in each discipline must be aware of regulations and requirements of the others and work together to ensure a fault-tree design. EG and G Idaho, Inc., routinely uses an Occupancy-Use Readiness Manual to consider all aspects of criticality safety, fire protection, and safeguards. The use of the analytical tree is described

  3. Fire safety at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over the smoke alarm as needed. Using a fire extinguisher can put out a small fire to keep it from getting out of control. Tips for use include: Keep fire extinguishers in handy locations, at least one on ...

  4. Fire Ant Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fire Ant Bites Share | Fire ants are aggressive, venomous insects that have pinching ... across the United States, even into Puerto Rico. Fire ant stings usually occur on the feet or ...

  5. Crown Fire Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Crown fire potential was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The...

  6. Characterization of leaky faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaky faults provide a flow path for fluids to move underground. It is very important to characterize such faults in various engineering projects. The purpose of this work is to develop mathematical solutions for this characterization. The flow of water in an aquifer system and the flow of air in the unsaturated fault-rock system were studied. If the leaky fault cuts through two aquifers, characterization of the fault can be achieved by pumping water from one of the aquifers, which are assumed to be horizontal and of uniform thickness. Analytical solutions have been developed for two cases of either a negligibly small or a significantly large drawdown in the unpumped aquifer. Some practical methods for using these solutions are presented. 45 refs., 72 figs., 11 tabs

  7. Fault Tolerant Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, S.A.

    requirements for a dedicated software environment for fault tolerant control systems design. The second detailed study addressed the detection of a fault event and determination of the failed component. A variety of algorithms were compared, based on two fault scenarios in the speed governor actuator setup......This thesis considered the development of fault tolerant control systems. The focus was on the category of automated processes that do not necessarily comprise a high number of identical sensors and actuators to maintain safe operation, but still have a potential for improving immunity to component...... failures. It is often feasible to increase availability for these control loops by designing the control system to perform on-line detection and reconfiguration in case of faults before the safety system makes a close-down of the process. A general development methodology is given in the thesis...

  8. Travel Guide (Travelling Fires)

    OpenAIRE

    Stern-Gottfried, Jamie; Rein, Guillermo; Torero, Jose L

    2009-01-01

    Close inspection of real fires in large, open compartments reveals that they do not burn simultaneously throughout the whole compartment. Instead, these fires tend to move as flames spread, partitions or false ceilings break, and ventilation changes through glazing failure. These fires have been labelled ‘travelling fires’ and represent a new understanding of fire behaviour in modern building layouts. Despite these observations, fire scenarios currently used for the structural fire design of ...

  9. Estimation of fire frequency from PWR operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of a fire probabilistic safety assessment (Fire PSA), the French Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN) has developed a method for estimating the frequency of fire in a nuclear power plant room. This method is based on the analysis of French Pressurized Water Reactors operating experience. The method adopted consists is carrying out an in-depth analysis of fire-related incidents. A database has been created including 202 fire events reported in 900 MWe and 1300 MWe reactors from the start of their commercial operation up to the first of March 1994, which represents a cumulated service life of 508 reactor-years. For each reported fire, several data were recorded among which: The operating state of the reactor in the stage preceding the fire, the building in which the fire broke out, the piece of equipment or the human intervention which caused the fire. Operating experience shows that most fires are initiated by electrical problems (short-circuits, arcing, faulty contacts, etc.) and that human intervention also plays an important role (grinding, cutting, welding, cleaning, etc.). A list of equipment and of human interventions which proved to be possible fire sources was therefore drawn up. the items of this list were distributed in 19 reference groups defined by taking into account the nature of the potential ignition source (transformers, electrical cabinets, pumps, fans, etc.). The fire frequency assigned to each reference group was figured out using the operating experience information of the database. The fire frequency in a room is considered to be made out of two contributions: one due to equipment which is proportional to the number of pieces of equipment from each reference group contained in the room, and a second one which is due to human interventions and assumed to be uniform throughout the reactor. Formulas to assess the fire frequencies in a room, the reactor being in a shutdown state or at power, are then proposed

  10. Fire Models and Design Fires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Annemarie

    The aim of this project is to perform an experimental study on the influence of the thermal feedback on the burning behavior of well ventilated pre-flashover fires. For the purpose an experimental method has been developed. Here the same identical objects are tested under free burn conditions...... be lost through the boundaries. The increase of the heat release rate after the onset of thermal feedback did not seem to be dominated by either temperature of the smoke layer/enclosure boundaries or the type of materials of the burning object. The onset point of thermal runaway was found to depend...

  11. Structural ceramics containing electric arc furnace dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulos, V N; Papandreou, A; Kanellopoulou, D; Stournaras, C J

    2013-11-15

    In the present work the stabilization of electric arc furnace dust EAFD waste in structural clay ceramics was investigated. EAFD was collected over eleven production days. The collected waste was characterized for its chemical composition by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. By powder XRD the crystal structure was studied while the fineness of the material was determined by a laser particle size analyzer. The environmental characterization was carried out by testing the dust according to EN12457 standard. Zn, Pb and Cd were leaching from the sample in significant amounts. The objective of this study is to investigate the stabilization properties of EAFD/clay ceramic structures and the potential of EAFD utilization into structural ceramics production (blocks). Mixtures of clay with 2.5% and 5% EAFD content were studied by TG/DTA, XRD, SEM, EN12457 standard leaching and mechanical properties as a function of firing temperature at 850, 900 and 950 °C. All laboratory facilities maintained 20 ± 1 °C. Consequently, a pilot-scale experiment was conducted with an addition of 2.5% and 5% EAFD to the extrusion mixture for the production of blocks. During blocks manufacturing, the firing step reached 950 °C in a tunnel kiln. Laboratory heating/cooling gradients were similar to pilot scale production firing. The as produced blocks were then subjected to quality control tests, i.e. dimensions according to EN772-17, water absorbance according to EN772-6, and compressive strength according to EN772-1 standard, in laboratory facilities certified under EN17025. The data obtained showed that the incorporation of EAFD resulted in an increase of mechanical strength. Moreover, leaching tests performed according to the Europeans standards on the EAFD-block samples showed that the quantities of heavy metals leached from crushed blocks were within the regulatory limits. Thus the EAFD-blocks can be regarded as material of no environmental concern.

  12. Of Eggs and Arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Joseph A.; Thomas, P. C.; Helfenstein, P.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Hedman, M. M.; Agarwal, M.

    2012-10-01

    New scenarios for the origins of Saturn’s rings/interior moons have directed scientific attention to the region just exterior to Saturn’s main rings. Four satellites (Aegaeon = Ae; Anthe = An; Methone = Me; Pallene = Pa) discovered by the Cassini mission on either side of Mimas’s orbit perhaps comprise a distinct class of ring-moon. They are tiny (R = 0.3-2.5 km); three (AeAnMe) are trapped in co-rotation resonances with Mimas and reside within ring-arcs; and at least two (MePa) have remarkably regular shapes. Images with pixel scales as fine as 27 m taken in May 2012 reveal Methone to be ovoid within 10 m (from sub-pixel limb detection) and devoid of any craters (>130 m) across its 9 km2 of surface; Pallene and even tiny Aegaeon have similar appearances in lesser-quality images. Numerical simulations demonstrate that particles comprising the surrounding ring-arcs populate the same resonances as their embedded moons; escape speeds from the moons are bodies. In this environment, the moons’ shapes are smooth equipotentials; electrostatic effects may also determine how grains settle to surfaces. Considering these shapes to represent equipotential surfaces for rotating, tidally distorted, homogeneous bodies, we infer mean satellite densities of 250+/-60 (Pa), 310+/-30 (Me), and 540+/-120 (Ae) kg m-3. About half of Methone’s leading hemisphere is covered by a sharply bounded, lemon-shaped, relatively dark region, having a form reminiscent of Mimas’s thermal anomaly (Howett et al. 2011). Its (601 nm) albedo is 13% lower than the bounding brighter material. An irregularly shaped, even-darker (by 4%) blotch straddles the apex of the moon’s motion. Impacts with circum-planetary meteoroids and plasma are likely responsible for these features.

  13. Fault isolability conditions for linear systems with additive faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we shall show that an unlimited number of additive single faults can be isolated under mild conditions if a general isolation scheme is applied. Multiple faults are also covered. The approach is algebraic and is based on a set representation of faults, where all faults within a set...

  14. Timing of Surface-Rupturing Earthquakes on the Philippine Fault Zone in Central Luzon Island, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, H.; Daligdig, J. A.; Goto, H.; Tungol, N. M.; Kondo, H.; Nakata, T.; Okuno, M.; Sugito, N.

    2006-12-01

    The Philippine fault zone is an arc-parallel left-lateral strike-slip fault zone related to oblique subduction of the Philippine Sea plate beneath the Philippine island arc. The fault zone extends for about 1300 km from the Luzon Island southward to the Mindanao Island. This fault zone has been seismically active with more than 10 earthquakes greater than M7 in the last century. The July 16, 1990, Luzon earthquake was the largest event that produced 120-km-long surface rupture along the Digdig fault. The coseismic displacement was predominantly left-lateral strike-slip with maximum slip of about 6 m. The Philippine fault zone in the Luzon Island consists of four left-stepping en echelon faults: the San Manuel, San Jose, Digdig, and Gabaldon faults from north to south. Historical documents and geomorphic data suggest that the San Manuel and Gabaldon faults ruptured most recently during historical earthquakes in 1796 and 1645, respectively. However, paleoseismic activities and slip rates for these faults were poorly constrained. In order to reconstruct chronology of surface-rupturing earthquakes, we excavated multiple trenches across these faults in the past three years. We have excavated two sites, San Gregorio and Puncan sites, across the Digdig fault. At the both sites, we identified near vertical fault zones that contain evidence for four surface-rupturing earthquakes during the past 2000 years, including the 1990 rupture. The timing of the penultimate earthquake is constrained to prior to 1400 AD, suggesting that the Digdig fault did not rupture during the 1645 earthquake. The average recurrence interval of the Digdig fault is about 600 years. A left-lateral slip rate of 8-13 mm/yr was obtained for the Digdig fault based on stream offsets and age of alluvial fan at San Juan in the central portion of the fault. For the San Jose fault, we excavated two trenches north of downtown San Jose. The sediments exposed on the trench walls were warped into a monocline by

  15. Fault Analysis in Cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Joye, Marc

    2012-01-01

    In the 1970s researchers noticed that radioactive particles produced by elements naturally present in packaging material could cause bits to flip in sensitive areas of electronic chips. Research into the effect of cosmic rays on semiconductors, an area of particular interest in the aerospace industry, led to methods of hardening electronic devices designed for harsh environments. Ultimately various mechanisms for fault creation and propagation were discovered, and in particular it was noted that many cryptographic algorithms succumb to so-called fault attacks. Preventing fault attacks without

  16. Understorey fire frequency and the fate of burned forests in southern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D C; Le Page, Y; DeFries, R; Collatz, G J; Hurtt, G C

    2013-06-01

    Recent drought events underscore the vulnerability of Amazon forests to understorey fires. The long-term impact of fires on biodiversity and forest carbon stocks depends on the frequency of fire damages and deforestation rates of burned forests. Here, we characterized the spatial and temporal dynamics of understorey fires (1999-2010) and deforestation (2001-2010) in southern Amazonia using new satellite-based estimates of annual fire activity (greater than 50 ha) and deforestation (greater than 10 ha). Understorey forest fires burned more than 85 500 km(2) between 1999 and 2010 (2.8% of all forests). Forests that burned more than once accounted for 16 per cent of all understorey fires. Repeated fire activity was concentrated in Mato Grosso and eastern Pará, whereas single fires were widespread across the arc of deforestation. Routine fire activity in Mato Grosso coincided with annual periods of low night-time relative humidity, suggesting a strong climate control on both single and repeated fires. Understorey fires occurred in regions with active deforestation, yet the interannual variability of fire and deforestation were uncorrelated, and only 2.6 per cent of forests that burned between 1999 and 2008 were deforested for agricultural use by 2010. Evidence from the past decade suggests that future projections of frontier landscapes in Amazonia should separately consider economic drivers to project future deforestation and climate to project fire risk. PMID:23610169

  17. Arc Interference Behavior during Twin Wire Gas Metal Arc Welding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingjian Ye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study arc interference behavior during twin wire gas metal arc welding process, the synchronous acquisition system has been established to acquire instantaneous information of arc profile including dynamic arc length variation as well as relative voltage and current signals. The results show that after trailing arc (T-arc is added to the middle arc (M-arc in a stable welding process, the current of M arc remains unchanged while the agitation increases; the voltage of M arc has an obvious increase; the shape of M arc changes, with increasing width, length, and area; the transfer frequency of M arc droplet increases and the droplet itself becomes smaller. The wire extension length of twin arc turns out to be shorter than that of single arc welding.

  18. Fuzzy fault diagnostic system based on fault tree analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zong Xiao; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Shimada, Yukiyasu; Sayama, Hayatoshi

    1995-01-01

    A method is presented for process fault diagnosis using information from fault tree analysis and uncertainty/imprecision of data. Fault tree analysis, which has been used as a method of system reliability/safety analysis, provides a procedure for identifying failures within a process. A fuzzy fault diagnostic system is constructed which uses the fuzzy fault tree analysis to represent a knowledge of the causal relationships in process operation and control system. The proposed method is applie...

  19. Fire Safety Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2007-01-01

    Fire protection is one of the most important considerations in the construction and operation of industrial plants and commercial buildings. Fire insurance rates are determined by fire probability factors, such as the type of construction, ease of transporting personnel, and the quality and quantity of fire protection equipment available. Because…

  20. Investigation of DC hybrid circuit breaker based on high-speed switch and arc generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yifei; Rong, Mingzhe; Wu, Yi; Yang, Fei; Li, Mei; Zhong, Jianying; Han, Guohui; Niu, Chunping; Hu, Yang

    2015-02-01

    A new design of DC hybrid circuit breaker based on high-speed switch (HSS) and arc generator (AG), which can drastically profit from low heat loss in normal state and fast current breaking under fault state, is presented and analyzed in this paper. AG is designed according to the magnetic pinch effect of liquid metal. By utilizing the arc voltage generated across AG, the fault current is rapidly commutated from HSS into parallel connected branch. As a consequence, the arcless open of HSS is achieved. The post-arc conducting resume time (Δ tc) of AG and the commutation original voltage (Uc), two key factors in the commutation process, are investigated experimentally. Particularly, influences of the liquid metal channel diameter (Φ) of AG, fault current rate of rise (di/dt) and Uc on Δ tc are focused on. Furthermore, a suitable Uc is determined during the current commutation process, aiming at the reliable arcless open of HSS and short breaking time. Finally, the fault current breaking test is carried out for the current peak value of 11.8 kA, and the validity of the design is confirmed by the experimental results.

  1. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintiere, James

    Understanding fire dynamics and combustion is essential in fire safety engineering and in fire science curricula. Engineers and students involved in fire protection, safety and investigation need to know and predict how fire behaves to be able to implement adequate safety measures and hazard...... analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...... discipline. It covers thermo chemistry including mixtures and chemical reactions; Introduces combustion to the fire protection student; Discusses premixed flames and spontaneous ignition; Presents conservation laws for control volumes, including the effects of fire; Describes the theoretical bases...

  2. On arc efficiency in gas tungsten arc welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Stenbacka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review the literature on published arc efficiency values for GTAW and, if possible, propose a narrower band. Articles between the years 1955 - 2011 have been found. Published arc efficiency values for GTAW DCEN show to lie on a wide range, between 0.36 to 0.90. Only a few studies covered DCEP - direct current electrode positive and AC current. Specific information about the reproducibility in calorimetric studies as well as in modeling and simulation studies (considering that both random and systematic errors are small was scarce. An estimate of the average arc efficiency value for GTAW DCEN indicates that it should be about 0.77. It indicates anyway that the GTAW process with DCEN is an efficient welding method. The arc efficiency is reduced when the arc length is increased. On the other hand, there are conflicting results in the literature as to the influence of arc current and travel speed.

  3. Fire-Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, David

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a brief history of fire-walking and then deals with the physics behind fire-walking. The author has performed approximately 50 fire-walks, took the data for the world's hottest fire-walk and was, at one time, a world record holder for the longest fire-walk (www.dwilley.com/HDATLTW/Record_Making_Firewalks.html). He currently…

  4. FIRE EXTINGUISHER TRAINING

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Sanjay Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Afire extinguisher, flame extinguisher, or simply an extinguisher, is an active fire protection device used to extinguish or control small fires, often in emergency situations. It is not intended for use on an out-of-control fire, such as one which has reached the ceiling, endangers the user (i.e., no escape route, smoke, explosion hazard, etc.), or otherwise requires the expertise of a fire department. Typically, a fire extinguisher consists of a hand-held cylindrical pressure vessel contain...

  5. Tectonic shortening and coeval volcanism during the Quaternary, Northeast Japan arc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koji Umeda; Masao Ban; Shintaro Hayashi; Tomohiro Kusano

    2013-02-01

    The Northeast Japan arc, a mature volcanic arc with a back-arc marginal basin (Japan Sea), is located on a convergent plate boundary along the subducting Pacific plate and the overriding North American plate. From a compilation and analysis of stratigraphy, radiometric age and data on erupted magma volumes, 176 eruptive episodes identified from 69 volcanoes so far, indicate that notable changes in eruption style, magma discharge rates and distribution of eruptive centres occurred around 1.0 Ma. Before ca.1.0 Ma, large-volume felsic eruptions were dominant, forming large calderas in the frontal arc, a region of low crustal strain rate. After ca. 1.0 Ma to the present, the calc-alkaline andesite magma eruptions in the frontal and rear arcs, synchronous with crustal shortening characterized by reverse faulting, resulted in stratovolcano development along narrow uplifted zones. Although, it is widely assumed that magma cannot rise easily in a compressional setting, some of the magma stored within basal sills could be extruded where N–S-trending uplifted mountains bounded by reverse faults formed since about ca.1.0 Ma.

  6. Arc of opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Adam Vai

    2011-07-01

    Born in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, the author had a 20 year career in diplomacy, political affairs, and development policy analysis at the Pacific Islands Forum, the United Nations in New York; the Prime Minister's Department in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and in the Foreign Ministry of PNG. He has also been involved in theatre for over a decade in PNG, and participated in a three-month program at the Eugene O'Neill Theatre Center in Connecticut, USA. He is currently the Business Development Manager at the Torres Strait Regional Authority (Commonwealth) on Thursday Island. Since 1975 the Australian government's overseas development policy has supported various sectoral programs in its neighbouring countries, in particular Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. The "creative" field has not been prominent in this strategy. While natural resources and the sports sectors have gained much greater attention, in terms of being viable international commercial enterprises, the arts, have remained stagnant. In this paper the need for joint programs genuinely supporting "wellbeing" and promoting social enterprise throughout the "arc of opportunity" is described to harness Melanesian creativity to compete successfully in world-markets, starting with penetration of the largest economy at its door-step: Australia.

  7. STUDY ON THE PRESSURE IN PLASMA ARC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The axial pressure in plasma arc is measured under different conditions. The effects of the parameters, such as welding current, plasma gas flow rate, electrode setback and arc length, on the pressure in plasma arc are investigated and quantitative analyzed to explain the relationship between the quality of weld and the matching of parameters in plasma arc welding process.

  8. Fire Risk Assessment of CBD in Binhai New Area of Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫凤英; 张琦

    2015-01-01

    Central business district(CBD)construction is in rapid development phase at present, therefore, the firefighting work in CBD becomes an important issue for safety. In this paper, a fire risk assessment index system is established from the perspective of regional characteristics, possible sources and factors which influence the occur-rence of fire. Analytic hierarchy process(AHP)is used to obtain the weights of different indexes so as to reflect their effects on the final fire risk assessment. Then, the fire risk of CBD in Binhai New Area of Tianjin is assessed with the help of the proposed model and ArcGIS technique. Finally, the fire station layout is optimized based on the discrete location model, realizing the reasonable allocation of firefighting resources. According to the analysis, su-per high-rise buildings and underground spaces are main factors that cause high fire risk; furthermore, five first-level fire stations can satisfy the requirement of rescue response time.

  9. Seismological, Geological and Geomorphic Aspects of Arc Segmentation and Their Relation to Subducting Bathymetric Features in the Solomon Island Arc, SW Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Frohlich, C.; Taylor, F. W.

    2006-12-01

    Arc segmentation partitions forearcs into multiple blocks so that the forearc behaves like a "keyboard on a piano" as each segment potentially interacts with the downgoing plate in a different tectonic style. For example, parts of the forearc of the Solomon Islands arc has undergone hundreds of meters of rapid subsidence and uplift during late Quaternary time. Other parts have undergone only minor late Quaternary movements. We use seismology, geology, and geomorphology to identify arc segments in order to evaluate how bathymetric features on the subducting plate influence seismicity and active tectonics and cause overriding plate segmentation. Seismic rupture areas for large earthquakes, seismicity patterns, seismicity cross sections, focal mechanisms, and seismic moment calculations all reveal that the central arc being underthrust by the Woodlark Basin system of active sea-floor spreading is very different from the northwest and southeast parts of the arc. Woodlark subduction is characterized by sparse seismicity, gentle subduction angle, and thrust faulting with some normal and strike-slip components. Observations from geologic maps, coastal geomorphology, and emerged coral reefs show that the arc segments are undergoing varying amounts and rates of uplift and submergence. Larger islands such as Guadalcanal and San Cristobal have both drowning and emerging coastlines. This information indicates the individual segments have dramatically different histories of vertical tectonics. We identify three supersegments: Bougainville, New Georgia, and Guadalcanal-San Cristobal. Smaller segments subdivide each supersegment. Thus we identify nine major boundaries, seven minor boundaries, and six possible boundaries. The classification of each boundary depends on the strength of evidence supporting its existence and the amount of change in tectonic behavior across the boundary. We speculate that subduction of the young Woodlark Spreading Center with seamounts and ridges on

  10. Sensoring Fusion Data from the Optic and Acoustic Emissions of Electric Arcs in the GMAW-S Process for Welding Quality Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eber Huanca Cayo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study shows the relationship between welding quality and optical-acoustic emissions from electric arcs, during welding runs, in the GMAW-S process. Bead on plate welding tests was carried out with pre-set parameters chosen from manufacturing standards. During the welding runs interferences were induced on the welding path using paint, grease or gas faults. In each welding run arc voltage, welding current, infrared and acoustic emission values were acquired and parameters such as arc power, acoustic peaks rate and infrared radiation rate computed. Data fusion algorithms were developed by assessing known welding quality parameters from arc emissions. These algorithms have showed better responses when they are based on more than just one sensor. Finally, it was concluded that there is a close relation between arc emissions and quality in welding and it can be measured from arc emissions sensing and data fusion algorithms.

  11. Sensoring fusion data from the optic and acoustic emissions of electric arcs in the GMAW-S process for welding quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Sadek Crisóstomo Absi; Cayo, Eber Huanca

    2012-01-01

    The present study shows the relationship between welding quality and optical-acoustic emissions from electric arcs, during welding runs, in the GMAW-S process. Bead on plate welding tests was carried out with pre-set parameters chosen from manufacturing standards. During the welding runs interferences were induced on the welding path using paint, grease or gas faults. In each welding run arc voltage, welding current, infrared and acoustic emission values were acquired and parameters such as arc power, acoustic peaks rate and infrared radiation rate computed. Data fusion algorithms were developed by assessing known welding quality parameters from arc emissions. These algorithms have showed better responses when they are based on more than just one sensor. Finally, it was concluded that there is a close relation between arc emissions and quality in welding and it can be measured from arc emissions sensing and data fusion algorithms.

  12. Active Fault Isolation in MIMO Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2014-01-01

    isolation is based directly on the input/output s ignals applied for the fault detection. It is guaranteed that the fault group includes the fault that had occurred in the system. The second step is individual fault isolation in the fault group . Both types of isolation are obtained by applying dedicated......Active fault isolation of parametric faults in closed-loop MIMO system s are considered in this paper. The fault isolation consists of two steps. T he first step is group- wise fault isolation. Here, a group of faults is isolated from other pos sible faults in the system. The group-wise fault...

  13. DEFORMATION CHARACTERISTICS AND ESR DATING OF ANHUA-XUPU FAULT BELT IN THE XUEFENG MOUNATAINS,HUNAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Kuifeng; YANG Kunguang; MA Changqian

    2005-01-01

    Anhua-Xupu fault belt plays a very important role in the formation of Xuefeng Mountains. The fault belt shows an arc-structure extruding towards NW. Fault rocks, microstructures and homogeneous temperature (concentrated around 160°C) of fluid inclusions in the quartz veins shows that the fault belt mainly underwent shallow brittle deformation and the highest-grade dynamic metamorphic rock is mylonitized sericite phyllite. The ESR (Electron Spin Resonance) dating from the quartz veins in the fault rocks shows that the fault belt underwent two intense fluid movement stages at Yanshanian (156.9~136.2Ma, 119.8~90.6Ma); moreover not only the occurrence and microstructures but also the homogeneous temperature of the quartz veins developed in that two stages show obvious diversity,which can prove that there exists the reversion period of Mesozoic extension and compression movement of Xuefeng mountains between these two stages.

  14. ARC Code TI: ROBUS-2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ROBUS-2 Protocol Processor (RPP) is a custom-designed hardware component implementing the functionality of the ROBUS-2 fault-tolerant communication system. The...

  15. Left-lateral transtension along the Tierra Colorada deformation zone, northern margin of the Xolapa magmatic arc of southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riller, U.; Ratschbacher, L.; Frisch, W.

    1992-05-01

    Structural analysis of steeply NNW-dipping tectonites along the northern margin of the Xolapa magmatic arc, southern Mexico, reveals progressive deformation involving ductile and brittle deformation mechanisms. Ductile deformation detached Cretaceous cover rocks from the Xolapa basement along a crustal-scale mylonite zone with normal fault geometry. Normal faults dissected the mylonite zone into blocks which rotated a minimum of 35° to the north. Stress tensors calculated from fault-striae data show subhorizontal, roughly N/S-trending principal extension. Deformation resulted from differential uplift of the Xolapa magmatic arc with respect to its northern hinterland (Mixteca terrane). The oblique normal fault geometry of the mylonites conforms with strike-slip and dip-slip movements along the faults. Left-lateral transtension commenced ductilely between 90 Ma (age of deformed cover rocks) and 34 Ma (U/Pb zircon age of an undeformed pluton cutting the mylonite zone) and continued brittlely into the late Tertiary (tilted Miocene volcanic rocks). We argue that deformation resulted from the interaction of a left-lateral strike-slip regime established during formation of the Caribbean, and an extensional collapse of the Xolapa magmatic arc resulting from a change in steady-state plate-boundary conditions in the early Tertiary.

  16. Active interplay between strike-slip and extensional structures in a Back-Arc environment, Bay of Plenty, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, P. M.; Lamarche, G.; Bull, J. M.

    2003-12-01

    Active continental back-arc tectonics associated with the oblique Hikurangi subduction zone, North Island, New Zealand, is characterized by (1) extensional deformation distributed across a 40-50 km-wide zone, but presently concentrated in the east within the 20 km-wide, NE-striking Taupo Fault Belt (TFB) and Whakatane Graben (WG); (2) c. 12mm/yr extension rate at the Bay of Plenty coast; (3) 1-3 mm/yr subsidence in the WG; and (4) a seismogenic zone estimated to be 6-9 km thick. A component of the oblique convergence within the plate boundary is partitioned to the east onto the adjacent North Island Dextral Fault Belt (NIDFB), a large NNE-trending strike-slip fault system traversing the entire North Island. At the Bay of Plenty coast, the NIDFB strikes north, with an estimated strike-slip rate of at least 1 mm/yr. Both normal and strike-slip fault systems extend beneath the continental shelf in the Bay of Plenty, and because of differences in their strike, they converge and interact. Detailed mapping of faults using marine seismic reflection profiles and multibeam bathymetric data reveals the structure of the WG. Tilted basement blocks are associated with large west-dipping faults, numerous antithetic secondary faults, and domino-style fault arrays. Eastward migration of the principal extension zone during the last c. 1 Myrs has resulted in the encroachment and oblique overprinting of the NIDFB by the WG. The structure and geometry of the White Island Fault (WIF), currently the principal fault along the eastern margin of the graben, results from interaction and linkage of the two fault systems. The displacement profile of this fault reveals relatively young NE-striking sections that obliquely link more northerly-striking, inherited components of the NIDFB. Understanding of the fault structure and evolution may have implications for the interpretation of earthquake potential close to urban centres.

  17. Computer hardware fault administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-09-14

    Computer hardware fault administration carried out in a parallel computer, where the parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications by at least two independent data communications networks, where each data communications network includes data communications links connected to the compute nodes. Typical embodiments carry out hardware fault administration by identifying a location of a defective link in the first data communications network of the parallel computer and routing communications data around the defective link through the second data communications network of the parallel computer.

  18. Volcanic evolution of the South Sandwich volcanic arc, South Atlantic, from multibeam bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leat, Philip T.; Day, Simon J.; Tate, Alex J.; Martin, Tara J.; Owen, Matthew J.; Tappin, David R.

    2013-09-01

    New multibeam bathymetry data are presented for the South Sandwich intra-oceanic arc which occupies the small Sandwich plate in the South Atlantic, and is widely considered to be a simple end-member in the range of intra-oceanic arc types. The images show for the first time the distribution of submarine volcanic, tectonic and erosional-depositional features along the whole length of the 540 km long volcanic arc, allowing systematic investigation of along-arc variations. The data confirm that the volcanic arc has a simple structure composed of large volcanoes which form a well-defined volcanic front, but with three parallel cross-cutting seamount chains extending 38-60 km from near the volcanic front into the rear-arc. There is no evidence for intra-arc rifting or extinct volcanic lines. Topographic evidence for faulting is generally absent, except near the northern and southern plate boundaries. Most of the volcanic arc appears to be built on ocean crust formed at the associated back-arc spreading centre, as previously proposed from magnetic data, but the southern part of the arc appears to be underlain by older arc or continental crust whose west-facing rifted margin facing the back-arc basin is defined by the new bathymetry. The new survey shows nine main volcanic edifices along the volcanic front and ca. 20 main seamounts. The main volcanoes form largely glaciated islands with summits 3.0-3.5 km above base levels which are 2500-3000 m deep in the north and shallower at 2000-2500 m deep in the south. Some of the component seamounts are interpreted to have been active since the last glacial maximum, and so are approximately contemporaneous with the volcanic front volcanism. Seven calderas, all either submarine or ice-filled, have been identified: Adventure volcano, a newly discovered submarine volcanic front caldera volcano is described for the first time. All but one of the calderas are situated on summits of large volcanoes in the southern part of the arc, and

  19. High pressure neon arc lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Robert C.; Bigio, Irving J.

    2003-07-15

    A high pressure neon arc lamp and method of using the same for photodynamic therapies is provided. The high pressure neon arc lamp includes a housing that encloses a quantity of neon gas pressurized to about 500 Torr to about 22,000 Torr. At each end of the housing the lamp is connected by electrodes and wires to a pulse generator. The pulse generator generates an initial pulse voltage to breakdown the impedance of the neon gas. Then the pulse generator delivers a current through the neon gas to create an electrical arc that emits light having wavelengths from about 620 nanometers to about 645 nanometers. A method for activating a photosensitizer is provided. Initially, a photosensitizer is administered to a patient and allowed time to be absorbed into target cells. Then the high pressure neon arc lamp is used to illuminate the target cells with red light having wavelengths from about 620 nanometers to about 645 nanometers. The red light activates the photosensitizers to start a chain reaction that may involve oxygen free radicals to destroy the target cells. In this manner, a high pressure neon arc lamp that is inexpensive and efficiently generates red light useful in photodynamic therapy is provided.

  20. The Banda Arc subduction enigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spakman, Wim; Hall, Robert

    2010-05-01

    The spectacularly curved Banda arc comprises young oceanic crust enclosed by a volcanic inner arc, outer arc islands, and a trough parallel to the Australian continental margin. Seismicity defines a spoon-shaped lithospheric fold in the upper mantle for which there are two contrasting explanations: deformation of a single subducted slab, or two different slabs subducted from north and south. We show that the Banda arc resulted from subduction of a single slab. Based on geology and seismic tomography, we argue that the arc formed since 15 Ma by subduction of a Jurassic oceanic embayment within the Australian plate. Viewed in an Atlantic-Indian hotspot reference frame, the stationary E-W striking Java trench propagated ESE into the Banda embayment by hinge rollback. Extension of the upper plate formed oceanic crust in the present Banda Sea between stretched continental crust of Australian origin. Slab morphology depends primarily on the geometry of the continental margin enclosing the embayment. Our model explains the first order tectonic development of the Banda region and links slab deformation to absolute plate motion.

  1. Wildland Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildland Fire Safety Every year, wildfires burn across the U.S., and more and more people are living where wildfires ... including garages and sheds. If it can catch fire, don’t let it touch your house, deck ...

  2. Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rorty, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Oversættelse af Richard Rortys artikel "Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer" Udgivelsesdato: 26 Oktober......Oversættelse af Richard Rortys artikel "Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer" Udgivelsesdato: 26 Oktober...

  3. Fire Stations - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Station Locations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed at or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  4. Coal fires in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHE Yao(车遥); HUANG Wen-hui(黄文辉); ZHANG Ai-yun(张爱云)

    2004-01-01

    Coal fires have a very long history in China; the oldest coal fires have being burning for many million years. Up to now more than 56 coal fires spots were distinguished. They mainly locate in West-North of China, North of China and East-North of China. About millions of tons of coal have been burned in fires every year. Xinjiang Autonomy is the most serious region in coal fires as it has 38 coal fires spots and about 6.85 million tons of coal was burned every year. Coal fires in China ignited by wildfires, spontaneous combustion and human being during mining activities. These fires have released about 0.9 million tons of gasses (including CO, CO2, SO2, NO2 CH4, CO2, H2S etc.) into the atmosphere every year, most of which are brought to the east by wind and resulting more heavier air pollution in northern China.

  5. Fire Stations - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Stations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  6. Tunnel fire dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ingason, Haukur; Lönnermark, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This book covers a wide range of issues in fire safety engineering in tunnels, describes the phenomena related to tunnel fire dynamics, presents state-of-the-art research, and gives detailed solutions to these major issues. Examples for calculations are provided. The aim is to significantly improve the understanding of fire safety engineering in tunnels. Chapters on fuel and ventilation control, combustion products, gas temperatures, heat fluxes, smoke stratification, visibility, tenability, design fire curves, heat release, fire suppression and detection, CFD modeling, and scaling techniques all equip readers to create their own fire safety plans for tunnels. This book should be purchased by any engineer or public official with responsibility for tunnels. It would also be of interest to many fire protection engineers as an application of evolving technical principles of fire safety.

  7. FIRE CHARACTERISTICS FOR ADVANCED MODELLING OF FIRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Dvořák

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the material and fire properties of solid flammable/combustible materials /substances /products, which are used as inputs for the computer numerical fire models. At the same time it gives the test standards for their determination.

