WorldWideScience

Sample records for archiv review issue

  1. "'Why Do We Need to Keep This in Print? It's on the Web ...': A Review of Electronic Archiving Issues and Problems."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Dorothy

    2002-01-01

    Presents an overview of concerns and problems with digital archiving, with a focus on preservation of government information. Addresses standards and costs. Discusses the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, and the digital preservation strategies of migration, emulation, and encapsulation. An appendix reviews some of the…

  2. PETC review: Issue 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santore, R.R.; Friedman, S.; Reiss, J.; Waehner, M.J. [eds.

    1993-12-31

    Since its beginning, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center`s (PETC) primary function has been to study and conduct research on coal and its uses and applications. PETC has also been investigating ways in which natural gas can be employed to enhance the use of coal and to convert natural gas into liquid products that can be more readily transported and stored. This review contains five articles which reflect PETC`s mission: State-of-the-Art High Performance Power Systems [HIPPS]; Unconventional Fuel Uses of Natural Gas; Micronized Magnetite -- Beneficiation and Benefits; Reburning for NO{sub x} Reduction; and An Update of PETC`s Process Research Facility.

  3. 36 CFR 1275.46 - Segregation and review; Senior Archival Panel; Presidential Materials Review Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; Senior Archival Panel; Presidential Materials Review Board. 1275.46 Section 1275.46 Parks, Forests, and... Access by the Public § 1275.46 Segregation and review; Senior Archival Panel; Presidential Materials... Senior Archival Panel is unable to make a determination required in paragraph (d) of this section, or...

  4. Long-Term Spatial Data Preservation and Archiving: What Are the Issues?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLEAKLY, DENISE R.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is moving towards Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) of many environmental restoration sites that cannot be released for unrestricted use. One aspect of information management for LTS is geospatial data archiving. This report discusses the challenges facing the DOE LTS program concerning the data management and archiving of geospatial data. It discusses challenges in using electronic media for archiving, overcoming technological obsolescence, data refreshing, data migration, and emulation. It gives an overview of existing guidance and policy and discusses what the United States Geological Service (USGS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) are doing to archive the geospatial data that their agencies are responsible for. In the conclusion, this report provides issues for further discussion around long-term spatial data archiving.

  5. PETC Review, Issue 5, Spring 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaustein, B.D.; Reiss, J.; Tarquinio, M.A.; Brown, J.; Evans, E. [eds.

    1992-07-01

    This issue of PETC Review contains short discussion on the following topics: advanced coal preparation processes, new scrubbers for flue gas desulfurization, PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility, and PETC`s Science Outreach Program. Supplemental sections on publications, highlights, calendars, etc. are also included. (VC)

  6. PETC Review, Issue 5, Spring 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaustein, B D; Reiss, J; Tarquinio, M A; Brown, J; Evans, E [eds.

    1992-04-01

    This issue of PETC Review contains short discussion on the following topics: advanced coal preparation processes, new scrubbers for flue gas desulfurization, PETC's Coal Preparation Process Research Facility, and PETC's Science Outreach Program. Supplemental sections on publications, highlights, calendars, etc. are also included. (VC)

  7. Research Review of the Archives Work Issues under the Visual Field of Smart City%智慧城市视野下档案工作问题研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    步尧

    2015-01-01

    智慧城市视野下档案工作问题研究中期刊文献多,档案学期刊作用突出;学科交叉率高,研究水平高;上升趋势温和,总体平稳;高产作者发表文献数量近半,高校研究成果明显,研究主题集中。研究问题包括:智慧城市建设中的档案工作、智慧档案、面向智慧城市的档案信息化、智慧城市背景下的档案信息资源开发与共建共享、融入智慧城市的档案服务、智慧城市与城建档案。%The journal articles are much more in the study of the problems of archives work under the visual field of the smart city, to discusse the periodical function prominently;High rate of interdisciplinarity, the research level is high;Mild rising trend, overall smooth; Prolific authors published literature nearly half number of significant research findings in colleges and universities, research focus. Research questions included: smart in the urban construction archives work, smart archives and the smart city under the background of archives informatization, smart city archives information re-sources co-construction and sharing, and develop into smart city archives service, the smart city and urban construction archives.

  8. A discussion of major issues related to the archiving of office business records

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Jiazhen; LIAO; Ru

    2010-01-01

    Based on our research and data analysis,we have made an in-depth study of the elements that have had an impact on the archiving of those office records from the automated office management system.In addition,we also offered a few suggestions about archiving such electronic office records more efficiently and effectively from a holistic perspective.In this paper,these authors discussed at some length about the following issues which included but limited to the unique features and requirements about the offline record transmission,the online record archiving,the requirements of electronic archiving stemming from the automated office document generating system,how to make the electronic business management system more congenial to its task-specific requirements for business records management and how to protect the system users’interest during the process of the system’s continuous evolutionary development.

  9. Security Issues in Cloud Computing - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Hussain

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Computing is the most emerging trend in Information Technology now days. It is attracting the organizations due to its advantages of scalability, throughput, easy and cheap access and on demand up and down grading of SaaS, PaaS and IaaS. Besides all the salient features of cloud environment, there are the big challenges of privacy and security. In this paper, a review of different security issues like trust, confidentiality, authenticity, encryption, key management and resource sharing are presented along with the efforts made on how to overcome these issues.

  10. Logistics Performance Measurements - Issues and Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Bakar, Mohd Azlan; Jaafar, Harlina Suzana; Faisol, Nasruddin; Muhammad, Azlina

    2014-01-01

    Logistics is a backbone for the global supply chains. In Malaysia, logistics are now recognized as strategic industry that positively contribute to gross domestic product (GDP) and performance of logistics is foremost significant. Whereas most of the logistics performance has focused on investigating operational and trade facilitation contexts. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to examine the issues and reviews by practitioners and found 7 key components that translated it into operations pe...

  11. PETC Review, Issue 3, March 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaustein, B.; Reiss, J.; Robotti, S.; Brown, J.; Carter, C.; Evans, E.; Hammer, D. [eds.

    1991-03-01

    This issue of PETC Review presents brief discussion of the status of two DOE research program: (1)Coal Liquefaction and (2)Low-Cost Retrofit Technologies for Reducing SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and Particulates as part of the Clean Coal Technology Program. Air Toxics and the 1990 Clean Air Act are also discussed with respect to Environmental Protection Agency regulations. Supplemental sections on events, special focuses, publication listing, etc. are also included.

  12. PETC Review, Issue 4, Fall 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaustein, B.D.; Reiss, J.; Tarquinio, M.A.; Brown, J.; Evans, E. [eds.

    1991-12-31

    In this issue of PETC Review, short discussion is given on the following topics: (1) ``Combustion 2000``--a low-emission boiler system coupled to a high-performance power system; (2) ``Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal, Part 2: Indirect Liquefaction``--outline research program; (3) ``A Computer Expert System to Reduce Power Plant Emissions``--a system being developed to predict the economic, operational, and environmental benefits of using commercially achievable cleaned coals; (4) ``PETC`s Flow Analysis Laboratory Assists Artificial Heart Research``--PETC equipment used to study the flow of blood in artificial hearts. Supplemental sections on events, special focuses, calendars, publication lists, etc. are also included.

  13. PETC Review, Issue 4, Fall 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaustein, B D; Reiss, J; Tarquinio, M A; Brown, J; Evans, E [eds.

    1991-10-01

    In this issue of PETC Review, short discussion is given on the following topics: (1) Combustion 2000''--a low-emission boiler system coupled to a high-performance power system; (2) Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal, Part 2: Indirect Liquefaction''--outline research program; (3) A Computer Expert System to Reduce Power Plant Emissions''--a system being developed to predict the economic, operational, and environmental benefits of using commercially achievable cleaned coals; (4) PETC's Flow Analysis Laboratory Assists Artificial Heart Research''--PETC equipment used to study the flow of blood in artificial hearts. Supplemental sections on events, special focuses, calendars, publication lists, etc. are also included.

  14. Innovations in data collection, management, and archiving for systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianjing; Vedula, S Swaroop; Hadar, Nira; Parkin, Christopher; Lau, Joseph; Dickersin, Kay

    2015-02-17

    Data abstraction is a key step in conducting systematic reviews because data collected from study reports form the basis of appropriate conclusions. Recent methodological standards and expectations highlight several principles for data collection. To support implementation of these standards, this article provides a step-by-step tutorial for selecting data collection tools; constructing data collection forms; and abstracting, managing, and archiving data for systematic reviews. Examples are drawn from recent experience using the Systematic Review Data Repository for data collection and management. If it is done well, data collection for systematic reviews only needs to be done by 1 team and placed into a publicly accessible database for future use. Technological innovations, such as the Systematic Review Data Repository, will contribute to finding trustworthy answers for many health and health care questions.

  15. PETC Review, Issue 6, Summer 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santore, R.R.; Blaustein, B.D.; Reiss, J.; Brown, J. [eds.

    1992-10-01

    This issue of the PETC Review focuses on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Several projects were completed recently and many more are beginning to generate data from operations, making this an ideal time to highlight this program. The program, which was initiated in 1986, now has 42 projects that represent a remarkable scope of activities ranging from the demonstration of improved retrofit components to the repowering of coal-fired electrical power plants with advanced systems. In 1986, when Congress committed the nation to this multi-billion dollar, multi-year demonstration program, the policy goals were clearly set forth and the funding was completely committed. I believe that defining and sticking to these goals and commitments has been critical to establishing substantial industry interest and investment, thereby enhancing the prospects for success. Both the public and private sectors were better able to establish priorities and to allocate resources to projects that best meet our nation`s energy and environmental needs. I believe that the Clean Coal Technology program will help fulfill the goals for coal that were recently reaffirmed in the National Energy Strategy: One Year Later-to maintain coal`s competitiveness and to create a favorable export market for US coal and coal technology.

  16. PETC Review, Issue 6, Summer 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santore, R.R.; Blaustein, B.D.; Reiss, J.; Brown, J. (eds.)

    1992-01-01

    This issue of the PETC Review focuses on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Several projects were completed recently and many more are beginning to generate data from operations, making this an ideal time to highlight this program. The program, which was initiated in 1986, now has 42 projects that represent a remarkable scope of activities ranging from the demonstration of improved retrofit components to the repowering of coal-fired electrical power plants with advanced systems. In 1986, when Congress committed the nation to this multi-billion dollar, multi-year demonstration program, the policy goals were clearly set forth and the funding was completely committed. I believe that defining and sticking to these goals and commitments has been critical to establishing substantial industry interest and investment, thereby enhancing the prospects for success. Both the public and private sectors were better able to establish priorities and to allocate resources to projects that best meet our nation's energy and environmental needs. I believe that the Clean Coal Technology program will help fulfill the goals for coal that were recently reaffirmed in the National Energy Strategy: One Year Later-to maintain coal's competitiveness and to create a favorable export market for US coal and coal technology.

  17. Science and technology review, September 1998 issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, J

    1998-09-01

    This issue focuses on monitoring the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. A feature article on the history of the Laboratory is also included. Other articles highlight X-ray laser technology and the ground testing of microsatellites that emulates the free-floating environment of actual space flight

  18. Novel foods and food allergies: A review of the issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putten, van M.C.; Frewer, L.J.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Gremmen, B.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Wichers, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    This review identifies and explores the current issues around different types of novel foods and allergy concerns. An important issue relates to the observation that risk estimates associated with novel foods may differ depending on whether more emphasis is placed by the individual on the results of

  19. Homosexuality and Education: A Review of the Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, David E.; Risch, Stephen J.

    1981-01-01

    In this three-part article, the authors outline some reasons that homosexuality is an issue which should concern educators, describe some pertinent facts about the origins and correlates of homosexual behavior, and review some specific issues about the presence of openly gay teachers in the public schools. (Author/SJL)

  20. A review of design issues specific to hypersonic flight vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sziroczak, D.; Smith, H.

    2016-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current technical issues and challenges associated with the design of hypersonic vehicles. Two distinct classes of vehicles are reviewed; Hypersonic Transports and Space Launchers, their common features and differences are examined. After a brief historical overview, the paper takes a multi-disciplinary approach to these vehicles, discusses various design aspects, and technical challenges. Operational issues are explored, including mission profiles, current and predicted markets, in addition to environmental effects and human factors. Technological issues are also reviewed, focusing on the three major challenge areas associated with these vehicles: aerothermodynamics, propulsion, and structures. In addition, matters of reliability and maintainability are also presented. The paper also reviews the certification and flight testing of these vehicles from a global perspective. Finally the current stakeholders in the field of hypersonic flight are presented, summarizing the active programs and promising concepts.

  1. Workshop on the Open Archives Initiative (OAI) and Peer Review Journals in Europe A Report

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, J P

    2001-01-01

    A workshop on the Open Archives Initiative and Peer Review Journals in Europe was held at CERN, in Geneva, from March 22nd to 24th. The purpose of this workshop was to mobilise a group of European scientists and librarians who want to play an active role in organizing a self-managed system for electronic scholarly communication. Such a system should be compliant with the technical standards proposed by the Open Archives Initiative (OAI). The immediate deployment of OAI-compliant e-print repositories was a concrete objective of the workshop. The workshop had a second (exploratory) objective, related to the certification of writings submitted to archives.

  2. Archiving Reproducible Research with R and Dataverse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeper, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Reproducible research and data archiving are increasingly important issues in research involving statistical analyses of quantitative data. This article introduces the dvn package, which allows R users to publicly archive datasets, analysis files, codebooks, and associated metadata in Dataverse...... Network online repositories, an open-source data archiving project sponsored by Harvard University. In this article I review the importance of data archiving in the context of reproducible research, introduce the Dataverse Network, explain the implementation of the dvn package, and provide example code...... for archiving and releasing data using the package....

  3. RFID-enabled healthcare applications, issues and benefits: an archival analysis (1997-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosso Wamba, Samuel

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive review of articles published between 1997 and 2011 in the Journal of Medical Systems (JMS) on RFID technology is presented. A total of 22 papers are analyzed using a classification framework that has three dimensions: RFID-enabled healthcare applications, RFID-enabled healthcare issues, and RFID-enabled healthcare benefits. In addition, an invitation sent to all authors of the papers accepted for the special issue on RFID for the JMS allows them to position their various papers within the classification framework. Finally, a list of future research directions is presented.

  4. Temporal issues in e-learning research: A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbera, Elena; Gros, Begona; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Barbera, E., Gros, B., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012). Temporal issues in e-learning research: A literature review. British Journal of Educational Technology, 43(2), E53-E55. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2011.01255.x.

  5. Book Review: Online Privacy: Issues in the Digital Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darlene M Tester

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Currie, Stephen (2012: Online Privacy: Issues in the Digital Age, San Diego, CA, Reference Point Press, Inc. 96 pages, ISBN: 13-978-1-60152-194-1, US $27.95.Reviewed by Darlene M Tester, CISSP, CISM, ITIL, CHSS, JD, Metropolitan State University, Minnesota (nonsequitr60@gmail.comThis book is one of a series of books Currie has written about online areas of concern. This is the sixth book in the series. The purpose of the book is to act as a primer for people in the IT field who may need a point of reference for Internet issues such as gaming, security and privacy. The book takes a high level look at the complexities of privacy online from social networking to hackers and provides insight into what the most pressing issues of privacy are online today.(see PDF for full review

  6. Tourism and rural community development in Namibia: policy issues review

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    During the past decades, the tourism sector has become an increasing important issue for governments and regional agencies searching for socio-economic development. Especially in the Global South the increasing tourism demand has been seen highly beneficial as evolving tourism can create direct and indirect income and employment effects to the host regions and previously marginalised communities, with potential to aid with the poverty reduction targets. This research note reviews the existing...

  7. [Archival tags and geolocation methods for marine animals: A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian-feng; Fan, Wei; Dai, Yang

    2015-11-01

    Archival tags, a group of data storable electronic tags, are widely used as strong tools for obtaining long term and large scale activity information of marine animals, specifically highly migratory oceanic fishes, and corresponding environmental data. Though retrieving tags is an indispensable step for obtaining data, which is a shortage of archival tags, a series of achievements have been made on marine animals by using archival tags since the 1990s. With the appearance of pop-up satellite tag, which solved the problem of data retrieving and was fully independent of the fishing, both breadth and depth of marine animals' studies are extended by the end of the 1990s. Geolocation based on light intensity is the key to estimate marine animals' movement and has achieved some progress in the past 20 years. However, the accuracy of geolocation for latitude is not high enough, and there is still much room for improvement. To date, most geolocation methods that use ambient daylight involve identifying the times when the sun is at a precisely known zenith angle (e.g., sunrise and sunset). The problem of estimating longitude has been proved easy to solve, but accurate latitude estimates remain elusive. This paper mainly introduced two tags, i. e., archival tags and pop-up tags, and three geolocation methods, i.e. , 1) the "fixed reference" method, 2) the "variable reference" method, and 3) the "reflection" method. We also presented a prospect analysis on archival tags and possible research direction of geolocation methods. We believed that miniaturization and multi-sensor integration are the trends for electronic tags while more environmental factors such as depth, SST (sea surface temperature) or magnetic field intensity, instead of single factor, as auxiliary parameters would be used for improving the geolocation accuracy in the future.

  8. Psychosocial issues in palliative care: A review of five cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonia C Onyeka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Palliative care is not just vital in controlling symptoms of the patient′s disease condition, but also aims to extend the patient′s life, giving it a better quality. However, several times in the course of management, the psychosocial impact of cancer, HIV/AIDS, and other life-limiting disease conditions may not be noticed and dealt with during the admission period, thereby giving rise to a more complex situation than the disease condition itself. This article aims to review some psychosocial issues and measures that can be taken to address them. It highlights the various roles and the importance of the clinician, nurse, social worker, and other members of the multidisciplinary team in tackling these issues and will help healthcare professionals in this field achieve better practice in the future.

  9. Key management issue in SCADA networks: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalhossein Rezai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA networks have a vital role in Critical Infrastructures (CIs such as public transports, power generation systems, gas, water and oil industries, so that there are concerns on security issues in these networks. The utilized Remote Terminal Units (RTUs and Intelligence Electronic Devices (IEDs in these networks have resource limitations, which make security applications a challenging issue. Efficient key management schemes are required besides lightweight ciphers for securing the SCADA communications. Many key management schemes have been developed to address the tradeoff between SCADA constrain and security, but which scheme is the most effective is still debatable. This paper presents a review of the existing key management schemes in SCADA networks, which provides directions for further researches in this field.

  10. Measuring persistence: A literature review focusing on methodological issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, A.K.; Brown, M.A.; Trumble, D.

    1995-03-01

    This literature review was conducted as part of a larger project to produce a handbook on the measurement of persistence. The past decade has marked the development of the concept of persistence and a growing recognition that the long-term impacts of demand-side management (DSM) programs warrant careful assessment. Although Increasing attention has been paid to the topic of persistence, no clear consensus has emerged either about its definition or about the methods most appropriate for its measurement and analysis. This project strives to fill that gap by reviewing the goals, terminology, and methods of past persistence studies. It was conducted from the perspective of a utility that seeks to acquire demand-side resources and is interested in their long-term durability; it was not conducted from the perspective of the individual consumer. Over 30 persistence studies, articles, and protocols were examined for this report. The review begins by discussing the underpinnings of persistence studies: namely, the definitions of persistence and the purposes of persistence studies. Then. it describes issues relevant to both the collection and analysis of data on the persistence of energy and demand savings. Findings from persistence studies also are summarized. Throughout the review, four studies are used repeatedly to illustrate different methodological and analytical approaches to persistence so that readers can track the data collection. data analysis, and findings of a set of comprehensive studies that represent alternative approaches.

  11. A Review of Bring Your Own Device on Security Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morufu Olalere

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile computing has supplanted internet computing because of the proliferation of cloud-based applications and mobile devices (such as smartphones, palmtops, and tablets. As a result of this, workers bring their mobile devices to the workplace and use them for enterprise work. The policy of allowing the employees to work with their own personal mobile devices is called Bring Your Own Devices (BYOD. In this article, we discuss BYOD’s background, prevalence, benefits, challenges, and possible security attacks. We then review contributions of academic researchers on BYOD. The Universiti Putra Malaysia online databases (such as IEEE Xplore digital library, Elsevier, Springer, ACM digital library were used to search for peer-reviewed academic publications and other relevant publications on BYOD. The Google Scholar search engine was also used. Our thorough review shows that security issues comprise the most significant challenge confronting BYOD policy and that very little has been done to tackle this security challenge. It is our hope that this review will provide a theoretical background for future research and enable researchers to identify researchable areas of BYOD.

  12. 42 CFR 423.2102 - Request for MAC review when ALJ issues decision or dismissal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Request for MAC review when ALJ issues decision or... Reopening, ALJ Hearings, MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.2102 Request for MAC review when ALJ issues decision or dismissal. (a)(1) An enrollee to the ALJ hearing may request a MAC review if the enrollee...

  13. Managing the Contents of the Indian Institute of Astrophysics Archives — Copyright Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdie, C.; Vagiswari, A.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we discuss some of the challenges faced by the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA) archives with reference to the use of both physical and digital contents and the attempts made to keep the balance between providing access and not infringing the copyright laws.

  14. Building a National Strategy for Digital Preservation: Issues in Digital Media Archiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council on Library and Information Resources, Washington, DC.

    The United States Congress in December 2000 appropriated funds to the Library of Congress (LC) to spearhead an effort to develop a national strategy for the preservation of digital information. LC staff scheduled a series of conversations with representatives from the technology, business, entertainment, academic, legal, archival, and library…

  15. Review of Requirements Management Issues in Software Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Naeem Ahmed Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A requirement is a capability to which a product or service should conform to. A meticulous consideration to requirements engineering acts as a backbone of software projects. Ambiguous and unrealistic requirements are major source of failure in the software-intensive systems. Requirements engineering processes are complex as most of the requirements engineering documentation is written in natural languages which are less formal and often distract the designers and developers. Requirements management is a continuous process throughout the project lifecycle and relates to documenting, analyzing, tracing and prioritizing requirements and then finally controlling changes. The main issues related to requirements management are usually social, political and cultural. Software requirement engineers who gather the requirements generally consider that such issues are beyond the scope of their profession as they deem them within the project management ambit. In this study, we highlight the management issues that arise in the requirements engineering process and explore the possibilities to tackle them amicably. The study is supplemented with a critical review of the existing methodologies for resolving and managing software requirements.

  16. Botnet detection techniques:review, future trends, and issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmad KARIM; Rosli Bin SALLEH; Muhammad SHIRAZ; Syed Adeel Ali SHAH; Irfan AWAN; Nor Badrul ANUAR

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the Internet has enabled access to widespread remote services in the distributed computing envi-ronment; however, integrity of data transmission in the distributed computing platform is hindered by a number of security issues. For instance, the botnet phenomenon is a prominent threat to Internet security, including the threat of malicious codes. The botnet phenomenon supports a wide range of criminal activities, including distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks, click fraud, phishing, malware distribution, spam emails, and building machines for illegitimate exchange of information/materials. Therefore, it is imperative to design and develop a robust mechanism for improving the botnet detection, analysis, and removal process. Currently, botnet detection techniques have been reviewed in different ways; however, such studies are limited in scope and lack discussions on the latest botnet detection techniques. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the latest state-of-the-art techniques for botnet detection and figures out the trends of previous and current research. It provides a thematic taxonomy for the classification of botnet detection techniques and highlights the implications and critical aspects by qualitatively analyzing such techniques. Related to our comprehensive review, we highlight future directions for improving the schemes that broadly span the entire botnet detection research field and identify the persistent and prominent research challenges that remain open.

  17. A Review of Current Issues Underlying Colon Cleansing before Colonoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence C Hookey

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review examines four current issues related to the efficacy, patient tolerance and safety of the following bowel cleansing agents: oral sodium phosphate (NaP, polyethylene glycol (PEG and magnesium citrate (Pico-Salax, Ferring Pharmaceuticals Inc, Canada, an agent recently made available in Canada. MedLine and PubMed databases were systematically searched to identify studies related to the efficacy of altered PEG solutions combined with adjunct treatments; the efficacy, tolerability and safety of Pico-Salax; the association between nephrocalcinosis, and chronic renal failure and oral NaP use; and the role of diet. Although lower volume PEG solutions combined with adjuvant agents were generally associated with better patient tolerance, their efficacy was varied and interpretation of this end point is complicated by study design issues. There are very few reported studies of Pico-Salax, and as a result, there are insufficient data to draw conclusions about the efficacy of this agent. The available data suggest that Pico-Salax may be better tolerated by patients, than oral NaP and PEG solutions. There is a paucity of hemodynamic monitoring data pre- and postadministration, but the available data suggests that this small-volume osmotic agent could cause subclinical contraction of the intravascular space. Recent case reports suggest an association between nephrocalcinosis and oral NaP ingestion, but to date, these reports have been confined to a single centre. Preliminary studies suggest that this is not a widespread problem, but more studies are needed. There are only a few studies examining diet and patient tolerability, but they do suggest that diet may be liberalized with some cleansing regimens to enhance tolerability without decreasing efficacy. The present review highlights current controversies and advances in colon cleansing before colonoscopy, and also identifies areas for further study.

  18. Mobile healthcare applications: system design review, critical issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mirza Mansoor; GholamHosseini, Hamid; Connolly, Martin J

    2015-03-01

    Mobile phones are becoming increasingly important in monitoring and delivery of healthcare interventions. They are often considered as pocket computers, due to their advanced computing features, enhanced preferences and diverse capabilities. Their sophisticated sensors and complex software applications make the mobile healthcare (m-health) based applications more feasible and innovative. In a number of scenarios user-friendliness, convenience and effectiveness of these systems have been acknowledged by both patients as well as healthcare providers. M-health technology employs advanced concepts and techniques from multidisciplinary fields of electrical engineering, computer science, biomedical engineering and medicine which benefit the innovations of these fields towards healthcare systems. This paper deals with two important aspects of current mobile phone based sensor applications in healthcare. Firstly, critical review of advanced applications such as; vital sign monitoring, blood glucose monitoring and in-built camera based smartphone sensor applications. Secondly, investigating challenges and critical issues related to the use of smartphones in healthcare including; reliability, efficiency, mobile phone platform variability, cost effectiveness, energy usage, user interface, quality of medical data, and security and privacy. It was found that the mobile based applications have been widely developed in recent years with fast growing deployment by healthcare professionals and patients. However, despite the advantages of smartphones in patient monitoring, education, and management there are some critical issues and challenges related to security and privacy of data, acceptability, reliability and cost that need to be addressed.

  19. 42 CFR 405.1102 - Request for MAC review when ALJ issues decision or dismissal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Request for MAC review when ALJ issues decision or...) Medicare Appeals Council Review § 405.1102 Request for MAC review when ALJ issues decision or dismissal. (a)(1) A party to the ALJ hearing may request a MAC review if the party files a written request for...

  20. Isoflavones and Prostate Cancer: A Review of Some Critical Issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Yi Zhang; Jie Cui; Ye Zhang; Zhen-Long Wang; Tie Chong; Zi-Ming Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this review is to discuss some critical issues of isoflavones protective against the development of prostate cancer (PCa).Data Sources: Data cited in this review were obtained primarily from PubMed and Embase from 1975 to 2015.Study Selection: Articles were selected with the search terms "isoflavone", "Phytoestrogen", "soy", "genistin", and "PCa".Results: Isoflavones do not play an important role on prostate-specific antigen levels reduction in PCa patients or healthy men.The effect ofisoflavones on sex hormone levels and PCa risk may be determined by equol converting bacteria in the intestine, specific polymorphic variation and concentrations of isoflavones.The intake of various types of phytoestrogens with lower concentrations in the daily diet may produce synergistic effects against PCa.Moreover, prostate tissue may concentrate isoflavones to potentially anti-carcinogenic levels.In addition, it is noteworthy that isoflavones may act as an agonist in PCa.Conclusions: Isoflavones play a protective role against the development of PCa.However, careful consideration should be given when isoflavones are used in the prevention and treatment of PCa.

  1. 22 CFR 216.9 - Bilateral and multilateral studies and concise reviews of environmental issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reviews of environmental issues. 216.9 Section 216.9 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... environmental issues. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in these procedures, the Administrator may... United States is a member or participant; or (b) Concise reviews of the environmental issues...

  2. Tourism and rural community development in Namibia: policy issues review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Kavita

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, the tourism sector has become an increasing important issue for governments and regional agencies searching for socio-economic development. Especially in the Global South the increasing tourism demand has been seen highly beneficial as evolving tourism can create direct and indirect income and employment effects to the host regions and previously marginalised communities, with potential to aid with the poverty reduction targets. This research note reviews the existing policy and planning frameworks in relation to tourism and rural development in Namibia. Especially the policy aims towards rural community development are overviewed with focus on Community-Based Tourism (CBT initiatives. The research note involves a retrospective review of tourism policies and rural local development initiatives in Namibia where the Ministry of Environment and Tourism (MET initiated a community-based tourism policy. The policy emphasises structures and processes helping local communities to benefit from the tourism sector, and the active and coordinating involvement of communities, especially, is expected to ensure that the benefits of tourism trickle down to the local level where tourist activities take place. However, it is noted that in addition to public policy-makers also other tourism developers and private business environment in Namibia need to recognize the full potential of rural tourism development in order to meet the created politically driven promises at the policy level. In this respect, a national tourism policy could provide an enabling framework, integrating the tourism sector’s development aims to rural and community development needs in future. In addition, there is a need to coordinate a comprehensive vision of what type of rural tourism development or tourism in rural environments holds the most potential to benefit both local communities and the mainstream sector.

  3. Study of Radiologic Technologists' Perceptions of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) Competence and Educational Issues in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Daniel M; Trepp, Errol R; Ipaki, Maryam; Ng, Curtise K C

    2015-06-01

    Although the implementation of picture archiving and communication system (PACS) could increase productivity of radiology departments, this depends on factors such as the PACS competence of radiologic technologists (RTs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the RTs' perceptions of PACS competence and educational issues in Western Australia (WA). A hardcopy questionnaire was distributed to WA RTs for obtaining their perceptions of PACS competence and educational issues. Descriptive (percentage of frequency, mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (t test and analysis of variance) were used to analyze the responses of the multiple choice and five-point scale questions from the returned questionnaires. The questionnaire response rate was 57.7% (173 out of 300). The mean values of all PACS competence questions except questions 2e-g are in the range of 3.9-4.9, i.e., around competent to very competent. Participants indicated they received adequate PACS training (mean 3.8). Statistically significant variables influencing RTs' perceptions of their PACS competence and educational issues including the age (p competent in using the modality workstation, PACS and radiology information system, and received adequate training. However, future PACS education programs should be tailored to different RTs' groups. For example, multiple training modules might be necessary to support the PACS competence development of older RTs and those with lower general computer literacy.

  4. Management and health issues in women with epilepsy - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salawu, F K; Moruppa, J Y; Danburam, A; Olokoba, A B

    2011-12-01

    Although epilepsy affects men and women equally, there are special implications for women, especially during their childbearing years, and particularly when pregnancy is contemplated. This review summarisesthe complexity and multifaceted nature of health issues affecting women with epilepsy (WWE) in general and epilepsy in women beyond childbearing age. The female sex hormones and their cyclic as well as age-related variations certainly influence seizure activity and epilepsy in women. Catamenial epilepsy is a multifaceted neuroendocrine condition in which seizures are clustered around specific points in the menstrual cycle, most often around perimenstrual or periovulatory period. There are special concerns for women of child bearing years with regard to contraception, pregnancy and teratogenicity that should be considered during counseling and selection of appropriate treatment.Although the majority of pregnant WWE experience normal pregnancies and deliveries, their children have a higher risk of birth defects. Individualised treatment coupling antiepileptic drug use (AED) and the specific phase of impact of the reproductive cycle must be considered in treatment selection. As the number of available treatment options for epilepsy increases, the optimal goal for the general practitioner is to work as a team with obstetricians and gynaecologists, and neurologists in an effort to ensure the best treatment of WWE

  5. Electrophysiology and Biopotential Issues on Human Electrocardiogram-A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A.S. Ali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The heart is the first organ and most importantly to form in the body, where is found the most powerful generator of electromagnetic energy in the human body. Electrophysiology is the best method used to diagnose human heart problem. Knowledge of the electrical potentials in human heart is a quantum leap in the science of the human heart. Recently, there has been a growing interest in studying the human ECG. However, is unfortunately a very complicated issue which requires a relatively good understanding of everything that has been said about the heart. Focus on the review of physical, electromagnetic basis of human heart's biopotentials and understanding the basic equations of cardiac electrophysiology that represents the basis to all clinicians whether in postnatal (pediatric or adult or prenatal (foetal Medicine. Approach: Mathematical method used for derivation of the essential equations of human heart electrical potentials, this equation will develop the principle sciences of human heart, the equation also outlier finding of the electromagnetic base of human electrophysiology. Results: Heart is important electrical generator in human body. The voltage and current which was generated in human heart represent the basis of heart biosciences. The electromagnetic energy of the heart not only envelops every cell of the human body, but also extends out in all directions in the space around human body. Conclusion: The proposed technique for electrophysiology and potentials on human ECG was useful and the results may contribute to the references for later studies.

  6. Virtual reality at nuclear issues : a review study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcio Henrique da; Legey, Ana Paula; Mol, Antonio Carlos de A., E-mail: marciohenrique@lmp.ufrj.br, E-mail: ana.legey@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: mol@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Recently, several applications using concepts related to virtual reality has been proposed to help on solving issues of great interest in Nuclear Engineering. Among them are power plant's control rooms simulators; measurement of the estimated radiation dose in a nuclear power plant; use of game engines to create virtual environments to support evacuation planning of buildings and circulation in areas subjected to radiation; development of a man - machine interface based on speech recognition; virtual control tables for simulation of nuclear power plants; evacuation plans support; security teams training and evaluation of physical protection barriers; ergonomic evaluation of control rooms, and other ones. Many of these applications are developed at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), having their results published in form of articles in periodicals and conferences. This article presents a review of some of these studies showing the evolution in the use of these concepts, describing some of its results and showing prospects for future applications that can make use of virtual reality technology. (author)

  7. PETC Review. Issue 7, Winter 1992--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santore, R.R.; Blaustein, B.D.; Friedman, S.; Reiss, J.; Brown, J.; Price, M.M. [eds.

    1993-02-01

    This issue of the PETC Review is devoted to explaining how the private sector can do business with DOE-and with PETC in particular-and how DOE works with academia, industry, and state and local groups to accomplish objectives of mutual interest. Over the past several years, the notion of ``cost-sharing`` has been receiving increased attention. Indeed, cost-shared RD&D is becoming the norm, not only within DOE but also among other government agencies, including the Department of Defense. It may surprise some of our readership to learn that RD&D cost-sharing is not a new government policy. In fact, it has been part of the DOE Acquisition Regulations from their inception in 1977. In lay terms, cost participation, a general kind of cost-sharing, is required for RD&D efforts in which the non-Federal participant`s goal is commercialization or in situations for which it is reasonable to expect that economic benefits will accrue to the participant as a result of the work. The policy is quite flexible and states that the degree of non-DOEcost participation depends on a number of factors, including the nature of the work performed and the extent of the project risk. As competition for RD&D funds increases, it is to be expected that cost-sharing requirements for development, and even for basic research, will increase. Nevertheless, we think that Federal support of RD&D will continue to be necessary to maintain this country`s leadership in science, technology, industry, and living standards.

  8. A Review of Open Access Self-Archiving Mandate Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jingfeng; Gilchrist, Sarah B.; Smith, Nathaniel X. P.; Kingery, Justin A.; Radecki, Jennifer R.; Wilhelm, Marcia L.; Harrison, Keith C.; Ashby, Michael L.; Mahn, Alyson J.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the history of open access (OA) policies and examines the current status of mandate policy implementations. It finds that hundreds of policies have been proposed and adopted at various organizational levels and many of them have shown a positive effect on the rate of repository content accumulation. However, it also detects…

  9. Open-system dynamics of entanglement: a key issues review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aolita, Leandro; de Melo, Fernando; Davidovich, Luiz

    2015-04-01

    One of the greatest challenges in the fields of quantum information processing and quantum technologies is the detailed coherent control over each and every constituent of quantum systems with an ever increasing number of particles. Within this endeavor, harnessing of many-body entanglement against the detrimental effects of the environment is a major pressing issue. Besides being an important concept from a fundamental standpoint, entanglement has been recognized as a crucial resource for quantum speed-ups or performance enhancements over classical methods. Understanding and controlling many-body entanglement in open systems may have strong implications in quantum computing, quantum simulations of many-body systems, secure quantum communication or cryptography, quantum metrology, our understanding of the quantum-to-classical transition, and other important questions of quantum foundations.In this paper we present an overview of recent theoretical and experimental efforts to underpin the dynamics of entanglement under the influence of noise. Entanglement is thus taken as a dynamic quantity on its own, and we survey how it evolves due to the unavoidable interaction of the entangled system with its surroundings. We analyze several scenarios, corresponding to different families of states and environments, which render a very rich diversity of dynamical behaviors.In contrast to single-particle quantities, like populations and coherences, which typically vanish only asymptotically in time, entanglement may disappear at a finite time. In addition, important classes of entanglement display an exponential decay with the number of particles when subject to local noise, which poses yet another threat to the already-challenging scaling of quantum technologies. Other classes, however, turn out to be extremely robust against local noise. Theoretical results and recent experiments regarding the difference between local and global decoherence are summarized. Control and

  10. Book Review: Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer.......The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer....

  11. Attention should be given to multiplicity issues in systematic reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, R.; Bunce, C.; Clarke, M.;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to describe the problem of multiple comparisons in systematic reviews and to provide some guidelines on how to deal with it in practice. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We describe common reasons for multiplicity in systematic reviews, and present some examples....... We provide guidance on how to deal with multiplicity when it is unavoidable. RESULTS: We identified six common reasons for multiplicity in systematic reviews: multiple outcomes, multiple groups, multiple time points, multiple effect measures, subgroup analyses, and multiple looks at accumulating data....... The existing methods to deal with multiplicity in single trials can not always be applied in systematic reviews. CONCLUSION: There is no simple and completely satisfactory solution to the problem of multiple comparisons in systematic reviews. More research is required to develop multiple comparison procedures...

  12. Predicting Adolescent Drug Abuse: A Review of Issues, Methods and Correlates. Research Issues 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettieri, Dan J., Ed.

    Presented are 18 papers on predicting adolescent drug abuse. The papers have the following titles: "Current Issues in the Epidemiology of Drug Abuse as Related to Psychosocial Studies of Adolescent Drug Use"; "The Quest for Interpersonal Predictors of Marihuana Abuse in Adolescents"; "Assessing the Interpersonal Determinants of Adolescent Drug…

  13. Science and technology review, July-August 1998 issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, J

    1998-07-01

    On the occasion of Edward Teller's 90th birthday, S&TR has the pleasure of honoring Lawrence Livermore's co-founder and most influential scientist. Teller is known for his inventive work in physics, his concepts leading to thermonuclear explosions, and his strong stands on such issues as science education, the nation's strategic defense, the needs for science in the future, and sharing scientific information. The articles in this issue also show him, as always, tirelessly moving forward with his new and changing interests.

  14. Slurry pipelines: economic and political issues. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-11-30

    In the controversy surrounding the proposal to grant Federal eminent domain to coal-slurry pipelines, the fundamental issue is whether, on balance, such a grant is in the national interest. The principal subissues (peripheral issues) of economics, water supply and disposal, energy consumption and conservation, employment, safety, and environmental impact are analyzed. It is found that, as compared with unit trains, which are the only immediate alternative for movement of large quantities of Western coal, the pipelines are not against the national interest, except in the case of employment. It is concluded that, on balance, the pipelines are in the national interest and should be granted the power of Federal eminent domain.

  15. CRITICAL REVIEW OF OPENSTACK SECURITY: ISSUES AND WEAKNESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Albaroodi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the state of both cloud computing security in general and OpenStack in particular. Conducting a reassessment of cloud computing security can provide a greater understanding of how cloud computing functions and what types of security issues arise therein. This study is divided into two parts; in the first part, the background of cloud computing and its different deployment models are discussed. This section also describes various security challenges that affect organizations’ decisions to adopt cloud computing. In the second part, an overview of the security issues in OpenStack is presented.

  16. Strengthening Teaching in New York State. A Review of Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    This document focuses on critical areas that affect teachers as the direct providers of educational service to students. It summarizes critical issues in teaching, raises key questions to be resolved, describes the current system of teacher certification and provides a bibliography for further reading. Brief discussions are presented on: (1) the…

  17. Review of Congressional Issues. News from Capitol Hill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Ann Simeo

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on U.S. congressional issues in two categories: (1) enacted legislation, and (2) proposed legislation. Addresses topics such as the resolution related to Iraq, the Department of Homeland Security, Pledge of Allegiance, social security protection, elder justice, and women's rights. Includes learning activities. (CMK)

  18. UNESCO Archive Portal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A review to the web site of UNESCO Archive Portal which work as a directory for archive and documents web sites , also offer a news and events on archive , the review showing the categories of the site , it's services , and the classification of the web sites in the directories.

  19. Reviews on Security Issues and Challenges in Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Y. Z.; Zaaba, Z. F.; Samsudin, N. F.

    2016-11-01

    Cloud computing is an Internet-based computing service provided by the third party allowing share of resources and data among devices. It is widely used in many organizations nowadays and becoming more popular because it changes the way of how the Information Technology (IT) of an organization is organized and managed. It provides lots of benefits such as simplicity and lower costs, almost unlimited storage, least maintenance, easy utilization, backup and recovery, continuous availability, quality of service, automated software integration, scalability, flexibility and reliability, easy access to information, elasticity, quick deployment and lower barrier to entry. While there is increasing use of cloud computing service in this new era, the security issues of the cloud computing become a challenges. Cloud computing must be safe and secure enough to ensure the privacy of the users. This paper firstly lists out the architecture of the cloud computing, then discuss the most common security issues of using cloud and some solutions to the security issues since security is one of the most critical aspect in cloud computing due to the sensitivity of user's data.

  20. A Review of Solutions for SDN-Exclusive Security Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Spooner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Software Defined Networking is a paradigm still in its emergent stages in the realm of production-scale networks. Centralisation of network control introduces a new level of flexibility for network administrators and programmers. Security is a huge factor contributing to consumer resistance to implementation of SDN architecture. Without addressing the issues inherent from SDNs centralised nature, the benefits in performance and network configurative flexibility cannot be harnessed. This paper explores key threats posed to SDN environments and comparatively analyses some of the mechanisms proposed as mitigations against these threats – it also provides some insight into the future works which would enable a securer SDN architecture.

  1. High-power FEL design issues - a critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Madey, J.M.J.; O`Shea, P.G. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The high-average power capability of FELs has been much advertised but little realized. In this paper we provide a critical analysis of the technological and economic issues associated with high-average power FEL operation from the UV to near IR. The project of IR FEL for the Siberian Center of photochemical researches is described. The distinguished features of this project are the use of the race-track microtron-recuperator and the {open_quotes}electron output of radiation{close_quotes}. The building for the machine is under reconstruction now. About half of hardware has been manufactured. The assembly of installation began.

  2. Issues in benchmarking human reliability analysis methods : a literature review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lois, Erasmia (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission); Forester, John Alan; Tran, Tuan Q. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt; Boring, Ronald L. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID)

    2008-04-01

    There is a diversity of human reliability analysis (HRA) methods available for use in assessing human performance within probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Due to the significant differences in the methods, including the scope, approach, and underlying models, there is a need for an empirical comparison investigating the validity and reliability of the methods. To accomplish this empirical comparison, a benchmarking study is currently underway that compares HRA methods with each other and against operator performance in simulator studies. In order to account for as many effects as possible in the construction of this benchmarking study, a literature review was conducted, reviewing past benchmarking studies in the areas of psychology and risk assessment. A number of lessons learned through these studies are presented in order to aid in the design of future HRA benchmarking endeavors.

  3. Ethical Issues Surrounding Personalized Medicine: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Pooneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2017-03-01

    More than a decade ago, personalized medicine was presented in modern medicine. Personalized medicine means that the right drug should be prescribed for the right patient based on genetic data. No doubt is developing medical sciences, and its shift into personalized medicine complicates ethical challenges more than before. In this review, we categorized all probable ethical considerations of personalized medicine in research and development and service provision. Based on our review, extensive changes in healthcare system including ethical changes are needed to overcome the ethical obstacles including knowledge gap and informed consent, privacy and confidentiality and availability of healthcare services. Furthermore social benefit versus science development and individual benefit should be balanced. Therefore guidelines and regulations should be compiled to represent the ethical framework; also ethical decision making should be day-to-day and individualized.

  4. Army War College Review: Student Publications. Volume 2, Issue 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Distance Education Students, and AWC Fellows. Articles edited for economy and clarity. USAWC Distinguished Academic Chairs R. Craig Bullis Michael A...Russia, Europe, and Japan. The populations of those countries are aging much more rapidly than is the U.S. population. India is confronted by a youth ... Suicide Terrorism," American Political Science Review 97, no. 3 (2003): 356. 46 C. Simonsgaard negotiating governments’ political system, undercut

  5. A Review of Prefab Home and Relevant Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad PANJEHPOUR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Having an easily built house has been always one of human wishes. Prefabricated home makes this wish come true because of its affordability and fast completion. This paper gives an overview of different types of prefab home and its terminology. This review sheds light on the characterisation of prefab home, which takes the aspects of off-site technology, mass customisation, and sustainability into consideration. This paper is confined to general review of prefab home without going through different systems utilised in off-site technology. In spite of the fact that prefab home has many advantages, which are discussed in this review, it suffers from a few drawbacks which should be considered by designers. Various exploitations in this field may merit further research in future, including finding the optimum prefabricated systems among the existing systems such as roof, wall, and floor systems for different applications of prefab homes. Nevertheless, there is still a universal design and practice code for prefab homes that emphasize on green technology and sustainability yet to be discovered.

  6. Quality Control and Peer Review of Data Sets: Mapping Data Archiving Processes to Data Publication Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayernik, M. S.; Daniels, M.; Eaker, C.; Strand, G.; Williams, S. F.; Worley, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    Data sets exist within scientific research and knowledge networks as both technical and non-technical entities. Establishing the quality of data sets is a multi-faceted task that encompasses many automated and manual processes. Data sets have always been essential for science research, but now need to be more visible as first-class scholarly objects at national, international, and local levels. Many initiatives are establishing procedures to publish and curate data sets, as well as to promote professional rewards for researchers that collect, create, manage, and preserve data sets. Traditionally, research quality has been assessed by peer review of textual publications, e.g. journal articles, conference proceedings, and books. Citation indices then provide standard measures of productivity used to reward individuals for their peer-reviewed work. Whether a similar peer review process is appropriate for assessing and ensuring the quality of data sets remains as an open question. How does the traditional process of peer review apply to data sets? This presentation will describe current work being done at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in the context of the Peer REview for Publication & Accreditation of Research Data in the Earth sciences (PREPARDE) project. PREPARDE is assessing practices and processes for data peer review, with the goal of developing recommendations. NCAR data management teams perform various kinds of quality assessment and review of data sets prior to making them publicly available. The poster will investigate how notions of peer review relate to the types of data review already in place at NCAR. We highlight the data set characteristics and management/archiving processes that challenge the traditional peer review processes by using a number of questions as probes, including: Who is qualified to review data sets? What formal and informal documentation is necessary to allow someone outside of a research team to review a data set

  7. Checklists of Methodological Issues for Review Authors to Consider When Including Non-Randomized Studies in Systematic Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, George A.; Shea, Beverley; Higgins, Julian P. T.; Sterne, Jonathan; Tugwell, Peter; Reeves, Barnaby C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is increasing interest from review authors about including non-randomized studies (NRS) in their systematic reviews of health care interventions. This series from the Ottawa Non-Randomized Studies Workshop consists of six papers identifying methodological issues when doing this. Aim: To format the guidance from the preceding…

  8. Controversial Issues in the Diagnosis of Narcissistic Personality Disorder: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Luis A.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the literature on some of the issues that have been proposed as controversial with the diagnosis of Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Discusses the issues of comorbidity that questions the validity of the diagnosis; dimensional models of classification and what constitutes a narcissistic personality disorder; and the role that culture…

  9. Review Article: Ethical Issues in the Study of Second Language Acquisition--Resources for Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Two recent books provide varied resources for exploring ethical issues in the social sciences. Reflection on ethical issues aims to sensitize scholars to a range of consequences of their research, and to scholars' responsibilities to their discipline, their colleagues, and the public. This review article assesses the utility of these texts (and of…

  10. The HELLP syndrome: Clinical issues and management. A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svendsen Einar

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HELLP syndrome is a serious complication in pregnancy characterized by haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count occurring in 0.5 to 0.9% of all pregnancies and in 10–20% of cases with severe preeclampsia. The present review highlights occurrence, diagnosis, complications, surveillance, corticosteroid treatment, mode of delivery and risk of recurrence. Methods Clinical reports and reviews published between 2000 and 2008 were screened using Pub Med and Cochrane databases. Results and conclusion About 70% of the cases develop before delivery, the majority between the 27th and 37th gestational weeks; the remainder within 48 hours after delivery. The HELLP syndrome may be complete or incomplete. In the Tennessee Classification System diagnostic criteria for HELLP are haemolysis with increased LDH (> 600 U/L, AST (≥ 70 U/L, and platelets 9/L. The Mississippi Triple-class HELLP System further classifies the disorder by the nadir platelet counts. The syndrome is a progressive condition and serious complications are frequent. Conservative treatment (≥ 48 hours is controversial but may be considered in selected cases

  11. Superconductor digital electronics: Scalability and energy efficiency issues (Review Article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolpygo, Sergey K.

