Sample records for archips podana scopoli

  1. Drawings for an exacting author: illustrations from Giovanni Antonio Scopoli's "Deliciae florae et faunae insubricae". (United States)

    Siviero, Monica; Violani, Carlo


    Giovanni Antonio Scopoli (1723-1788) was one of the most versatile naturalists in eighteenth-century Italy. In 1785, Scopoli conceived the ambitious publication, "Deliciae florae et faunae insubricae". Appearing in installments, this included descriptions and illustrations of plants, animals and minerals found in northern Italy. Unfortunately, Scopoli's sudden death halted publication of the "Deliciae" after its third installment. Recently, a corpus of 98 paintings, in the gouache style, were discovered in the Biblioteca Universitaria of Pavia. These gouaches appear to be the basis for plates planned in future installments of the "Deliciae". Marginal notes in Scopoli's handwriting are included. Because Scopoli's plant and animal specimens have been destroyed or dispersed, these drawings are crucial for reconstructing his scientific opus. Combined with other documents, Scopoli's marginal notes also reveal his exacting standards. He criticized the way his artists had poorly rendered the scientific details of the paintings.

  2. Aposematism in Archips cerasivoranus not linked to the sequestration of host-derived cyanide. (United States)

    Fitzgerald, T D; Stevens, M A; Miller, S; Jeffers, P


    This study addressed the question of how caterpillars of Archips cerasivoranus feeding upon Prunus virginiana cope with the cyanogenic compounds of their food. Analysis by ion chromatography showed that young and aged leaves of P. virginiana consumed by the caterpillars during spring have hydrogen cyanide potentials (HCN-ps) of 2,473 +/- 130 ppm and 1,058 +/- 98 ppm, respectively. Although less than 3% of the cyanide released as the caterpillars feed escapes into the atmosphere, the larva's bright-yellow aposematic coloration and conspicuous activity can not be attributed to the sequestration of cyanide. Only six of 25 samples of the caterpillars' defensive regurgitants collected from 12 field colonies contained cyanide (17.6 +/- 6.54 ppm), less than 5% of the quantity previously reported to occur in the regurgitant of the tent caterpillar M. americanum. Only seven of 13 caterpillars assayed had detectable quantities of cyanide in their bodies (3.9 +/- 0.9 ppm). The fecal pellets that encase the cocoon contained no cyanide, nor did the frass that litters the leaf shelters. The small quantities of cyanide that occur in the caterpillar compared to the HCN-p of ingested plant material appear attributable to paced bouts of feeding and the maintenance of a highly alkaline foregut that inhibits cyanogenesis.

  3. Diagnosis and interrelationships of fishes of the genus Channa Scopoli (Teleostei: Channidae of northeastern India

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    W. Vishwanath


    Full Text Available Diagnostic characters of nine species of the genus Channa Scopoli of northeastern India are given. Examination of morphological and osteological characters revealed that the fish under study comprised two phylectic groups: marulius and gachua. The Marulius group is characteristic by having a very prominent V-shaped sharp isthmus, cephalic sensory pores arranged in groups, absence of scales on the lower jaw, a sharp prominent spinelike hypurapophysis, more branchial toothplates than epibranchial, and an elongated urostyle. The Gachua group is characterized by a U-shaped isthmus, cephalic sensory pores evenly arranged in a single row, the presence of one or two large cycloid scales on each side of the lower jaw, absence of a sharp prominent spine-like hypurapophysis, absence or presence of one tooth plate in the epibranchial, and absence of an elongated urostyle. An elongated bone is present in between two last hemal spines of all species examined. A key to known species of Channa of northeastern India is also given

  4. Plant population structure and insect herbivory on Solanum mauritianum Scopoli (Solanaceae in southern Brazil: a support to biological control