  8. Back-arc basin opening and closure along the southern margin of the Sea of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Claringbould, Johan; Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Kato, Naoko; Abe, Susumu; Kawasaki, Shinji

    2016-04-01

    Following the tsunami disaster produced by 2001 Off-Tohoku earthquake (M9) along the Pacific coast of Japan, the Japanese government started an intense evaluation of tsunami hazards. This evaluation spanned along the full Japanese coast, including the Sea of Japan coast on the western side of the Japan arc. In the Sea of Japan, tsunamis are produced by crustal faults. As the longer interval of faulting activity, the historical records of tsunamis in the Sea of Japan are not enough for the evaluation of tsunami height. Thus, the evaluation is carried out based on structural analyses of the margin of the Sea of Japan. To get better understanding of the present-day structural geometry and develop a source-fault model in this region, intense seismic reflection profiling has been carried out since 2013. We introduce the results of the seismic reflection profiles and discuss the structural evolution of the southern margin of the Sea of Japan. 2D seismic reflection profiles were acquired using 1950 cu. in. air-gun and 2100 m streamer cable. The seismic profiles provide the image image up to 3 seconds TWT. The southern margin of the Sea of Japan was produced by back-arc opening and post-rift deformation, and the structural evolution of this area is divided into several stages: rifting (25 - 14 Ma), post-rift compression (14 - 5 Ma), weak thrusting (5 - 1 Ma), and strike-slip deformation (1 Ma to present). During the rifting stage that is associated with the fan-shaped opening of the Sea of Japan, grabens and half-grabens were formed trending parallel to the extension of SW-Japan arc. These grabens were filled by syn-rift sediments, and the maximum thickness of basin fill is observed along the southern margin of the rifted crust. The opening of the Sea of Japan ceased as a result of the collision of Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc system at the Izu collision zone on the central part of Honshu, Japan. Soon after the this event, the young Shikoku basin within the Philippine Sea plate

  9. Geomorphologic Indices for Transition from Subduction to Arc-Continent Collision in Sumba Island, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authemayou, C.; Delcaillau, B.; Brocard, G. Y.; Molliex, S.; Nexer, M.; Pedoja, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Sumba Island lies in a key area to study the eastern Indonesia geodynamics. It is located in the Sunda-Banda fore-arc in the area of transition from subduction of the Indian oceanic lithosphere (W) beneath the Sunda-Banda arc to arc-continent collision between the Australian continental margin and the Sunda-Banda arc (E). East of the Sumba Island, the western boundary of the Savu basin originated during Middle Miocene by the southeastward slab retreat below the Sunda-Banda arc (Rigg and Hall, 2001). Previous studies has detected a global uplift of the island accommodating the Australian plate - South West Banda Arc convergence (Fleury et al., 2009). This uplift is associated with northeastward tilting and gravitational collapse to the South. Analyses of various geomorphic markers (perched low relief landscapes, rockyshore platform, coral reef terraces, drainages) and of morphometric indices allowed us to localise new structures (faults and folds), to determine the chronology of their activation and to better constraint the uplift history of Sumba Island. These results aim to understand the evolution of the deformation in Sumba Island in regard with its geodynamic context from Middle Miocene to present-day.

  10. Fire Size in Tunnels

    OpenAIRE

    Carvel, Ricky O

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, a number of high profile accidental fires have occurred in several road and rail tunnels throughout the world. Many of these fires grew rapidly to catastrophic size and claimed many lives. The processes involved in the rapid growth and extremely severe of these fires are not adequately understood as yet. The introduction to this thesis reviews a number of these accidental fires and describes much of the previous experimental research which has brought about the...

  11. Fault Management Assistant (FMA) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — S&K Aerospace (SKA) proposes to develop the Fault Management Assistant (FMA) to aid project managers and fault management engineers in developing better and...

  12. Urban Fire Risk Clustering Method Based on Fire Statistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Lizhi; REN Aizhu

    2008-01-01

    Fire statistics and fire analysis have become important ways for us to understand the law of fire,prevent the occurrence of fire, and improve the ability to control fire. According to existing fire statistics, the weighted fire risk calculating method characterized by the number of fire occurrence, direct economic losses,and fire casualties was put forward. On the basis of this method, meanwhile having improved K-mean clus-tering arithmetic, this paper established fire dsk K-mean clustering model, which could better resolve the automatic classifying problems towards fire risk. Fire risk cluster should be classified by the absolute dis-tance of the target instead of the relative distance in the traditional cluster arithmetic. Finally, for applying the established model, this paper carded out fire risk clustering on fire statistics from January 2000 to December 2004 of Shenyang in China. This research would provide technical support for urban fire management.

  13. Tectonic geomorphology of the Ryukyu Trench-Arc-Backarc System:geological-geophysical exploration and mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Mingzuo; LIU Lejun; ZHENG Yanpeng; LIU Baohua; WU Jinlong; XU Xiaowei

    2004-01-01

    Based on an analysis of full-cover multi-beam bathymetric data, seismic and sub-bottom profiling data, and other geological-geophysical data sets, the geomorphologic features of the Ryukyu trench-arc-backarc (T-A-BA) system are delineated, and a geomorphologic map of the system is compiled. The results show that the evolution and spatial distribution patterns of the geomorphologic types of the Ryukyu T-A-BA system are controlled mainly by tectonic movements. The tectonic geomorphologic characteristics of the Ryukyu Arc (RA) differ distinctly from those of the East China Sea (ECS) continental shelf and slope. In term of geological structures, RA consists of the Tokara volcanic ridge,the Ryukyu folded ridge, the fore-arc accretion-wedge ridge and the Amami Depression and the fore-arc depressions between the ridges, which is composed of a complex of alternating island-slope ridges and fault basins. The slope of the ECS is a passive continental margin with stepwise faults. The Okinawa Trough (OT) is a backarc rift in which tectonic movements are intensive, with active volcanic and hydrothermal eruptions and sea floor spreading. The development of geomorphic features of the OT is controlled by the central en echelon spreading axes, the faults along the ECS slope and the marginal faults to the west of the Tokara volcanic ridge.The geomorphic complex of the OT is arranged in the following pattern: the en echelon grabens and volcanic chains formed by rifting and spreading lie in the central part of the trough, the turbidite plains inclining eastwards-southeastwards from the slope foot of the ECS lie in the western-northwestern parts of the OT, and the volcaniclastic deposit plains inclining westward-northwestwards from the western slope foot of the RA lie in the eastern-southeastern parts of the OT. In term of tectonic geomorphology, the OT forms a natural division between the shelf of the ECS and the RA.

  14. Improving Multiple Fault Diagnosability using Possible Conflicts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Multiple fault diagnosis is a difficult problem for dynamic systems. Due to fault masking, compensation, and relative time of fault occurrence, multiple faults can...

  15. Fire as Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project that deals with fire production as an aspect of technology. The project challenges students to be survivors in a five-day classroom activity. Students research various materials and methods to produce fire without the use of matches or other modern combustion devices, then must create "fire" to keep…

  16. Fire Department Emergency Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1995 the SRS Fire Department published the initial Operations Basis Document (OBD). This document was one of the first of its kind in the DOE complex and was widely distributed and reviewed. This plan described a multi-mission Fire Department which provided fire, emergency medical, hazardous material spill, and technical rescue services

  17. Fire Safety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Fire Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Fire Safety Print A A A Text Size What's in ... kids? Take the time now to review fire safety facts and tips so your family will be ...

  18. Fire Department Emergency Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Bell, K.; Kelly, J.; Hudson, J.

    1997-09-01

    In 1995 the SRS Fire Department published the initial Operations Basis Document (OBD). This document was one of the first of its kind in the DOE complex and was widely distributed and reviewed. This plan described a multi-mission Fire Department which provided fire, emergency medical, hazardous material spill, and technical rescue services.

  19. The property of fault zone and fault activity of Shionohira Fault, Fukushima, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshimo, K.; Aoki, K.; Tanaka, Y.; Niwa, M.; Kametaka, M.; Sakai, T.; Tanaka, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The April 11, 2011 Fukushima-ken Hamadori Earthquake (hereafter the 4.11 earthquake) formed co-seismic surface ruptures trending in the NNW-SSE direction in Iwaki City, Fukushima Prefecture, which were newly named as the Shionohira Fault by Ishiyama et al. (2011). This earthquake was characterized by a westward dipping normal slip faulting, with a maximum displacement of about 2 m (e.g., Kurosawa et al., 2012). To the south of the area, the same trending lineaments were recognized to exist even though no surface ruptures occurred by the earthquake. In an attempt to elucidate the differences of active and non-active segments of the fault, this report discusses the results of observation of fault outcrops along the Shionohira Fault as well as the Coulomb stress calculations. Only a few outcrops have basement rocks of both the hanging-wall and foot-wall of the fault plane. Three of these outcrops (Kyodo-gawa, Shionohira and Betto) were selected for investigation. In addition, a fault outcrop (Nameishi-minami) located about 300 m south of the southern tip of the surface ruptures was investigated. The authors carried out observations of outcrops, polished slabs and thin sections, and performed X-ray diffraction (XRD) to fault materials. As a result, the fault zones originating from schists were investigated at Kyodo-gawa and Betto. A thick fault gouge was cut by a fault plane of the 4.11 earthquake in each outcrop. The fault materials originating from schists were fault bounded with (possibly Neogene) weakly deformed sandstone at Shionohira. A thin fault gouge was found along the fault plane of 4.11 earthquake. A small-scale fault zone with thin fault gouge was observed in Nameishi-minami. According to XRD analysis, smectite was detected in the gouges from Kyodo-gawa, Shionohira and Betto, while not in the gouge from Nameishi-minami.

  20. Causes of automotive turbocharger faults

    OpenAIRE

    Jan FILIPCZYK

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of examinations of turbocharger damages. The analysis of the causes of faults in 100 engines with turbochargers of cars, buses and trucks has been carried out. The incidence and structure of turbocharged engine faults has been compared to the causes of faults of naturally aspirated engines. The cause of damage, the possibility of early detection, the time between overhaul and the impact on engine operation for each case of fault was carried out as well. The re...

  1. Heat reveals faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinreich, Bernhard [Solarschmiede GmbH, Muenchen (Germany). Engineering Dept.

    2010-07-01

    Gremlins cannot hide from the all-revealing view of a thermographic camera, whereby it makes no difference whether it is a roof-mounted system or a megawatt-sized farm. Just as diverse are the range of faults that, with the growing level of expertise, can now be detected and differentiated with even greater detail. (orig.)

  2. Network Power Fault Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Siviero, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Network power fault detection. At least one first network device is instructed to temporarily disconnect from a power supply path of a network, and at least one characteristic of the power supply path of the network is measured at a second network device connected to the network while the at least one first network device is temporarily disconnected from the network

  3. Tacting "To a Fault."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Donald M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper argues that behavior analysis is not technological to a fault, but rather has a faulty technology by being incomplete. The paper examines reinforcers and punishers that result from the outcomes of either (1) striving for better experimental control, or (2) inventing theories to explain why current control is imperfect. (JDD)

  4. RS AND GIS-BASED FOREST FIRE RISK ZONE MAPPING IN DA HINGGAN MOUNTAINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Hai-wei; KONG Fan-hua; LI Xiu-zhen

    2004-01-01

    The Da Hinggan Mountains is one of the most important forest areas in China,but forest fire there is also of high frequency.So it is completely necessary to map forest fire risk zones in order to effectively manage and protect the forest resources.Two forest farms of Tuqiang Forest Bureau (53°34′-52°15′N,124°05′- 122°18′E) were chosen as typical areas in this study.Remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) play a vital role and can be used effectively to obtain and combine different forest-fire-causing factors for demarcating the forest fire risk zone map.Forest fire risk zones were described by assigning subjective weights to the classes of all the coverage layers according to their sensitivity to fire,using the ARC/INFO GIS software.Four classes of forest fire risk ranging from low to extremely high were generated automatically in ARC/INFO.The results showed that about 60.33% of the study area were predicted to be upper moderate risk zones,indicating that the forest fire management task in this area is super onerous.The RS and GIS-based forest fire risk model of the study area was found to be highly compatible with the actual fire-affected sites in 1987.Therefore the forest fire risk zone map can be used for guidance of forest fire management,and as basis for fire prevention strategies.

  5. Fault-Related Sanctuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardi, L.

    2001-12-01

    Beyond the study of historical surface faulting events, this work investigates the possibility, in specific cases, of identifying pre-historical events whose memory survives in myths and legends. The myths of many famous sacred places of the ancient world contain relevant telluric references: "sacred" earthquakes, openings to the Underworld and/or chthonic dragons. Given the strong correspondence with local geological evidence, these myths may be considered as describing natural phenomena. It has been possible in this way to shed light on the geologic origin of famous myths (Piccardi, 1999, 2000 and 2001). Interdisciplinary researches reveal that the origin of several ancient sanctuaries may be linked in particular to peculiar geological phenomena observed on local active faults (like ground shaking and coseismic surface ruptures, gas and flames emissions, strong underground rumours). In many of these sanctuaries the sacred area is laid directly above the active fault. In a few cases, faulting has affected also the archaeological relics, right through the main temple (e.g. Delphi, Cnidus, Hierapolis of Phrygia). As such, the arrangement of the cult site and content of relative myths suggest that specific points along the trace of active faults have been noticed in the past and worshiped as special `sacred' places, most likely interpreted as Hades' Doors. The mythological stratification of most of these sanctuaries dates back to prehistory, and points to a common derivation from the cult of the Mother Goddess (the Lady of the Doors), which was largely widespread since at least 25000 BC. The cult itself was later reconverted into various different divinities, while the `sacred doors' of the Great Goddess and/or the dragons (offspring of Mother Earth and generally regarded as Keepers of the Doors) persisted in more recent mythologies. Piccardi L., 1999: The "Footprints" of the Archangel: Evidence of Early-Medieval Surface Faulting at Monte Sant'Angelo (Gargano, Italy

  6. Fault detection and fault-tolerant control using sliding modes

    CERN Document Server

    Alwi, Halim; Tan, Chee Pin

    2011-01-01

    ""Fault Detection and Fault-tolerant Control Using Sliding Modes"" is the first text dedicated to showing the latest developments in the use of sliding-mode concepts for fault detection and isolation (FDI) and fault-tolerant control in dynamical engineering systems. It begins with an introduction to the basic concepts of sliding modes to provide a background to the field. This is followed by chapters that describe the use and design of sliding-mode observers for FDI using robust fault reconstruction. The development of a class of sliding-mode observers is described from first principles throug

  7. Minor arcs for Goldbach's problem

    OpenAIRE

    Helfgott, H. A.

    2012-01-01

    The ternary Goldbach conjecture states that every odd number n>=7 is the sum of three primes. The estimation of sums of the form \\sum_{p\\leq x} e(\\alpha p), \\alpha = a/q + O(1/q^2), has been a central part of the main approach to the conjecture since (Vinogradov, 1937). Previous work required q or x to be too large to make a proof of the conjecture for all n feasible. The present paper gives new bounds on minor arcs and the tails of major arcs. This is part of the author's proof of the ternar...

  8. A Review of Fire Interactions and Mass Fires

    OpenAIRE

    Finney, Mark A.; McAllister, Sara S.

    2011-01-01

    The character of a wildland fire can change dramatically in the presence of another nearby fire. Understanding and predicting the changes in behavior due to fire-fire interactions cannot only be life-saving to those on the ground, but also be used to better control a prescribed fire to meet objectives. In discontinuous fuel types, such interactions may elicit fire spread where none otherwise existed. Fire-fire interactions occur naturally when spot fires start ahead of the main fire and when...

  9. Spatial distribution of current in a rail gun arc armature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A current density distribution of an arc armature has been found whose calculated effect on inductive loops matches that of our actual measurements. These length, has a 12.7 mm square bore, and is powered by a 20 kJ inductive energy store. When the gun was fired a peak pressure of 35 MPa was exerted on a 2.5 g projectile by an arc armature which conducted up to 170 kA. The integral over the 1.7 ms full barrel length travel time of the acceleration produced by the decaying current resulted in a final projectile velocity of 1.5 km/s. A number of trial current distributions were tested and found to give very poor agreement with the data. A good fit was found, however, with a five parameter description of a one-dimensional truncated guassian distribution. The best fits to the data were obtained with a current distribution having an initial width at half maximum of 1.4 cm at 170 kA. This width increased inversely with the decreasing instantaneous total current. The peak value of the distribution was found to be always slightly ahead of the centroid of the distribution. After a firing, the tracks etched in the rails suggest a large number of spatially small current carrying paths which may not be uniform across the bore. In this case, our smooth distribution would represent a spatial average of the current density. This demonstrates that the fitted current density distributions are not unique; they do, however, compare favorably with predictions by a first principles model (ref. 1) of a plasma arc armature

  10. Unzipping of the volcano arc, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, R.J.; Smoot, N.C.; Rubin, M.

    1984-01-01

    A working hypothesis for the recent evolution of the southern Volcano Arc, Japan, is presented which calls upon a northward-progressing sundering of the arc in response to a northward-propagating back-arc basin extensional regime. This model appears to explain several localized and recent changes in the tectonic and magrnatic evolution of the Volcano Arc. Most important among these changes is the unusual composition of Iwo Jima volcanic rocks. This contrasts with normal arc tholeiites typical of the rest of the Izu-Volcano-Mariana and other primitive arcs in having alkaline tendencies, high concentrations of light REE and other incompatible elements, and relatively high silica contents. In spite of such fractionated characteristics, these lavas appear to be very early manifestations of a new volcanic and tectonic cycle in the southern Volcano Arc. These alkaline characteristics and indications of strong regional uplift are consistent with the recent development of an early stage of inter-arc basin rifting in the southern Volcano Arc. New bathymetric data are presented in support of this model which indicate: 1. (1) structural elements of the Mariana Trough extend north to the southern Volcano Arc. 2. (2) both the Mariana Trough and frontal arc shoal rapidly northwards as the Volcano Arc is approached. 3. (3) rugged bathymetry associated with the rifted Mariana Trough is replaced just south of Iwo Jima by the development of a huge dome (50-75 km diameter) centered around Iwo Jima. Such uplifted domes are the immediate precursors of rifts in other environments, and it appears that a similar situation may now exist in the southern Volcano Arc. The present distribution of unrifted Volcano Arc to the north and rifted Mariana Arc to the south is interpreted not as a stable tectonic configuration but as representing a tectonic "snapshot" of an arc in the process of being rifted to form a back-arc basin. ?? 1984.

  11. A study on the short-circuit test by fault angle control and the recovery characteristics of the fault current limiter using coated conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superconducting fault current limiters (SFCLs) have been developed in many countries, and they are expected to be used in the recent electric power systems, because of their great efficiency for operating these power system stably. It is necessary for resistive FCLs to generate resistance immediately and to have a fast recovery characteristic after the fault clearance, because of re-closing operation. Short-circuit tests are performed to obtained current limiting operational and recovery characteristics of the FCL by a fault controller using a power switching device. The power switching device consists of anti-parallel connected thyristors. The fault occurs at the desired angle by controlling the firing angle of thyristors. Resistive SFCLs have different current limiting characteristics with respect to the fault angle in the first swing during the fault. This study deals with the short-circuit characteristic of FCL coils using two different YBCO coated conductors (CCs), 344 and 344s, by controlling the fault angle and experimental studies on the recovery characteristic by a small current flowing through the SFCL after the fault clearance. Tests are performed at various voltages applied to the SFCL in a saturated liquid nitrogen cooling system

  12. Fire Protection Program Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, J A

    2012-05-18

    This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

  13. Geochemical Variation of Subducting Pacific Crust Along the Izu-Bonin Arc System and its Implications on the Generation of Arc Magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, K.; Castillo, P.; Abe, N.; Kaneko, R.; Straub, S. M.; Garcia, E. S. M.; Yan, Q.; Tamura, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Subduction zone magmatism primarily occurs due to flux melting of the mantle wedge that has been metasomatized by the slab component. The latter is enriched in volatiles and fluid-mobile elements and derived mainly from subducted sediments and altered oceanic crust (AOC). Subduction input has been linked to arc output in many studies, but this relationship is especially well documented in sedimented arc-trench systems. However, the Izu-Bonin system is sediment-poor, therefore the compositional and latitudinal variations (especially in Pb isotopes) of its arc magmas must be sourced from the subduction component originating primarily from the AOC. Pb is a very good tracer of recycled AOC that may contribute 50% or more of arc magma Pb. Izu-Bonin arc chemistry suggests a subduction influx of Indian-type crust, but the subducting crust sampled at ODP Site 1149 is Pacific-type. The discrepancy between subduction input and arc output calls into question the importance of the AOC as a source of the subduction component, and raises major concerns with our understanding of slab input. During the R/V Revelle 1412 cruise in late 2014, we successfully dredged vertical fault scarps at several sites from 27.5 N to 34.5 N, spanning a range of crustal ages that include a suggested compositional change at ~125 Ma. Major element data show an alkali enrichment towards the north of the study transect. Preliminary incompatible trace element data (e.g. Ba, Zr and Sr) data support this enrichment trend. Detailed mass balance calculations supported by Sr, Nd, Hf and especially Pb isotope analyses will be performed to evaluate whether the AOC controls the Pb isotope chemistry of the Izu-Bonin volcanic arc.

  14. A Versatile Control Scheme For Dynamic Voltage Restorer To Limit Downstream Fault Currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Nagendra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR is a custom power device utilized to counteract voltage sags. It injects controlled three-phase ac voltages in series with the supply voltage, subsequent to voltage sag, to enhance voltage quality by adjusting the voltage magnitude, wave shape, and phase angle. The DVR is conventionally bypassed during a downstream fault to prevent potential adverse impacts on the fault and to protect the DVR components against the fault current. This paper proposes an augmented control strategy for the DVR that provides:1 voltage-sag compensation under balanced and unbalanced conditions and 2 a fault current interruption (FCI function. This paper introduces and evaluates an auxiliary control strategy for downstream fault current interruption in a radial distribution line by means of a dynamic voltage restorer (DVR. The proposed controller supplements the voltage-sag compensation control of the DVR. It does not require phaselocked loop and independently controls the magnitude and phase angle of the injected voltage for each phase. Fast least error squares digital filters are used to estimate the magnitude and phase of the measured voltages and effectively reduce the impacts of noise, harmonics, and disturbances on the estimated phasor parameters, and this enables effective fault current interrupting even under arcing fault conditions. The performance of the DVR for fault current interruption is analyzed by using MATLAB/SIMULINK software.

  15. Differential timing of vertical-axis block rotations in the northern Ryukyu Arc: Paleomagnetic evidence from the Koshikijima Islands, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonai, Satoshi; Suganuma, Yusuke; Ashi, Juichiro; Itaya, Tetsumaru; Oiwane, Hisashi; Kiyokawa, Shoichi

    2011-01-01

    Over 300 samples for paleomagnetic analysis and K-Ar dating were collected from 27 sites at NW-SE and NE-SW trending dike swarms (herein, NW dikes and NE dikes, respectively) in the Koshikijima Islands, northern Ryukyu Arc. The NW dikes are Middle Miocene in age and have directions (D = - 37.7 ∘, I = 51.8 ∘, α95 = 9.6 ∘, and κ = 40.8) that are deflected westward relative to the stable eastern Asian continent. Conversely, the NE dikes, of Late Miocene age, have directions (D = 16.1 ∘, I = 57.7 ∘, α95 = 7.1 ∘, and κ = 41.9) that show no such deflection. These differences are interpreted as indicating that the Koshikijima Islands underwent approximately 40 ∘ of counter-clockwise rotation during the Middle to Late Miocene. A synthesis of the paleomagnetic and structural data suggests a three-stage history of extensional deformation: (1) displacement upon normal faults (F 1 faults) without vertical-axis block rotation, (2) strike-slip reactivation of F 1 faults and oblique-normal displacement on NE-SW-trending faults (F 2 faults) with vertical-axis block rotation, and (3) oblique-normal displacement on F 2 faults without vertical-axis block rotation. Regional differences in the timing and amount of counter-clockwise vertical-axis block rotations indicate that the northern Ryukyu Arc rotated as several distinct rigid blocks.

  16. Controls on the location of arc volcanoes: an Andean study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Erin; Allen, Mark B.; McCaffrey, Kenneth J. W.; Macpherson, Colin G.; Davidson, Jon P.; Saville, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Depth corrected data of earthquake hypocentres from South America are used to generate new models of depth to the subducting Nazca slab. This new slab model shows a general correlation between the 100 km depth to the slab, the western edge of the Altiplano-Puna Plateau (defined by the 3500 m elevation contour) and the frontal volcanic arc. Across the entire Altiplano-Puna Plateau, volcanic centres are found to be either at or above the 3500 m critical elevation contour, which also defines the cut off for seismogenic thrusting. Normal faults are only found above this critical elevation contour, suggesting that there may be a change in the stress regime associated with high elevations in the plateau. The Salar de Atacama basin (23-24oS) defines a major break in topography on the west side of the Puna Plateau. Here, the volcanism deviates around the eastern edge of the basin, approximately 80 km inland from the general trend of the arc, remaining above the 3500 m elevation contour. The volcanoes bordering the Salar de Atacama have a depth to slab approximately 30 km deeper than those in the adjacent arc segment 200 km to the north of the basin. Across this distance there is no significant difference in subduction parameters such as the slab dip, subduction rate and age of the oceanic plate entering the trench. It is likely, therefore, that melt forms at the same depth in both locations, as the factors affecting the melt source are constant. However, in the case of the Salar de Atacama region, magma is diverted to the east due to preferential emplacement under the higher elevations of the plateau. We suggest that although mantle and subduction processes have a primary control on the location of arc volcanoes, shaping the general trend of the arc, they cannot explain anomalies from the trend. Such anomalies, such as the arc deviation around the Atacama basin, can be explained by the influence of structures and stress regime within the overriding plate.

  17. SERM Forest Fire Chronology of Saskatchewan in Vector Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naelapea, Ott; Nickeson, Jaime; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) staff personnel worked with several Canadian agencies to obtain various GIS data for use in the research efforts. This data set is a series of ARC/INFO export files of the fire history of Saskatchewan by year from 1945 to 1996, with a few missing years. The data set was compiled and provided by the Saskatchewan Environment and Resource Management (SERM) Wildlife Branch.

  18. Multicriteria Analysis of Fire Risk in the Split-Dalmatia County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonija Netolicki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the fact that, in the Split-Dalmatia County, forest fires occur very frequently during the tourist season, causing catastrophic damage to the environment, affecting tourism and other industries, this paper will demonstrate how the use of GIS tools can analyse existing data to assess levels of vulnerability to fire in the county. The data collected that affect the outbreak of open fire include: climate (temperature and relative humidity, topography (aspect, slope of the terrain, vegetation (CORINE Land Cover, NDVI and anthropogenic factors (e.g. roads, railways and settlements. The article shows how ArcInfo GIS software may be used in order to improve preventive measures and operative procedures. These are necessary due to the large numbers of fires that occur in this area during the summer months.Keywords: Split-Dalmatia County; open fire; reclassification of data; fire cause factors; GIS; multicriteria analysis

  19. Hooded arc ion-source

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    The positioning system for the hooded arc ion-source, shown prior to mounting, consists of four excentric shafts to locate the ion-source and central electrodes. It will be placed on the axis of the SC and introduced into the vacuum tank via the air locks visible in the foreground.

  20. Craniospinal irradiation using Rapid Arc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fandino, J. M.; Silva, M. C.; Marino, A.; Candal, A.; Diaz, I.; Fernandez, C.; Gesto, C.; Izquierdo, P.; Losada, C.; Poncet, M.; Soto, M.; Triana, G.

    2013-07-01

    Cranio-Spinal Irradiation is technically very challenging, historically field edge matching is needed because of the mechanical limitations of standard linear accelerators. The purpose of this study is to assess the Volumetric Arc Therapy as a competitive technique for Cranio-Spinal Irradiation compared to the conventional 3D Conformal Radiotherapy technique. (Author)

  1. STRUVE arc and EUPOS® stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasmane, Ieva; Kaminskis, Janis; Balodis, Janis; Haritonova, Diana

    2013-04-01

    The Struve Geodetic Arc was developed in Years 1816 to 1855, 200 years ago. Historic information on the points of the Struve Geodetic Arc are included in the UNESCO World Heritage list in 2005. Nevertheless, the sites of many points are still not identified nor included in the data bases nowadays. Originally STRUVE arc consisted of 258 main triangles with 265 triangulation points. Currently 34 of the original station points are identified and included in the in the UNESCO World Heritage list. identified original measurement points of the Meridian Arc are located in Sweden (7 points), Norway (15), Finland (83), Russia (1), Estonia (22), Latvia (16), Lithuania (18), Belorussia (28), Ukraine (59) and Moldova (27). In Year 2002 was initiated another large coverage project - European Position Determination System "EUPOS®". Currently there are about 400 continuously operating GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) stations covering EU countries Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania and East European countries Ukraine and Moldavia. EUPOS® network is a ground based GNSS augmentation system widely used for geodesy, land surveying, geophysics and navigation. It gives the opportunity for fast and accurate position determination never available before. It is an honorable task to use the EUPOS® system for research of the Struve triangulation former sites. Projects with Struve arc can popularize geodesy, geo-information and its meaning in nowadays GIS and GNSS systems. Struve Arc and its points is unique cooperation cross-border object which deserve special attention because of their natural beauty and historical value for mankind. GNSS in geodesy discovers a powerful tool for the verification and validation of the height values of geodetic leveling benchmarks established historically almost 200 years ago. The differential GNSS and RTK methods appear very useful to identify vertical displacement of landscape by means of

  2. Abnormal fault-recovery characteristics of the fault-tolerant multiprocessor uncovered using a new fault-injection methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Peter A.

    1991-03-01

    An investigation was made in AIRLAB of the fault handling performance of the Fault Tolerant MultiProcessor (FTMP). Fault handling errors detected during fault injection experiments were characterized. In these fault injection experiments, the FTMP disabled a working unit instead of the faulted unit once in every 500 faults, on the average. System design weaknesses allow active faults to exercise a part of the fault management software that handles Byzantine or lying faults. Byzantine faults behave such that the faulted unit points to a working unit as the source of errors. The design's problems involve: (1) the design and interface between the simplex error detection hardware and the error processing software, (2) the functional capabilities of the FTMP system bus, and (3) the communication requirements of a multiprocessor architecture. These weak areas in the FTMP's design increase the probability that, for any hardware fault, a good line replacement unit (LRU) is mistakenly disabled by the fault management software.

  3. Long-range Receiver Function Profile of Crustal and Mantle Discontinuities From the Aleutian Arc to Tierra del Fuego

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, Kathrin; Rondenay, Stéphane; Sawade, Lucas

    2016-04-01

    The Circum-Pacific belt, also called the Pacific Ring of Fire, is the most seismically active region on Earth. Multiple plate boundaries form a zone characterized by frequent volcanic eruptions and seismicity. While convergent plate boundaries such as the Peru-Chile trench dominate the Circum-Pacific belt, divergent and transform boundaries are present as well. The eastern section of the Circum-Pacific belt extends from the Aleutian arc, through the Cascadia subduction zone, San Andreas Fault, middle America trench and the Andean margin down to Tierra del Fuego. Due to the significant hazards posed by this tectonic activity, the region has been densely instrumented by thousands of seismic stations deployed across fifteen countries, over a distance of more than 15000 km. Various seismological studies, including receiver function analyses, have been carried out to investigate the crustal and mantle structure beneath local segments of the eastern Circum-Pacific belt (i.e., at ~100-500 km scale). However, to the best of our knowledge, no study to date has ever attempted to combine all available seismic data from the eastern Circum-Pacific belt to generate a continuous profile of seismic discontinuities extending from the Aleutians to Tierra del Fuego. Here, we use results from the "Global Imaging using Earthquake Records" (GLImER) P-wave receiver function database to create a long-range profile of crustal and upper mantle discontinuities across the entire eastern portion of the Circum-Pacific belt. We image intermittent crustal and mantle discontinuities along the profile, and examine them with regard to their behaviour and properties across transitions between different tectonic regimes.

  4. Bending-related faulting and mantle serpentinization at the Middle America trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranero, C. R.; Phipps Morgan, J.; McIntosh, K.; Reichert, C.

    2003-09-01

    The dehydration of subducting oceanic crust and upper mantle has been inferred both to promote the partial melting leading to arc magmatism and to induce intraslab intermediate-depth earthquakes, at depths of 50-300km. Yet there is still no consensus about how slab hydration occurs or where and how much chemically bound water is stored within the crust and mantle of the incoming plate. Here we document that bending-related faulting of the incoming plate at the Middle America trench creates a pervasive tectonic fabric that cuts across the crust, penetrating deep into the mantle. Faulting is active across the entire ocean trench slope, promoting hydration of the cold crust and upper mantle surrounding these deep active faults. The along-strike length and depth of penetration of these faults are also similar to the dimensions of the rupture area of intermediate-depth earthquakes.

  5. Making Conductive Polymers By Arc Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daech, Alfred F.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental technique for fabrication of electrically conductive polymeric filaments based on arc tracking, in which electrical arc creates conductive carbon track in material that initially was insulator. Electrically conductive polymeric structures made by arc tracking aligned along wire on which formed. Alignment particularly suited to high conductivity and desirable in materials intended for testing as candidate superconductors.

  6. Fire Danger and Fire Weather Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (formerly Weather Bureau) and Forest Service developed a program to track meteorological conditions conducive to forest fires,...

  7. Slip deficit and location of seismic gaps along the Dead Sea Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghraoui, Mustapha; Toussaint, Renaud; Ferry, Matthieu; Nguema-Edzang, Parfait

    2015-04-01

    The Dead Sea Fault (DSF), a ~ 1000-km-long North-South trending transform fault presents structural discontinuities and includes segments that experienced large earthquakes (Mw>7) in historical times. The Wadi Araba and Jordan Valley, the Lebanese restraining bend, the Missyaf and Ghab fault segments in Syria and the Ziyaret Fault segment in Turkey display geometrical complexities made of step overs, restraining and releasing bends that may constitute major obstacles to earthquake rupture propagation. Using active tectonics, GPS measurements and paleoseismology we investigate the kinematics and long-term/short-term slip rates along the Dead Sea fault. Tectonic geomorphology with paleoseismic trenching and archeoseismic investigations indicate repeated faulting events and left-lateral slip rate ranging from 4 mm/yr in the southern fault section to 6 mm/yr in the northern fault section. Except for the northernmost DSF section, these long-term estimates of fault slip rate are consistent with GPS measurements that show 4 to 5 mm/yr deformation rate across the plate boundary. Indeed, recent GPS results showing 3 +-0.5 mm/yr velocity rate of the northern DSF appear to be in contradiction with the ~6 mm/yr paleoseismic slip rate. The kinematic modeling that combines GPS and seismotectonic results implies a complex geodynamic pattern with the DSF transforms the Cyprus arc subduction zone into transpressive tectonics on the East Anatolian fault. The timing of past earthquake ruptures shows the occurrence of seismic sequences and a southward migration of large earthquakes, with the existence of major seismic gaps along strike. In this contribution, we present the calculated seismic slip deficit along the fault segments and discuss the identification of seismic gaps and the implication for the seismic hazard assessment.

  8. Managing Fault Management Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougal, John M.

    2010-01-01

    As the complexity of space missions grows, development of Fault Management (FM) capabilities is an increasingly common driver for significant cost overruns late in the development cycle. FM issues and the resulting cost overruns are rarely caused by a lack of technology, but rather by a lack of planning and emphasis by project management. A recent NASA FM Workshop brought together FM practitioners from a broad spectrum of institutions, mission types, and functional roles to identify the drivers underlying FM overruns and recommend solutions. They identified a number of areas in which increased program and project management focus can be used to control FM development cost growth. These include up-front planning for FM as a distinct engineering discipline; managing different, conflicting, and changing institutional goals and risk postures; ensuring the necessary resources for a disciplined, coordinated approach to end-to-end fault management engineering; and monitoring FM coordination across all mission systems.