    2016-05-01

    Superconductor digital electronics using Josephson junctions as ultrafast switches and magnetic-flux encoding of information was proposed over 30 years ago as a sub-terahertz clock frequency alternative to semiconductor electronics based on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) transistors. Recently, interest in developing superconductor electronics has been renewed due to a search for energy saving solutions in applications related to high-performance computing. The current state of superconductor electronics and fabrication processes are reviewed in order to evaluate whether this electronics is scalable to a very large scale integration (VLSI) required to achieve computation complexities comparable to CMOS processors. A fully planarized process at MIT Lincoln Laboratory, perhaps the most advanced process developed so far for superconductor electronics, is used as an example. The process has nine superconducting layers: eight Nb wiring layers with the minimum feature size of 350 nm, and a thin superconducting layer for making compact high-kinetic-inductance bias inductors. All circuit layers are fully planarized using chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) of SiO2 interlayer dielectric. The physical limitations imposed on the circuit density by Josephson junctions, circuit inductors, shunt and bias resistors, etc., are discussed. Energy dissipation in superconducting circuits is also reviewed in order to estimate whether this technology, which requires cryogenic refrigeration, can be energy efficient. Fabrication process development required for increasing the density of superconductor digital circuits by a factor of ten and achieving densities above 107 Josephson junctions per cm2 is described.

  12. Transdisciplinarity: A Review of Its Origins, Development, and Current Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Hillel Bernstein

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Transdisciplinarity originated in a critique of the standard configuration of knowledge in disciplines in the curriculum, including moral and ethical concerns. Pronouncements about it were first voiced between the climax of government-supported science and higher education and the long retrenchment that began in the 1970s. Early work focused on questions of epistemology and the planning of future universities and educational programs. After a lull, transdisciplinarity re-emerged in the 1990s as an urgent issue relating to the solution of new, highly complex, global concerns, beginning with climate change and sustainability and extending into many areas concerning science, technology, social problems and policy, education, and the arts. Transdisciplinarity today is characterized by its focus on “wicked problems” that need creative solutions, its reliance on stakeholder involvement, and engaged, socially responsible science. In simultaneously studying multiple levels of, and angles on, reality, transdisciplinary work provides an intriguing potential to invigorate scholarly and scientific inquiry both in and outside the academy.

  13. An integrative review of global nursing workforce issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Barbara L; Davis, Catherine R; Richardson, Donna R

    2010-01-01

    Migration has been a way of life since the beginning of time, with migrants seeking other lands for personal and professional betterment. Today, in an era of globalization, trade agreements and technological advances, an increase in migration is inevitable. All professions have been affected, but the migration of health professionals, particularly nurses, has been the most dramatic. However, the migration of nurses across national and international borders comes with many challenges: systematic tracking of migration flows, harmonization of standards, recognition of professional credentials, fair and equitable distribution of the global health care workforce, and the effect of migration on the health care infrastructure of both source and destination countries. The international migration of nurses to address shortages in developed countries has, in some instances, left source countries with insufficient resources to address their own health care needs. The increasing complexity of health care delivery, aging of the population and the nursing workforce, and the escalating global demand for nurses create on-going challenges for policy makers. Strategically addressing global nursing workforce issues is paramount to sustaining the health of nations.

  14. A Content and Methodological Review of Articles Concerning Multiracial Issues in Six Major Counseling Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lisa M.; Pedrotti, Jennifer Teramoto

    2008-01-01

    This study describes a comprehensive content and methodological review of articles about multiracial issues in 6 journals related to counseling up to the year 2006. The authors summarize findings about the 18 articles that emerged from this review of the "Journal of Counseling Psychology," "Journal of Counseling & Development," "The Counseling…

  15. Disadvantaged Rural Health – Issues and Challenges: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K Chillimuntha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Disadvantaged rural health reflected by significantly higher mortality rates in rural areas which indicate less attention paid by the government. The issue of health disadvantage to the rural area in the country is far from settled. The public expenditure on health in India is far too inadequate, less than 10% of the total health budget is allocated to rural area where 75% people live. In spite of rising budgetary provision, many of the rural populace dies without any medical attention. Access to high quality health care services plays an important part in the health of rural communities and individuals. Resolving the health problems of rural communities will require more than simply increasing the quality and accessibility of health services. Until governments begin to take an ‘upside-down’ perspective, focusing on building healthy communities rather than simply on building hospitals to make communities healthy, the disadvantages faced by rural people will continue to be exacerbated. Underutilization of existing rural hospitals and health care facilities can be addressed by a market-centered approach, and more effective government intervention for horizontal and vertical hospital integration. Tele-healthcare, Mobile Health Units and Community-based health insurance are proven helpful in rural areas. Autonomy enjoyed by women and exposure to media also has a significant impact on maternal health care utilization. Accessibility to health facilities is a critical factor in effective health treatment for people in rural areas. Location–allocation models prescribe optimal configurations of health facilities in order to maximize accessibility. [Natl J of Med Res 2013; 3(1.000: 80-82

  16. PNL technical review of pressurized thermal-shock issues. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, L.T.; Apley, W.J.; Bian, S.H.; Defferding, L.J.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Pelto, P.J.; Simonen, E.P.; Simonen, F.A.; Stevens, D.L.; Taylor, T.T.

    1982-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked to develop and recommend a regulatory position that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) should adopt regarding the ability of reactor pressure vessels to withstand the effects of pressurized thermal shock (PTS). Licensees of eight pressurized water reactors provided NRC with estimates of remaining effective full power years before corrective actions would be required to prevent an unsafe operating condition. PNL reviewed these responses and the results of supporting research and concluded that none of the eight reactors would undergo vessel failure from a PTS event before several more years of operation. Operator actions, however, were often required to terminate a PTS event before it deteriorated to the point where failure could occur. Therefore, the near-term (less than one year) recommendation is to upgrade, on a site-specific basis, operational procedures, training, and control room instrumentation. Also, uniform criteria should be developed by NRC for use during future licensee analyses. Finally, it was recommended that NRC upgrade nondestructive inspection techniques used during vessel examinations and become more involved in the evaluation of annealing requirements.

  17. 42 CFR 405.1104 - Request for MAC review when an ALJ does not issue a decision timely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Request for MAC review when an ALJ does not issue a...) Medicare Appeals Council Review § 405.1104 Request for MAC review when an ALJ does not issue a decision... under § 405.1016 may request MAC review if— (1) The appellant files a written request with the ALJ...

  18. Mining Health-Related Issues in Consumer Product Reviews by Using Scalable Text Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Manabu; Tilak, Sameer S; Doan, Son; Zisook, Daniel S; Fan, Jung-Wei

    2016-01-01

    In an era when most of our life activities are digitized and recorded, opportunities abound to gain insights about population health. Online product reviews present a unique data source that is currently underexplored. Health-related information, although scarce, can be systematically mined in online product reviews. Leveraging natural language processing and machine learning tools, we were able to mine 1.3 million grocery product reviews for health-related information. The objectives of the study were as follows: (1) conduct quantitative and qualitative analysis on the types of health issues found in consumer product reviews; (2) develop a machine learning classifier to detect reviews that contain health-related issues; and (3) gain insights about the task characteristics and challenges for text analytics to guide future research.

  19. A Theoretical Review on Organizational Information Systems for Analysing Spatial Issues: A Perspective of Modern Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Manaf Bohari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizational Information Systems (OIS is established purposely to support an organization in managerial and routine works, as well as important to decision making process. Theoretically, there are sixth types of OIS, common identified as Executive Information System (EIS, Management Information System (MIS, Decision Support System (DSS, Knowledge Information System (KWS, Office Automation System (OAS and Transaction Information System (TPS. Some of organization has developed OIS for achieved their strategic advantages where final aimed to sustain the performance of organisation. However, there are questions arises about OIS uses in analyzing a spatial issue which is refers to geographical locations. The objective of this paper is to overview the fundamental concept, capability and constrains of every types of OIS with specific reference to spatial issues. Spatial issues is refers to concurrent and real-time based issues that arisen from external environment where can affect directly on organization performance. This literature review is driven from business perspective where OIS capability and ability of handle spatial issues will discuss. In general, this study found that all most OIS have limited capability to handle and manage spatial issues. Although DSS can support decision making for execute specific decision related to spatial issues, however DSS still lacks  on visualized spatial issues geographically, as well as spatial issues tied to geographical location. This paper is suggest to developed Geographical Information System (GIS as one of OIS for discover all kind of spatial issues.

  20. Childhood obesity and parks and playgrounds: A review of issues of equality, gender and social support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammad Ali Qazi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The childhood obesity has been a growing concern over the last decade all over the world. Built environmental characteristics such as parks and playgrounds serves as a reference point for physical activity in children. The equality issues related to ethnicity, Social Economic Status (SES, gender and social support have been related with both physical activity and presence and quality of parks and playgrounds. However, only limited studies have addressed these issues in children. The current paper is a general enumerative review that would discusses the above issues with respect to obesity in all age groups, giving particular emphasis to childhood obesity. The importance of this review is to further explore the importance and highlight the findings related to these issues, so that future original studies could be planned keeping these associations in mind.

  1. Mental Health Issues of Women After Release From Jail and Prison: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Ann E; Kako, Peninnah; Sawin, Kathleen J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this review article is to gain an understanding of the mental health issues of women released from jail or prison. Thirty-six studies were synthesized using the biopsychosocial model. Results indicate that released women's mental health issues include psychiatric diagnoses, psychological trauma, substance use disorders; access to psychological medications and services; and motherhood challenges, support, access to basic needs, and criminalized behaviors. Nurses can promote released women's mental health through pre-release assessment and treatment of mental health issues and ensuring access to post-release resources.  Future research should examine released women's mental health experiences.

  2. Issues in the transition from post-16 to higher education: A review of recent literature

    OpenAIRE

    Green, A

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review a range of recently published literature on the subject of post-16 to university transition and the study of English. The literature is divided into four categories, addressing the following key issues: student and teacher expectations; curriculum and assessment; student study skills; student ‘location’ and pedagogy. The review explores current thinking and also identifies some key areas for further investigation.

  3. Review of How to Manage Processing in Archives and Special Collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian Cuellar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning to process archival collections as an intern or student processor constitutes many archivists’ first practical understanding of the archival enterprise. Though this experience is an excellent hands-on opportunity for many nascent archivists to sharpen their project management skills, it does not fully prepare them to manage an archival processing program. Few students in archival graduate programs receive in-depth management training, leaving many to learn effective management techniques without formal guidance. With How to Manage Processing in Archives and Special Collections, Pam Hackbart-Dean and Elizabeth Slomba set out to offer archivists a comprehensive, practical toolbox for managing a processing program. Geared towards new professionals, small institutions, and lone arrangers, this publication addresses key components of planning and implementing a successful program. The authors consider methodologies that will promote efficiency and consistency with an emphasis on how to best serve the needs of patrons.

  4. Collecting and Preserving Videogames and Their Related Materials: A Review of Current Practice, Game-Related Archives and Research Projects

    CERN Document Server

    Winget, Megan A

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the major methods and theories regarding the preservation of new media artifacts such as videogames, and argues for the importance of collecting and coming to a better understanding of videogame artifacts of creation, which will help build a more detailed understanding of the essential qualities of these culturally significant artifacts. We will also review the major videogame collections in the United States, Europe and Japan to give an idea of the current state of videogame archives, and argue for a fuller, more comprehensive coverage of these materials in institutional repositories.

  5. Book review: Neurofeminism: issues at the intersection of\\ud feminist theory and cognitive science

    OpenAIRE

    Muntanyola-Saura, Dafne

    2013-01-01

    Neurofeminism is the first interdisciplinary collection of essays to address how recent neuroscience affects traditional feminist issues. Philosophers, psychologists, sociomedical scientists, and feminist scholars explore questions of ‘feminine’ ethics, feminist neuroscience, and overcoming unhelpful pop science books. Reviewed by Dafne Muntanyola-Saura.

  6. "Adoption Wisdom: A Guide to the Issues and Feelings of Adoption" by Marlou Russell. Book Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Tracy

    1998-01-01

    Reviews "Adoption Wisdom: A Guide to the Issues and Feelings of Adoption" by Marlou Russell. Maintains that its narrative/comment format and accounts of those involved in adoption validate the feelings of the adoption-triad members. Suggests that the book lacks information on individuals who contributed comments and contains few narratives from…

  7. Book review: Neurofeminism: issues at the intersection of feminist theory and cognitive science

    OpenAIRE

    Muntanyola-Saura, Dafne

    2013-01-01

    Neurofeminism is the first interdisciplinary collection of essays to address how recent neuroscience affects traditional feminist issues. Philosophers, psychologists, sociomedical scientists, and feminist scholars explore questions of ‘feminine’ ethics, feminist neuroscience, and overcoming unhelpful pop science books. Reviewed by Dafne Muntanyola-Saura.

  8. Ongoing ethical issues concerning authorship in biomedical journals: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhaber, Rachel Anne; McLean, Loyola M; Baber, Rodney J

    2015-01-01

    Health professionals publishing within the field of health sciences continue to experience issues concerning appropriate authorship, which have clinical, ethical, and academic implications. This integrative review sought to explore the key issues concerning authorship from a bioethical standpoint, aiming to explore the key features of the authorship debate. Studies were identified through an electronic search, using the PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Scopus databases of peer-reviewed research, published between 2009 and 2014, limited to English language research, with search terms developed to reflect the current issues of authorship. From among the 279 papers identified, 20 research papers met the inclusion criteria. Findings were compiled and then arranged to identify themes and relationships. The review incorporated a wide range of authorship issues encompassing equal-credited authors, honorary (guest/gift) and ghost authorship, perception/experiences of authorship, and guidelines/policies. This review suggests that the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors' (ICMJE) recommended guidelines for authorship are not reflected in current authorship practices within the domain of health sciences in both low-and high-impact-factor journals. This devaluing of the true importance of authorship has the potential to affect the validity of authorship, diminish the real contributions of the true authors, and negatively affect patient care.

  9. Preliminary Review of Safety Assessment Issues at Savannah River Site, August 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Bixler, Nathan E.

    2011-09-19

    At the request of Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS) management, a review team composed of experts in atmospheric transport modeling for environmental radiation dose assessment convened at the Savannah River Site (SRS) on August 29-30, 2011. Several issues were presented at the meeting for discussion. This is a short summary that is organized in accordance with the primary issues discussed, which is not necessarily a chronological record. Issues include: SRS Meteorological Data and its Use in MACCS2; Deposition Velocities for Particles; Deposition Velocities for Tritium; MACCS2 Dispersion Coefficients; Use of Low Surface Roughness in Open Areas; Adequacy of Meteorological Tower and Instrumentation; Displacement Height; and Validity of MACCS2 Calculations at Close-in Distances. A longer report will be issued at a later date that expands upon these topics and recommendations.

  10. Specific psychosocial issues of individuals undergoing genetic counseling for cancer - a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijzenga, Willem; Hahn, Daniela E E; Aaronson, Neil K; Kluijt, Irma; Bleiker, Eveline M A

    2014-04-01

    Approximately 25% of individuals undergoing genetic counseling for cancer experiences clinically relevant levels of distress, anxiety and/or depression. However, these general psychological outcomes that are used in many studies do not provide detailed information on the specific psychosocial problems experienced by counselees. The aim of this review was to investigate the specific psychosocial issues encountered by individuals undergoing genetic counseling for cancer, and to identify overarching themes across these issues. A literature search was performed, using four electronic databases (PubMed, PsychInfo, CINAHL and Embase). Papers published between January 2000 and January 2013 were selected using combinations, and related indexing terms of the keywords: 'genetic counseling', 'psychology' and 'cancer'. In total, 25 articles met our inclusion criteria. We identified the specific issues addressed by these papers, and used meta-ethnography to identify the following six overarching themes: coping with cancer risk, practical issues, family issues, children-related issues, living with cancer, and emotions. A large overlap in the specific issues and themes was found between these studies, suggesting that research on specific psychosocial problems within genetic counseling has reached a point of saturation. As a next step, efforts should be made to detect and monitor these problems of counselees at an early stage within the genetic counseling process.

  11. Ten years of archival science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Ketelaar

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews how the journal Archival Science--International Journal on Recorded Information in the first 10 years has endeavoured to be integrated, interdisciplinary, and intercultural in promoting the development of archival science as an autonomous scientific discipline.

  12. The Ethics of Archival Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Heidi A.; Porter, James E.

    2012-01-01

    What are the key ethical issues involved in conducting archival research? Based on examination of cases and interviews with leading archival researchers in composition, this article discusses several ethical questions and offers a heuristic to guide ethical decision making. Key to this process is recognizing the person-ness of archival materials.…

  13. Security Issues and Challenges in Internet of Things – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilima Jain

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT alludes to the continually developing system of physical articles that component an IP address for web availability, and the correspondence that happens between these items and other Web empowered gadgets and frameworks. The security issues of the Internet of Things (IoT are straight forwardly identified with the wide utilization of its framework. IoT securities and enhancing the design and several elements of this work showcases various security issues with respect to IoT and thinks of solutions for the issues under the advancements included. Here we are going to do a study of all the security issues existing in the Internet of Things (IoT alongside an examination of the protection issues that an end-client might confront as an outcome of the spread of IoT. Most of the overview is centred around the security emerging out of the data trade innovations utilized as a part of Internet of Things. As a piece of IoTs, genuine concerns are raised over access of individual data relating to gadget and individual protection. This review tells about the security and protection issues of IoT

  14. (Per)Forming Archival Research Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillet, Lynee Lewis

    2012-01-01

    This article raises multiple issues associated with archival research methodologies and methods. Based on a survey of recent scholarship and interviews with experienced archival researchers, this overview of the current status of archival research both complicates traditional conceptions of archival investigation and encourages scholars to adopt…

  15. Risk factors associated with mental health issues in adolescents: a integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Caroline Souza Pinto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the risk factors associated with mental health issues in adolescents. Method: An integrative review was conducted in four databases with publications from 2007 to 2013. The terms Adolescent and Mental Health were used to search adequate articles as DeCs/MeSH bases. Results: Publications were found in different journals in different fields of knowledge and the quantitative research was the most frequent. The mental health issues were categorized as individual factors; drug related factors, school factors, family factors, social factors and STDs/Aids related factors. The most addressed category was individual factors, with 23 publications. Conclusion: The integrative review allowed to point important questions to be addressed in preventive actions by the health professional, including the nurse, to create a space that works with risk conditioning factors in adolescents for mental health aggravation.

  16. A review of water flooding issues in the proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Tang, Yanghua; Wang, Zhenwei; Shi, Zheng; Wu, Shaohong; Song, Datong; Zhang, Jianlu; Fatih, Khalid; Zhang, Jiujun; Wang, Haijiang; Liu, Zhongsheng; Abouatallah, Rami; Mazza, Antonio

    We have reviewed more than 100 references that are related to water management in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, with a particular focus on the issue of water flooding, its diagnosis and mitigation. It was found that extensive work has been carried out on the issues of flooding during the last two decades, including prediction through numerical modeling, detection by experimental measurements, and mitigation through the design of cell components and manipulating the operating conditions. Two classes of strategies to mitigate flooding have been developed. The first is based on system design and engineering, which is often accompanied by significant parasitic power loss. The second class is based on membrane electrode assembly (MEA) design and engineering, and involves modifying the material and structural properties of the gas diffusion layer (GDL), cathode catalyst layer (CCL) and membrane to function in the presence of liquid water. In this review, several insightful directions are also suggested for future investigation.

  17. Psycho-Socio-Economic Issues Challenging Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis Patients: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Elizabeth Thomas

    Full Text Available Limited treatment options, long duration of treatment and associated toxicity adversely impact the physical and mental well-being of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB patients. Despite research advances in the microbiological and clinical aspects of MDR-TB, research on the psychosocial context of MDR-TB is limited and less understood.We searched the databases of PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase and Google Scholar to retrieve all published articles. The final manuscripts included in the review were those with a primary focus on psychosocial issues of MDR-TB patients. These were assessed and the information was thematically extracted on the study objective, methodology used, key findings, and their implications. Intervention studies were evaluated using components of the methodological and quality rating scale. Due to the limited number of studies and the multiple methodologies employed in the observational studies, we summarized these studies using a narrative approach, rather than conducting a formal meta-analysis. We used 'thematic synthesis' method for extracting qualitative evidences and systematically organised to broader descriptive themes.A total of 282 published articles were retrieved, of which 15 articles were chosen for full text review based on the inclusion criteria. Six were qualitative studies; one was a mixed methods study; and eight were quantitative studies. The included studies were divided into the following issues affecting MDR-TB patients: a psychological issues b social issues and economic issues c psychosocial interventions. It was found that all studies have documented range of psychosocial and economic challenges experienced by MDR-TB patients. Depression, stigma, discrimination, side effects of the drugs causing psychological distress, and the financial constraints due to MDR-TB were some of the common issues reported in the studies. There were few intervention studies which addressed these psychosocial issues most of

  18. TRENDS AND ISSUES: A REVIEW OF STUDIES RELATED TO TECHNOLOGY USAGE IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Elif ÖZTÜRK YILMAZTEKİN; OLGAN, Refika

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes types of technology studies that have been conducted related to young children’s early education. A systematic review of studies was undertaken using EBSCOhost, Blackwell Synergy, and ScienceDirect databases, to identify all studies published between 2003 and 2009 according to specific criteria. The studies were selected on the basis of the following three issues: (1) the role of technology in children’s development, (2) the role of technology in teachers’ teaching pract...

  19. A historical review on the roles of science and politics in addressing global environmental issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter USHER; Qian YE

    2009-01-01

    Based on a historical review of the so-called Ozone crisis in the late 1970s and global climate changes since the 1980s, this paper examines the role of sciences and policies in the international community in dealing with the global environmental issues. Lessons show that a multi-discipline, multi-organizational and multi-national UN agency which remains relevant, assisting rather than guiding the process of climate negotiations is important.

  20. PRIMARY YIELD AND MULTITRANCHE STRUCTURE IN SECURITIZATION ISSUES:EXPLICATIVE FACTORS. A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña-Cerezo, Miguel A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The reasons for the strong rise in the securitization phenomenon up until the start of the subprime crisis need to be analysed. According to many authors, they mainly stem from its offering the possibility of generating fixed yield securities with the highest rating and a low risk premium, thanks to the issues being structured in differentiated bond series, so that certain series absorb most of the risk, thus facilitating the safer or senior tranches having a higher rating. Accordingly, this paper reviews the literature on the factors underlying the generation of differentiated tranches in this type of issues and regarding the determining factors ofthe yield offered by securitization issues. It concludes thatthe search for more complete markets, along with the reducing of problems associated to the moral hazard, are the main reasons for the multi-tranche structuring. And given the strong influence of the number of tranches on the yield offered by the issues, the paper likewise concludes that the multitranche structures has been an efficient tool to place securitization issues with more competitive yields.

  1. A systematic review of knowledge management and knowledge sharing: Trends, issues, and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asrar-ul-Haq

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to highlight and summarize the possible antecedents and factors that facilitate or impede knowledge management and knowledge sharing in organizations. A meta-review of 64 articles for the years 2010–2015 has been conducted. It includes both quantitative and qualitative studies related to antecedents and barriers to knowledge management and knowledge sharing. Cooperation bias was the most frequent limitation in most studies included in this meta-review as the respondents were likely to over-estimate their participation in knowledge management (KM and knowledge sharing (KS. Future studies of knowledge management and knowledge sharing can be focused on exploring the same issues in developing countries in different sectors. Relationship of knowledge sharing and transfer can be further explored with social media, organizational politics, and communication in the organizations. The result of meta-review will generate nomothetic knowledge implications by scrutinizing the antecedents and barriers to knowledge sharing and transfer.

  2. Review: Jens Brockmeier (2015). Beyond the Archive: Memory, Narrative, and the Autobiographical Process

    OpenAIRE

    Bietti, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    Jens BROCKMEIERs neues Buch schlägt ein sehr provokatives Ziel für memory studies vor: "to radically re-think our very idea of memory and challenge the notions of remembering and forgetting that we have taken for granted" (S.VII). Das Hauptziel seiner Kritik ist das archival model of memory. Um seinen Ansatz zu belegen, führt der Autor empirische Beweise aus den Neurowissenschaften sowie aus den Sozial- und Geisteswissenschaften an. "Beyond the Archive" bildet einen neuen Beitrag zum Forschun...

  3. A Review: Passive System Reliability Analysis – Accomplishments and Unresolved Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARUN KUMAR NAYAK

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Reliability assessment of passive safety systems is one of the important issues, since safety of advanced nuclear reactors rely on several passive features. In this context, a few methodologies such as Reliability Evaluation of Passive Safety System (REPAS, Reliability Methods for Passive Safety Functions (RMPS and Analysis of Passive Systems ReliAbility (APSRA have been developed in the past. These methodologies have been used to assess reliability of various passive safety systems. While these methodologies have certain features in common, but they differ in considering certain issues; for example, treatment of model uncertainties, deviation of geometric and process parameters from their nominal values, etc. This paper presents the state of the art on passive system reliability assessment methodologies, the accomplishments and remaining issues. In this review three critical issues pertaining to passive systems performance and reliability have been identified. The first issue is, applicability of best estimate codes and model uncertainty. The best estimate codes based phenomenological simulations of natural convection passive systems could have significant amount of uncertainties, these uncertainties must be incorporated in appropriate manner in the performance and reliability analysis of such systems. The second issue is the treatment of dynamic failure characteristics of components of passive systems. REPAS, RMPS and APSRA methodologies do not consider dynamic failures of components or process, which may have strong influence on the failure of passive systems. The influence of dynamic failure characteristics of components on system failure probability is presented with the help of a dynamic reliability methodology based on Monte Carlo simulation. The analysis of a benchmark problem of Hold-up tank shows the error in failure probability estimation by not considering the dynamism of components. It is thus suggested that dynamic reliability

  4. A review of the status, research opportunities and future of large-scale river flow archives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hannah, D.M.; Demuth, S.; Lanen, van H.A.J.; Looser, U.; Prudhomme, C.; Rees, G.; Stahl, K.; Tallaksen, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale river flow archives hold vital data to identify and understand the changing water cycle, to underpin modelling of future regional and global hydrology, and to inform water resource assessment and decision making. Notable examples of such datasets include that held by the WMO Global Runof

  5. Non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal chromosome abnormalities: review of clinical and ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekas, Jean; Langlois, Sylvie; Ravitsky, Vardit; Audibert, François; van den Berg, David Gradus; Haidar, Hazar; Rousseau, François

    2016-01-01

    Genomics-based non-invasive prenatal screening using cell-free DNA (cfDNA screening) was proposed to reduce the number of invasive procedures in current prenatal diagnosis for fetal aneuploidies. We review here the clinical and ethical issues of cfDNA screening. To date, it is not clear how cfDNA screening is going to impact the performances of clinical prenatal diagnosis and how it could be incorporated in real life. The direct marketing to users may have facilitated the early introduction of cfDNA screening into clinical practice despite limited evidence-based independent research data supporting this rapid shift. There is a need to address the most important ethical, legal, and social issues before its implementation in a mass setting. Its introduction might worsen current tendencies to neglect the reproductive autonomy of pregnant women.

  6. Final Review of Safety Assessment Issues at Savannah River Site, August 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Bixler, Nathan E.

    2011-12-15

    At the request of Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS) management, a review team composed of experts in atmospheric transport modeling for environmental radiation dose assessment convened at the Savannah River Site (SRS) on August 29-30, 2011. Though the meeting was prompted initially by suspected issues related to the treatment of surface roughness inherent in the SRS meteorological dataset and its treatment in the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System Version 2 (MACCS2), various topical areas were discussed that are relevant to performing safety assessments at SRS; this final report addresses these topical areas.

  7. The Influence of Neurolinguistic Applications on Second Language Research: Reviewing the Issues and Refocusing the Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Mahmoodzadeh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of neurolinguistic applications on second language pedagogy has often been a controversial subject of dispute. As such, researchers in this field have faced with some blurred and conflicting views in terms of the pedagogical applicability of neurological discoveries for second language instruction. In light of this research-based concern, the current short paper attempts to review the related issues and refocus the current direction of the neurolinguistic-second language pedagogy debate. The paper also concludes with some suggestions made in favor of an alternative neurolinguistic outlook for L2 researchers.

  8. [Resource activation in clinical psychology and psychotherapy: review of theoretical issues and current research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groß, L J; Stemmler, M; de Zwaan, M

    2012-08-01

    This review summarises theoretical issues and current research on working with clients' resources and strengths in clinical psychology and psychotherapy. Resource activation is considered as an important common factor in psychotherapy. In general, resource activation means an explicit focus on resources, strengths and potentials of the clients. After defining the term resources, considerations with regard to therapeutic attitude, principles of resource activation, approaches to resource diagnostics and different research strategies are presented. Current research focuses especially on the relation between resource activation and process variables in out-patient treatment.

  9. Mental health issues among migrant workers in Gulf Cooperation Council countries: literature review and case illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronfol, Ziad; Saleh, Marwa; Al-Ghafry, Maha

    2014-08-01

    More than 15 million non-nationals are currently living and working in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states. The majority are blue-collar or domestic workers coming from the Indian Subcontinent or South East Asia. They often work under very harsh conditions. There are reports of a high rate of psychosis and suicide among these people but no reliable data are available. To address this issue we conducted a literature search both in English and in Arabic to review the available articles on the psychological well-being of this population. Very few articles were found. We hereby review the available literature and contribute by presenting several brief vignettes to illustrate the various clinical aspects of this at risk population. We also discuss possible reasons for underreporting and underscore the need for more research in this area.

  10. PETC review: A global role for energy. Issue 10, Summer 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, K.H.; Friedman, S.; Eastman, M.L.; Finseth, D.H.; Ruth, L.A.; Reiss, J. [eds.

    1994-10-01

    This issue contains five feature articles. `Build It and They Will Come` describes the international reputation of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center which prompts professionals from around the world to come to PETC for training, technical expertise, and collaboration on research projects. `PETC`s Overseas Activities` reviews international projects with which PETC staff have helped. The most prestigious of all conferences dedicated solely to the timely international exchange of basic scientific information on coal is described in `The 7th International Conference on Coal Science`. `What is Coal?` attempts to present a true picture of the nature and complexity of coal. `NOx Reduction by SCR/SNCR` reviews technologies which may be required to meet new NOx compliance standards.

  11. Licensing of spent fuel dry storage and consolidated rod storage: A Review of Issues and Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1990-02-01

    The results of this study, performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), respond to the nuclear industry's recommendation that a report be prepared that collects and describes the licensing issues (and their resolutions) that confront a new applicant requesting approval from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for dry storage of spent fuel or for large-scale storage of consolidated spent fuel rods in pools. The issues are identified in comments, questions, and requests from the NRC during its review of applicants' submittals. Included in the report are discussions of (1) the 18 topical reports on cask and module designs for dry storage fuel that have been submitted to the NRC, (2) the three license applications for dry storage of spent fuel at independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs) that have been submitted to the NRC, and (3) the three applications (one of which was later withdrawn) for large-scale storage of consolidated fuel rods in existing spent fuel storage pools at reactors that were submitted tot he NRC. For each of the applications submitted, examples of some of the issues (and suggestions for their resolutions) are described. The issues and their resolutions are also covered in detail in an example in each of the three subject areas: (1) the application for the CASTOR V/21 dry spent fuel storage cask, (2) the application for the ISFSI for dry storage of spent fuel at Surry, and (3) the application for full-scale wet storage of consolidated spent fuel at Millstone-2. The conclusions in the report include examples of major issues that applicants have encountered. Recommendations for future applicants to follow are listed. 401 refs., 26 tabs.

  12. Unicast routing protocols for urban vehicular networks:review, taxonomy, and open research issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Syed Adeel Ali SHAH; Muhammad SHIRAZ; Mostofa Kamal NASIR; Rafi dah Binti MD NOOR

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few years, numerous traffic safety applications have been developed using vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). These applications represent public interest and require network-wide dissemination techniques. On the other hand, certain non-safety applications do not require network-wide dissemination techniques. Such applications can be characterized by their individual interest between two vehicles that are geographically apart. In the existing literature, several proposals of unicast protocols exist that can be used for these non-safety applications. Among the proposals, unicast protocols for city scenarios are considered to be most challenging. This implies that in city scenarios unicast protocols show minimal persistence towards highly dynamic vehicular characteristics, including mobility, road structure, and physical environment. Unlike other studies, this review is motivated by the diversity of vehicular characteristics and difficulty of unicast protocol adaption in city scenarios. The review starts with the categorization of unicast protocols for city scenarios according to their requirement for a predefi ned unicast path. Then, properties of typical city roads are discussed, which helps to explore limitations in efficient unicast communication. Through an exhaustive literature review, we propose a thematic taxonomy based on different aspects of unicast protocol operation. It is followed by a review of selected unicast protocols for city scenarios that reveal their fundamental characteristics. Several signifi cant parameters from the taxonomy are used to qualitatively compare the reviewed protocols. Qualitative comparison also includes critical investigation of distinct approaches taken by researchers in experimental protocol evaluation. As an outcome of this review, we point out open research issues in unicast routing.

  13. Evaluating single-case research data for systematic review: a commentary for the special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggin, Daniel M; Odom, Samuel L

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this commentary is to provide observation on the statistical procedures described throughout this special section from the perspective of researchers with experience in conducting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of single-case research to address issues of evidence-based practice. It is our position that both visual and statistical analyses are complimentary methods for evaluating single-case research data for these purposes. Given the recent developments regarding the use of single-case research to inform evidence-based practice and policy, the developments described in the present issue will be contextualized within the need for a widely accepted process for data evaluation to assist with extending the impact of single-case research. The commentary will, therefore, begin with providing an overview of the conceptual underpinnings of a systematic review of single-case research and will be followed by a discussion of several features that are essential to the development of a conceptually sound and widely used statistical procedure for single-case research. The commentary will conclude with recommendations and guidelines for the use of both visual and statistical analyses within primary research reports and recommendations for future research.

  14. Methods uncovering usability issues in medication-related alerting functions: results from a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcilly, Romaric; Vasseur, Francis; Ammenwerth, Elske; Beuscart-Zephir, Marie-Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at listing the methods used to evaluate the usability of medication-related alerting functions and at knowing what type of usability issues those methods allow to detect. A sub-analysis of data from this systematic review has been performed. Methods applied in the included papers were collected. Then, included papers were sorted in four types of evaluation: "expert evaluation", "user- testing/simulation", "on site observation" and "impact studies". The types of usability issues (usability flaws, usage problems and negative outcomes) uncovered by those evaluations were analyzed. Results show that a large set of methods are used. The largest proportion of papers uses "on site observation" evaluation. This is the only evaluation type for which every kind of usability flaws, usage problems and outcomes are detected. It is somehow surprising that, in a usability systematic review, most of the papers included use a method that is not often presented as a usability method. Results are discussed about the opportunity to provide usability information collected after the implementation of the technology during their design process, i.e. before their implementation.

  15. Human Resource Management in Sports: A Critical Review of its Importance and Pertaining Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerakoon Ranjan Kumara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper will illustrate the meaning and importance of human resource management (HRM, human resource planning, and strategic human resource management, which are critically important for an organization’s effectiveness and must be effectively managed (Doherty, 1998. This study used the literature review method to acquire its final results. The relevant HRM literature review was done according to the purpose of the study. It used the purposive random sample method for selecting relevant literature. This study shows the current economic environment in the sports industry; the second part of the study critically analyzes the value of the strategic management of employees for the effective and efficient operation of sports organizations. It also critically evaluates human resource planning and other pertinent issues in terms of legislation, recruitment, selection, training, induction, and reward management from different international examples in sports management. Over the past few decades, increasing competition, globalization, and continuous changes in the market and in technology have emphasized the need to rethink the management of the organization and of human resources for the sake of overcoming significant challenges (Taylor et al., 2006. Therefore, managers should use strategic human resource management to overcome significant issues and to form well-planned strategies so that the organization may succeed.

  16. Mental health issues amongst medical students in Asia: a systematic review [2000–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayampanathan, Andrew Arjun; Ho, Roger Chun-Man

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that the stress experienced by medical students is far greater than that experienced by other university students. In this study, we aim to understand the consequent mental health issues that are experienced by medical students, particularly in Asia, via a systematic review of the current literature. Methods Initial searches on MEDLINE, Embase and SpringerLink came up with a total of 1,033 unique articles. Studies not focusing on medical students alone, not mentioning mental health issues or not containing prevalence values were excluded. Results We included 14 articles in our analysis. ADs had a prevalence of 7.04% (100/1,420). Depression was prevalent in 11.0% (1,115/10,147) of students. A total of 12.9% (54/420) and 12.9% (41/319) of male and female medical students respectively were screened for depression. Preclinical students were also 1.63 times more likely to be depressed compared to clinical students, with 98.0% (48/49) pre-clinical students having screened for depression, compared to 60% (27/45) clinical students. Home staying medical students are 1.33 times more likely to be depressed compared to hostel-stayers, with 12.1% (29/239) of home stayers being depressed compared to 9.2% (37/402) of hostel stayers. Conclusions We found that mental health issues affect a significant proportion of medical students and they are more prevalent in certain subpopulations of medical students. Our data revealed that preclinical and home staying students can be more susceptible to depression. More research should be done regarding this issue. With such information, it is hoped that appropriate interventions can be designed to improve the mental health of medical students. PMID:27004219

  17. Ethical issues in autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT in advanced breast cancer: A systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheibler Fueloep

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An effectiveness assessment on ASCT in locally advanced and metastatic breast cancer identified serious ethical issues associated with this intervention. Our objective was to systematically review these aspects by means of a literature analysis. Methods We chose the reflexive Socratic approach as the review method using Hofmann's question list, conducted a comprehensive literature search in biomedical, psychological and ethics bibliographic databases and screened the resulting hits in a 2-step selection process. Relevant arguments were assembled from the included articles, and were assessed and assigned to the question list. Hofmann's questions were addressed by synthesizing these arguments. Results Of the identified 879 documents 102 included arguments related to one or more questions from Hofmann's question list. The most important ethical issues were the implementation of ASCT in clinical practice on the basis of phase-II trials in the 1990s and the publication of falsified data in the first randomized controlled trials (Bezwoda fraud, which caused significant negative effects on recruiting patients for further clinical trials and the doctor-patient relationship. Recent meta-analyses report a marginal effect in prolonging disease-free survival, accompanied by severe harms, including death. ASCT in breast cancer remains a stigmatized technology. Reported health-related-quality-of-life data are often at high risk of bias in favor of the survivors. Furthermore little attention has been paid to those patients who were dying. Conclusions The questions were addressed in different degrees of completeness. All arguments were assignable to the questions. The central ethical dimensions of ASCT could be discussed by reviewing the published literature.

  18. Active lower limb prosthetics: a systematic review of design issues and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windrich, Michael; Grimmer, Martin; Christ, Oliver; Rinderknecht, Stephan; Beckerle, Philipp

    2016-12-19

    This paper presents a review on design issues and solutions found in active lower limb prostheses. This review is based on a systematic literature search with a methodical search strategy. The search was carried out across four major technical databases and the retrieved records were screened for their relevance. A total of 21 different active prostheses, including 8 above-knee, 9 below-knee and 4 combined knee-ankle prostheses were identified. While an active prosthesis may help to restore the functional performance of an amputee, the requirements regarding the actuation unit as well as for the control system are high and the development becomes a challenging task. Regarding mechanical design and the actuation unit high force/torque delivery, high efficiency, low size and low weight are conflicting goals. The actuation principle and variable impedance actuators are discussed. The control system is paramount for a "natural functioning" of the prosthesis. The control system has to enable locomotion and should react to the amputee's intent. For this, multi-level control approaches are reviewed.

  19. The full spectrum of ethical issues in the care of patients with ALS: a systematic qualitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzer, F; Kahrass, H; Neitzke, G; Strech, D

    2016-02-01

    Dealing systematically with ethical issues in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) care requires an unbiased awareness of all the relevant ethical issues. The aim of the study was to determine systematically and transparently the full spectrum of ethical issues in ALS care. We conducted a systematic review in Medline and Google Books (restricted to English and German literature published between 1993 and 2014). We applied qualitative text analysis and normative analysis to categorise the spectrum of ethical issues in ALS care. The literature review retrieved 56 references that together mentioned a spectrum of 103 ethical issues in ALS care. The spectrum was structured into six major categories that consist of first and second-order categories of ethical issues. The systematically derived spectrum of ethical issues in ALS care presented in this paper raises awareness and understanding of the complexity of ethical issues in ALS care. It also offers a basis for the systematic development of informational and training materials for health professionals, patients and their relatives, and society as a whole. Finally, it supports a rational and fair selection of all those ethical issues that should be addressed in health policies, position papers and clinical practice guidelines. Further research is needed to identify ways to systematically select the most relevant ethical issues not only in the clinical environment, but also for the development of clinical practice guidelines.

  20. 伦理委员会审查项目档案资料规范化管理探讨%Discussion on Standardized Management of Ethics Committee Review Archives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郜翀; 李红英

    2012-01-01

    At present, the construction of Chinese Ethics Committee is still being standardized, the management of Elhics Committee review archives is also in a further exploration. Based on the discussion on the definition of Ethics Committee review archives, the ranges of archives, requirements of archives and retention period of archives, this paper proposed thai Ethics Committee review archives should be part of an comprehensive archival management department, and organized by full - time archivists according to the requirements of archive professional arrangement, namely sorting and file filling, storing and standardized management.%目前,我国伦理委员会的建设还在逐步规范,伦理委员会审查项目档案的管理也在进一步探索中.从伦理委员会审查项目档案定义、归档文件范围、归档文件要求以及保管期限等方面入手,提出伦理委员会档案应该纳入综合档案管理部门,由专职档案人员负责统一管理,即按档案专业要求进行整理归档、存放和规范化管理.

  1. Editorial: Introduction to Energy Strategy Reviews theme issue “Future Energy Systems and Market Integration of Wind Power”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lund, H.; Weijermars, R.

    2013-01-01

    Energy Strategy Reviews (ESR) provides a peer-reviewed publication platformto evaluate strategy options for tomorrow’s energy systems. The focus in this special issue is on “Future Energy Systems and Market Integration of Wind Power” and possible solutions are highlighted from the strategy viewpoint

  2. Health workforce issues and the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria: an analytical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal Poz Mario R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent studies have shown evidence of a direct and positive causal link between the number of health workers and health outcomes. Several studies have identified an adequate health workforce as one of the key ingredients to achieving improved health outcomes. Global health initiatives are faced with human resources issues as a major, system-wide constraint. This article explores how the Global Fund addresses the challenges of a health workforce bottleneck to the successful implementation of priority disease programmes. Possibilities for investment in human resources in the Global Fund's policy documents and guidelines are reviewed. This is followed by an in-depth study of 35 Global Fund proposals from five African countries: Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi and Tanzania. The discussion presents specific human resources interventions that can be found in proposals. Finally, the comments on human resources interventions in the Global Fund's Technical Review Panel and the budget allocation for human resources for health were examined. Policy documents and guidelines of the Global Fund foster taking account of human resources constraints in recipient countries and interventions to address them. However, the review of actual proposals clearly shows that countries do not often take advantage of their opportunities and focus mainly on short-term, in-service training in their human resources components. The comments of the Technical Review Panel on proposed health system-strengthening interventions reveal a struggle between the Global Fund's goal to fight the three targeted diseases, on the one hand, and the need to strengthen health systems as a prerequisite for success, on the other. In realizing the opportunities the Global Fund provides for human resources interventions, countries should go beyond short-term objectives and link their activities to a long-term development of their human resources for health.

  3. Thermal management in heavy vehicles : a review identifying issues and research requirements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wambsganss, M. W.

    1999-01-15

    Thermal management in heavy vehicles is cross-cutting because it directly or indirectly affects engine performance, fuel economy, safety and reliability, engine/component life, driver comfort, materials selection, emissions, maintenance, and aerodynamics. It follows that thermal management is critical to the design of large (class 6-8) trucks, especially in optimizing for energy efficiency and emissions reduction. Heat rejection requirements are expected to increase, and it is industry's goal to develop new, innovative, high-performance cooling systems that occupy less space and are lightweight and cost-competitive. The state of the art in heavy vehicle thermal management is reviewed, and issues and research areas are identified.

  4. Reliability and parasitic issues in GaN-based power HEMTs: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghesso, G.; Meneghini, M.; Rossetto, I.; Bisi, D.; Stoffels, S.; Van Hove, M.; Decoutere, S.; Zanoni, E.

    2016-09-01

    Despite the potential of GaN-based power transistors, these devices still suffer from certain parasitic and reliability issues that limit their static and dynamic performance and the maximum switching frequency. The aim of this paper is to review our most recent results on the parasitic mechanisms that affect the performance of GaN-on-Si HEMTs; more specifically, we describe the following relevant processes: (i) trapping of electrons in the buffer, which is induced by off-state operation; (ii) trapping of hot electrons, which is promoted by semi-on state operation; (iii) trapping of electrons in the gate insulator, which is favored by the exposure to positive gate bias. Moreover, we will describe one of the most critical reliability aspects of Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor HEMTs (MIS-HEMTs), namely time-dependent dielectric breakdown.

  5. TRENDS AND ISSUES: A REVIEW OF STUDIES RELATED TO TECHNOLOGY USAGE IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif ÖZTÜRK YILMAZTEKİN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes types of technology studies that have been conducted related to young children’s early education. A systematic review of studies was undertaken using EBSCOhost, Blackwell Synergy, and ScienceDirect databases, to identify all studies published between 2003 and 2009 according to specific criteria. The studies were selected on the basis of the following three issues: (1 the role of technology in children’s development, (2 the role of technology in teachers’ teaching practices, and (3 studies that aimed to investigate the impact of technology usage on not only teacher practices but also young children’s development in school settings. In for each type of study the methodology, types of technology used, purposes and findings and other features including the publication year, and study locations are given in detail.

  6. Sports related musculoskeletal disorders in children and adolescents: A review of the emerging issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugénia R. C. Pinho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Regular physical activity promotes better general state of health and is essential for the prevention of many illnesses, including musculoskeletal disorders. The promotion of both physical activity and its beneficial effects on health have contributed to the fast growth in the number of children and adolescents involved in organized or recreational sports activities which, unfortunately, has been followed by a significant increase on the number of injuries related to its practice. Taking into account that children and adolescents musculoskeletal system is still developing, its overuse particularly associated to competition sports activities may have long-term effects on their health. This paper aims to review the main questions of sports-related musculoskeletal disorders in children and adolescents, including the involved ethical issues, as well as to identify some of the main risk factors and to point out some of the measures to be adopted for its prevention.