  9. Seismotectonics of the central segment of the Indonesian Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eva, C.; Cattaneo, M.; Merlanti, F.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, a revision of seismicity affecting the central segment of the Indonesian island arc ranging between 110° and 126° E is presented. Using the areal and in-depth distribution of seismic activity, strain release maps and focal mechanisms, lateral changes in the Wadati-Benioff zone have been analyzed to determine possible boundaries between portions of lithosphere with different subduction geometries. The seismicity pattern indicates that the Sumbawa-Flores-Wetar sector shows different forms of behaviour with respect to the adjacent sectors. These include driving mechanism, inclination and continuity of the subducting slab and subduction features. This area therefore seems to be isolated from the Sunda and Banda arcs by two principal boundaries, these having a nearly N-S trend in the Bali region and with a nearly E-W trend in the region ranging between Wetar-Northern Timor and Tanibar. The first boundary, characterized by an absolute minimum of seismic activity at all ranges of depth, has been interpreted in terms of subduction of the Roo Rise aseismic bathymetric ridge. For the second boundary, dividing a northwardly steeply-dipping slab from an E-W subducting slab dipping with an angle of 30 ° -40 °, a tear in the upper part (depth less than 300 km) and a hinge fault system in the deepest part of the lithosphere, have been proposed. From the analysis of focal mechanisms of shallow earthquakes, it was inferred that the central part of the Indonesian Arc is subject to a vortex-shaped stress field centred on the Savu Basin. In this model, the compressive axes appear to rotate counterclockwise (from SW to NNE) in the Sumba-Sumbawa-Western Flores region and clockwise (from W to NNW) in the Timor-Eastern Flores zone. To interpret these features, on the basis of seismological evidence, a lateral discontinuity in the arc-trench system close to Sumba, a collision between Sumba and Sumbawa and a rotation towards the north-northeast of Sumba have been

  10. All fired up

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    Members of the Directorate and their support staff took part in a fire-fighting course organised by the CERN Fire Brigade just before the end-of-year break.  The Bulletin takes a look at the fire-fighting training on offer at CERN.   At CERN the risk of fire can never be under-estimated. In order to train personnel in the use of fire extinguishers, CERN's fire training centre in Prévessin acquired a fire-simulation platform in 2012. On the morning of 17 December 2012, ten members of the CERN directorate and their support staff tried out the platform, following in the footsteps of 400 other members of the CERN community who had already attended the course. The participants were welcomed to the training centre by Gilles Colin, a fire-fighter and instructor, who gave them a 30-minute introduction to general safety and the different types of fire and fire extinguishers, followed by an hour of practical instruction in the simulation facility. There they were able to pract...

  11. Fire retardants for wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlatka Jirouš-Rajković

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with many advantages, wood as traditional building material also has some disadvantages. One of them is the flammability. The most usual way to improve the fire performance of wood is by treating it with fire retardants that can be applied to wood composite products during manufacture, pressure impregnated into solid wood or wood products or added as a paint or surface coating. Fire retardants are formulated to control ignition, flame spread on the wood surface and to reduce the amount of heat released from wood. Fire retardants cannot make wood non combustible. According to the European reaction-to-fire “Euroclasses”classification system for construction products, wood treated with fire retardant can meet the requirements of Euroclass B, whereas ordinary wood products typically fall into class D. This article attempts to bring together information related to the burning of wood, fire performance of wood, types of fire retardants and mechanism of fire retardancy. Fire retardant coatings and chemical impregnation by pressure-treating are described separately.

  12. Glovebox fire experiment, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gloveboxes used for plutonium facilities in Japan and foreign countries have considerable combustibles as their components, so that the fire resistivity of the gloveboxes is a serious problem in the safety evaluation of the facilities. Actually, a big fire having burned gloveboxes occurred in a foreign weapon facility. But the fire in the weapon facility should be distinguished from that in nuclear fuel facilities, since the former handles quite combustible plutonium metal, while the latter handle quite stable plutonium oxide. The countermeasures to fires should be decided, considering the properties and quantity of combustibles around gloveboxes and ventilation systems, as the probability and scale of fires can be presumed from them. From the viewpoint of safety, the experiment on glovebox fires was carried out by the Plutonium Fuel Division, PNC. The experimental conditions are explained. The samples were the acrylic resin panels with four glove ports and a small glovebox currently used. The glovebox showed the considerable fire resistance, and the panel hardly burned. The weakest component of the glovebox against fire was the gloves. The countermeasure to curtain the gloves with an insulating material seemed to be effective. The ventilation of the room and the glovebox worked as fire preventer at least in the first stage of fire. (Kako, I.)

  13. Diagnosis Method for Analog Circuit Hard fault and Soft Fault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoru Han

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Because the traditional BP neural network slow convergence speed, easily falling in local minimum and the learning process will appear oscillation phenomena. This paper introduces a tolerance analog circuit hard fault and soft fault diagnosis method based on adaptive learning rate and the additional momentum algorithm BP neural network. Firstly, tolerance analog circuit is simulated by OrCAD / Pspice circuit simulation software, accurately extracts fault waveform data by matlab program automatically. Secondly, using the adaptive learning rate and momentum BP algorithm to train neural network, and then applies it to analog circuit hard fault and soft fault diagnosis. With shorter training time, high precision and global convergence effectively reduces the misjudgment, missing, it can improve the accuracy of fault diagnosis and fast.  

  14. Tectonomagmatism in continental arcs: evidence from the Sark arc complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Wes; Moreno, Teresa

    2002-07-01

    The island of Sark (Channel Islands, UK) exposes syntectonic plutons and country rock gneisses within a Precambrian (Cadomian) continental arc. This Sark arc complex records sequential pulses of magmatism over a period of 7 Ma (ca. 616-609 Ma). The earliest intrusion (ca. 616 Ma) was a composite sill that shows an ultramafic base overlain by a magma-mingled net vein complex subsequently deformed at near-solidus temperatures into the amphibolitic and tonalitic Tintageu banded gneisses. The deformation was synchronous with D 2 deformation of the paragneissic envelope, with both intrusion and country rock showing flat, top-to-the-south LS fabrics. Later plutonism injected three homogeneous quartz diorite-granodiorite sheets: the Creux-Moulin pluton (150-250 m; ca. 614 Ma), the Little Sark pluton (>700 m; 611 Ma), and the Northern pluton (>500 m; 609 Ma). Similar but thinner sheets in the south (Derrible-Hogsback-Dixcart) and west (Port es Saies-Brecqhou) are interpreted as offshoots from the Creux-Moulin pluton and Little Sark pluton, respectively. All these plutons show the same LS fabric seen in the older gneisses, with rare magmatic fabrics and common solid state fabrics recording syntectonic crystallisation and cooling. The cooling rate increased rapidly with decreasing crystallisation age: >9 Ma for the oldest intrusion to cool to lower amphibolite conditions, 7-8 Ma for the Creux Moulin pluton, 5-6 Ma for the Little Sark pluton, and 10 -14 s -1) that focussed extensional deformation into the Sark area. The increased rates of extension allowed ingress of the subsequent quartz diorite-granodiorite sheets, although strain rate slowly declined as the whole complex cooled during exhumation. The regional architecture of syntectonic Cadomian arc complexes includes flat-lying "Sark-type" and steep "Guernsey-type" domains produced synchronously in shear zone networks induced by oblique subduction: a pattern seen in other continental arcs such as that running from Alaska

  15. Simulation of Magnetically Dispersed Arc Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白冰; 查俊; 张晓宁; 王城; 夏维东

    2012-01-01

    Magnetically dispersed arc plasma exhibits typically dispersed uniform arc column as well as diffusive cathode root and diffusive anode root. In this paper magnetically dispersed arc plasma coupled with solid cathode is numerically simulated by the simplified cathode sheath model of LOWKE . The numerical simulation results in argon show that the maximum value of arc root current density on the cathode surface is 3.5×10^7 A/m^2), and the maximum value of energy flux on the cathode surface is 3× 10^7 J/m^2, both values are less than the average values of a contracted arc, respectively.

  16. A mechanism that triggers double arcing during plasma arc cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemchinsky, Valerian, E-mail: nemchinsky@bellsouth.ne [Keiser University, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33309 (United States)

    2009-10-21

    Double arcing (DA) is a phenomenon when a transferred arc, flowing inside an electrically insulated nozzle, breaks into two separate arcs: one that connects the cathode and the nozzle and another that connects the nozzle and a work-piece. It is a commonly accepted opinion that the reason for DA is high voltage drop in the plasma inside the nozzle. However, the specific mechanism that triggers the DA development is not clear. In this paper, we propose such a mechanism. Dielectric films deposited inside the nozzle's orifice play the key role in this mechanism. These films are charged by ion current from plasma. A strong electric field is created inside the film and at the boundary of the film and clean metal of the nozzle. This gives rise to a thermo-field electron emission from the clean metal that borders the film. Emitted electrons are accelerated at the voltage drop between the nozzle and plasma. These electrons produce extra ions, which in turn move back to the film and additionally charge it. This sequence of events leads to explosive instability if the voltage drop inside the nozzle is high enough. Experiments to check the proposed mechanism are suggested.

  17. The 10 April 2014 Nicaraguan Crustal Earthquake: Evidence of Complex Deformation of the Central American Volcanic Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Gerardo; Muñoz, Angélica; Farraz, Isaac A.; Talavera, Emilio; Tenorio, Virginia; Novelo-Casanova, David A.; Sánchez, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    On 10 April 2014, an M w 6.1 earthquake struck central Nicaragua. The main event and the aftershocks were clearly recorded by the Nicaraguan national seismic network and other regional seismic stations. These crustal earthquakes were strongly felt in central Nicaragua but caused relatively little damage. This is in sharp contrast to the destructive effects of the 1972 earthquake in the capital city of Managua. The differences in damage stem from the fact that the 1972 earthquake occurred on a fault beneath the city; in contrast, the 2014 event lies offshore, under Lake Managua. The distribution of aftershocks of the 2014 event shows two clusters of seismic activity. In the northwestern part of Lake Managua, an alignment of aftershocks suggests a northwest to southeast striking fault, parallel to the volcanic arc. The source mechanism agrees with this right-lateral, strike-slip motion on a plane with the same orientation as the aftershock sequence. For an earthquake of this magnitude, seismic scaling relations between fault length and magnitude predict a sub-surface fault length of approximately 16 km. This length is in good agreement with the extent of the fault defined by the aftershock sequence. A second cluster of aftershocks beneath Apoyeque volcano occurred simultaneously, but spatially separated from the first. There is no clear alignment of the epicenters in this cluster. Nevertheless, the decay of the number of earthquakes beneath Apoyeque as a function of time shows the typical behavior of an aftershock sequence and not of a volcanic swarm. The northeast-southwest striking Tiscapa/Ciudad Jardín and Estadio faults that broke during the 1972 and 1931 Managua earthquakes are orthogonal to the fault where the 10 April earthquake occurred. These orthogonal faults in close geographic proximity show that Central Nicaragua is being deformed in a complex tectonic setting. The Nicaraguan forearc sliver, between the trench and the volcanic arc, moves to the

  18. Project Flambeau experimental fire measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This preliminary analysis and model formulation of the Project Flambeau fires taken together with other information, seems to indicate that mass fires and conflagrations are three-dimensional and oscillatory in nature. Large areas fires seem to naturally fall into a strong fire generated vortices. The vortices oscillated with a period of about 50 seconds in these fires

  19. Hot, Fast Faults: Evidence for High-Temperature Slip on Exhumed Faults, and Insights into Seismic Slip Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. P.; Ault, A. K.; Janecke, S. U.; Prante, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    Microstructural and geochemical techniques combined with prior observations of naturally occurring faults provide insights into slip rates and slip dimensions of seismicity. We review four indicators for high coseismic paleotemperatures in brittle to semi-brittle faults from a wide range of tectonic settings with mm to km of slip. Thin, high-gloss, Fe-rich slip surfaces indicate high-temperature slip occurred on mm- to m-scales. Elliptical and circular zones of concentric iridescence indicate localized sites of elevated temperature that may be caused by heating at asperity contacts. The surface iridescence is associated with changes in Fe oxidation states detected by X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Minimum temperature increases of 300 °C above ambient are supported by geochemical arguments and up to 800 °C are supported by analogs to high-speed friction experiments in steels and ceramics firing in reduced conditions. The presence of clay-rich foliated fault-related rocks, and the presence of nm- to mm-thick clay coatings indicate that syn-kinematic endothermic reactions occur at a range of scales. We suggest these features reflect temperature increases of ≥100-200 °C for activation energy required to drive the clay alteration is sourced from seismic energy and Schleicher-van der Pluijm-type slip surfaces to record instantaneous slip. Dense, low porosity planar porcelainite zones mm- to cm-thick along fault surfaces are the result of sintering of quartz-clay-feldspar mixtures and indicate T≥1000 °C localized along the surfaces, the result of post-slip cooling. Highly indurated, ultrafine fault-related rocks often consists of comminuted grains, vein fragments, and neocrystallized grains that represent retrograde cooling or alteration after peak heating. These observations and those of other recent workers indicate that many naturally occurring exhumed faults record elevated temperatures. In many cases, careful observations can delineate fault slip

  20. Fire protection design criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, national Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard, along with other delineated criteria, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  1. WebFIRE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Factor Information Retrieval (FIRE) Data System is a database management system containing EPA's recommended emission estimation factors for criteria and...

  2. Modeling of compartment fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fire accident in a containment is a serious threat to nuclear reactors. Fire can cause substantial loss to life and property. The risk posed by fire can also exceed the risk from internal events within a nuclear reactor. Numerous research efforts have been performed to understand and analyze the phenomenon of fire in nuclear reactor and its consequences. Modeling of fire is an important subject in the field of fire safety engineering. Two approaches which are commonly used in fire modeling are zonal modeling and field modeling. The objective of this work is to compare zonal and field modeling approach against a pool fired experiment performed in a well-confined compartment. Numerical simulations were performed against experiments, which were conducted within PRISME program under the framework of OECD. In these experiments, effects of ventilation flow rate on heat release rate in a confined and mechanically ventilated compartment is investigated. Time dependent changes in gas temperature and oxygen mass fraction were measured. The trends obtained by numerical simulation performed using zonal model and field model compares well with experiments. Further validation is needed before this code can be used for fire safety analyses. (author)

  3. Prediction of SFL Interruption Performance from the Results of Arc Simulation during High-Current Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Chul; Lee, Won-Ho; Kim, Woun-Jea

    2015-09-01

    The design and development procedures of SF6 gas circuit breakers are still largely based on trial and error through testing although the development costs go higher every year. The computation cannot cover the testing satisfactorily because all the real processes arc not taken into account. But the knowledge of the arc behavior and the prediction of the thermal-flow inside the interrupters by numerical simulations are more useful than those by experiments due to the difficulties to obtain physical quantities experimentally and the reduction of computational costs in recent years. In this paper, in order to get further information into the interruption process of a SF6 self-blast interrupter, which is based on a combination of thermal expansion and the arc rotation principle, gas flow simulations with a CFD-arc modeling are performed during the whole switching process such as high-current period, pre-current zero period, and current-zero period. Through the complete work, the pressure-rise and the ramp of the pressure inside the chamber before current zero as well as the post-arc current after current zero should be a good criterion to predict the short-line fault interruption performance of interrupters.

  4. Online Fault Location on AC Cables in Underground Transmission Systems using Sheath Currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Flytkjær; Nanayakkarab, Kasun; Rajapakse, Athula;

    2014-01-01

    . At 31.4 km, all cables were accessible which made it possible to apply a fault using an arc free breaker and measure the travelling waves at each end of the cable. On a crossbonded cable system, the sheaths are short circuited and grounded at both ends. This makes possible the use of low voltage...... Rogowski coils if the sheath currents contain the necessary information for accurate fault location. In this paper, this is examined by analysis of field measurements and through a study of simulations. The wavelet transform and a visual inspection method are used and the accuracy is compared. Field...

  5. USING MUTATION IN FAULT LOCALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenglong Sun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fault localization is time-consuming and difficult, which makes it the bottleneck of the debugging progress. To help facilitate this task, there exist many fault localization techniques that help narrow down the region of the suspicious code in a program. Better accuracy in fault localization is achieved from heavy computation cost. Fault localization techniques that can effectively locate faults also manifest slow response rate. In this paper, we promote the use of pre-computing to distribute the time-intensive computations to the idle period of coding phase, in order to speed up such techniques and achieve both low-cost and high accuracy. We raise the research problems of finding suitable techniques that can be pre-computed and adapt it to the pre-computing paradigm in a continuous integration environment. Further, we use an existing fault localization technique to demonstrate our research exploration, and shows visions and challenges of the related methodologies.

  6. Fault Tolerant Wind Farm Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    with best at a wind turbine control level. However, some faults are better dealt with at the wind farm control level, if the wind turbine is located in a wind farm. In this paper a benchmark model for fault detection and isolation, and fault tolerant control of wind turbines implemented at the wind farm...... scenarios. This benchmark model is used in an international competition dealing with Wind Farm fault detection and isolation and fault tolerant control....... control level is presented. The benchmark model includes a small wind farm of nine wind turbines, based on simple models of the wind turbines as well as the wind and interactions between wind turbines in the wind farm. The model includes wind and power references scenarios as well as three relevant fault...

  7. 配电网单相接地电弧建模及仿真分析研究%Modeling and simulation analysis of arc in distribution network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晔; 郭谋发; 陈彬; 杨耿杰

    2015-01-01

    Studies on modeling and simulation of arc help to choose arc-extinction methods and line-selection methods in distribution network. Four kinds of arc mathematical equations are given such as Cassie, Mayr, Schwarz and the cybernetic model. Mayr, Schwarz and the cybernetic model are suitable for describing the arc characteristics when the grounding current is small. The arc model of Schwarz and the cybernetics is established, and these two models are compared using a test circuit of arc characteristics. The cybernetic model can set arc length, reflect the arc fault conditions and apply to simulation of single-phase arc grounding fault in resonant earthed system. The resonance earthed system model and the cybernetic model are established by ATP-EMTP, and the effect of arc length on arc impedance, steady and transient arc characteristics is analyzed. The results show that the cybernetic model is more intuitive and accurate to simulate arc grounding fault in resonant earthed system.%为选择有效的配电网接地消弧措施及选线方法,有必要进行电弧建模及仿真研究。给出Cassie、Mayr、Schwarz、控制论等四种电弧模型的数学方程,其中Mayr、Schwarz、控制论等三种电弧模型适合描述接地电流较小的电弧的故障特征。建立Schwarz和控制论电弧仿真模型,并利用电弧特性测试电路对这两种模型做仿真对比分析。控制论模型因能直接设置弧长,直观地反映配电线路故障拉弧情况,更适用于谐振接地系统单相弧光接地故障仿真研究。采用ATP-EMTP软件建立谐振接地系统模型和控制论电弧模型,分析了不同电弧长度对电弧阻抗、接地电弧稳态和暂态特性的影响。仿真结果表明,利用控制论电弧模型可较直观且准确地仿真谐振接地系统弧光接地故障。

  8. Zircon Recycling in Arc Intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.; Barth, A.; Matzel, J.; Wooden, J.; Burgess, S.

    2008-12-01

    Recycling of zircon has been well established in arc intrusions and arc volcanoes, but a better understanding of where and how zircons are recycled can help illuminate how arc magma systems are constructed. To that end, we are conducting age, trace element (including Ti-in-zircon temperatures; TzrnTi) and isotopic studies of zircons from the Late Cretaceous (95-85 Ma) Tuolumne Intrusive Suite (TIS) in the Sierra Nevada Batholith (CA). Within the TIS zircons inherited from ancient basement sources and/or distinctly older host rocks are uncommon, but recycled zircon antecrysts from earlier periods of TIS-related magmatism are common and conspicuous in the inner and two most voluminous units of the TIS, the Half Dome and Cathedral Peak Granodiorites. All TIS units have low bulk Zr ([Zr]825°C), [Zr] in the TIS is a factor of 2 to 3 lower than saturation values. Low [Zr] in TIS rocks might be attributed to a very limited supply of zircon in the source, by disequilibrium melting and rapid melt extraction [1], by melting reactions involving formation of other phases that can incorporate appreciable Zr [2], or by removal of zircon at an earlier stage of magma evolution. Based on a preliminary compilation of literature data, low [Zr] is common to Late Cretaceous N.A. Cordilleran granodioritic/tonalitic intrusions (typically Tzrnsat [3]. A corollary is that slightly older zircon antecrysts that are common in the inner units of the TIS could be considered inherited if they are derived from remelting of slightly older intrusions. Remelting at such low temperatures in the arc would require a source of external water. Refs: [1] Sawyer, J.Pet 32:701-738; [2] Fraser et al, Geology 25:607-610; [3] Harrison et al, Geology 35:635- 638

  9. Minor arcs for Goldbach's problem

    CERN Document Server

    Helfgott, H A

    2012-01-01

    The ternary Goldbach conjecture states that every odd number $n\\geq 7$ is the sum of three primes. The estimation of sums of the form $\\sum_{p\\leq x} e(\\alpha p)$, $\\alpha = a/q + O(1/q^2)$, has been a central part of the main approach to the conjecture since (Vinogradov, 1937). Previous work required $q$ or $x$ to be too large to make a proof of the conjecture for all $n$ feasible. The present paper gives new bounds on minor arcs and the tails of major arcs. For $q\\geq 4\\cdot 10^6$, these bounds are of the strength needed to solve the ternary Goldbach conjecture. Only the range $q\\in \\lbrack 10^5, 4\\cdot 10^6\\rbrack$ remains to be checked, possibly by brute force, before the conjecture is proven for all $n$. The new bounds are due to several qualitative improvements. In particular, this paper presents a general method for reducing the cost of Vaughan's identity, as well as a way to exploit the tails of minor arcs in the context of the large sieve.

  10. Fire Environment Mechanism of Lightning Fire for Daxing an Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Lightning fire is one of natural fires; its mechanism is very complex and difficult to control. Daxing'an Mountain is the main region that lightning fires occur in China. Research on lightning fires indicates that special fuel, dry-storm weather and high altitude form the lightning fire environment. Lightning fires have close relation with lights. When lightning occurs, especially dry-lightning which brings little precipitation with surface temperature growing and fuel dehydrating, these often lead to l...

  11. Causes of automotive turbocharger faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan FILIPCZYK

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of examinations of turbocharger damages. The analysis of the causes of faults in 100 engines with turbochargers of cars, buses and trucks has been carried out. The incidence and structure of turbocharged engine faults has been compared to the causes of faults of naturally aspirated engines. The cause of damage, the possibility of early detection, the time between overhaul and the impact on engine operation for each case of fault was carried out as well. The results of examinations allowed to determine the most common causes of damages and how to prevent them.

  12. An Overview of Transmission Line Protection by Artificial Neural Network: Fault Detection, Fault Classification, Fault Location, and Fault Direction Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamika Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary power systems are associated with serious issues of faults on high voltage transmission lines. Instant isolation of fault is necessary to maintain the system stability. Protective relay utilizes current and voltage signals to detect, classify, and locate the fault in transmission line. A trip signal will be sent by the relay to a circuit breaker with the purpose of disconnecting the faulted line from the rest of the system in case of a disturbance for maintaining the stability of the remaining healthy system. This paper focuses on the studies of fault detection, fault classification, fault location, fault phase selection, and fault direction discrimination by using artificial neural networks approach. Artificial neural networks are valuable for power system applications as they can be trained with offline data. Efforts have been made in this study to incorporate and review approximately all important techniques and philosophies of transmission line protection reported in the literature till June 2014. This comprehensive and exhaustive survey will reduce the difficulty of new researchers to evaluate different ANN based techniques with a set of references of all concerned contributions.

  13. Final Technical Report: PV Fault Detection Tool.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Bruce Hardison [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Christian Birk [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The PV Fault Detection Tool project plans to demonstrate that the FDT can (a) detect catastrophic and degradation faults and (b) identify the type of fault. This will be accomplished by collecting fault signatures using different instruments and integrating this information to establish a logical controller for detecting, diagnosing and classifying each fault.

  14. Lithospheric fault and kinematic decoupling of the Apennines system across the Pollino range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarabba, Claudio; Agostinetti, Nicola Piana; Bianchi, Irene

    2016-04-01

    A persistent seismic gap is hypothesized in the Pollino area (southern Italy), at the boundary between the Apennines and the Calabrian arc. Presently, seismic swarms are active in the gap area, creating concerns for possible future large earthquakes. In this study, we model the deep Earth structure across the Pollino range to give new insights on the kinematics and tectonics of this enigmatic area. Migrated receiver function profiles show a subvertical lithospheric discontinuity, delineated by an abrupt change in Moho depth and mantle fabrics across the range. The lithospheric-scale discontinuity bounds the area of earthquake swarm activity and likely decouples the delamination-related extension of the Apennines from the extensional collapse of the Calabrian fore arc. This large-scale discontinuity implies that the normal faults are segmented across the range, limiting the lateral extent of faults where future earthquakes might occur.

  15. Arc Root Attachment on the Anode Surface of Arc Plasma Torch Observed with a Novel Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Wen-Xia; LI Teng; MENG Xian; CHEN Xi; WU Cheng-Kang

    2005-01-01

    @@ The arc-root attachment on the anode surface of a dc non-transferred arc plasma torch has been successfullyobserved using a novel approach. A specially designed copper mirror with a boron nitride film coated on itssurface central-region is employed to avoid the effect of intensive light emitted from the arc column upon theobservation of weakly luminous arc root. It is found that the arc-root attachment is diffusive on the anode surfaceof the argon plasma torch, while constricted arc roots often occur when hydrogen or nitrogen is added into argonas the plasma-forming gas.

  16. Volcano collapse along the Aleutian Ridge (western Aleutian Arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Montanaro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Aleutian Ridge, in the western part of the Aleutian Arc, consists of a chain of volcanic islands perched atop the crest of a submarine ridge with most of the active Quaternary stratocones or caldera-like volcanoes being located on the northern margins of the Aleutian Islands. Integrated analysis of marine and terrestrial data resulted in the identification and characterization of 17 extensive submarine debris avalanche deposits from 11 volcanoes. Two morphological types of deposits are recognizable, elongate and lobate, with primary controls on the size and distribution of the volcanic debris being the volume and nature of material involved, proportion of fine grained material, depth of emplacement and the paleo-bathymetry. Volume calculations show the amount of material deposited in debris avalanches is as much as three times larger than the amount of material initially involved in the collapse, suggesting the incorporation of large amounts of submarine material during transport. The orientation of the collapse events is influenced by regional fault systems underling the volcanoes. The western Aleutian Arc has a significant tsunamigenic potential and communities within the Aleutian Islands and surrounding areas of the North Pacific as well as shipping and fishing fleets that cross the North Pacific may be at risk during future eruptions in this area.

  17. Hot fire, cool soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, C.R.; Moore, D.; Fernandes, P.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Fernandes, R.; Ferreira, A.J.D.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfires greatly increase a landscape's vulnerability to flooding and erosion events by removing vegetation and changing soils. Fire damage to soil increases with increasing soil temperature, and, for fires where smoldering combustion is absent, the current understanding is that soil temperatures i

  18. United States Fire Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reduction: Getting the Most From the U.S. Fire Administration’s Daily National Operations Brief PDF 127 KB There ... staff. Follow us: Twitter Facebook YouTube U.S. Fire Administration 16825 S. Seton Ave. , Emmitsburg , MD 21727 USA 800‑ ...

  19. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.H.H.; Soetens, F.

    2006-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical pr

  20. Biomass co-firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2013-01-01

    Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized...

  1. The fire brigade renovates

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The new fire engine at CERN's Fire Station. A shiny brand-new fire engine is now attracting all the attention of the members of CERN's fire brigade. Since the beginning of last week this engine has taken over from an 18-year-old one, which has now been 'retired' from service. This modern vehicle, built in Brescia, Italy, is much lighter and more powerful than the old one and is equipped to allow the fire service to tackle most call-outs without the support of at least one other vehicle, as is currently necessary. The new fire engine is designed to transport six fire-fighters, 2000 litres of water, and is equipped not only for fire fighting actions but also to respond initially to any other kind of call-out, such as traffic accidents, chemical incidents, pollution, lightning, etc. It goes almost without saying that it is provided with the most modern safety measures, a low centre of gravity, as well as a special chassis and a combination pump (low and high pressure), which improve the safety and performance ...

  2. Peridotites from a ductile shear zone within back-arc lithospheric mantle, southern Mariana Trench: Results of a Shinkai 6500 dive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michibayashi, K.; Ohara, Y.; Stern, R. J.; Fryer, P.; Kimura, J.-I.; Tasaka, M.; Harigane, Y.; Ishii, T.

    2009-05-01

    Two N-S fault zones in the southern Mariana fore arc record at least 20 km of left-lateral displacement. We examined the eastward facing slope of one of the fault zones (the West Santa Rosa Bank fault) from 6469 to 5957 m water depth using the submersible Shinkai 6500 (YK06-12 Dive 973) as part of a cruise by the R/V Yokosuka in 2006. The dive recovered residual but still partly fertile lherzolite, residual lherzolite, and dunite; the samples show mylonitic, porphyroclastic, and coarse, moderately deformed secondary textures. Crystal-preferred orientations of olivine within the peridotites show a typical [100](010) pattern, with the fabric intensity decreasing from rocks with coarse secondary texture to mylonites. The sampled peridotites therefore represent a ductile shear zone within the lithospheric mantle of the overriding plate. Peridotites were probably exposed in association with a tear in the subducting slab, previously inferred from bathymetry and seismicity. Furthermore, although the dive site is located in the fore arc close to the Mariana Trench, spinel compositions within the sampled peridotites are comparable to those from the Mariana Trough back arc, suggesting that back-arc basin mantle is exposed along the West Santa Rosa Bank fault.

  3. Fault deformation mechanisms and fault rocks in micritic limestones: Examples from Corinth rift normal faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussolotto, M.; Benedicto, A.; Moen-Maurel, L.; Invernizzi, C.

    2015-08-01

    A multidisciplinary study investigates the influence of different parameters on fault rock architecture development along normal faults affecting non-porous carbonates of the Corinth rift southern margin. Here, some fault systems cut the same carbonate unit (Pindus), and the gradual and fast uplift since the initiation of the rift led to the exhumation of deep parts of the older faults. This exceptional context allows superficial active fault zones and old exhumed fault zones to be compared. Our approach includes field studies, micro-structural (optical microscope and cathodoluminescence), geochemical analyses (δ13C, δ18O, trace elements) and fluid inclusions microthermometry of calcite sin-kinematic cements. Our main results, in a depth-window ranging from 0 m to about 2500 m, are: i) all cements precipitated from meteoric fluids in a close or open circulation system depending on depth; ii) depth (in terms of P/T condition) determines the development of some structures and their sealing; iii) lithology (marly levels) influences the type of structures and its cohesive/non-cohesive nature; iv) early distributed rather than final total displacement along the main fault plane is the responsible for the fault zone architecture; v) petrophysical properties of each fault zone depend on the variable combination of these factors.

  4. Fires in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    On February 5, 2002, the dense smoke from numerous forest fires stretched out over the Pacific Ocean about 400 miles south of Santiago, Chile. This true-color Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the fires, which are located near the city of Temuco. The fires are indicated with red dots (boxes in the high-resolution imagery). The fires were burning near several national parks and nature reserves in an area of the Chilean Andes where tourism is very popular. Southeast of the fires, the vegetation along the banks of the Rio Negro in Argentina stands out in dark green. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  5. A Review of Fire Interactions and Mass Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Finney

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The character of a wildland fire can change dramatically in the presence of another nearby fire. Understanding and predicting the changes in behavior due to fire-fire interactions cannot only be life-saving to those on the ground, but also be used to better control a prescribed fire to meet objectives. In discontinuous fuel types, such interactions may elicit fire spread where none otherwise existed. Fire-fire interactions occur naturally when spot fires start ahead of the main fire and when separate fire events converge in one location. Interactions can be created intentionally during prescribed fires by using spatial ignition patterns. Mass fires are among the most extreme examples of interactive behavior. This paper presents a review of the detailed effects of fire-fire interaction in terms of merging or coalescence criteria, burning rates, flame dimensions, flame temperature, indraft velocity, pulsation, and convection column dynamics. Though relevant in many situations, these changes in fire behavior have yet to be included in any operational-fire models or decision support systems.

  6. Reciprocal Fire Protection Agreement between Silver Creek Rangeland Fire Protection Association and Burns Interagency Fire Zone

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the Reciprocal Fire Protection Agreement between the Silver Creek Rangeland Fire Protection Association and the Burns Interagency Fire Zone. The objectives...

  7. Reciprocal Fire Protection Agreement between Crane Rangeland Fire Protection Association and Burns Interagency Fire Zone

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the Reciprocal Fire Protection Agreement between the Crane Rangeland Fire Protection Association and the Burns Interagency Fire Zone. The objectives of the...

  8. Magnification Bias in Gravitational Arc Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Caminha, G B; Makler, M; Mollerach, S; Roulet, E

    2013-01-01

    The statistics of arcs in galaxy clusters is a powerful probe of the inner parts of cluster structure and may provide complementary cosmological constraints. Although progresses involving simulations at the image level have improved the agreement among modelling and observations of arc abundance, there are still discrepancies regarding the redshift distribution of strong lensing clusters. Besides, fast "semi-analytic" methods still have to incorporate the success obtained with simulations. In this paper we discuss the contribution of magnification in gravitational arc statistics. Although lensing conserves surface brightness, the magnification (\\mu) increases the signal-to-noise ratio of the arcs in the images, enhancing their detectability. We present an approach to include this and other observational effects in semi-analytic calculations for arc statistics. The cross section for arc formation (\\sigma) is computed through a semi-analytic method based on the eigenvalue ratio of the magnification tensor. Usin...

  9. Forest-Fire Analogy to Explain the b Value of the Gutenberg-Richter Law for Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagla, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Drössel-Schwabl model of forest fires can be interpreted in a coarse-grained sense as a model for the stress distribution in a single planar fault. Fires in the model are then translated to earthquakes. I show that when a second class of trees that propagate fire only after some finite time is introduced in the model, secondary fires (analogous to aftershocks) are generated, and the statistics of events becomes quantitatively compatible with the Gutenberg-Richter law for earthquakes, with a realistic value of the b exponent. The change in exponent is analytically demonstrated in a simplified percolation scenario. Experimental consequences of the proposed mechanism are indicated.

  10. Hard Fault Analysis of Trivium

    CERN Document Server

    Yupu, Hu; Yiwei, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Fault analysis is a powerful attack to stream ciphers. Up to now, the major idea of fault analysis is to simplify the cipher system by injecting some soft faults. We call it soft fault analysis. As a hardware-oriented stream cipher, Trivium is weak under soft fault analysis. In this paper we consider another type of fault analysis of stream cipher, which is to simplify the cipher system by injecting some hard faults. We call it hard fault analysis. We present the following results about such attack to Trivium. In Case 1 with the probability not smaller than 0.2396, the attacker can obtain 69 bits of 80-bits-key. In Case 2 with the probability not smaller than 0.2291, the attacker can obtain all of 80-bits-key. In Case 3 with the probability not smaller than 0.2291, the attacker can partially solve the key. In Case 4 with non-neglectable probability, the attacker can obtain a simplified cipher, with smaller number of state bits and slower non-linearization procedure. In Case 5 with non-neglectable probability,...

  11. Forest-Fires Surveillance System Based On Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Lalit Patil

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the design and evaluation of a wireless sensor network for early detection of forest fires. Wild fires cause to damage on forest and a mountain which have valuable natural resources during the dry winter season Where it becomes very paramount to cover the area caused by fire by the forest fighters. Current surveillance systems utilize a camera, an infrared sensor system and a satellite system. These systems cannot support authentic time surveillance, monitoring and automatic alarm. Even though it gives information about fire caused area,but asthe forest looks same in all areas as it is covered with dense trees it is very hard to recognize the exact area andimage transmition through the transmitter to the officers computer takes too much time .It takes too much time to load the image. Which in turns waste the time and fire caused area goes on increasing. Taking in toconsideration all this faults of the prior system in the forest we have designed our modified project.In our project, we develop a forest fires surveillance system.

  12. Identifying active interplate and intraplate fault zones in the western Caribbean plate from seismic reflection data and the significance of the Pedro Bank fault zone in the tectonic history of the Nicaraguan Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, B.; Mann, P.

    2015-12-01

    The offshore Nicaraguan Rise in the western Caribbean Sea is an approximately 500,000 km2 area of Precambrian to Late Cretaceous tectonic terranes that have been assembled during the Late Cretaceous formation of the Caribbean plate and include: 1) the Chortis block, a continental fragment; 2) the Great Arc of the Caribbean, a deformed Cretaceous arc, and 3) the Caribbean large igneous province formed in late Cretaceous time. Middle Eocene to Recent eastward motion of the Caribbean plate has been largely controlled by strike-slip faulting along the northern Caribbean plate boundary zone that bounds the northern margin of the Nicaraguan Rise. These faults reactivate older rift structures near the island of Jamaica and form the transtensional basins of the Honduran Borderlands near Honduras. Recent GPS studies suggest that small amount of intraplate motion within the current margin of error of GPS measurements (1-3 mm/yr) may occur within the center of the western Caribbean plate at the Pedro Bank fault zone and Hess Escarpment. This study uses a database of over 54,000 km of modern and vintage 2D seismic data, combined with earthquake data and results from previous GPS studies to define the active areas of inter- and intraplate fault zones in the western Caribbean. Intraplate deformation occurs along the 700-km-long Pedro Bank fault zone that traverses the center of the Nicaraguan Rise and reactivates the paleo suture zone between the Great Arc of the Caribbean and the Caribbean large igneous province. The Pedro Bank fault zone also drives active extension at the 200-km-long San Andres rift along the southwest margin of the Nicaraguan Rise. Influence of the Cocos Ridge indentor may be contributing to reactivation of faulting along the southwesternmost, active segment of the Hess Escarpment.

  13. FASTER MUSE CSP ARC CONSISTENCY ALGORITHMS

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, Mary P.; White, Christopher M.; Helzerman, Randall A.; Hockema, Stephen A.

    1997-01-01

    MUSE CSP (Multiply SEgmented Constraint Satisfaction Problem) [5, 61 is an extension to the constraint satisfaction problem (CSP) which is especially useful for problems that segment into riultiple instances of CSP that share variables. In Belzerman and Harper [6], the concepts of MUSE node, arc, and path consistency were defined and algorithms for MUSE arc consistency, MUSE AC-1, and MUSE path consistency were developed. MUSE AC-1 is similar to the CSP arc consistency algorithm AC-4 [ l j ] ...

  14. Programming ArcGIS with Python cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Pimpler, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Programming ArcGIS with Python Cookbook, Second Edition, is written for GIS professionals who wish to revolutionize their ArcGIS workflow with Python. Whether you are new to ArcGIS or a seasoned professional, you almost certainly spend time each day performing various geoprocessing tasks. This book will teach you how to use the Python programming language to automate these geoprocessing tasks and make you a more efficient and effective GIS professional.

  15. Application of Petri Net to Fault Diagnosis in Satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A prototype of fault diagnosis based on Petri net, which is developed for a satellite tele-control subsystem, is introduced in this paper. Its structure is first given with the emphasis on a Petri net modeling tool which is designed using the object oriented method. The prototype is connected to the database with DAO (Date Access Object) technique, and makes the Petri net's firing mechanism and its analyzing methods to be packed up as DLL (Dynamic Link Library) documents. Compared with the rule-based expert system method, the Petri net-based one can store the knowledge in mathematical matrix and make inference more quickly and effectively.

  16. Differential Fault Analysis of Rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircanski, Aleksandar; Youssef, Amr M.

    Rabbit is a high speed scalable stream cipher with 128-bit key and a 64-bit initialization vector. It has passed all three stages of the ECRYPT stream cipher project and is a member of eSTREAM software portfolio. In this paper, we present a practical fault analysis attack on Rabbit. The fault model in which we analyze the cipher is the one in which the attacker is assumed to be able to fault a random bit of the internal state of the cipher but cannot control the exact location of injected faults. Our attack requires around 128 - 256 faults, precomputed table of size 241.6 bytes and recovers the complete internal state of Rabbit in about 238 steps.

  17. Fire science at LLNL: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, H.K. (ed.)

    1990-03-01

    This fire sciences report from LLNL includes topics on: fire spread in trailer complexes, properties of welding blankets, validation of sprinkler systems, fire and smoke detectors, fire modeling, and other fire engineering and safety issues. (JEF)

  18. Effect of Gravity on Arc Shape in GTA Welding-for Low Electric Arc Current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hidetoshi FUJII; Yosuke SUMI; Manabu TANAKA; Kiyoshi NOGI

    2003-01-01

    Gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding was performed both in a microgravity environment and in a terrestrial environment,and the arc shapes in both environments were compared. A microgravity condition was obtained using the free fallsystem at the Japan Microgravi

  19. Diffuse and spot mode of cathode arc attachments in an atmospheric magnetically rotating argon arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model including the cathode, near-cathode region, and arc column was constructed. Specifically, a thermal perturbation layer at the arc fringe was calculated in order to couple sheath/presheath modelling with typical arc column modelling. Comparative investigation of two modes of attachment of a dc (100, 150, 200 A) atmospheric-pressure arc in argon to a thermionic cathode made of pure tungsten was conducted. Computational data revealed that there exists two modes of arc discharge: the spot mode, which has an obvious cathode surface temperature peak in the arc attachment centre; and the diffuse mode, which has a flat cathode surface temperature distribution and a larger arc attachment area. The modelling results of the arc attachment agree with previous experimental observations for the diffuse mode. A further 3D simulation is obviously needed to investigate the non-axisymmetrical features, especially for the spot mode. (paper)

  20. Major arcs for Goldbach's problem

    OpenAIRE

    Helfgott, H. A.

    2013-01-01

    The ternary Goldbach conjecture states that every odd number $n\\geq 7$ is the sum of three primes. The estimation of the Fourier series $\\sum_{p\\leq x} e(\\alpha p)$ and related sums has been central to the study of the problem since Hardy and Littlewood (1923). Here we show how to estimate such Fourier series for $\\alpha$ in the so-called major arcs, i.e., for $\\alpha$ close to a rational of small denominator. This is part of the author's proof of the ternary Goldbach conjecture. In contrast ...

  1. Generalized hyperfocused arcs in $PG(2,p)$

    OpenAIRE

    Blokhuis, A Aart; Marino, G.; Mazzocca, F.

    2013-01-01

    A {\\em generalized hyperfocused arc} $\\mathcal H $ in $PG(2,q)$ is an arc of size $k$ with the property that the $k(k-1)/2$ secants can be blocked by a set of $k-1$ points not belonging to the arc. We show that if $q$ is a prime and $\\mathcal H$ is a generalized hyperfocused arc of size $k$, then $k=1,2$ or 4. Interestingly, this problem is also related to the (strong) cylinder conjecture [Ball S.: The polynomial method in Galois geometries, in Current research topics in Galois geometry, Chap...

  2. Electrode Evaporation Effects on Air Arc Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xingwen; CHEN Degui; LI Rui; WU Yi; NIU Chunping

    2008-01-01

    A numerical study of the effects of copper and silver vapours on the air arc behavior is performed. The commercial software FLUENT is adapted and modified to develop a two-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) models of arc with the thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients, net emission coefficient for the radiation model of 99% ai-1% Cu, 99% air-1% Ag, and pure air, respectively. The simulation result demonstrates that vaporization of the electrode material may cool the arc center region and reduce the arc velocity. The effects of Ag vapour are stronger compared to those of Cu vapour.

  3. Stability of alternating current gliding arcs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Salewski, Mirko; Leipold, Frank;

    2014-01-01

    A gliding arc is a quenched plasma that can be operated as a non-thermal plasma at atmospheric pressure and that is thus suitable for large-scale plasma surface treatment. For its practical industrial use the discharge should be extended stably in ambient air. A simple analytical calculation based...... on Ohm’s law indicates that the critical length of alternating current (AC) gliding arc discharge columns can be larger than that of a corresponding direct current (DC) gliding arc. This finding is supported by previously published images of AC and DC gliding arcs. Furthermore, the analysis shows...

  4. The Abundance of Large Arcs From CLASH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bingxiao; Postman, Marc; Meneghetti, Massimo; Coe, Dan A.; Clash Team

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an automated arc-finding algorithm to perform a rigorous comparison of the observed and simulated abundance of large lensed background galaxies (a.k.a arcs). We use images from the CLASH program to derive our observed arc abundance. Simulated CLASH images are created by performing ray tracing through mock clusters generated by the N-body simulation calibrated tool -- MOKA, and N-body/hydrodynamic simulations -- MUSIC, over the same mass and redshift range as the CLASH X-ray selected sample. We derive a lensing efficiency of 15 ± 3 arcs per cluster for the X-ray selected CLASH sample and 4 ± 2 arcs per cluster for the simulated sample. The marginally significant difference (3.0 σ) between the results for the observations and the simulations can be explained by the systematically smaller area with magnification larger than 3 (by a factor of ˜4) in both MOKA and MUSIC mass models relative to those derived from the CLASH data. Accounting for this difference brings the observed and simulated arc statistics into full agreement. We find that the source redshift distribution does not have big impact on the arc abundance but the arc abundance is very sensitive to the concentration of the dark matter halos. Our results suggest that the solution to the "arc statistics problem" lies primarily in matching the cluster dark matter distribution.

  5. Metals purification by improved vacuum arc remelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanner, Frank J.; Williamson, Rodney L.; Smith, Mark F.

    1994-12-13

    The invention relates to improved apparatuses and methods for remelting metal alloys in furnaces, particularly consumable electrode vacuum arc furnaces. Excited reactive gas is injected into a stationary furnace arc zone, thus accelerating the reduction reactions which purify the metal being melted. Additionally, a cooled condensation surface is disposed within the furnace to reduce the partial pressure of water in the furnace, which also fosters the reduction reactions which result in a purer produced ingot. Methods and means are provided for maintaining the stationary arc zone, thereby reducing the opportunity for contaminants evaporated from the arc zone to be reintroduced into the produced ingot.

  6. The Ionian and Alfeo-Etna fault zones: New segments of an evolving plate boundary in the central Mediterranean Sea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonia, A.; Torelli, L.; Artoni, A.; Carlini, M.; Faccenna, C.; Ferranti, L.; Gasperini, L.; Govers, R.; Klaeschen, D.; Monaco, C.; Neri, G.; Nijholt, N.; Orecchio, B.; Wortel, R.

    2016-04-01

    The Calabrian Arc is a narrow subduction-rollback system resulting from Africa/Eurasia plate convergence. While crustal shortening is taken up in the accretionary wedge, transtensive deformation accounts for margin segmentation along transverse lithospheric faults. One of these structures is the NNW-SSE transtensive fault system connecting the Alfeo seamount and the Etna volcano (Alfeo-Etna Fault, AEF). A second, NW-SE crustal discontinuity, the Ionian Fault (IF), separates two lobes of the CA subduction complex (Western and Eastern Lobes) and impinges on the Sicilian coasts south of the Messina Straits. Analysis of multichannel seismic reflection profiles shows that: 1) the IF and the AEF are transfer crustal tectonic features bounding a complex deformation zone, which produces the downthrown of the Western lobe along a set of transtensive fault strands; 2) during Pleistocene times, transtensive faulting reactivated structural boundaries inherited from the Mesozoic Tethyan domain which acted as thrust faults during the Messinian and Pliocene; and 3) the IF and the AEF, and locally the Malta escarpment, accommodate a recent tectonic event coeval and possibly linked to the Mt. Etna formation. Regional geodynamic models show that, whereas AEF and IF are neighboring fault systems, their individual roles are different. Faulting primarily resulting from the ESE retreat of the Ionian slab is expressed in the northwestern part of the IF. The AEF, on the other hand, is part of the overall dextral shear deformation, resulting from differences in Africa-Eurasia motion between the western and eastern sectors of the Tyrrhenian margin of northern Sicily, and accommodating diverging motions in the adjacent compartments, which results in rifting processes within the Western Lobe of the Calabrian Arc accretionary wedge. As such, it is primarily associated with Africa-Eurasia relative motion.

  7. Fault tolerant control for switched linear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Dongsheng; Shi, Peng

    2015-01-01

    This book presents up-to-date research and novel methodologies on fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control for switched linear systems. It provides a unified yet neat framework of filtering, fault detection, fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control of switched systems. It can therefore serve as a useful textbook for senior and/or graduate students who are interested in knowing the state-of-the-art of filtering, fault detection, fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control areas, as well as recent advances in switched linear systems.  

  8. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)

    2004-07-12

    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as

  9. Modelling of fire count data: fire disaster risk in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boadi, Caleb; Harvey, Simon K; Gyeke-Dako, Agyapomaa

    2015-01-01

    Stochastic dynamics involved in ecological count data require distribution fitting procedures to model and make informed judgments. The study provides empirical research, focused on the provision of an early warning system and a spatial graph that can detect societal fire risks. It offers an opportunity for communities, organizations, risk managers, actuaries and governments to be aware of, and understand fire risks, so that they will increase the direct tackling of the threats posed by fire. Statistical distribution fitting method that best helps identify the stochastic dynamics of fire count data is used. The aim is to provide a fire-prediction model and fire spatial graph for observed fire count data. An empirical probability distribution model is fitted to the fire count data and compared to the theoretical probability distribution of the stochastic process of fire count data. The distribution fitted to the fire frequency count data helps identify the class of models that are exhibited by the fire and provides time leading decisions. The research suggests that fire frequency and loss (fire fatalities) count data in Ghana are best modelled with a Negative Binomial Distribution. The spatial map of observed fire frequency and fatality measured over 5 years (2007-2011) offers in this study a first regional assessment of fire frequency and fire fatality in Ghana. PMID:26702383

  10. Unstable behavior of anodic arc discharge for synthesis of nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Sophia; Raitses, Yevgeny

    2016-09-01

    A short carbon arc operating with a high ablation rate of the graphite anode exhibits a combined motion of the arc and the arc attachment to the anode. A characteristic time scale of this motion is in a 10‑3 s range. The arc exhibits a negative differential resistance before the arc motion occurs. Thermal processes in the arc plasma region interacting with the ablating anode are considered as possible causes of this unstable arc behavior. It is also hypothesized that the arc motion could potentially cause mixing of the various nanoparticles synthesized in the arc in the high ablation regime.

  11. Fault Current Characteristics of the DFIG under Asymmetrical Fault Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xiao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available During non-severe fault conditions, crowbar protection is not activated and the rotor windings of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG are excited by the AC/DC/AC converter. Meanwhile, under asymmetrical fault conditions, the electrical variables oscillate at twice the grid frequency in synchronous dq frame. In the engineering practice, notch filters are usually used to extract the positive and negative sequence components. In these cases, the dynamic response of a rotor-side converter (RSC and the notch filters have a large influence on the fault current characteristics of the DFIG. In this paper, the influence of the notch filters on the proportional integral (PI parameters is discussed and the simplified calculation models of the rotor current are established. Then, the dynamic performance of the stator flux linkage under asymmetrical fault conditions is also analyzed. Based on this, the fault characteristics of the stator current under asymmetrical fault conditions are studied and the corresponding analytical expressions of the stator fault current are obtained. Finally, digital simulation results validate the analytical results. The research results are helpful to meet the requirements of a practical short-circuit calculation and the construction of a relaying protection system for the power grid with penetration of DFIGs.

  12. Design Approach for Fault Recoverable ALU with Improved Fault Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit K V

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A new design for fault tolerant and fault recoverable ALU System has been proposed in this paper. Reliability is one of the most critical factors that have to be considered during the designing phase of any IC. In critical applications like Medical equipment & Military applications this reliability factor plays a very critical role in determining the acceptance of product. Insertion of special modules in the main design for reliability enhancement will give considerable amount of area & power penalty. So, a novel approach to this problem is to find ways for reusing the already available components in digital system in efficient way to implement recoverable methodologies. Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR has traditionally used for protecting digital logic from the SEUs (single event upset by triplicating the critical components of the system to give fault tolerance to system. ScTMR- Scan chain-based error recovery TMR technique provides recovery for all internal faults. ScTMR uses a roll-forward approach and employs the scan chain implemented in the circuits for testability purposes to recover the system to fault-free state. The proposed design will incorporate a ScTMR controller over TMR system of ALU and will make the system fault tolerant and fault recoverable. Hence, proposed design will be more efficient & reliable to use in critical applications, than any other design present till today.

  13. A comparison of the seismic structure of oceanic island arc crust and continental accreted arc terranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Amalgamation of island arcs and their accretion to pre-existing continents is considered to have been one of the primary mechanisms of continental growth over the last 3 Ga, with arc terranes identified within Late Archean, Proterozoic, and Phanerozoic continental crust. Crustal-scale seismic refraction surveys can provide P wave velocity models that can be used as a proxy for crustal composition, and although they indicate some velocity variation in accreted arcs, these terranes have significantly lower velocities, and are hence significantly more felsic, than modern island arcs. Modern oceanic arcs exhibit significant variations in crustal thickness, from as little as 10 km in the Bonin arc to 35 km in the Aleutian and northern Izu arcs. Although globally island arcs appear to have a mafic composition, intermediate composition crust is inferred in central America and parts of the Izu arc. The absence of a sharp velocity contrast at the Moho appears to be a first order characteristic of island arc crust, and indicates the existence of a broad crust-mantle transition zone. Multichannel seismic reflection surveys complement refraction surveys by revealing structures associated with variations in density and seismic velocity at the scale of a few hundred meters or less to depths of 60 km or more. Surveys from the Mariana and Aleutian arcs show that modern middle and lower arc crust is mostly non-reflective, but reflections are observed from depths 5-25 km below the refraction Moho suggesting the localized presence of arc roots that may comprise gabbro, garnet gabbro, and pyroxenite within a broad transition from mafic lower crust to ultramafic mantle. Such reflective, high velocity roots are likely separated from the overlying arc crust prior to, or during arc-continent collision, and seismic reflections within accreted arc crust document the collisional process and final crustal architecture.

  14. Micro-arcing and arc erosion minimization using a DC hybrid switching device

    OpenAIRE

    Swingler, J.; McBride, J. W.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid switching devices utilize the advantages of both conventional electrical contacts and solid state electronics to minimize arcing during opening and closing operations. This can result in higher reliability and reduces the need for high cost specialist contact materials. The hybrid switch does not eliminate arcing completely, due to the inductive nature of circuits; micro-arcing is known to occur. An experimental dc hybrid switching device is introduced which minimizes arcing for 42 ...

  15. Electronic firing systems and methods for firing a device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frickey, Steven J.; Svoboda, John M.

    2012-04-24

    An electronic firing system comprising a control system, a charging system, an electrical energy storage device, a shock tube firing circuit, a shock tube connector, a blasting cap firing circuit, and a blasting cap connector. The control system controls the charging system, which charges the electrical energy storage device. The control system also controls the shock tube firing circuit and the blasting cap firing circuit. When desired, the control system signals the shock tube firing circuit or blasting cap firing circuit to electrically connect the electrical energy storage device to the shock tube connector or the blasting cap connector respectively.

  16. Connecting the Yakima fold and thrust belt to active faults in the Puget Lowland, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, R.J.; Sherrod, B.L.; Weaver, C.S.; Wells, R.E.; Rohay, A.C.; Barnett, E.A.; Knepprath, N.E.

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution aeromagnetic surveys of the Cascade Range and Yakima fold and thrust belt (YFTB), Washington, provide insights on tectonic connections between forearc and back-arc regions of the Cascadia convergent margin. Magnetic surveys were measured at a nominal altitude of 250 m above terrain and along flight lines spaced 400 m apart. Upper crustal rocks in this region have diverse magnetic properties, ranging from highly magnetic rocks of the Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group to weakly magnetic sedimentary rocks of various ages. These distinctive magnetic properties permit mapping of important faults and folds from exposures to covered areas. Magnetic lineaments correspond with mapped Quaternary faults and with scarps identified in lidar (light detection and ranging) topographic data and aerial photography. A two-dimensional model of the northwest striking Umtanum Ridge fault zone, based on magnetic and gravity data and constrained by geologic mapping and three deep wells, suggests that thrust faults extend through the Tertiary section and into underlying pre-Tertiary basement. Excavation of two trenches across a prominent scarp at the base of Umtanum Ridge uncovered evidence for bending moment faulting possibly caused by a blind thrust. Using aeromagnetic, gravity, and paleoseismic evidence, we postulate possible tectonic connections between the YFTB in eastern Washington and active faults of the Puget Lowland. We suggest that faults and folds of Umtanum Ridge extend northwestward through the Cascade Range and merge with the Southern Whidbey Island and Seattle faults near Snoqualmie Pass 35 km east of Seattle. Recent earthquakes (MW ≤ 5.3) suggest that this confluence of faults may be seismically active today.

  17. The Spirit of Fire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    POTTERY born around 5,000-7,000years ago,is the crystallization ofhuman being’s experience ofmolding earth with fire.It was also the firstcreation of man.From ancient to moderntimes,fire has accompanied every potterymaker.The contemporary artist Picassoonce said,“Fire is a special color set apartfrom those on the palette.It can create anart described by one poet as "the smeltingof seven colored sun rays”.ZhangWenzhi,from the Art Academy ofGuangzhou,is a woman who hascontributed herself wholly to the art of

  18. Fire resistant hydraulic fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deakin, P. (Croda Application Chemicals Ltd. (UK). Mining Sales and Service)

    The use of fire resistant fluids is now widespread and in certain applications, namely underground, mandatory within the coal mining industry. However, safety is a paramount objective in all industries and within the author's company which supplies and services other industries such as metal forming and automotive construction, greater emphasis is being placed on the use of fire resistant hydraulic fluids. Their involvement with development, manufacture and application is continually expanding. This document describes the various fire resistant hydraulic fluids and why they are used in particular applications. 1 tab.

  19. Modeling urban fire growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IITRI Urban Fire Spread Model as well as others of similar vintage were constrained by computer size and running costs such that many approximations/generalizations were introduced to reduce program complexity and data storage requirements. Simplifications were introduced both in input data and in fire growth and spread calculations. Modern computational capabilities offer the means to introduce greater detail and to examine its practical significance on urban fire predictions. Selected portions of the model are described as presently configured, and potential modifications are discussed. A single tract model is hypothesized which permits the importance of various model details to be assessed, and, other model applications are identified

  20. Coal-fired generation

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  1. Feedback Linearization Based Arc Length Control for Gas Metal Arc Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Sandberg

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a feedback linearization based arc length controller for gas metal arc welding (GMAW) is described. A nonlinear model describing the dynamic arc length is transformed into a system where nonlinearities can be cancelled by a nonlinear state feedback control part, and thus, leaving only...

  2. A Novel Algorithm for Fault Classification on Transmission Lines using a Combined Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeo, S.M.; Kim, C.H. [Sungkyunkwan University (Korea); Chai, Y.M. [Chungju National University (Korea); Choi, J.D. [Daelim College (Korea)

    2001-07-01

    Accurate detection and classification of faults on transmission lines is vitally important. High impedance faults (HIF) in particular pose difficulties for the commonly employed conventional overcurrent and distance relays, and if not detected, can cause damage to expensive equipment, threaten life and cause fire hazards. Although HIFs are far less common than LIFs, it is imperative that any protection device should be able to satisfactorily deal with both HIFs and LIFs. This paper proposes an algorithm for fault detection and classification for both LIFs and HIFs using Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System(ANFIS). The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested on a typical 154[kV] Korean transmission line system under various fault conditions. Test results show that the ANFIS can detect and classify faults including (LIFs and HIFs) accurately within half a cycle. (author). 11 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Probabilistic fire simulator - Monte Carlo simulation tool for fire scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostikka, S.; Keski-Rahkonen, O. [VTT Building and Transport, Espoo (Finland)

    2002-11-01

    Risk analysis tool is developed for computing of the distributions of fire model output variables. The tool, called Probabilistic Fire Simulator, combines Monte Carlo simulation and CFAST two-zone fire model. In this work, it is used to calculate failure probability of redundant cables and fire detector activation times in a cable tunnel fire. Sensitivity of the output variables to the input variables is calculated in terms of the rank order correlations. (orig.)

  4. Absolute age determination of quaternary faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Chang Sik; Lee, Seok Hoon; Choi, Man Sik [Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2000-03-15

    To constrain the age of neotectonic fault movement, Rb-Sr, K-Ar, U-series disequilibrium, C-14 and Be-10 methods were applied to the fault gouges, fracture infillings and sediments from the Malbang, Ipsil, Wonwonsa faults faults in the Ulsan fault zone, Yangsan fault in the Yeongdeog area and southeastern coastal area. Rb-Sr and K-Ar data imply that the fault movement of the Ulan fault zone initiated at around 30 Ma and preliminary dating result for the Yang san fault is around 70 Ma in the Yeongdeog area. K-Ar and U-series disequilibrium dating results for fracture infillings in the Ipsil fault are consistent with reported ESR ages. Radiocarbon ages of quaternary sediments from the Jeongjari area are discordant with stratigraphic sequence. Carbon isotope data indicate a difference of sedimentry environment for those samples. Be-10 dating results for the Suryum fault area are consistent with reported OSL results.

  5. Permanent GPS network around the bend of the Jura Arc: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Christian; Walpersdorf, Andrea; Sakic, Pierre; Rabin, Mickael; Champagnac, Jean daniel

    2014-05-01

    The Jura Mountain, the westernmost belt of the alpine orogeny, is one of the best-studied orogenic arcs in the world. The Jura arc is a typical fold-and-thrust belt, with a main décollement thrust localized in the Triasic evaporites under the Jurassic-Cretaceous series. It is directly linked to the alpine orogenic wedge, especially in term of critical taper. It is supposed to be still active in collision mode, which would rise up the issue of its relation with the Alps to the East, currently undergoing post-orogenic gravitational potential adjustment. Nevertheless, its current activity and recent deformation remain a matter of debate, few neotectonic-related data being available in this area. The Jura is crosscut by left-lateral strike-slip faults in a radial scheme with respect to the arc, and recent seismicity along one of them, the Vuache fault (Annecy earthquake Ml 5.3 1996), and at the northern front of the belt (Beaume-les-Dames earthquake, Ml 5.1, 2004), argues for ongoing active deformation across the Jura Mountain. Here we present preliminary results of permanent GPS network surrounding the Jura belt (RENAG and RPG data), which tend to show very slow, yet self-consistent strain pattern of the order of some tenth of mm/yr over 100 km-long typical baselines, with shortening perpendicular to the arc, and extension parallel to its axial trend. We also characterize a slow uplift in the same order of magnitude, which appears to be correlated to the current uplift observed in the Alps. Indeed, the uplift velocities are continuously decreasing from the core of the Alps (+2 mm/yr) to the westernmost part of the Jura (+0,4 mm/yr) and to the stable foreland (-0.1 mm/yr). Actually, from the Po plain to the Jura foreland, the GPS-related uplift velocities are well correlated to the topography, and the Jura arc appears connected to the Alps from this point of view. In order to better determine the deformation pattern in the Jura arc, we present a new regional GNSS

  6. Subaru FATS (fault tracking system)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winegar, Tom W.; Noumaru, Junichi

    2000-07-01

    The Subaru Telescope requires a fault tracking system to record the problems and questions that staff experience during their work, and the solutions provided by technical experts to these problems and questions. The system records each fault and routes it to a pre-selected 'solution-provider' for each type of fault. The solution provider analyzes the fault and writes a solution that is routed back to the fault reporter and recorded in a 'knowledge-base' for future reference. The specifications of our fault tracking system were unique. (1) Dual language capacity -- Our staff speak both English and Japanese. Our contractors speak Japanese. (2) Heterogeneous computers -- Our computer workstations are a mixture of SPARCstations, Macintosh and Windows computers. (3) Integration with prime contractors -- Mitsubishi and Fujitsu are primary contractors in the construction of the telescope. In many cases, our 'experts' are our contractors. (4) Operator scheduling -- Our operators spend 50% of their work-month operating the telescope, the other 50% is spent working day shift at the base facility in Hilo, or day shift at the summit. We plan for 8 operators, with a frequent rotation. We need to keep all operators informed on the current status of all faults, no matter the operator's location.

  7. Specialists' meeting on sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The four sessions of the meeting covered the following topics: 1. general approach to fast reactor safety, standards of fire safety, maximum design basis accidents for sodium leaks and fires, status of sodium fires in different countries; 2. physical and chemical processes during combustion of sodium and its interaction with structural and technological materials and methods for structural protection; 3. methods of sodium fires extinguishing and measures for localizing aerosol combustion products, organization of fire fighting procedures, instruction and training of fire personnel; 4. elimination of the consequences of sodium fires

  8. Increasing the arc efficiency by the removal of arc electromagnetic blowing in electric arc furnaces: I. Effect of electromagnetic blowing and the slag height on the arc efficiency in an electric arc furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, A. N.; Sokolov, A. Yu.; Lugovoi, Yu. A.

    2012-06-01

    The effect of electromagnetic blowing and the slag layer height on the arc efficiency is analytically studied. An arc is blown from under an electrode toward the furnace walls under an electromagnetic force. The arc efficiency of a 100-t high-power electric arc furnace changes from 0.47 to 0.76 when the slag height increases from 0 to 550 mm.

  9. Literature study regarding fire protection in nuclear power plants. Part I: Fire rated separations; Litteraturstudie angaaende brandskydd i kaernkraftverk. Del I: Brandteknisk separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaksson, S. [Swedish Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    1995-06-01

    This literature study has been made on behalf of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. The aim is to describe different aspects of fire protection in nuclear power plants. Conventional building codes can not give guidance on where to make fire rated separations in order to separate redundant trains of safety systems. The separation must originate in functional demands from the authorities on what functions are essential during and after a fire, and under what circumstances these functions shall be retained, i.e. the number of independent faults and initiating events. As a basic demand it is suggested to rate the strength of separations according to conventional building code, based on fire load. The whole separating construction shall have the same fire rating, including the ventilation system. Deviations from the basic demand can de done in case it can be proven that it is possible to compensate some or all of the fire rating with other measures. There is a general lack of statistical information regarding the reliability of fire separating constructions such as walls, fire doors, penetration seals and fire dampers. The amount of cables penetrating a seal is in many cases much higher in real installations than what has been tested for type approval. It would therefore be valuable to perform a furnace test with a more representative amount of cables passing through a penetration seal. Tests have shown that the 20 foot horizontal separation distance stipulated by NRC is not a guarantee against fire damage. Spatial separations based on general requirements shall not be allowed, but considered from case to case based on actual circumstances. For fire protection by isolation or coatings, it is of great importance to choose the method of protection carefully, to be compatible with the material it shall be applied on, and the environment and types of fire that may occur. 48 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs.

  10. FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS - BUSTED BUTTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Longwell; J. Keifer; S. Goodin

    2001-01-22

    The purpose of this fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas at the Busted Butte Test Facility and to ascertain whether the DOE fire safety objectives are met. The objective, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Section 4.2, is to establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees. (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  11. FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS - BUSTED BUTTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas at the Busted Butte Test Facility and to ascertain whether the DOE fire safety objectives are met. The objective, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Section 4.2, is to establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees. (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events

  12. Fire Perimeters (2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Group, or GeoMAC, is an internet-based mapping tool originally designed for fire managers to access online maps of current...

  13. Fire History Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past fire occurrence from tree rings, charcoal found in lake sediments, and other proxies. Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data...

  14. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems. The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  15. Basic Research Firing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Basic Research Firing Facility is an indoor ballistic test facility that has recently transitioned from a customer-based facility to a dedicated basic research...

  16. Fire and smoke retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, M. J.

    Despite a reduction in Federal regulatory activity, research concerned with flame retardancy and smoke suppression in the private sector appears to be increasing. This trend seem related to the increased utilization of plastics for end uses which traditionally have employed metal or wood products. As a result, new markets have appeared for thermally stable and fire resistance thermoplastic materials, and this in turn has spurred research and development activity. In addition, public awareness of the dangers associated with fire has increased as a result of several highly publicized hotel and restaurant fires within the past two years. The consumers recognition of flammability characteristics as important materials property considerations has increased. The current status of fire and smoke retardant chemistry and research are summarized.

  17. Fires and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fire itself, but TOXIC FUMES released from burning materials. Those fumes can kill; they can also contaminate food. Any type of food stored in permeable packaging — cardboard, plastic wrap, etc. — should be thrown away. ...

  18. National Fire Protection Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of civilian and first responder lives, property and economic stability can be significantly reduced by exploiting new smart firefighting opportunities. Register today! Haunted by Fire An amusement park blaze more ...

  19. Fire Mapper Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The design of a UAV mounted Fire Mapper system is proposed. The system consists of a multi-band imaging sensor, a data processing system and a data communication...

  20. RETRO Fires Aggr

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — Within the RETRO project, global gridded data sets for anthropogenic and vegetation fire emissions of several trace gases were generated, covering the period from...

  1. RETRO_FIRES_WCS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — Within the RETRO project, global gridded data sets for anthropogenic and vegetation fire emissions of several trace gases were generated, covering the period from...

  2. A dual doubly vergent orogen in the Banda Arc continent-arc collision zone as observed on deep seismic reflection profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, D. B.; Prasetyo, H.; Blundell, D. J.; Pigram, C. J.; Barber, A. J.; Richardson, A.; Tjokosaproetro, S.

    1996-02-01

    New deep seismic reflection profiles across the Banda Arc of Indonesia reveal reflectors in the uppermost 50 km of the lithosphere. Combined with existing earthquake hypocenter locations and focal mechanisms, the new structural geometries inferred from the reflectors yield a more complete analysis of deformation during the past 10 m.y. and provide insights into how strain is partitioned across an orogenic belt in which volcanic arcs and continents converge. A clearly defined Wadati-Benioff zone, and recent deformation of shelf sediments observed on older shallow seismic profiles, indicated to previous workers that substantial convergence occurred at the Timor Trough. A few focal mechanisms, seafloor escarpments, and recent geodetic surveying indicate that convergence at ˜7 cm yr-1 currently (last 200 kyr?) occurs at the northern margin of the now inactive volcanic arc, the Wetar Thrust zone. Reflectors on the new seismic profiles are interpreted as thrust faults and folds that occur throughout the crust and within the uppermost mantle between the Timor Trough and Wetar Thrust. Specifically, basement reflectors beneath the toe of the accretionary complex have reverse-sense offsets that imply blind thrusts. The whole crust is horizontally shortened, not only the sedimentary cover rocks that previously deformed into duplexes above a decollément. Reflectors dipping away from both margins of the forearc basin and at the northern margin of the volcanic arc are interpreted as evidence of thrusting. Thus each arc represents a doubly vergent fold-and-thrust belt, but only the northern one is currently active. Crustal thicknesses inferred from seismic velocities, reflectors, and gravity anomalies are consistent with the merging of a thinned continental shelf margin with oceanic lithosphere to form an orogenic belt with at present 3-4 km of topographic relief in the region of eastern Timor.