  7. Municipal solid waste incineration in China and the issue of acidification: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Longjie; Lu, Shengyong; Yang, Jie; Du, Cuicui; Chen, Zhiliang; Buekens, Alfons; Yan, Jianhua

    2016-04-01

    In China, incineration is essential for reducing the volume of municipal solid waste arising in its numerous megacities. The evolution of incinerator capacity has been huge, yet it creates strong opposition from a small, but vocal part of the population. The characteristics of Chinese municipal solid waste are analysed and data presented on its calorific value and composition. These are not so favourable for incineration, since the sustained use of auxiliary fuel is necessary for ensuring adequate combustion temperatures. Also, the emission standard for acid gases is more lenient in China than in the European Union, so special attention should be paid to the issue of acidification arising from flue gas. Next, the techniques used in flue gas cleaning in China are reviewed and the acidification potential by cleaned flue gas is estimated. Still, acidification induced by municipal solid waste incinerators remains marginal compared with the effects of coal-fired power plants.

  8. Epistemic uncertainties and natural hazard risk assessment – Part 1: A review of the issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Beven

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainties in natural hazard risk assessment are generally dominated by the sources arising from lack of knowledge or understanding of the processes involved. There is a lack of knowledge about frequencies, process representations, parameters, present and future boundary conditions, consequences and impacts, and the meaning of observations in evaluating simulation models. These are the epistemic uncertainties that can be difficult to constrain, especially in terms of event or scenario probabilities, even as elicited probabilities rationalized on the basis of expert judgements. This paper reviews the issues raised by trying to quantify the effects of epistemic uncertainties. Such scientific uncertainties might have significant influence on decisions that are made for risk management, so it is important to communicate the meaning of an uncertainty estimate and to provide an audit trail of the assumptions on which it is based. Some suggestions for good practice in doing so are made.

  9. Topical issues of treatment of degenerate scoliosis at adults at the present stage (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Mikhaylov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Degenerative scoliosis is a prevalent issue among the aging population. Controversy remains over the role of surgical intervention in patients with this disease. Authors carry out the review of literature data, consider various approaches of surgical treatment depending on a stage of a disease and extent of deformation, including a decompression, instrumented posterior spinal fusion, an anterior spinal fusion, and osteotomy. These treatment options are based on clinical analysis, radiographic analysis of the mechanical stability of the deformity, given pain generators, and necessary sagittal balance. The high potential complication rates appear to be outweighed by the eventual successful clinical outcomes in patients suitable for operative intervention. This approach has had favorable outcomes and could help resolve the controversy.

  10. +Ophitoxaemia and myocardial infarction--the issues during primary angioplasty: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prabha Nini; Thomas, Jinesh; Francis, Preetham Kumar; Shylaja, Sajith Vamadevan

    2014-10-23

    'The Big four' are the most poisonous snakes in India, and especially in Kerala. These include the cobra, the viper, the krait and the sea snake. Most of the poisonous snakebites in India occur in Kerala. We believe there are only a few reports of myocardial infarction after snakebites and most of these are viper bites. We believe this is the second case of primary angioplasty for a snakebite. There are at least a few potential issues in performing a primary angioplasty in a snakebite case, namely (1) Is it a thrombus or a spasm? (2) Are the bleeding parameters deranged? Will the patient tolerate tirofiban and other glycoprotein (GB) 2b3a inhibitors? Will he develop dangerous bleeding due to the high dose of heparin needed? Further, would we save the patient from myocardial infarction only to lose him to renal failure, both due to the nephrotoxicity of the venom, the kidney being further damaged by the contrast media used for the angioplasty? We discuss all these issues as they crossed our mind, and hope it will help further treatment in others. We would like to review the available literature on these points and describe a recent case of ours.

  11. Data center network architecture in cloud computing:review, taxonomy, and open research issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han QI; Muhammad SHIRAZ; Jie-yao LIU; Abdullah GANI; Zulkanain ABDUL RAHMAN; Torki AALTAMEEM

    2014-01-01

    The data center network (DCN), which is an important component of data centers, consists of a large number of hosted servers and switches connected with high speed communication links. A DCN enables the deployment of resources centralization and on-demand access of the information and services of data centers to users. In recent years, the scale of the DCN has constantly increased with the widespread use of cloud-based services and the unprecedented amount of data delivery in/between data centers, whereas the traditional DCN architecture lacks aggregate bandwidth, scalability, and cost effectiveness for coping with the increasing demands of tenants in accessing the services of cloud data centers. Therefore, the design of a novel DCN architecture with the features of scalability, low cost, robustness, and energy conservation is required. This paper reviews the recent research fi ndings and technologies of DCN architectures to identify the issues in the existing DCN architectures for cloud computing. We develop a taxonomy for the classifi cation of the current DCN architectures, and also qualitatively analyze the traditional and contemporary DCN architectures. Moreover, the DCN architectures are compared on the basis of the signifi cant characteristics, such as bandwidth, fault tolerance, scalability, overhead, and deployment cost. Finally, we put forward open research issues in the deployment of scalable, low-cost, robust, and energy-efficient DCN architecture, for data centers in computational clouds.

  12. Fitness for duty in the nuclear power industry: A review of technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, C.; Barnes, V.; Hauth, J.; Wilson, R.; Fawcett-Long, J.; Toquam, J.; Baker, K.; Wieringa, D.; Olson, J.; Christensen, J.

    1989-05-01

    This report presents information gathered and analyzed in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) efforts to develop a rule that will ensure that workers with unescorted access to protected areas of nuclear power plants are fit for duty. This report supplements information previously published in NUREG/CR-5227, Fitness for Duty in the Nuclear Power Industry: A Review of Technical Issues (Barnes et al., 1988). The primary potential fitness-for-duty concern addressed in both of these reports is impairment caused by substance abuse, although other fitness concerns are discussed. This report addresses issues pertaining to workers' use and misuse of alcohol, prescription drugs, and over-the-counter drugs as fitness-for-duty concerns; responds to several questions raised by NRC Commissioners; discusses subversion of the chemical testing process and methods of preventing such subversion; and examines concerns about the urinalysis cutoff levels used when testing for marijuana metabolites, amphetamines, and phencyclidine (PCP).

  13. Generic Issues on Broad-Scale Soil Monitoring Schemes: A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. ARROUAYS; B. P. MARCHANT; N. P. A. SABY; J. MEERSMANS; T. G. ORTON; M. P. MARTIN; P. H. BELLAMY; R. M. LARK; M. KIBBLEWHITE

    2012-01-01

    Numerous scientific challenges arise when designing a soil monitoring network (SMN),especially when assessing large areas and several properties that are driven by numerous controlling factors of various origins and scales.Different broad approaches to the establishment of SMNs are distinguished.It is essential to establish an adequate sampling protocol that can be applied rigorously at each sampling location and time.We make recommendations regarding the within-site sampling of soil.Different statistical methods should be associated with the different types of sampling design.We review new statistical methods that account for different sources of uncertainty.Except for those parameters for which a consensus exists,the question of testing method harmonisation remains a very difficult issue.The establishment of benchmark sites devoted to harmonisation and inter-calibration is advocated as a technical solution.However,to our present knowledge,no study has addressed crucial scientific issues such as how many calibration sites are necessary and how to locate them.

  14. Researchers’ Attitudes and Behaviour to Data Archiving Policies and Practice is Typified by Low Awareness and Little Planning. A Review of: Perry, Carol Marie. “Archiving of Publicly Funded Research Data: A Survey of Canadian Researchers.” Government Information Quarterly 25 (2008: 133-48.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaby Haddow

    2008-12-01

    and “more than 20 years,” and for responses relating to agreement with mandatory archiving “no” and “undecided” responses were combined into one category and compared with “yes” responses.Main Results Plans to archive research data Only 41.3% of the respondent sample had current plans to archive their research data; plans that included filing materials in theiroffice and destroying materials. A small proportion of this group (18.7% planned to archive their research data in an established repository. Respondents who planned to archive their research data were more likely to have received funding from other government agencies (64.7% than respondents who had not received other government funding (23.5%. Examination of the comments made by respondents indicated those who planned to archive their data were more likely to make comments on this issue. Knowledge of data archiving policies Respondents’ awareness of data archiving policies, particularly that of the SSHRC, an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD declaration, and that of their own university, was low. Less than a third of the sample (28% was aware of the SSHRC policy and less than 10% of the OECD declaration or their own university’s policy. A sizeable proportion of the sample (65.4% stated they were “uncertain” whether their university had a data archiving policy. Of the respondents who planned to archive their data only 42.4% were aware of the SSHRC policy, and a high percentage of respondents with no plans to archive their data (83.3% were also unaware of this policy. When asked if they agreed with a mandatory policy of data archiving being linked to grant funding the sample group was almost evenly split into agree (33.3%,don’t agree (28%, and uncertain (36%. Only 46.9% of the sample who planned to archive their data agreed with the policy. Support for data archives There was strong support for a data archive at the home institution by respondents who agreed

  15. Water resources and environmental input-output analysis and its key study issues: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    YANG, Z.; Xu, X.

    2013-12-01

    Used to study the material and energy flow in socioeconomic system, Input-Output Analysis(IOA) had been an effective analysis tool since its appearance. The research fields of Input-Output Analysis were increasingly expanded and studied in depth with the development of fundamental theory. In this paper, starting with introduction of theory development, the water resources input-output analysis and environmental input-output analysis had been specifically reviewed, and two key study issues mentioned as well. Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Grey Input-Output Analysis whose proposal and development were introduced firstly could be regard as the effective complements of traditional IOA theory. Because of the hypotheses of homogeneity, stability and proportionality, Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Grey Input-Output Analysis always had been restricted in practical application inevitably. In the applied study aspect, with investigation of abundant literatures, research of water resources input-output analysis and environmental input-output analysis had been comprehensively reviewed and analyzed. The regional water resources flow between different economic sectors had been systematically analyzed and stated, and several types of environmental input-output analysis models combined with other effective analysis tools concluded. In two perspectives in terms of external and inland aspect, the development of water resources and environmental input-output analysis model had been explained, and several typical study cases in recent years listed respectively. By the aid of sufficient literature analysis, the internal development tendency and study hotspot had also been summarized. In recent years, Chinese literatures reporting water resources consumption analysis and virtue water study had occupied a large share. Water resources consumption analysis had always been the emphasis of inland water resources IOA. Virtue water study had been considered as the new hotspot of

  16. Microalgae biofuels: A critical review of issues, problems and the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Man Kee; Lee, Keat Teong

    2012-01-01

    Culturing of microalgae as an alternative feedstock for biofuel production has received a lot of attention in recent years due to their fast growth rate and ability to accumulate high quantity of lipid and carbohydrate inside their cells for biodiesel and bioethanol production, respectively. In addition, this superior feedstock offers several environmental benefits, such as effective land utilization, CO(2) sequestration, self-purification if coupled with wastewater treatment and does not trigger food versus fuel feud. Despite having all these 'theoretical' advantages, review on problems and issues related to energy balance in microalgae biofuel are not clearly addressed until now. Base on the maturity of current technology, the true potential of microalgae biofuel towards energy security and its feasibility for commercialization are still questionable. Thus, this review is aimed to depict the practical problems that are facing the microalgae biofuel industry, covering upstream to downstream activities by accessing the latest research reports and critical data analysis. Apart from that, several interlink solutions to the problems will be suggested with the purpose to bring current microalgae biofuel research into a new dimension and consequently, to revolutionize the entire microalgae biofuel industry towards long-term sustainability.

  17. Is Empirical Research on Periodization Trustworthy? A Comprehensive Review of Conceptual and Methodological Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, José; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T.; Sousa, Patrícia; Mesquita, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Periodization is a core concept in training. Recently, systematic reviews and meta-analyses have attempted to provide a comprehensive overview of the topic, but theoretical criticisms have arisen with regard to how such research has been conducted. The purpose of the study was to review comprehensively the conceptual and methodological issues surrounding empirical research on periodization in training with human subjects. A search was conducted late in February 2016 on Academic Search Complete, CINAHL Plus, MedicLatina, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scielo, Scopus, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science. Forty-two randomized or randomized controlled trials were retrieved. Problems emerged in three domains: (a) Conceptually, periodization and variation were applied differently in research, while no empirical research tested predictions concerning direction, timing or magnitude of the adaptations; (b) Study design: More than 95% of papers investigated the ‘physical’ factor (mainly strength). Research on long-term effects was absent (no study lasted more than nine months). Controlling for confounding factors such as nutrition, supplementation and medication was largely ignored; (c) Data analysis was biased as dispersion in responsiveness was ignored when discussing the findings. Overall, research on periodization fails to analyze the conceptual premises proposed by these approaches. Key points Periodization is considered a core concept of training. However, conceptual and methodological critiques have arisen. We therefore comprehensively reviewed randomized and randomized trials applying periodized protocols to human subjects. Overall, the concepts of periodization and variation are being used interchangeably, which represents an intellectual mistake with implications for how we interpret the results of the studies. Additional methodological shortcomings make current research on periodization largely unreliable. PMID:28344448

  18. Discussion Forum: Federal Records and Archives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradsher, James Gregory

    1987-01-01

    Introduces various topics relating to federal records and archives, including descriptions of federal records, permanent records, and archives; responsibility for the creation and maintenance of these items; the policy for deciding which records become archives; and legal issues relating to records and access to them. (Author/CLB)

  19. Critical care issues in solid organ injury: Review and experience in a tertiary trauma center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhavi Sawhney

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Solid organ (spleen and liver injuries are dreaded by both surgeons and anesthesiologists because of associated high morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to describe our experience of critical care concerns in solid organ injury, which otherwise has been poorly addressed in the literature. Materials and Methods: Retrospective cohort of solid organ injury (spleen and liver patients was done from January 2010 to December 2011 in tertiary level trauma Center. Results: Out of 624 abdominal trauma patients, a total of 212 patients (70% were admitted in intensive care unit (ICU. Their ages ranged from 6 to 74 years (median 24 years. Nearly 89% patients in liver trauma and 84% patients in splenic trauma were male. Mechanism of injury was blunt abdominal trauma in 96% patients and the most common associated injury was chest trauma. Average injury severity score, sequential organ failure assessment, lactate on admission was 16.84, 4.34 and 3.42 mmol/L and that of dying patient were 29.70, 7.73 and 5.09 mmol/L, respectively. Overall mortality of ICU admitted solid organ injury was 15.55%. Major issues of concern in splenic injury were hemorrhagic shock, overwhelming post-splenectomy infection and post-splenectomy vaccination. Issues raised in liver injury are damage control surgery, deadly triad, thromboelastography guided transfusion protocols and hemostatic agents. Conclusions: A protocol-based and multidisciplinary approach in high dependency unit can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with solid organ injury.

  20. Critical care issues in solid organ injury: Review and experience in a tertiary trauma center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhney, Chhavi; Kaur, Manpreet; Gupta, Babita; Singh, P. M.; Gupta, Amit; Kumar, Subodh; Misra, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Solid organ (spleen and liver) injuries are dreaded by both surgeons and anesthesiologists because of associated high morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to describe our experience of critical care concerns in solid organ injury, which otherwise has been poorly addressed in the literature. Materials and Methods: Retrospective cohort of solid organ injury (spleen and liver) patients was done from January 2010 to December 2011 in tertiary level trauma Center. Results: Out of 624 abdominal trauma patients, a total of 212 patients (70%) were admitted in intensive care unit (ICU). Their ages ranged from 6 to 74 years (median 24 years). Nearly 89% patients in liver trauma and 84% patients in splenic trauma were male. Mechanism of injury was blunt abdominal trauma in 96% patients and the most common associated injury was chest trauma. Average injury severity score, sequential organ failure assessment, lactate on admission was 16.84, 4.34 and 3.42 mmol/L and that of dying patient were 29.70, 7.73 and 5.09 mmol/L, respectively. Overall mortality of ICU admitted solid organ injury was 15.55%. Major issues of concern in splenic injury were hemorrhagic shock, overwhelming post-splenectomy infection and post-splenectomy vaccination. Issues raised in liver injury are damage control surgery, deadly triad, thromboelastography guided transfusion protocols and hemostatic agents. Conclusions: A protocol-based and multidisciplinary approach in high dependency unit can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with solid organ injury. PMID:25538517

  1. Non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal chromosome abnormalities: review of clinical and ethical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gekas J

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Jean Gekas,1,2 Sylvie Langlois,3 Vardit Ravitsky,4 François Audibert,5 David Gradus van den Berg,6 Hazar Haidar,4 François Rousseau2,7 1Prenatal Diagnosis Unit, Department of Medical Genetics and Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Québec City, QC, Canada; 2Department of Medical Biology, CHU de Québec, Québec City, QC, Canada; 3Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 4Bioethics Program, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital Sainte-Justine, Montreal, QC, Canada; 6Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Québec City, QC, Canada; 7Department of Molecular Biology, Medical Biochemistry and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Québec City, QC, Canada Abstract: Genomics-based non-invasive prenatal screening using cell-free DNA (cfDNA screening was proposed to reduce the number of invasive procedures in current prenatal diagnosis for fetal aneuploidies. We review here the clinical and ethical issues of cfDNA screening. To date, it is not clear how cfDNA screening is going to impact the performances of clinical prenatal diagnosis and how it could be incorporated in real life. The direct marketing to users may have facilitated the early introduction of cfDNA screening into clinical practice despite limited evidence-based independent research data supporting this rapid shift. There is a need to address the most important ethical, legal, and social issues before its implementation in a mass setting. Its introduction might worsen current tendencies to neglect the reproductive autonomy of pregnant women. Keywords: prenatal diagnosis, Down syndrome, non-invasive prenatal testing, cell-free fetal DNA, informed consent, reproductive autonomy

  2. The future historian: Reflections on the archives of contemporary sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chadarevian, Soraya

    2016-02-01

    Historians working on recent science work close to where the archives are created or become accessible. Based on this experience, the essay presents a reflection on the archives of contemporary life sciences. It addresses three questions: firstly, what is special about the archival situation of contemporary sciences? Secondly, which sources do contemporary historians use and what opportunities and challenges do they offer? And finally, what potential changes to the archives of contemporary sciences are we witnessing? The essay draws a distinction between, on the one side, the history of science when the actors are still alive-a situation that presents a particular set of issues in respect to the available sources-and, on the other side, questions relating specifically to the life sciences at the turn of the millennium--a period which will eventually not be considered as 'contemporary' any more. It reviews changes in scientific practice, historiographical trends and archival practices and considers the place of paper records, digital sources, material artefacts and oral sources in the archives of contemporary sciences. It argues that the commercialisation and privatisation of science may prove a bigger problem for the future historian than the shift to the digital medium. It concludes by welcoming the closer interactions between scientists, historians, curators and archivists prompted by recent developments.

  3. Circumpolar Arctic vegetation: a hierarchic review and roadmap toward an internationally consistent approach to survey, archive and classify tundra plot data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D. A.; Daniëls, F. J. A.; Alsos, I.; Bhatt, U. S.; Breen, A. L.; Buchhorn, M.; Bültmann, H.; Druckenmiller, L. A.; Edwards, M. E.; Ehrich, D.; Epstein, H. E.; Gould, W. A.; Ims, R. A.; Meltofte, H.; Raynolds, M. K.; Sibik, J.; Talbot, S. S.; Webber, P. J.

    2016-05-01

    Satellite-derived remote-sensing products are providing a modern circumpolar perspective of Arctic vegetation and its changes, but this new view is dependent on a long heritage of ground-based observations in the Arctic. Several products of the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna are key to our current understanding. We review aspects of the PanArctic Flora, the Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Map, the Arctic Biodiversity Assessment, and the Arctic Vegetation Archive (AVA) as they relate to efforts to describe and map the vegetation, plant biomass, and biodiversity of the Arctic at circumpolar, regional, landscape and plot scales. Cornerstones for all these tools are ground-based plant-species and plant-community surveys. The AVA is in progress and will store plot-based vegetation observations in a public-accessible database for vegetation classification, modeling, diversity studies, and other applications. We present the current status of the Alaska Arctic Vegetation Archive (AVA-AK), as a regional example for the panarctic archive, and with a roadmap for a coordinated international approach to survey, archive and classify Arctic vegetation. We note the need for more consistent standards of plot-based observations, and make several recommendations to improve the linkage between plot-based observations biodiversity studies and satellite-based observations of Arctic vegetation.

  4. Quality of life issues in men undergoing androgen deprivation therapy: a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rowan G Casey; Niall M Corcoran; S Larry Goldenberg

    2012-01-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been an essential treatment option for treating prostate cancer (PCa).The role for hormonal treatment initially was restricted to men with metastatic and inoperable,locally advanced disease.Now it has been extended to neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy for surgery and radiotherapy,for biochemical relapse after surgery or radiation,and even as primary therapy for non-metastatic disease.Fifty percent of PCa patients treated will receive ADT at some point.There is growing concern about the adverse effects and costs associated with more widespread ADT use.The adverse effects on quality of life (QoL),including physical,social and psychological well-being when men are androgen-deprived,may be considerable.This review examines the QoL issues in the following areas:body feminisation,sexual changes,relationship changes,cognitive and affective symptoms,fatigue,sleep disturbance,depression and physical effects.Further suggestions for therapeutic approaches to reduce these alterations are suggested.

  5. The Mediterranean Sea system: a review and an introduction to the special issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tanhua

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Sea is a semi-enclosed sea characterized by high salinities, temperatures and densities. The net evaporation exceeds the precipitation, driving an anti-estuarine circulation through the Strait of Gibraltar, contributing to very low nutrient concentrations. The Mediterranean Sea has an active overturning circulation, one shallow cell that communicates directly with the Atlantic Ocean, and two deep overturning cells, one in each of the two main basins. It is surrounded by populated areas and is thus sensitive to anthropogenic forcing. Several dramatic changes in the oceanographic and biogeochemical conditions have been observed during the past several decades, emphasizing the need to better monitor and understand the changing conditions and their drivers. During 2011 three oceanographic cruises were conducted in a coordinated fashion in order to produce baseline data of important physical and biogeochemical parameters that can be compared to historic data and be used as reference for future observational campaigns. In this article we provide information on the Mediterranean Sea oceanographic situation, and present a short review that will serve as background information for the special issue in Ocean Science on "Physical, chemical and biological oceanography of the Mediterranean Sea". An important contribution of this article is the set of figures showing the large-scale distributions of physical and chemical properties along the full length of the Mediterranean Sea.

  6. Liposome Delivery Systems for Inhalation: A Critical Review Highlighting Formulation Issues and Anticancer Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudokas, Mindaugas; Najlah, Mohammad; Alhnan, Mohamed Albed; Elhissi, Abdelbary

    2016-01-01

    This is a critical review on research conducted in the field of pulmonary delivery of liposomes. Issues relating to the mechanism of nebulisation and liposome composition were appraised and correlated with literature reports of liposome formulations used in clinical trials to understand the role of liposome size and composition on therapeutic outcome. A major highlight was liposome inhalation for the treatment of lung cancers. Many in vivo studies that explored the potential of liposomes as anticancer carrier systems were evaluated, including animal studies and clinical trials. Liposomes can entrap anticancer drugs and localise their action in the lung following pulmonary delivery. The safety of inhaled liposomes incorporating anticancer drugs depends on the anticancer agent used and the amount of drug delivered to the target cancer in the lung. The difficulty of efficient targeting of liposomal anticancer aerosols to the cancerous tissues within the lung may result in low doses reaching the target site. Overall, following the success of liposomes as inhalable carriers in the treatment of lung infections, it is expected that more focus from research and development will be given to designing inhalable liposome carriers for the treatment of other lung diseases, including pulmonary cancers. The successful development of anticancer liposomes for inhalation may depend on the future development of effective aerosolisation devices and better targeted liposomes to maximise the benefit of therapy and reduce the potential for local and systemic adverse effects.

  7. A Review on Key Issues and Challenges in Devices Level MEMS Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shoaib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review provides information relevant to issues and challenges in MEMS testing techniques that are implemented to analyze the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS behavior for specific application and operating conditions. MEMS devices are more complex and extremely diverse due to the immersion of multidomains. Their failure modes are distinctive under different circumstances. Therefore, testing of these systems at device level as well as at mass production level, that is, parallel testing, is becoming very challenging as compared to the IC test, because MEMS respond to electrical, physical, chemical, and optical stimuli. Currently, test systems developed for MEMS devices have to be customized due to their nondeterministic behavior and complexity. The accurate measurement of test systems for MEMS is difficult to quantify in the production phase. The complexity of the device to be tested required maturity in the test technique which increases the cost of test development; this practice is directly imposed on the device cost. This factor causes a delay in time-to-market.

  8. Book Review ~ e-Research: Methods, Strategies, and Issues. Authors: Terry Anderson and Heather Kanuka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Christine von Prümmer

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The book e-Research: Methods, Strategies, and Issues is a comprehensive introduction to Net-based research, covering all steps of a research project as well as different types of research. True to its title, it also deals with important issues of e-research, focussing especially on the issue of ethics.

  9. Roles of scientists as policy advisers on complex issues: A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, Pita; Knol, Anne B.; Vasileiadou, Eleftheria; Devilee, Jeroen; Lebret, Erik; Petersen, Arthur C.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Policymakers frequently encounter complex issues, and the role of scientists as policy advisers on these issues is not always clearly defined. We present an overview of the interdisciplinary literature on the roles of scientific experts when advising policymakers on complex issu

  10. The Issues and Methodologies in Sustainability Assessment Tools for Higher Education Institutions: A Review of Recent Trends and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarime, Masaru; Tanaka, Yuko

    2012-01-01

    Assessment tools influence incentives to higher education institutions by encouraging them to move towards sustainability. A review of 16 sustainability assessment tools was conducted to examine the recent trends in the issues and methodologies addressed in assessment tools quantitatively and qualitatively. The characteristics of the current…

  11. A special issue on reviews in biomedical applications of nanomaterials, tissue engineering, stem cells, bioimaging, and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalwa, Hari Singh

    2014-10-01

    This second special issue of the Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology in a series contains another 30 state-of-the-art reviews focused on the biomedical applications of nanomaterials, biosensors, bone tissue engineering, MRI and bioimaging, single-cell detection, stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, toxicity and biosafety of nanodrugs, nanoparticle-based new therapeutic approaches for cancer, hepatic and cardiovascular disease.

  12. Edmund Burke and the issue of a conservative and liberal tradition in Italy, 1791-1945 – Call for Reviewers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We are submitting the article Edmund Burke and the issue of a conservative and liberal tradition in Italy, 1791-1945 by Mauro Lenci to an experimental open peer review. Commenting is easy: you should simply register here, log in our Commentbfp site.

  13. Edmund Burke and the issue of a conservative and liberal tradition in Italy, 1791-1945 – Call for Reviewers

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2012-01-01

    We are submitting the article Edmund Burke and the issue of a conservative and liberal tradition in Italy, 1791-1945 by Mauro Lenci to an experimental open peer review. Commenting is easy: you should simply register here, log in our Commentbfp site.

  14. 10 CFR 2.604 - Notice of hearing on application for early review of site suitability issues in construction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of hearing on application for early review of site suitability issues in construction permit proceeding. 2.604 Section 2.604 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... practicable, the membership of any atomic safety and licensing board designated to preside in the...

  15. Online Archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian D. Richards

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Online archives are of increasing importance in Archaeological Informatics, but like any new genre they prompt a number of questions. What is their relationship to publication? What should go in them? How should they be delivered and indexed? Can they be preserved? Whilst their delivery requires technology, we must also consider how that technology should best be employed in the service of our discipline. This article attempts to address some of these questions but it need not be read from start to finish. The links from this summary provide one fairly linear route through the text but each section is self-contained and can also be accessed directly from the Contents page. The problems posed by effective publication of archaeological fieldwork have exercised the profession for many decades. The issues raised go to the core of discussion of whether preservation by record is a valid concept, and indeed whether archaeological data exist. There are different schools of thought about the relationship between publication and archiving, but hopefully we can accept that data are recorded observations but still agree that they have a re-use value for re-examination and re-interpretation. Since the 1960s archaeology has experienced a publication crisis point. The scenario is familiar. Excavation is destruction; it is an unrepeatable experiment and the archaeologist has a professional obligation to make a full and accessible record of his/her observations. Yet full publication is increasingly expensive and difficult, and excavation monographs are read by few people, and bought by even fewer. In England the development of post-PPG16 fieldwork has exacerbated the problem by creating a mountain of unpublished grey literature and making the work of synthesis even harder; a similar situation exists in other countries. Meanwhile museum archives are also reaching breaking point; most are running out of storage space, few can provide facilities for access, and

  16. International Expert Review of SRCan: Engineered Barrier Issues. External review contribution in support of SKI's and SSI's review of SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, David (Quintessa Limited, Henley-on-Thames (GB)); Bennett, David (TerraSalus Limited, Oakham (GB)); Apted, Mick (Monitor Scientific LLC, Denver, CO (US)); Saellfors, Goeran (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (SE)); Saario, Timo (VTT Materials and Building (FI)); Segle, Peter (Inspecta, Stockholm (SE))

    2008-03-15

    of uncertainties in SKB's programme and safety reports, some of which relate to issues that appear to be of sufficient significance that they will need to be thoroughly addressed in the SR-Site safety report in time for the repository licence application. Other less urgent issues might be identified in SR-Can as uncertainties to be addressed through an appropriate performance confirmation programme. Performance confirmation may be defined as the programme of tests, experiments and analyses, conducted to evaluate the adequacy of the information used to demonstrate compliance with long-term safety standards for a geological repository. The most significant of the issues identified by the EBS review group include: - Demonstration of the feasibility of EBS emplacement. SKB will need to present more details on the reference EBS design, on its reference repository construction method, and on the specifications for the EBS materials. In particular, SKB still needs to demonstrate satisfactorily that the EBS can be successfully fabricated and emplaced in the appropriate configuration under repository conditions and at the rates that are projected to be required during waste disposal. SKB needs to develop and test quality assurance and quality control procedures for repository construction and operation, including EBS emplacement. SKB also needs to conduct further tests of EBS emplacement, and to characterise the as-emplaced EBS components. More generally, SKB should describe and explain in more detail how its schedule for developing plans and procedures and for conducting laboratory experiments and underground tests relates to the schedules for safety assessment and licensing. - Canister manufacture and integrity. The view of the review group is that SKB should consider a number of issues in greater detail to build further confidence in the proposed approach for canister manufacture and in the assessments of canister integrity and performance. For example, SKB could

  17. Determining the Types of Diseases and Emergency Issues in Pilgrims During Hajj: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Murtaza Rashid Al Masud

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Every year 2-3 million pilgrims with different background and most of them are elderly from 184 countries in the world congregate in the holy place ‘Haram’ at Makkah in Saudi Arabia to perform Hajj. During the pilgrimage, they come across a great deal of rough and tough environment, physical hassle and mental stress. Due to the hardship of travel, fluctuation of weather, continuous walking during religious rites at specific time and sites, many pilgrims injury, feel tired, sick, and exhausted. These may also create complications and overburden the physiological functions including heart, chest, abdominal, and kidney of those who suffer from chronic diseases. Besides the problem of diseases, crowds could cause some other significant problems including missing and lost pilgrims, injuries, and even death. Objective: To determine the common health problems e.g. diseases and emergency incidents encountered by pilgrims during Hajj was the main objective of this study. Methods: An extensive literature review to determine the common health problems and emergency incidents during Hajj was conducted through a systematic literature review. Numerous scholarly databases were used to search for articles published related to health problems and emergency incidents during Hajj from 2008 to 2016. Eligible articles included case reports, experimental and non-experimental studies. Only thirty articles out of two hundred and sixty articles had met the specific inclusion criteria. Results: The analysis revealed that respiratory diseases include pneumonia, influenza, and asthma (73.33% were the main health problems encountered by the pilgrims during Hajj followed by heat stroke or heat attack, sunlight effects (16.67%, cardiovascular disease, heart disease (10%. The analysis also revealed that emergency incidents include traffic accidents, and trauma was 3.33%. Notwithstanding the information given above, according to the analysis, the common health

  18. New Challenges for International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jotz, Geraldo Pereira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology is beginning a new chapter in its history; starting with this issue, the journal will be published by Thieme Medical Publishers. Much as impressionism, which emerged in the late 19th century in France, became the starting point for the development of modern art that conveyed the artists' desire to portray the moment in which a scene took place, the International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology has collaborated with Thieme to better disseminate its content, thereby providing more visibility for its authors. This is an important step in the growth of the journal. The journal will maintain its subsections and will publish supplementary special issues that will accompany the main journal, the first of which will appear in July 2014. For future issues, we will be changing the system of online submission and review of the papers, which will be managed by ScholarOne (http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/iaorl. In 2014, we will continue our policy of rewarding articles in the area of meta-analysis that are published in our journal, because these studies form the basis for opinion-making regarding the most varied subjects. In this issue, among the published studies, we highlight the studies related to adenotonsillectomy, rhinoplasty, sensorineural hearing loss, neurotology, allergy, and orofacial issues, seeking challenges, responses, and therapeutic suggestions for several disorders.

  19. Copyright and Related Issues Relevant to Digital Preservation and Dissemination of Unpublished Pre-1972 Sound Recordings by Libraries and Archives. CLIR Publication No. 144

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besek, June M.

    2009-01-01

    This report addresses the question of what libraries and archives are legally empowered to do to preserve and make accessible for research their holdings of unpublished pre-1972 sound recordings. The report's author, June M. Besek, is executive director of the Kernochan Center for Law, Media and the Arts at Columbia Law School. Unpublished sound…

  20. Copyright Issues Relevant to Digital Preservation and Dissemination of Pre-1972 Commercial Sound Recordings by Libraries and Archives. CLIR Publication No. 135

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besek, June M.

    2005-01-01

    This report addresses the question of what libraries and archives are legally empowered to do to preserve and make accessible for research their holdings of pre-1972 commercial recordings, the large aural legacy that is not protected by federal copyright. The report is one of a series of studies undertaken by the National Recording Preservation…

  1. Social Media and Archives: A Survey of Archive Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Bruce; Eckert, Ellen; Proffitt, Merrilee

    2013-01-01

    In April and May of 2012, the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) Research conducted a survey of users of archives to learn more about their habits and preferences. In particular, they focused on the roles that social media, recommendations, reviews, and other forms of user-contributed annotation play in archival research. OCLC surveyed faculty,…

  2. Funded Social Security System: A Review of Issues in Four East Asian Countries Funded Social Security System: A Review of Issues in Four East Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Ribe

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the structure and economic effects of the fullyfunded centralized public pension programs in several East Asian countries. The major weaknesses of these programs are variable and often inadequate replacement rates as well as poor population coverage. Aside from encouraging development of financial markets, their chief virtue is their avoidance of economic distortions associated with the alternative pay-as-you-go approach. Growth-modeling exercises surveyed in the paper suggest that such distortions are the main way in which social security affects aggregate welfare in the long run. The paper therefore argues that expected pay-as-you-go based reforms should involve introduction of minimal flatrate schemes as supplements to the existing systems. This paper reviews the structure and economic effects of the fullyfunded centralized public pension programs in several East Asian countries. The major weaknesses of these programs are variable and often inadequate replacement rates as well as poor population coverage. Aside from encouraging development of financial markets, their chief virtue is their avoidance of economic distortions associated with the alternative pay-as-you-go approach. Growth-modeling exercises surveyed in the paper suggest that such distortions are the main way in which social security affects aggregate welfare in the long run. The paper therefore argues that expected pay-as-you-go based reforms should involve introduction of minimal flatrate schemes as supplements to the existing systems.

  3. Seventy Years of the Journal "Medical Archives".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2016-02-01

    This year journal "Medical Archives" celebrates 70th anniversary of its continuing publication. Medical Archives is oldest biomedical journal in Bosnia and Herzegovina and one of the oldest medical journals in Europe, established in the year 1947, as official scientific and professional journal of Association of Physicians of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Until present Medical Archives has published over 5000 articles. Today Medical Archives is internationally recognized medical peer-reviewed indexed journal, visible in more than 30 international on-line databases.

  4. Methods for Documenting Systematic Review Searches: A Discussion of Common Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Tamara; Mann, Mala; Stansfield, Claire; Cooper, Chris; Sampson, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: As standardized reporting requirements for systematic reviews are being adopted more widely, review authors are under greater pressure to accurately record their search process. With careful planning, documentation to fulfill the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses requirements can become a valuable…

  5. A review of potable water accessibility and sustainability issues in developing countries - case study of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayebare, Shedrack R; Wilson, Lloyd R; Carpenter, David O; Dziewulski, David M; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-01-01

    Providing sources of sustainable and quality potable water in Uganda is a significant public health issue. This project aimed at identifying and prioritizing possible actions on how sustainable high quality potable water in Uganda's water supply systems could be achieved. In that respect, a review of both the current water supply systems and government programs on drinking water in Uganda was completed. Aspects of quantity, quality, treatment methods, infrastructure, storage and distribution of water for different water systems were evaluated and compared with the existing water supply systems in the U.S., Latin America and the Caribbean, for purposes of generating feasible recommendations and opportunities for improvement. Uganda utilizes surface water, groundwater, and rainwater sources for consumption. Surface water covers 15.4% of the land area and serves both urban and rural populations. Lake Victoria contributes about 85% of the total fresh surface water. Potable water quality is negatively affected by the following factors: disposal of sewage and industrial effluents, agricultural pesticides and fertilizers, and surface run-offs during heavy rains. The total renewable groundwater resources in Uganda are estimated to be 29 million m3/year with about 20,000 boreholes, 3000 shallow-wells and 200,000 springs, serving more than 80% of the rural and slum communities. Mean annual rainfall in Uganda ranges from 500 mm to 2500 mm. Groundwater and rainwater quality is mainly affected by poor sanitation and unhygienic practices. There are significant regional variations in the accessibility of potable water, with the Northeastern region having the least amount of potable water from all sources. Uganda still lags behind in potable water resource development. Priorities should be placed mainly on measures available for improvement of groundwater and rainwater resource utilization, protection of watersheds, health education, improved water treatment methods and

  6. Key issues in automatic classification of defects in post-inspection review process of photomasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mark; Maji, Manabendra; Pai, Ravi R.; B. V. R., Samir; Seshadri, R.; Patil, Pradeepkumar

    2012-11-01

    The mask inspection and defect classification is a crucial part of mask preparation technology and consumes a significant amount of mask preparation time. As the patterns on a mask become smaller and more complex, the need for a highly precise mask inspection system with high detection sensitivity becomes greater. However, due to the high sensitivity, in addition to the detection of smaller defects on finer geometries, the inspection machine could report large number of false defects. The total number of defects becomes significantly high and the manual classification of these defects, where the operator should review each of the defects and classify them, may take huge amount of time. Apart from false defects, many of the very small real defects may not print on the wafer and user needs to spend time on classifying them as well. Also, sometimes, manual classification done by different operators may not be consistent. So, need for an automatic, consistent and fast classification tool becomes more acute in more advanced nodes. Automatic Defect Classification tool (NxADC) which is in advanced stage of development as part of NxDAT1, can automatically classify defects accurately and consistently in very less amount of time, compared to a human operator. Amongst the prospective defects as detected by the Mask Inspection System, NxADC identifies several types of false defects such as false defects due to registration error, false defects due to problems with CCD, noise, etc. It is also able to automatically classify real defects such as, pin-dot, pin-hole, clear extension, multiple-edges opaque, missing chrome, chrome-over-MoSi, etc. We faced a large set of algorithmic challenges during the course of the development of our NxADC tool. These include selecting the appropriate image alignment algorithm to detect registration errors (especially when there are sub-pixel registration errors or misalignment in repetitive patterns such as line space), differentiating noise from

  7. Review paper: Organ transplants: ethical, social, and religious issues in a multicultural society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Noor Zurani Md Haris; Razack, Azad Hassan; Dublin, Norman

    2010-07-01

    Recent advances in the fields of organ donation and organ transplant have introduced new hope for the treatment of serious diseases. However, this promise has been accompanied by several issues. The most common issue raised is ethical implications, but in a multicultural society like Malaysia, additional concerns arise pertaining to social and religious issues. These concerns needs to be addressed as attitudes toward and acceptability of organ donation varies according to social, culture, and religion. The diverse cultural, religious, and traditional concepts pertaining to organ donation may hamper its acceptability and cause a lack of willingness to donate organs. The purpose of this article is to briefly explore the ethical issues involved in organ transplant and the various religious opinions on organ donation. It is hoped that this knowledge and understanding may benefit both health care providers and patients in a multicultural society like Malaysia.

  8. Book Review: Siroj Sorajjakool: Human Trafficking in Thailand: Current Issues, Trends and the Role of the Thai Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manassinee Moottatarn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Book Review of the Monograph: Siroj Sorajjakool (2013, Human Trafficking in Thailand: Current Issues, Trends and the Role of the Thai Government. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books, ISBN: 978-616-215-060-9, 235 pages. Human trafficking is not widely reported in local Thai news, and news of it is often only picked up by international correspondents. The extent of this problem has only started to reveal itself as a widespread problem in the kingdom.

  9. Book Review: Siroj Sorajjakool: Human Trafficking in Thailand: Current Issues, Trends and the Role of the Thai Government

    OpenAIRE

    Manassinee Moottatarn

    2014-01-01

    Book Review of the Monograph: Siroj Sorajjakool (2013), Human Trafficking in Thailand: Current Issues, Trends and the Role of the Thai Government. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books, ISBN: 978-616-215-060-9, 235 pages. Human trafficking is not widely reported in local Thai news, and news of it is often only picked up by international correspondents. The extent of this problem has only started to reveal itself as a widespread problem in the kingdom.

  10. A Critical Review of Mineral Matter Related Issues during Gasification of Coal in Fixed, Fluidized, and Entrained Flow Gasifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaragavan Krishnamoorthy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gasification of coal is gaining more popularity due to its clean operation, and its ability to generate products for various markets. However, these technologies are not widely commercialized due to reliability and economic issues. Mineral matter in coal plays an important role in affecting the availability/reliability of a gasifier. Agglomeration in the bed, slag mobility and blockage of the syngas exit section are some of the operations related concerns in fixed-bed gasifiers, while ash deposition and sudden defluidization are the major concerns in fluidized bed gasifiers. In the case of entrained flow gasifiers, syngas cooler fouling and blockage, corrosion and erosion of refractory, and slag mobility are some of the major issues affecting the operations and the reliability of the gasifier. This review is aimed at critically examining various mineral matter related issues contributing to the operation and reliability problems in three types of generic gasifiers (fixed bed, fluidized bed and entrained flow gasifiers. Based on the review, some strategies to counter the potential mineral matter related issues are presented.

  11. Pharmaceuticalisation and ethical review in South Asia: issues of scope and authority for practitioners and policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Bob; Khatri, Rekha; Ravindran, Deapica; Udalagama, Tharindi

    2015-04-01

    Ethical review by expert committee continues to be the first line of defence when it comes to protecting human subjects recruited into clinical trials. Drawing on a large scale study of biomedical experimentation across South Asia, and specifically on interviews with 24 ethical review committee [ERC] members across India, Sri Lanka and Nepal, this article identifies some of the tensions that emerge for ERC members as the capacity to conduct credible ethical review of clinical trials is developed across the region. The article draws attention to fundamental issues of scope and authority in the operation of ethical review. On the one hand, ERC members experience a powerful pull towards harmonisation and a strong alignment with international standards deemed necessary for the global pharmaceutical assemblage to consolidate and extend. On the other hand, they must deal with what is in effect the double jeopardy of ethical review in developing world contexts. ERC members must undertake review but are frequently made aware of their responsibility to protect interests that go beyond the 'human subject' and into the realms of development and national interest [for example, in relation to literacy and informed consent]. These dilemmas are indicative of broader questions about where ethical review sits in institutional terms and how it might develop to best ensure improved human subject protection given growth of industry-led research.

  12. Integrative Review of Social Presence in Distance Education: Issues and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Fang, Youjia; Lockee, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the evolution of social presence research in the field of distance education and identified problems in investigating this construct. The researchers took an integrative review on existing social presence studies to answer three questions: (a) How definitions of social presence evolved since…

  13. Child Sexual Abuse at Preschools--A Research Review of a Complex Issue for Preschool Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Helena; Eidevald, Christian; Westberg-Broström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research review is to synthesize research published between 2000 and 2015 regarding child sexual abuse, preschool and preschool teachers. The review identifies themes relevant for the preschool teacher profession: child sexual abuse at preschools, suspicions and consequences for the preschool sector, preventing techniques and…

  14. Between Land and People: A Review of Socioeconomic Issues within the context of Rapid Development in Iskandar Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Sultan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In response to globalization and economic competitiveness, Malaysia launched six economic development corridors, covering all the potential areas in Malaysia, and Johor Bahru is one of them. Iskandar Malaysia was launched in 2006 for future economic development in the country as well as to cater the needs of Johor Bahru to modernize its urban and economic infrastructure. Situated in a strategic location and space, Iskandar Malaysia is targeted to be the player of catalytic investment role that will bring direct and indirect investment to Johor. The whole landscape of Johor Bahru is now transforming dramatically, thus worrying the locals and the environmentalists. Environmental issues as well as the concern for social inequality issues have been raised by the locals. Hence, the aim of this study is to address the issues created by the rapid development of Iskandar Malaysia, particularly in Johor Bahru and Nusajaya. The objectives of this paper are to assess the consequences of the coastal land reclamation for Danga Bay waterfront city development and to identify the impact of new-build gentrification towards the local people. The research identifies key social and economic issues and the impacts of these issues have also been identified. To achieve the objective of the study a detailed review on secondary data has been done. The study found that more cooperation and attention from the local authorities, stakeholders and public is needed to ensure urban regeneration and to achieve the objective of social inclusiveness as promised by the vision of Iskandar Malaysia.

  15. Review of Seismic Hazard Issues Associated with Auburn Dam Project, Sierra Nevada Foothills, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, D.P.; Joyner, W.B.; Stein, R.S.; Brown, R.D.; McGarr, A.F.; Hickman, S.H.; Bakun, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    Summary -- The U.S. Geological Survey was requested by the U.S. Department of the Interior to review the design values and the issue of reservoir-induced seismicity for a concrete gravity dam near the site of the previously-proposed Auburn Dam in the western foothills of the Sierra Nevada, central California. The dam is being planned as a flood-control-only dam with the possibility of conversion to a permanent water-storage facility. As a basis for planning studies the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is using the same design values approved by the Secretary of the Interior in 1979 for the original Auburn Dam. These values were a maximum displacement of 9 inches on a fault intersecting the dam foundation, a maximum earthquake at the site of magnitude 6.5, a peak horizontal acceleration of 0.64 g, and a peak vertical acceleration of 0.39 g. In light of geological and seismological investigations conducted in the western Sierran foothills since 1979 and advances in the understanding of how earthquakes are caused and how faults behave, we have developed the following conclusions and recommendations: Maximum Displacement. Neither the pre-1979 nor the recent observations of faults in the Sierran foothills precisely define the maximum displacement per event on a fault intersecting the dam foundation. Available field data and our current understanding of surface faulting indicate a range of values for the maximum displacement. This may require the consideration of a design value larger than 9 inches. We recommend reevaluation of the design displacement using current seismic hazard methods that incorporate uncertainty into the estimate of this design value. Maximum Earthquake Magnitude. There are no data to indicate that a significant change is necessary in the use of an M 6.5 maximum earthquake to estimate design ground motions at the dam site. However, there is a basis for estimating a range of maximum magnitudes using recent field information and new statistical fault

  16. How Long Can Electronic Official Documents Be Used and reserved? --Analysis of The Five Key Issues of Electronic Official Documents' Archives Management in Our Country%电子公文:能走多远———我国电子公文档案管理五大问题剖析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓晖

    2012-01-01

    当前我国电子公文档案管理面临五大问题:法律证据问题,归档管理问题,长期保存问题,流程变革问题,体制变革问题。由于这些问题尚未得到有效的解决,可以预见许多具有长久保存价值的电子公文在30年后将再也看不到。电子公文未来究竟能走多远,取决于今天文件与档案管理中上述五大问题的解决。文章归纳总结出这五大问题并阐明每一个问题对于电子公文档案管理的重要影响,探讨每一问题的国际、国内发展现状。%There are five key issues in the archives management of electronic official documents in our country. They are issue of force effect, issue of archiving, issue of long-terrn preservation, issue of process innovation and issue of system innovation. These issues are not yet be solved thoroughly so that many electronic official documents which have the value of long-term preservation will no longer be seen atter 30 years. How long can electronic official documents be used and Preserved depends on the today's solution of the major problems in files and archives management. The paper summarizes the five issues, clarifies the important influence of each issue on archives management of electronic official documents and Investigate the international and domestic development status of each issue.