  3. Fire-protection research for energy technology: FY 80 year-end report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This continuing research program was initiated in 1977 in order to advance fire protection strategies for Fusion Energy Experiments (FEE). The program has since been expanded to encompass other forms of energy research. Accomplishments for fiscal year 1980 were: finalization of the fault-tree analysis of the Shiva fire management system; development of a second-generation, fire-growth analysis using an alternate moel and new LLNL combustion dynamics data; improvements of techniques for chemical smoke aerosol analysis; development and test of a simple method to assess the corrosive potential of smoke aerosols; development of an initial aerosol dilution system; completion of primary small-scale tests for measurements of the dynamics of cable fires; finalization of primary survey format for non-LLNL energy technology facilities; and studies of fire dynamics and aerosol production from electrical insulation and computer tape cassettes

  4. Reduction of Faults in Software Testing by Fault Domination"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shiyi

    2007-01-01

    Although mutation testing is one of the practical ways of enhancing test effectiveness in software testing, it could be sometimes infeasible in practical work for a large scale software so that the mutation testing becomes time-consuming and even in prohibited time. Therefore, the number of faults assumed to exist in the software under test should be reduced so as to be able to confine the time complexity of test within a reasonable period of time. This paper utilizes the concept of fault dominance and equivalence, which has long been employed in hardware testing, for revealing a novel way of reducing the number of faults assumed to hide in software systems. Once the number of faults assumed in software is decreased sharply, the effectiveness of mutation testing will be greatly enhanced and become a feasible way of software testing. Examples and experimental results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness and the helpfulness of the technology proposed in the paper.

  5. Deep Fault Drilling Project—Alpine Fault, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupert Sutherland

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand, constitutes a globally significant natural laboratory for research into how active plate-bounding continental faults work and, in particular, how rocks exposed at the surface today relate to deep-seated processes of tectonic deformation, seismogenesis, and mineralization. The along-strike homogeneity of the hanging wall, rapid rate of dextral-reverse slip on an inclined fault plane, and relatively shallow depths to mechanical and chemical transitions make the Alpine Fault and the broader South Island plate boundary an important international site for multi-disciplinary research and a realistic target for an ambitious long-term program of scientific drilling investigations.

  6. Fault Monitoring and Fault Recovery Control for Position Moored Tanker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Shaoji; Blanke, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses fault tolerant control for position mooring of a shuttle tanker operating in the North Sea. A complete framework for fault diagnosis is presented but the loss of a sub-sea mooring line buoyancy element is given particular attention, since this fault could lead to mooring line...... breakage and a high-risk abortion of an oil-loading operation. With significant drift forces from waves, non-Gaussian elements dominate forces and the residuals designed for fault diagnosis. Hypothesis testing need be designed using dedicated change detection for the type of distribution encountered....... In addition to dedicated diagnosis, an optimal position algorithm is proposed to accommodate buoyancy element failure and keep the mooring system in a safe state. Furthermore, even in the case of line breakage, this optimal position strategy could be utilised to avoid breakage of a second mooring line...

  7. Direct fire synchronization.

    OpenAIRE

    Lamont, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis analyzes defense in sector missions adapted from the National Training Center and conducted with the Janus(A) high resolution combat model to check for relationships which influence direct fire synchronization. This analysis should enhance the monitoring of unit performances in the area of concentration of massing of fires consistent with the commander's intent. The combat fighting vehicle, which combines the characterist...

  8. An Algebra of Fault Tolerance

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, Shrisha

    2009-01-01

    Every system of any significant size is created by composition from smaller sub-systems or components. It is thus fruitful to analyze the fault-tolerance of a system as a function of its composition. In this paper, two basic types of system composition are described, and an algebra to describe fault tolerance of composed systems is derived. The set of systems forms monoids under the two composition operators, and a semiring when both are concerned. A partial ordering relation between systems is used to compare their fault-tolerance behaviors.

  9. Risk assessment of metal vapor arcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Monika C. (Inventor); Leidecker, Henning W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method for assessing metal vapor arcing risk for a component is provided. The method comprises acquiring a current variable value associated with an operation of the component; comparing the current variable value with a threshold value for the variable; evaluating compared variable data to determine the metal vapor arcing risk in the component; and generating a risk assessment status for the component.

  10. Characterization of Micro-arc Oxidized Titanium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The observation of the sparkling discharges during the micro-arc oxidation process in KOH aqueous electrolyte was achieved. The change of surface morphology was progressively observed and a plausible pore formation mechanism is proposed. Cell proliferation and ALP activity of micro-arc oxidized titanium was evaluated by human body derived osteoblasts and slightly better than those of blasted surface.

  11. The next-generation ARC middleware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appleton, O.; Cameron, D.; Cernak, J.;

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Resource Connector (ARC) is a light-weight, non-intrusive, simple yet powerful Grid middleware capable of connecting highly heterogeneous computing and storage resources. ARC aims at providing general purpose, flexible, collaborative computing environments suitable for a range of use...

  12. Plasma Arc Augmented CO2 laser welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Andersen, Mikkel; Frederiksen, Niels;

    2001-01-01

    In order to reduce the hardness of laser beam welded 2.13 mm medium strength steel CMn 250, a plasma arc has been used simultaneously with a 2.6 kW CO2 laser source. In a number of systematic laboratory tests, the plasma arc current, plasma gas flow and distance to the laser source were varied wi...

  13. Implementing RapidArc into clinical routine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Esch, Ann; Huyskens, Dominique P; Behrens, Claus F;

    2011-01-01

    With the increased commercial availability of intensity modulated arc therapy (IMAT) comes the need for comprehensive QA programs, covering the different aspects of this newly available technology. This manuscript proposes such a program for the RapidArc (RA) (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto) I...

  14. Fires in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    In what seemed like the blink of an eye, wildfires ignited in the paper-dry, drought-stricken vegetation of Southern California over the weekend of October 20, 2007, and exploded into massive infernos that forced hundreds of thousands of people to evacuate their communities. Driven by Santa Ana winds, fires grew thousands of acres in just one to two days. The fires sped down from the mountains into the outskirts of coastal cities, including San Diego. Dozens of homes have burned to the ground, and at least one person has died, according to local news reports. Several of the fires were burning completely out of control as of October 22. This image of the fires in California was captured at 1:55 p.m. U.S. Pacific Daylight Time on October 22, 2007. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. Thick streamers of smoke unfurl over the Pacific Ocean. The brownish plumes are clouds of dust. Fires northwest of Los Angeles seemed calmer at the time of this image than they were the previous day.

  15. Crustal strain partitioning and the associated earthquake hazard in the eastern Sunda-Banda Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulali, A.; Susilo, S.; McClusky, S.; Meilano, I.; Cummins, P.; Tregoning, P.; Lister, G.; Efendi, J.; Syafi'i, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    We use Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements of surface deformation to show that the convergence between the Australian Plate and Sunda Block in eastern Indonesia is partitioned between the megathrust and a continuous zone of back-arc thrusting extending 2000 km from east Java to north of Timor. Although deformation in this back-arc region has been reported previously, its extent and the mechanism of convergence partitioning have hitherto been conjectural. GPS observations establish that partitioning occurs via a combination of anticlockwise rotation of an arc segment called the Sumba Block, and left-lateral movement along a major NE-SW strike-slip fault west of Timor. We also identify a westward extension of the back-arc thrust for 300 km onshore into East Java, accommodating slip of ˜6 mm/yr. These results highlight a major new seismic threat for East Java and draw attention to the pronounced seismic and tsunami threat to Bali, Lombok, Nusa Tenggara, and other coasts along the Flores Sea.

  16. FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristov Denis Ivanovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The All-Russian Congress “Fire Stop Moscow” was de-voted to the analysis of the four segments of the industry of fire protection systems and technologies: the design of fire protec-tion systems, the latest developments and technologies of active and passive fire protection of buildings, the state and the devel-opment of the legal framework, the practice of fire protection of buildings and structures. The forum brought together the repre-sentatives of the industry of fire protection systems, scientists, leading experts, specialists in fire protection and representatives of construction companies from different regions of Russia. In parallel with the Congress Industrial Exhibition of fire protection systems, materials and technology was held, where manufacturers presented their products. The urgency of the “Fire Stop Moscow” Congress in 2015 organized by the Congress Bureau ODF Events lies primarily in the fact that it considered the full range of issues related to the fire protection of building and construction projects; studied the state of the regulatory framework for fire safety and efficiency of public services, research centers, private companies and busi-nesses in the area of fire safety. The main practical significance of the event which was widely covered in the media space, was the opportunity to share the views and information between management, science, and practice of business on implementing fire protection systems in the conditions of modern economic relations and market realities. : congress, fire protection, systems, technologies, fire protection systems, exhibition

  17. Numerical Study on Arc Plasma Behavior During Arc Commutation Process in Direct Current Circuit Breaker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨飞; 马瑞光; 吴翊; 孙昊; 纽春萍; 荣命哲

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the numerical investigation of arc plasma behavior during arc commutation process in a medium-voltage direct current circuit breaker (DCCB) contact system. A three-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) model of air arc plasma in the contact system of a DCCB is developed, based on commercial software FLUENT. Coupled electromagnetic and gas dynamic interactions are considered as usual, and a thin layer of nonlinear electrical resistance elements is used to represent the voltage drop of plasma sheath and the formation of new arc root. The distributions of pressure, temperature, gas flow and current density of arc plasma in arc region are calculated. The simulation results indicate that the pressure distribution related to the contact system has a strong effect on the arc commutation process, arising from the change of electrical conductivity in the arc root region. In DCCB contact system, the pressure of arc root region will be concentrated and higher if the space above the moving contact is enclosed, which is not good for arc root commutation. However, when the region is opened, the pressure distribution would be lower and more evenly, which is favorable for the arc root commutation.

  18. Geology and geochemistry characteristics of the Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc (Central Area), Chiapas Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, J. C.; Jaimes-Viera, M. C.; Garduño-Monroy, V. H.; Layer, P. W.; Pompa-Mera, V.; Godinez, M. L.

    2007-04-01

    The Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc (CVA), located in the central portion of the State of Chiapas, is a 150 km stretch of volcanoes irregularly aligned in the northwest direction between two great volcanic features: the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt to the northwest and the Central American Volcanic Arc to the southeast. The CVA is located in a complex zone marking the interaction of the North American, Caribbean and Cocos plates, near the Motagua-Polochic fault system, the boundary between North American and Caribbean plates. The central part of the CVA is composed of an irregular northwest alignment of at least 10 volcanic structures generally lying along NNW-SSE-trending faults splayed from the Motagua-Polochic system. Among the structures there are seven volcanic domes (Huitepec, Amahuitz, La Iglesia, Mispía, La Lanza, Venustiano Carranza and Santotón), one explosion crater (Navenchauc), one collapse structure (Apas), and one dome complex (Tzontehuitz). In the majority of the structures there is a clear resurgence with the formation of several domes in the same structure, with the destruction of previous domes (Navenchauc) or with the formation of new explosion craters or collapse structures (Apas). The volcanic activity in the CVA was mainly effusive accompanied by explosive and phreatomagmatic events and is characterized by volcanic domes accompanied by block-and-ash-flows, ash flows with accretionary lapilli, falls, and pumice flows. The volcanic structures and deposits are calcalkaline in composition with a medium to high content of potassium. CVA volcanic rocks vary from andesite to dacite with SiO 2 between 57 and 66 wt.%, show low concentrations of Ti, P, Nb and Ta, are enriched in Light Rare Earths, depleted in Heavy Rare Earths, and show a small Eu anomaly; all indicative of arc-related volcanism associated with subduction of the Cocos plate under the North American plate, but complicated by the geometry of the plate boundary fault system.

  19. Sensor Control of Robot Arc Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sias, F. R., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The potential for using computer vision as sensory feedback for robot gas-tungsten arc welding is investigated. The basic parameters that must be controlled while directing the movement of an arc welding torch are defined. The actions of a human welder are examined to aid in determining the sensory information that would permit a robot to make reproducible high strength welds. Special constraints imposed by both robot hardware and software are considered. Several sensory modalities that would potentially improve weld quality are examined. Special emphasis is directed to the use of computer vision for controlling gas-tungsten arc welding. Vendors of available automated seam tracking arc welding systems and of computer vision systems are surveyed. An assessment is made of the state of the art and the problems that must be solved in order to apply computer vision to robot controlled arc welding on the Space Shuttle Main Engine.

  20. Arc flash hazard analysis and mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    Das, J C

    2012-01-01

    "All the aspects of arc flash hazard calculations and their mitigation have been covered. Knowledge of electrical power systems up to undergraduate level is assumed. The calculations of short-circuits, protective relaying and varied electrical system configurations in industrial power systems are addressed. Protection systems address differential relays, arc flash sensing relays, protective relaying coordination, current transformer operation and saturation and applications to major electrical equipments from the arc flash considerations. Current technologies and strategies for arc flash mitigation have been covered. A new algorithm for the calculation of arc flash hazard accounting for the decaying nature of the short-circuit currents is included. There are many practical examples and study cases. Review questions and references follow each chapter"--

  1. Fault isolatability conditions for linear systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we shall show that an unlimited number of additive single faults can be isolated under mild conditions if a general isolation scheme is applied. Multiple faults are also covered. The approach is algebraic and is based on a set representation of faults, where all faults within a set...

  2. From fault classification to fault tolerance for multi-agent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Potiron, Katia; Taillibert, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Faults are a concern for Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) designers, especially if the MAS are built for industrial or military use because there must be some guarantee of dependability. Some fault classification exists for classical systems, and is used to define faults. When dependability is at stake, such fault classification may be used from the beginning of the system's conception to define fault classes and specify which types of faults are expected. Thus, one may want to use fault classification for MAS; however, From Fault Classification to Fault Tolerance for Multi-Agent Systems argues that

  3. Computer simulation to arc spraying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁志芳; 李午申; 王迎娜

    2004-01-01

    The arc spraying process is divided into two stages: the first stage is atomization-spraying stream (ASS) and the second one is spraying deposition (SD). Then study status is described of both stages' physical model and corresponding controlling-equation. Based on the analysis of study status, the conclusion as follows is got. The heat and mass transfer models with two or three dimensions in ASS stage should be established to far deeply analyses the dynamical and thermal behavior of the overheat droplet. The statistics law of overheated droplets should be further studied by connecting simulation with experiments. More proper validation experiments should be designed for flattening simulation to modify the models in SD stage.

  4. ATLAS DDM integration in ARC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrmann, Gerd; Cameron, David; Ellert, Mattias;

    The Nordic Data Grid Facility (NDGF) consists of Grid resources running ARC middleware in Scandinavia and other countries. These resources serve many virtual organisations and contribute a large fraction of total worldwide resources for the ATLAS experiment, whose data is distributed and managed...... by the DQ2 software. Managing ATLAS data within NDGF and between NDGF and other Grids used by ATLAS (the LHC Computing Grid and the Open Science Grid) presents a unique challenge for several reasons. Firstly, the entry point for data, the Tier 1 centre, is physically distributed among heterogeneous...... resources in several countries and yet must present a single access point for all data stored within the centre. The middleware framework used in NDGF differs significantly from other Grids, specifically in the way that all data movement and registration is performed by services outside the worker node...

  5. ATLAS DDM integration in ARC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrmann, Gerd; Cameron, David; Ellert, Mattias;

    2008-01-01

    The Nordic Data Grid Facility (NDGF) consists of Grid resources running ARC middleware in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. These resources serve many virtual organisations and contribute a large fraction of total worldwide resources for the ATLAS experiment, whose data is distributed...... and managed by the DQ2 software. Managing ATLAS data within NDGF and between NDGF and other Grids used by ATLAS (the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE Grid and the Open Science Grid) presents a unique challenge for several reasons. Firstly, the entry point for data, the Tier 1 centre, is physically distributed...... among heterogeneous resources in several countries and yet must present a single access point for all data stored within the centre. The middleware framework used in NDGF differs significantly from other Grids, specifically in the way that all data movement and registration is performed by services...

  6. Plasma arc welding weld imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybicki, Daniel J. (Inventor); Mcgee, William F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A welding torch for plasma arc welding apparatus has a transparent shield cup disposed about the constricting nozzle, the cup including a small outwardly extending polished lip. A guide tube extends externally of the torch and has a free end adjacent to the lip. First and second optical fiber bundle assemblies are supported within the guide tube. Light from a strobe light is transmitted along one of the assemblies to the free end and through the lip onto the weld site. A lens is positioned in the guide tube adjacent to the second assembly and focuses images of the weld site onto the end of the fiber bundle of the second assembly and these images are transmitted along the second assembly to a video camera so that the weld site may be viewed continuously for monitoring the welding process.

  7. INTERPOLATION WITH RESTRICTED ARC LENGTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Petar Petrov

    2003-01-01

    For given data (ti,yi), I= 0,1,…,n,0 = t0 <t1 <…<tn = 1we study constrained interpolation problem of Favard type inf{‖f"‖∞|f∈W2∞[0,1],f(ti)=yi,i=0,…,n,l(f;[0,1])≤l0}, wherel(f";[0,1])=∫1 0 / 1+f'2(x)dx is the arc length off in [0,1]. We prove the existence of a solution f* of the above problem, that is a quadratic spline with a second derivative f"* , which coincides with one of the constants - ‖f"*‖∞,0,‖f"*‖∞ between every two consecutive knots. Thus, we extend a result ofKarlin concerning Favard problem, to the case of restricted length interpolation.

  8. Fault Tolerant External Memory Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Mølhave, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Algorithms dealing with massive data sets are usually designed for I/O-efficiency, often captured by the I/O model by Aggarwal and Vitter. Another aspect of dealing with massive data is how to deal with memory faults, e.g. captured by the adversary based faulty memory RAM by Finocchi and Italiano....... However, current fault tolerant algorithms do not scale beyond the internal memory. In this paper we investigate for the first time the connection between I/O-efficiency in the I/O model and fault tolerance in the faulty memory RAM, and we assume that both memory and disk are unreliable. We show a lower...... bound on the number of I/Os required for any deterministic dictionary that is resilient to memory faults. We design a static and a dynamic deterministic dictionary with optimal query performance as well as an optimal sorting algorithm and an optimal priority queue. Finally, we consider scenarios where...

  9. The fault-tree compiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martensen, Anna L.; Butler, Ricky W.

    1987-01-01

    The Fault Tree Compiler Program is a new reliability tool used to predict the top event probability for a fault tree. Five different gate types are allowed in the fault tree: AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, INVERT, and M OF N gates. The high level input language is easy to understand and use when describing the system tree. In addition, the use of the hierarchical fault tree capability can simplify the tree description and decrease program execution time. The current solution technique provides an answer precise (within the limits of double precision floating point arithmetic) to the five digits in the answer. The user may vary one failure rate or failure probability over a range of values and plot the results for sensitivity analyses. The solution technique is implemented in FORTRAN; the remaining program code is implemented in Pascal. The program is written to run on a Digital Corporation VAX with the VMS operation system.

  10. Fault Testing for Reversible Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, K N; Markov, I L; Patel, Ketan N.; Hayes, John P.; Markov, Igor L.

    2004-01-01

    Applications of reversible circuits can be found in the fields of low-power computation, cryptography, communications, digital signal processing, and the emerging field of quantum computation. Furthermore, prototype circuits for low-power applications are already being fabricated in CMOS. Regardless of the eventual technology adopted, testing is sure to be an important component in any robust implementation. We consider the test set generation problem. Reversibility affects the testing problem in fundamental ways, making it significantly simpler than for the irreversible case. For example, we show that any test set that detects all single stuck-at faults in a reversible circuit also detects all multiple stuck-at faults. We present efficient test set constructions for the standard stuck-at fault model as well as the usually intractable cell-fault model. We also give a practical test set generation algorithm, based on an integer linear programming formulation, that yields test sets approximately half the size o...

  11. Fire protection and fire fighting in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fires are a threat to all technical installations. While fire protection has long been a well established conventional discipline, its application to nuclear facilities requires special considerations. Nevertheless, for a long time fire engineering has been somewhat neglected in the design and operation of nuclear installations. In the nuclear industry, the Browns Ferry fire in 1975 brought about an essential change in the attention paid to fire problems. Designers and plant operators, as well as insurance companies and regulators, increased their efforts to develop concepts and methods for reducing fire risks, not only to protect the capital investment in nuclear plants but also to consider the potential secondary effects which could lead to nuclear accidents. Although the number of fires in nuclear installations is still relatively large, their overall importance to the safety of nuclear power plants was not considered to be very high. Only more recently have probabilistic analyses changed this picture. The results may well have to be taken into account more carefully. Various aspects of fire fighting and fire protection were discussed during the Symposium, the first of its kind to be organized by the IAEA. It was convened in co-operation with several organizations working in the nuclear or fire protection fields. The intention was to gather experts from nuclear engineering areas and the conventional fire protection field at one meeting with a view to enhancing the exchange of information and experience and to presenting current knowledge on the various disciplines involved. The presentations at the meeting were subdivided into eight sessions: standards and licensing (6 papers); national fire safety practices (7 papers); fire safety by design (11 papers); fire fighting (2 papers); computer fire modeling (7 papers); fire safety in fuel center facilities (7 papers); fire testing of materials (3 papers); fire risk assessment (5 papers). A separate abstract was

  12. Analysis of arc emission spectra of stainless steel electric arc furnace slag affected by fluctuating arc voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aula, Matti; Mäkinen, Ari; Fabritius, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Control of chromium oxidation in the electric arc furnace (EAF) is a significant problem in stainless steel production due to variations of the chemical compositions in the EAF charge. One potential method to control chromium oxidation is to analyze the emission spectrum of the electric arc in order to find indicators of rising chromium content in slag. The purpose of this study was to determine if slag composition can be gained by utilizing electric arc emission spectra in the laboratory environment, despite electric arc voltage fluctuations and varying slag composition. The purpose of inducing voltage fluctuation was to simulate changes in the industrial EAF process. The slag samples were obtained from Outokumpu Stainless Oy Tornio Works, and three different arc currents were used. The correlation analysis showed that the emission spectra offer numerous peak ratios with high correlations to the X-ray fluorescence-measured slag CrO(x)/FeO(x) and MnO/SiO2 ratios. These ratios are useful in determining if the reduction agents have been depleted in the EAF. The results suggest that analysis of laboratory-scale electric arc emission spectra is suitable for indicating the high CrO(x) or MnO content of the slag despite the arc fluctuations. Reliable analysis of other slag components was not successful.

  13. Modeling Climate Change Impacts on Landscape Evolution, Fire, and Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, B. S.; O Connor, C.; Falk, D. A.; Garfin, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Landscape disturbances such as wildfire interact with climate variability to influence hydrologic regimes. We coupled landscape, fire, and hydrologic models and forced them using projected climate to demonstrate climate change impacts anticipated at Fort Huachuca in southeastern Arizona, USA. The US Department of Defense (DoD) recognizes climate change as a trend that has implications for military installations, national security and global instability. The goal of this DoD Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) project (RC-2232) is to provide decision making tools for military installations in the southwestern US to help them adapt to the operational realities associated with climate change. For this study we coupled the spatially explicit fire and vegetation dynamics model FireBGCv2 with the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment tool (AGWA) to evaluate landscape vegetation change, fire disturbance, and surface runoff in response to projected climate forcing. A projected climate stream for the years 2005-2055 was developed from the Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA) 4 km statistical downscaling of the CanESM2 GCM using Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5. AGWA, an ArcGIS add-in tool, was used to automate the parameterization and execution of the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the KINematic runoff and EROSion2 (KINEROS2) models based on GIS layers. Landscape raster data generated by FireBGCv2 project an increase in fire and drought associated tree mortality and a decrease in vegetative basal area over the years of simulation. Preliminary results from SWAT modeling efforts show an increase to surface runoff during years following a fire, and for future winter rainy seasons. Initial results from KINEROS2 model runs show that peak runoff rates are expected to increase 10-100 fold as a result of intense rainfall falling on burned areas.

  14. Diagnosis and fault-tolerant control

    CERN Document Server

    Blanke, Mogens; Lunze, Jan; Staroswiecki, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Fault-tolerant control aims at a gradual shutdown response in automated systems when faults occur. It satisfies the industrial demand for enhanced availability and safety, in contrast to traditional reactions to faults, which bring about sudden shutdowns and loss of availability. The book presents effective model-based analysis and design methods for fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control. Architectural and structural models are used to analyse the propagation of the fault through the process, to test the fault detectability and to find the redundancies in the process that can be used to ensure fault tolerance. It also introduces design methods suitable for diagnostic systems and fault-tolerant controllers for continuous processes that are described by analytical models of discrete-event systems represented by automata. The book is suitable for engineering students, engineers in industry and researchers who wish to get an overview of the variety of approaches to process diagnosis and fault-tolerant contro...

  15. Sodium fire testing: structural evaluation of sodium fire suppression system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-08-01

    This report describes the development and the lessons learned from the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Sodium Fire Testing Program (DRS 26.03). The purpose of this program was to evaluate the behavior of the Sodium Fire Suppression System and validate the analytical techniques used in the calculation of the effects of sodium fires in air-filled cells. This report focuses on the fire suppression capability and the structural integrity of the Fire Suppression System. System features are discussed; the test facility is described and the key results are provided. Modifications to the fire suppression system and the plant made as a result of test experience are also discussed.

  16. Normal fault earthquakes or graviquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doglioni, C.; Carminati, E.; Petricca, P.; Riguzzi, F.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquakes are dissipation of energy throughout elastic waves. Canonically is the elastic energy accumulated during the interseismic period. However, in crustal extensional settings, gravity is the main energy source for hangingwall fault collapsing. Gravitational potential is about 100 times larger than the observed magnitude, far more than enough to explain the earthquake. Therefore, normal faults have a different mechanism of energy accumulation and dissipation (graviquakes) with respect to other tectonic settings (strike-slip and contractional), where elastic energy allows motion even against gravity. The bigger the involved volume, the larger is their magnitude. The steeper the normal fault, the larger is the vertical displacement and the larger is the seismic energy released. Normal faults activate preferentially at about 60° but they can be shallower in low friction rocks. In low static friction rocks, the fault may partly creep dissipating gravitational energy without releasing great amount of seismic energy. The maximum volume involved by graviquakes is smaller than the other tectonic settings, being the activated fault at most about three times the hypocentre depth, explaining their higher b-value and the lower magnitude of the largest recorded events. Having different phenomenology, graviquakes show peculiar precursors. PMID:26169163

  17. Aeromagnetic anomalies over faulted strata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauch, V.J.S.; Hudson, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution aeromagnetic surveys are now an industry standard and they commonly detect anomalies that are attributed to faults within sedimentary basins. However, detailed studies identifying geologic sources of magnetic anomalies in sedimentary environments are rare in the literature. Opportunities to study these sources have come from well-exposed sedimentary basins of the Rio Grande rift in New Mexico and Colorado. High-resolution aeromagnetic data from these areas reveal numerous, curvilinear, low-amplitude (2–15 nT at 100-m terrain clearance) anomalies that consistently correspond to intrasedimentary normal faults (Figure 1). Detailed geophysical and rock-property studies provide evidence for the magnetic sources at several exposures of these faults in the central Rio Grande rift (summarized in Grauch and Hudson, 2007, and Hudson et al., 2008). A key result is that the aeromagnetic anomalies arise from the juxtaposition of magnetically differing strata at the faults as opposed to chemical processes acting at the fault zone. The studies also provide (1) guidelines for understanding and estimating the geophysical parameters controlling aeromagnetic anomalies at faulted strata (Grauch and Hudson), and (2) observations on key geologic factors that are favorable for developing similar sedimentary sources of aeromagnetic anomalies elsewhere (Hudson et al.).

  18. RECENT GEODYNAMICS OF FAULT ZONES: FAULTING IN REAL TIME SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. O. Kuzmin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent deformation processes taking place in real time are analyzed on the basis of data on fault zones which were collected by long-term detailed geodetic survey studies with application of field methods and satellite monitoring.A new category of recent crustal movements is described and termed as parametrically induced tectonic strain in fault zones. It is shown that in the fault zones located in seismically active and aseismic regions, super intensive displacements of the crust (5 to 7 cm per year, i.e. (5 to 7·10–5 per year occur due to very small external impacts of natural or technogenic / industrial origin.The spatial discreteness of anomalous deformation processes is established along the strike of the regional Rechitsky fault in the Pripyat basin. It is concluded that recent anomalous activity of the fault zones needs to be taken into account in defining regional regularities of geodynamic processes on the basis of real-time measurements.The paper presents results of analyses of data collected by long-term (20 to 50 years geodetic surveys in highly seismically active regions of Kopetdag, Kamchatka and California. It is evidenced by instrumental geodetic measurements of recent vertical and horizontal displacements in fault zones that deformations are ‘paradoxically’ deviating from the inherited movements of the past geological periods.In terms of the recent geodynamics, the ‘paradoxes’ of high and low strain velocities are related to a reliable empirical fact of the presence of extremely high local velocities of deformations in the fault zones (about 10–5 per year and above, which take place at the background of slow regional deformations which velocities are lower by the order of 2 to 3. Very low average annual velocities of horizontal deformation are recorded in the seismic regions of Kopetdag and Kamchatka and in the San Andreas fault zone; they amount to only 3 to 5 amplitudes of the earth tidal deformations per year.A ‘fault

  19. Boolean Logic with Fault Tolerant Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Alagoz, B. Baykant

    2009-01-01

    Error detectable and error correctable coding in Hamming space was researched to discover possible fault tolerant coding constellations, which can implement Boolean logic with fault tolerant property. Basic logic operators of the Boolean algebra were developed to apply fault tolerant coding in the logic circuits. It was shown that application of three-bit fault tolerant codes have provided the digital system skill of auto-recovery without need for designing additional-fault tolerance mechanisms.

  20. A learning system for fault finding

    OpenAIRE

    Tunevi, Anders

    1989-01-01

    A learning system for fault finding has been constructed. This system contains many different types of knowledge, three ways to find faults and four ways to learn fault finding. The constructed learning system works for a class of fault finding problems. This class has been described in the paper. The developed system could be viewed as an architecture of a general learning system for fault finding. The system could also be used as a testbench of learning mechanisms. The experiences from this...

  1. Fault diagnosis based on controller modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    faults can be detected and isolated using active methods, where an auxiliary input is applied. Using active methods for the diagnosis of parametric faults in closed-loop systems, the amplitude of the applied auxiliary input need to be increased to be able to detect and isolate the faults in a reasonable...... with both fault detection and isolation will be discussed. Also passive fault diagnosis methods based on controller modification will be discussed...

  2. Contribution of peat fires to the 2015 Indonesian fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Johannes W.; Heil, Angelika; Wooster, Martin J.; van der Werf, Guido R.

    2016-04-01

    Indonesia experienced widespread fires and severe air quality degradation due to smoke during September and October 2015. The fires are thought to have originated from the combination of El-Niño-induced drought and human activities. Fires ignited for land clearing escaped into drained peatlands and burned until the onset of the monsoonal rain. In addition to the health impact, these fires are thought to have emitted large amounts of greenhouse gases, e.g. more than Japan over the entire year. The Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) has detected and quantified the fires with the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) and the smoke dispersion with the Chemistry-Integrated Forecasting System (C-IFS) in near real time. GFAS and C-IFS are constrained by satellite-based observations of fire and smoke constituents, respectively. The distinction between peat and above-ground fires is a crucial and difficult step in fire emission estimation as it introduces errors of up to one order of magnitude. Here, we quantify the contribution of peat fires to the total emission flux of the 2015 Indonesian fires by (1) using an improved peat map in GFAS and (2) analysing the observed diurnal cycle of the fire activity as represented in a new development for GFAS. Furthermore, we link the fires occurrence to economic activity by analysing the coincidence with concessions for palm oil plantations and other industrial forest uses.

  3. Can climate change increase fire severity independent of fire intensity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mantgem, P.; Nesmith, J.; Keifer, M.; Knapp, E.; Flint, A. L.; Flint, L. E.

    2013-12-01

    There is a growing realization that regional warming may be linked to increasing fire size and frequency in forests of the western US, a trend occurring in concert with increased fuel loads in forests that historically experienced frequent surface fires. Recent studies have also suggested that warming temperatures are correlated with increased fire severity (post-fire tree mortality). The mechanism whereby fire severity might increase in response to warming is presumed to be increasing probabilities of hazardous fire weather (higher air temperature, lower relative humidity and fuel moisture). While likely true, this view does not consider the biological context of the fire event. Here we present evidence that trees subject to environmental stress are more sensitive to subsequent fire damage. Tree growth records, used as an index of health for individuals, show that for two tree species (Abies concolor and Pinus lambertiana) in the Sierra Nevada of California poor growth leads to increased probabilities of mortality following fire. Plot-based fire monitoring databases from over 300 sites across the western US demonstrate that indices of drought stress are strongly predictive of post-fire tree survivorship. In sum, these results suggest that recent climatic trends may lead to a de facto increase in fire severity, even when there is no change in fire intensity.

  4. An underwater landslide or slump on an active submarine fault - a possible source of a devastating tsunami?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, T.

    2007-12-01

    A Mw 7.7 earthquake and subsequent large-scale tsunami occurred on 17th July 2006 off the southern coast of Java Island, Indonesia. A maximum of 7.7 m inundation height was recorded in Pangandaran on the southern coast of Java, according to the field survey just after the tsunami (Tsuji et al., 2006). However, since there are few residents who noticed the earthquake tremors, the earthquake may possibility be so-called "tsunami earthquake". The aftershocks from July to September occurred on the fore-arc area and their CMT solution suggests the predominant north-south tensile stress. R/V MIRAI passed the aftershock area in 2004 and 2005 with continuous multibeam bathymetric survey. The processed topographic map shows a lot of amphitheatres with the scale of 8-20 km along the fault scarps. Convexity landforms are located below the footwall of the amphitheatres, apparently the relics of an underwater landslide, and their relative elevation exceeds 1000 m in maximum. This area is characterised by the southeastern extension of Mentawai Fault and its associated minor faults ranging from the Sumatra fore-arc area. The observed amphitheatres and relics of underwater landslides are located along the active faults. Considering that the tsunami wave height distribution is concentrated on a specific narrow area compared with the scale of the mainshock, the mainshock possibly triggered underwater landslides on these amphitheatres and the slides generated a large-scale tsunami. The Ryukyu district was attacked by a M7-class earthquake followed by a devastating tsunami in 1771. 'The East Ishigaki Fault,' one of the across-arc active normal faults in this area was studied precisely by multibeam echo sounding. The study revealed a slump on the segmented active fault. The slump itself may generate a tsunami with the wave height of several meters and might cause the 1771 tsunami together with the faulting itself. Some recent geohazards also show that a landslide or a slump is

  5. Acoustic characteristics of electric arc furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherednichenko, V. S.; Bikeev, R. A.; Cherednichenko, A. V.; Ognev, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    A mathematical model is constructed to describe the appearance and development of the noise characteristics of superpower electric arc furnaces. The noise formation is shown to be related to the pulsation of the axial plasma flows in arc discharges because of the electrodynamic pressure oscillations caused by the interaction of the self-magnetic field with the current passing in an arc. The pressure in the arc axis changes at a frequency of 100 Hz at the maximum operating pressure of 66 kPa for an arc current of 80 kA. The main ac arc sound frequencies are multiples of 100 Hz, which is supported in the practice of operation of electric arc furnaces. The sound intensity in the furnace laboratory reaches 160 dB and is decreased to 115-120 dB in the working furnace area due to shielding by the furnace jacket, the molten metal, and the molten slag. The appropriateness of increasing the hermetic sealing of electric furnaces and creating furnaces operating at low currents and high transformer voltages is corroborated.

  6. Reconstruction of Late Cretaceous Magmatic Arcs in the Northern Andes: Single Versus Multiple Arc Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, A.; Jaramillo, J. S.; Leon, S.; Hincapie, S.; Mejia, D.; Patino, A. M.; Vanegas, J.; Zapata, S.; Valencia, V.; Jimenez, G.; Monsalve, G.