  17. A Review of Current Issues in State-of-Art of Wind Farm Overvoltage Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranko Goić

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper elaborates on several important outstanding issues in the state-of-art of overvoltage protection selection for modern wind farms. The lack of experience with this still-new technology, together with the inherent complexity of wind farm electrical systems, entails several unresolved issues pertinent to the topic of overvoltage protection, particularly in relation to lightning-initiated surges. Firstly, several aspects of the wind turbine lightning incidence, along with the issues related to the selection of lightning current parameters (pertinent to the wind farm overvoltage protection, are addressed in this paper. Secondly, several issues in the state-of-art models of the wind farm electrical systems—for the lightning surge analysis—are addressed and discussed. Here, a well-known ElectroMagnetic Transients Program (EMTP software package is often employed, with all of its benefits and some limitations. Thirdly, the metal-oxide surge arrester energy capability and the issues related to the selection of the surge arrester rated energy—in relation to the direct lightning strikes to wind turbines—is addressed. Finally, some general considerations concerning the overvoltage protection selection for wind farm projects, particularly regarding the installation of the metal-oxide surge arresters, are provided as well.

  18. Book Review for the Major Issues in Company Law (with Chinese and English Comparative Law Notes)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Wan

    2011-01-01

    @@ Major Issues in Company Law (with Chinese and English Comparative Law Notes) is the first bilingual book in company law published by Sweet & Maxwell,part of the Thomson-Reuters group.The author Peter Koh Soon Kwang is a lawyer qualified to practice law in three common law jurisdictions: England,Singapore and British Columbia in Canada.He has also taught for more than 9 years at leading law schools in China and other common law countries, and this book is the culmination of his years of legal practice and academic studies in common law countries and China.The theme of this book is to first introduce and analyze major issues in English company law system, and then to analyze related issues in Chinese company law system in a comparative way, based on his vast lecturing experiences in major law schools in China.

  19. Critically Review and Discuss Major Issues in“Financing Small Businesses”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Ming-lu

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this essay is to discuss and study the financing issues related to small business, and there is analysis about different financing methods, which divides them into internal and external sources. The essay examines the literature, mainly journal articles, on the financing issues related to internal and external financing and compare them and discuss about their advantages and disadvantages. And in order to make the points clear, it relates to some real cases of small companies financing methods, which helps to put the discussion in proper context.

  20. Review of Technical Issues Related to Predicting Isotopic Compositions and Source Terms for High-Burnup LWR Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauld, I. C.; Parks, C. V.

    2000-12-11

    This report has been prepared to review the technical issues important to the prediction of isotopic compositions and source terms for high-burnup, light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel as utilized in the licensing of spent fuel transport and storage systems. The current trend towards higher initial 235U enrichments, more complex assembly designs, and more efficient fuel management schemes has resulted in higher spent fuel burnups than seen in the past. This trend has led to a situation where high-burnup assemblies from operating LWRs now extend beyond the area where available experimental data can be used to validate the computational methods employed to calculate spent fuel inventories and source terms. This report provides a brief review of currently available validation data, including isotopic assays, decay heat measurements, and shielded dose-rate measurements. Potential new sources of experimental data available in the near term are identified. A review of the background issues important to isotopic predictions and some of the perceived technical challenges that high-burnup fuel presents to the current computational methods are discussed. Based on the review, the phenomena that need to be investigated further and the technical issues that require resolution are presented. The methods and data development that may be required to address the possible shortcomings of physics and depletion methods in the high-burnup and high-enrichment regime are also discussed. Finally, a sensitivity analysis methodology is presented. This methodology is currently being investigated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as a computational tool to better understand the changing relative significance of the underlying nuclear data in the different enrichment and burnup regimes and to identify the processes that are dominant in the high-burnup regime. The potential application of the sensitivity analysis methodology to help establish a range of applicability for experimental

  1. Major Elements and Issues in Performance Management System: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Eul-Kyoo

    2006-01-01

    Due to rapidly changing business environment, HRD practitioners are unprecedentedly demanded to actively participate in improving organizational effectiveness as performance management specialist. The purpose of this study was to examine and discuss major elements and issues in performance management system through an extensive literature review…

  2. Contextualization of Nature of Science within the Socioscientific Issues Framework: A Review of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karisan, Dilek; Zeidler, Dana L.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the importance of contextualization of Nature of Science (NOS) within the Socioscientific Issues (SSI) framework, because of the importance to science education. The emphasis on advancing scientific literacy is contingent upon a robust understanding and appreciation of NOS, as well as the acquisition of…

  3. 78 FR 48175 - Retrospective Review of Draft Guidance Documents Issued Before 2010; Withdrawal of Guidances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... changes in interpretation of policies that are of other than minor in nature, or discuss complex... assist industry with clinical evaluation and requirements for drug approval. The guidances identified for... the Division of Anti-Infective Drug Products''--issued February 1997. 6. ``Empiric Therapy of...

  4. What Do People Know about Key Environmental Issues? A Review of Environmental Knowledge Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelia, Beth; Murphy, Tony

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents results from 15 little publicized state and national environmental surveys in the US that used similar questions. Our analysis reveals trends in adult understanding of environmental issues. These trends indicate that many may have difficulty making informed decisions about environmental policy as citizens, voters, and…

  5. Gaia archive

    CERN Document Server

    Hypki, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    The Gaia archive is being designed and implemented by the DPAC Consortium. The purpose of the archive is to maximize the scientific exploitation of the Gaia data by the astronomical community. Thus, it is crucial to gather and discuss with the community the features of the Gaia archive as much as possible. It is especially important from the point of view of the GENIUS project to gather the feedback and potential use cases for the archive. This paper presents very briefly the general ideas behind the Gaia archive and presents which tools are already provided to the community.

  6. Open archive solutions to traditional archive/library cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Castelli

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The diffusion of Internet is changing the role of archives and libraries and it is opening a wide range of new possibilities. The new vision is that in few years it will be possible to cross-access multiple libraries, archives, museums, and data repositories. The implementation of this revolutionary vision requires the solution of a number of technical, organizational, sociological, and economical issues. Recently, the proposal of a new, low cost technical solution for open repositories of pre-print material, the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting ( OAI-PMH, has greatly stimulated the discussion about these issues in many application frameworks. This paper overviews the status of this discussion in the library and conventional archives frameworks.

  7. Archival Descriptions from the National Archives Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — Archival Descriptions from the National Archives Catalog data set provides archival descriptions of the permanent holdings of the federal government in the custody...

  8. Nuclear Regulatory Commission activities to prepare for reviewing license applications and issuing licenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uleck, R.B.; DeFino, C.V. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA) assigned States the responsibility to provide for disposal of commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) by 1993. The LLRWPAA also required the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to establish procedures and develop the technical review capability to process license applications for new LLRW disposal facilities. Under the LLRWPAA, NRC is required, to the extent practicable, to complete its review of an LLRW disposal facility license application within 15 months of its submittal by a State. This provision of the LLRWPAA helps ensure that NRC, in addition to protecting public health and safety and the environment, facilitates States` achievement of LLRWPAA milestones for new facility development. A timely NRC review is needed for States to accomplish their objective of having new disposal facilities in operation on the dates prescribed in the LLRWPAA. To help assure NRC and States` compliance with the provisions of the LLRWPAA, NRC has developed a licensing review strategy that includes: (1) the further development of regulatory guidance, (2) enhancement of licensing review capability, and (3) prelicensing regulatory consultation with potential applicants.

  9. E-waste: a problem or an opportunity? Review of issues, challenges and solutions in Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herat, Sunil; Agamuthu, P

    2012-11-01

    Safe management of electronic and electrical waste (e-waste/WEEE) is becoming a major problem for many countries around the world. In particular, developing countries face a number of issues with the generation, transboundary movement and management of e-waste. It is estimated that the world generates around 20-50 million tonnes of e-waste annually, most of it from Asian countries. Improper handling of e-waste can cause harm to the environment and human health because of its toxic components. Several countries around the world are now struggling to deal with this emerging threat. Although the current emphasis is on end-of-life management of e-waste activities, such as reuse, servicing, remanufacturing, recycling and disposal, upstream reduction of e-waste generation through green design and cleaner production is gaining much attention. Environmentally sound management (ESM) of e-waste in developing countries is absent or very limited. Transboundary movement of e-waste is a major issue throughout the region. Dealing with the informal recycling sector is a complex social and environmental issue. There are significant numbers of such challenges faced by these countries in achieving ESM of e-waste. This article aims to present a review of challenges and issues faced by Asian countries in managing their e-waste in a sustainable way.

  10. Integrated primary health care in Greece, a missing issue in the current health policy agenda: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Lionis

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past years, Greece has undergone several endeavors aimed at modernizing and improving national health care services with a focus on PHC. However, the extent to which integrated primary health care has been achieved is still questioned. Purpose: This paper explores the extent to which integrated primary health care (PHC is an issue in the current agenda of policy makers in Greece, reporting constraints and opportunities and highlighting the need for a policy perspective in developing integrated PHC in this Southern European country. Methods: A systematic review in PubMed/Medline and SCOPUS, along with a hand search in selected Greek biomedical journals was undertaken to identify key papers, reports, editorials or opinion letters relevant to integrated health care. Results: Our systematic review identified 198 papers and 161 out of them were derived from electronic search. Fifty-three papers in total served the scope of this review and are shortly reported. A key finding is that the long-standing dominance of medical perspectives in Greek health policy has been paving the way towards vertical integration, pushing aside any discussions about horizontal or comprehensive integration of care. Conclusion: Establishment of integrated PHC in Greece is still at its infancy, requiring major restructuring of the current national health system, as well as organizational culture changes. Moving towards a new policy-based model would bring this missing issue on the discussion table, facilitating further development.

  11. Electronic Scholarly Journals: A Review of Technical Issues in Digital Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnessa Galyani Moghaddam

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Scholarly journals are known as the most important medium for scholarly communication since long time back. As technology transforms the flow of information and idea everywhere, it changes the nature of scholarly communications and publishing of scholarly journals as well. The electronic scholarly publishing rapidly produced an expectation, among researchers of the availability of articles at their desktop, rather than the previous scenario of visiting the library to read a print journal issue. There are lots of technological improvements in electronic journals publishing. The present paper looks at some of technical issues in electronic publishing such as DOI, DOI-X, CrossRef, Citation/Reference Linking, OpenURL, SFX and MetaLib which are being used in the World Wide Web.

  12. Severe dementia: A review on diagnoses, therapeutic management and ethical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Schafirovits-Morillo

    Full Text Available Abstract North American data show that in the year 2000 around 4.5 million people had a diagnosis of dementia and more than a half were at moderate or severe stages of the disease. There is inevitable cognitive and functional decline caused by all etiologies of irreversible dementia as well as many behavioral symptoms that compromise the quality of life of both patients and caregivers. Few published studies have investigated issues concerning severe dementia such as predictors of mortality and life expectancy, nutrition, end of life issues and palliative care in terminal dementia, as well as best pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments. Due to the complexity that characterizes advanced dementia, it is important that this discussion starts as early as possible allowing some decisions to be taken, preferably when the patients can still express their opinion.

  13. A Review on - Comparative Study of Issues in Cellular, Sensor and Adhoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayashree V. Shiral

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A cellular network is an asymmetric radio network which is made up of fixed transceivers or nodes, maintain the signal while the mobile transceiver which is using the network is in the vicinity of the node. An ad-hoc network is a local area network (LAN that is built spontaneously as devices connect. Instead of relying on a base station to coordinate the flow of messages to each node in the network, the individual network nodes forward packets to and from each other. This paper focuses on various issues in cellular, adhoc and sensor network. As issues proves helpful for forthcoming research, this paper work as a backbone to elaborate the various research areas.

  14. Nutritional issues in adolescents after bone marrow transplant: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Cheryl; Walsh, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation and related complications can cause gastrointestinal (GI) side effects that can lead to poor nutrition, which has been associated with several morbidity and mortality issues. Adolescents require adequate nutrition not only to maintain health but to advance with normal growth and development. This article synthesizes the bone marrow transplant (BMT) literature regarding adolescents' nutritional needs, etiologies of altered oral intake, GI symptoms, nutritional assessments, nutritional interventions, and quality of life associated with poor nutrition. In addition, gaps in knowledge in the literature are identified. To provide effective and thorough care to patients during their BMT recovery, the knowledge base of nutritional and eating issues after transplant needs to become more comprehensive. Nurses play an important role in gathering and reporting clinical information. By anticipating potential risk factors, assessing and identifying symptoms, and initiating appropriate interventions promptly, patients can experience a more positive BMT experience.

  15. Codes of conduct and certification issues for shrimp farming: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Naegel, L.C.A; Fogel, I.

    2009-01-01

    The growing demand for fishery products from aquaculture, especially shrimp, led to fierce criticisms about the unsustainable production and socially exploitative management. The product demand is combined with enhanced consumer concern for food safety, and environmental and social issues. Additionally, there is increasing consu mer demand for information about the origin and nature of products they consume and the safety of all inputs. From the shrimp pond farmer to the retailer, there is a ...

  16. Brief overview of the creation of the synchrocyclotron at the hydrotechnical laboratory of the USSR Academy of Sciences and first results of physical studies: Review of archival documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, G. V.; Rusakovich, N. A.

    2012-07-01

    A review of the archive's documents on the main stages of the creation of the synchrocyclotron at the Hydrotechnical Laboratory (now known as the Dzhelepov Laboratory of Nuclear Problems) is presented. The review is based on minutes of the Special Committee and Scientific and Technical Council (NTS), which belongs to the First Chief Directorate (PGU) concerning the era of the Soviet atomic project (1945-1953). The analysis of these minutes has enabled us to prepare a chronicle of events that deal with the creation of the synchrocyclotron, as well as the discussion of the project and its place of construction, the research and development program, and so on. The minutes of two NTS meetings dated May 5 and 12, 1952 are devoted to discussing the results the research and development program in 1950-1951. The minutes of NTS meetings have not been published previously.

  17. The Issue of Binding Arbitration in the Public Schools. Public Review of Educational Policy (PREP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania School Boards Association, Inc., Harrisburg.

    Intended primarily for educators, legislators, and the general public in the state of Pennsylvania, this public affairs brochure addresses the question of whether binding arbitration should be legislated in that state as a means of resolving labor disputes between a local school district and its employees. The brochure reviews the history of…

  18. Life Stress and Health: A Review of Conceptual Issues and Recent Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavich, George M.

    2016-01-01

    Life stress is a central construct in many models of human health and disease. The present article reviews research on stress and health, with a focus on (a) how life stress has been conceptualized and measured over time, (b) recent evidence linking stress and disease, and (c) mechanisms that might underlie these effects. Emerging from this body…

  19. Editorial: Introduction to Energy Strategy Reviews theme issue “European Energy System Models”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capros, P.; Weijermars, R.

    2012-01-01

    Energy matters - we are all reminded on a daily basis. It commonly involves important and costly strategic choices. How then can we make today the best choices for tomorrow’s energy systems? Making optimum energy system decisions is a continuous learning curve. Energy Strategy Reviews (ESR) aims to

  20. Appraising the Economic And Social Effects of Advertising. A Review of Issues and Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Michael; And Others

    Three major aspects of advertising/marketing communications are reviewed comprehensively in this report. Consumer behavior with its associated attitudes and purchasing behavior are discussed in regard to the choices of specific brands within major product categories. The relationship between advertising and the structure of markets is considered…

  1. Practitioner Review: Adolescent Alcohol Use Disorders--Assessment and Treatment Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepletchikova, Francheska; Krystal, John H.; Kaufman, Joan

    2008-01-01

    Background: Alcohol use disorders in adolescents are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Over the past decade, there has been a burgeoning of research on adolescent alcohol use disorders. Methods: A summary of the alcohol assessment tools is provided, and randomized studies reviewed and synthesized to provide an overview of state…

  2. Issues in Business and Medical Education: Brief Literature Review on Strategic Management of Health Care Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alan D.

    The literature on the use of strategic management principles by health care organizations is reviewed. After considering basic concepts of strategic management and managerial problems in nonprofit organizations, strategic planning and management of health care organizations are covered. Attention is directed to the health care environment,…

  3. Abduction Prevention Training: A Review of Findings and Issues for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Olsen, Laurie A.

    1996-01-01

    This study reviewed the research evaluating procedures for teaching abduction prevention skills to children. Examination of types of skills, types of abduction scenarios, training procedures, and assessment strategies indicated that children can learn abduction prevention skills through behavioral skills training procedures, and that individual…

  4. A composite screening tool for medication reviews of outpatients: general issues with specific examples.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smet, P.A.G.M. de; Denneboom, W.; Kramers, C.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2007-01-01

    Regular performance of medication reviews is prominent among methods that have been advocated to reduce the extent and seriousness of drug-related problems, such as adverse drug reactions, drug-disease interactions, drug-drug interactions, drug ineffectiveness and cost ineffectiveness. Several scree

  5. Cancer and Intellectual Disability: A Review of Some Key Contextual Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, James; Tuffrey-Wijne, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Research into the health of people with intellectual disabilities has increasingly focused on the occurrence of cancer in this population. Information on the incidence and prevalence of cancer is reviewed in both institutional and community settings. Examples of environmental causation are considered including "Helicobacter pylori."…

  6. Postoperative Issues of Sacral Nerve Stimulation for Fecal Incontinence and Constipation: A Systematic Literature Review and Treatment Guideline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Yasuko; Matzel, Klaus; Lundby, Lilli;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a lack of knowledge on the incidence and management of suboptimal therapeutic effect and the complications associated with sacral nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence and constipation. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to review current literature on postoperative issues...... and to propose a treatment algorithm. DATA SOURCE: PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE were searched using the keywords “sacral nerve stimulation,” “sacral neuromodulation,” “fecal incontinence,” and “constipation” for English-language articles published from January 1980 to August 2010. A further search was conducted...

  7. Risk, liability, and economic issues with long-term CO2 storage—A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Steven T.

    2017-01-01

    Given a scarcity of commercial-scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) projects, there is a great deal of uncertainty in the risks, liability, and their cost implications for geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO2). The probabilities of leakage and the risk of induced seismicity could be remote, but the volume of geologic CO2 storage (GCS) projected to be necessary to have a significant impact on increasing CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere is far greater than the volumes of CO2 injected thus far. National-level estimates of the technically accessible CO2storage resource (TASR) onshore in the United States are on the order of thousands of gigatons of CO2 storage capacity, but such estimates generally assume away any pressure management issues. Pressure buildup in the storage reservoir is expected to be a primary source of risk associated with CO2 storage, and only a fraction of the theoretical TASR could be available unless the storage operator extracts the saltwater brines or other formation fluids that are already present in the geologic pore space targeted for CO2 storage. Institutions, legislation, and processes to manage the risk, liability, and economic issues with CO2 storage in the United States are beginning to emerge, but will need to progress further in order to allow a commercial-scale CO2 storage industry to develop in the country. The combination of economic tradeoffs, property rights definitions, liability issues, and risk considerations suggests that CO2 storage offshore of the United States may be more feasible than onshore, especially during the current (early) stages of industry development.

  8. A review on technologies and their usage in solid waste monitoring and management systems: Issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, M A; Abdulla Al Mamun, Md; Hussain, Aini; Basri, Hassan; Begum, R A

    2015-09-01

    In the backdrop of prompt advancement, information and communication technology (ICT) has become an inevitable part to plan and design of modern solid waste management (SWM) systems. This study presents a critical review of the existing ICTs and their usage in SWM systems to unfold the issues and challenges towards using integrated technologies based system. To plan, monitor, collect and manage solid waste, the ICTs are divided into four categories such as spatial technologies, identification technologies, data acquisition technologies and data communication technologies. The ICT based SWM systems classified in this paper are based on the first three technologies while the forth one is employed by almost every systems. This review may guide the reader about the basics of available ICTs and their application in SWM to facilitate the search for planning and design of a sustainable new system.

  9. Review on Study on Major Social Issues and Solutions in Chinese Urbanization Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu; Jiayan; Li; Caige

    2015-01-01

    Study on Major Social Issues and Solutions in Chinese Urbanization ProcessAuthor:Li Qiang et al.Year:2009Publisher:Economic Science Press ISBN:9787505878570(360 pages,in Chinese)Since the late 1990s,China has entered a stage of rapid urbanization.Unlike the relatively slow urbanization process in European countries and America,China’s urbanization is characterized by a"burst"of urban expansion in a short time.Such a large-scale,rapid,and profound urbanization process has not only brought

  10. LMFBR safety. 5. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1975--1976)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-06-08

    The current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA), are discussed. Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development and safety of the breeder reactor is presented for the period 1975 through 1976. The bibliography consists of approximately 1618 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Keyword, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  11. LMFBR safety. 4. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1974--1975)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-03-21

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1974 through 1975. The bibliography consists of approximately 1554 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  12. LMFBR safety. 2. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature, 1970--1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1976-11-22

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1970 through 1972. The bibliography consists of approximately 1620 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  13. LMFBR safety. 1. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature, 1960--1969

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1976-08-16

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1960 through 1969. The bibliography consists of 1560 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  14. LMFBR safety. 3. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1972--1974)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-02-24

    The report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1972 through 1974. The bibliography consists of approximately 1380 abstracts covering research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included.

  15. Emerging issues in smoking among adolescent and adult cancer survivors: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosky, James L; Tyc, Vida L; Garces-Webb, Danette M; Buscemi, Joanna; Klesges, Robert C; Hudson, Melissa M

    2007-12-01

    The number of cancer survivors is significantly increasing, thereby prioritizing the importance of identifying and preventing adverse health outcomes within this high-risk population. Cigarette smoking is of particular salience as it places both adolescents and adults with a cancer history at risk for various health problems, including second malignancies. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the smoking literature as it relates to adolescents and adults on-treatment and surviving cancer. In particular, the article reviews the prevalence, risk factors, and health outcomes associated with smoking, in addition to the prevention and smoking cessation interventions available to adolescent and adult oncology patients. Furthermore, efficacious cessation strategies have recently emerged from the smoking literature in healthy populations, and their application to oncology populations is discussed.

  16. Challenges and Issues in Multisensor Fusion Approach for Fall Detection: Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Koshmak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergency situations associated with falls are a serious concern for an aging society. Yet following the recent development within ICT, a significant number of solutions have been proposed to track body movement and detect falls using various sensor technologies, thereby facilitating fall detection and in some cases prevention. A number of recent reviews on fall detection methods using ICT technologies have emerged in the literature and an increasingly popular approach considers combining information from several sensor sources to assess falls. The aim of this paper is to review in detail the subfield of fall detection techniques that explicitly considers the use of multisensor fusion based methods to assess and determine falls. The paper highlights key differences between the single sensor-based approach and a multifusion one. The paper also describes and categorizes the various systems used, provides information on the challenges of a multifusion approach, and finally discusses trends for future work.

  17. Comorbidity issues in the pharmacological treatment of pathological gambling: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollander Eric

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathological Gambling (PG is an impulse control disorder often comorbid with other psychopathology, particularly bipolar spectrum disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD and substance abuse. This paper reviews the published literature on the pharmacological management of PG, highlighting how clinical and subclinical comorbid psychopathology influences the choice of pharmacological treatment. Methods Using Medline, the authors reviewed relevant articles published on this topic from1995 to 2005, focusing on the best-designed studies for inclusion. Results Much of the literature on PG-treatment presupposes different theories regarding this disorder. Data suggest the utility of differentiating the pharmacotherapy of pathological gamblers in light of their comorbid profile, specifically assessing for comorbid bipolar, ADHD, OCD, and substance abuse disorders. Conclusion Decisions about pharmacological treatment of PG should take into account current and previous comorbid disorders which influence treatment selection.

  18. The Psychology of Confessions: A Review of the Literature and Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassin, Saul M; Gudjonsson, Gisli H

    2004-11-01

    Recently, in a number of high-profile cases, defendants who were prosecuted, convicted, and sentenced on the basis of false confessions have been exonerated through DNA evidence. As a historical matter, confession has played a prominent role in religion, in psychotherapy, and in criminal law-where it is a prosecutor's most potent weapon. In recent years, psychologists from the clinical, personality, developmental, cognitive, and social areas have brought their theories and research methods to bear on an analysis of confession evidence, how it is obtained, and what impact it has on judges, juries, and other people. Drawing on individual case studies, archival reports, correlational studies, and laboratory and field experiments, this monograph scrutinizes a sequence of events during which confessions may be obtained from criminal suspects and used as evidence. First, we examine the preinterrogation interview, a process by which police target potential suspects for interrogation by making demeanor-based judgments of whether they are being truthful. Consistent with the literature showing that people are poor lie detectors, research suggests that trained and experienced police investigators are prone to see deception at this stage and to make false-positive errors, disbelieving people who are innocent, with a great deal of confidence. Second, we examine the Miranda warning and waiver, a process by which police apprise suspects of their constitutional rights to silence and to counsel. This important procedural safeguard is in place to protect the accused, but researchers have identified reasons why it may have little impact. One reason is that some suspects do not have the capacity to understand and apply these rights. Another is that police have developed methods of obtaining waivers. Indeed, innocent people in particular tend to waive their rights, naively believing that they have nothing to fear or hide and that their innocence will set them free. Third, we examine

  19. How molecular motors extract order from chaos (a key issues review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Peter M.

    2016-03-01

    Molecular motors are the workhorses of living cells. Seemingly by ‘magic’, these molecules are able to complete purposeful tasks while being immersed in a sea of thermal chaos. Here, we review the current understanding of how these machines work, present simple models based on thermal ratchets, discuss implications for statistical physics, and provide an overview of ongoing research in this important and fascinating field of study.

  20. Review of GMO safety assessment studies: glyphosate residues in Roundup Ready crops is an ignored issue

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Published version, also available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12302-015-0052-7 Background Genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant cultivar varieties have been a commercial success widely known as Roundup Ready plants. As new glyphosate-tolerant varieties are introduced to satisfy agriculture demand, it is relevant to review the scientific evidence that documents the quality and safety of such biotechnology. Assessments of genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant plants are partly ba...

  1. Life Stress and Health: A Review of Conceptual Issues and Recent Findings

    OpenAIRE

    SLAVICH, GEORGE M.

    2016-01-01

    Life stress is a central construct in many models of human health and disease. The present article reviews research on stress and health, with a focus on (a) how life stress has been conceptualized and measured over time, (b) recent evidence linking stress and disease, and (c) mechanisms that might underlie these effects. Emerging from this body of work is evidence that stress is involved in the development, maintenance, or exacerbation of several mental and physical health conditions, includ...

  2. A review on technologies and their usage in solid waste monitoring and management systems: Issues and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannan, M.A., E-mail: hannan@eng.ukm.my [Department of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor DE (Malaysia); Abdulla Al Mamun, Md., E-mail: md.abdulla@siswa.ukm.edu.my [Department of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor DE (Malaysia); Hussain, Aini, E-mail: aini@eng.ukm.my [Department of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor DE (Malaysia); Basri, Hassan, E-mail: drhb@ukm.my [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor DE (Malaysia); Begum, R.A., E-mail: rawshan@ukm.edu.my [Institute of Climate Change, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor DE (Malaysia)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Classification of available technologies for SWM system in four core category. • Organization of technology based SWM systems in three main groups. • Summary of SWM systems with target application, methodology and functional domain. • Issues and challenges are highlighted for further design of a sustainable system. - Abstract: In the backdrop of prompt advancement, information and communication technology (ICT) has become an inevitable part to plan and design of modern solid waste management (SWM) systems. This study presents a critical review of the existing ICTs and their usage in SWM systems to unfold the issues and challenges towards using integrated technologies based system. To plan, monitor, collect and manage solid waste, the ICTs are divided into four categories such as spatial technologies, identification technologies, data acquisition technologies and data communication technologies. The ICT based SWM systems classified in this paper are based on the first three technologies while the forth one is employed by almost every systems. This review may guide the reader about the basics of available ICTs and their application in SWM to facilitate the search for planning and design of a sustainable new system.

  3. Editorial Note: The Internet as "Scholarly Review Resource". Further Considerations about E-Reviewing on the Occasion of the "Special Issue: FQS Reviews IV"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Mey

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available With the growth in use of the Internet and the convenience of electronic publishing in terms of speed and publication space, book reviews have come to receive additional recognition (compared to traditional print media. This contribution points out the lack of a system for online reviewing despite multiple online review-services that already exist. Moreover, the full potential of electronic documents, such as the use of hypertext, hybrids and links to additional information, are not maximized. In order to strengthen the scientific impact of book reviews the inherent characteristics of book reviews must be more precisely defined and quality control, for example through peer review, is put in place. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0602429

  4. Book Review: Lobbying the European Union: Institutions, Actors and Issues, David Coen and Jeremy Richardson (eds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Pop

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The volume "Lobbying the European Union: Institutions, Actors and Issues", collects 16 articles on interest group politics at EU level, focusing on the main elements of European lobbying - the existing relations between the EU institutions and the special interests, the main differences between NGO and business lobbying, the specific lobbying strategies adopted in EU's main policy sectors or lobbying regulations. The volume captures the main changes that took place on the European lobbying scene in the last two decades, period in which most EU institutions developed new points of access for lobbyists, while the interest groups became more specialized. The success of an EU lobbying campaign seems to be determined by a combination of various factors such as: a good knowledge of the EU environment, a wise usage of both financial resources and expertise, direct lobbying complemented by an efficient usage of domestic routes and the capability of creating smart alliances.

  5. EFL/ESL Textbook Selection in Korea and East Asia - Relevant Issues and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurant, Robert C.

    EFL/ESL departments periodically face the problem of textbook selection. Cogent issues are that non-native speakers will use L2 English mainly to communicate with other non-native English speakers, so an American accent is becoming less important. L2 English will mainly be used in computer-mediated communication, hence the importance of L2 Digital Literacy. The convergence of Information Communication Technologies is radically impacting Second Language Acquisition, which is integrating web-hosted Assessment and Learning Management Systems. EFL/ESL textbooks need to be compatible with blended learning, prepare students for a globalized world, and foster autonomous learning. I summarize five papers on EFL/ESL textbook evaluation and selection, and include relevant material for adaptation. Textbooks are major sources of contact with the target language, so selection is an important decision. Educators need to be systematic and objective in their approach, adopting a selection process that is open, transparent, accountable, participatory, informed and rigorous.

  6. Issues Relating to Confounding and Meta-analysis When Including Non-Randomized Studies in Systematic Reviews on the Effects of Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Jeffrey C.; Thompson, Simon G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Confounding caused by selection bias is often a key difference between non-randomized studies (NRS) and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions. Key methodological issues: In this third paper of the series, we consider issues relating to the inclusion of NRS in systematic reviews on the effects of interventions. We discuss…

  7. The Third Annual Deep Brain Stimulation Think Tank: A Review of Emerging Issues and Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Justin eRossi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the most contemporary clinical, electrophysiological, imaging, and computational work on DBS for the treatment of neurological and neuropsychiatric disease. Significant innovations of the past year are emphasized; these advances were presented at the 3rd Annual Deep Brain Stimulation Think Tank. The Think Tank’s contributors represent a unique multidisciplinary ensemble of expert neurologists, neurosurgeons, neuropsychologists, psychiatrists, scientists, engineers, and members of industry. Presentations and discussions covered a broad range of topics, including policy and advocacy considerations for the future of DBS, connectomic approaches to DBS targeting, developments in electrophysiology and related strides toward responsive DBS systems, and recent developments in sensor and device technologies.

  8. Oncologic issues and kidney transplantation: a review of frequency, mortality, and screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asch, William S; Bia, Margaret J

    2014-01-01

    Kidney transplant recipients are at increased risk for development of malignancy compared with the general population, and malignancies occur at an earlier age. This increased risk, as expressed by the standard incidence ratio (SIR), varies widely, but it is highest in malignancies triggered by oncogenic viruses. For other cancers, this increased risk is the direct consequence of immunosuppressants promoting tumor growth and lowering immune system tumor surveillance. In this review, we briefly discuss the common malignancies with increased risk after kidney transplantation, explore the pros and cons associated with screening, and summarize current prevention and treatment recommendations.

  9. Ship breaking or scuttling? A review of environmental, economic and forensic issues for decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devault, Damien A; Beilvert, Briac; Winterton, Peter

    2016-07-16

    In a globalized world, the world trade fleet plays a pivotal role in limiting transport costs. But, the management of obsolete ships is an acute problem, with most Ship Recycling Facilities (SRF) situated in developing countries. They are renowned for their controversial work and safety conditions and their environmental impact. Paradoxically, dismantlement is paid for by the shipowners in accordance with international conventions therefore it is more profitable for them to sell off ships destined for scrapping. Scuttling, the alternative to scrapping, is assessed in the present review to compare the cost/benefit ratios of the two approaches. Although scrapping provides employment and raw materials - but with environmental, health and safety costs - scuttling provides fisheries and diving tourism opportunities but needs appropriate management to avoid organic and metal pollution, introduction of invasive species and exacerbation of coastal erosion. It is also limited by appropriate bottom depth, ship type and number. The present review inventories the environmental, health, safety, economic, and forensic aspects of each alternative.

  10. Health issues in the Arab American community. A review: depression and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L

    2007-01-01

    The association between depression and smoking has been well-documented in multiple countries and age groups. This review examines recent publications that address the magnitude of the association and its causal patterns (ie, due to lowered success of quitting in people with depression, depression causing smoking, smoking causing depression or third factor related to both smoking and depression). We conclude that the association may be multi-factorial with each of the causal directions possibly contributing to the observed association. Also, the association extends beyond depression to other mental disorders, including consumption of illegal drugs and non-medical use of prescription medications. Although the studies emphasize cigarette smoking, it is plausible to generalize the findings to other tobacco delivery systems involving deep inhalation, such as a hookah, due to the pharmacodynamics of nicotine. Although this review did not examine any studies specific to Arab Americans, the findings should generalize if smoking is stigmatized or, alternatively, as stigmatization increases. The good news is that even with the robust association between depression and smoking, people with depression can quit smoking and continue to be smoke-free. Because 44.3% of cigarettes in the United States are consumed by individuals with mental illnesses, mental illness deserves a prominent focus to allow our public health goal of reducing the prevalence of smoking to be reached.

  11. Quantum mechanics of excitation transport in photosynthetic complexes: a key issues review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Federico; Mostarda, Stefano; Rao, Francesco; Mintert, Florian

    2015-07-01

    For a long time microscopic physical descriptions of biological processes have been based on quantum mechanical concepts and tools, and routinely employed by chemical physicists and quantum chemists. However, the last ten years have witnessed new developments on these studies from a different perspective, rooted in the framework of quantum information theory. The process that more, than others, has been subject of intense research is the transfer of excitation energy in photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes, a consequence of the unexpected experimental discovery of oscillating signals in such highly noisy systems. The fundamental interdisciplinary nature of this research makes it extremely fascinating, but can also constitute an obstacle to its advance. Here in this review our objective is to provide an essential summary of the progress made in the theoretical description of excitation energy dynamics in photosynthetic systems from a quantum mechanical perspective, with the goal of unifying the language employed by the different communities. This is initially realized through a stepwise presentation of the fundamental building blocks used to model excitation transfer, including protein dynamics and the theory of open quantum system. Afterwards, we shall review how these models have evolved as a consequence of experimental discoveries; this will lead us to present the numerical techniques that have been introduced to quantitatively describe photo-absorbed energy dynamics. Finally, we shall discuss which mechanisms have been proposed to explain the unusual coherent nature of excitation transport and what insights have been gathered so far on the potential functional role of such quantum features.

  12. Quantum mechanics of excitation transport in photosynthetic complexes: a key issues review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Federico; Mostarda, Stefano; Rao, Francesco; Mintert, Florian

    2015-07-01

    For a long time microscopic physical descriptions of biological processes have been based on quantum mechanical concepts and tools, and routinely employed by chemical physicists and quantum chemists. However, the last ten years have witnessed new developments on these studies from a different perspective, rooted in the framework of quantum information theory. The process that more, than others, has been subject of intense research is the transfer of excitation energy in photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes, a consequence of the unexpected experimental discovery of oscillating signals in such highly noisy systems. The fundamental interdisciplinary nature of this research makes it extremely fascinating, but can also constitute an obstacle to its advance. Here in this review our objective is to provide an essential summary of the progress made in the theoretical description of excitation energy dynamics in photosynthetic systems from a quantum mechanical perspective, with the goal of unifying the language employed by the different communities. This is initially realized through a stepwise presentation of the fundamental building blocks used to model excitation transfer, including protein dynamics and the theory of open quantum system. Afterwards, we shall review how these models have evolved as a consequence of experimental discoveries; this will lead us to present the numerical techniques that have been introduced to quantitatively describe photo-absorbed energy dynamics. Finally, we shall discuss which mechanisms have been proposed to explain the unusual coherent nature of excitation transport and what insights have been gathered so far on the potential functional role of such quantum features.

  13. Robotic invasion of operation theatre and associated anaesthetic issues: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakar, Prem N; Das, Jyotirmoy; Roy, Preeti Mittal; Pant, Vijaya

    2011-01-01

    A Robotic device is a powered, computer controlled manipulator with artificial sensing that can be reprogrammed to move and position tools to carry out a wide range of tasks. Robots and Telemanipulators were first developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for use in space exploration. Today's medical robotic systems were the brainchild of the United States Department of Defence's desire to decrease war casualties with the development of 'telerobotic surgery'. The 'master-slave' telemanipulator concept was developed for medical use in the early 1990s where the surgeon's (master) manual movements were transmitted to end-effector (slave) instruments at a remote site. Since then, the field of surgical robotics has undergone massive transformation and the future is even brighter. As expected, any new technique brings with it risks and the possibility of technical difficulties. The person who bears the brunt of complications or benefit from a new invention is the 'Patient'. Anaesthesiologists as always must do their part to be the patient's 'best man' in the perioperative period. We should be prepared for screening and selection of patients in a different perspective keeping in mind the steep learning curves of surgeons, long surgical hours, extreme patient positioning and other previously unknown anaesthetic challenges brought about by the surgical robot. In this article we have tried to track the development of surgical robots and consider the unique anaesthetic issues related to robot assisted surgeries.

  14. Rethinking big data: A review on the data quality and usage issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianzheng; Li, Jie; Li, Weifeng; Wu, Jiansheng

    2016-05-01

    The recent explosive publications of big data studies have well documented the rise of big data and its ongoing prevalence. Different types of ;big data; have emerged and have greatly enriched spatial information sciences and related fields in terms of breadth and granularity. Studies that were difficult to conduct in the past time due to data availability can now be carried out. However, big data brings lots of ;big errors; in data quality and data usage, which cannot be used as a substitute for sound research design and solid theories. We indicated and summarized the problems faced by current big data studies with regard to data collection, processing and analysis: inauthentic data collection, information incompleteness and noise of big data, unrepresentativeness, consistency and reliability, and ethical issues. Cases of empirical studies are provided as evidences for each problem. We propose that big data research should closely follow good scientific practice to provide reliable and scientific ;stories;, as well as explore and develop techniques and methods to mitigate or rectify those 'big-errors' brought by big data.

  15. Implications of Current Ecological Thinking for Biodiversity Conservation: a Review of the Salient Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Hobbs

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Given escalating concern worldwide about the loss of biodiversity, and given biodiversity's centrality to quality of life, it is imperative that current ecological knowledge fully informs societal decision making. Over the past two decades, ecological science has undergone many significant shifts in emphasis and perspective, which have important implications for how we manage ecosystems and species. In particular, a shift has occurred from the equilibrium paradigm to one that recognizes the dynamic, non-equilibrium nature of ecosystems. Revised thinking about the spatial and temporal dynamics of ecological systems has important implications for management. Thus, it is of growing concern to ecologists and others that these recent developments have not been translated into information useful to managers and policy makers. Many conservation policies and plans are still based on equilibrium assumptions. A fundamental difficulty with integrating current ecological thinking into biodiversity policy and management planning is that field observations have yet to provide compelling evidence for many of the relationships suggested by non-equilibrium ecology. Yet despite this scientific uncertainty, management and policy decisions must still be made. This paper was motivated by the need for considered scientific debate on the significance of current ideas in theoretical ecology for biodiversity conservation. This paper aims to provide a platform for such discussion by presenting a critical synthesis of recent ecological literature that (1 identifies core issues in ecological theory, and (2 explores the implications of current ecological thinking for biodiversity conservation.

  16. Cobenefits of Replacing Car Trips with Alternative Transportation: A Review of Evidence and Methodological Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Xia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that motor vehicle emissions contribute nearly a quarter of world energy-related greenhouse gases and cause nonnegligible air pollution primarily in urban areas. Reducing car use and increasing ecofriendly alternative transport, such as public and active transport, are efficient approaches to mitigate harmful environmental impacts caused by a large amount of vehicle use. Besides the environmental benefits of promoting alternative transport, it can also induce other health and economic benefits. At present, a number of studies have been conducted to evaluate cobenefits from greenhouse gas mitigation policies. However, relatively few have focused specifically on the transport sector. A comprehensive understanding of the multiple benefits of alternative transport could assist with policy making in the areas of transport, health, and environment. However, there is no straightforward method which could estimate cobenefits effect at one time. In this paper, the links between vehicle emissions and air quality, as well as the health and economic benefits from alternative transport use, are considered, and methodological issues relating to the modelling of these cobenefits are discussed.

  17. Analytical review on the major Issues of the new bankruptcy (law)legislation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xinxin

    2006-01-01

    The bankruptcy law is an integral part of the legal system of societies with market economy.After many years of preparation,the draft of the new bankruptcy law in China was submitted to the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress twice and is waiting for the third approval to be enacted.Drawing on the experiences of other countries,the new bankruptcy law tries to carry out the concepts of market economy,eliminate the residual influences of planned economy that existed in the old law,protect lawful rights and interests of creditors and debtors,and maintain the order of socialist market economy.This thesis analyzes and researches on the major and controversial issues that emerged during the legislation of the new bankruptcy law from the aspects such as the principle of the legislation,criteria of bankruptcy,preservation or abolishment of policy-related bankruptcy,protection of the employees' fights and interests of bankrupt enterprises,the creditors' committee system,the trustee system,reorganization system to prevent bankruptcy,and the legal obligations of bankrupt,and so on.It also gives a comprehensive introduction to the innovation and modification of the new bankruptcy law.

  18. Robotic invasion of operation theatre and associated anaesthetic issues: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem N Kakar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A Robotic device is a powered, computer controlled manipulator with artificial sensing that can be reprogrammed to move and position tools to carry out a wide range of tasks. Robots and Telemanipulators were first developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA for use in space exploration. Today′s medical robotic systems were the brainchild of the United States Department of Defence′s desire to decrease war casualties with the development of ′telerobotic surgery′. The ′master-slave′ telemanipulator concept was developed for medical use in the early 1990s where the surgeon′s (master manual movements were transmitted to end-effector (slave instruments at a remote site. Since then, the field of surgical robotics has undergone massive transformation and the future is even brighter. As expected, any new technique brings with it risks and the possibility of technical difficulties. The person who bears the brunt of complications or benefit from a new invention is the ′Patient′. Anaesthesiologists as always must do their part to be the patient′s ′best man′ in the perioperative period. We should be prepared for screening and selection of patients in a different perspective keeping in mind the steep learning curves of surgeons, long surgical hours, extreme patient positioning and other previously unknown anaesthetic challenges brought about by the surgical robot. In this article we have tried to track the development of surgical robots and consider the unique anaesthetic issues related to robot assisted surgeries.

  19. Cobenefits of replacing car trips with alternative transportation: a review of evidence and methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ting; Zhang, Ying; Crabb, Shona; Shah, Pushan

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported that motor vehicle emissions contribute nearly a quarter of world energy-related greenhouse gases and cause nonnegligible air pollution primarily in urban areas. Reducing car use and increasing ecofriendly alternative transport, such as public and active transport, are efficient approaches to mitigate harmful environmental impacts caused by a large amount of vehicle use. Besides the environmental benefits of promoting alternative transport, it can also induce other health and economic benefits. At present, a number of studies have been conducted to evaluate cobenefits from greenhouse gas mitigation policies. However, relatively few have focused specifically on the transport sector. A comprehensive understanding of the multiple benefits of alternative transport could assist with policy making in the areas of transport, health, and environment. However, there is no straightforward method which could estimate cobenefits effect at one time. In this paper, the links between vehicle emissions and air quality, as well as the health and economic benefits from alternative transport use, are considered, and methodological issues relating to the modelling of these cobenefits are discussed.

  20. Behavioral Issues Associated With Long Duration Space Expeditions: Review and Analysis of Astronaut Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struster, Jack

    2010-01-01

    Personal journals maintained by NASA astronauts during six-month expeditions onboard the International Space Station were analyzed to obtain information concerning a wide range of behavioral and human factors issues. Astronauts wrote most about their work, followed by outside communications (with mission control, family, and friends), adjustment to the conditions, interactions with crew mates, recreation/leisure, equipment (installation, maintenance), events (launches, docking, hurricanes, etc.), organization/management, sleep, and food. The study found evidence of a decline in morale during the third quarters of the missions and identified key factors that contribute to sustained adjustment and optimal performance during long-duration space expeditions. Astronauts reported that they benefited personally from writing in their journals because it helped maintain perspective on their work and relations with others. Responses to questions asked before, during, and after the expeditions show that living and working onboard the ISS is not as difficult as the astronauts anticipate before starting their six-month tours of duty. Recommendations include application of study results and continuation of the experiment to obtain additional data as crew size increases and operations evolve.

  1. A Review of the Ergonomic Issues in the Laparoscopic Operating Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang D. Choi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This review paper discusses the ergonomic challenges associated with laparoscopy in the operating room (OR and summarizes the practical ergonomic solutions. The literature search was conducted in the fields of laparoscopy and applied ergonomics. Findings indicated that laparoscopic OR staff (surgeons, perioperative nurses and technicians commonly experienced physical and mental ergonomic risks while working in prolonged static and awkward body positions. This study highlighted the need for more ergonomic interventions in OR environment in order to improve the efficiency of laparoscopy. Ergonomic solutions included utilizing adjustable equipment, placing computer peripherals in optimal locations, providing ergonomic instruments, and improving communication. Understanding the job- or task-related ergonomic risks and hazards could help identify intervention requirements to meet the challenges associated with increased dependency on advanced high technology in the OR.

  2. A review of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender youth issues for the pediatrician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steever, John B; Cooper-Serber, Emma

    2013-02-01

    CME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES: 1.Review common gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) terminology and discuss sexual constructs as they are currently understood.2.Determine the prevalence of GLBT youth and identify health disparities in the GLBT population.3.Provide strategies to develop an accepting atmosphere for GLBT youth in the pediatric practice, including the maintenance of ongoing health and appropriate screening for at-risk behaviors. Gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered individuals have always been present in human society.1,2 References to same-sex couples and activity have been noted as far back as 600 B.C. on ancient Japanese and Chinese pottery. Ancient Greek and Roman art is full of depictions of same-sex couples; some scholars believe that Alexander the Great was gay.3.

  3. Dematerialization and Deformalization of the EFL/ESL Textbook - Literature Review and Relevant Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurant, Robert C.

    Rapid development and critical convergence of Information Communication Technologies is radically impacting education, particularly in second language acquisition, where the sudden availability of multimedia content and immediacy of distance communication offer specific advantage. The language classroom is evolving to integrate computer-mediated learning and communication with traditional schooling; digitization and the Internet mean the textbook is evolving from inert hard copy that is consumed, to dynamic e-texts that students participate in. The emergence of English as a Global Language, with the primary role of English on the Internet, means that the transition from fixed hard copy to fluid online digital environment is particularly evident in EFL/ESL. I review research, trace ways in which this transition occurs, and speculate on how, under the impact of ICTs and their convergence, the EFL/ESL textbook will reform, and may even disappear as a stand-alone entity.

  4. Managing project interdependencies in IT/IS project portfolios: a review of managerial issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Bathallath

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequately managing project interdependencies among diverse and simultaneous projects is deemed critical for successful implementation of project portfolios. The challenge is significant because it may entail managing a complex network of project interdependencies that keeps changing over time. The present study investigates the managerial challenges that may undermine effective management of project interdependencies in IT/IS project portfolios. The investigation is based on evidence from reviewing relevant literature and documented studies associated with managing project interdependencies. The main contribution of this study is to discuss three managerial challenges of project interdependencies in project portfolios. We discuss the challenges from three perspectives: types of interdependencies; patterns of interaction in interdependencies; and cost/benefit impact of project interdependencies.

  5. A review on biomass classification and composition, cofiring issues and pretreatment methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; Richard D. Boardman

    2011-08-01

    Presently around the globe there is a significant interest in using biomass for power generation as power generation from coal continues to raise environmental concerns. Biomass alone can be used for generation of power which can bring lot of environmental benefits. However the constraints of using biomass alone can include high investments costs for biomass feed systems and also uncertainty in the security of the feedstock supply due to seasonal variations and in most of the countries biomass is dispersed and the infrastructure for biomass supply is not well established. Alternatively cofiring biomass along with coal offer advantages like (a) reducing the issues related to biomass quality and buffers the system when there is insufficient feedstock quantity and (b) costs of adapting the existing coal power plants will be lower than building new systems dedicated only to biomass. However with the above said advantages there exists some technical constrains including low heating and energy density values, low bulk density, lower grindability index, higher moisture and ash content to successfully cofire biomass with coal. In order to successfully cofire biomass with coal, biomass feedstock specifications need to be established to direct pretreatment options that may include increasing the energy density, bulk density, stability during storage and grindability. Impacts on particle transport systems, flame stability, pollutant formation and boiler tube fouling/corrosion must also be minimized by setting feedstock specifications including composition and blend ratios if necessary. Some of these limitations can be overcome by using pretreatment methods. This paper discusses the impact of feedstock pretreatment methods like sizing, baling, pelletizing, briquetting, washing/leaching, torrefaction, torrefaction and pelletization and steam explosion in attainment of optimum feedstock characteristics to successfully cofire biomass with coal.

  6. The Environmental Issues of DDT Pollution and Bioremediation: a Multidisciplinary Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Ahlem; Cregut, Mickael; Abbes, Chiraz; Durand, Marie-Jose; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Thouand, Gerald

    2017-01-01

    DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane) is probably the best known and most useful organochlorine insecticide in the world which was used since 1945 for agricultural purposes and also for vector-borne disease control such as malaria since 1955, until its banishment in most countries by the Stockholm convention for ecologic considerations. However, the World Health Organization allowed its reintroduction only for control of vector-borne diseases in some tropical countries in 2006. Due to its physicochemical properties and specially its persistence related with a half-life up to 30 years, DDT linked to several health and social problems which are due to its accumulation in the environment and its biomagnification properties in living organisms. This manuscript compiles a multidisciplinary review to evaluate primarily (i) the worldwide contamination of DDT and (ii) its (eco) toxicological impact onto living organisms. Secondly, several ways for DDT bioremediation from contaminated environment are discussed. For this, reports on DDT biodegradation capabilities by microorganisms and ways to enhance bioremediation strategies to remove DDT are presented. The different existing strategies for DDT bioremediation are evaluated with their efficiencies and limitations to struggle efficiently this contaminant. Finally, rising new approaches and technological bottlenecks to promote DDT bioremediation are discussed.

  7. A review of renewable energy sources, sustainability issues and climate change mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phebe Asantewaa Owusu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The world is fast becoming a global village due to the increasing daily requirement of energy by all population across the world while the earth in its form cannot change. The need for energy and its related services to satisfy human social and economic development, welfare and health is increasing. Returning to renewables to help mitigate climate change is an excellent approach which needs to be sustainable in order to meet energy demand of future generations. The study reviewed the opportunities associated with renewable energy sources which includes: Energy Security, Energy Access, Social and Economic development, Climate Change Mitigation, and reduction of environmental and health impacts. Despite these opportunities, there are challenges that hinder the sustainability of renewable energy sources towards climate change mitigation. These challenges include Market failures, lack of information, access to raw materials for future renewable resource deployment, and our daily carbon footprint. The study suggested some measures and policy recommendations which when considered would help achieve the goal of renewable energy thus to reduce emissions, mitigate climate change and provide a clean environment as well as clean energy for all and future generations.

  8. Safety Issues of Chinese Medicine:A Review of Intoxication Cases in Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NG; Kit-ying; CHENG; Chuen-lung

    2009-01-01

    Chinese medicine (CM) has been widely used in Hong Kong for centuries. In fact, CM practitioners currently provide over 20% of the medical consultations in Hong Kong and about 60% of the population has previously used CM. In 1999, the Legislative Council passed the Chinese Medicine Ordinance with aims to govern practice, use, trading, and manufacturing of CM in Hong Kong. While it is usually safe to use CM under proper application and guidance, there have been frequent reports on intoxication and fatalities. The misuse of potent/toxic CM, because of misidentification or overdose, can cause severe aconite, aristolochic acid, anticholinergic, podophyllin, grayanotoxin, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, matrine, gelsemine, teucvin, and strychnine poisoning. In this review, we summarized CM intoxication cases in Hong Kong, concentrating on the discussion of toxic and adverse effects as well as the quality control of CM. By increasing the awareness of CM toxicity, we hope to enhance the regulatory process and stimulate further research on their toxic dose, toxic ingredients, intoxication mechanisms, and quality control.

  9. Genetic research and testing in sport and exercise science: a review of the issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackerhage, Henning; Miah, Andy; Harris, Roger C; Montgomery, Hugh E; Williams, Alun G

    2009-09-01

    This review is based on the BASES position stand on "Genetic Research and Testing in Sport and Exercise Science". Our aims are first to introduce the reader to research in sport and exercise genetics and then to highlight ethical problems arising from such research and its applications. Sport and exercise genetics research in the form of transgenic animal and human association studies has contributed significantly to our understanding of exercise physiology and there is potential for major new discoveries. Researchers starting out in this field will have to ensure an appropriate study design to avoid, for example, statistically underpowered studies. Ethical concerns arise more from the applications of genetic research than from the research itself, which is assessed by ethical committees. Possible applications of genetic research are genetic performance tests or genetic tests to screen, for example, for increased risk of sudden death during sport. The concerns are that genetic performance testing could be performed on embryos and could be used to select embryos for transplantation or abortion. Screening for risk of sudden death may reduce deaths during sporting events but those that receive a positive diagnosis may suffer severe psychological consequences. Equally, it will be almost impossible to keep a positive diagnosis confidential if the individual tested is an elite athlete.

  10. Review on drivers, trends and emerging issues of the food wastage in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin MA,Wei QIN,Tara GARNETT,Fusuo ZHANG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available China has successfully achieved food self-sufficiency over the past 50 years, however, with large inputs and losses. To meet the challenge of feeding a growing population with limited resources, many studies have explored options for improving productivity and efficiency of the food production. However, there have been few studies into the potential of reducing food loss along the whole food production-consumption chain. Here we review the literature on food waste in China. We briefly analyze (1 the drivers that influence levels of food waste in the food chain, (2 examine trends in the volumes and types of food wasted at different stages in the food chain, (3 assess the environmental and resource consequences of food waste in the food chain, and (4 evaluate the policy and stakeholder responses to the emerging challenges. It is concluded that reducing food loss and meeting food security in China requires a coherent institutional structure that promotes the synergistic outcomes of research, policy and education. Suggested key actions include (1 improving machinery and facility for sowing, harvesting, transportation and storage, which can reduce food loss by up to 50%, and (2 improving food waste recycling management, based on coupled food production and consumption systems.

  11. NRC staff review of licensee responses to pressure-locking and thermal-binding issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbun, H.J.

    1996-12-01

    Commercial nuclear power plant operating experience has indicated that pressure locking and thermal binding represent potential common mode failure mechanisms that can cause safety-related power-operated gate valves to fail in the closed position, thus rendering redundant safety-related systems incapable of performing their safety functions. In Generic Letter (GL) 95-07, {open_quotes}Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding of Safety-Related Power-Operated Gate Valves,{close_quotes} the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff requested that nuclear power plant licensees take certain actions to ensure that valves susceptible to pressure locking or thermal binding are capable of performing their safety functions within the current licensing bases of the facility. The NRC staff has received summary information from licensees in response to GL 95-07 describing actions they have taken to prevent the occurrence of pressure locking and thermal binding. The NRC staff has developed a systematic process to help ensure uniform and consistent review of licensee submittals in response to GL 95-07.

  12. Life Stress and Health: A Review of Conceptual Issues and Recent Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavich, George M.

    2016-01-01

    Life stress is a central construct in many models of human health and disease. The present article reviews research on stress and health, with a focus on (a) how life stress has been conceptualized and measured over time, (b) recent evidence linking stress and disease, and (c) mechanisms that might underlie these effects. Emerging from this body of work is evidence that stress is involved in the development, maintenance, or exacerbation of several mental and physical health conditions, including asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, anxiety disorders, depression, cardiovascular disease, chronic pain, human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS, stroke, and certain types of cancer. Stress has also been implicated in accelerated biological aging and premature mortality. These effects have been studied most commonly using self-report checklist measures of life stress exposure, although interview-based approaches provide a more comprehensive assessment of individuals’ exposure to stress. Most recently, online systems like the Stress and Adversity Inventory (STRAIN) have been developed for assessing lifetime stress exposure, and such systems may provide important new information to help advance our understanding of how stressors occurring over the life course get embedded in the brain and body to affect lifespan health. PMID:27761055

  13. Cyberbullying: a systematic review of research, its prevalence and assessment issues in Spanish studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Zych

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Research on cyberbullying started at the beginning of the 21st century and the number of studies on the topic is increasing very rapidly. Nevertheless, the criteria used to define the phenomenon and evaluation strategies are still under debate. Therefore, it is still difficult to compare the findings among the studies or to describe their prevalence in different geographic areas or time points. Thus, the current systematic review has been conducted with the objective of describing the studies on the phenomenon in Spain taking into account its different definitions and evaluation strategies in relation to its prevalence. After conducting systematic searches and applying the inclusion criteria, 29 articles reporting the results of 21 different studies were included. It was found that the number of studies on the topic in Spain is growing and that most of the definitions include the criteria of repetition, intention, and power imbalance. It was also found that timeframes and cut-off points varied greatly among the studies. All the studies used self-reports with one-item or multi-item instruments. The prevalence also varied depending on the evaluation strategies and when assessed with multi-item instruments it was about twice as high as when assessed with one-item instruments. It is suggested that specific instruments should be chosen depending on the research questions posed in each investigation and that it could be useful to unify the criteria for further advancement of the field.

  14. Archiving Websites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    This book treats the micro archiving of websites, i.e. archiving by researchers, students or others without special technical knowledge who, using a standard computer, wish to save a website for further study. The phenomenon is discussed from the standpoint that Internet research must be able...

  15. Sexuality in eating disorders patients: etiological factors, sexual dysfunction and identity issues. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Giovanni; Lelli, Lorenzo; Ricca, Valdo; Maggi, Mario

    2016-02-01

    The scientific community appears to be less interested in sexuality of eating disorders (EDs) as compared to other psychiatric or medical comorbidities. However, a clear association between sexual problems and ED psychopathology was reported from different perspectives. The overarching goal of this systematic review was to evaluate the general approach of the scientific literature toward the topic of sexuality and EDs. In particular, four different categories of research have been individuated, encompassing the role of puberty, and sexual abuse in the pathogenesis of the disorders, sexual dysfunctions, and the association between sexual orientation and EDs psychopathology. Timing of puberty with its hormonal consequences and the changes in the way persons perceive their own body represent a crucial period of life for the onset of the disorder. Sexual abuse, and especially childhood sexual abuse are well-recognized risk factors for the development of ED, determining a worse long-term outcome. Recent research overcome the approach that considers sexual activity of EDs patients, in terms of hypersexuality and dangerous sexual behaviors, considering the sexuality of EDs persons in terms of sexual desire, satisfaction, orgasm and pain. Results from this line of research are promising, and describe a clear relationship between sexual dysfunction and the core psychopathological features of EDs, such as body image disturbances. Finally, the analysis of the literature showed an association between sexual orientation and gender dysphoria with EDs psychopathology and pathological eating behaviors, confirming the validity of research developing new models of maintaining factors of EDs related to the topic of self-identity.

  16. The security agenda under review: shocking cases, issues and public problems in Argentina's democratic period (1983-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Galar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the emergence of issues and the formation of public problems that constitute the security agenda in Argentina in the democratic stage from processes associated to the public problematisation of violent deaths constituted as shocking cases. The analysis integrates reconstructions of shocking cases in the register of public action with a review of research from social sciences presenting dimensions of violent death and problems related to national security agenda. As a point of arrival we emphasize the capacity that currently expresses insecurity to absorb and integrate dimensions, a problem which it is constituted as a privileged cultural script for the understanding of violence, which synthesizes social meanings of risk and serves as a platform for political demand for large segments of the public

  17. Emerging issue of e-waste in Pakistan: A review of status, research needs and data gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Mehreen; Breivik, Knut; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C

    2015-12-01

    This review article focuses on the current situation of e-waste in Pakistan with the emphasis on defining the major e-waste recycling sites, current and future domestic generation of e-waste, hidden flows or import of e-waste and discusses various challenges for e-waste management. Needed policy interventions and possible measures to be taken at governmental level are discussed to avoid the increasing problem of e-waste in the country. Our findings highlight that there is still a general lack of reliable data, inventories and research studies addressing e-waste related issues in the context of environmental and human health in Pakistan. There is therefore a critical need to improve the current knowledge base, which should build upon the research experience from other countries which have experienced similar situations in the past. Further research into these issues in Pakistan is considered vital to help inform future policies/control strategies as already successfully implemented in other countries.

  18. Cross-Cutting Studies and State-of-the-Practice Reviews: Archive and Use of ITS-Generated Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, PS

    2002-07-31

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) provide and use information about transportation conditions to improve system performance in such areas as safety, mobility, efficiency and environmental impacts. Typically, ITS generates massive amounts of data about the state of travel that are used primarily by transportation authorities to effectively operate and manage their transportation systems, and by private individuals and industry to manage trips. These primary uses provide short-term, real-time information regarding the transportation systems current conditions and driver and passenger choices. A broad spectrum of stakeholders could benefit from ITS-generated data to meet their data needs in planning, operations and maintenance, administration, training, modeling, simulations, and development of control strategies. In the context of ADUS, the term ''ITS-generated data'' refers to those data generated by ITS that are primarily used ''in managing system operations and providing information on system conditions and choices to the public.'' Specifically, ADUS refers to data generated from any one of the nine components that make up the ITS infrastructure: (1) freeway management, (2) incident management, (3) arterial management, (4) electronic fare payment, (5) electronic toll collection, (6) transit management, (7) highway-rail intersections, (8) emergency management, and (9) regional multimodal traveler information. The overall objectives of this project are to provide information and reports that can: (1) Provide awareness and education for associated ITS and non-ITS related partners, users, and customers regarding real and potential improvements in transportation decisions through: the use of archived ITS-generated data, the integration of ITS-generated and non-ITS data and data systems, and the sharing of archived ITS-generated data with other potential users. (2) Be used to develop future Technical and Institutional

  19. Information processing in bacteria: memory, computation, and statistical physics: a key issues review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ganhui; Tu, Yuhai

    2016-05-01

    preserving information, it does not reveal the underlying mechanism that leads to the observed input-output relationship, nor does it tell us much about which information is important for the organism and how biological systems use information to carry out specific functions. To do that, we need to develop models of the biological machineries, e.g. biochemical networks and neural networks, to understand the dynamics of biological information processes. This is a much more difficult task. It requires deep knowledge of the underlying biological network—the main players (nodes) and their interactions (links)—in sufficient detail to build a model with predictive power, as well as quantitative input-output measurements of the system under different perturbations (both genetic variations and different external conditions) to test the model predictions to guide further development of the model. Due to the recent growth of biological knowledge thanks in part to high throughput methods (sequencing, gene expression microarray, etc) and development of quantitative in vivo techniques such as various florescence technology, these requirements are starting to be realized in different biological systems. The possible close interaction between quantitative experimentation and theoretical modeling has made systems biology an attractive field for physicists interested in quantitative biology. In this review, we describe some of the recent work in developing a quantitative predictive model of bacterial chemotaxis, which can be considered as the hydrogen atom of systems biology. Using statistical physics approaches, such as the Ising model and Langevin equation, we study how bacteria, such as E. coli, sense and amplify external signals, how they keep a working memory of the stimuli, and how they use these data to compute the chemical gradient. In particular, we will describe how E. coli cells avoid cross-talk in a heterogeneous receptor cluster to keep a ligand-specific memory. We will also

  20. Information processing in bacteria: memory, computation, and statistical physics: a key issues review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ganhui; Tu, Yuhai

    2016-05-01

    preserving information, it does not reveal the underlying mechanism that leads to the observed input-output relationship, nor does it tell us much about which information is important for the organism and how biological systems use information to carry out specific functions. To do that, we need to develop models of the biological machineries, e.g. biochemical networks and neural networks, to understand the dynamics of biological information processes. This is a much more difficult task. It requires deep knowledge of the underlying biological network-the main players (nodes) and their interactions (links)-in sufficient detail to build a model with predictive power, as well as quantitative input-output measurements of the system under different perturbations (both genetic variations and different external conditions) to test the model predictions to guide further development of the model. Due to the recent growth of biological knowledge thanks in part to high throughput methods (sequencing, gene expression microarray, etc) and development of quantitative in vivo techniques such as various florescence technology, these requirements are starting to be realized in different biological systems. The possible close interaction between quantitative experimentation and theoretical modeling has made systems biology an attractive field for physicists interested in quantitative biology. In this review, we describe some of the recent work in developing a quantitative predictive model of bacterial chemotaxis, which can be considered as the hydrogen atom of systems biology. Using statistical physics approaches, such as the Ising model and Langevin equation, we study how bacteria, such as E. coli, sense and amplify external signals, how they keep a working memory of the stimuli, and how they use these data to compute the chemical gradient. In particular, we will describe how E. coli cells avoid cross-talk in a heterogeneous receptor cluster to keep a ligand-specific memory. We will also

  1. Human–environment interactions in urban green spaces — A systematic review of contemporary issues and prospects for future research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabisch, Nadja, E-mail: nadja.kabisch@geo.hu-berlin.de [Institute of Geography, Humboldt-University Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany); Department of Urban and Environmental Sociology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Qureshi, Salman [Institute of Geography, Humboldt-University Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany); School of Architecture, Birmingham Institute of Art and Design, Birmingham City University, The Parkside Building, 5 Cardigan Street, Birmingham B4 7BD (United Kingdom); Haase, Dagmar [Institute of Geography, Humboldt-University Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany); Department of Computational Landscape Ecology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    Scientific papers on landscape planning underline the importance of maintaining and developing green spaces because of their multiple environmental and social benefits for city residents. However, a general understanding of contemporary human–environment interaction issues in urban green space is still incomplete and lacks orientation for urban planners. This review examines 219 publications to (1) provide an overview of the current state of research on the relationship between humans and urban green space, (2) group the different research approaches by identifying the main research areas, methods, and target groups, and (3) highlight important future prospects in urban green space research. - Highlights: • Reviewed literature on urban green pins down a dearth of comparative studies. • Case studies in Africa and Russia are marginalized – the Europe and US dominate. • Questionnaires are used as major tool followed by GIS and quantitative approaches. • Developing countries should contribute in building an urban green space agenda. • Interdisciplinary, adaptable and pluralistic approaches can satiate a knowledge gap.

  2. Peer-Reviewed Open Research Data: Results of a Pilot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Grootveld

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Peer review of publications is at the core of science and primarily seen as instrument for ensuring research quality. However, it is less common to independently value the quality of the underlying data as well. In the light of the ‘data deluge’ it makes sense to extend peer review to the data itself and this way evaluate the degree to which the data are fit for re-use. This paper describes a pilot study at EASY - the electronic archive for (open research data at our institution. In EASY, researchers can archive their data and add metadata themselves. Devoted to open access and data sharing, at the archive we are interested in further enriching these metadata with peer reviews.As a pilot, we established a workflow where researchers who have downloaded data sets from the archive were asked to review the downloaded data set. This paper describes the details of the pilot including the findings, both quantitative and qualitative. Finally, we discuss issues that need to be solved when such a pilot is turned into a structural peer review functionality for the archiving system.

  3. Review on current advances, future challenges and consideration issues for post-combustion CO2 capture using amine-based absorbents☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiwu Liang; Kaiyun Fu; Raphael Idem; Paitoon Tontiwachwuthikul

    2016-01-01

    Among the current technologies for post-combustion CO2 capture, amine-based chemical absorption appears to be the most technologically mature and commercial y viable method. This review highlights the opportunities and challenges in post-combustion CO2 capture using amine-based chemical absorption technologies. In addi-tion, this review provides current types and emerging trends for chemical solvents. The issues and performance of amine solvents are reviewed and addressed in terms of thermodynamics, kinetics, mass transfer, regeneration and solvent management. This review also looks at emerging and future trends in post-combustion CO2 capture using chemical solvents in the near to mid-term.

  4. The Making of Archiving in Novonikolayevsk (Novosibirsk in the 1930s in the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia N. Nikitenko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the issues of historiography and source materials analysis on the origin and development of archiving in Novonikolaevsk (since February 1926 – Novosibirsk in the 1930s of XX century. October 1, 1925 Novonikolayevsk County Archive office was established as a division of the Novosibirsk District Executive Committee, which was responsible for accounting organization and archival documents preservation, pre-revolutionary institutions lists compilation, and after the revolution – for the unchecked archives identification and search, departmental archives revision and instructing of local archivists. By the Resolution of the Siberian Regional Archival Bureau dated July 27 1930 Novosibirsk District Archive Bureau was abolished and for the further institutions and enterprises maintenance the local archives office was organized in Novosibirsk City Executive Committee. Research on different types of historical documents reflecting the characteristics of work organization in Novosibirsk archive Bureau's Department of archives and district executive committees archives, conditions of archival funds formation, classification and use, archivists staff appointments, their accounting and qualifications, allowed to accumulate the historiography and source studies experience on the organization of archives in Novonikolaevsk through the example of the Archival Bureau in the first five years of its existence. Archival materials stored in MPI «Novosibirsk City Archives» and GKU NSO «State Archives of the Novosibirsk region» were used as the documentary basis of the article.

  5. Netherlands: archives, libraries and museums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Ketelaar; F. Huysmans; P. van Mensch

    2010-01-01

    This entry provides an overview of the development and current state of archives, libraries, and museums as institutions, and the related professions and disciplines within the Netherlands. The entry describes social and political issues affecting information institutions from the early nineteenth c

  6. Preservation and Archives in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henchy, Judith

    This report, based on visits to Vietnamese libraries and archives between 1987 and 1997, examines the largely unexplored corpus of Vietnamese textual resources in research institutions and libraries there and elsewhere, the associated problems of bibliographic control, and issues of preservation. The following topics are addressed: the history of…

  7. Review of the micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell. Part I. Stack design issues and research activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, V.; Griesser, S.; Buchinger, G.; Olabi, A. G.; Cordiner, S.; Meissner, D.

    Fuel cells are devices that convert chemical energy in hydrogen enriched fuels into electricity electrochemically. Micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells (MT-SOFCs), the type pioneered by K. Kendall in the early 1990s, are a variety of SOFCs that are on the scale of millimetres compared to their much larger SOFC relatives that are typically on the scale of tens of centimetres. The main advantage of the MT-SOFC, over its larger predecessor, is that it is smaller in size and is more suitable for rapid start up. This may allow the SOFC to be used in devices such as auxiliary power units, automotive power supplies, mobile electricity generators and battery re-chargers. The following paper is Part I of a two part series. Part I will introduce the reader to the MT-SOFC stack and its applications, indicating who is researching what in this field and also specifically investigate the design issues related to multi-cell reactor systems called stacks. Part II will review in detail the combinations of materials and methods used to produce the electrodes and electrolytes of MT-SOFC's. Also the role of modelling and validation techniques used in the design and improvement of the electrodes and electrolytes will be investigated. A broad range of scientific and engineering disciplines are involved in a stack design. Scientific and engineering content has been discussed in the areas of thermal-self-sustainability and efficiency, sealing technologies, manifold design, electrical connections and cell performance optimisation.

  8. Analysis of warning letters issued by the US Food and Drug Administration to clinical investigators, institutional review boards and sponsors: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Yashashri C; Saiyed, Aafreen A

    2015-05-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issues warning letters to all research stakeholders if unacceptable deficiencies are found during site visits. Warning letters issued by the FDA between January 2011 and December 2012 to clinical investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) were reviewed for various violation themes and compared to similar studies in the past. Warning letters issued to sponsors between January 2005 and December 2012 were analysed for the first time for a specific set of violations using descriptive statistics. Failure to protect subject safety and to report adverse events to IRBs was found to be significant compared to prior studies for clinical investigators, while failure to follow standard operating procedures and maintain documentation was noted as significant in warning letters to IRBs. Failure to maintain minutes of meeting and to follow written procedures for continuing review were new substantial violations in warning letters issued to IRBs. Forty-six warning letters were issued to sponsors, the most common violations being failure to follow a monitoring schedule (58.69%), failure to obtain investigator agreement (34.78%), failure to secure investigators' compliance (30.43%), and failure to maintain data records and ship documents to investigators (30.43%). Appropriate methods for handling clinical trial procedural violations should be developed and implemented worldwide.

  9. Academic Accommodations for Postsecondary Students with Mental Health Disabilities in Ontario, Canada: A Review of the Literature and Reflections on Emerging Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condra, Mike; Dineen, Mira; Gills, Helen; Jack-Davies, Anita; Condra, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of students with mental health disabilities (MHDs) are enrolling at Canadian colleges and universities. This review examines the challenges and complexities of meeting the unique needs of these students at Ontario's postsecondary institutions, with a specific focus on the issue of academic accommodations. These complexities…

  10. Chandra data archive operations: lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollough, Michael L.; Rots, Arnold H.; Winkelman, Sherry L.

    2006-06-01

    We present a discussion of the lessons learned from establishing and operating the Chandra Data Archive (CDA). We offer an overview of the archive, what preparations were done before launch, the transition to operations, actual operations, and some of the unexpected developments that had to be addressed in running the archive. From this experience we highlight some of the important issues that need to be addressed in the creation and running of an archive for a major project. Among these are the importance of data format standards; the integration of the archive with the rest of the mission; requirements throughout all phases of the mission; operational requirements; what to expect at launch; the user interfaces; how to anticipate new tasks; and overall importance of team management and organization.

  11. 本期导读%In This Issue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    @@ We wish all our readers a healthy and productive Year of the Dragon! We would like to start this first issue of the 2012 volume of the journal by sincerely thanking the contributors, reviewers, editorial board members and readers.Your efforts and sustained interest in the journal made the 2011 volume a success.The Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry is gradually transforming into an international journal that aims to communicate China's exciting developments in mental health research and mental health services to the rest of the world.The active involvement of our large international editorial board along with frequent feedback from readers is essential to successfully negotiating this transition.

  12. The Gediz River fluvial archive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maddy, D.; Veldkamp, A.; Demir, T.; Gorp, van W.; Wijbrans, J.R.; Hinsbergen, van D.J.J.; Dekkers, M.J.; Schreve, D.; Schoorl, J.M.; Scaife, R.

    2016-01-01

    The Gediz River, one of the principal rivers of Western Anatolia, has an extensive Pleistocene fluvial archive that potentially offers a unique window into fluvial system behaviour on the western margins of Asia during the Quaternary. In this paper we review our work on the Quaternary Gediz River

  13. Open archives within the field of environmental research

    OpenAIRE

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted

    2003-01-01

    Presentation on the concept of open archives within the field of environmental research (and related areas such as agriculture, forestry and veterinary medicine ...). The presentation concerns open archives in general but relates to thes issue of public acces in accordance with the theme in the seminar - the UNECE Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (Aarhus Convention) ). The Organic Eprints archive is ...

  14. Radiant research prospects? A review of nuclear waste issues in social science research; Straalande forskningsutsikter? En oeversikt om kaernavfallsfraagor inom samhaellsvetenskaplig forskning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin [Umeaa universitet, Umeaa (Sweden)

    2007-05-15

    The present report has been put together on behalf of KASAM and constitutes a review of social science research and literature that been produced on the nuclear waste issue in Sweden, with focus on recent research. The aim with the investigation has been to map the scope of and the direction of the independent research about nuclear waste in Sweden, in relation to the research that has been initiated and financed by the stakeholders that are participating in the decision-making process in the nuclear waste issue. Another aim has been to point out areas that have not been taken into consideration.

  15. Vendor neutral archive in PACS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapesh Kumar Agarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An archive is a location containing a collection of records, documents, or other materials of historical importance. An integral part of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS is archiving. When a hospital needs to migrate a PACS vendor, the complete earlier data need to be migrated in the format of the newly procured PACS. It is both time and money consuming. To address this issue, the new concept of vendor neutral archive (VNA has emerged. A VNA simply decouples the PACS and workstations at the archival layer. This is achieved by developing an application engine that receives, integrates, and transmits the data using the different syntax of a Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM format. Transferring the data belonging to the old PACS to a new one is performed by a process called migration of data. In VNA, a number of different data migration techniques are available to facilitate transfer from the old PACS to the new one, the choice depending on the speed of migration and the importance of data. The techniques include simple DICOM migration, prefetch-based DICOM migration, medium migration, and the expensive non-DICOM migration. "Vendor neutral" may not be a suitable term, and "architecture neutral," "PACS neutral," "content neutral," or "third-party neutral" are probably better and preferred terms. Notwithstanding this, the VNA acronym has come to stay in both the medical IT user terminology and in vendor nomenclature, and radiologists need to be aware of its impact in PACS across the globe.

  16. Poetry Archives on the Web: Thomas Gray Archive, The Poetry of the Gentleman’s Magazine, 1731-1800: An Electronic Database of Titles, Authors, and First Lines, and The Poetess Archive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Parker

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent innovations in digital scholarship have enabled new online archives, editions and bibliographies to flourish. Three such online resources--the Thomas Gray Archive, the Poetess Archive, and The Poetry of the Gentleman’s Magazine, 1731-1800: An Electronic Database of Titles, Authors, and First Lines--are explored in depth in this review, with an eye to how each archive specifically encourages scholarly collaboration and makes use of crowd-sourcing technologies.

  17. A dialogue between archive, knowledge and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Machado dos Santos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Perform a brief reflection on knowledge management in archives, emphasizing the connections necessary for a dialogue between archive, knowledge and technology. Method. It consists in review of material previously published in the areas of Management Science, Archival Science and Information Science. The sources consulted consist of books, theses, texts on websites and scientific journal articles indexed in Google Scholar. Thus, the collected data is analyzed qualitatively. Results. There is a close relationship between the archive, knowledge and technology. In this sense, the document has the role of interlocutor in this dialogue. The interdisciplinary scenario envisioned, enhance existing rapprochement between the archival practices and knowledge management, in order to make possible a feedback cycle that will support the practices related to the management, either, of knowledge, of information or of documents. Conclusions. There is need for further studies to address the potential of the archives in order to fill possible gaps theory thus reach multiple looks more points interdisciplinary convergence. Finally, there is the informational potential of archives, then mediated by technology information, can enrich the knowledge management practices, and for this it is essential to strengthen the interdisciplinary relationships between Management Science, Archival Science and Information Science.

  18. Challenges of archiving science data from long duration missions: the Rosetta case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, David

    2016-07-01

    Rosetta is the first mission designed to orbit and land on a comet. It consists of an orbiter, carrying 11 science experiments, and a lander, called 'Philae', carrying 10 additional instruments. Rosetta was launched on 2 March 2004, and arrived at the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on 6 August 2014. During its long journey, Rosetta has completed flybys of the Earth and Mars, and made two excursions to the main asteroid belt to observe (2867) Steins and (21) Lutetia. On 12 November 2014, the Philae probe soft landed on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the first time in history that such an extraordinary feat has been achieved. After the landing, the Rosetta orbiter followed the comet through its perihelion in August 2015, and will continue to accompany 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as it recedes from the Sun until the end of the mission. There are significant challenges in managing the science archive of a mission such as Rosetta. The first data were returned from Rosetta more than 10 years ago, and there have been flybys of several planetary bodies, including two asteroids from which significant science data were returned by many of the instruments. The scientific applications for these flyby data can be very different to those taken during the main science phase at the comet, but there are severe limitations on the changes that can be applied to the data pipelines managed by the various science teams as resources are scarce. The priority is clearly on maximising the potential science from the comet phase, so data formats and pipelines have been designed with that in mind, and changes limited to managing issues found during official archiving authority and independent science reviews. In addition, in the time that Rosetta has been operating, the archiving standards themselves have evolved. All Rosetta data are archived following version 3 of NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) Standards. Currently, new and upcoming planetary science missions are delivering data

  19. New research advancement in electrical engineering field of China-Reviews on special issue of Science in China Series E: Technological Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI ShengWei; MA Jin

    2009-01-01

    Based on,but not limited to the research results of electrical engineering published in the special issue of Science in China Series E,June 2008,this essay gives a brief review on a wide range of state-of-art advancement in electrical engineering field of China,which includes power system modeling,analysis and control,risk assessments in power system,etc.

  20. National Archives Catalog and API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — The National Archives Catalog is the online catalog of NARA's nationwide holdings in the Washington, DC area, Regional Archives, and Presidential Libraries.

  1. Performing Archives/Archives of Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Performing Archives/Archives of Performance contributes to the ongoing critical discussions of performance and its disappearance, of the ephemeral and its reproduction, of archives and mediatized recordings of liveness. The many contributions by excellent scholars and artists from a broad range o...... as discussions of specific art works, performances, and archives......Performing Archives/Archives of Performance contributes to the ongoing critical discussions of performance and its disappearance, of the ephemeral and its reproduction, of archives and mediatized recordings of liveness. The many contributions by excellent scholars and artists from a broad range...... of interdisciplinary fields as well as from various locations in research geographies demonstrate that despite the extensive discourse on the relationship between performance and the archive, inquiry into the productive tensions between ephemerality and permanence is by no means outdated or exhausted. New ways...

  2. Challenges in archiving electronic bioanalytical data supporting GLP studies in a CRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danley, Merry

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to articulate the fundamental issues of archiving electronic GLP data in a CRO environment. CROs struggle to address the absolute requirement of archiving GLP studies electronically. The difficulty of adhering to this is partly due to the wide variety of systems and types of electronic data. Often the end solution to this complicated issue is printing the data at the end of the study and in turn archiving the paper data, foregoing or ignoring the fact that scientific decisions were made while reviewing electronic data. Paper data and electronic data can be different. For example, chromatographic resolution or being able to focus in on detailed integration of chromatograms can significantly change the perspective of the data. While the core goal of archiving according to GLP principles are met, the reality is much different. Businesses purchasing CRO capabilities and regulatory agencies have been quite clear that when it comes to auditing the data that the electronic record is the preferred and often required source of the information for auditing and review purposes. The fact is that paper data do not always provide the flexibility, sensitivity and complete data context that an electronic record can provide. The ability to adhere to compliance standards due to the electronic data cannot be undervalued and by printing the data after all the acquisition, decisions, scientific judgments and review, do a complete disservice to the multidimensional (such as colors for deactivated or changed data, audit trails, 'zooming-in functionality', direct data links and snapshots) data in an electronic system.

  3. Dust and soiling issues and impacts relating to solar energy systems: Literature review update for 2012–2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Suellen C. S.; Diniz, Antonia Sonia A. C.; Kazmerski, Lawrence L.

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this review survey is to provide a literature compilation, updating materials reported in several review papers on solar-device soiling and mitigation approaches published over the past 5 years. The focus is on the period 2013-2015, but an updated listing is also provided for the year 2012 for completeness. This literature review also provides the first update for a periodic, single collation report on such publications proposed in this journal two years ago. This review presents a listing of the publications, their publication source, and some brief tabulated information to help guide the reader into the focus of each of the works.

  4. Constructing an Archive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Claudia; Wieczorek, Izabela; Francis, Alice;

    2016-01-01

    "Constructing an Archive" contains a collection of student works conducted during the Fall semester of 2015 at the Aarhus School of Architecture, at the master studio Constructing an Archive......."Constructing an Archive" contains a collection of student works conducted during the Fall semester of 2015 at the Aarhus School of Architecture, at the master studio Constructing an Archive....

  5. A Comparative Review of Hydrologic Issues Involved in Geologic Storage of CO2 and Injection Disposal of Liquid Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, C.-F.; Birkholzer, J.; Rutqvist, J.

    2008-04-15

    The paper presents a comparison of hydrologic issues and technical approaches used in deep-well injection and disposal of liquid wastes, and those issues and approaches associated with injection and storage of CO{sub 2} in deep brine formations. These comparisons have been discussed in nine areas: (1) Injection well integrity; (2) Abandoned well problems; (3) Buoyancy effects; (4) Multiphase flow effects; (5) Heterogeneity and flow channeling; (6) Multilayer isolation effects; (7) Caprock effectiveness and hydrogeomechanics; (8) Site characterization and monitoring; and (9) Effects of CO{sub 2} storage on groundwater resources There are considerable similarities, as well as significant differences. Scientifically and technically, these two fields can learn much from each other. The discussions presented in this paper should help to focus on the key scientific issues facing deep injection of fluids. A substantial but by no means exhaustive reference list has been provided for further studies into the subject.

  6. Archives and the computer

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, Michael Garnet

    1986-01-01

    Archives and the Computer deals with the use of the computer and its systems and programs in archiving data and other related materials. The book covers topics such as the scope of automated systems in archives; systems for records management, archival description, and retrieval; and machine-readable archives. The selection also features examples of archives from different institutions such as the University of Liverpool, Berkshire County Record Office, and the National Maritime Museum.The text is recommended for archivists who would like to know more about the use of computers in archiving of

  7. Archives and the computer

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, Michael Garnet

    1980-01-01

    Archives and the Computer deals with the use of the computer and its systems and programs in archiving data and other related materials. The book covers topics such as the scope of automated systems in archives; systems for records management, archival description, and retrieval; and machine-readable archives. The book also features examples of systems for records management from different institutions such as theTyne and Wear Archive Department, Dyfed Record Office, and the University of Liverpool. Included in the last part are appendices. Appendix A is a directory of archival systems, Appen

  8. A reassessment of the potential for an alpha-mode containment failure and a review of the current understanding of broader fuel-coolant interaction issues. Second steam explosion review group workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, S. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Ginsberg, T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-08-01

    This report summarizes the review and evaluation by experts of the current understanding of the molten fuel-coolant interaction (FCI) issues covering the complete spectrum of interactions, i.e., from mild quenching to very energetic interactions including those that could lead to the alpha-mode containment failure. Of the eleven experts polled, all but two concluded that the alpha-mode failure issue was resolved from a risk perspective, meaning that this mode of failure is of very low probability, that it is of little or no significance to the overall risk from a nuclear power plant, and that any further reduction in residual uncertainties is not likely to change the probability in an appreciable manner. To a lesser degree, discussions also took place on the broader FCI issues such as mild quenching of core melt during non-explosive FCI, and shock loading of lower head and ex-vessel support structures arising from explosive localized FCIs. These latter issues are relevant with regard to determining the efficacy of certain accident management strategies for operating reactors as well as for advanced light water reactors. The experts reviewed the status of understanding of the FCI phenomena in the context of these broader issues, identified residual uncertainties in the understanding, and recommended future research (both experimental and analytical) to reduce the uncertainties.

  9. 规划档案信息化与数字化研究综述%Review on the Planning Archives of Informatization & Digitization Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宏霞

    2016-01-01

    规划档案信息化与数字化是城市规划档案工作发展的必然要求。梳理城市规划档案信息化与数字化研究与实践的成果,有利于日后规划档案信息化与数字化工作的开展,也有利于推动整个规划档案现代化的进程,更好地服务社会、服务公众、服务城市建设与发展。%The informatization and digitization of planning archives are the inevitable requirements of urban planning development in archives work Sorting the results of archives informatization and digital urban planning research and practice, it is conducive to the future planning work of archives informatization and digitization, and conducive to promote the modernization of the whole planning archives as well, to serve better the society, the public, the urban construction and development of the service.

  10. Management and Archiving e-mail Messages in Governmental Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Mohamed A.Mohsen

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The study deals great issue of digital preservation that is e-mail archiving, it covered all aspects of the topic; it discuss: e-mail system, components of e-mail message, advantages and disadvantages of e-mail, official e-mail messages, management of e-mail messages, organizing and arrangement of e-mail messages, keeping and deleting messages, archiving e-mail messages, and some related issues like: privacy and security.

  11. Review and Outlook of Comparative Higher Education Research in Japan

    Issue : Retrospect and Prospect of Higher Education Studies>

    OpenAIRE

    福留, 東土

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the progress of comparative higher education research and reveals related issues that have been previously discussed. In addition, it notes research trends found in the literature as well as papers written during the past decade.   In the past ten years, there have been more than one hundred and fifty individual pieces of published literature or research papers introduced at major academic journals. The United States has remained to be the primary target area of rese...

  12. The Archival Photograph and Its Meaning: Formalisms for Modeling Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Allen C.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores ontological principles and their potential applications in the formal description of archival photographs. Current archival descriptive practices are reviewed and the larger question is addressed: do archivists who are engaged in describing photographs need a more formalized system of representation, or do existing encoding…

  13. Radio archive

    OpenAIRE

    Street, Sean

    2008-01-01

    The Centre for Broadcasting History Research, in association with the\\ud British Universities Film and Video Council, is developing an online\\ud audio archive of UK commercial radio, from 1973 to 1992. Work produced\\ud before the Broadcasting Act 1990 represents a different ethos to the role\\ud commercial radio played, and subsequently,continues to play, in the UK.\\ud The change in commercial radio since this period is extraordinary. It is\\ud impossible for the young student of radio, born si...

  14. At Issue: The Relationship between Student Loans and Low-Income Students' Baccalaureate Attainment: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    The study conducts a review on the linkage between student loans and low-income students' baccalaureate degree achievement. Specifically, this study synthesizes literature on low-income students' borrowing patterns, low-income students' baccalaureate degree achievement, as well as the relationship between these two topics. Future research should…

  15. A Review of Agile and Lean Manufacturing as Issues in Selected International and National Research and Development Programs and Roadmaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Helio; Putnik, Goran D.; Shah, Vaibhav

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to analyze international and national research and development (R&D) programs and roadmaps for the manufacturing sector, presenting how agile and lean manufacturing models are addressed in these programs. Design/methodology/approach: In this review, several manufacturing research and development programs and…

  16. Product vs corporate carbon footprint: Some methodological issues. A case study and review on the wine sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Alejandra; Puig, Rita; Fullana-I-Palmer, Pere

    2017-03-01

    Carbon footprint (CF) is nowadays one of the most widely used environmental indicators. The scope of the CF assessment could be corporate (when all production processes of a company are evaluated, together with upstream and downstream processes following a life cycle approach) or product (when one of the products is evaluated throughout its life cycle). Our hypothesis was that usually product CF studies (PCF) collect corporate data, because it is easier for companies to obtain them than product data. Six main methodological issues to take into account when collecting corporate data to be used for PCF studies were postulated and discussed in the present paper: fugitive emissions, credits from waste recycling, use of "equivalent factors", reference flow definition, accumulation and allocation of corporate values to minor products. A big project with 18 wineries, being wine one of the most important agri-food products assessed through CF methodologies, was used to study and to exemplify these 6 methodological issues. One of the main conclusions was that indeed, it is possible to collect corporate inventory data in a per year basis to perform a PCF, but having in mind the 6 methodological issues described here. In the literature, most of the papers are presenting their results as a PCF, while they collected company data and obtained, in fact, a "key performance indicator" (ie., CO2eq emissions per unit of product produced), which is then used as a product environmental impact figure. The methodology discussed in this paper for the wine case study is widely applicable to any other product or industrial activity.

  17. The Dora Lange Archive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Isak Winkel; Bjering, Jens Christian Borrebye

    2016-01-01

    The first season of Nic Pizzolatto's True Detective (2014) is not only a show about a murder, but also a show about how to gather and organize information in an archive. Having identified two archival problems—its temporal and topical extension—the article turns to Jacques Derrida's Archive Fever......: a Freudian Impression in order to explain how the archiving problems of the crime investigation are, in fact, intrinsic to any archiving practice. Lastly, the article addresses the political significance of the show's archiving problems by help of Derrida's text on the American Constitution and of Hardt...

  18. Considerations on the aquaculture development and on the use of veterinary drugs: special issue for fluoroquinolones--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Silvia Pilco; Paschoal, Jonas Augusto Rizzato; Reyes, Felix Guillermo Reyes

    2013-09-01

    Aquaculture has become an important source of fish available for human consumption. In order to achieve greater productivity, intensive fish cultivation systems are employed, which can cause greater susceptibility to diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. Antimicrobial substances are compounds used in livestock production with the objectives of inhibiting the growth of microorganisms and treatment or prevention of diseases. It is well recognized that the issues of antimicrobial use in food animals are of global concern about its impact on food safety. This paper present an overview of the aquaculture production in the whole world, raising the particularities in Brazil, highlighting the importance of the use of veterinary drugs in this system of animal food production, and address the potential risks arising from their indiscriminate use and their impacts on aquaculture production as they affect human health and the environment. The manuscript also discusses the analytical methods commonly used in the determination of veterinary drug residues in fish, with special issue for fluroquinolones residues and with emphasis on employment of LC-MS/MS analytical technique.

  19. A review of the scattering parameter extraction method with clarification of ambiguity issues in relation to metamaterial homogenization

    CERN Document Server

    Arslanagić, S; Mortensen, N A; Gregersen, A H; Sigmund, O; Ziolkowski, R W; Breinbjerg, O

    2012-01-01

    The scattering parameter extraction method of metamaterial homogenization is reviewed to show that the only ambiguity is the one related to the choice of the branch of the complex logarithmic function (or the complex inverse cosine function), whereas it has no ambiguity for the sign of the wave number and intrinsic impedance. While the method indeed yields two signs of the intrinsic impedance, and thus the wave number, the signs are dependent, and moreover, both sign combinations lead to the same permittivity and permeability, and are thus permissible. This observation is in distinct contrast to a number of statements in the literature where the correct sign of the intrinsic impedance and wave number, resulting from the scattering parameter method, is chosen by imposing additional physical requirements such as passivity. The scattering parameter method is reviewed through an investigation of a uniform plane wave normally incident on a planar slab in free-space, and the severity of the branch ambiguity is illu...

  20. A Review of the Scattering-Parameter Extraction Method with Clarification of Ambiguity Issues in Relation to Metamaterial Homogenization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Hansen, Troels Vejle; Mortensen, N. Asger;

    2013-01-01

    The scattering-parameter extraction method of metamaterial homogenization is reviewed to show that the only ambiguity is that related to the choice of the branch of the complex logarithmic function (or the complex inverse cosine function). It is shown that the method has no ambiguity for the sign...... of the wavenumber and intrinsic impedance. While the method indeed yields two signs for the intrinsic impedance and thus the wavenumber, the signs are dependent. Moreover, both sign combinations lead to the same permittivity and permeability, and are thus permissible. This observation is in distinct contrast...... to a number of statements in the literature where the correct sign of the intrinsic impedance and wavenumber resulting from the scattering-parameter method is chosen by imposing additional physical requirements, such as passivity. The scattering-parameter method is reviewed through an investigation...