    2014-12-01

    Although magmatic rocks are major tracers of the geological evolution of convergent margins, pre-collisional events such as subduction erosion, collisional thrusting or late collisional strike slip segmentation may difficult the recognizing of multiple arc systems and therefore the existence of paleogeographic scenarios with multiple subduction systems. New field, U-Pb geochronology and whole rock geochemistry constraints from the northwestern segment of the Central Cordillera in the states of Antioquia and Caldas (Colombia) are used to understand the nature of the Late Cretaceous arc magmatism and evaluate the existence of single or multiple Pacific and Caribbean arc systems in the growth of the Northwestern Andes. The new results integrated with additional field and published information is used to suggest the existence of at least three different magmatic arcs. (1) An Eastern Continental arc built within a well defined Permian to Triassic continental crust that record a protracted 90-70 Ma magmatic evolution, (2) a 90-80 arc formed within attenuated continental crust and associated oceanic crust, (3) 90-88 Ma arc formed over a Late Cretaceous plateau crust. The eastern arcs were formed as part of double eastern vergent subduction system, where the most outboard arc represent a fringing arc formed over detached fragments of continental crust, whereas the easternmost continental arc growth by the closure an subduction of and older and broad Triassic to Early Jurassic back-arc ocean. Its closure also end up in ophiolite emplacement. The third allochtonous oceanic arc was formed over the Caribbean plateau crust and was accreted to the continental margin in the Late Cretaceous. Ongoing paleomagnetic, deformational, gravimetric and basin analysis will be integrate to test this model and understand the complex Late Cretaceous tectonic evolution of the Northern Andes.

  7. Fault Management Guiding Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Marilyn E.; Friberg, Kenneth H.; Fesq, Lorraine; Barley, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Regardless of the mission type: deep space or low Earth orbit, robotic or human spaceflight, Fault Management (FM) is a critical aspect of NASA space missions. As the complexity of space missions grows, the complexity of supporting FM systems increase in turn. Data on recent NASA missions show that development of FM capabilities is a common driver for significant cost overruns late in the project development cycle. Efforts to understand the drivers behind these cost overruns, spearheaded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), indicate that they are primarily caused by the growing complexity of FM systems and the lack of maturity of FM as an engineering discipline. NASA can and does develop FM systems that effectively protect mission functionality and assets. The cost growth results from a lack of FM planning and emphasis by project management, as well the maturity of FM as an engineering discipline, which lags behind the maturity of other engineering disciplines. As a step towards controlling the cost growth associated with FM development, SMD has commissioned a multi-institution team to develop a practitioner's handbook representing best practices for the end-to-end processes involved in engineering FM systems. While currently concentrating primarily on FM for science missions, the expectation is that this handbook will grow into a NASA-wide handbook, serving as a companion to the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook. This paper presents a snapshot of the principles that have been identified to guide FM development from cradle to grave. The principles range from considerations for integrating FM into the project and SE organizational structure, the relationship between FM designs and mission risk, and the use of the various tools of FM (e.g., redundancy) to meet the FM goal of protecting mission functionality and assets.

  8. Tsunamigenic potential of Mediterranean fault systems and active subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petricca, Patrizio; Babeyko, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    Since the North East Atlantic and Mediterranean Tsunami Warning System (NEAMTWS) is under development by the European scientific community, it becomes necessary to define guidelines for the characterization of the numerous parameters must be taken into account in a fair assessment of the risk. Definition of possible tectonic sources and evaluation of their potential is one of the principal issues. In this study we systematically evaluate tsunamigenic potential of up-to-now known real fault systems and active subduction interfaces in the NEAMTWS region. The task is accomplished by means of numerical modeling of tsunami generation and propagation. We have simulated all possible uniform-slip ruptures populating fault and subduction interfaces with magnitudes ranging from 6.5 up to expected Mmax. A total of 15810 individual ruptures were processed. For each rupture, a tsunami propagation scenario was computed in linear shallow-water approximation on 1-arc minute bathymetric grid (Gebco_08) implying normal reflection boundary conditions. Maximum wave heights at coastal positions (totally - 23236 points of interest) were recorded for four hours of simulation and then classified according to currently adopted warning level thresholds. The resulting dataset allowed us to classify the sources in terms of their tsunamigenic potential as well as to estimate their minimum tsunamigenic magnitude. Our analysis shows that almost every source in the Mediterranean Sea is capable to produce local tsunami at the advisory level (i.e., wave height > 20 cm) starting from magnitude values of Mw=6.6. In respect to the watch level (wave height > 50 cm), the picture is less homogeneous: crustal sources in south-west Mediterranean as well as East-Hellenic arc need larger magnitudes (around Mw=7.0) to trigger watch levels even at the nearby coasts. In the context of the regional warning (i.e., source-to-coast distance > 100 km) faults also behave more heterogeneously in respect to the minimum

  9. Fuzzy Timing Petri Net for Fault Diagnosis in Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Tavakholi Ghainani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A model-based system for fault diagnosis in power system is presented in this paper. It is based on fuzzy timing Petri net (FTPN. The ordinary Petri net (PN tool is used to model the protective components, relays, and circuit breakers. In addition, fuzzy timing is associated with places (token/transition to handle the uncertain information of relays and circuits breakers. The received delay time information of relays and breakers is mapped to fuzzy timestamps, π(τ, as initial marking of the backward FTPN. The diagnosis process starts by marking the backward sub-FTPNs. The final marking is found by going through the firing sequence, σ, of each sub-FTPN and updating fuzzy timestamp in each state of σ. The final marking indicates the estimated fault section. This information is then in turn used in forward FTPN to evaluate the fault hypothesis. The FTPN will increase the speed of the inference engine because of the ability of Petri net to describe parallel processing, and the use of time-tag data will cause the inference procedure to be more accurate.

  10. Soft Fault Diagnosis for Analog Circuits Based on Slope Fault Feature and BP Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Mei; WANG Hong; HU Geng; YANG Shiyuan

    2007-01-01

    Fault diagnosis is very important for development and maintenance of safe and reliable electronic circuits and systems. This paper describes an approach of soft fault diagnosis for analog circuits based on slope fault feature and back propagation neural networks (BPNN). The reported approach uses the voltage relation function between two nodes as fault features; and for linear analog circuits, the voltage relation function is a linear function, thus the slope is invariant as fault feature. Therefore, a unified fault feature for both hard fault (open or short fault) and soft fault (parametric fault) is extracted. Unlike other NN-based diagnosis methods which utilize node voltages or frequency response as fault features, the reported BPNN is trained by the extracted feature vectors, the slope features are calculated by just simulating once for each component, and the trained BPNN can achieve all the soft faults diagnosis of the component. Experiments show that our approach is promising.

  11. Fire Hydrants, Fire Hydrants Shapefile, Published in unknown, Cleveland County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Fire Hydrants dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'Fire Hydrants Shapefile'. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane coordinate system;...

  12. Assessment of sealed fire states by fire characteristic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Shu-jie; SZLAZAK Nikodem; OBRACAJ Dariusz

    2006-01-01

    The paper presented assessment of sealed fire states in underground coal mines by so-called "fire characteristic", which graphically described tendencies of fire gas components - oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons - in time. In order to mark gas components tendencies in time the authors applied the time series analysis. The case studied confirmed, that analysis of fire gas components tendencies in time and their correlation allow to elicit proper conclusions about fire state assessment. Assessment of fire states based on single value of fire indexes without considering their trends in time and correlation between trends of gas components would give wrong results. The suggested method can appropriately indicate fire states in a sealed area.

  13. Development of paleoseismic trench logging and dating techniques: a case study on the Central North Anatolian Fault

    OpenAIRE

    Fraser, Jeff; Pigati, J. S.; Hubert, Aurelia; Vanneste, Kriss; Boes, X; Avsar, U.; Altinok, S.

    2007-01-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) is a dextral strike slip fault zone extending ~1400km in an arc across northern Turkey. This study seeks to further constrain the timing of ground rupturing earthquakes of the NAF while developing the techniques used in paleoseismology. A paleoseismic trench was opened ~2.7km NW of Destek on a segment which ruptured (for ~280km) in the 1943 Tosya Earthquake (Mw:7.7). The trench site comprises a pop-up structure formed by a small releasing step-over at a restrai...

  14. Modeling Multi-Arc Spraying Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.

    2016-06-01

    The use of plasma as energy source in thermal spraying enables among others the processing of feed stock materials with very high melting temperatures as coating materials. New generation multi-arc plasma spraying systems are widely spread and promise several advantages in comparison to the conventional single-arc systems. Numerical modeling of multi-arc plasma spraying offers the possibility to increase the understanding about this process. This study focuses on the numerical modeling of three-cathode spraying systems, introducing the recent activities in this field and discussing the numerical aspects which influence the prediction power of the models.

  15. Formation of the G-ring arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, N. C. S.; Vieira Neto, E.; Foryta, D. W.

    2016-09-01

    Since 2004, the images obtained by the Cassini spacecraft's on-board cameras have revealed the existence of several small satellites in the Saturn system. Some of these small satellites are embedded in arcs of particles. While these satellites and their arcs are known to be in corotation resonances with Mimas, their origin remains unknown. This work investigates one possible process for capturing bodies into a corotation resonance, which involves increasing the eccentricity of a perturbing body. Therefore, through numerical simulations and analytical studies, we show a scenario in which the excitation of Mimas's eccentricity could capture particles in a corotation resonance. This is a possible explanation for the origin of the arcs.

  16. Formation of the G-ring arc

    CERN Document Server

    Araujo, N C S; Foryta, D W

    2016-01-01

    Since 2004, the images obtained by Cassini spacecraft's on-board cameras have revealed the existence of several small satellites in the Saturn system. Some of these small satellites are embedded in arcs of particles. While these satellites and their arcs are known to be in corotation resonances with Mimas, their origin remains unknown. This work investigates one possible process for capturing bodies into a corotation resonance, which involves raising the eccentricity of a perturbing body. Therefore, through numerical simulations and analytical studies, we show a scenario that the excitation of Mimas' eccentricity could capture particles in a corotation resonance and given a possible explanation for the origin for the arcs.

  17. Arc saw and its application to decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arc saw is a toothless, circular saw that cuts by arc erosion. A model was built to study the arc saw's usefulness in cutting up radioactively contaminated metal scrap. It was chosen because it cuts with very little contact to the work piece and because cutting is not affected by material hardness. After installation of several improvements it was found it could cut almost any combination of metals and that clamping or fixturing requirements were minimum. Cutting proceeds rapidly and efficiently. 10 figures

  18. Normal block faulting in the Airport Graben, Managua pull-apart rift, Nicaragua: gravity and magnetic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Enriquez, J. O.; Zambrana Arias, X.; Keppie, D.; Ramón Márquez, V.

    2012-12-01

    Regional scale models have been proposed for the Nicaraguan depression: 1) parallel rifting of the depression (and volcanic front) due to roll back of the underlying subducted Cocos plate; 2) right-lateral strike-slip faulting parallel to the depression and locally offset by pull-apart basins; 3) right-lateral strike-slip faulting parallel to the depression and offset by left-lateral transverse or bookshelf faults. At an intermediate scale, Funk et al. (2011) interpret the depression as half graben type structures. The E-W Airport graben lies in the southeastern part of the Managua graben (Nicaragua), across which the active Central American volcanic arc is dextrally offset, possibly the result of a subducted transform fault where the subduction angle changes. The Managua graben lies within the late Quaternary Nicaragua depression produced by backarc rifting during roll back of the Middle American Trench. The Managua graben formed as a pull-apart rift associated with dextral bookshelf faulting during dextral shear between the forearc and arc and is the locus of two historical, large earthquakes that destroyed the city of Managua. In order to asses future earthquake risk, four E-W gravity and magnetic profiles were undertaken to determine its structure across the Airport graben, which is bounded by the Cofradia and Airport fault zones, to the east and west, respectively. These data indicated the presence of a series of normal faults bounding down-thrown and up-thrown fault blocks and a listric normal fault, Sabana Grande Fault. The models imply that this area has been subjected to tectonic extension. These faults appear to be part of the bookshelf suite and will probably be the locus of future earthquakes, which could destroy the airport and surrounding part of Managua. Three regional SW-NE gravity profiles running from the Pacific Ocean up to the Caribbean See indicate a change in crustal structure: from north to south the crust thins. According to these regional

  19. A numerical study on the feasibility evaluation of a hybrid type superconducting fault current limiter applying thyristors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Seok Ho; Lee, Woo Seung; Lee, Ji Ho; Hwang, Young Jin; Ko, Tae Kuk [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Smart fault current controller (SFCC) proposed in our previous work consists of a power converter, a high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC reactor, thyristors, and a control unit [1]. SFCC can limit and control the current by adjusting firing angles of thyristors when a fault occurs. SFCC has complex structure because the HTS DC reactor generates the loss under AC. To use the DC reactor under AC, rectifier that consists of four thyristors is needed and it increases internal resistance of SFCC. For this reason, authors propose a hybrid type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL). The hybrid type SFCL proposed in this paper consists of a non-inductive superconducting coil and two thyristors. To verify the feasibility of the proposed hybrid type SFCL, simulations about the interaction of the superconducting coil and thyristors are conducted when fault current flows in the superconducting coil. Authors expect that the hybrid type SFCL can control the magnitude of the fault current by adjusting the firing angles of thyristors after the superconducting coil limits the fault current at first peak.

  20. Nuclear insurance fire risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear facilities operate under the constant risk that radioactive materials could be accidentally released off-site and cause injuries to people or damages to the property of others. Management of this nuclear risk, therefore, is very important to nuclear operators, financial stakeholders and the general public. Operators of these facilities normally retain a portion of this risk and transfer the remainder to others through an insurance mechanism. Since the nuclear loss exposure could be very high, insurers usually assess their risk first-hand by sending insurance engineers to conduct a nuclear insurance inspection. Because a serious fire can greatly increase the probability of an off-site release of radiation, fire safety should be included in the nuclear insurance inspection. This paper reviews essential elements of a facility's fire safety program as a key factor in underwriting nuclear third-party liability insurance. (author)

  1. Fire and lightning: what are the risks and how to be protected?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews the risks of fire and lightning on photovoltaic panels installed on roofs. It appears that the risk of lighting must be taken into account since the direct impact of lightning on photovoltaic panels can be disastrous. The installation of lightning rods or lightning protector is recommended. Concerning fire risks, technical failures or the presence of electric arcs can put fire on solar panels but their occurrence is very low (only about 20 cases reported in Europe for the last 10 years). Tests have shown that standard photovoltaic panels play a low part in the progressing of a fire. There is an electrocution hazard for firemen intervening on a roof bearing solar panels. A device cutting the continuous current generating by the panels is being studied. (A.C.)

  2. Kinematics, crustal structure and seismotectonics of the subducting northernmost Luzon arc in eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jian-Cheng; Chen, Chia-Yu; Chen, Rou-Fei; Chen, Yue-Gau; Chen, Horng-Yue

    2015-04-01

    The Coastal Range in eastern Taiwan belongs to the northernmost Luzon arc system, which sits on the western edge of the NW-moving Philippine Sea plates (PSP). As the PSP subducting and colliding with the Eurasian continental margin in Taiwan, the northern part of the Coastal Range provides a crucial key for better understand the geological structures and processes at tectonic transition from collision to subduction at plate corner. In this study, we conducted a dense network of GPS measurements at the northern tip of the Coastal Range and compiled available geological and geophysical information, including surface geomorphic features, geological structures, seismological data, seismic tomography, in order to provide insights on kinematics, crustal structure and seismotectonics of the transition from waning collision to subduction of the northern Luzon arc system and its vicinity. Regional short-term geodetic data, including GPS and levelling, and long-term thousand-year scale geological vertical rates indicate that the Coastal Range is going down toward the north, which we interpret it as being pulling down by the north- subduction PSP. Combing with the local GPS measurements carried out at the northern tip of the Longitudinal Valley, the plate suture, which shows a significant clockwise rotation at a rate of 33° M/yr, we interpret the tectonic escape of the northernmost Longitudinal Valley as being initiated locally by the northwest indentation of the Coastal Range, which pushed the northern Longitudinal Valley to move upward and eastward to form a 2-km-wide, 8-km-long, 100-m-high Milun Tableland. No significant deformation was observed across the surface trace of the major active Milun fault on the western side of the tableland, which has been ruptured during the 1951 M=7.1 Hualien earthquake, indicating that the Milun fault is now probably locked in the near surface. As for the crustal structure, we anticipate that there exists a fore-arc basement of the Luzon

  3. The Calama-Olacapato-El Toro fault system in the Puna Plateau, Central Andes: Geodynamic implications and stratovolcanoes emplacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norini, Gianluca; Baez, Walter; Becchio, Raul; Viramonte, Jose; Giordano, Guido; Arnosio, Marcelo; Pinton, Annamaria; Groppelli, Gianluca

    2013-11-01

    The structural evolution of the Puna Plateau is characterized by the activity of both orogen-parallel and orogen-oblique faults. Understanding the possible relationship between these two structural styles, their geodynamic implications and the influence on the migration of magmas is important to get insights into the tectonic and magmatic evolution of the Central Andes. In this study, we present a structural analysis of the orogen-oblique Calama-Olacapato-El Toro fault system and the surrounding orogen-parallel thrust faults in the central-eastern Puna Plateau. Morphostructural analysis and field mapping reveal the geometry, kinematics and dynamics of the tectonic features in the studied area. We propose a three-dimensional geometrical reconstruction of the main fault planes showing their attitude and intersections at depth. The study indicates that the crust underwent simultaneous deformation along both the vertical transcurrent Calama-Olacapato-El Toro fault system and the low-angle thrust faults, and that the back-arc portion of the Calama-Olacapato-El Toro fault system developed as a transfer zone among the main N-striking thrusts. Our model considers that both orogen-parallel and orogen-oblique fault systems should be regarded as parts of the same tectonic system, accommodating crustal shortening of a thickened crust. The study suggests that the tectonic control on the magma and fluid circulation in the crust is mainly related to the geometry of the fault planes and the orientation of the stress field, with a previously unrecognized important role played by the orogen-parallel thrust faults on the emplacement of the stratovolcanoes.

  4. 14 CFR 29.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. For hand fire extinguishers the following apply: (1) Each hand...

  5. USFA NFIRS 2013 Fire Incident & Cause Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2013 Fire Causes & Incident data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration’s (USFA) National Fire Data Center’s (NFDC’s) National Fire Incident Reporting...

  6. Tectonics, magmatism and paleo-fluid distribution in a strike-slip setting: Insights from the northern termination of the Liquiñe-Ofqui fault System, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Flores, Pamela; Cembrano, José; Sánchez-Alfaro, Pablo; Veloso, Eugenio; Arancibia, Gloria; Roquer, Tomás

    2016-06-01

    This study addresses the interplay between strain/stress fields and paleo-fluid migration in the Southern Andean Volcanic Zone (SVZ). The SVZ coexists with the margin-parallel Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault System (LOFS) and with NW-striking Andean Transverse Faults (ATF). To tackle the role of different fault-fracture systems on deformation distribution and magma/fluid transport, we map the nature, geometry and kinematics of faults, veins and dikes at various scales. Fault-slip data analysis yields stress and strain fields from the full study area data base (regional scale) and fault zones representative of each fault system (local scale). Regional scale strain analysis shows kinematically heterogeneous faulting. Local strain analyses indicate homogeneous deformation with NE-trending shortening and NW-trending extension at NNE-striking Liquiñe-Ofqui master fault zones. Strain axes are clockwise rotated at second order fault zones, with ENE-trending shortening and NNW-trending stretching. The ATF record polyphasic deformation. Conversely, stress field analysis at regional scale indicates a strike-slip dominated transpressional regime with N64°E-trending σ1 and N30°W-trending σ3. Deformation is further partitioned within the arc through NNE-striking dextral-reverse faults, NE-striking dextral-normal faults and NW-striking sinistral-reverse faults with normal slip activation. The regional tectonic regime controls the geometry of NE-striking dikes and volcanic centers. NE-striking faults record local stress axes that are clockwise rotated with respect to the regional stress field. NNE- and NE-striking faults are favorably oriented for reactivation under the regional stress field and show poorly-developed damage zones. Conversely, NW-striking fault systems, misoriented under the regional stress field, show multiple fault cores, wider damage zones and dense vein networks. Deformation driven by oblique subduction is partially partitioned into strike-slip and shortening

  7. Theatrical fire pursuant exploratory laparotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Bellevue, Oliver C.; Johnson, Bennett M.; Feczko, Andrew F.; Nadig, Daniel E.; White, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Fire in the operating theater is a rare but potentially fatal complication. We report igniting an intraperitoneal fire while preforming an exploratory laparotomy for perforated viscus. Fortunately, the patient suffered no injuries as a result.

  8. Application of fault current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, A.

    2007-11-30

    This report presents the results of a study commissioned by the Department for Business, Enterprise and Industry (BERR; formerly the Department of Trade and Industry) into the application of fault current limiters in the UK. The study reviewed the current state of fault current limiter (FCL) technology and regulatory position in relation to all types of current limiters. It identified significant research and development work with respect to medium voltage FCLs and a move to high voltage. Appropriate FCL technologies being developed include: solid state breakers; superconducting FCLs (including superconducting transformers); magnetic FCLs; and active network controllers. Commercialisation of these products depends on successful field tests and experience, plus material development in the case of high temperature superconducting FCL technologies. The report describes FCL techniques, the current state of FCL technologies, practical applications and future outlook for FCL technologies, distribution fault level analysis and an outline methodology for assessing the materiality of the fault level problem. A roadmap is presented that provides an 'action agenda' to advance the fault level issues associated with low carbon networks.

  9. Numerical investigations of arc behaviour in gas metal arc welding using ANSYS CFX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnick, M.; Fuessel, U.; Hertel, M.; Spille-Kohoff, A.; Murphy, A. B.

    2011-06-01

    Current numerical models of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) are trying to combine magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models of the arc and volume of fluid (VoF) models of metal transfer. They neglect vaporization and assume an argon atmosphere for the arc region, as it is common practice for models of gas tungsten arc welding. These models predict temperatures above 20 000 K and a temperature distribution similar to tungsten inert gas (TIG) arcs. However, current spectroscopic temperature measurements in GMAW arcs demonstrate much lower arc temperatures. In contrast to TIG arcs they found a central local minimum of the radial temperature distribution. The paper presents a GMAW arc model that considers metal vapour and which is in a very good agreement with experimentally observed temperatures. Furthermore, the model is able to predict the local central minimum in the radial temperature and the radial electric current density distributions for the first time. The axially symmetric model of the welding torch, the work piece, the wire and the arc (fluid domain) implements MHD as well as turbulent mixing and thermal demixing of metal vapour in argon. The mass fraction of iron vapour obtained from the simulation shows an accumulation in the arc core and another accumulation on the fringes of the arc at 2000 to 5000 K. The demixing effects lead to very low concentrations of iron between these two regions. Sensitive analyses demonstrate the influence of the transport and radiation properties of metal vapour, and the evaporation rate relative to the wire feed. Finally the model predictions are compared with the measuring results of Zielińska et al.

  10. Prostate treatments, 1MRT o RapidArc; Tratamiento de prostata, IMART o RapidArc?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro novais, J.; Ruiz Maqueda, S.; Pardo Perez, E.; Molina Lopez, M. Y.; Cerro Penalver, E.

    2015-07-01

    Techniques that modulate the dose (as IMRT or RapidArcTM) improve dose homogeneity within the target volume decreasing the dose in healthy organs. The aim of this work is to study the dosimetric differences in prostate radiotherapy treatments with IMRT and RapidArcTM. The results of the 109 patients studied show that plans to RapidArcTM have better coverage, compliance and dose gradient outside the target volume. (Author)

  11. BEHAVIOR OF THE NORTH ANATOLIAN FAULT, TURKEY, INSIGHTS FROM AN INTEGRATED PALEOSEISMIC DATASET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, J. G.; Vanneste, K.; Hubert-Ferrari, A.

    2009-12-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) is a right-lateral strike-slip plate boundary fault that arcs across northern Turkey for ~1500km. Almost the entire fault progressively ruptured in the 20th century, its cascading style indicating that stress from one fault rupture triggers fault rupture of adjacent segments. Using published, and soon to be published, paleoseismic investigations this study integrates all of the existing information about the timing of earthquakes on the NAF using a standardised procedure. Paleoseismic investigation data is compiled into a database and by taking into account uncertainties we determine the timing of paleoearthquakes. The timing data, when considered in a spatial context, reveals the temporal pattern of surface-rupturing seismicity over the last few thousand years, within the limitations of uncertainty. Based on our observations the migrating 20th century sequence of earthquakes may have occurred in the past, but probably does not occur during every seismic cycle. Based on our interpretation, the clearest pattern in the earthquake timing model is, three types of fault behaviour that correspond to the tectonic provinces within the Anatolian plate. By relating the expected fault-normal stress variation between the 3 tectonic provinces, in terms of Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion (which relates normal and shear stresses), we explain the differences in fault behavior along the NAF. The Anatolian plate drifts west at around 21mm/yr and in doing so elastic strain is stored along the NAF creating, and over time accumulating, shear stress on the fault plane. But because the fault-normal stress is not constant along the fault, it causes different patterns of seismicity. In the west, shear stress along the NAF interplays with the tensile stress associated with the Aegean extensional province; we call this the western transtensional section of the NAF. The lower normal stress means that less shear stress is required to cause fault rupture

  12. Stretched arc discharge in produced water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y I; Wright, K C; Kim, H S; Cho, D J; Rabinovich, A; Fridman, A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of stretching an arc discharge in produced water to increase the volume of produced water treated by plasma. Produced water is the wastewater generated by hydraulic fracturing of shale during the production phase in shale-oil or shale-gas exploration. The electric conductivity of produced water is in the range of 50-200 mS/cm, which provides both a challenge and opportunity for the application of plasmas. Stretching of an arc discharge in produced water was accomplished using a ground electrode and two high-voltage electrodes: one positioned close to the ground electrode and the other positioned farther away from the ground. The benefit of stretching the arc is that the contact between the arc and water is significantly increased, resulting in more efficient plasma treatment in both performance and energy cost. PMID:25638080

  13. Observation of gliding arc surface treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Zhu, Jiajian; Ehn, A.;

    2015-01-01

    . Water contact angle measurements indicate that the treatment uniformity improves significantly when the AC gliding arc is tilted to the polymer surface. Thickness reduction of the gas boundary layer, explaining the improvement of surface treatment, by the ultrasonic irradiation was directly observed for......An alternating current (AC) gliding arc can be conveniently operated at atmospheric pressure and efficiently elongated into the ambient air by an air flow and thus is useful for surface modification. A high speed camera was used to capture dynamics of the AC gliding arc in the presence of polymer...... surfaces. A gap was observed between the polymer surface and the luminous region of the plasma column, indicating the existence of a gas boundary layer. The thickness of the gas boundary layer is smaller at higher gas flow-rates or with ultrasonic irradiation to the AC gliding arc and the polymer surface...

  14. Sitka, Alaska 1 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sitka, Alaska Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1 arc-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is strictly for...

  15. Seward, Alaska 1 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1 arc-second Seward Alaska Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of .89-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  16. Philippine Sea Slab and South-Ryukyu Arc Sliver Accommodation of Arc-Continent Collision East of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallemand, S.; Theunissen, T.; Font, Y.; Schnurle, P.; Lee, C.; Liu, C.

    2011-12-01

    The southern termination of the Ryukyu arc-trench system underwent a complex polyphased and extremely rapid tectonic evolution during the last 5 to 8 My. At first, the relative motion of the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) has changed about 5 My ago from a northward to a northwestward motion relative to Eurasia. Secondly, the Ryukyu trench has propagated from east to west during the same time period resulting in a tectonic inversion along the former passive margin of the South China Sea into the active margin of the S-Ryukyu trench. Thirdly, the convergence rate along the neo-formed S-Ryukyu trench dramatically increased from 8 to 13 cm/yr since at least 2 My when the Southern Okinawa Trough (SOT) started to rift. At the same time, the oceanic subduction of the South China Sea beneath the northern Manila arc progressively evolved into a continental subduction of the Chinese platform at the origin of the Taiwan orogen. The timing of these various kinematic and tectonic events should have been recorded in the deformed sedimentary basins and fold-and-thrust belts in the region. Unfortunately, a large part is now below the sea-level and no or a few age constraints are available. The recent joint project between Taiwan-USA & France (TAIGER & ACTS) gave us the opportunity to considerably increase the resolution of the seismic imagery around the island and especially in the most highly deformed area east of Taiwan along the S-Ryukyu forearc. We already knew that the seismic activity focussed in this region but we ignored how the converging plates deformed. We can now argue that the PSP strongly deforms in the vicinity of its deep interaction with the root of the Taiwan orogen. The north-dipping PSP slab buckles and tears along two diverging directions with a down-faulted part subducting beneath the SOT.

  17. Effect of arc on radiation thermometry in welding process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亮玉; 王燕; 武宝林

    2002-01-01

    The effect of arc on radiation thermometry is analyzed in a field close to the arc during the welding process, and the ratio of signal to noise and other factors are obtained for a small current arc .The method of the temperature measurement is feasible when the arc current is decreased to a smaller value in the welding process.

  18. 49 CFR 195.226 - Welding: Arc burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding: Arc burns. 195.226 Section 195.226 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.226 Welding: Arc burns. (a) Each arc burn must be repaired. (b) An arc burn...

  19. System for detecting and limiting electrical ground faults within electrical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses, in a nuclear power plant of a variety wherein a reactor is provided including a reactor vessel retaining a liquid metal coolant, a reactor core and an electromagnetic pump having inductive windings insulatively retained within the electrically conductive wall of an enclosure, the method for controlling electrical ground fault current between a the inductive winding and the walls. It comprises providing an electrically isolated power source by inductive coupling with the plant power supply; rectifying the power source to provide an isolated d.c. power source; providing an inverter powered from the isolated d.c. power source under the control of the plant control system for selectively energizing the inductive windings; providing a fault control conductor electrically connected with the pump enclosure wall and extending as an electrical return for ground fault current to the inverter; and providing an electrical resistance between the conductor and the isolated inverter having an impedance selected to limit the fault current below a predetermined value limiting arc damage at any the electrical ground fault location

  20. Fault-controlled hydration of the upper mantle during continental rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrakci, G.; Minshull, T. A.; Sawyer, D. S.; Reston, T. J.; Klaeschen, D.; Papenberg, C.; Ranero, C.; Bull, J. M.; Davy, R. G.; Shillington, D. J.; Perez-Gussinye, M.; Morgan, J. K.

    2016-05-01

    Water and carbon are transferred from the ocean to the mantle in a process that alters mantle peridotite to create serpentinite and supports diverse ecosystems. Serpentinized mantle rocks are found beneath the sea floor at slow- to ultraslow-spreading mid-ocean ridges and are thought to be present at about half the world’s rifted margins. Serpentinite is also inferred to exist in the downgoing plate at subduction zones, where it may trigger arc magmatism or hydrate the deep Earth. Water is thought to reach the mantle via active faults. Here we show that serpentinization at the rifted continental margin offshore from western Spain was probably initiated when the whole crust cooled to become brittle and deformation was focused along large normal faults. We use seismic tomography to image the three-dimensional distribution of serpentinization in the mantle and find that the local volume of serpentinite beneath thinned, brittle crust is related to the amount of displacement along each fault. This implies that sea water reaches the mantle only when the faults are active. We estimate the fluid flux along the faults and find it is comparable to that inferred for mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems. We conclude that brittle processes in the crust may ultimately control the global flux of sea water into the Earth.

  1. Arc distribution during the vacuum arc remelting of Ti-6Al-4V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodside, Charles Rigel [U.S. DOE; King, Paul E. [U.S. DOE; Nordlund, Chris [ATI Albany Operations

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the temporal distribution of electric arcs across the ingot during vacuum arc remelting (VAR) is not a known or monitored process parameter. Previous studies indicate that the distribution of arcs can be neither diffuse nor axisymmetric about the center of the furnace. Correct accounting for the heat flux, electric current flux, and mass flux into the ingot is critical to achieving realistic solidification models of the VAR process. The National Energy Technology Laboratory has developed an arc position measurement system capable of locating arcs and determining the arc distribution within an industrial VAR furnace. The system is based on noninvasive magnetic field measurements and a VAR specific form of the Biot–Savart law. The system was installed on a coaxial industrial VAR furnace at ATI Albany Operations in Albany, OR. This article reports on the different arc distributions observed during production of Ti-6Al-4V. It is shown that several characteristic arc distribution modes can develop. This behavior is not apparent in the existing signals used to control the furnace, indicating the measurement system is providing new information. It is also shown that the different arc distribution modes observed may impact local solidification times, particularly at the side wall.

  2. Influence of metal vapour on arc temperatures in gas-metal arc welding: convection versus radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Anthony B.

    2013-06-01

    The presence of metal vapour in gas-metal arc welding has been shown to have two strong effects on the arc plasma: a decrease in temperature throughout the arc, and the formation of a local temperature minimum near the arc axis. These effects have been attributed, on the basis of different computational models, to either the increased radiative emission associated with the presence of metal vapour in the arc plasma, or the influence of the metal vapour influx on convective flow in the arc. This question is investigated using a three-dimensional computational model in which the production and the transport of metal vapour are taken into account self-consistently. Parameters relevant to welding of thin sheets of aluminum are examined. For these conditions, it is found that the first effect (the decrease in temperature throughout the arc) is due to both the increased radiative emission and the influence of the metal vapour influx on flow. The second effect (the local temperature minimum, which in this case occurs just below the wire electrode) is a consequence of the influence of aluminum vapour produced from the wire electrode on flow in the arc. By examining published results and the energy balance in the plasma, it is shown that for welding of steel with higher arc currents, the increased radiative emission can lead to a local temperature minimum at a greater distance from the wire electrode.

  3. Heat flow in the Lesser Antilles island arc and adjacent back arc Grenada basin

    OpenAIRE

    Manga, Michael; Hornbach, Matthew J.; Friant, Anne Le; Ishizuka, Osamu; Stroncik, Nicole; Adachi, Tatsuya; Aljahdali, Mohammed; Boudon, Georges; Breitkreuz, Christoph; Fraass, Andrew; Fujinawa, Akihiko; Hatfield, Robert; Jutzeler, Martin; Kataoka, Kyoko; Lafuerza, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Using temperature gradients measured in 10 holes at 6 sites, we generate the first high fidelity heat flow measurements from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program drill holes across the northern and central Lesser Antilles arc and back arc Grenada basin. The implied heat flow, after correcting for bathymetry and sedimentation effects, ranges from about 0.1 W/m2 on the crest of the arc, midway between the volcanic islands of Montserrat and Guadeloupe, to 15 km from the crest in the back arc direct...

  4. Spectral characteristics of arc plasma during laser-arc double-sided welding for aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kezhao Zhang; Zhenglong Lei; Xianglong Wang; Yanbin Chen; Yaobang Zhao

    2015-01-01

    In laser-arc double-sided welding,the spectral characteristics of the arc plasma are calculated and analyzed by spectroscopic diagnosis.The results show that,compared with conventional tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding,the introduction of a laser changes the physical characteristics of the arc plasma regardless of whether laser plasma penetration takes place,and that the influence of the laser mainly affects the near-anode region of the arc.When the laser power is relatively low,the arc column tends to compress,and the arc spectral characteristics show no significant difference.When the arc root constricts,compared with pure TIG arc,the electron density increases by ~2.7 times and the electron temperature decreases by ~3000 K.When the arc column expands,the intensities of spectral lines of both the metal and Ar atoms are the strongest.But it is also observed that the electron density reduces,whereas there is no obvious decrease of electron temperature.