  1. Exploring issues in the conduct of website searching and other online sources for systematic reviews: how can we be systematic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, Claire; Dickson, Kelly; Bangpan, Mukdarut

    2016-11-15

    Websites and online resources outside academic bibliographic databases can be significant sources for identifying literature, though there are challenges in searching and managing the results. These are pertinent to systematic reviews that are underpinned by principles of transparency, accountability and reproducibility. We consider how the conduct of searching these resources can be compatible with the principles of a systematic search. We present an approach to address some of the challenges. This is particularly relevant when websites are relied upon to identify important literature for a review. We recommend considering the process as three stages and having a considered rationale and sufficient recordkeeping at each stage that balances transparency with practicality of purpose. Advances in technology and recommendations for website providers are briefly discussed.

  2. Issues in the review of a license application for an above grade low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringenberg, J.D. [Nebraska Dept. of Environmental Quality, NE (United States)

    1993-03-01

    In December 1987, Nebraska was selected by the Central Interstate Compact (CIC) Commission as the host state for the construction of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. After spending a year in the site screening process, the Compact`s developer, US Ecology, selected three sites for detailed site characterization. These sites were located in Nemaha, Nuckolls and Boyd Counties. One year later the Boyd County site was selected as the preferred site and additional site characterization studies were undertaken. On July 29, 1990, US Ecology submitted a license application to the Nebraska Department of Environmental Control (now Department of Environmental Quality-NDEQ). This paper will present issues that the NDEQ has dealt with since Nebraska`s selection as the host state for the CIC facility.

  3. Archives Library Information Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — ALIC is an online library catalog of books, periodicals, and other materials contained in Archives I and II and book collections located in other facilities.

  4. Plagiarism of online material may be proven using the Internet Archive Wayback Machine (archive.org).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, David; Charlton, Bruce G

    2009-12-01

    Many writers and researchers are reluctant to publish online for fear that their work will be plagiarized and used without attribution elsewhere. For example, junior or freelance researchers may worry that their ideas will be 'stolen' and published under the name of professional or senior researchers; and that then it could be hard to convince people that in fact the idea had originated elsewhere. However, if this happens, plagiarism may be objectively proven by a service called the Internet Archive Wayback Machine (archive.org). Archive.org permits clarification of the issue of dates--and allows the reader to draw their own conclusions about authorship, whether charitable or otherwise. In sum, archive.org is a little known, freely available and potentially very useful mechanism for defending intellectual property rights.

  5. Determinants of modelling choices for 1-D free-surface flow and erosion issues in hydrology: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheviron, B.; Moussa, R.

    2015-09-01

    This review paper investigates the determinants of modelling choices, for numerous applications of 1-D free-surface flow and erosion equations, across multiple spatiotemporal scales. We aim to characterize each case study by its signature composed of model refinement (Navier-Stokes: NS, Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes: RANS, Saint-Venant: SV or Approximations of Saint-Venant: ASV), spatiotemporal scales (domain length: L from 1 cm to 1000 km; temporal scale: T from 1 second to 1 year; flow depth: H from 1 mm to 10 m), flow typology (Overland: O, High gradient: Hg, Bedforms: B, Fluvial: F) and dimensionless numbers (Dimensionless time period T*, Reynolds number Re, Froude number Fr, Slope S, Inundation ratio Λz, Shields number θ). The determinants of modelling choices are therefore sought in the interplay between flow characteristics, cross-scale and scale-independent views. The influence of spatiotemporal scales on modelling choices is first quantified through the expected correlation between increasing scales and decreasing model refinements, identifying then flow typology a secondary but mattering determinant in the choice of model refinement. This finding is confirmed by the discriminating values of several dimensionless numbers, that prove preferential associations between model refinements and flow typologies. This review is intended to help each modeller positioning his (her) choices with respect to the most frequent practices, within a generic, normative procedure possibly enriched by the community for a larger, comprehensive and updated image of modelling strategies.

  6. A review on management of chrome-tanned leather shavings: a holistic paradigm to combat the environmental issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Anupama; Chaudhary, Rubina; Subramani, Saravanabhavan

    2014-10-01

    Raw hide/skins come to the tanners as a by-product of meat industry which is converted into value-added leather as product for fashion market. Leather manufacturing is a chemical process of natural biological matrix. It employs a huge quantity of water and inorganic and organic chemicals for processing and thereby discharges solid and liquid wastes into the environment. One of the potential solid wastes generated from leather industry is chrome-tanned leather shavings (CTLSs), and its disposal is increasingly becoming a huge challenge on disposal to tanners due to presence of heavy metal chromium. Hence, finding a sustainable solution to the CTLS disposal problem is a prime challenge for global tanners and researchers. This paper aims to the deeper review of various disposal methods on CTLS such as protein, chromium, and energy recovery processes and its utilization methodologies. Sustainable technologies have been developed to overcome CTLS solid wastes emanating from leather processing operations. Further, this review paper brings a broader classification of developed methodologies for treatment of CTLSs.

  7. Review report: safety and reliability issues on digital instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants and United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s dispositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Norio; Suzudo, Tomoaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-09-01

    Recently, digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems have been applied to nuclear power plants (NPPs) in various countries. Introduction of digital I and C systems, however, raises special issues on design, implementation, safety and licensing. Since FY 1997, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been carrying out a project, Study on Reliability of Digital I and C Systems, which includes extensive reviews of design approaches, technical standards, regulatory processes, especially, in the United States. This report summarizes the results from the study of National Research Council (NRC) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (USNRC`s) responses to the recommendations made by the NRC`s study. That study identified six technical key issues (system aspects of digital I and C technology, software quality assurance, common-mode software failure potential, safety and reliability assessment methods, human factors and man-machine interface, dedication of commercial off-the-shelf hardware and software) and two strategic key issues (case-by-case licensing process, adequacy of technical infrastructure) that arise from the introduction of digital I and C technology and then, made recommendations to the USNRC for coping with digital I and C applications. The USNRC responded to each recommendation and showed their own dispositions in which the USNRC agreed with most of the recommendations. In Japan, it is expected that introduction of digital I and C technology is inevitable in NPPs because the vendors are gradually discontinuing support and stocking of analog components. To cope with such situations, there is a need to develop and update the standards and guidelines applicable to digital I and C technology. The key issues and the USNRC`s dispositions provided in this report is believed to be useful for developing and updating them. (J.P.N.)

  8. Archival Research Capabilities of the WFIRST Data Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalay, Alexander

    apparent when exploring a database of 108 galaxies with multiband photometry and grism spectroscopy. The case studies will require (i) the creation of a unified WFIRST object catalog consisting of data cross-matched to external catalogs, (ii) an easy-to-access, scalable database, utilizing the latest data discovery and querying techniques, (iii) in situ analyses of large and/or complex data, (iv) identification of links to supporting data and enabling queries spanning WFIRST and other databases, (v) combining simulations with modeling software. To accomplish these objectives, we will prototype a system capable of executing complex user-defined scripts including database access to a shared computational facility with tools for joining WFIRST to other surveys, also enabling comparisons to physical models. Our organizational plan divides the work into several general areas where our team members have specific expertise: (a) apply the 20 queries methodology to derive performance and functionality requirements, (b) develop a practical interactive server-side query system, built on our SDSS experience, (c) apply advanced cross-matching techniques, (d) create mock WFIRST imaging and grism data, (e) develop high level cross correlation tools, (e) optimize scripting systems using high-level languages (iPython), (f) perform close integration of cosmological simulations with observational data, (g) apply advanced machine learning techniques. Our efforts will be coordinated with the WFIRST Science Center (WSC), the other SITs, and the broader community in a manner consistent with direction and review of the Project Office. We will publish our results as milestones are reached, and issue progress reports on a regular basis. We will represent SIT-F at all relevant meetings including meetings of the other SITs (SITs A-E), and participate in "Big Data" conferences to interact with others in the field and learn new techniques that might be applicable to WFIRST.

  9. 发达国家图书档案事业结盟与合作战略规划综述%A Review of Strategic Planning about Alliance and Cooperation for the Libraries and Archives Cause in Developed Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马海群

    2012-01-01

    基于数字环境下图书馆与档案馆在文化遗产保护与继承、公共信息服务提供、政府信息管理等方面职责的一致性,通过战略规划文本的内容,分析国际组织、美国、英国、加拿大等发达国家图书档案事业的结盟、合作、合并态势.综述评价了国外图书档案战略规划及合作的若干经验。主要包括:公共文化服务机构的共同愿景与职责的定位与认知;应对数字技术与文化变革挑战的强烈的职业使命感;内涵丰富且注重实施绩效的规划体系;作为公共文化服务机构的图书馆与档案馆的实质性结盟与合并。国外图书档案事业结盟与合作的经验可供中国借鉴。参考文献44。%Based on the consistency in the historical duties of the cultural heritage protection and inheritance, public information service, governmental information management for the libraries and archives, this paper analyzes the alliance, cooperation, merge status about the libraries and archives eause in the international organizations and developed countries such as United States, United Kingdom, Canada, and so on, from the viewpoint of strategic planning text mining. It also reviews and evaluates experiences about strategic planning and cooperation between libraries and archives abroad, including the identification and recognition of common vision as public cultural organizations and responsibilities, strong sense of professional mission to deal with the challenges of digital technology and innovations, a content-rich and effective planning system, and alliance and merging of libraries and archives as public cultural organizations. 44refs.

  10. Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Deep Brain Stimulation Think Tank: A Review of Emerging Issues and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb, Wissam; Giordano, James J.; Rossi, Peter J.; Mogilner, Alon Y.; Gunduz, Aysegul; Judy, Jack W.; Klassen, Bryan T.; Butson, Christopher R.; Van Horne, Craig; Deny, Damiaan; Dougherty, Darin D.; Rowell, David; Gerhardt, Greg A.; Smith, Gwenn S.; Ponce, Francisco A.; Walker, Harrison C.; Bronte-Stewart, Helen M.; Mayberg, Helen S.; Chizeck, Howard J.; Langevin, Jean-Philippe; Volkmann, Jens; Ostrem, Jill L.; Shute, Jonathan B.; Jimenez-Shahed, Joohi; Foote, Kelly D.; Wagle Shukla, Aparna; Rossi, Marvin A.; Oh, Michael; Pourfar, Michael; Rosenberg, Paul B.; Silburn, Peter A.; de Hemptine, Coralie; Starr, Philip A.; Denison, Timothy; Akbar, Umer; Grill, Warren M.; Okun, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of current progress in the technological advances and the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) to treat neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, as presented by participants of the Fourth Annual DBS Think Tank, which was convened in March 2016 in conjunction with the Center for Movement Disorders and Neurorestoration at the University of Florida, Gainesveille FL, USA. The Think Tank discussions first focused on policy and advocacy in DBS research and clinical practice, formation of registries, and issues involving the use of DBS in the treatment of Tourette Syndrome. Next, advances in the use of neuroimaging and electrochemical markers to enhance DBS specificity were addressed. Updates on ongoing use and developments of DBS for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, Alzheimer's disease, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, obesity, addiction were presented, and progress toward innovation(s) in closed-loop applications were discussed. Each section of these proceedings provides updates and highlights of new information as presented at this year's international Think Tank, with a view toward current and near future advancement of the field. PMID:27920671

  11. Issues associated with manipulator-based waste retrieval from Hanford underground storage tanks with a preliminary review of commercial concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglin, E.J.

    1996-09-17

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is exploring commercial methods for retrieving waste from the underground storage tanks at the Hanford site in south central Washington state. WHC needs data on commercial retrieval systems equipment in order to make programmatic decisions for waste retrieval. Full system testing of retrieval processes is to be demonstrated in phases through September 1997 in support of programs aimed to Acquire Commercial Technology for Retrieval (ACTR) and at the Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI). One of the important parts of the integrated testing will be the deployment of retrieval tools using manipulator-based systems. WHC requires an assessment of a number of commercial deployment systems that have been identified by the ACTR program as good candidates to be included in an integrated testing effort. Included in this assessment should be an independent evaluation of manipulator tests performed to date, so that WHC can construct an integrated test based on these systems. The objectives of this document are to provide a description of the need, requirements, and constraints for a manipulator-based retrieval system; to evaluate manipulator-based concepts and testing performed to date by a number of commercial organizations; and to identify issues to be resolved through testing and/or analysis for each concept.

  12. Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Deep Brain Stimulation Think Tank: A Review of Emerging Issues and Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb, Wissam; Giordano, James J; Rossi, Peter J; Mogilner, Alon Y; Gunduz, Aysegul; Judy, Jack W; Klassen, Bryan T; Butson, Christopher R; Van Horne, Craig; Deny, Damiaan; Dougherty, Darin D; Rowell, David; Gerhardt, Greg A; Smith, Gwenn S; Ponce, Francisco A; Walker, Harrison C; Bronte-Stewart, Helen M; Mayberg, Helen S; Chizeck, Howard J; Langevin, Jean-Philippe; Volkmann, Jens; Ostrem, Jill L; Shute, Jonathan B; Jimenez-Shahed, Joohi; Foote, Kelly D; Wagle Shukla, Aparna; Rossi, Marvin A; Oh, Michael; Pourfar, Michael; Rosenberg, Paul B; Silburn, Peter A; de Hemptine, Coralie; Starr, Philip A; Denison, Timothy; Akbar, Umer; Grill, Warren M; Okun, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of current progress in the technological advances and the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) to treat neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, as presented by participants of the Fourth Annual DBS Think Tank, which was convened in March 2016 in conjunction with the Center for Movement Disorders and Neurorestoration at the University of Florida, Gainesveille FL, USA. The Think Tank discussions first focused on policy and advocacy in DBS research and clinical practice, formation of registries, and issues involving the use of DBS in the treatment of Tourette Syndrome. Next, advances in the use of neuroimaging and electrochemical markers to enhance DBS specificity were addressed. Updates on ongoing use and developments of DBS for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, Alzheimer's disease, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, obesity, addiction were presented, and progress toward innovation(s) in closed-loop applications were discussed. Each section of these proceedings provides updates and highlights of new information as presented at this year's international Think Tank, with a view toward current and near future advancement of the field.

  13. Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Deep Brain Stimulation Think Tank - A Review of Emerging Issues and Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissam Deeb

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of current progress in the technological advances and the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS to treat neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, as presented by participants of the Fourth Annual Deep Brain Stimulation Think Tank, which was convened in March 2016 in conjunction with the Center for Movement Disorders and Neurorestoration at the University of Florida, Gainesveille FL, USA. The Think Tank discussions first focused on policy and advocacy in DBS research and clinical practice, formation of registries, and issues involving the use of DBS in the treatment of Tourette Syndrome. Next, advances in the use of neuroimaging and electrochemical markers to enhance DBS specificity were addressed. Updates on ongoing use and developments of DBS for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, Alzheimer’s disease, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, obesity, addiction were presented, and progress toward innovation(s in closed-loop applications were discussed. Each section of these proceedings provides updates and highlights of new information as presented at this year’s international Think Tank, with a view toward current and near future advancement of the field.

  14. Security Issues Threats and Challenges in Data Management of Wireless Communication & Sensor Network over Cloud: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmaja R Ayachit,

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a colloquial expression used to describe a variety of different computing concepts that involve a large number of computers that are connected through a real-time communication network. The five key characteristics of cloud computing are: location-independent resource pooling, on demand self-service, rapid elasticity, broad network access, and measured service. These five characteristics represent the first layer in the cloud environment. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are comprised of a variable number of autonomous electronic devices, with possible mechanic components, that have the capability of remote sensing, signal processing and communication in an ad hoc fashion. Today almost every organization and even public sector is moving towards cloud computing, in the form of a provider or consumer. Even this electronically provisioned has not remained untouched by computer hackers, criminals and vandals to break into the web servers. The goal of this paper is to analyze the Cloud based Environment for Wireless Communication & Sensor Network Application along with the Security issues for Data Management.

  15. Aflatoxin B(1) in affecting broiler's performance, immunity, and gastrointestinal tract: a review of history and contemporary issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Agha W; Razzazi-Fazeli, E; Bohm, Josef

    2011-06-01

    Aflatoxin B(1) is a common contaminant of poultry feeds in tropical and subtropical climates. Research during the last five decades has well established the negative effects of the mycotoxin on health of poultry. However, the last ten years of relevant data have accentuated the potential of low levels of aflatoxin B(1) to deteriorate broiler performance. In this regard, any attempt to establish a dose-effect relationship between aflatoxin B(1) level and broiler performance is also complicated due to differences in types of broilers and length of exposure to the mycotoxin in different studies. Contrary to the prevalent notion regarding literature saturation with respect to aflatoxicosis of chicken, many areas of aflatoxicosis still need to be explored. Literature regarding effects of the mycotoxin on the gastrointestinal tract in this regard is particular scanty and non-conclusive. In addition to these issues, the metabolism of aflatoxin B(1) and recently proposed hypotheses regarding biphasic effects of the mycotoxin in broilers are briefly discussed.

  16. tDCS of the cerebellum: where do we stand in 2016? Technical issues and critical review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim evan Dun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS is an up-and-coming electrical neurostimulation technique increasingly used both in healthy subjects and in selected groups of patients. Due to the high density of neurons in the cerebellum, its peculiar anatomical organization with the cortex lying superficially below the skull and its diffuse connections with motor and associative areas of the cerebrum, the cerebellum is becoming a major target for neuromodulation of the cerebellocerebral networks. We discuss the recent studies based on cerebellar tDCS with a focus on the numerous technical and open issues which remain to be solved. Our current knowledge of the physiological impacts of tDCS on cerebellar circuitry is criticized. We provide a comparison with transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS, another promising transcranial electrical neurostimulation technique. Although both tDCS and tACS are becoming established techniques to modulate the cerebellocerebral networks, it is surprising that their impacts on cerebellar disorders remains unclear. A major reason is that the literature lacks large trials with a double-blind, sham-controlled and cross-over experimental design in cerebellar patients.

  17. Engaging Ethical Issues Associated with Research and Public Health Interventions During Humanitarian Crises: Review of a Dialogic Workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave, Anushree

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On November 7th, 2014 the Humanitarian Health Ethics Workshop was held at McGill University, in Montreal. Co-hosted by the Montreal Health Equity Research Consortium and the Humanitarian Health Ethics Network, the event included six presentations and extensive discussion amongst participants, including researchers from Canada, Haiti, India, Switzerland and the US. Participants had training in disciplines including anthropology, bioethics, medicine, occupational therapy, philosophy, physical therapy, political science, public administration and public health. The objective of the workshop was to create a forum for discussion amongst scholars and practitioners interested in the ethics of healthcare delivery, research and public health interventions during humanitarian crises. This review is a summary of the presentations given, key themes that emerged during the day’s discussions, and avenues for future research that were identified.

  18. Historical review of clinical vaccine studies at Oswaldo Cruz Institute and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation - technological development issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo de Menezes Martins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents, from the perspective of technological development and production, the results of an investigation examining 61 clinical studies with vaccines conducted in Brazil between 1938-2013, with the participation of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute (IOC and the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz. These studies have been identified and reviewed according to criteria, such as the kind of vaccine (viral, bacterial, parasitic, their rationale, design and methodological strategies. The results indicate that IOC and Fiocruz have accumulated along this time significant knowledge and experience for the performance of studies in all clinical phases and are prepared for the development of new vaccines products and processes. We recommend national policy strategies to overcome existing regulatory and financing constraints.

  19. Turbomachine Sealing and Secondary Flows. Part 1; Review of Sealing Performance, Customer, Engine Designer, and Research Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Steinetz, B. M.; Braun, M. J.

    2004-01-01

    Although forces outside our control shape our industry, turbomachine sealing research, design, and customer agendas established in 1978 by Ludwig, Campbell, and Smith in terms of specific fuel consumption and performance remain as objectives today. Advances have been made because failures of the space shuttle main engine turbomachinery ushered in a new understanding of sealing in high-power-density systems. Further, it has been shown that changes in sealing, especially for high-pressure rotors, dramatically change the performance of the entire engine or turbomachine. Maintaining seal leakages and secondary flows within engine design specifications remains the most efficient and cost effective way to enhance performance and minimize maintenance costs. This three-part review summarizes experiences, ideas, successes, and failures by NASA and the U.S. aerospace industry in secondary flow management in advanced turbomachinery. Part 1 presents system sealing, part 2 system rotordynamics, and part 3 modeling, with some overlap of each part.

  20. Analysis of the Costs of a Backlog Project in Response to Recommendation 2 of the 2004 Archives and History Office Program Review Committee Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, Laura; /SLAC

    2007-12-21

    SLAC Archives and History Office (AHO) backlog of unprocessed material is over 3,000 cubic feet and growing. Because much of this material was directly transferred to off-site storage, the provenance and contents are a mystery. The costs of off-site storage, lack of knowledge of the contents, and the impending federal regulations in 2009 concerning storage facilities all suggest the need for a long-term plan for the backlog. AHO presents these options to SLAC management: (1) Continue with the status quo, adding new accessions to OffSite Records Management, LLC (hereinafter referred to as OffSite) storage; (2) Pull the backlog back a segment at a time for box-level processing, determine what is in each box, get rid of extraneous material, and return what is left to OffSite storage; (3) Gradually retrieve the backlog for thorough, folder-level processing and then transfer to the Federal Records Center in San Bruno (hereinafter referred to as FRC) or the Archives side of the operations at the National Archives and Records Administration in San Bruno (hereinafter referred to as NARA); and (4) Gradually retrieve the backlog for a combination of box-level processing with return to OffSite storage and thorough folder-level processing with transfer to FRC or NARA.

  1. Ethical issues in genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, T A

    1999-03-01

    The first section of the Notes on Moral Theology reviews ethical issues in genetics through the lenses of privacy-confidentiality; risk-benefit analysis in relation to prenatal diagnosis and gene therapy; and freedom-determinism/human dignity in the context of cloning. The author provides an overview of developments in genetics and highlights thematic issues common to these developments.

  2. Editorial, Volume 5, Issue 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy L. Archuleta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to Volume 5, Issue 1 of the Journal of Financial Therapy! In this issue, four scholarly papers are presented along with two profiles and a book review. These four papers address very important issues, such as mental health therapists’ competency in working with financial issues, financial stress of college students, parental messages about money, and financial advice media.

  3. Electronic Journals in the Digital Environment:Issues and Future Trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Wang; Arthur Hendricks

    2004-01-01

    Building and managing electronic journal collections in the digital environment poses many challenges for librarians, as electronic journals exist in a complex and constantly changing state involving different digital formats, new pricing structures, and various access routes. This paper reviews critical issues that North American libraries face in managing electronic journals, including a brief history, the selection criteria, consortia purchasing, licensing, operational costs, providing access, user support, usage statistics,canceling print subscriptions, and electronic journal archives. Future trends discussed include open access e-journals, and the continuing development of e-journal collections and best practices in managing this essential constituent of academic library collections.

  4. Physical activity promotion in Latin American populations: a systematic review on issues of internal and external validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaviz, Karla I; Harden, Samantha M; Smith, Erin; Blackman, Kacie Ca; Berrey, Leanna M; Mama, Scherezade K; Almeida, Fabio A; Lee, Rebecca E; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2014-06-17

    The purpose of this review was to determine the degree to which physical activity interventions for Latin American populations reported on internal and external validity factors using the RE-AIM framework (reach & representativeness, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance). We systematically identified English (PubMed; EbscoHost) and Spanish (SCIELO; Biblioteca Virtual en Salud) language studies published between 2001 and 2012 that tested physical activity, exercise, or fitness promotion interventions in Latin American populations. Cross-sectional/descriptive studies, conducted in Brazil or Spain, published in Portuguese, not including a physical activity/fitness/exercise outcome, and with one time point assessment were excluded. We reviewed 192 abstracts and identified 46 studies that met the eligibility criteria (34 in English, 12 in Spanish). A validated 21-item RE-AIM abstraction tool was used to determine the quality of reporting across studies (0-7 = low, 8-14 = moderate, and 15-21 = high). The number of indicators reported ranged from 3-14 (mean = 8.1 ± 2.6), with the majority of studies falling in the moderate quality reporting category. English and Spanish language articles did not differ on the number of indicators reported (8.1 vs. 8.3, respectively). However, Spanish articles reported more across reach indicators (62% vs. 43% of indicators), while English articles reported more across effectiveness indicators (69% vs 62%). Across RE-AIM dimensions, indicators for reach (48%), efficacy/effectiveness (67%), and implementation (41%) were reported more often than indicators of adoption (25%) and maintenance (10%). Few studies reported on the representativeness of participants, staff that delivered interventions, or the settings where interventions were adopted. Only 13% of the studies reported on quality of life and/or potential negative outcomes, 20% reported on intervention fidelity, and 11% on cost of implementation

  5. Issues and considerations for using the scalp surface Laplacian in EEG/ERP research: A tutorial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Jürgen; Tenke, Craig E

    2015-09-01

    Despite the recognition that the surface Laplacian may counteract adverse effects of volume conduction and recording reference for surface potential data, electrophysiology as a discipline has been reluctant to embrace this approach for data analysis. The reasons for such hesitation are manifold but often involve unfamiliarity with the nature of the underlying transformation, as well as intimidation by a perceived mathematical complexity, and concerns of signal loss, dense electrode array requirements, or susceptibility to noise. We revisit the pitfalls arising from volume conduction and the mandated arbitrary choice of EEG reference, describe the basic principle of the surface Laplacian transform in an intuitive fashion, and exemplify the differences between common reference schemes (nose, linked mastoids, average) and the surface Laplacian for frequently-measured EEG spectra (theta, alpha) and standard event-related potential (ERP) components, such as N1 or P3. We specifically review common reservations against the universal use of the surface Laplacian, which can be effectively addressed by employing spherical spline interpolations with an appropriate selection of the spline flexibility parameter and regularization constant. We argue from a pragmatic perspective that not only are these reservations unfounded but that the continued predominant use of surface potentials poses a considerable impediment on the progress of EEG and ERP research.

  6. The role of veterinarians in equestrian sport: a comparative review of ethical issues surrounding human and equine sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Madeleine L H

    2013-09-01

    Veterinarians have a key role in providing medical care for sports horses during and between competitions, but the standard client:veterinarian relationship that exists in companion and production animal medicine is distorted by the involvement of third parties in sports medicine, resulting in distinct ethical dilemmas which warrant focused academic attention. By comparing the existing literature on human sports medicine, this article reviews the ethical dilemmas which face veterinarians treating equine athletes, and the role of regulators in contributing to or resolving those dilemmas. Major ethical dilemmas occur both between and during competitions. These include conflicts of responsibility, conflicts between the need for client confidentiality and the need to share information in order to maximise animal welfare, and the need for an evidence base for treatment. Although many of the ethical problems faced in human and equine sports medicine are similar, the duty conferred upon a veterinarian by the licensing authority to ensure the welfare of animals committed to his or her care requires different obligations to those of a human sports medicine doctor. Suggested improvements to current practice which would help to address ethical dilemmas in equine sports medicine include an enhanced system for recording equine injuries, the use of professional Codes of Conduct and Codes of Ethics to establish acceptable responses to common ethical problems, and insistence that treatment of equine athletes is evidence-based (so far as possible) rather than economics-driven.

  7. A review on durability issues and restoration techniques in long-term operations of direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Asad; Scibioh, M. Aulice; Prabhuram, Joghee; An, Myung-Gi; Ha, Heung Yong

    2015-11-01

    Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) remain attractive among advanced energy conversion technologies due to their high energy density and simple system configuration. Although they made an early market entry but failed to attain a large-scale commercialization mainly because of their inferior performance sustainment in lifetime operations and high production costs. There have been lots of R&D efforts made to upgrade the long-term durability of DMFCs to a commercially acceptable standard. These rigorous efforts have been useful in gaining insights about various degradation mechanisms and their origins. This review first briefly describes the recent progress in lifetime enhancement of DMFC technology reported by various groups in academia and industry. Then, it is followed by comprehensive discussions on the major performance degradation routes and associated physico-chemical origins, and influence of operational parameters, together with the methods which have been employed to alleviate and restore the performance losses. Finally, a brief summary of the presented literature survey is provided in conjunction with some possible future research directions.

  8. Does functional MRI detect activation in white matter?A review of emerging evidence, issues, and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie Reanna Gawryluk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is a non-invasive technique that allows for visualization of activated brain regions. Until recently, fMRI studies have focused on gray matter. There are two main reasons white matter fMRI remains controversial: 1 the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD fMRI signal depends on cerebral blood flow and volume, which are lower in white matter than gray matter and 2 fMRI signal has been associated with post-synaptic potentials (mainly localized in gray matter as opposed to action potentials (the primary type of neural activity in white matter. Despite these observations, there is no direct evidence against measuring fMRI activation in white matter and reports of fMRI activation in white matter continue to increase. The questions underlying white matter fMRI activation are important. White matter fMRI activation has the potential to greatly expand the breadth of brain connectivity research, as well as improve the assessment and diagnosis of white matter and connectivity disorders. The current review provides an overview of the motivation to investigate white matter fMRI activation, as well as the published evidence of this phenomenon. We speculate on possible neurophysiologic bases of white matter fMRI signals, and discuss potential explanations for why reports of white matter fMRI activation are relatively scarce. We end with a discussion of future basic and clinical research directions in the study of white matter fMRI.

  9. Submarine and deep-sea mine tailing placements: A review of current practices, environmental issues, natural analogs and knowledge gaps in Norway and internationally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Trannum, Hilde C; Evenset, Anita; Levin, Lisa A; Andersson, Malin; Finne, Tor Erik; Hilario, Ana; Flem, Belinda; Christensen, Guttorm; Schaanning, Morten; Vanreusel, Ann

    2015-08-15

    The mining sector is growing in parallel with societal demands for minerals. One of the most important environmental issues and economic burdens of industrial mining on land is the safe storage of the vast amounts of waste produced. Traditionally, tailings have been stored in land dams, but the lack of land availability, potential risk of dam failure and topography in coastal areas in certain countries results in increasing disposal of tailings into marine systems. This review describes the different submarine tailing disposal methods used in the world in general and in Norway in particular, their impact on the environment (e.g. hyper-sedimentation, toxicity, processes related to changes in grain shape and size, turbidity), current legislation and need for future research. Understanding these impacts on the habitat and biota is essential to assess potential ecosystem changes and to develop best available techniques and robust management plans.

  10. Invited review paper: Some outstanding issues in the study of great megathrust earthquakes-The Cascadia example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kelin; Tréhu, Anne M.

    2016-08-01

    Because of a combination of new observational tools and a flurry of large megathrust earthquakes, tremendous progress has been made in recent years towards understanding the process of great subduction earthquakes at Cascadia and other subduction zones around the world. This review article attempts to clarify some of widely used geodynamic concepts and identify the most important scientific questions for future research related to megathrust behaviour. It is important to specify how the megathrust seismogenic zone has been defined when comparing data and models. Observations and concepts currently used to define the seismogenic zone include: (A) the stability transition in rate-and-state dependent friction; (B) the slip zone of large interplate earthquakes; (C) the distribution of small-medium earthquakes; and (D) the geodetically-determined zone of fault locking. Land-based geodetic measurements indicate that the Cascadia megathrust is locked to some extent, but the degree of locking is not well constrained. The near absence of detectable interplate seismicity, with the exception of a segment near 44.5°N and near the Mendocino Triple Junction, is presently interpreted to indicate full locking along most of Cascadia. Resolving the locking state requires seafloor geodetic measurements. The slip behaviour of the shallowest segment of the megathrust and its tsunamigenic potential are complex and variable. Structural studies combined with modeling have the potential to improve our understanding of the signature left in the structure by the slip history. For several reasons, but mostly because of interseismic viscoelastic stress relaxation, the downdip limit of megathrust locking cannot be reliably constrained by geodetic data. Independent information is needed on the composition and thermal state of fault zone materials. The spatial relationship between the seismogenic zone and the zone of Episodic Tremor and Slip (ETS) remains controversial. Observations from the

  11. Is adherence a relevant issue in the self-management education of diabetes? A mixed narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debussche X

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Xavier Debussche Endocrinology, Diabetology and Nutrition, CHU Félix Guyon, Saint-Denis, Réunion, France Abstract: While therapeutic patient education is now recognized as essential for optimizing the control of chronic diseases and patient well-being, adherence to treatment and medical recommendations is still a matter of debate. In type 2 diabetes, the nonadherence to therapy, estimated at more than 40%, is perceived as a barrier for improving the prognosis despite recent therapeutic advances. Interventional studies have barely begun to demonstrate the effectiveness of technical and behavioral actions. The aim of this review is to question the concept of adherence in terms of therapeutic education based on quantitative and qualitative data. The research on therapeutic education has shown the effectiveness of structured actions in type 2 diabetes, but adherence is rarely an end point in randomized trials. A positive but inconsistent or moderate effect of education actions on adherence has been shown in heterogeneous studies of varying quality. Program types, outlines, theoretical bases, and curricula to set up for action effectiveness are still being discussed. Qualitative studies, including sociological studies, provide a useful and constructive focus on this perspective. Adherence is a soft and flexible tool available to the patient in his/her singular chronic disease trajectory, and as such, integrates into individual therapeutic strategies, including socio-cultural interactions, beyond the medical explanation of the disease and the patient. Four key elements for the development of structured therapeutic education are discussed: 1 the access to health literacy, 2 the contextualization of education activities, 3 the long-term chronic dimension of self-management, and 4 the organizational aspects of health and care. Rather than focusing the objective on behavioral changes, structured therapeutic education actions should attempt to provide

  12. TREATMENT OF GASEOUS EFFLUENTS ISSUED FROM RECYCLING – A REVIEW OF THE CURRENT PRACTICES AND PROSPECTIVE IMPROVEMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; William Kerlin; Steven Bakhtiar

    2010-11-01

    The objectives of gaseous waste management for the recycling of nuclear used fuel is to reduce by best practical means (ALARA) and below regulatory limits, the quantity of activity discharged to the environment. The industrial PUREX process recovers the fissile material U(VI) and Pu(IV) to re-use them for the fabrication of new fuel elements e.g. recycling plutonium as a Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel or recycling uranium for new enrichment for Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). Meanwhile the separation of the waste (activation and fission product) is performed as a function of their pollution in order to store and avoid any potential danger and release towards the biosphere. Raffinate, that remains after the extraction step and which contains mostly all fission products and minor actinides is vitrified, the glass package being stored temporarily at the recycling plant site. Hulls and end pieces coming from PWR recycled fuel are compacted by means of a press leading to a volume reduced to 1/5th of initial volume. An organic waste treatment step will recycle the solvent, mainly tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) and some of its hydrolysis and radiolytic degradation products such as dibutyl phosphate (HDPB) and monobutyl phosphate (H2MBP). Although most scientific and technological development work focused on high level waste streams, a considerable effort is still under way in the area of intermediate and low level waste management. Current industrial practices for the treatment of gaseous effluents focusing essentially on Iodine-129 and Krypton-85 will be reviewed along with the development of novel technologies to extract, condition, and store these fission products. As an example, the current industrial practice is to discharge Kr-85, a radioactive gas, entirely to the atmosphere after dilution, but for the large recycling facilities envisioned in the near future, several techniques such as 1) cryogenic distillation and selective absorption in solvents, 2) adsorption on activated

  13. Home | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...s even true for databases with high-quality datasets. The Life Science Database Archiv...te as national public goods. The Archive makes it easier for many people to search datasets by metadata (des...s with clear terms of use (see here for detailed descriptions). In addition, the Archive provides datasets i...r contribution of each research to life science. Lifescience Database Archive Archiv

  14. Finding "Science" in the Archives of the Spanish Monarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portuondo, Maria M

    2016-03-01

    This essay explores the history of several archives that house the early modern records of Spanish imperial science. The modern "archival turn" urges us to think critically about archives and to recognize in the history of these collections an embedded, often implicit, history that--unless properly recognized, acknowledged, and understood--can distort the histories we are trying to tell. This essay uses a curious episode in the history of science to illustrate how Spanish archives relate to each other and shape the collections they house. During the late eighteenth century a young navy officer, Martín Fernández de Navarrete, was dispatched to all the principal archives of the Spanish monarchy with a peculiar mission: he was to search for evidence that the Spanish in fact had a scientific tradition. This essay uses his mission to explain how the original purpose of an archive--the archive's telos--may persist as a strong and potentially deterministic force in the work of historians of science. In the case of the archives discussed, this telos was shaped by issues as wide ranging as defending a nation's reputation against claims of colonial neglect and as idiosyncratic as an archivist's selection criteria.

  15. Management innovative practices for archives and special collections

    CERN Document Server

    Theimer, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Management: Innovative Practices for Archives and Special Collections explores the kinds of challenges that managers of archival programs face today and how those challenges can be met to achieve optimal results while working within existing resources. The book features thirteen case studies that demonstrate solutions to both traditional management concerns as well as new issues and opportunities presented by changes in technology and organizational environments. This book will help professionals build stronger archival programs by making effective use of people, technology, and resources whil

  16. Openness in participation, assessment, and policy making upon issues of environment and environmental health: a review of literature and recent project results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjola, Mikko V; Tuomisto, Jouni T

    2011-06-16

    Issues of environment and environmental health involve multiple interests regarding e.g. political, societal, economical, and public concerns represented by different kinds of organizations and individuals. Not surprisingly, stakeholder and public participation has become a major issue in environmental and environmental health policy and assessment. The need for participation has been discussed and reasoned by many, including environmental legislators around the world. In principle, participation is generally considered as desirable and the focus of most scholars and practitioners is on carrying out participation, and making participation more effective. In practice also doubts regarding the effectiveness and importance of participation exist among policy makers, assessors, and public, leading even to undermining participatory practices in policy making and assessment.There are many possible purposes for participation, and different possible models of interaction between assessment and policy. A solid conceptual understanding of the interrelations between participation, assessment, and policy making is necessary in order to design and implement effective participatory practices. In this paper we ask, do current common conceptions of assessment, policy making and participation provide a sufficient framework for achieving effective participation? This question is addresses by reviewing the range of approaches to participation in assessment and policy making upon issues of environment and environmental health and some related insights from recent research projects, INTARESE and BENERIS.Openness, considered e.g. in terms of a) scope of participation, b) access to information, c) scope of contribution, d) timing of openness, and e) impact of contribution, provides a new perspective to the relationships between participation, assessment and policy making. Participation, assessment, and policy making form an inherently intertwined complex with interrelated objectives and

  17. NOAO Science Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Robert L.; De La Pena, Michele; Zarate, Nelson; Lauer, Tod R.

    2002-12-01

    The NOAO Science Archive (NSA) is a step toward building a comprehensive scientific archive of the optical and infrared data holdings of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Earlier efforts included the NOAO Save the Bits archive (more properly a data store) with current raw data holdings from telescopes at both Kitt Peak National Observatory and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory of more than 3 million images, totaling in excess of 20 terabytes. The NOAO Science Archive builds on the foundation provided by the NOAO Deep-Wide Field Survey (NDWFS) Archive that offers sophisticated analysis tools -- as well as the coherent and extensive NDWFS data set. NSA is an initiative of the NOAO Data Products Program aimed at identifying scientifically useful datasets from the large and growing NOAO holdings and making these data available to the astronomical community, while providing tools for data discovery, mining and exploration. The goals for the NSA are: to immediately create a scientifically useful archive of NOAO Survey data, to develop in-house expertise in the relevant technologies, to identify and document requirements for NOAO's future comprehensive archive by providing a design study, and to create a high level of visibility and utility for both the NOAO Archive and NOAO Surveys (for example, with web services available at http://archive.noao.edu). The archive and associated NOAO assets are expected to grow into a resource of the National Virtual Observatory.

  18. Archive Pleasures or Whose Time Is It?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tamboukou

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I draw on my experience of doing archival research at the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Centre, University of Texas at Austin and at the archives of the Rodin Museum in Paris. Reflecting on my experience of reading Dora CARRINGTON's and Gwen JOHN's letters, I address the problem of how a researcher makes specific choices while working in the archive: choosing what to see, what to note and even more what to transcribe. These are questions that relate to wider issues of how the researcher can oscillate between pathos and distance and create a transitional space that can accommodate both her involvement and her need for detachment and reflection. What has further emerged from my work in the archives is what I have theorized as heterotemporalities, space/time blocks where women's past is so forcefully contracted in my perception of the present that it becomes a vital part of my actuality as a feminist researcher. I therefore discuss how my experience of working in the archives has created conditions of possibility for transgressing the constraints of the present and has facilitated leaps into open and radical futures, constituting chronotopes of the feminist imaginary. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs110317

  19. Special Issue of Higher-Order and Symbolic Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    from a paper presented at ICFP'01, the 2001 International Conference on Functional Programming [2]. The three articles were subjected to the usual process of journal reviewing. "Non-standard semantics for program slicing" builds on Cousot's semantics hierarchy of transition systems and presents a new...... Generation of Staged Geometric Predicates" addresses the problem of computing the sign of a polynomial at a given input value. Many geometric algorithms require this sign computation to be exact and efficient. The solution presented here simplifies and generalizes Jonathan Shewchuk's. This article...... is the archival version of a work that was presented at ICFP'01. We conclude this issue with a corrigendum for an article published just 10 years ago [1]. References 1. Harper, B. and M. Lillibridge: 1993, `Polymorphic Type Assignment and CPS Conversion'. LISP and Symbolic Computation 6(3/4), 361-380. 2. Leroy, X...

  20. Open Praxis vol. 8 issue 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Gil-Jaurena (ed., Various authors

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This last Open Praxis issue in 2016 is an open issue that includes four research papers, two innovative practice papers and two book reviews. It also includes the list of reviewers that have collaborated in volume 8.

  1. Meteorological Archival Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The Bergen Data Center (BDC) provides data archival capability for meteorological and oceanographic data. DESCRIPTION: The BDC operates as a resource for...

  2. Archival bone marrow samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Bendik; Najmi, Laeya A; Wesolowska-Andersen, Agata;

    2015-01-01

    AB Archival samples represent a significant potential for genetic studies, particularly in severe diseases with risk of lethal outcome, such as in cancer. In this pilot study, we aimed to evaluate the usability of archival bone marrow smears and biopsies for DNA extraction and purification, whole...... with samples stored for 4 to 10 years. Acceptable call rates for SNPs were detected for 7 of 42 archival samples. In conclusion, archival bone marrow samples are suitable for DNA extraction and multiple marker analysis, but WGA was less successful, especially when longer fragments were analyzed. Multiple SNP...

  3. Extracting, Transforming and Archiving Scientific Data

    CERN Document Server

    Lemire, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    It is becoming common to archive research datasets that are not only large but also numerous. In addition, their corresponding metadata and the software required to analyse or display them need to be archived. Yet the manual curation of research data can be di?cult and expensive, particularly in very large digital repositories, hence the importance of models and tools for automating digital curation tasks. The automation of these tasks faces three major challenges: (1) research data and data sources are highly heterogeneous, (2) future research needs are difficult to anticipate, (3) data is hard to index. To address these problems, we propose the Extract, Transform and Archive (ETA) model for managing and mechanizing the curation of research data. Speci?cally, we propose a scalable strategy for addressing the research-data problem, ranging from the extraction of legacy data to its long-term storage. We review some existing solutions and propose novel avenues of research.

  4. The Role of Planetary Data System Archive Standards in International Planetary Data Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinness, Edward; Slavney, Susan; Beebe, Reta; Crichton, Daniel

    A major objective of NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) is to efficiently archive and make accessible digital data produced by NASA's planetary missions, research programs, and data analysis programs. The PDS is comprised of a federation of groups known as nodes, with each node focused on archiving and managing planetary data from a given science discipline. PDS nodes include Atmospheres, Geosciences, Small Bodies (asteroids, comets, and dust), Rings, Planetary Plasma Interactions, and Imaging. There are also support nodes for engineering, radio science, and ancillary data, such as geometry information. The PDS archives include space-borne, ground-based, and laboratory experiment data from several decades of NASA exploration of comets, asteroids, moons, and planets. PDS archives are peer-reviewed, welldocumented, and accessible online via web sites, catalogs, and other user-interfaces that provide search and retrieval capabilities. Current holdings within the PDS online repositories total approximately 50 TB of data. Over the next few years, the PDS is planning for a rapid expansion in the volume of data being delivered to its archives. The archive standards developed by the PDS are crucial elements for producing planetary data archives that are consistent across missions and planetary science disciplines and that yield archives that are useable by the planetary research community. These standards encompass the full range of archiving needs. They include standards for the format of data products and the metadata needed to detail how observations were made. They also specify how data products and ancillary information such as documentation, calibration, and geometric information are packaged into data sets. The PDS standards are documented in its Planetary Science Data Dictionary and in its Standards Reference Document and Archive Preparation Guide. The PDS standards are being used to design and implement data archives for current and future NASA planetary missions

  5. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    WEB WATCH (204) Try unearthing some interesting information about archaeology BOOK REVIEWS (206) Teaching and assessing practical skills Book Review: Learn to drive with Sir Isaac Newton DVD REVIEW (207) Bring some sunshine into the classroom EQUIPMENT REVIEWS (208) Robust air puck takes a kicking Flowlog offers sensing options plus multimode datalogging Mastering Chladni figures takes practice but it offers surprises

  6. The monitoring, evaluation, reporting, and verification of climate change mitigation projects: Discussion of issues and methodologies and review of existing protocols and guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, E.; Sathaye, J.

    1997-12-01

    Because of concerns with the growing threat of global climate change from increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, the US and other countries are implementing, by themselves or in cooperation with one or more other nations (i.e., joint implementation), climate change mitigation projects. These projects will reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or sequester carbon, and will also result in non-GHG impacts (i.e., environmental, economic, and social impacts). Monitoring, evaluating, reporting, and verifying (MERV) guidelines are needed for these projects in order to accurately determine their net GHG, and other, benefits. Implementation of MERV guidelines is also intended to: (1) increase the reliability of data for estimating GHG benefits; (2) provide real-time data so that mid-course corrections can be made; (3) introduce consistency and transparency across project types and reporters; and (4) enhance the credibility of the projects with stakeholders. In this paper, the authors review the issues and methodologies involved in MERV activities. In addition, they review protocols and guidelines that have been developed for MERV of GHG emissions in the energy and non-energy sectors by governments, nongovernmental organizations, and international agencies. They comment on their relevance and completeness, and identify several topics that future protocols and guidelines need to address, such as (1) establishing a credible baseline; (2) accounting for impacts outside project boundaries through leakage; (3) net GHG reductions and other impacts; (4) precision of measurement; (5) MERV frequency; (6) persistence (sustainability) of savings, emissions reduction, and carbon sequestration; (7) reporting by multiple project participants; (8) verification of GHG reduction credits; (9) uncertainty and risk; (10) institutional capacity in conducting MERV; and (11) the cost of MERV.

  7. A Review of Studies on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures Issues%实施卫生与植物卫生措施研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚亚梅; 叶志华; 钱永忠

    2012-01-01

    食品安全管理、消费者的质量和安全需求,以及保护与发展农产品贸易等多种诉求共同推动了卫生与植物卫生( SPS)措施在确定农产品市场准入方面地位的提升.本文重点围绕SPS措施实施所产生的影响及其程度测算方法、发展中国家应对等问题,对现有研究进行综述,并提出未来研究的方向.%Sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures in the main are aimed at protecting the consumer' s health, increasing economic viability, harmonizing well-being within and between nations. Food regulation, consumer' s appeals for safety food, and agro-product trade development boost the importance of SPS measures in determining market access. The paper reviews major issues on SPS measures implementation, including the impact of SPS measures, scholar' s research methods and how developing countries address SPS challenges, and proposes several future research fields.

  8. Review on Mycotoxin Issues in Ruminants: Occurrence in Forages, Effects of Mycotoxin Ingestion on Health Status and Animal Performance and Practical Strategies to Counteract Their Negative Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Antonio; Giuberti, Gianluca; Frisvad, Jens C.; Bertuzzi, Terenzio; Nielsen, Kristian F.