  5. Soft Computing Approaches To Fault Tolerant Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Prakash Srivastava

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present in this paper as an introduction to soft computing techniques for fault tolerant systems and the terminology with different ways of achieving fault tolerance. The paper focuses on the problem of fault tolerance using soft computing techniques. The fundamentals of soft computing approaches and its type with introduction of fault tolerance are discussed. The main objective is to show how to implement soft computing approaches for fault detection, isolation and identification. The paper contains details about soft computing application with an application of wireless sensor network as fault tolerant system.

  6. Diagnosis and Fault-tolerant Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Kinnaert, Michel; Lunze, Jan;

    that can be used to ensure fault tolerance. Design methods for diagnostic systems and fault-tolerant controllers are presented for processes that are described by analytical models, by discrete-event models or that can be dealt with as quantised systems. Four case studies on pilot processes show......The book presents effective model-based analysis and design methods for fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control. Architectural and structural models are used to analyse the propagation of the fault through the process, to test the fault detectability and to find the redundancies in the process......-tolerant control....

  7. Fault estimation - A standard problem approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, J.; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a range of optimization based approaches to fault diagnosis. A variety of fault diagnosis problems are reformulated in the so-called standard problem set-up introduced in the literature on robust control. Once the standard problem formulations are given, the fault diagnosis...... problems can be solved by standard optimization techniques. The proposed methods include (1) fault diagnosis (fault estimation, (FE)) for systems with model uncertainties; FE for systems with parametric faults, and FE for a class of nonlinear systems. Copyright...

  8. SDEM modelling of fault-propagation folding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, O.R.; Egholm, D.L.; Poulsen, Jane Bang;

    2009-01-01

    and variations in Mohr-Coulomb parameters including internal friction. Using SDEM modelling, we have mapped the propagation of the tip-line of the fault, as well as the evolution of the fold geometry across sedimentary layers of contrasting rheological parameters, as a function of the increased offset...... a precise indication of when faults develop and hence also the sequential evolution of secondary faults. Here we focus on the generation of a fault -propagated fold with a reverse sense of motion at the master fault, and varying only the dip of the master fault and the mechanical behaviour of the deformed...

  9. An architecture for fault tolerant controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    degradation in the sense of guaranteed degraded performance. A number of fault diagnosis problems, fault tolerant control problems, and feedback control with fault rejection problems are formulated/considered, mainly from a fault modeling point of view. The method is illustrated on a servo example including......A general architecture for fault tolerant control is proposed. The architecture is based on the (primary) YJBK parameterization of all stabilizing compensators and uses the dual YJBK parameterization to quantify the performance of the fault tolerant system. The approach suggested can be applied...

  10. Overtwisted open books from sobering arcs

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, Noah

    2004-01-01

    We study open books on three manifolds which are compatible with an overtwisted contact structure. We show that the existence of certain arcs, called sobering arcs, is a sufficient condition for an open book to be overtwisted, and is necessary up to stabilization by positive Hopf-bands. Using these techniques we prove that some open books arising as the boundary of symplectic configurations are overtwisted, answering a question of Gay in Algebr. Geom. Topol. 3 (2003) 569--586.

  11. Hybrid Laser-Arc Welding Tanks Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turichin, G.; Tsibulskiy, I.; Kuznetsov, M.; Akhmetov, A.; Klimova-Korsmik, O.

    2016-04-01

    The results investigate hybrid laser-arc welding of high strength steels using design responsible metallic construction and the highest strength body of vehicles. Welds from modern high strength steels grade Hardox 400, Hardox 450, Armox 600T and AB were created. High power fiber laser LS-15 with output 15 kW and arc rectifier VDU - 1500 DC were used in the experiment. Results of the metallographic research and mechanical tests are presented.

  12. Multi-color detection of gravitational arcs

    OpenAIRE

    Maturi, Matteo; Mizera, Sebastian; Seidel, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    Strong gravitational lensing provides fundamental insights into the understanding of the dark matter distribution in massive galaxies, galaxy clusters and the background cosmology. Despite their importance, the number of gravitational arcs discovered so far is small. The urge for more complete, large samples and unbiased methods of selecting candidates is rising. A number of methods for the automatic detection of arcs have been proposed in the literature, but large amounts of spurious detecti...

  13. Dynamics and seismotectonics of the West-Alpine arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglia, G.; Capponi, G.; Crispini, L.; Piazza, M.

    1996-12-01

    In this paper we present a comparative review of structural, seismic and focal mechanism data from the West-Alpine arc. In the Western Alps, seismic activity is concentrated along an external belt, corresponding to the Penninic front, and an internal belt, corresponding to the Austro-Alpine front and its southern extension. These seismic belts are connected in the NE by a seismic lineament, corresponding to the Simplon and Centovalli Line and in the south by the E-W-trending seismic Stura "couloir", located between the Argentera and Dora Maira massifs. The SimplondashCentovalli-Tonale system and the Stura "couloir" are dextral and sinistral strike-slip systems respectively; this implies a westward translation of the West-Alpine arc and the Po Plain. Based on these observations, a seismotectonic model is proposed in which the frontal Penninic thrust and the basal surface of the accretionary wedge corresponding to the Penninic sole thrust are reactivated. Activity along the frontal thrust increases the arcuate shape of the Western Alps and disengages them from the Central and the Ligurian Alps along the tear faults of the SimplondashCentovalli-Tonale system and the Stura "couloir" respectively. In the wider framework of northern Italy, the sector of the eastern Alps north of the Gailtal Line, is moving in an orogendashparallel direction towards the east. Areas with lateral escape in opposite directions, towards the west for the Po Plain and towards the east for the Eastern Alps, north of the Gailtal Line, are separated by the South Alpine Atesine indenter. A model postulating a double lateral escape and a central indenter matches most of the features of the models of "poinçonnement". The seismic features of northern Italy agree with the seismicity of the stable sector of northern Europe up to the North Sea. This area is fragmented into blocks bounded by seismic bands, some of which probably reactivate pre-existing structures. The overall stress field of Cratonic

  14. Tectonic evolution of the El Salvador Fault Zone. Insights from analogue experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Henar, Jorge; Schreurs, Guido; Jesús Martínez-Díaz, José; Álvarez-Gómez, José Antonio

    2014-05-01

    The El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ) is an active, c. 150 km long and 20 km wide segmented, dextral strike-slip fault zone within the El Salvador Volcanic Arc striking N90°-100°E. Although several studies have investigated the surface expression of the ESFZ, little is known about its structure at depth and its kinematic evolution. Our analysis of structural field data, remote sensing images and morphometric indices reveals a trenchward migration of the volcanic arc and furthermore suggests that not all structures within the ESFZ can be explained within the current tectonic context, but require a phase of extension or an extensional component of deformation at some stage in the evolution of the ESFZ. Such an extension and trenchward migration of the volcanic arc could be related to subduction roll-back of the Cocos Plate beneath the Chortis Block in Mio-Pliocene times. Such a possible evolution leads to open questions that we address in our research: Is the ESFZ a neo-formed fault zone, i.e. did it form during one phase of strike-slip or transtensional deformation, or do the structures in the ESFZ reflect a two-phase evolution, i.e. an early phase of extension overprinted by a later phase of strike-slip or transtension? Did subduction roll-back occur beneath El Salvador? We carried out analogue model experiments to test whether or not an early phase of extension is required to form the present-day fault pattern in the ESFZ. Analogue modeling is an effective tool in testing various hypotheses, as it allows the experimenter to control specific parameters and to test their influence on the resulting structures. Our experiments suggest that a two-phase tectonic evolution best explains the ESFZ: an early pure extensional phase linked to a segmented volcanic arc is necessary to form the main structures of the ESFZ and can explain the shallow geometry of the fault zone. This extensional phase is followed by a strike-slip dominated regime, which results in inter

  15. Learning to Control Forest Fires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiering, M.A.; Dorigo, M.

    1998-01-01

    Forest fires are an important environmental problem. This paper describes a methodology for constructing an intelligent system which aims to support the human expert's decision making in fire control. The idea is based on first implementing a fire spread simulator and on searching for good decision

  16. Techniques for extinguishing sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental work done to evaluate the performance of commercially available fire extinguishants and powders for sodium fires is described. Dry chemical powder with sodium bicarbonate base was found very effective. Another effective method of extinghishing fire by using perforated covered tray is also discussed. (auth.)

  17. The CERN fire-fighters

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1959-01-01

    CERN is one of the few laboratories to have its own fire station. The CERN fire brigade was set up in July 1956 to provide a rapid response in the event of an accident and to tackle the risks specific to the Organisation's activities. Six members of the CERN fire brigade in 1959. From left to right: Messrs. Ubertin, Dalbignat, Verny, Vosdey, Lissajoux, Favre.

  18. Managing the Library Fire Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, John

    A discussion of fire risks, causes, prevention, and salvage in libraries is presented in text and photographs. A description of some historic library fires demonstrates the value of adequate protection and preparedness programs to minimize loss and damage. The need for fire retardant construction and protection from valdalism and arson are…

  19. Blast/fire interaction experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three categories of experiments at the DIRECT COURSE H.E. Event consist of: (1) constrained debris, (2) unconstrained debris, and (3) room fires. Goal is to reduce the present uncertainties in estimates of fire effects of nuclear explosions caused by airblast effects, notably extinction of fires by airblast

  20. Assessing the Fire Risk for a Historic Hangar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Koushik; Morrison, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) is evaluating options of reuse of its historic Hangar 1. As a part of this evaluation, a qualitative fire risk assessment study was performed to evaluate the potential threat of combustion of the historic hangar. The study focused on the fire risk trade-off of either installing or not installing a Special Hazard Fire Suppression System in the Hangar 1 deck areas. The assessment methodology was useful in discussing the important issues among various groups within the Center. Once the methodology was deemed acceptable, the results were assessed. The results showed that the risk remained in the same risk category, whether Hangar 1 does or does not have a Special Hazard Fire Suppression System. Note that the methodology assessed the risk to Hangar 1 and not the risk to an aircraft in the hangar. If one had a high value aircraft, the aircraft risk analysis could potentially show a different result. The assessed risk results were then communicated to management and other stakeholders.

  1. Implications of Faulting Styles in the Outer Wedge of the Nankai Accretionary Prism, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kington, J. D.; Tobin, H. J.

    2009-12-01

    outer wedge is confined to two small regions. Both of these are entirely within post-kinematic sediments draped above older folds. Normal faults in these regions strike perpendicular to the overall shortening direction and are likely the result of minor reactivation of the underlying folds. Additional minor normal faulting occurs as fold-hinge parallel outer-arc extension in folds and as faulting accommodating the tips of strike-slip faults.

  2. En échelon and orthogonal fault ruptures of the 11 April 2012 great intraplate earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Han; Lay, Thorne; Koper, Keith D

    2012-10-11

    The Indo-Australian plate is undergoing distributed internal deformation caused by the lateral transition along its northern boundary--from an environment of continental collision to an island arc subduction zone. On 11 April 2012, one of the largest strike-slip earthquakes ever recorded (seismic moment magnitude M(w) 8.7) occurred about 100-200 kilometres southwest of the Sumatra subduction zone. Occurrence of great intraplate strike-slip faulting located seaward of a subduction zone is unusual. It results from northwest-southeast compression within the plate caused by the India-Eurasia continental collision to the northwest, together with northeast-southwest extension associated with slab pull stresses as the plate underthrusts Sumatra to the northeast. Here we use seismic wave analyses to reveal that the 11 April 2012 event had an extraordinarily complex four-fault rupture lasting about 160 seconds, and was followed approximately two hours later by a great (M(w) 8.2) aftershock. The mainshock rupture initially expanded bilaterally with large slip (20-30 metres) on a right-lateral strike-slip fault trending west-northwest to east-southeast (WNW-ESE), and then bilateral rupture was triggered on an orthogonal left-lateral strike-slip fault trending north-northeast to south-southwest (NNE-SSW) that crosses the first fault. This was followed by westward rupture on a second WNW-ESE strike-slip fault offset about 150 kilometres towards the southwest from the first fault. Finally, rupture was triggered on another en échelon WNW-ESE fault about 330 kilometres west of the epicentre crossing the Ninetyeast ridge. The great aftershock, with an epicentre located 185 kilometres to the SSW of the mainshock epicentre, ruptured bilaterally on a NNE-SSW fault. The complex faulting limits our resolution of the slip distribution. These great ruptures on a lattice of strike-slip faults that extend through the crust and a further 30-40 kilometres into the upper mantle

  3. Electric arc furnace models for flicker study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina González Castaño

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this paper is to evaluate voltage fluctuations or flicker of two electric arc furnace models through comparison with real data.Method: The first proposed model is founded on the energy conservation principle, which generates a non-linear differential equation modelling the electric arc voltage – current characteristics. Voltage fluctuations are generated using a chaotic circuit that modulates the amplitude of arc voltage. The second model is based on the empirical relationship between the arc diameter or length as well as voltage and electrical current on the arc. Voltage fluctuations are considered adding a random signal in the arc length. Both models are implemented in PSCADTM.Results: The results of both models are compared with real data taken at the most critical stage of the operation of the furnace, and they show that the model based on energy conservation has a lower average mean square error in the voltages and currents 5.6 V and 1.7 kA against 27,2 V y 3.38 kA obtained with the second model.Conclusions: Both models consider the nonlinearity and random behavior present in this type of load, validating their inclusion in computer models of electric power systems.

  4. Recent ARC developments: Through modularity to interoperability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnova, O; Cameron, D; Ellert, M; Groenager, M; Johansson, D; Kleist, J [NDGF, Kastruplundsgade 22, DK-2770 Kastrup (Denmark); Dobe, P; Joenemo, J; Konya, B [Lund University, Experimental High Energy Physics, Institute of Physics, Box 118, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Fraagaat, T; Konstantinov, A; Nilsen, J K; Saada, F Ould; Qiang, W; Read, A [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, P. O. Box 1048, Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Kocan, M [Pavol Jozef Safarik University, Faculty of Science, Jesenna 5, SK-04000 Kosice (Slovakia); Marton, I; Nagy, Zs [NIIF/HUNGARNET, Victor Hugo 18-22, H-1132 Budapest (Hungary); Moeller, S [University of Luebeck, Inst. Of Neuro- and Bioinformatics, Ratzeburger Allee 160, D-23538 Luebeck (Germany); Mohn, B, E-mail: oxana.smirnova@hep.lu.s [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Div. of Nuclear and Particle Physics, Box 535, SE-75121 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-04-01

    The Advanced Resource Connector (ARC) middleware introduced by NorduGrid is one of the basic Grid solutions used by scientists worldwide. While being well-proven in daily use by a wide variety of scientific applications at large-scale infrastructures like the Nordic DataGrid Facility (NDGF) and smaller scale projects, production ARC of today is still largely based on conventional Grid technologies and custom interfaces introduced a decade ago. In order to guarantee sustainability, true cross-system portability and standards-compliance based interoperability, the ARC community undertakes a massive effort of implementing modular Web Service (WS) approach into the middleware. With support from the EU KnowARC project, new components were introduced and the existing key ARC services got extended with WS technology based standard-compliant interfaces following a service-oriented architecture. Such components include the hosting environment framework, the resource-coupled execution service, the re-engineered client library, the self-healing storage solution and the peer-to-peer information system, to name a few. Gradual introduction of these new services and client tools into the production middleware releases is carried out together with NDGF and thus ensures a smooth transition to the next generation Grid middleware. Standard interfaces and modularity of the new component design are essential for ARC contributions to the planned Universal Middleware Distribution of the European Grid Initiative.

  5. Recent ARC developments: Through modularity to interoperability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Resource Connector (ARC) middleware introduced by NorduGrid is one of the basic Grid solutions used by scientists worldwide. While being well-proven in daily use by a wide variety of scientific applications at large-scale infrastructures like the Nordic DataGrid Facility (NDGF) and smaller scale projects, production ARC of today is still largely based on conventional Grid technologies and custom interfaces introduced a decade ago. In order to guarantee sustainability, true cross-system portability and standards-compliance based interoperability, the ARC community undertakes a massive effort of implementing modular Web Service (WS) approach into the middleware. With support from the EU KnowARC project, new components were introduced and the existing key ARC services got extended with WS technology based standard-compliant interfaces following a service-oriented architecture. Such components include the hosting environment framework, the resource-coupled execution service, the re-engineered client library, the self-healing storage solution and the peer-to-peer information system, to name a few. Gradual introduction of these new services and client tools into the production middleware releases is carried out together with NDGF and thus ensures a smooth transition to the next generation Grid middleware. Standard interfaces and modularity of the new component design are essential for ARC contributions to the planned Universal Middleware Distribution of the European Grid Initiative.

  6. Transient Faults in Computer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Gerald M.

    1993-01-01

    A powerful technique particularly appropriate for the detection of errors caused by transient faults in computer systems was developed. The technique can be implemented in either software or hardware; the research conducted thus far primarily considered software implementations. The error detection technique developed has the distinct advantage of having provably complete coverage of all errors caused by transient faults that affect the output produced by the execution of a program. In other words, the technique does not have to be tuned to a particular error model to enhance error coverage. Also, the correctness of the technique can be formally verified. The technique uses time and software redundancy. The foundation for an effective, low-overhead, software-based certification trail approach to real-time error detection resulting from transient fault phenomena was developed.

  7. Hiring without Firing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Araoz, Claudio

    1999-01-01

    Describes the problems related to the hiring of senior-level positions. Suggests that regardless of the hiring process used, between 30% and 50% of executive-level appointments end in firing or resignation. Discusses the most common mistakes used in hiring. (JOW)

  8. Studies on fire blight.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    Part 1Effects of water potential and temperature on multiplication of and pressure by Erwinia amylovora in host plantsAnalysis of field data from Eve Billing, England, on the duration of the incubation period of fire blight revealed that temperature and rainfall wer

  9. De fire dimensioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mihail

    De fire dimensioner er en humanistisk håndbog beregnet især på studerende og vejledere inden for humaniora, men kan også læses af andre med interesse for, hvad humanistisk forskning er og kan. Den er blevet til over et langt livs engageret forskning, uddannelse og formidling på Roskilde Universitet...... og udgør på den måde også et bidrag til universitetets historie, som jeg var med til at grundlægge. De fire dimensioner sætter mennesket i centrum. Men det er et centrum, der peger ud over sig selv; et centrum, hvorfra verden anskues, erfares og forstås. Alle mennesker har en forhistorie og en...... fremtid, og udstrakt mellem disse punkter i tiden tænker og handler de i rummet. Den menneskelige tilværelse omfatter alle fire dimensioner. De fire dimensioner udgør derfor også et forsvar for en almen dannelse, der gennemtrænger og kommer kulturelt til udtryk i vores historie, viden, praksis og kunst....

  10. Fire retardancy of polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A. Wilkie

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The need to comply with safety legislations forces industry to use fire retardants in materials in order to save lives. With growing consumer demands and new legislations, the development of new systems is an ongoing process, which also involves understanding their mechanisms of action.

  11. New method for capturing arc of moving on switching apparatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jiao-min; WANG Jing-hong

    2007-01-01

    The switching arc that occurs in contact gap when contact of low voltage apparatus closes or breaks in electric circuit is harmful to the contacts, insulation, and reliability of electrical gear because of its very high temperature. As arcing time is very short in switching gear, it is very difficult to observe arc phenomena directly for researchers. Therefore, visualization of switching arc is important for understanding arc phenomena, to analyze the arc features, and to improve the design and reliability of switching gear. Based on analyzing the visualization methods proposed by researchers, a new switching arc capturing approach is introduced in this paper. Arc image acquisition, and image processing techniques were studied. A switching arc image acquisition and visual simulation software based on high speed CCD camera hard ware system was designed and implemented to yield enhanced arc image with good visual effect.

  12. InSAR measurements around active faults: creeping Philippine Fault and un-creeping Alpine Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Recently, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) time-series analyses have been frequently applied to measure the time-series of small and quasi-steady displacements in wide areas. Large efforts in the methodological developments have been made to pursue higher temporal and spatial resolutions by using frequently acquired SAR images and detecting more pixels that exhibit phase stability. While such a high resolution is indispensable for tracking displacements of man-made and other small-scale structures, it is not necessarily needed and can be unnecessarily computer-intensive for measuring the crustal deformation associated with active faults and volcanic activities. I apply a simple and efficient method to measure the deformation around the Alpine Fault in the South Island of New Zealand, and the Philippine Fault in the Leyte Island. I use a small-baseline subset (SBAS) analysis approach (Berardino, et al., 2002). Generally, the more we average the pixel values, the more coherent the signals are. Considering that, for the deformation around active faults, the spatial resolution can be as coarse as a few hundred meters, we can severely 'multi-look' the interferograms. The two applied cases in this study benefited from this approach; I could obtain the mean velocity maps on practically the entire area without discarding decorrelated areas. The signals could have been only partially obtained by standard persistent scatterer or single-look small-baseline approaches that are much more computer-intensive. In order to further increase the signal detection capability, it is sometimes effective to introduce a processing algorithm adapted to the signal of interest. In an InSAR time-series processing, one usually needs to set the reference point because interferograms are all relative measurements. It is difficult, however, to fix the reference point when one aims to measure long-wavelength deformation signals that span the whole analysis area. This problem can be

  13. Regularities of heat transfer in the gas layers of a steam boiler furnace flame. Part II. Gas layer radiation laws and the procedure for calculating heat transfer in furnaces, fire boxes, and combustion chambers developed on the basis of these laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, A. N.

    2014-10-01

    The article presents the results stemming from the scientific discovery of laws relating to radiation from the gas layers generated during flame combustion of fuel and when electric arc burns in electric-arc steel-melting furnaces. The procedure for calculating heat transfer in electric-arc and torch furnaces, fire-boxes, and combustion chambers elaborated on the basis of this discovery is described.

  14. Vacuum arc under axial magnetic fields: experimental and simulation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axial magnetic field (AMF) technology is a most important control method of vacuum arc, particularly for high-current vacuum arcs in vacuum interrupters. In this paper, a review of the state of current research on vacuum arcs under AMF is presented. The major aspects of vacuum arc in an AMF such as arc voltage, the motion of cathode spots, and anode activities are discussed, and the most recent progress both of experimental and simulation research is presented. (topical review)

  15. Tectonic block rotation, arc curvature, and back-arc rifting: Insights into these processes in the Mediterranean and the western Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fastest modern-day tectonic block rotations on Earth (up to 9 degrees/Myr) occur in the forearcs of convergent plate margins where a transition from collision of a bathymetric high to subduction of normal oceanic crust occurs. GPS techniques have enabled accurate documentation of the kinematics of these rotations, leading us to develop a conceptual model where the change from collision to subduction exerts a torque on microplates within the plate boundary zone, causing them to spin rapidly about an axis at the collision point. We have investigated geophysical and geological data from several active plate boundaries (from the western Pacific and Mediterranean regions) to document a compelling spatial and temporal relationship between the transition from collision to subduction, plate boundary curvature, and rapid tectonic block rotations. In some cases, these microplate rotations can initiate back-arc rifting. We also present numerical modelling results supporting our conceptual model for block rotations at collision/subduction transition. Our results suggest that the rate of microplate rotation depends on the incoming indentor velocity, and can be greatly enhanced by: (1) extensional stresses acting at the subduction interface (possibly due to slab roll back), and (2) a low-viscosity back-arc. Where viscosity of the back-arc is low, forearc microplate rotation dominates. In contrast, tectonic escape of strike-slip fault-bounded microplates is predicted in areas where the back-arc viscosity is high. Previous workers have suggested that the kinematics of the Anatolian block and back-arc rifting in the Aegean are influenced by some combination of forces associated with Arabia/Eurasia collision, and/or subduction (including slab rollback) at the Hellenic trench. Based on previous work from active western Pacific arcs, we propose that the collision of two separate indentors (Arabian promontory in the east, Apulian platform in the west), is a fundamental tectonic

  16. Fault-tolerant system for catastrophic faults in AMR sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zambrano, Andreina; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2015-01-01

    Anisotropic Magnetoresistance angle sensors are widely used in automotive applications considered to be safety-critical applications. Therefore dependability is an important requirement and fault-tolerant strategies must be used to guarantee the correct operation of the sensors even in case of failu

  17. A tear fault boundary between the Taiwan orogen and the Ryukyu subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallemand, Serge E.; Liu, Char-Shine; Font, Yvonne

    1997-06-01

    More than twenty seismic lines were analysed across the intersection of the Taiwan orogen and the Ryukyu arc-forearc system. The main results of this study concern the recognition of two superposed sedimentary basins that were previously unknown. We have named the recent one the Hoping Basin and the older, tectonized one the Suao Basin. The Suao Basin, containing sediments more than 3 km thick, records subsidence of about 3 km on its southwestern portion after being shortened in the direction of plate convergence. On the basis of seismicity, gravity, present-day plate kinematics as well as seismic reflection data, we relate the dramatic subsidence of the Suao Basin to the initiation of a WNW-trending tear fault within the Philippine Sea plate. This tear fault decouples the subducting Philippine Sea plate to the northeast and the apparent overthrusting Philippine Sea plate in the Coastal Range to the southwest. Back-arc rifting may thus occur in the westernmost section of the Okinawa trough above the sinking Philippine Sea slab while lithospheric shortening prevails south of Hualien. As a consequence, the triangular area located southwest of the tear fault, between the Taiwan coastline and the toe of the Yaeyama ridge, no longer belongs to the Ryukyu forearc. It is now passively transported with the non-subducting portion of the Philippine Sea plate. We propose an evolutionary model for the relative chronology of tectono-sedimentary events in this region over the last 5 m.y.

  18. Residual current compensation for single-phase grounding fault in coal mine power network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Chenxi; Wang Chonglin; Du Guifu

    2014-01-01

    The way of neutral point to earth via full compensation arc suppression coil can solve the problem of residual current compensation in coal mine power network effectively. Based on the analysis on the grounding current detection results of Xieqiao coal mine, the conclusion that harmonic component of grounding current is dominated by higher harmonics with complex harmonic sources in coal mine power network system was obtained. The influences of harmonic source type and fault point position on har-monic voltage and harmonic current were analyzed theoretically. The influences of earthed fault feeder detection result and the estimation errors of parameters to earth on residual current compensation were analyzed. A new thought of residual current prediction and the selections of model method and control method were proposed on this basis. The simulation results prove that harmonic amplitudes of zero sequence voltage and zero sequence current are determined by harmonic source type as well as fault point position in coal mine power network, and also prove that zero sequence voltage detection can avoid the unstable problem of coal mine power network system caused by undercompensation of capacitive current. Finally, the experimental device of full compensation arc suppression coil is introduced.

  19. Direct probing of anode arc root dynamics and voltage instability in a dc non-transferred arc plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorui, S.; Tiwari, N.; Meher, K. C.; Jan, A.; Bhat, A.; Sahasrabudhe, S. N.

    2015-12-01

    The transient dynamics of the anode arc root in a dc non-transferred arc plasma torch is captured through fast photography and directly correlated with the associated voltage instability for the first time. The coexistence of multiple arc roots, the transition to a single arc root, root formation and extinction are investigated for the steady, takeover and re-strike modes of the arc. Contrary to the usual concept, the emerging plasma jet of a dc non-transferred arc plasma torch is found to carry current. An unusually long self-propelled arc plasma jet, a consequence of the phenomenon, is demonstrated.

  20. Geodetic Network Design and Optimization on the Active Tuzla Fault (Izmir, Turkey for Disaster Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haluk Ozener

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Both seismological and geodynamic research emphasize that the Aegean Region, which comprises the Hellenic Arc, the Greek mainland and Western Turkey is the most seismically active region in Western Eurasia. The convergence of the Eurasian and African lithospheric plates forces a westward motion on the Anatolian plate relative to the Eurasian one. Western Anatolia is a valuable laboratory for Earth Science research because of its complex geological structure. Izmir is a large city in Turkey with a population of about 2.5 million that is at great risk from big earthquakes. Unfortunately, previous geodynamics studies performed in this region are insufficient or cover large areas instead of specific faults. The Tuzla Fault, which is aligned trending NE–SW between the town of Menderes and Cape Doganbey, is an important fault in terms of seismic activity and its proximity to the city of Izmir. This study aims to perform a large scale investigation focusing on the Tuzla Fault and its vicinity for better understanding of the region's tectonics. In order to investigate the crustal deformation along the Tuzla Fault and Izmir Bay, a geodetic network has been designed and optimizations were performed. This paper suggests a schedule for a crustal deformation monitoring study which includes research on the tectonics of the region, network design and optimization strategies, theory and practice of processing. The study is also open for extension in terms of monitoring different types of fault characteristics. A one-dimensional fault model with two parameters – standard strike-slip model of dislocation theory in an elastic half-space – is formulated in order to determine which sites are suitable for the campaign based geodetic GPS measurements. Geodetic results can be used as a background data for disaster management systems.

  1. Active fault traces along Bhuj Fault and Katrol Hill Fault, and trenching survey at Wandhay, Kachchh, Gujarat, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Michio Morino; Javed N Malik; Prashant Mishra; Chandrashekhar Bhuiyan; Fumio Kaneko

    2008-06-01

    Several new active fault traces were identified along Katrol Hill Fault (KHF).A new fault (named as Bhuj Fault,BF)that extends into the Bhuj Plain was also identified.These fault traces were identified based on satellite photo interpretation and field survey.Trenches were excavated to identify the paleoseismic events,pattern of faulting and the nature of deformation.New active fault traces were recognized about 1 km north of the topographic boundary between the Katrol Hill and the plain area.The fault exposure along the left bank of Khari River with 10 m wide shear zone in the Mesozoic rocks and showing displacement of the overlying Quaternary deposits is indicative of continued tectonic activity along the ancient fault.The E-W trending active fault traces along the KHF in the western part changes to NE-SW or ENE-WSW near Wandhay village. Trenching survey across a low scarp near Wandhay village reveals three major fault strands F1, F2,and F3.These fault strands displaced the older terrace deposits comprising Sand,Silt and Gravel units along with overlying younger deposits from units 1 to 5 made of gravel,sand and silt. Stratigraphic relationship indicates at least three large magnitude earthquakes along KHF during Late Holocene or recent historic past.

  2. Fire detection in warehouse facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Dinaburg, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Automatic sprinklers systems are the primary fire protection system in warehouse and storage facilities. The effectiveness of this strategy has come into question due to the challenges presented by modern warehouse facilities, including increased storage heights and areas, automated storage retrieval systems (ASRS), limitations on water supplies, and changes in firefighting strategies. The application of fire detection devices used to provide early warning and notification of incipient warehouse fire events is being considered as a component of modern warehouse fire protection.Fire Detection i

  3. FIRE PERMIT NOW ON EDH!

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS General Safety Group or

    2001-01-01

    The electronic version of the Fire Permit form is now active. The aim of the Fire Permit procedure is to reduce the risk of fire or explosion. It is mandatory when performing 'hot work' (mainly activities which involve the use of naked flames or other heat sources - e.g. welding, brazing, cutting, grinding, etc.). Its use is explained in the CERN Fire Protection Code E. (Fire Protection) The new electronic form, which is substantially unchanged from the previous authorizing procedure, will be available on the Electronic Document Handling system (https://edh.cern.ch/) as of 1st September 2001. From this date use of the paper version should be discontinued.

  4. Geomorphology of coal seam fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzer, Claudia; Stracher, Glenn B.

    2012-02-01

    Coal fires occur in underground natural coal seams, in exposed surface seams, and in coal storage or waste piles. The fires ignite through spontaneous combustion or natural or anthropogenic causes. They are reported from China, India, USA, South Africa, Australia, and Russia, as well as many other countries. Coal fires lead to loss of a valuable resource (coal), the emission of greenhouse-relevant and toxic gases, and vegetation deterioration. A dangerous aspect of the fires is the threat to local mines, industries, and settlements through the volume loss underground. Surface collapse in coal fire areas is common. Thus, coal fires are significantly affecting the evolution of the landscape. Based on more than a decade of experience with in situ mapping of coal fire areas worldwide, a general classification system for coal fires is presented. Furthermore, coal seam fire geomorphology is explained in detail. The major landforms associated with, and induced by, these fires are presented. The landforms include manifestations resulting from bedrock surface fracturing, such as fissures, cracks, funnels, vents, and sponges. Further manifestations resulting from surface bedrock subsidence include sinkholes, trenches, depressions, partial surface subsidence, large surface subsidence, and slides. Additional geomorphologic coal fire manifestations include exposed ash layers, pyrometamorphic rocks, and fumarolic minerals. The origin, evolution, and possible future development of these features are explained, and examples from in situ surveys, as well as from high-resolution satellite data analyses, are presented. The geomorphology of coal fires has not been presented in a systematic manner. Knowledge of coal fire geomorphology enables the detection of underground coal fires based on distinct surface manifestations. Furthermore, it allows judgments about the safety of coal fire-affected terrain. Additionally, geomorphologic features are indicators of the burning stage of fires

  5. Teach yourself visually Fire tablets

    CERN Document Server

    Marmel, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Expert visual guidance to getting the most out of your Fire tablet Teach Yourself VISUALLY Fire Tablets is the comprehensive guide to getting the most out of your new Fire tablet. Learn to find and read new bestsellers through the Kindle app, browse the app store to find top games, surf the web, send e-mail, shop online, and much more! With expert guidance laid out in a highly visual style, this book is perfect for those new to the Fire tablet, providing all the information you need to get the most out of your device. Abundant screenshots of the Fire tablet graphically rich, touch-based Androi

  6. Blast/fire interaction scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypotheses are formulated of the process of interaction between an airblast and fires supported by liquid fuels and wood cribs. A map of blast weakness versus fire strength is conceived on which the regime of fire extinction by the blast can be delineated from the regime where the fire will sustain the blast. The fire strength is described for liquid fuels primarily by the heat of combustion; and for wood, it is mainly described by the preburn time. The concept is substantiated by the SRI shocktube data

  7. Timing of maturation of a Neoproterozoic oceanic arc during Pan-African Orogeny: the Asmlil complex (Anti-Atlas, South Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllou, Antoine; Berger, Julien; Baele, Jean-Marc; Bruguier, Olivier; Diot, Hervé; Ennih, Nasser; Plissart, Gaëlle; Monnier, Christophe; Watlet, Arnaud; Vandycke, Sara

    2016-04-01

    Many intra-oceanic paleo-arcs are exposed in the Pan-African belt surrounding the West African Craton. In the Moroccan Anti-Atlas, remnants of Intra-Oceanic Subduction Zone (IOSZ) are preserved in few erosional windows moulded along the Anti-Atlas Major fault. These complexes highlight a Neoproterozoic paleo-suture made of 760 My back-arc ophiolites thrusted to the south onto a dismembered band of oceanic arc relics. The Asmlil arc complex, located in the southern part of the Bou Azzer inlier, is made of (i) 755 to 745 My- intermediate banded gneiss interpreted as metavolcanic products of a juvenile oceanic arc. This latter has been intruded by (ii) medium-grained hornblende-gabbro and dioritic magmas, in turn intruded by (iii) medium- to coarse grained hornblenditic-granodioritic decametric intrusions under sub-magmatic HT conditions. Hornblende-gabbros are made of garnet + amphibole/cpx relics + epidote + rutile paragenesis. Calculated pseudosections yielded P ~ 11-12 kbar for T ranging between 600 and 720°C for garnet growth. Measured Zr-in-rutile thermometer gave slightly higher temperature ranging between 710-790°C. On the field, garnet-rich leucocratic veinlets suggest that moderate partial melting of the mafic rock or localized dehydration reactions took place under garnet-granulite conditions (>800°C for hydrated chemical system). New geochronological data on garnet-bearing leucogabbros constrain their emplacement at 700 ±7 My (U-Pb zircon with low Th/U age (age of 654 ±7 My (U-Pb method on rutile). Geochemical data of each mafic and ultramafic facies (hornblende gabbro, garnet-bearing facies and hornblendite) show typical arc signature (marked by e.g. Nb-Ta anomaly, (La/Sm)N: 0.8-1.6 ; (Nb/La) < 0.46 ; high Nb/Ba ratio ; 0.4 < K2O < 2.1 wt%). Intrusive granodioritic magmas show depleted HREE trend similar to granitoids in the Kohistan paleo-arc. Melting modeling suggests they are produced by partial melting of a REE-depleted gabbronorite with cpx

  8. Evaluating transmission towers potentials during ground faults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    During ground faults on transmission lines, a number of towers near the fault are likely to acquire high potentials to ground. These tower voltages, if excessive, may present a hazard to humans and animals. This paper presents analytical methods in order to determine the transmission towers potentials during ground faults, for long and short lines. The author developed a global systematic approach to calculate these voltages, which are dependent of a number of factors. Some of the most important factors are: magnitudes of fault currents, fault location with respect to the line terminals, conductor arrangement on the tower and the location of the faulted phase, the ground resistance of the faulted tower, soil resistivity, number, material and size of ground wires. The effects of these factors on the faulted tower voltages have been also examined for different types of power lines.