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant diets include cereals, protein feeds, their by-products as well as hay and grass, grass/legume, whole-crop maize, small grain or sorghum silages. Furthermore, ruminants are annually or seasonally fed with grazed forage in many parts of the World. All these forages could be contaminated by several exometabolites of mycotoxigenic fungi that increase and diversify the risk of mycotoxin exposure in ruminants compared to swine and poultry that have less varied diets. Evidence suggests the greatest exposure for ruminants to some regulated mycotoxins (aflatoxins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A, fumonisins and zearalenone) and to many other secondary metabolites produced by different species of Alternaria spp. (e.g., AAL toxins, alternariols, tenuazonic acid or 4Z-infectopyrone), Aspergillus flavus (e.g., kojic acid, cyclopiazonic acid or β-nitropropionic acid), Aspergillus fuminatus (e.g., gliotoxin, agroclavine, festuclavines or fumagillin), Penicillium roqueforti and P. paneum (e.g., mycophenolic acid, roquefortines, PR toxin or marcfortines) or Monascus ruber (citrinin and monacolins) could be mainly related to forage contamination. This review includes the knowledge of mycotoxin occurrence reported in the last 15 years, with special emphasis on mycotoxins detected in forages, and animal toxicological issues due to their ingestion. Strategies for preventing the problem of mycotoxin feed contamination under farm conditions are discussed. PMID:26274974

  9. Book Review: Radiation protection and measurement issues related to cargo scanning with accelerator-produced high-energy X rays, NCRP Commentary No. 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert May

    2008-11-01

    Having spent roughly the first third of his health physics career on the Norfolk, VA waterfront area, the reviewer was excited to see the NCRP Commentary 20, 'Radiation Protection and Measurements Issues Related to Cargo Scanning with Accelerator Technology'. It signals the advent of the Cargo Advanced Automated Radiography System (CAARS). The waterfront is a border that challenges physical security programs and technology. As Commentary 20 provides in the introduction, waterfront cargo terminals and land border crossings together represent over 300 ports of entry in the USA. Every year, the USA receives over 10 million cargo containers from commercial shipping and a roughly equal amount from land border crossings. While rapidly processing containerized cargo, CAARS will be able to detect small quantities of high atomic number radioactive materials and dense shielding materials used for radioactive gamma ray sources and even illicit human cargo - important concerns for homeland security. It will also be able to detect other contraband such as explosives, weapons and drugs. Section 1 of the Commentary presents an executive summary with NCRP's radiation dose management recommendations and related operational recommendations for effective implementation of CAARS technology in the current regulatory environment.

  10. Review on Mycotoxin Issues in Ruminants: Occurrence in Forages, Effects of Mycotoxin Ingestion on Health Status and Animal Performance and Practical Strategies to Counteract Their Negative Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Antonio; Giuberti, Gianluca; Frisvad, Jens C; Bertuzzi, Terenzio; Nielsen, Kristian F

    2015-08-12

    Ruminant diets include cereals, protein feeds, their by-products as well as hay and grass, grass/legume, whole-crop maize, small grain or sorghum silages. Furthermore, ruminants are annually or seasonally fed with grazed forage in many parts of the World. All these forages could be contaminated by several exometabolites of mycotoxigenic fungi that increase and diversify the risk of mycotoxin exposure in ruminants compared to swine and poultry that have less varied diets. Evidence suggests the greatest exposure for ruminants to some regulated mycotoxins (aflatoxins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A, fumonisins and zearalenone) and to many other secondary metabolites produced by different species of Alternaria spp. (e.g., AAL toxins, alternariols, tenuazonic acid or 4Z-infectopyrone), Aspergillus flavus (e.g., kojic acid, cyclopiazonic acid or β-nitropropionic acid), Aspergillus fuminatus (e.g., gliotoxin, agroclavine, festuclavines or fumagillin), Penicillium roqueforti and P. paneum (e.g., mycophenolic acid, roquefortines, PR toxin or marcfortines) or Monascus ruber (citrinin and monacolins) could be mainly related to forage contamination. This review includes the knowledge of mycotoxin occurrence reported in the last 15 years, with special emphasis on mycotoxins detected in forages, and animal toxicological issues due to their ingestion. Strategies for preventing the problem of mycotoxin feed contamination under farm conditions are discussed.

  11. Review on the Studies of Cost Accounting Issues in Responding to Antidumping%应诉反倾销成本会计问题研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔建华

    2012-01-01

    反倾销调查实质上是关于产品成本和价格的会计问题之争,因此,以涉诉产品成本举证为切入点,沿着应诉反倾销环境下成本举证信息质量特征、探索构建应诉反倾销导向的成本会计核算系统、我国会计制度国际协调与涉诉产品成本举证、应诉反倾销与企业的社会责任成本等展开文献回顾与评述,并给出重要启示。%The anti-dumping investigation essentially is the accounting issues for the price and cost of product.Therefore,this paper takes the cost defend of products involved in lawsuit as a starting point to make some literature review and comment from the aspects of cost information quality characteristics in responding to anti-dumping,the building of cost accounting system oriented to responding to anti-dumping,international coordination of China's accounting system and cost defend of products involved in lawsuit,lawsuit responding to anti-dumping and the cost of corporate social responsibility.It might have some important inspiration.

  12. Review on Mycotoxin Issues in Ruminants: Occurrence in Forages, Effects of Mycotoxin Ingestion on Health Status and Animal Performance and Practical Strategies to Counteract Their Negative Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gallo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ruminant diets include cereals, protein feeds, their by-products as well as hay and grass, grass/legume, whole-crop maize, small grain or sorghum silages. Furthermore, ruminants are annually or seasonally fed with grazed forage in many parts of the World. All these forages could be contaminated by several exometabolites of mycotoxigenic fungi that increase and diversify the risk of mycotoxin exposure in ruminants compared to swine and poultry that have less varied diets. Evidence suggests the greatest exposure for ruminants to some regulated mycotoxins (aflatoxins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A, fumonisins and zearalenone and to many other secondary metabolites produced by different species of Alternaria spp. (e.g., AAL toxins, alternariols, tenuazonic acid or 4Z-infectopyrone, Aspergillus flavus (e.g., kojic acid, cyclopiazonic acid or β-nitropropionic acid, Aspergillus fuminatus (e.g., gliotoxin, agroclavine, festuclavines or fumagillin, Penicillium roqueforti and P. paneum (e.g., mycophenolic acid, roquefortines, PR toxin or marcfortines or Monascus ruber (citrinin and monacolins could be mainly related to forage contamination. This review includes the knowledge of mycotoxin occurrence reported in the last 15 years, with special emphasis on mycotoxins detected in forages, and animal toxicological issues due to their ingestion. Strategies for preventing the problem of mycotoxin feed contamination under farm conditions are discussed.

  13. Stratification issues in the primary system. Review of available validation experiments and State-of-the-Art in modelling capabilities (StratRev)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westin, J.; Henriksson, M. (Vattenfall Research and Development AB (Sweden)); Paettikangas, T. (VTT (Finland)); Toppila, T.; Raemae, T. (Fortum Nuclear Services Ltd (Finland)); Kudinov, P. (KTH Nuclear Power Safety (Sweden)); Anglart, H. (KTH Nuclear Reactor Technology (Sweden))

    2009-08-15

    The objective of the present report is to review available validation experiments and State-of-the-Art in modelling of stratification and mixing in the primary system of Light Water Reactors. A topical workshop was arranged in AElvkarleby in June 2008 within the framework of BWR-OG, and the presentations from various utilities showed that stratification issues are not unusual and can cause costly stops in the production. It is desirable to take actions in order to reduce the probability for stratification to occur, and to develop well-validated and accepted tools and procedures for analyzing upcoming stratification events. A research plan covering the main questions is outlined, and a few suggestions regarding more limited research activities are given. Since many of the stratification events results in thermal loads that are localized in time and space, CFD is a suitable tool. However, the often very large and complex geometry posses a great challenge to CFD, and it is important to perform a step-by-step increase in complexity with intermediate validation versus relevant experimental data. The ultimate goal is to establish Best Practice Guidelines that can be followed both by utilities and authorities in case of an event including stratification and thermal loads. An extension of the existing Best Practice Guidelines for CFD in nuclear safety applications developed by OECD/NEA is thus suggested as a relevant target for a continuation project. (au)

  14. On the issues of building Information Warehouses

    CERN Document Server

    Laha, Arijit

    2009-01-01

    While performing knowledge-intensive tasks of professional nature, the knowledge workers need to access and process large volume of information. Apart from the quantity, they also require that the information received is of high quality in terms of authenticity and details. This, in turn, requires that the information delivered should also include argumentative support, exhibiting the reasoning process behind their development and provenance to indicate their lineage. In conventional document-centric practices for information management, such details are difficult to capture, represent/archive and retrieve/deliver. To achieve such capability we need to re-think some core issues of information management from the above requirements perspective. In this paper we develop a framework for comprehensive representation of information in archive, capturing informational contents along with their context. We shall call it the "Information Warehouse (IW)" framework of information archival. The IW is a significant yet t...

  15. Inventing the Archive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Kasper Risbjerg

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the emergence of the archive as the primary venue for the production of historical knowledge in the 19th century. The turn to archival research, the article argues, may be considered as a response to the discussions about the problems of testimony that dominated 18th- an...

  16. Online archives of Science

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    CERN Library has enabled till 26th June 2009 a trial access to the online archives of Science, starting in 1880. You are welcome to test this resource at http://www.sciencemag.org/archive/ Please contact mailto:Anne.Gentil-Beccot@cern.ch, for any feedback to share.

  17. Costs of Archival Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex; Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the cost of archival storage. The study is part of a project conducted by The Danish National Archives, The Royal Library, and The State and University Library to develop a generic cost model for digital preservation (CMDP). The purposes of the study were...

  18. The Pervasiveness of Archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Ivacs

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Regardless of the widely spread use in historiography, anthropology, cultural studies, information sciences, archives is a heavily inflated word. Beginning with the ancient Greek administrative role of Archeion, the emergence of archival institution as a symbolic mean to strengthen national identity in the age of nation states, through referencing social construction and parallel stories of postmodern historiography, there is a need for a new archival theory to connect high level theories with new archival practices embedded in the dig- ital society. The essay tries to remove some interpretative layers from the non-discoursive practices of archives and it yields the generative nature of its architecture by referencing media archeology as method. The analysis of Eastern and Central European historical examples add nuance to our understanding of archival complexities: the fate of secret police files in the Post-Communist societies, how to serve the collective memory of traumatized nations with new approaches to collection management, and finally, referencing Pan-European efforts to cooperate or to compete with huge private technology providers in the digital age. The essay is part of a growing body of research on resituating “the archival identity” and suggesting to examine both static and dynamic archives in the light of technology developments to understand digital forgetting, digital remembering and controlling data for the whole society.

  19. Key Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya Y Rieger

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A few months ago, while I was participating in a conference about open access infrastructures, a delegate from a governmental agency asked, “Why does each library need to maintain a repository for their own scientists?” He was rightfully wondering if a broad collaboration in building a network of archives will provide a durable and extensible technology and service framework for ever-increasing digital scholarly content. The ensuing discussion did not offer a plausible response but accentuated that we do not have in place a plan for building an expandable infrastructure to facilitate communication and exchange of information among rapidly proliferating distinct instances of institutional and subject repositories.

  20. LSDB Archive - KEGG MEDICUS | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...o help medical professionals and people in society to better understand the scientific basis of diseases and drugs. (This archiv...cription Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us LSDB Archive - KEGG MEDICUS | LSDB Archive ...

  1. Using Digital Archives in Quantitative Discourse Studies: Methodological Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobie Van Krieken

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This methodological essay discusses the possibilities of using digital archives in quantitative discourse studies. I illustrate these possibilities by discussing a study in which the digital archive Delpher was used to build a relatively large corpus of newspaper narratives (N=300 in order to test hypotheses about the historical development of linguistic features associated with objective and subjective reporting. The large amount of data collected in digital archives like Delpher facilitates the construction of corpora for such hypothesis-driven studies. However, the collection of newspaper articles on Delpher in fact constitutes only a small, non-random and continuously changing selection of all available data. Due to these characteristics, the use of Delpher jeopardizes two core values of quantitative empirical research: the generalizability and the replicability of findings. Although these issues cannot be easily overcome, I argue that digital archives have the potential to broaden the methodological scope of discourse studies and increase the overall significance of the field.

  2. Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions Grid of the Future White Paper on Review of Recent Reliability Issues and Systems Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauer, John F.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    1999-12-01

    This report is one of six reports developed under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program in Power System Integration and Reliability (PSIR). The objective of this report is to review, analyze, and evaluate critical reliability issues demonstrated by recent disturbance events in the North America power system. Eleven major disturbances are examined, most occurring in this decade. The strategic challenge is that the pattern of technical need has persisted for a long period of time. For more than a decade, anticipation of market deregulation has been a major disincentive to new investments in system capacity. It has also inspired reduced maintenance of existing assets. A massive infusion of better technology is emerging as the final option to continue reliable electrical services. If an investment in better technology will not be made in a timely manner, then North America should plan its adjustments to a very different level of electrical service. It is apparent that technical operations staff among the utilities can be very effective at marshaling their forces in the immediate aftermath of a system emergency, and that serious disturbances often lead to improved mechanisms for coordinated operation. It is not at all apparent that such efforts can be sustained through voluntary reliability organizations in which utility personnel external to those organizations do most of the technical work. The eastern interconnection shows several situations in which much of the technical support has migrated from the utilities to the Independent System Operator (ISO), and the ISO staffs or shares staff with the regional reliability council. This process may be a natural and very positive consequence of utility restructuring. If so, the process should be expedited in regions where it is less advanced.

  3. HPV-associated Head and Neck Cancer: A Virus-related Cancer Epidemic – A Review of Epidemiology, Biology, Virus Detection and Issues in Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marur, Shanthi; D’Souza, Gypsyamber; Westra, William H.; Forastiere, Arlene A.

    2017-01-01

    Summary A rise in the annual incidence of oropharynx squamous cell cancer, specifically the lingual and palatine tonsils, in white men under the age of 50, non-smokers and non-alcoholics, has been observed over the past decade. This entity is associated with human papilloma virus-16 infection and the risk factors include an increased number of oral and vaginal sex partners at a younger age. The biology of HPV-related oropharynx cancer is distinct with p53 degradation, Rb pathway inactivation, and p16 upregulation. This is in contrast to tobacco related oropharynx cancer which is characterized by p53 mutation and downregulation of p16. The optimal method to detect virus in tumor is controversial and both in situ hybridization and PCR are commonly used; p16 immunohistochemistry may serve as a potential surrogate marker. HPV-related oropharynx cancer appears to be more responsive to chemotherapy and radiation than HPV negative orpharynx cancer. HPV-16 is a prognostic marker for improved overall survival and disease-free survival but has not yet been shown to be a predictive marker. Investigators continue to explore unanswered questions regarding the natural history of oral HPV infection, why the increase dominates in men, the potential of HPV vaccines for primary prevention, developing a commercially available accurate method to detect the virus in tumor, and treatment strategies that reduce toxicity without compromising survival. The goal of this review is to highlight our current understanding of the epidemiology, biology, detection, as well as current management and unresolved issues of HPV-related oropharyngeal HNSCC. PMID:20451455

  4. Book Review: Philosophy and geometry: theoretical and historical issues. Lorenzo Magnani, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 2001, pp. xix + 249, US 88. ISBN 0-792-36933-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torretti, Roberto

    The best philosophers have been fascinated with geometry ever since the inception of both traditions in 5th century Greece. They have perceived the apparent certainty of geometrical propositions as an intimation that an equally secure knowledge can be had on a subject of the greatest practical concern, viz., the principles of morals. They also have sought to find-as is their wont-reasons for that certainty. This search has given rise to the theoretical and historical issues magisterially reviewed in this book by Lorenzo Magnani. He focuses his attention especially on Kant (Chapters 2 and 3), Poincaré (Chapter 5) and Husserl (Chapter 7.2), and on their original and importantly different ways of explaining the true nature and source of geometrical truth. Despite their diversity, all three can be said to share a trait that is rarely emphasized and which Magnani brings out in full force in his study of Kant. Chapter 2 is called "Geometry: the Model of Knowledge", and his detailed and very able presentation of Kant's philosophy of geometry in this chapter and the next stresses the paradigmatic role of geometrical knowledge in Kant's conception of science. This role is even clearer in the case of Poincaré, whose conventionalism was rooted in his view of geometry but was eventually extended to all the foundations of physics. An enterprising scholar might even try to make a similar point with regard to Husserl, whose views on the establishment of objectivity and science appear to fit geometry better than any other branch of knowledge.

  5. Cancer screening in the United States, 2016: A review of current American Cancer Society guidelines and current issues in cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert A; Andrews, Kimberly; Brooks, Durado; DeSantis, Carol E; Fedewa, Stacey A; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Manassaram-Baptiste, Deana; Brawley, Otis W; Wender, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    Each year the American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes a summary of its guidelines for early cancer detection, data and trends in cancer screening rates, and select issues related to cancer screening. In this issue of the journal, we summarize current ACS cancer screening guidelines, including the update of the breast cancer screening guideline, discuss quality issues in colorectal cancer screening and new developments in lung cancer screening, and provide the latest data on utilization of cancer screening from the National Health Interview Survey.

  6. The Planetary Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penteado, Paulo F.; Trilling, David; Szalay, Alexander; Budavári, Tamás; Fuentes, César

    2014-11-01

    We are building the first system that will allow efficient data mining in the astronomical archives for observations of Solar System Bodies. While the Virtual Observatory has enabled data-intensive research making use of large collections of observations across multiple archives, Planetary Science has largely been denied this opportunity: most astronomical data services are built based on sky positions, and moving objects are often filtered out.To identify serendipitous observations of Solar System objects, we ingest the archive metadata. The coverage of each image in an archive is a volume in a 3D space (RA,Dec,time), which we can represent efficiently through a hierarchical triangular mesh (HTM) for the spatial dimensions, plus a contiguous time interval. In this space, an asteroid occupies a curve, which we determine integrating its orbit into the past. Thus when an asteroid trajectory intercepts the volume of an archived image, we have a possible observation of that body. Our pipeline then looks in the archive's catalog for a source with the corresponding coordinates, to retrieve its photometry. All these matches are stored into a database, which can be queried by object identifier.This database consists of archived observations of known Solar System objects. This means that it grows not only from the ingestion of new images, but also from the growth in the number of known objects. As new bodies are discovered, our pipeline can find archived observations where they could have been recorded, providing colors for these newly-found objects. This growth becomes more relevant with the new generation of wide-field surveys, particularly LSST.We also present one use case of our prototype archive: after ingesting the metadata for SDSS, 2MASS and GALEX, we were able to identify serendipitous observations of Solar System bodies in these 3 archives. Cross-matching these occurrences provided us with colors from the UV to the IR, a much wider spectral range than that

  7. Challenging the One-Way Paradigm for More Effective Science Communication: A Critical Review of Two Public Campaigns Addressing Contentious Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntee, Marie; Mortimer, Claire

    2013-01-01

    This article examines two large-scale public communication campaigns to explore the appropriateness and effectiveness of using one-way communication in contentious environmental issues. The findings show while one-way communication can be successfully employed in contentious issues, it is not appropriate for all contexts and may contribute to…

  8. Searching the scientific literature: implications for quantitative and qualitative reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yelena P; Aylward, Brandon S; Roberts, Michael C; Evans, Spencer C

    2012-08-01

    Literature reviews are an essential step in the research process and are included in all empirical and review articles. Electronic databases are commonly used to gather this literature. However, several factors can affect the extent to which relevant articles are retrieved, influencing future research and conclusions drawn. The current project examined articles obtained by comparable search strategies in two electronic archives using an exemplar search to illustrate factors that authors should consider when designing their own search strategies. Specifically, literature searches were conducted in PsycINFO and PubMed targeting review articles on two exemplar disorders (bipolar disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder) and issues of classification and/or differential diagnosis. Articles were coded for relevance and characteristics of article content. The two search engines yielded significantly different proportions of relevant articles overall and by disorder. Keywords differed across search engines for the relevant articles identified. Based on these results, it is recommended that when gathering literature for review papers, multiple search engines should be used, and search syntax and strategies be tailored to the unique capabilities of particular engines. For meta-analyses and systematic reviews, authors may consider reporting the extent to which different archives or sources yielded relevant articles for their particular review.

  9. Transnational archives: the Canadian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Creet

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the concept of the transnational archive as a counterpoint to the idea that a national archive is necessarily a locus of a static idea of nation. The Canadian national archives is used as a case study of an archives that was transnational in its inception, and one that has continued to change in its mandate and materials as a response to patterns in migration and changing notions of multiculturalism as a Canadian federal policy. It introduces the most recent formation of the transnational archive and its denizens: the genealogical archive inhabited by family historians.

  10. Physical forcing and physical/biochemical variability of the Mediterranean Sea: a review of unresolved issues and directions for future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Malanotte-Rizzoli

    2013-07-01

    accessible locations, these convection cells are much more amenable to direct observational surveys and mooring arrays. An ubiquitous, energetic mesoscale and sub-mesoscale eddy field is superimposed to and interacts with the sub-basin scale, wind-driven gyres that characterize the upper thermocline circulation. Three different scales of motion are therefore superimposed producing a richness of interaction processes which typify similar interactions in unexplored ocean regions. Both wide and narrow shelves are present separated by steep continental slopes from the deep interiors. Cross-shelf fluxes of physical as well biogeochemical parameters are crucial in determining the properties of the shallow versus deep local ecosystems and their trophic chain. Most importantly, the Mediterranean Sea is a basin of contrasting ecosystems, from the strongly oligotrophic deep interiors to the fully eutrophic northern Adriatic characterized by recurrent, anomalous algal blooms and related anoxia events. This review focuses on the identification of the major unresolved scientific issues and wants also to provide directions for future research which may lead to the formulation of interdisciplinary, collaborative implementation plans to address these issues both theoretically and observationally.

  11. Pharmacovigilance as a tool for safety and monitoring: a review of general issues and the specific challenges with end-stage renal failure patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob D

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dalia Jacob,1 Belén Marrón,2 Jay Ehrlich,1 Peter A Rutherford3 1Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Deerfield, IL, USA; 2Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Madrid, Spain; 3Baxter Healthcare SA, Zurich, Switzerland Abstract: Pharmacovigilance is instrumental in helping to ensure patient safety for both newly released drugs and those that are well established in the market. However, while pharmacovigilance procedures are strictly regulated in the clinical trial setting, post-marketing adverse event reporting is not well implemented or enforced. As such, the underreporting of adverse events, in relation to drugs that are on the market, is estimated to be in the region of 90%. The identification of drug safety issues in patients with complex diseases and extensive comorbidities is therefore particularly challenging. Dialysis patients – those with end-stage renal disease and often other comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease – are a population with significant treatment challenges. Patients receive dialysis using complex medical devices (eg, a peritoneal dialysis home cycler and also receive a range of pharmaceutical agents as part of dialysis itself (eg, peritoneal dialysis solutions. Many of the pharmaceutical agents used to treat these patients have been developed in populations without these complications and, therefore, an extensive knowledge of potential problems and contraindications in the dialysis population is lacking. It is important that the nephrology community understands the concept of pharmacovigilance – the pharmacologic science relating to the detection, assessment, understanding, and prevention of adverse effects, particularly long-term and short-term side effects, of medicines. Health care professionals (HCPs and providers, pharmaceutical companies, global regulatory agencies, and the patients themselves all play unique and critical roles in this process. This review defines the science of

  12. Download - KEGG MEDICUS | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...F URLs by Artio About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - KEGG MEDICUS | LSDB Archive ...

  13. Download - PLACE | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ... About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - PLACE | LSDB Archive ...

  14. License - Gclust Server | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...base Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us License - Gclust Server | LSDB Archive ...

  15. License - Society Catalog | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...se Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us License - Society Catalog | LSDB Archive ...

  16. Download - KOME | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ... About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - KOME | LSDB Archive ...

  17. Download - RGP physicalmap | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...ase Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - RGP physicalmap | LSDB Archive ...

  18. Database Description - DGBY | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...EF URLs by Artio About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Database Description - DGBY | LSDB Archive ...

  19. Download - Society Catalog | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...icense Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - Society Catalog | LSDB Archive ...

  20. License - KEGG MEDICUS | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ... Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us License - KEGG MEDICUS | LSDB Archive ...

  1. Download - GETDB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...io About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - GETDB | LSDB Archive ...

  2. Download - RMG | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - RMG | LSDB Archive ...

  3. Download - Plabrain DB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...escription Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - Plabrain DB | LSDB Archive ...

  4. License - RGP physicalmap | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us RGP physical...e Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us License - RGP physicalmap | LSDB Archive ...

  5. Mapping data - KOME | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...bout This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Mapping data - KOME | LSDB Archive ...

  6. Download - RGP caps | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...atabase Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - RGP caps | LSDB Archive ...

  7. Sequence Read Archive (SRA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sequence Read Archive (SRA) stores raw sequencing data from the next generation of sequencing platforms including Roche 454 GS System®, Illumina Genome...

  8. Mariner 10 Image Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mariner 10 Image Archive includes tools to view shaded relief maps of the surface of Mercury, a 3D globe, and all images acquired by NASA's Mariner 10 mission.

  9. Emergency_RDS_ARCHIVE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Archive of past 9-1-1 data releases at rough yearly intervals chosen from availbable datasets from 1999 to present. For a historical overview on the genesis of this...

  10. NASA's Astrophysics Data Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, H.; Hanisch, R.; Bredekamp, J.

    2000-09-01

    The NASA Office of Space Science has established a series of archival centers where science data acquired through its space science missions is deposited. The availability of high quality data to the general public through these open archives enables the maximization of science return of the flight missions. The Astrophysics Data Centers Coordinating Council, an informal collaboration of archival centers, coordinates data from five archival centers distiguished primarily by the wavelength range of the data deposited there. Data are available in FITS format. An overview of NASA's data centers and services is presented in this paper. A standard front-end modifyer called `Astrowbrowse' is described. Other catalog browsers and tools include WISARD and AMASE supported by the National Space Scince Data Center, as well as ISAIA, a follow on to Astrobrowse.

  11. Police Incident Blotter (Archive)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Police Blotter Archive contains crime incident data after it has been validated and processed to meet Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) standards, published on a...

  12. [The Montalenti archive].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Nicoletta

    2006-01-01

    The archival fund by Giuseppe Montalenti, the distinguished Italian genetist and biologist, comprehends correspondence--both personal and scientific--, papers on his activity as a collaborator to the Enciclopedia Treccani, documentation on Montalenti's engagement in the politics of science in Italy and abroad in the 1950s-60s, a collection of offprints and books. A large part of the archive refers to the activities of the IUSB (International Union of Biological Sciences).

  13. Nucleotide Sequence - KOME | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ..._db.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/kome/LATEST/kome_ine_full_se...quence_db.zip File size: 19 MB File name: FASTA: kome_ine_full_sequence_db.fasta.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archiv...rtio About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Nucleotide Sequence - KOME | LSDB Archive ...

  14. Main - RPSD | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ... File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/rpsd/LATEST/rpsd_main_sjis.zip File... size: 120 KB File name: rpsd_main_utf8.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/rpsd/LATEST/rpsd_ma...icense Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Main - RPSD | LSDB Archive ...

  15. Download - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ... this page, are not included in the Taxonomy Icon archive, and therefore under different terms of use. First...that the following data #4 and #5 are not included in the Taxonomy Icon archive, and therefore under differe...Joomla SEF URLs by Artio About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive ...

  16. Bond Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Rachel H.

    2000-01-01

    Notes trends toward increased borrowing by colleges and universities and offers guidelines for institutions that are considering issuing bonds to raise money for capital projects. Discussion covers advantages of using bond financing, how use of bonds impacts on traditional fund raising, other cautions and concerns, and some troubling aspects of…

  17. Cancer screening in the United States, 2015: a review of current American cancer society guidelines and current issues in cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert A; Manassaram-Baptiste, Deana; Brooks, Durado; Doroshenk, Mary; Fedewa, Stacey; Saslow, Debbie; Brawley, Otis W; Wender, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Each year, the American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes a summary of its guidelines for early cancer detection along with a report on data and trends in cancer screening rates and select issues related to cancer screening. In this issue of the journal, we summarize current ACS cancer screening guidelines. The latest data on utilization of cancer screening from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) also is described, as are several issues related to screening coverage under the Affordable Care Act, including the expansion of the Medicaid program.

  18. The challenge of archiving and preserving remotely sensed data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L Faundeen

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Few would question the need to archive the scientific and technical (S&T data generated by researchers. At a minimum, the data are needed for change analysis. Likewise, most people would value efforts to ensure the preservation of the archived S&T data. Future generations will use analysis techniques not even considered today. Until recently, archiving and preserving these data were usually accomplished within existing infrastructures and budgets. As the volume of archived data increases, however, organizations charged with archiving S&T data will be increasingly challenged (U.S. General Accounting Office, 2002. The U.S. Geological Survey has had experience in this area and has developed strategies to deal with the mountain of land remote sensing data currently being managed and the tidal wave of expected new data. The Agency has dealt with archiving issues, such as selection criteria, purging, advisory panels, and data access, and has met with preservation challenges involving photographic and digital media. That experience has allowed the USGS to develop management approaches, which this paper outlines.

  19. Climate during the Roman and early-medieval periods in North-western Europe: a review of climate reconstructions from terrestrial archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelmann, Dana F. C.; Gouw-Bouman, Marjolein T. I. J.; Hoek, Wim Z.; van Lanen, Rowin J.; Stouthamer, Esther; Jansma, Esther

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution palaeoclimate reconstructions are essential to identify possible influences of climate variability on landscape evolution and landscape-related cultural changes (e.g., shifting settlement patterns and long-distance trade relations). North-western Europe is an ideal research area for comparison between climate variability and cultural transitions given its geomorphological diversity and the significant cultural changes that took place in this region during the last two millennia (e.g., the decline of the Roman Empire and the transition to medieval kingdoms). Compared to more global climate records, such as ice cores and marine sediments, terrestrial climate proxies have the advantage of representing a relatively short response time to regional climatic change. Furthermore for this region large quantity of climate reconstructions is available covering the last millennium, whereas for the first millennium AD only few high resolution climate reconstructions are available. We compiled climate reconstructions for sites in North-western Europe from the literature and its underlying data. All these reconstructions cover the time period of AD 1 to 1000. We only selected data with an annual to decadal resolution and a minimum resolution of 50 years. This resulted in 18 climate reconstructions from different archives such as chironomids (1), pollen (4), Sphagnum cellulose (1), stalagmites (6), testate amoebae (4), and tree-rings (2). The compilation of the different temperature reconstructions shows similar trends in most of the records. Colder conditions since AD 300 for a period of approximately 400 years and warmer conditions after AD 700 become apparent. A contradicting signal is found before AD 300 with warmer conditions indicated by most of the records but not all. This is likely the result of the use of different proxies, reflecting temperatures linked to different seasons. The compilation of the different precipitation reconstructions also show similar

  20. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Floyd; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews eight textbooks, readers, and books. Topics include Latin America, colonial America, the Carolinians, women in French textbooks, the Vikings, the Soviet Union, nineteenth-century Black America, and Ernest Rutherford. (TRS)

  1. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides reviews of four computer software packages designed for use in science education. Describes courseware dealing with a variety of tips for teaching physics concepts, chemical reactions in an aqueous solution, mitosis and meiosis, and photosynthesis. (TW)

  2. Reading Robin Kelsey's "Archive Style" across the Archival Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joan M.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the author's comments on Robin Kelsey's "Archive Style: Photographs and Illustrations for U.S. Surveys, 1850-1890," a book about government documents that happen to be visual materials. The word "archive" now has intellectual cache in the academic world, but its currency has little to do with the "real world of archives" as…

  3. Product annotations - KOME | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...ile name: kome_product_annotation.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archiv...ate History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Product annotations - KOME | LSDB Archive ...

  4. Reference - PLACE | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ... File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/place/LATEST/place_reference.zip Fi... Artio About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Reference - PLACE | LSDB Archive ...

  5. Drug - KEGG MEDICUS | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/kegg-medicus/LATEST/kegg_medicus_drug_en.zip File size: 5.2 MB Simple sea...bout This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Drug - KEGG MEDICUS | LSDB Archive ...

  6. Comment - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...p File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/taxonomy-icon/LATEST/taxonomy_icon... Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Comment - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive ...

  7. Basical information - KOME | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...ation about full-length cDNA clones Data file File name: kome_basical_information.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archiv...base Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Basical information - KOME | LSDB Archive ...

  8. Main data - RMG | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...to the public. Data file File name: rmg_main.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/rmg/LATEST/rmg...Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Main data - RMG | LSDB Archive ...

  9. OPS index - KOME | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...ile URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/kome/LATEST/kome_ops_index.zip File s...la SEF URLs by Artio About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us OPS index - KOME | LSDB Archive ...

  10. Genomic Dynamism - RMG | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...le name: rmg_genomic_dynamism.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/rmg/LATEST/rmg_genomic_dynami...abase Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Genomic Dynamism - RMG | LSDB Archive ...

  11. Images - RPSD | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...//ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/rpsd/LATEST/rpsd_images.zip File size: 18.3 MB Sim...a SEF URLs by Artio About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Images - RPSD | LSDB Archive ...

  12. Genome annotations - KOME | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ....zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/kome/LATEST/kome_genome_annotat...e Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Genome annotations - KOME | LSDB Archive ...

  13. Trimming information - KOME | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...ation.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/kome/LATEST/kome_trimming_information.zip File size: ...SEF URLs by Artio About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Trimming information - KOME | LSDB Archive ...

  14. ORF information - KOME | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...e longest ORFs Data file File name: kome_orf_infomation.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/kom...e Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us ORF information - KOME | LSDB Archive ...

  15. Main - PLACE | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/place/LATEST/place_main.zip File size: 48...97) Joomla SEF URLs by Artio About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Main - PLACE | LSDB Archive ...

  16. Entire Sequence - RMG | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...us RAP-DB genome browser. Data file File name: rmg_seq.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/rmg/...n Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Entire Sequence - RMG | LSDB Archive ...

  17. Main - KOME | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ..._main.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/kome/LATEST/kome_main.zip File size: 1.3 KB Simple se... Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Main - KOME | LSDB Archive ...

  18. Envirion - KEGG MEDICUS | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ... file File name: kegg_medicus_environ_en.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/kegg-medicus/LATES...oomla SEF URLs by Artio About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Envirion - KEGG MEDICUS | LSDB Archive ...

  19. Training in the Archives: Archival Research as Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehl, Jonathan; Chute, Tamar; Fields, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the rationale and efficacy of a graduate-level teaching module providing loosely structured practice with real archives. Introducing early career scholars to archival methods changed their beliefs about knowledge, research, teaching, and their discipline(s). This case study suggests that archives can be productive training…

  20. INTERNATIONAL DATA ARCHIVE AND ANALYSIS CENTER. INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS ARCHIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Relations Archive undertakes as its primary goal the acquisition, management and dissemination of international affairs data. This...goal necessitates direct interaction between the International Relations Archive staff and the academic community to ensure more adequate standards...contains two documents. The first document is the latest version of the memorandum, ’Data Holdings and Servicing Policies, International Relations Archive

  1. Life Sciences Data Archive (LSDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Life Sciences Data Archive (LSDA) is an active archive that provides information and data from 1961 (Mercury Project) through current flight and flight analog...

  2. Palliative patients’ and significant others’ experiences of transitions concerning organizational, psychosocial and existential issues during the course of incurable cancer: A systematic review protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rikke; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Review question/objective The objective of this review is to identify, appraise and synthesize the best available evidence exploring palliative patients’ or their significant others’ experiences of transitions during the course of incurable cancer. In this review, transitions are concept...... exploring euthanasia will be excluded because euthanasia is not included in the WHO definition of palliation. KEYWORDS Lived experience; incurable cancer; patient; significant other; transition; organizational; psychosocial; existential...

  3. Introduction to the Special Issue

    OpenAIRE

    Benati, Alessandro; Lee, James F.

    2015-01-01

    [Without Abstract]\\ud Introduction to International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, Volume 53, Issue 2 (Jun 2015)- Special Issue: Processing instruction: New insights after twenty years of theory, research and application. Guest Editors: Alessandro Benati and James F. Lee.

  4. Theoretical Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2007-04-01

    The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.

  5. Cultivating archives: meanings and identities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Ketelaar

    2012-01-01

    By cultivating archives through successive activations, people and communities define their identities. In these activations, the meanings of archives are constructed and reconstructed. Archives are not a static artifact imbued with the record creator’s voice alone, but a dynamic process involving a

  6. Archiving a Software Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    24 H.4.3 Info on National Archives digital preservation software...a copy of a disposal authority? • Can I have more information on the National Archives digital preservation software? • Can I use the training...General Disposal Authority or under Normal Administrative Practice. H.4.3 Info on National Archives digital preservation software Information on National

  7. L’archive comme enjeu de présentation de soi : la mémoire du syndicat des ouvriers des savonneries à Naplouse, Cisjordanie Archives as a Self-Presentation Issue: the Memory of the Soap Factory Workers’ Union in Nablus, West Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Bontemps

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article part de la « quête d’archives » à laquelle je me suis livrée dans le cadre d’une enquête sur le syndicat des ouvriers des savonneries à Naplouse. Dans un premier temps, il interroge le caractère insaisissable de la mémoire de ce syndicat, qui a laissé peu de traces matérielles de son existence. Je me penche ensuite sur la manière dont les documents écrits étaient utilisés par deux anciens ouvriers des savonneries, dans la reconstruction de la mémoire syndicale. Je montre que ces ouvriers mobilisaient conjointement deux régimes de légitimation de leur parole qui, loin de s’opposer, devaient se renforcer mutuellement : la possession de « documents authentiques » ne devait pas tant ajouter foi au contenu de leur discours, que fournir de l’autorité à leur parole. L’article interroge, in fine, la puissance symbolique accordée à l’écrit, et plus largement la matérialité dans le régime de légitimation du discours, en particulier en situation d’entretien.This article is based on the “quest for archives” I pursued in the context of a study on the soap factory workers’ union in Nablus. It begins by considering the elusive character of this union, which left few material traces of its existence. Next I examine how written documents were used by two former soap factory workers to construct the memory of the union. I show that these workers used two parallel systems to legitimise their words—systems that, far from clashing, reinforced each other: the possession of “authentic documents” should not so much make the discourse they contain more believable, but rather lend authority to their words. The article ultimately considers the power of discourse, particularly in an interview context.

  8. Exposing the Film Apparatus: The Film Archive as a Research Laboratory [Rezension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellmann, S.

    2016-01-01

    Review of the edited volume Exposing the Film Apparatus: The Film Archive as a Research Laboratory by Giovanna Fossati and Annie van den Oever (eds.): Amsterdam: Amsterdam UP 2016 (Framing Film), ISBN 9789462983168, EUR 39,90

  9. Critical review of methodology and application of risk ranking for prioritisation of food and feed related issues, on the basis of the size of anticipated health impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Asselt, van E.D.; Raley, M.; Poulsen, M.; Korsgaard, H.; Bredsdorff, L.; Nauta, M.; Flari, V.; Agostino, D' M.; Coles, D.G.; Frewer, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to critically review methodologies for ranking of risks related to feed/food safety and nutritional hazards, on the basis of their anticipated human health impact. An extensive systematic literature review was performed to identify and characterize the available methodologies for ri

  10. Taxonomies in L1 and L2 Reading Strategies: A Critical Review of Issues Surrounding Strategy-Use Definitions and Classifications in Previous Think-Aloud Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhaleefah, Tarek A.

    2016-01-01

    Considering the various classifications of L1 and L2 reading strategies in previous think-aloud studies, the present review aims to provide a comprehensive look into those various taxonomies reported in major L1 and L2 reading studies. The rationale for this review is not only to offer a comprehensive overview of the different classifications in…

  11. Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Revista alicantina de estudios ingleses

    1995-01-01

    Contiene: M. Carmen África Vidal Claramonte. Traducción, manipulación, desconstrucción. Colección Biblioteca Filológica de Salamanca. Salamanca: Ediciones Colegio de España, 1995 / reviewed by Enrique Alcaraz Varó; Diccionario de uso inglés-español/Spanish-English. Directed by Aquilino Sánchez. Madrid: SGEL, 1993, 450 pp. Diccionario de uso pocket inglés-español/Spanish- English. Directed by Aquilino Sánchez. Madrid: SGEL, 1993, 274 pages / reviewed by Miguel Ángel Campos Pardillo...

  12. Volume 7 Issue 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Creagh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuing interest and commitment to improving the student experience in the tertiary sector was reflected in yet another successful Students, Transitions, Achievement, Retention and Success (STARS Conference recently held in Perth, Western Australia (June 29-July 2, 2016.  As is customary, this issue of the journal publishes the top research papers selected via a peer review process and the top Emerging Initiatives selected by the Conference Committee.  As well, a Good Practice Report was selected for this issue.  The Invited Feature in this issue republishes an article from Professor Sally Kift, President of the Australian Learning and Teaching Fellows (and one of the Editors of Student Success. The statement draws on and is representative of the national reaction to the closure of the OLT, highlighting the substantial role it has played in developing and disseminating innovation and good practice in tertiary teaching and learning.

  13. Ukraine; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper investigates the economic importance of institutions in Ukraine, and attempts to quantify the potential benefits of market-friendly structural reforms. The paper reviews some of the key findings of the development-accounting literature, which has tried to explain the significant differences in income that persist across countries. It introduces the stochastic-frontier approach, outlining its key assumptions and strengths, and results obtained with the stochastic-fro...

  14. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repak, Arthur J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Computer software, audiovisuals, and books are reviewed. Includes topics on interfacing, ionic equilibrium, space, the classification system, Acquired Immune Disease Syndrome, evolution, human body processes, energy, pesticides, teaching school, cells, and geological aspects. Availability, price, and a description of each are provided. (RT)

  15. Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, Frits

    1995-01-01

    This is the second volume of a revision of Tabernaemontana (Apocynaceae). The volume covers the New World species (44) and the genus Stemmadenia (10 species). This part of the revision of Tabernaemontana comes up to the high standards set in the first volume [see the review by Leenhouts, Blumea 38 (

  16. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.

    1994-01-01

    This review marks the appearance of Volume II, after the publication of Volume I, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms, in 1990; several more volumes are expected in the future before completion of the Vascular plants as a whole. The present volume contains 73 families out of some 250-500 families which ca

  17. Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleumer, H.; Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1966-01-01

    An exhaustive Flora of Delhi, compiled by J. K. Maheshwari, was published by C.S.I.R. in 1963 (for a review see Blumea 13, 1965, p. 174). During the compilation of that flora, 278 line-drawings, illustrating the habits and chief features of the plants found in Delhi, were prepared; they form a welco

  18. Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1998-01-01

    BALGOOY, M.M.J, VAN. 1998. Malesian Seed Plants. Volume 2. Portraits of tree families. 307 pp., numerous text figures. Published by Rijksherbarium/Hortus Botanicus, Leiden. ISBN 90-71236-36-6. Paperback. Price: NLG 100.00. This is the second volume of a trilogy [see the review of ‘Spot-characters’ b

  19. Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Hazel, H B; Kielland-Brandt, Morten; Winther, Jakob R.

    1996-01-01

    The yeast vacuole, which is equivalent to the lysosome of higher eukaryotes, is one of the best characterized degradative organelles. This review describes the biosynthesis and function of yeast vacuolar proteases. Most of these enzymes are delivered to the vacuole via the early compartments...

  20. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Reviews three computer software packages for chemistry education including "Osmosis and Diffusion" and "E.M.E. Titration Lab" for Apple II and "Simplex-V: An Interactive Computer Program for Experimental Optimization" for IBM PC. Summary ratings include ease of use, content, pedagogic value, student reaction, and…

  1. The archive of the History of Psychology at the University of Rome, Sapienza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolucci, Chiara; Fox Lee, Shayna

    2016-02-01

    The History of Psychology Archive at the University of Rome, Sapienza was founded in 2008 in the Department of Dynamic and Clinical Psychology. The archive aspires to become an indispensable tool to (a) understand the currents, schools, and research traditions that have marked the path of Italian psychology, (b) focus on issues of general and applied psychology developed in each university, (c) identify experimental and clinical-differential methodologies specific to each lab, (d) reconstruct the genesis and consolidation of psychology institutions and, ultimately, (e) write a "story," set according to the most recent historiographical criteria. The archive is designed according to scholarship on the history of Italian psychology from the past two decades. The online archive is divided into five sections for ease of access. The Sapienza archive is a work in progress and it has plans for expansion. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Issues in waste combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Lennart; Robertson, Kerstin; Tullin, Claes [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Sundquist, Lena; Wrangensten, Lars [AaF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Blom, Elisabet [AaF-Processdesign AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-05-01

    The main purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art on research and development issues related to waste combustion with relevance for Swedish conditions. The review focuses on co-combustion in grate and fluidised bed furnaces. It is primarily literature searches in relevant databases of scientific publications with to material published after 1995. As a complement, findings published in different report series, have also been included. Since the area covered by this report is very wide, we do not claim to cover the issues included completely and it has not been possitile to evaluate the referred studies in depth. Basic knowledge about combustion issues is not included since such information can be found elsewhere in the literature. Rather, this review should be viewed as an overview of research and development in the waste-to-energy area and as such we hope that it will inspire scientists and others to further work in relevant areas.

  3. Adaptability in the Development of Data Archiving Services at Johns Hopkins University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petters, J.; DiLauro, T.; Fearon, D.; Pralle, B.

    2015-12-01

    Johns Hopkins University (JHU) Data Management Services provides archiving services for institutional researchers through the JHU Data Archive, thereby increasing the access to and use of their research data. From its inception our unit's archiving service has evolved considerably. While some of these changes have been internally driven so that our unit can archive quality data collections more efficiently, we have also developed archiving policies and procedures on the fly in response to researcher needs. Providing our archiving services for JHU research groups from a variety of research disciplines have surfaced different sets of expectations and needs. We have used each interaction to help us refine our services and quickly satisfy the researchers we serve (following the first agile principle). Here we discuss the development of our newest archiving service model, its implementation over the past several months, and the processes by which we have continued to refine and improve our archiving services since its implementation. Through this discussion we will illustrate the benefits of planning, structure and flexibility in development of archiving services that maximize the potential value of research data. We will describe interactions with research groups, including those from environmental engineering and international health, and how we were able to rapidly modify and develop our archiving services to meet their needs (e.g. in an 'agile' way). For example, our interactions with both of these research groups led first to discussion in regular standing meetings and eventually development of new archiving policies and procedures. These policies and procedures centered on limiting access to archived research data while associated manuscripts progress through peer-review and publication.

  4. Radio data archiving system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapic, C.; Zanichelli, A.; Dovgan, E.; Nanni, M.; Stagni, M.; Righini, S.; Sponza, M.; Bedosti, F.; Orlati, A.; Smareglia, R.

    2016-07-01

    Radio Astronomical Data models are becoming very complex since the huge possible range of instrumental configurations available with the modern Radio Telescopes. What in the past was the last frontiers of data formats in terms of efficiency and flexibility is now evolving with new strategies and methodologies enabling the persistence of a very complex, hierarchical and multi-purpose information. Such an evolution of data models and data formats require new data archiving techniques in order to guarantee data preservation following the directives of Open Archival Information System and the International Virtual Observatory Alliance for data sharing and publication. Currently, various formats (FITS, MBFITS, VLBI's XML description files and ancillary files) of data acquired with the Medicina and Noto Radio Telescopes can be stored and handled by a common Radio Archive, that is planned to be released to the (inter)national community by the end of 2016. This state-of-the-art archiving system for radio astronomical data aims at delegating as much as possible to the software setting how and where the descriptors (metadata) are saved, while the users perform user-friendly queries translated by the web interface into complex interrogations on the database to retrieve data. In such a way, the Archive is ready to be Virtual Observatory compliant and as much as possible user-friendly.

  5. Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Barker

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available There were two copy-editing blunders in Clive Betts's review, in ALT-J 5 (3, of Shirley Fletcher's Designing Competence-Based Training, one in paragraph 2 line 1, the other in paragraph 3 line 8. The errors (the result of the Editor, Gabriel Jacobs, trying to perform a final proof of the journal at lightning speed in order to meet the printing deadline, and not of any mistake on the part of either Philip Barker or the University of Wales Press hardly affected meaning, but the fact that they appeared in a review of a book on competence makes the embarrassment all the more telling. The Editor apologizes, and thanks eagle-eyed readers. He has decided to read the book in the hope that such errors will not recur.