  9. Study on fault induced rock bursts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-hua; DOU Lin-ming; LU Cai-ping; MU Zong-long; CAO An-ye

    2008-01-01

    In order to study the rules of rock bursts caused by faults by means of mechanical analysis of a roof rock-mass balanced structure and numerical simulation about fault slip destabilization, the effect of coal mining operation on fault plane stresses and slip displacement were studied. The results indicate that the slip displacement sharply increases due to the decrease of normal stress and the increase of shear stress at the fault plane when the working face advances from the footwall to the fault itself, which may induce a fault rock burst. However, this slip displacement will be very small due to the increase of normal stress and the decrease of shear stress when the working face advances from the hanging wall to the fault itself, which results in a very small risk of a fault rock burst.

  10. Tracing crustal contamination along the Java segment of the Sunda Arc, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolis, E. M.; Troll, V.; Deegan, F.; Blythe, L.; Harris, C.; Freda, C.; Hilton, D.; Chadwick, J.; Van Helden, M.

    2012-04-01

    Arc magmas typically display chemical and petrographic characteristics indicative of crustal input. Crustal contamination can take place either in the mantle source region or as magma traverses the upper crust (e.g. [1]). While source contamination is generally considered the dominant process (e.g. [2]), late-stage crustal contamination has been recognised at volcanic arcs too (e.g. [3]). In light of this, we aim to test the extent of upper crustal versus source contamination along the Java segment of the Sunda arc, which, due its variable upper crustal structure, is an exemplary natural laboratory. We present a detailed geochemical study of 7 volcanoes along a traverse from Anak-Krakatau in the Sunda strait through Java and Bali, to characterise the impact of the overlying crust on arc magma composition. Using rock and mineral elemental geochemistry, radiogenic (Sr, Nd and Pb) and, stable (O) isotopes, we show a correlation between upper crustal composition and the degree of upper crustal contamination. We find an increase in 87Sr/86Sr and δ18O values, and a decrease in 143Nd/144Nd values from Krakatau towards Merapi, indicating substantial crustal input from the thick continental basement present. Volcanoes to the east of Merapi and the Progo-Muria fault transition zone, where the upper crust is thinner, in turn, show considerably less crustal input in their isotopic signatures, indicating a stronger influence of the mantle source. Our new data represent a systematic and high-resolution arc-wide sampling effort that allows us to distinguish the effects of the upper crust on the compositional spectrum of individual volcanic systems along the Sunda arc. [1] Davidson, J.P, Hora, J.M, Garrison, J.M & Dungan, M.A 2005. Crustal Forensics in Arc Magmas. J. Geotherm. Res. 140, 157-170; [2] Debaille, V., Doucelance, R., Weis, D., & Schiano, P. 2005. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 70,723-741; [3] Gasparon, M., Hilton, D.R., & Varne, R. 1994. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 126, 15-22.

  11. Achieving Representative Faultloads in Software Fault Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Natella, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Given the complexity of modern software systems and its pervasiveness in many aspects of our lives, software faults (i.e., bugs) are a dangerous threat. Unfortunately, it is impossible to assure that software is perfect despite of advances in software engineering. Therefore, mission- and safety-critical systems have to provide fault tolerance algorithms and mechanisms to mitigate this threat. Software Fault Injection emerged in the last decades as a means for testing and improving fault-toler...

  12. Episodicity in back-arc tectonic regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Stuart R.; Stegman, Dave; Müller, R. Dietmar

    2008-12-01

    The evolution of back-arc basins is tied to the development of the dynamics of the subduction system they are a part of. We present a study of back-arc basins and model their development by implementing 3D time-dependant computer models of subduction including an overriding plate. We define three types of episodicity: pseudo-, quasi- and hyper-episodicity, and find evidence of these in nature. Observations of back-arc basin ages, histories of spreading, quiescence and compression in the overriding plate give us an understanding of the time-development of these subduction zones and back-arc basins. Across the globe today, a number of trenches are advancing—the Izu-Bonin Trench, the Mariana Trench, the Japan Trench, the Java-Sunda Trench and the central portion of the Peru-Chile Trench (the Andes subduction zone). The Izu-Bonin, Mariana and Japan all have established back-arc basins, while the others have documented episodes of spreading, quiescence, compression or a combination of these. The combination of advancing and retreating trench motion places these subduction zones in the category of hyper-episodicity. Quasi-episodicity, in which the back-arc shifts between phases of rifting, spreading and quiescence, is the dominant form of episodic back-arc development in the present. We find this type of episodicity in models for which the system is dynamically consistent—that we have allowed the subducting plate's velocity to be determined by the sinking slabs' buoyancy. Quasi- and hyper-episodicity are only found in subduction zones with relatively high subducting plate velocities, between 6 and 9 cm/year. Finally, those subduction zones for which the subducting plate is moving slowly, such as in the Mediterranean or the Scotia Sea, experience only pseudo-episodicity, where the spreading moves linearly towards the trench but often does so in discrete ridge-jump events.

  13. arcControlTower: the System for Atlas Production and Analysis on ARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipčič, Andrej; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    PanDA, the Atlas management and distribution system for production and analysis jobs on EGEE and OSG clusters, is based on pilot jobs to increase the throughput and stability of the job execution on grid. The ARC middleware uses a specific approach which tightly connects the job requirements with cluster capabilities like resource usage, software availability and caching of input files. The pilot concept renders the ARC features useless. The arcControlTower is the job submission system which merges the pilot benefits and ARC advantages. It takes the pilot payload from the panda server and submits the jobs to the Nordugrid ARC clusters as regular jobs, with all the job resources known in advance. All the pilot communication with the PanDA server is done by the arcControlTower, so it plays the role of a pilot factory and the pilot itself. There are several advantages to this approach: no grid middleware is needed on the worker nodes, the fair-share between the production and user jobs is tuned with the arcControlTower load parameters, the jobs can be controlled by ARC client tools. The system could be extended to other submission systems using central distribution.

  14. arcControlTower: the System for Atlas Production and Analysis on ARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PanDA, the Atlas management and distribution system for production and analysis jobs on EGEE and OSG clusters, is based on pilot jobs to increase the throughput and stability of the job execution on grid. The ARC middleware uses a specific approach which tightly connects the job requirements with cluster capabilities like resource usage, software availability and caching of input files. The pilot concept renders the ARC features useless. The arcControlTower is the job submission system which merges the pilot benefits and ARC advantages. It takes the pilot payload from the panda server and submits the jobs to the Nordugrid ARC clusters as regular jobs, with all the job resources known in advance. All the pilot communication with the PanDA server is done by the arcControlTower, so it plays the role of a pilot factory and the pilot itself. There are several advantages to this approach: no grid middleware is needed on the worker nodes, the fair-share between the production and user jobs is tuned with the arcControlTower load parameters, the jobs can be controlled by ARC client tools. The system could be extended to other submission systems using central distribution.

  15. Effect of acoustic field parameters on arc acoustic binding during ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weifeng; Fan, Chenglei; Yang, Chunli; Lin, Sanbao

    2016-03-01

    As a newly developed arc welding method, power ultrasound has been successfully introduced into arc and weld pool during ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding process. The advanced process for molten metals can be realized by utilizing additional ultrasonic field. Under the action of the acoustic wave, the plasma arc as weld heat source is regulated and its characteristics make an obvious change. Compared with the conventional arc, the ultrasonic wave-assisted arc plasma is bound significantly and becomes brighter. To reveal the dependence of the acoustic binding force on acoustic field parameters, a two-dimensional acoustic field model for ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding device is established. The influences of the radiator height, the central pore radius, the radiator radius, and curvature radius or depth of concave radiator surface are discussed using the boundary element method. Then the authors analyze the resonant mode by this relationship curve between acoustic radiation power and radiator height. Furthermore, the best acoustic binding ability is obtained by optimizing the geometric parameters of acoustic radiator. In addition, three concave radiator surfaces including spherical cap surface, paraboloid of revolution, and rotating single curved surface are investigated systematically. Finally, both the calculation and experiment suggest that, to obtain the best acoustic binding ability, the ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding setup should be operated under the first resonant mode using a radiator with a spherical cap surface, a small central pore, a large section radius and an appropriate curvature radius. PMID:26558995

  16. Effect of arc distance on temperature field and weld shape during double-sided arc welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guangjun; ZHANG Huajun; GAO Hongming; WU Lin

    2009-01-01

    A new high efficiency welding method, double-sided double arc welding with double powers (DSAW-D), is developed for thick plate of low alloy high strength steel in this study. It is well known that the thermal cycles have an important influence on the microstructure, shape, stress, distortion and mechanical property. The DSA W-D method can control the tempernture field on a wide range by regulating the distance between two arcs, improve the rnicrostructure and prevent hot and cold cracking of high strength steel. But at present, the effect of arc distance on the temperature field and shape is not clear. Therefore, the paper researches the effect of arc distance on the temperature field and weld pool during DSA W-D using finite element method. The transient temperature field of different arc distance in DSAW-D is calculated.To verify the numerical results, the temperature is measured by the thermo-couple and the calculated results agree approximately with experimental data. Farther, the thermal property and mutual effect of double-sided arcs are investigated. The temperature distributions and weld pool profile at different arc distances are obtained. The results show that arc distance is a very important factor to affect the heat process.

  17. Effect of acoustic field parameters on arc acoustic binding during ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weifeng; Fan, Chenglei; Yang, Chunli; Lin, Sanbao

    2016-03-01

    As a newly developed arc welding method, power ultrasound has been successfully introduced into arc and weld pool during ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding process. The advanced process for molten metals can be realized by utilizing additional ultrasonic field. Under the action of the acoustic wave, the plasma arc as weld heat source is regulated and its characteristics make an obvious change. Compared with the conventional arc, the ultrasonic wave-assisted arc plasma is bound significantly and becomes brighter. To reveal the dependence of the acoustic binding force on acoustic field parameters, a two-dimensional acoustic field model for ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding device is established. The influences of the radiator height, the central pore radius, the radiator radius, and curvature radius or depth of concave radiator surface are discussed using the boundary element method. Then the authors analyze the resonant mode by this relationship curve between acoustic radiation power and radiator height. Furthermore, the best acoustic binding ability is obtained by optimizing the geometric parameters of acoustic radiator. In addition, three concave radiator surfaces including spherical cap surface, paraboloid of revolution, and rotating single curved surface are investigated systematically. Finally, both the calculation and experiment suggest that, to obtain the best acoustic binding ability, the ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding setup should be operated under the first resonant mode using a radiator with a spherical cap surface, a small central pore, a large section radius and an appropriate curvature radius.

  18. Effects of process parameters on arc shape and penetration in twin-wire indirect arc welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shun-shan ZHANG; Mei-qing CAO; Dong-ting WU; Zeng-da ZOU

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the effects of variable parameters on arc shape and depth of penetration in twin-wire indirect arc gas shielded welding were investigated. The variation of arc shape caused by changes of the parameters was recorded by a high-speed camera,and the depths of penetration of specimen were measured after bead welding by an optical microscope. Experiments indicated that proper parameters give birth to a concentrated and compressed welcimg arc, which Would increase the depth of penetration as the incensement of the arc foice Several pnncipal parameters including toe distance ot twin wires intersecting point to base metal,the included angle,and the content of shielding gas were determined. The arc turned more concentrated and the depth of penetration increased obviously as the welding current increased,the arc turned brighter while unobvlous change of penetration occurred as the arc voltage increased,and the deepest penetration was obtained when the welding speed was 10.5 mm/s..

  19. Ablation Properties of the Carbon-Based Composites Used in Artificial Heat Source Under Fire Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG; Xian; HUANG; Jin-ming; ZHOU; Shao-jian; LUO; Zhi-fu

    2012-01-01

    <正>The ablation properties of the carbon-based composites used in artificial heat source under fire accident were investigated by the arc heater. In this work, we tested the carbon-based composites referring to Fig. 1. Their linear/mass ablation ratio and ablation morphologies were studied. The results showed that the carbon-based composites used in artificial heat source behaved well

  20. Fault Detection for Nonlinear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.H.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes a general method for designing fault detection and isolation (FDI) systems for nonlinear processes. For a rich class of nonlinear systems, a nonlinear FDI system can be designed using convex optimization procedures. The proposed method is a natural extension of methods based...

  1. Fire safety of LPG in marine transportation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsen, W.E.; Johnson, D.W.; Welker, J.R.

    1980-06-01

    This report contains an analytical examination of cargo spill and fire hazard potential associated with the marine handling of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as cargo. Principal emphasis was on cargo transfer operations for ships unloading at receiving terminals, and barges loading or unloading at a terminal. Major safety systems, including emergency shutdown systems, hazard detection systems, and fire extinguishment and control systems were included in the analysis. Spill probabilities were obtained from fault tree analyses utilizing composite LPG tank ship and barge designs. Failure rates for hardware in the analyses were generally taken from historical data on similar generic classes of hardware, there being very little historical data on the specific items involved. Potential consequences of cargo spills of various sizes are discussed and compared to actual LPG vapor cloud incidents. The usefulness of hazard mitigation systems (particularly dry chemical fire extinguishers and water spray systems) in controlling the hazards posed by LPG spills and spill fires is also discussed. The analysis estimates the probability of fatality for a terminal operator is about 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -5/ per cargo transfer operation. The probability of fatality for the general public is substantially less.

  2. Magnetic Signatures and Curie Surface Trend Across an Arc-Continent Collision Zone: An Example from Central Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manalo, Pearlyn C.; Dimalanta, Carla B.; Ramos, Noelynna T.; Faustino-Eslava, Decibel V.; Queaño, Karlo L.; Yumul, Graciano P.

    2016-05-01

    Ground and aeromagnetic data are combined to characterize the onshore and offshore magnetic properties of the central Philippines, whose tectonic setting is complicated by opposing subduction zones, large-scale strike-slip faulting and arc-continent collision. The striking difference between the magnetic signatures of the islands with established continental affinity and those of the islands belonging to the island arc terrane is observed. Negative magnetic anomalies are registered over the continental terrane, while positive magnetic anomalies are observed over the Philippine Mobile Belt. Several linear features in the magnetic anomaly map coincide with the trace of the Philippine Fault and its splays. Power spectral analysis of the magnetic data reveals that the Curie depth across the central Philippines varies. The deepest point of the magnetic crust is beneath Mindoro Island at 32 km. The Curie surface shallows toward the east: the Curie surface is 21 km deep between the islands of Sibuyan and Masbate, and 18 km deep at the junction of Buruanga Peninsula and Panay Island. The shallowest Curie surface (18 km) coincides with the boundary of the arc-continent collision, signifying the obduction of mantle rocks over the continental basement. Comparison of the calculated Curie depth with recent crustal thickness models reveals the same eastwards thinning trend and range of depths. The coincidence of the magnetic boundary and the density boundary may support the existence of a compositional boundary that reflects the crust-mantle interface.

  3. Forearc Deformation, Arc Volcanism, and Landscape Evolution near the Cocos-Nazca-Caribbean Triple Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morell, K. D.; Fisher, D.; Gardner, T.; Protti, M.

    2005-12-01

    New geologic mapping in SE Costa Rica and SW Panama reveals a system of structures and landscape features that are actively propagating with the Cocos-Nazca-Caribbean Triple Junction. The triple junction migrates to the SE at ~50 km/my, so the upper plate inboard of the Nazca plate experiences a rapid change from steep, slow subduction of the Nazca plate to shallow, rapid subduction of the Cocos plate. High plate boundary coupling for ~100 km NW of the triple junction has led to the development of the Fila Costena Thrust Belt. Balanced cross-sections indicate that shortening rates are highest near the center of the thrust belt, and decrease to the SE nearest the triple junction, where the thrust belt abruptly terminates. Right lateral tear faults cut the thrusts of the Fila Costena and allow for a sharp gradient in upper plate shortening above the subducted projection of the Panama Fracture Zone (PFZ), or the Cocos-Nazca boundary. East of the triple junction, a ridge exposes a fault-related anticline that may represent the incipient propagation of the Fila Costena into Panama. The volcanic arc is active just to the east of the onland projection of the subducting PFZ (e.g., Volcan Baru), with the extinct Talamanca arc lying to the west of this projection. Lahar fans on the slopes of the active Volcan Baru are analogous to the backtilted lahars now restricted to the rear of the Fila Costena. The spatial and temporal distribution of arc volcanism is consistent with a mantle wedge restricted to the east of the PFZ that migrates eastward with the triple junction. The Rio Chiriqui drainage system is currently the only river that carries arc volcanics to the eastern thrust front. The river skirts the southeast edge of the thrust belt and is inset into lahar fans on the slopes of Volcan Baru. Uplifted Quaternary fluvial terraces, located several kilometers west from the current drainage system, are offset at the thrust front by about 100-150 m. Andesite clasts in these

  4. Fundamental problems in fault detection and identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saberi, A.; Stoorvogel, A. A.; Sannuti, P.;

    2000-01-01

    A number of different fundamental problems in fault detection and fault identification are formulated in this paper. The fundamental problems include exact, almost, generic and class-wise fault detection and identification. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the solvability of the fundamental...

  5. Exact, almost and delayed fault detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Anton A.;

    1999-01-01

    Considers the problem of fault detection and isolation while using zero or almost zero threshold. A number of different fault detection and isolation problems using exact or almost exact disturbance decoupling are formulated. Solvability conditions are given for the formulated design problems. The...... l-step delayed fault detection problem is also considered for discrete-time systems....

  6. Fault Isolation for Shipboard Decision Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajic, Zoran; Blanke, Mogens; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2010-01-01

    Fault detection and fault isolation for in-service decision support systems for marine surface vehicles will be presented in this paper. The stochastic wave elevation and the associated ship responses are modeled in the frequency domain. The paper takes as an example fault isolation of a containe...

  7. Heterogeneous stress state of island arc crust in northeastern Japan affected by hot mantle fingers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibazaki, Bunichiro; Okada, Tomomi; Muto, Jun; Matsumoto, Takumi; Yoshida, Takeyoshi; Yoshida, Keisuke

    2016-04-01

    By considering a thermal structure based on dense geothermal observations, we model the stress state of the crust beneath the northeastern Japan island arc under a compressional tectonic regime using a finite element method with viscoelasticity and elastoplasticity. We consider a three-layer structure (upper crust, lower crust, and uppermost mantle) to define flow properties. Numerical results show that the brittle-viscous transition becomes shallower beneath the Ou Backbone Range compared with areas near the margins of the Pacific Ocean and the Japan Sea. Moreover, several elongate regions with a shallow brittle-viscous transition are oriented transverse to the arc, and these regions correspond to hot fingers (i.e., high-temperature regions in the mantle wedge). The stress level is low in these regions due to viscous deformation. Areas of seismicity roughly correspond to zones of stress accumulation where many intraplate earthquakes occur. Our model produces regions with high uplift rates that largely coincide with regions of high elevation (e.g., the Ou Backbone Range). The stress state, fault development, and uplift around the Ou Backbone Range can all be explained by our model. The results also suggest the existence of low-viscosity regions corresponding to hot fingers in the island arc crust. These low-viscosity regions have possibly affected viscous relaxation processes following the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake.

  8. Overview of ArcGIS Engine Controls%ArcGIS Engine控件综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘磊

    2010-01-01

    ArcGIS Engine是ESRI公司发布的嵌入式地理信息系统软件开发包.基于ArcGIS Engine开发的应用程序一般有3类:独立非可视化应用程序、独立可视化应用程序和嵌入式应用程序,由于ArcGIS Engine提供了一套可复用、跨平台、设计良好的ArcGIS控件,因此利用控件开发可视化的GIS应用程序是一种常用的开发方式.重点探讨了ArcGIS Engine自带控件的功能、使用方法以及与伙伴控件之间的联系机制.

  9. Method to reduce arc blow during DC arc welding of pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espina-Hernandez, J. H.; Rueda-Morales, G.L.; Caleyo, F.; Hallen, J. M. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, (Mexico); Lopez-Montenegro, A.; Perz-Baruch, E. [Pemex Exploracion y Produccion, Tabasco, (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    Steel pipelines are huge ferromagnetic structures and can be easily subjected to arc blow during the DC arc welding process. The development of methods to avoid arc blow during pipeline DC arc welding is a major objective in the pipeline industry. This study developed a simple procedure to compensate the residual magnetic field in the groove during DC arc welding. A Gaussmeter was used to perform magnetic flux density measurements in pipelines in southern Mexico. These data were used to perform magnetic finite element simulations using FEMM. Different variables were studied such as the residual magnetic field in the groove or the position of the coil with respect to the groove. An empirical predictive equation was developed from these trials to compensate for the residual magnetic field. A new method of compensating for the residual magnetic field in the groove by selecting the number of coil turns and the position of the coil with respect to the groove was established.

  10. H infinity Integrated Fault Estimation and Fault Tolerant Control of Discrete-time Piecewise Linear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeipour, Seyed Mojtaba; Bak, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of fault estimation and accommodation for discrete time piecewise linear systems. A robust fault estimator is designed to estimate the fault such that the estimation error converges to zero and H∞ performance of the fault estimation is minimized. Then......, the estimate of fault is used to compensate for the effect of the fault. Hence, using the estimate of fault, a fault tolerant controller using a piecewise linear static output feedback is designed such that it stabilizes the system and provides an upper bound on the H∞ performance of the faulty system....... Sufficient conditions for the existence of robust fault estimator and fault tolerant controller are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities. Upper bounds on the H∞ performance can be minimized by solving convex optimization problems with linear matrix inequality constraints. The efficiency...

  11. Architecture of small-scale fault zones in the context of the Leinetalgraben Fault System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyer, Dorothea; Philipp, Sonja L.

    2010-05-01

    Understanding fault zone properties in different geological settings is important to better assess the development and propagation of faults. In addition this allows better evaluation and permeability estimates of potential fault-related geothermal reservoirs. The Leinetalgraben fault system provides an outcrop analogue for many fault zones in the subsurface of the North German Basin. The Leinetalgraben is a N-S-trending graben structure, initiated in the Jurassic, in the south of Lower Saxony and as such part of the North German Basin. The fault system was reactivated and inverted during Alpine compression in the Tertiary. This complex geological situation was further affected by halotectonics. Therefore we can find different types of fault zones, that is normal, reverse, strike-slip an oblique-slip faults, surrounding the major Leinetalgraben boundary faults. Here we present first results of structural geological field studies on the geometry and architecture of fault zones in the Leinetalgraben Fault System in outcrop-scale. We measured the orientations and displacements of 17 m-scale fault zones in limestone (Muschelkalk) outcrops, the thicknesses of their fault cores and damage zones, as well as the fracture densities and geometric parameters of the fracture systems therein. We also analysed the effects of rock heterogeneities, particularly stiffness variations between layers (mechanical layering) on the propagation of natural fractures and fault zones. The analysed fault zones predominantly show similar orientations as the major fault zones they surround. Other faults are conjugate or perpendicular to the major fault zones. The direction of predominant joint strike corresponds to the orientation of the fault zones in the majority of cases. The mechanical layering of the limestone and marlstone stratification obviously has great effects on fracture propagation. Already thin layers (mm- to cm-scale) of low stiffness - here marl - seem to suffice to change the

  12. Fault Diagnosis in HVAC Chillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kihoon; Namuru, Setu M.; Azam, Mohammad S.; Luo, Jianhui; Pattipati, Krishna R.; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2005-01-01

    Modern buildings are being equipped with increasingly sophisticated power and control systems with substantial capabilities for monitoring and controlling the amenities. Operational problems associated with heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems plague many commercial buildings, often the result of degraded equipment, failed sensors, improper installation, poor maintenance, and improperly implemented controls. Most existing HVAC fault-diagnostic schemes are based on analytical models and knowledge bases. These schemes are adequate for generic systems. However, real-world systems significantly differ from the generic ones and necessitate modifications of the models and/or customization of the standard knowledge bases, which can be labor intensive. Data-driven techniques for fault detection and isolation (FDI) have a close relationship with pattern recognition, wherein one seeks to categorize the input-output data into normal or faulty classes. Owing to the simplicity and adaptability, customization of a data-driven FDI approach does not require in-depth knowledge of the HVAC system. It enables the building system operators to improve energy efficiency and maintain the desired comfort level at a reduced cost. In this article, we consider a data-driven approach for FDI of chillers in HVAC systems. To diagnose the faults of interest in the chiller, we employ multiway dynamic principal component analysis (MPCA), multiway partial least squares (MPLS), and support vector machines (SVMs). The simulation of a chiller under various fault conditions is conducted using a standard chiller simulator from the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). We validated our FDI scheme using experimental data obtained from different types of chiller faults.

  13. Fault-Tolerant Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Crowley, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    A compact, lightweight heat exchanger has been designed to be fault-tolerant in the sense that a single-point leak would not cause mixing of heat-transfer fluids. This particular heat exchanger is intended to be part of the temperature-regulation system for habitable modules of the International Space Station and to function with water and ammonia as the heat-transfer fluids. The basic fault-tolerant design is adaptable to other heat-transfer fluids and heat exchangers for applications in which mixing of heat-transfer fluids would pose toxic, explosive, or other hazards: Examples could include fuel/air heat exchangers for thermal management on aircraft, process heat exchangers in the cryogenic industry, and heat exchangers used in chemical processing. The reason this heat exchanger can tolerate a single-point leak is that the heat-transfer fluids are everywhere separated by a vented volume and at least two seals. The combination of fault tolerance, compactness, and light weight is implemented in a unique heat-exchanger core configuration: Each fluid passage is entirely surrounded by a vented region bridged by solid structures through which heat is conducted between the fluids. Precise, proprietary fabrication techniques make it possible to manufacture the vented regions and heat-conducting structures with very small dimensions to obtain a very large coefficient of heat transfer between the two fluids. A large heat-transfer coefficient favors compact design by making it possible to use a relatively small core for a given heat-transfer rate. Calculations and experiments have shown that in most respects, the fault-tolerant heat exchanger can be expected to equal or exceed the performance of the non-fault-tolerant heat exchanger that it is intended to supplant (see table). The only significant disadvantages are a slight weight penalty and a small decrease in the mass-specific heat transfer.

  14. Critical Length Criterion and the Arc Chain Model for Calculating the Arcing Time of the Secondary Arc Related to AC Transmission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Haoxi; Li, Qingmin; Xing, Jinyuan; Li, Jinsong; Chen, Qiang

    2015-06-01

    The prompt extinction of the secondary arc is critical to the single-phase reclosing of AC transmission lines, including half-wavelength power transmission lines. In this paper, a low-voltage physical experimental platform was established and the motion process of the secondary arc was recorded by a high-speed camera. It was found that the arcing time of the secondary arc rendered a close relationship with its arc length. Through the input and output power energy analysis of the secondary arc, a new critical length criterion for the arcing time was proposed. The arc chain model was then adopted to calculate the arcing time with both the traditional and the proposed critical length criteria, and the simulation results were compared with the experimental data. The study showed that the arcing time calculated from the new critical length criterion gave more accurate results, which can provide a reliable criterion in term of arcing time for modeling and simulation of the secondary arc related with power transmission lines. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51277061 and 51420105011)

  15. Fighting fires... with science

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2016-01-01

    CERN firefighters are working with a research centre in the United States to develop more effective firefighting techniques.   One of the UL FSRI’s model houses is set alight... in the interest of science. (Photo: ©UL FSRI) For around ten years, the Underwriters Laboratories Firefighter Safety Research Institute (UL FSRI) has been carrying out scientific research on the various techniques used by firefighters in the United States and around the world. This research has focused on evaluating the effectiveness and safety of current practices worldwide with the aim of developing even better techniques. In many cases the research has shown that a combination of techniques gives the best results. The interiors of the model houses are fully furnished. (Photo: ©UL FSRI) Art Arnalich, who has worked with fire brigades in the United States and Europe and is now a member of CERN’s Fire Brigade, has actively participated in this research since 2013. His knowledge of ...

  16. A novel algorithm for fault classification in transmission lines using a combined adaptive network and fuzzy inference system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeo, S.M.; Kim, C.H.; Hong, K.S. [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea). School fo Information and Computer Engineering; Lim, Y.B. [LG Electronics CDMA Handsets Lab., Seoul (Korea); Aggarwal, R.K.; Johns, A.T. [University of Bath (United Kingdom). Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering; Choi, M.S. [Myongji Univ., Yongin (Korea). Division of Electrical and Information Control Engineering

    2003-11-01

    Accurate detection and classification of faults on transmission lines is vitally important. In this respect, many different types of faults occur, inter alia low impedance faults (LIF) and high impedance faults (HIF). The latter in particular pose difficulties for the commonly employed conventional overcurrent and distance relays, and if not detected, can cause damage to expensive equipment, threaten life and cause fire hazards. Although HIFs are far less common than LIFs, it is imperative that any protection device should be able to satisfactorily deal with both HIFs and LIFs. Because of the randomness and asymmetric characteristics of HIFs, the modelling of HIF is difficult and many papers relating to various HIF models have been published. In this paper, the model of HIFs in transmission lines is accomplished using the characteristics of a ZnO arrester, which is then implemented within the overall transmission system model based on the electromagnetic transients programme. This paper proposes an algorithm for fault detection and classification for both LIFs and HIFs using Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). The inputs into ANFIS are current signals only based on Root-Mean-Square values of three-phase currents and zero sequence current. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested on a typical 154 kV Korean transmission line system under various fault conditions. Test results show that the ANFIS can detect and classify faults including (LIFs and HIFs) accurately within half a cycle. (author)

  17. The geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Paleoproterozoic Green Mountain arc: A composite(?), bimodal, oceanic, fringing arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D.S.; Barnes, C.G.; Premo, W.R.; Snoke, A.W.

    2011-01-01

    The inferred subduction affinity of the ~1780-Ma Green Mountain arc, a dominantly bimodal igneous terrane (together with immature marine and volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks) accreted to the southern margin of the Wyoming province, is integral to arc-accretion models of the Paleoproterozoic growth of southern Laurentia. Conversely, the dominantly bimodal nature of many putative arc-related igneous suites throughout southern Laurentia, including the Green Mountain arc, has also been used to support models of growth by extension of pre-existing crust. We report new geochemical and isotopic data from ~1780-Ma gabbroic and granodioritic to tonalitic rocks of the Big Creek Gneiss, interpreted as consanguineous with previously studied metavolcanic rocks of the Green Mountain Formation.The ~1780-Ma Big Creek Gneiss mafic rocks show clear geochemical signatures of a subduction origin and provide no supporting evidence for extensional tectonism. The ~1780-Ma Big Creek Gneiss felsic rocks are attributed to partial melting of mafic and/or mixed lower-crustal material. The bimodal nature of the suite results from the combination of arc basalts and felsic crustal melts. The lack of andesite is consistent with the observed tholeiitic differentiation trend of the mafic magmas. The lower e{open}Nd(1780Ma) values for the felsic rocks vs. the mafic rocks suggest that the unexposed lower crust of the arc may be older than the arc and that Trans-Hudson- or Penokean-aged rocks possibly form the substratum of the arc. Our results reinforce previous interpretations that arc-related magmatism played a key role in the Paleoproterozoic crustal growth of southern Laurentia, but also support the possibility of unexposed older crust as basement to the arcs. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  18. BASIC THEORY AND METHOD OF WELDING ARC SPECTRAL INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Junyue; Li Zhiyong; Li Huan; Xue Haitao

    2004-01-01

    Arc spectral information is a rising information source which can solve many problems that can not be done with arc electric information and other arc information.It is of important significance to develop automatic control technique of welding process.The basic theory and methods on it play an important role in expounding and applying arc spectral information.Using concerned equation in plasma physics and spectrum theory,a system of equations including 12 equations which serve as basic theory of arc spectral information is set up.Through analyzing of the 12 equations,a basic view that arc spectral information is the reflection of arc state and state variation,and is the most abundant information resource reflecting welding arc process is drawn.Furthermore,based on the basic theory,the basic methods of test and control of arc spectral information and points out some applications of it are discussesed.

  19. Active faults and seismogenic models for the Urumqi city, Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingzhen; Yu, Yang; Shen, Jun; Shao, Bo; Qi, Gao; Deng, Mei

    2016-06-01

    We have studied the characteristics of the active faults and seismicity in the vicinity of Urumqi city, the capital of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China, and have proposed a seismogenic model for the assessment of earthquake hazard in this area. Our work is based on an integrated analysis of data from investigations of active faults at the surface, deep seismic reflection soundings, seismic profiles from petroleum exploration, observations of temporal seismic stations, and the precise location of small earthquakes. We have made a comparative study of typical seismogenic structures in the frontal area of the North Tianshan Mountains, where Urumqi city is situated, and have revealed the primary features of the thrust-fold-nappe structure there. We suggest that Urumqi city is comprised two zones of seismotectonics which are interpreted as thrust-nappe structures. The first is the thrust nappe of the North Tianshan Mountains in the west, consisting of the lower (root) thrust fault, middle detachment, and upper fold-uplift at the front. Faults active in the Pleistocene are present in the lower and upper parts of this structure, and the detachment in the middle spreads toward the north. In the future, M7 earthquakes may occur at the root thrust fault, while the seismic risk of frontal fold-uplift at the front will not exceed M6.5. The second structure is the western flank of the arc-like Bogda nappe in the east, which is also comprised a root thrust fault, middle detachment, and upper fold-uplift at the front, of which the nappe stretches toward the north; several active faults are also developed in it. The fault active in the Holocene is called the South Fukang fault. It is not in the urban area of Urumqi city. The other three faults are located in the urban area and were active in the late Pleistocene. In these cases, this section of the nappe structure near the city has an earthquake risk of M6.5-7. An earthquake M S6.6, 60 km east to Urumqi city occurred along the

  20. Coyote Steals Fire

    OpenAIRE

    Shoshone Nation, Northwest Band

    2005-01-01

    "Coyote was tired of being cold," says this traditional Shoshone tale about the arrival of fire in the northern Wasatch region. Members of the Northwestern Band of the Shoshone Nation developed the concept for this retelling in collaboration with book arts teacher Tamara Zollinger. Together, they wrote and illustrated the book. Bright watercolor-and-salt techniques provide a winning background to the hand-cut silhouettes of the characters. The lively, humorous story about Coyote and his...