  6. 基于政策的档案利用服务研究文献综述%Literature Review of Research on the Archives Utilization Service Based on Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀花

    2015-01-01

    Archives utilization service is a kind of public information service, restricted and impected by the national law and policy. In recent years, archivists around the archives utilization service policy, the government information disclosures environmental archives utilization service, the livelihood of the people using the service and service of the people's livelihood archives, archives using the intellectual property rights to carry out the research in the service, and obtained some achievements.%档案利用服务是一种公益性信息服务,受国家法律与政策的限制与影响。近年来,档案工作者围绕档案利用服务政策、政府信息公开环境下档案利用服务、民生档案利用服务与档案服务民生、档案利用服务中的知识产权问题开展了研究,并取得了一些成果。

  7. The NASA Exoplanet Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeson, Rachel L.; Christiansen, Jessie; Ciardi, David R.; Ramirez, Solange; Schlieder, Joshua; Van Eyken, Julian C.; NASA Exoplanet Archive Team

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Exoplanet Archive supports research and mission planning by the exoplanet community by operating a service providing confirmed and candidate planets, numerous project and contributed data sets and integrated analysis tools. We present the current data contents and functionality of the archive including: interactive tables of confirmed and candidate planetary and stellar properties; Kepler planet candidates, threshold-crossing events, data validation and occurrence rate products; light curves from Kepler, CoRoT, SuperWASP, KELT and other ground-based projects; and spectra and radial velocity data from the literature. Tools provided include a transit ephemeris predictor, light curve viewing utilities, a periodogram service and user-configurable interactive tables. The NASA Exoplanet Archive is funded by NASA’s Exoplanet Exploration Program.

  8. Digital audiovisual archives

    CERN Document Server

    Stockinger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Today, huge quantities of digital audiovisual resources are already available - everywhere and at any time - through Web portals, online archives and libraries, and video blogs. One central question with respect to this huge amount of audiovisual data is how they can be used in specific (social, pedagogical, etc.) contexts and what are their potential interest for target groups (communities, professionals, students, researchers, etc.).This book examines the question of the (creative) exploitation of digital audiovisual archives from a theoretical, methodological, technical and practical

  9. Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Barker

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The utility of computers as learning resources is now well established. They can be used as standalone devices to explore various localized phenomena or they can be networked together to facilitate the creation of global learning communities. Between these two extremes, a variety of possibilities exist for using computer and communications technologies for the support of teaching and learning processes. More often than not, some form of courseware material will usually be needed to facilitate these pedagogic applications of computers. The creation of this educational software is no simple task and, if it is to be effective, requires careful design. This book by Alan Clarke discusses some of the important issues that need to be considered when designing computer-based learning (CBL materials for use in different contexts.

  10. 论对高校发放毕业证和学位证书的司法审查%On Judicial Review of Universities' Issuing Diplomas and Academic Degree Certificates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪秋慧

    2012-01-01

    受到特别权力关系理论的影响,在传统上,学生与高校在发放毕业证和学位证书环节引发的纠纷,很难得到司法审查。随着该理论的发展,对特别权力关系事项的部分进行司法审查已基本成为共识。就高校领域而言,司法有限介入的原因主要在于大学自治。具体到对高校发放毕业证和学位证书环节,司法应该有权进行审查,但同时应遵守合法性审查、合理性审查和注重程序审查的原则。%Being affected by the theory of special power relationship,traditionally,it is difficult for the dispute caused by the students in the course of universities' issuing diplomas and academic degree certificates to be heard.With the development of the theory,judicial review of the part of the special power relationship has basically become a consensus.For the field of universities,The cause of limited judicial intervention is mainly due to the university autonomy.For universities' issuing diplomas and academic degree certificates,the judiciary should have the right to review,but shall comply with the principle of legal review,the principle of reasonable review and the principle of focusing on procedure review.

  11. 'They first killed his heart (then) he took his own life'. Part 1: a review of the context and literature on mental health issues for refugees and asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, Nicholas G

    2005-12-01

    This is the first in a two-part series of papers examining mental health issues for refugees and asylum seekers. Beginning with the suicide of an asylum seeker in Scotland, the paper emphasizes mental health issues for adult and child asylum seekers, stress and memory, suicide, self-harm, risk and protective factors, compulsory health treatments and the prevention of mental illness. It sets the scene for the second paper by drawing implications for nursing practice in the community. Although most literature on refugee and asylum seeker mental health exists outside of nursing scholarship, a majority of the issues reviewed in this paper are mutual challenges for all in the health and helping professions. Nurses interested in refugee and migration issues face two intertwined challenges: that of how to assist migrants with their diverse mental health needs and how, at the same time, to contribute to a society that can promote mental health for all by taking on both the difficulties and opportunities posed by cultural diversity.

  12. Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kalkman, C.

    1996-01-01

    The first volume of this series was published in 1991, and reviewed in Blumea 38, p. 216. The treatments of volumes 2 and 3 are each based on a doctor’s thesis by the first author, elaborated under supervision of Dr. Panigrahi. Volume 2 contains regional revisions of six genera: Prunus, Prinsepia, Maddenia, Rosa, Malus, and Pyrus. Prunus is taken in the inclusive sense and has 38 species in India, including a number of non-indigenous but cultivated and sometimes naturalized species. Prinsepia...

  13. Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Barker

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available For a variety of different reasons, increasing use is now being made of the Internet for the delivery of course materials and/or for the support of teaching and learning activities. The details of the mechanisms used will obviously vary from one situation to another, depending upon the types of problem to be addressed. These may involve mentoring, teaching, monitoring, recording, tutoring, assessing, and so on. In this book, the author attempts to review the educational and administrative considerations of offering courses, course materials or course delivery via the Internet.

  14. Mayan master speakers--the archive of the indigenous languages of Chiapas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haviland, John B

    2004-01-01

    The Archive of the Indigenous Languages of Chiapas is an electronic database documenting the three principal Indian languages of Chiapas, Mexico. This report describes the design philosophy behind the archive, intended to distribute its results in digital form via the Internet. It illustrates some of the products of the Archive, ranging from standard linguistic description and lexicography, through semi-experimental elicitation, to ethnographically situated interaction characterized by different sorts of speech genre. It also discusses presentational and ethical issues derived from electronic distribution of digital media in linguistic documentation.

  15. Support Plan for Implementation: Report of the Comprehensive Review of the Issues Associated with a Repeal of ’Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell’

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    joking and having a loud inappropriate conversation about gays and lesbians . The comments were directly related to their refusal to be naked and...that.Services.may.find.useful.in.designing.their.training.and.communication.materials.. Planning.now.will.allow.the.Department.of.Defense.to.better.anticipate.repeal- related ...sought. to. “go. beyond. the. contextual. and. scholarly. analysis. of. the. issues. related . to. changes. in. Don’t. Ask,. Don’t. Tell. policy. and

  16. Review of Some Issues about the Development of China's Optical Fiber and Cable Industry%我国光纤光缆产业发展中若干问题的述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜鹃; 张万春

    2011-01-01

    The development history of China's optical fiber and cable industry and market is reviewed, the issues existed in China's optical fiber and cable industry is commented. Some suggestions are proposed against the issues of low cost competition and the bottle neck, fabrication of preform. Finally the market trends and prospect are forecasted.%回顾了30年来我国光纤光缆产业和市场的发展历程,评述了目前我国光纤光缆产业存在的问题,针对光纤光缆市场的低价竞争和光纤光缆产业短板——预制棒制造提出了相关建议,最后展望了光纤光缆市场的发展趋势和应用前景。

  17. Review of Novum Inventorium Sepulchrale: Kentish Anglo-Saxon Graves and Grave Goods in the Sonia Chadwick Hawkes Archive (Online Digital Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara-Jane Sutcliffe

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, the year in which the Society of Antiquaries of London celebrated its tercentenary, what more fitting tribute to those industrious individuals than that their work be made accessible to a new generation of students. One means was by a celebratory exhibition hosted by the Royal Academy, Making History: Antiquaries in Britain, 1707-2007, which showcased a treasure-trove of art, antiquities and manuscripts (for review, see Mount 2007. Structured display is one thing: scholarly use or re-use of antiquarian data is, however, quite another matter. Indeed, therein arguably lays one of the more pressing challenges facing the practice of 'modern' archaeology (see Jones et al. 2001. A timely response was the online publication in October 2007 of the Novum Inventorium Sepulchrale (NIS, a digital corpus of Kentish Anglo-Saxon graves and grave goods. Through this project a wealth of primary data has been made accessible as never before. This resource will be of interest to all those researching Anglo-Saxon Archaeology, particularly material culture and mortuary practices. Whilst the editors express the hope that the NIS will 'enable future generations of researchers to gain a better understanding of the origins of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms', users will find themselves both delighted and frustrated by the quantity and format of the data presented in it.

  18. Analyzing Archival Intelligence: A Collaboration Between Library Instruction and Archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merinda Kaye Hensley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Although recent archival scholarship promotes the use of primary sources for developing students’ analytical research skills, few studies focus on standards or protocols for teaching or assessing archival instruction. Librarians have designed and tested standards and learning assessment strategies for library instruction and archivists would do well to collaborate with and learn from their experience. This study examines lessons learned from one such collaboration between an instructional services librarian and archivist to evaluate and enhance archival instruction in the University Archives’ Student Life and Culture Archival Program (SLC Archives at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Library. Based on evaluative data from a student survey and in-depth interviews, the authors offer strategies for meeting and exceeding learning outcomes for archival intelligence more successfully.

  19. Operational environmental satellite archives in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Bates, John J.; Privette, Jeff; Vizbulis, Rick

    2007-09-01

    NASA, NOAA, and USGS collections of Earth science data are large, federated, and have active user communities and collections. Our experience raises five categories of issues for long-term archival: *Organization of the data in the collections is not well-described by text-based categorization principles *Metadata organization for these data is not well-described by Dublin Core and needs attention to data access and data use patterns *Long-term archival requires risk management approaches to dealing with the unique threats to knowledge preservation specific to digital information *Long-term archival requires careful attention to archival cost management *Professional data stewards for these collections may require special training. This paper suggests three mechanisms for improving the quality of long-term archival: *Using a maturity model to assess the readiness of data for accession, for preservation, and for future data usefulness *Developing a risk management strategy for systematically dealing with threats of data loss *Developing a life-cycle cost model for continuously evolving the collections and the data centers that house them.

  20. High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) is the primary archive for NASA missions dealing with extremely energetic phenomena, from...

  1. Issues Relating to Study Design and Risk of Bias When Including Non-Randomized Studies in Systematic Reviews on the Effects of Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Julian P. T.; Ramsay, Craig; Reeves, Barnaby C.; Deeks, Jonathan J.; Shea, Beverley; Valentine, Jeffrey C.; Tugwell, Peter; Wells, George

    2013-01-01

    Non-randomized studies may provide valuable evidence on the effects of interventions. They are the main source of evidence on the intended effects of some types of interventions and often provide the only evidence about the effects of interventions on long-term outcomes, rare events or adverse effects. Therefore, systematic reviews on the effects…

  2. Health-related quality of life in non-small-cell lung cancer: An update of a systematic review on methodologic issues in randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Claassens (Lily); J. van Meerbeeck (Jan); C. Coens (Corneel); C. Quinten (Chantal); I. Ghislain (Irina); E.K. Sloan (Elizabeth); X.S. Wang (Xin Shelly); G. Velikova (Galina); A. Bottomley (Andrew)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPurpose This study is an update of a systematic review of health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) methodology reporting in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The objective was to evaluate HRQOL methodology reporting over the last decade and its benefit

  3. REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Bugay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of Study Guide: «KUBAN STUDIES. KUBAN IN THE XX CENTURY – THE BEGINNING OF THE XXI CENTURY. HISTORY. PEOPLE SOCIETY.» Study Guide (electronic version to grade 11 of educational institutions. A.A. Zaitsev, E.V. Morozova, N.V. Plotichkina and O.A. Borisko, M.A. Egupova, A.B. Sazantovich, I.S. Bashkakov, T.I. Belyaeva. Krasnodar: Perspectives on Education, 2015.In a review of a thorough analysis of all the component parts of the book that will surely attract the attention first of all history teachers and students in 11 classes of educational institutions of the region. A comprehensive presentation of the material significantly adds to the course of modern history of Russia and enrich its specific material about the life of the Russian Cossacks and as part of the – of the Kuban Cossacks. Along with the reference materials of pure nature that is needed for this kind of research are presented and informative sections on the socio-economic condition of the region, the interests of different strata of the population, the multinational factor and the religious beliefs of the population. Cossacks in its warlike mentality, and this trait is passed from generation to generation. But the aspirations of the Cossacks in this respect are transparent – protecting the integrity of the Fatherland, faithful service to him, boundless devotion to the Orthodox faith. The important story is linked with the identity of the Russian Cossacks, its mentality, "Kuban" specificity, especially for the rule on different sections of history, to various of its exponents, both military and civilians. As is known from the Cossacks received a development institute of judging for each Ataman smoking, working village judge. Cossacks series comply with the law as applied his own family, and chic plan – in the state, fought against offenders, it is considered in relation to the Cossacks and representatives of different ethnic communities living with the Cossacks, and

  4. Archiver ailleurs, archiver autrement ? Archiving Elsewhere, Archiving Differently? : The Arab Image Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Baumann

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available La « Fondation arabe pour l’image » est un projet archivistique dont le siège est à Beyrouth, et qui est dédié à la collection de photographies du Moyen-Orient prises par des photographes arabes entre 1860 et 1960. Elle a été lancée par un groupe d’artistes en vue d’instaurer une sorte d’histoire alternative de la photographie — qui contrerait les manuels d’histoire de la photographie européens ou américains dans lesquels les représentations photographiques du monde arabe sont souvent construites à partir d’un point de vue orientaliste. La structure et le fonctionnement de ce centre d’archives suivent des logiques hétérogènes remettant en question non seulement le concept d’archive et ses pratiques institutionnelles, mais aussi l’image photographique dans différents contextes, et selon ses différentes propriétés et connotations.The “Arab Image Foundation” is an archival project based in Beirut, dedicated to collecting photographs of the Middle East taken by Arab photographers between 1860 and 1960. It was founded by a group of artists who wanted to establish a kind of alternative history of photography—which would counter European and American textbooks on the history of photography, in which photographic representations of the Arab world are often constructed from an orientalist point of view. The structure and operation of this archive centre follow heterogeneous rationales, calling into question not only the concept of archives and their institutional practices, but also that of the photographic image in different contexts, and according to its different properties and connotations.

  5. Selected Declassified Chinese Diplomatic Archives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Since the gradual declassification of China’s diplomatic archives beginning in January 2004, a great number of confidential historical archives have been unveiled to the public, providing experts and scholars with first-hand information of great value, thus facilitating the deepening of international studies on a solid base. For the benefit of our readers, China International Studies will print on a selective basis valuable declassified archives at irregular intervals.

  6. The US framework for understanding, preventing, and caring for the mental health needs of service members who served in combat in Afghanistan and Iraq: a brief review of the issues and the research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Andrew Castro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the psychological health research conducted in the United States in support of combat veterans from Iraq and Afghanistan, using the Military Psychological Health Research Continuum, which includes foundational science, epidemiology, etiology, prevention and screening, treatment, follow-up care, and services research. The review is limited to those studies involving combat veterans and military families. This review discusses perplexing issues regarding the impact of combat on the mental health of service members such as risk and resilience factors of mental health, biomarkers of posttraumatic stress syndrome (PTSD, mental health training, psychological screening, psychological debriefing, third location decompression, combat and suicide, the usefulness of psychotherapy and drug therapy for treating PTSD, role of advanced technology, telemedicine and virtual reality, methods to reduce stigma and barriers to care, and best approaches to the dissemination of evidence-based interventions. The mental health research of special populations such as women, National Guardsmen and reservists, and military families is also presented. The review concludes by identifying future areas of research.

  7. The utopian Darcy Ribeiro archive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Luciana Quillet

    2012-03-01

    The project in memory of anthropologist, writer and politician Darcy Ribeiro is analyzed, with emphasis on the relationship he had with his personal archives and the creation of the Darcy Ribeiro Foundation, established to give continuity to his 'legacy.' It highlights the influences present in the formation of his archive and presents an ethnography that seeks to restore the historicity of the archive. It reveals the significance attributed to it by the creator himself, and after his death, by those responsible for his memory. From this study, an attempt is made to evaluate the analytical return from socio-historical approaches to the archives.

  8. SODA: Smart Objects, Dumb Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Maly, Kurt; Zubair, Mohammad; Shen, Stewart N. T.

    2004-01-01

    We present the Smart Object, Dumb Archive (SODA) model for digital libraries (DLs). The SODA model transfers functionality traditionally associated with archives to the archived objects themselves. We are exploiting this shift of responsibility to facilitate other DL goals, such as interoperability, object intelligence and mobility, and heterogeneity. Objects in a SODA DL negotiate presentation of content and handle their own terms and conditions. In this paper we present implementations of our smart objects, buckets, and our dumb archive (DA). We discuss the status of buckets and DA and how they are used in a variety of DL projects.

  9. Identification and Selection of Alternative Scenarios in LCA Studies of Integrated Waste Management Systems: A Review of Main Issues and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Raggi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Life Cycle Assessment (LCA is a decision support tool that can be used to assess the environmental performance of an integrated waste management system or to identify the system with the best performance through a comparative analysis of different scenarios. The results of the analysis depend primarily on how the scenarios to be compared are defined, that is on which waste fractions are assumed to be sent to certain treatments/destinations and in what amounts. This paper reviews LCAs of integrated waste management systems with the aim of exploring how the scenarios to be compared are defined in the preliminary phase of an LCA. This critical review highlighted that various criteria, more or less subjective, are generally used for the definition of scenarios. Furthermore, the number of scenarios identified and compared is generally limited; this may entail that only the best option among a limited set of possibilities can be selected, instead of identifying the best of all possible combinations. As a result, the advisability of identifying an integrated life cycle-based methodological approach that allows finding the most environmentally sound scenario among all of those that are theoretically possible is stressed.

  10. HEASARC Software Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Nicholas (Technical Monitor); Murray, Stephen S.

    2003-01-01

    (1) Chandra Archive: SAO has maintained the interfaces through which HEASARC gains access to the Chandra Data Archive. At HEASARC's request, we have implemented an anonymous ftp copy of a major part of the public archive and we keep that archive up-to- date. SAO has participated in the ADEC interoperability working group, establishing guidelines or interoperability standards and prototyping such interfaces. We have provided an NVO-based prototype interface, intending to serve the HEASARC-led NVO demo project. HEASARC's Astrobrowse interface was maintained and updated. In addition, we have participated in design discussions surrounding HEASARC's Caldb project. We have attended the HEASARC Users Group meeting and presented CDA status and developments. (2) Chandra CALDB: SA0 has maintained and expanded the Chandra CALDB by including four new data file types, defining the corresponding CALDB keyword/identification structures. We have provided CALDB upgrades for the public (CIAO) and for Standard Data Processing. Approximately 40 new files have been added to the CALDB in these version releases. There have been in the past year ten of these CALDB upgrades, each with unique index configurations. In addition, with the inputs from software, archive, and calibration scientists, as well as CIAO/SDP software developers, we have defined a generalized expansion of the existing CALDB interface and indexing structure. The purpose of this is to make the CALDB more generally applicable and useful in new and future missions that will be supported archivally by HEASARC. The generalized interface will identify additional configurational keywords and permit more extensive calibration parameter and boundary condition specifications for unique file selection. HEASARC scientists and developers from SAO and GSFC have become involved in this work, which is expected to produce a new interface for general use within the current year. (3) DS9: One of the decisions that came from last year

  11. Experiments list - DGBY | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us DGBY Experiments... list Data detail Data name Experiments list Description of data contents Published experime...This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Experiments list - DGBY | LSDB Archive ...

  12. Download - RGP gmap | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ... FTP Joomla SEF URLs by Artio About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - RGP gmap | LSDB Archive ...

  13. Download - Gclust Server | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...oomla SEF URLs by Artio About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - Gclust Server | LSDB Archive ...

  14. Download - DGBY | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...od via FTP Joomla SEF URLs by Artio About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - DGBY | LSDB Archive ...

  15. License - Plabrain DB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...me and URL of this database (http://dbarchive.lifesciencedb.jp/english/en/plabrain-db/desc.html) in the arti...se Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us License - Plabrain DB | LSDB Archive ...

  16. Analyzing Archival Intelligence: A Collaboration between Library Instruction and Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Merinda Kaye; Murphy, Benjamin P.; Swain, Ellen D.

    2014-01-01

    Although recent archival scholarship promotes the use of primary sources for developing students' analytical research skills, few studies focus on standards or protocols for teaching or assessing archival instruction. Librarians have designed and tested standards and learning assessment strategies for library instruction, and archivists would do…

  17. The Self-Organized Archive: SPASE, PDS and Archive Cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, T. A.; Hughes, J. S.; Roberts, D. A.; Walker, R. J.; Joy, S. P.

    2005-05-01

    Information systems with high quality metadata enable uses and services which often go beyond the original purpose. There are two types of metadata: annotations which are items that comment on or describe the content of a resource and identification attributes which describe the external properties of the resource itself. For example, annotations may indicate which columns are present in a table of data, whereas an identification attribute would indicate source of the table, such as the observatory, instrument, organization, and data type. When the identification attributes are collected and used as the basis of a search engine, a user can constrain on an attribute, the archive can then self-organize around the constraint, presenting the user with a particular view of the archive. In an archive cooperative where each participating data system or archive may have its own metadata standards, providing a multi-system search engine requires that individual archive metadata be mapped to a broad based standard. To explore how cooperative archives can form a larger self-organized archive we will show how the Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) data model will allow different systems to create a cooperative and will use Planetary Data System (PDS) plus existing space physics activities as a demonstration.

  18. Ethics and Truth in Archival Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesar, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The complexities of the ethics and truth in archival research are often unrecognised or invisible in educational research. This paper complicates the process of collecting data in the archives, as it problematises notions of ethics and truth in the archives. The archival research took place in the former Czechoslovakia and its turbulent political…

  19. The Digital Archive Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    This article, as well as the book, investigates the ways in which new digital media may enhance the experience of the art-archive. Taken as a whole, the new media is a vital component of a 'transdisciplinary' and transformative field, a cultural landscape that is changing rapidly the conditions....... These can be coarsely divided into two categories: purely utilitarian websites with information about admission, hours of operation, directions, and the current show. The other - more ambitious - type of website tried to expand the exhibition area of the museum into virtual reality. The idea sounds great....... The book discusses the challenges of the archive and the (art)museum in the age of digital media. It is based upon documentation from a research project, MAP - Media Art Platform, that drew upon the talents and collaboration of many institutions, artists, programmers, art historians, designers and others...

  20. COMPLETE ISSUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littera Aperta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available LITTERA APERTA (Vol. 2 - 2014. Abstract: In its open and interdisciplinary scope, volume 2 of Littera Aperta. Journal of Literary and Cultural Studies continues the path opened in volume 1. It includes papers which belong to a wide range of periods, genres, nationalities and methodological approaches. Two complementary papers look into the figure of ghosts in the Classical writers Aristophanes and Lucretius: “The ghosts in Aristophanes’ Frogs” by Soraya Planchas Gallarte (Universidad Complutense de Madrid; and “Templa Serena against Acherusia Templa: A Materialistic Explanation of Ghosts in Lucretius” by Ángel J. Traver Vera (Junta de Extremadura. Juan de Dios Torralbo Caballero (Universidad de Córdoba analyzes the narrative techniques of the novel History of the Nun (1688 by the English writer Aphra Behn. In the field of contemporary world literature in English, Miryam Librán Moreno (Universidad de Extremadura traces the far-reaching influence of Sophocles’ Oedipus Tyrannus on the story of Túrin Turambar by J.R.R. Tolkien; and the researcher Damlègue Lare, from the University of Lomé (Togo, surveys Efo Kodjo Mawugbe’s procedures to debunk African patriarchal patterns of thought in his feminist play In the Chest of a Woman (2008. As a cultural complement to these research pieces, Gabriel Laguna Mariscal (Universidad de Córdoba interviews the Spanish philosopher Javier Gomá Lanzón about the philosophy of the interviewee himself, the role of the philosopher in the modern society and the relevance of Humanities in the education of citizenry. Gabriel Laguna also publishes a review about a book that Javier Gomá coauthors together with Carlos García Gual and Fernando Savater: Muchas felicidades. Tres visiones y más de la idea de felicidad. // LITTERA APERTA (Vol. 2 - 2014. Resumen: El volumen 2 de Littera Aperta. Journal of Literary and Cultural Studies continúa la línea interdisciplinar y abierta del volumen 1, al incluir

  1. An overlooked environmental issue? A review of the inadvertent formation of PCB-11 and other PCB congeners and their occurrence in consumer products and in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorkamp, Katrin

    2016-01-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are banned from production and use in most countries as they are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) of concern for environment and health. Recent research has pointed at a new environment issue resulting from the inadvertent formation of PCBs in certain processes, in particular the pigment production. PCB-11 is a major by-product in these processes, but PCB-28, PCB-52, PCB-77 as well as the nonachlorinated PCBs and PCB-209 have been found in pigments and consumer products as well. In addition to environmental emissions via point sources, in particular related to industrial and municipal wastewater, atmospheric transport seems to be important for the global distribution of PCB-11. Thus, PCB-11 has also been detected in the polar regions. Worldwide air concentrations appear relatively uniform, but maxima have been found in urban and industrialised areas. Data on the uptake and accumulation of PCB-11 in the food chain are still inconclusive: Although food web studies do not show biomagnification, PCB-11 has been detected in humans. The human exposure might originate from the direct contact to consumer products as well as from the omnipresence of PCB-11 in the environment.

  2. 城市热岛效应热点问题研究进展%A review on the hotspot issues of urban heat island effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄良美; 邓超冰; 黎宁

    2011-01-01

    概述了国内外城市热岛效应研究热点及不足,探讨了时空替代性、评价指标合理性、模拟空间尺度适宜性及理论与应用研究相结合等问题,指出未来城市热岛效应研究应注重新方法与新思路的集成、城市群热岛效应监测、城市热岛与全球异常环境要素间的生态关联性、缓解城市热岛效应的生态途径与技术方法。%The hotspot issues and shortages of study on urban heat island(UHI)effect in home and abroad were summarized in this paper.The substitution of time and space,the reasonableness of evaluating indices,the applicability of model scale and the combination of theoretical research and its application and so on were discussed.The results indicate that the future studies on UHI effect should focus on the integration of novel approaches and ideas,monitoring of UHI effect of city group,the relationship between UHI effect and the global abnormal environmental elements,and approaches and measurements to decrease UHI effect.

  3. Review of the Issues on Ethanol Fermentation in China%关于酒精生产中几个问题的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段钢; 许宏贤; 钱莹

    2012-01-01

    The critical review covers the key factors and how they affect the conversion efficiency of starch to ethanol, including residual starch content, cooking temperature and contamination control, pointing out that the producers should seek innovation based on scientific fact not perception in order to move to the next level of efficiency.%通过对残淀粉高低的重新认识、蒸煮温度的高低对酒精生产中液化程度、发酵中染菌和pH的控制和原料转化率的影响的讨论,指出了我国酒精行业中的一些陈旧的思想应该摈弃,根据科学,而不是感觉,使酒精生产水平提高到新的高度。

  4. Water and sanitation issues for persons with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries: a literature review and discussion of implications for global health and international development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groce, N; Bailey, N; Lang, R; Trani, J F; Kett, M

    2011-12-01

    The critical importance of unrestricted access to clean drinking water and basic sanitation for all is highlighted in Millennium Development Goal 7, which calls for the reduction by half of the proportion of people without such access by 2015. Unfortunately, little attention has been paid to the needs of such access for the one billion people living with a disability worldwide, despite the fact that the right to equal access for all international development initiatives is guaranteed in the new United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. In this paper, we review what is currently known about access to water and sanitation for persons with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries from the perspective of both international development and global health, and identify existing gaps in research, practice and policy that are of pressing concern if the water and sanitation needs of this large - and largely overlooked - population are to be addressed.

  5. [Proceedings of the VII international symposium 'Cultural heritage in geosciences, mining and metallurgy : libraries, archives, museums' : "Museums and their collections" held at the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Leiden (The Netherlands), 19-23 May, 2003 / Cor F. Winkler Prins and Stephen K. Donovan (editors)]: How old maps are used to investigate modern environmental issues in the Czech Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cernajsek, T.; Hauser, C.; Posmourny, K.

    2004-01-01

    The Austrian Geological Survey and Czech geological organizations have in their archives source materials that can be used for the landscape restoration. At many places in the Czech Republic, considerable changes of the environment took place due to building and other industrial activities, especial

  6. A comprehensive review and analysis of the research instruments for patient safety issue%病人安全文化/氛围测量工具比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯先琼; 王颖

    2012-01-01

    目的:系统地比较和分析病人安全文化/氛围测量工具的性能和特点,为研究者正确选择测量工具提供帮助.方法:应用系统回顾和比较研究的方法,收集近20年来发展并应用在医疗保健领域的病人安全文化/氛围测量工具,比较这些工具的测量维度和性能特点.结果:6个英文量表和1个中文量表符合研究纳入标准,被本研究纳入.这些研究量表的测量维度变异较大,从1~12个不等,但多涉及病人安全的管理和领导、安全方面的政策、沟通交流情况、安全事件的报告以及人员配置方面.这些研究工具性能的建立和检验方法不尽相同,多使用了因子分析法以及对量表信度检验的方法.研究工具性能指标也表现出差异性.结论:现有的病人安全文化/氛围测量工具有着不同的测量维度、工具性能和适用性,研究者应根据自身的研究目的,结合这些工具的特点做出恰当的选择.%Objective: To systematically review the research instruments regarding patient safety issues and to compare their similarities and differences in terms of content dimensions, psychometric properties and applicability. Methods: An extensive literature review was conducted initially to review research studies which had utilized scales on patient safety issue as their research instruments. The comparative method was employed subsequently to analyze the similarities and differences among the reviewed instruments regarding the content dimensions, psychometric properties, and applicability. Results: Six patient safety issue instruments in English and 1 in Chinese were selected based on the inclusion criteria of this study. The content dimensions of these instruments varied between 1 to 12. The common measurement dimensions of these patient safety issue instruments included the leadership and management support for patient safety, policies and procedures developed to ensure patient safety, communication

  7. ESDORA: A Data Archive Infrastructure Using Digital Object Model and Open Source Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Biva; Pan, Jerry; Green, Jim; Palanisamy, Giriprakash; Wei, Yaxing; Lenhardt, W.; Cook, R. Bob; Wilson, B. E.; Leggott, M.

    2011-12-01

    There are an array of challenges associated with preserving, managing, and using contemporary scientific data. Large volume, multiple formats and data services, and the lack of a coherent mechanism for metadata/data management are some of the common issues across data centers. It is often difficult to preserve the data history and lineage information, along with other descriptive metadata, hindering the true science value for the archived data products. In this project, we use digital object abstraction architecture as the information/knowledge framework to address these challenges. We have used the following open-source frameworks: Fedora-Commons Repository, Drupal Content Management System, Islandora (Drupal Module) and Apache Solr Search Engine. The system is an active archive infrastructure for Earth Science data resources, which include ingestion, archiving, distribution, and discovery functionalities. We use an ingestion workflow to ingest the data and metadata, where many different aspects of data descriptions (including structured and non-structured metadata) are reviewed. The data and metadata are published after reviewing multiple times. They are staged during the reviewing phase. Each digital object is encoded in XML for long-term preservation of the content and relations among the digital items. The software architecture provides a flexible, modularized framework for adding pluggable user-oriented functionality. Solr is used to enable word search as well as faceted search. A home grown spatial search module is plugged in to allow user to make a spatial selection in a map view. A RDF semantic store within the Fedora-Commons Repository is used for storing information on data lineage, dissemination services, and text-based metadata. We use the semantic notion "isViewerFor" to register internally or externally referenced URLs, which are rendered within the same web browser when possible. With appropriate mapping of content into digital objects, many

  8. Archiving tools for EOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindrilaru, Elvin-Alin; Peters, Andreas-Joachim; Duellmann, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    Archiving data to tape is a critical operation for any storage system, especially for the EOS system at CERN which holds production data for all major LHC experiments. Each collaboration has an allocated quota it can use at any given time therefore, a mechanism for archiving "stale" data is needed so that storage space is reclaimed for online analysis operations. The archiving tool that we propose for EOS aims to provide a robust client interface for moving data between EOS and CASTOR (tape backed storage system) while enforcing best practices when it comes to data integrity and verification. All data transfers are done using a third-party copy mechanism which ensures point-to- point communication between the source and destination, thus providing maximum aggregate throughput. Using ZMQ message-passing paradigm and a process-based approach enabled us to achieve optimal utilisation of the resources and a stateless architecture which can easily be tuned during operation. The modular design and the implementation done in a high-level language like Python, has enabled us to easily extended the code base to address new demands like offering full and incremental backup capabilities.

  9. Algunos aspectos metodológicos de la investigación en resolución de problemas en física: una revisión Some methodological issues involved in Physics problems solving: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Buteler

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo presenta una revisión de los aspectos metodológicos involucrados en el estudio de las representaciones mentales puestas en juego por las personas para realizar ciertas tareas cognitivas. La revisión se acota al ámbito de la investigación en enseñanza de las ciencias y en particular, a un conjunto de investigaciones que abordan tareas estrechamente relacionadas con la resolución de problemas en Física. La revisión permite analizar y discutir los alcances y limitaciones de las decisiones metodológicas usuales para el estudio de la resolución de problemas en Física. Se ponen en consideración algunas directrices metodológicas plausibles de ser tenidas en cuenta para esta tarea.This work presents a review of the methodological issues involved in the studies of the representations used by people carrying out cognitive tasks. The review is based on literature dealing with cognitive tasks related to Physics problem solving. This review allows the analysis and discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the usual methodological decisions in Physics problem solving. Methodological directions for physics problem solving are considered.

  10. 受试者保护的法律问题与涉及弱势群体的伦理审查%Legal issues of human subjects protection and ethics review pertaining to vulnerable groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭华; 王凯戎

    2014-01-01

    The ethics review for clinical trials pertaining to human body highly emphasizes human subjects protection.This study discussed how to balance the relationship between the rights,safety and health of the subjects and interests of the science and the community,how to review the damage compensation provisions and insurance provisions in the informed consent,how to scientifically define the human subject biomedical trials involving vulnerable groups,and how to conduct trials on vulnerable groups,as well as other sensitive issues in ethics review.%在对涉及人体的临床试验进行伦理审查时,对受试者的保护是审查的主要目的和关注重点.本研究论述了审查过程中如何权衡受试者的权益、安全、健康与科学和社会利益之间的关系、如何审查知情同意书中的“伤害赔偿”条款以及与保险相关的条款、科学界定涉及弱势群体的人体生物医学试验项目、涉及弱势群体的试验项目如何进行伦理审查等目前比较敏感的问题.

  11. THE LA PALMA DATA ARCHIVE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZUIDERWIJK, EJ; MARTIN, R; RAIMOND, E; VANDIEPEN, GNJ

    1994-01-01

    The operation of the La Palma Data Archive is described in detail. The archive contains data taken since early 1986 with the Isaac Newton Group; 74% of the 260,000 entries are of astronomical sources. Several hundreds of queries are made on the catalog each year, resulting in approximately one reque

  12. Addressing the Issue of Domestic Violence at the Workplace: A Review of the Implementation of the Victim Empowerment and Abuser Rehabilitation Policy in Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim koodoruth

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been widely acknowledged that the majority of persons affected by Gender-Based Violence (GBV are women and girls. The violence females are subject to can occur at each stage of their life with immediate and long-term effects. According to a World Bank publication, The Costs ofViolence, (2009 most estimates on the cost to society of GBV have focused on domestic violence. A study of the Extent, Nature and Costs of Domestice Violence to the Mauritian Economy (2010 reveals that there is a forty-six fold difference between the administrative data provided the Ministry of Gender Equality, Child Development and Family Welfare. To scale up the fight against domestic violence the Government of Mauritius has launched the Victim Empowerment and Abuser Rehabilitation Policy (VEARP in 2013 whereby the workplace becomes a platform for primary prevention.This study aims to document the consultations held with stakeholders at the workplace (public and private sector and to make proposals to ensure that the VEARP is institutionalised at the workplace. It has been found that the Human Resource (HR function is not well developed in the mauritian society and among the three main models of prevention of domestic violence at the workplace, the partnerships model is the most appropriate.The organisation of training of trainers on GBV issues and the referrral system set up by the Ministry of Gender Equality, Child Development and Family Welfare will encourage employers to join the fight against domestic violence. To assist the HR department in implementing this workplace initiative, there is an urgent need to set up Employer Assistance Programs (EAP at the workplace. However, there is an urgent need to institutionalise work-family life balance policies, to adopt legislation to cater for violence at the workplace and to amend the Protection of Domestic Violence Act of 2011.

  13. Table-top water window transmission x-ray microscopy: Review of the key issues, and conceptual design of an instrument for biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Jean-François; Moy, Jean-Pierre; Susini, Jean

    2005-09-01

    As it has been beautifully demonstrated in synchrotron facilities, water window transmission x-ray microscopy (WW-TXM) has a great potential for high resolution three dimensional (3D) tomographic imaging of frozen cells, without the cumbersome staining and slicing preparation needed by electron microscopy. However, the existing instruments do not exactly meet the expectations of cell biologists in terms of performance and accessibility: 3D images of entire cells grown on a flat substrate with details in the 50-80nm range are necessary for structural cell studies. Functional imaging is also a key issue. Specific molecular probes are widely used to achieve molecular imaging in optical and electron microscopy. The same demand applies to x-ray microscopy. Immediate availability of the observation technique within the biology laboratory is as important as its performance. Therefore, WW-TXM will develop on a wider scale only when table-top instruments become available. We present a detailed analysis of such a microscope. The source is clearly the key element. Laser created plasmas of carbon or nitrogen are a proven but expensive solution. Cerenkov emission in vanadium has been demonstrated as a potential monochromatic source, but we emphasize severe obstacles: huge thermal load and radiation protection. We show that oxygenKα line excitation by an electron beam is a realistic alternative. Being a purely monochromatic source, it would allow the use of a high efficiency mirror condenser, while laser plasmas imply spectral selection with the associated losses. We then describe the main elements of an affordable laboratory microscope, supported by numerical simulations and preliminary experimental work. We also show that functionalized quantum dots, currently used in fluorescence microscopy, are equally detectable with soft x-rays and would allow a dual modality observation. Finally, the expected performance of this prototype is discussed and confronted by the requirements

  14. Using a phenomenological research technique to examine student nurses' understandings of experiential teaching and learning: a critical review of methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A J; Holloway, D G

    1997-11-01

    This paper provides a report of the usage of a phenomenological research methodology to investigate the influence on clinical practice of pre- and post-registration nurse education which makes explicit use of experiential teaching and learning approaches. The primary aim of the research was to explore the use of a phenomenological research methodology to examine the students' understanding of experiential teaching and learning. The claims made for the use of experiential teaching and learning approaches in both pre- and post-registration nurse courses and how clinical practice is influenced by the experiential learning elements of pre- and post-registration nurse education were also examined. The first stage of the enquiry involved focused non-directive interviews with members of BSc Nursing Studies and MSc Mental Health Branch programmes. Both programmes claim to make use of experiential teaching and learning. The data were analysed using a technique developed by Giorgi. Previous experiences of experiential teaching and learning were probed, student interpretations differentiated, and the relationship between course-based learning using experiential approaches and the implications for it's influence on practice were examined. The second stage of the enquiry has followed up the initial findings, exploring the students' experience of experiential approaches on their courses both in the classroom and in work-based learning situations. The findings are presented and discussed in the context of other studies from both nurse and higher education. Throughout the paper methodological concerns arising are discussed. The paper concludes with the identification of methodological problems arising from the research strategy: the implications of the power nexus created when teachers research students, and issues relating to the use of a phenomenological methodology in a longitudinal study.

  15. Archiving: The Overlooked Spreadsheet Risk

    CERN Document Server

    Lemieux, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    This paper maintains that archiving has been overlooked as a key spreadsheet internal control. The case of failed Jamaican commercial banks demonstrates how poor archiving can lead to weaknesses in spreadsheet control that contribute to operational risk. In addition, the Sarbanes-0xley Act contains a number of provisions that require tighter control over the archiving of spreadsheets. To mitigate operational risks and achieve compliance with the records-related provisions of Sarbanes-Oxley, the author argues that organisations should introduce records management programmes that provide control over the archiving of spreadsheets. At a minimum, spreadsheet archiving controls should identify and ensure compliance with retention requirements, support document production in the event of regulatory inquiries or litigation, and prevent unauthorised destruction of records.

  16. Study on the Defense Issue in the Death Sentence Review Process%死刑复核程序的辩护问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴婧婧

    2014-01-01

    In the death sentence review process , the defending right of the accused is protected by legislation . But to enhance the defending right , the effective defense of the defending attorney should be protected .However , the meeting between the defending attorney and the client who is not in custody may be scrutinized legally .The de-fending attorney has the right to deliver the defending opinion to the judge in charge of the death sentence review , but there are operation difficulties .The defending attorney may induce the case process indirectly , but we should set guidelines for the defending attorney to deliver opinions to the judge in charge .The jail investigates the crime allegedly to be deliberately conducted by the guilty who has been sentenced to death sentence with a reprieve .The lack of relevant legislation and improper enforcement hamper the effective defense .We may reform from the two as-pects of legislation and judicial practice .While advancing the effective defense , we should also prevent misplead-ing.%死刑复核程序中,被追诉人的辩护权受到立法保护,为了落实辩护权,需要保障辩护律师有效辩护。然而,辩护律师与非羁押当事人的会见可以被合法监控;辩护律师可以向死刑复核的法官提交辩护意见,但面临操作的困难;辩护律师可以间接推导案件进展,但需要设立具体流程供辩护律师向承办法官提交意见。死缓罪犯故意犯罪案件由监狱侦查,但立法空缺、执法可能不当将使得辩护权难以得到保障。上述问题可以从立法和司法实践两个方面予以改进。在推进辩护律师有效辩护的同时,还要发挥检察机关的作用防范不当辩护。

  17. Contemporary issues on the epidemiology and antiretroviral adherence of HIV-infected adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa: a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olurotimi A Adejumo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescents are a unique and sometimes neglected group in the planning of healthcare services. This is the case in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, where more than eight out of ten of the world's HIV-infected adolescents live. Although the last decade has seen a reduction in AIDS-related mortality worldwide, largely due to improved access to effective antiretroviral therapy (ART, AIDS remains a significant contributor to adolescent mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Although inadequate access to ART in parts of the subcontinent may be implicated, research among youth with HIV elsewhere in the world suggests that suboptimal adherence to ART may play a significant role. In this article, we summarize the epidemiology of HIV among sub-Saharan African adolescents and review their adherence to ART, emphasizing the unique challenges and factors associated with adherence behaviour. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive search of online databases for articles, relevant abstracts, and conference reports from meetings held between 2010 and 2014. Our search terms included “adherence,” “compliance,” “antiretroviral use” and “antiretroviral adherence,” in combination with “adolescents,” “youth,” “HIV,” “Africa,” “interventions” and the MeSH term “Africa South of the Sahara.” Of 19,537 articles and abstracts identified, 215 met inclusion criteria, and 148 were reviewed. Discussion: Adolescents comprise a substantial portion of the population in many sub-Saharan African countries. They are at particular risk of HIV and may experience worse outcomes. Although demonstrated to have unique challenges, there is a dearth of comprehensive health services for adolescents, especially for those with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. ART adherence is poorer among older adolescents than other age groups, and psychosocial, socio-economic, individual, and treatment-related factors influence adherence behaviour among adolescents

  18. Ethical issues at the interface of clinical care and research practice in pediatric oncology: a narrative review of parents' and physicians' experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vries Martine C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pediatric oncology has a strong research culture. Most pediatric oncologists are investigators, involved in clinical care as well as research. As a result, a remarkable proportion of children with cancer enrolls in a trial during treatment. This paper discusses the ethical consequences of the unprecedented integration of research and care in pediatric oncology from the perspective of parents and physicians. Methodology An empirical ethical approach, combining (1 a narrative review of (primarily qualitative studies on parents' and physicians' experiences of the pediatric oncology research practice, and (2 comparison of these experiences with existing theoretical ethical concepts about (pediatric research. The use of empirical evidence enriches these concepts by taking into account the peculiarities that ethical challenges pose in practice. Results Analysis of the 22 studies reviewed revealed that the integration of research and care has consequences for the informed consent process, the promotion of the child's best interests, and the role of the physician (doctor vs. scientist. True consent to research is difficult to achieve due to the complexity of research protocols, emotional stress and parents' dependency on their child's physician. Parents' role is to promote their child's best interests, also when they are asked to consider enrolling their child in a trial. Parents are almost never in equipoise on trial participation, which leaves them with the agonizing situation of wanting to do what is best for their child, while being fearful of making the wrong decision. Furthermore, a therapeutic misconception endangers correct assessment of participation, making parents inaccurately attribute therapeutic intent to research procedures. Physicians prefer the perspective of a therapist over a researcher. Consequently they may truly believe that in the research setting they promote the child's best interests, which maintains the

  19. The SSI and SKI review of the updated Final Safety Report for SFR 1 issued by SKB. Review report; SSI:s och SKI:s granskning av SKB:s uppdaterade Slutlig Saekerhetsrapport foer SFR 1. Granskningsrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Rodolfo; Jensen, Mikael; Larsson, Carl-Magnus; Lund, Ingemar; Loefgren, Tomas; Moberg, Leif; Norden, Maria; Wiebert, Anders [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden); Berglund, Thomas; Dverstorp, Bjoern; Hedberg, Bengt; Kautsky, Fritz; Lilja, Christina; Simic, Eva; Stroemberg, Bo; Sundstroem, Benny; Toverud, Oeivind; Wingefors, Stig; Zika, Helmuth [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    The repository for operational radioactive wastes in Sweden, SFR1, has been the object for a new safety assessment study by SKB (The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.). The findings of the review group will form the basis for decisions by the authorities on the provisions for the future operation of the repository.

  20. Self-archiving to Institutional Repositories Is Improved by Assisted and Mandated Deposit; Disciplinary Culture is not a Factor. A Review of: Xia, Jingfeng. “Assessment of Self-Archiving in Institutional Repositories: Across Disciplines.” The Journal of Academic Librarianship 33.6 (Dec. 2007: 647-54.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaby Haddow

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To test the assumption that authors familiar with subject-based repositories are more likely to self-archive to institutional repositories. Design – Comparative content analysis. Setting – Institutional repositories (IRs from the following seven universities: Queensland University of Technology (QUT, University of Melbourne, University of Queensland, Lund University, University of Glasgow, University of Southampton, and University of Strathclyde. The IRs included in the study were selected on the basis of repository size and use of EPrints software. Faculty size data and IR deposit policies were drawn from universities’ Websites. Methods – Each IR was searched to determine the number of deposits in the disciplines of chemistry, physics, economics and sociology. Physics and economics were selected because these disciplines have established internationally renowned subject-based repositories, in contrast to chemistry and sociology, which have not. Deposits from the disciplines were identified from subject terms, keywords and departmental names in metadata records. A “deposit rate” for the four disciplines in each IR was calculated. The metadata records were examined for name of the depositor, date of deposit, full-text availability, item type, and format. Information in the field “Deposited By” was used to identify the extent of self-archiving (that is, deposited by the author. Faculty size for the four disciplines at the seven universities was established from departmental Web site information. For the purposes of making comparisons between the IRs, these data were converted into “rates of faculty” size by dividing the number of faculty in the department by the total number of faculty at the institution. A weighted rate of deposits by discipline was calculated by dividing the rate offaculty size by the deposit rates. To take into account disciplinary differences in publication productivity, these rates were