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    Deise Mari Barboza


    Full Text Available Solanum mauritianum Scopoli (Solanaceae, a native Brazilian shrub, has become naturalized and invasive in several countries. In South Africa, where invasions are severe, herbivorous insects that attack S. mauritianum in its native area have been considered for introduction as biological control agents. To assess the action of such herbivores on the plant, studies were carried out on a population of S. mauritianum in an area undergoing regeneration in southern Brazil. An analysis of the structure of that population was performed, as well as of herbivory by insects, in particular of Anthonomus (Curculionidae. The population structure showed an "inverted J" pattern in diameter classes, but not in height classes. Individual plants showed an aggregate distribution. The damage caused by Anthonomus did not amount to the loss of a large leaf area, but since it was inflicted on young leaves and in a large proportion, could lead to the survival decrease.Solanum mauritianum Scopoli (Solanaceae, um arbusto endêmico do sul do Brasil, naturalizou-se e tornou-se invasor em vários países do mundo. Na África do Sul, onde as invasões são severas, insetos fitófagos associados à planta no país de origem têm sido considerados para introdução como agentes de controle biológico. Para avaliar a ação de tais insetos no ambiente natural, foram conduzidos estudos em uma população de S. mauritianum em uma área em regeneração no sul do Brasil. Foi realizada análise da estrutura populacional, bem como da herbivoria causada por insetos, em particular para uma espécie do gênero Anthonomus (Curculionidae, para subsidiar o trabalho sobre controle biológico. A estrutura da população mostrou um padrão "J invertido" nas classes de diâmetro, mas não nas classes de altura; a distribuição espacial dos indivíduos era agregada. O dano causado por Anthonomus sp. não refletiu na perda real de grande área foliar. No entanto, uma vez que foi detectada uma

  5. Phylogenetic systematics of Barn Owl (Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769 complex inferred from mitochondrial rDNA (16S rRNA taxonomic implication

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    Mansour Aliabadian


    Full Text Available The Barn owl, Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769, occurs worldwide and shows a considerable amount of morphological and geographical variations, leading to the recognition of many subspecies throughout the world. Yet, no comprehensive study has not been done on this species. Data from mitochondrial gene (16S Ribosomal RNA (16S with 569 bp length were analyzed for 41 individuals around the world. Maximum likelihood (ML, maximum parsimony (MP and Bayesian analysis showed two distinct clades including alba clad (old world and furcata clad (new world. The amount of genetic variation within each of these clades ranged from 0.5-1.7 but variation between clades was 3.7. This data may suggest that Barn owls of the Old World may be a separate species from those of the New World.

  6. Epichlorohydrin induced biochemical changes in the rose-ringed parakeet, Psittacula krameri Scopoli. (United States)

    Hans, B; Kaur, S; Sangha, G K


    Intraperitoneal administration of epichlorohydrin (ECH) at the dose level of 20 and 50 mg/kg body weight inhibited spermatogenesis in the testis of parakeet during breeding season. A total load of 60 mg/kg body weight of ECH given on 3 consecutive days proved to be lethal. Testicular proteins, nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), phospholipids and acid phosphatase activity were decreased, while the lipids, total cholesterol and alkaline phosphatase activity increased after ECH administration. The results suggest that the testicular atrophy caused by ECH was associated with an alteration in the activities of macromolecules and enzymes related to specific events of spermatogenesis.

  7. CAPA-Gene Products in the Haematophagous Sandfly Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) - Vector for Leishmaniasis Disease (United States)


    2012.12.009 ARTICLE IN PRESSG ModelPEP 68873 1–6 R. Predel et al. / Peptides (2012) – 3 Fig. 1. (A) Anti- Pea -PVK-2 immunofluorescence staining...lowercase, exons in uppercase, the translated protein sequence in bold. The CAPA-PVK-1, CAPA-PVK-2 and predicted CAPA-PK sequences are highlighted in dark...341 Genomics and peptidomics of neuropeptides and protein hormones present in 342 the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis. J Proteome Res 2010;9:5296–310

  8. Ontogenesis peculiarities species of genus Rorippa Scopoli (Cruciferae in the subzone of the southern taiga

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    Svetlana Shabalkina


    Full Text Available Latent, pregenerative and generative periods in the ontogeny of Rorippa amphibia (L. Bess., R. palustris (L. Bess. and R. ×anceps (Wahlenb. Reichenb. were described. Skipping of a postgenerative stage, and some of ontogenetic states demonstrates the dynamic multiplicity of individual development; while the combination of seed and vegetative reproductions – multiplicity of the ways of reproduction and generation. The ontogeny of R. palustris individuals corresponds to A-type, R. amphibia and R. ×anceps – to G-type, and R. ×anceps – to D-type.

  9. Prey selection by the Barn Owl Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769 in captivity

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    V. Vanitha


    Full Text Available We investigated prey selection of the Barn Owl Tyto alba under captive conditions where birds were allowed to choose among individuals of varying size from four field rodent species: Bandicota bengalensis, Millardia meltada, Tatera indica and Mus booduga. Owls showed little species preference and a tendency to favour the medium weight class in all prey species except M. booduga. Preference for body parts consumed varied according to prey size, ranging from the head alone in the large weight class to the entire body in the small weight class. Biochemical measurements showed that protein, carbohydrate and lipid levels were higher respectively in the brain, liver and muscles of all three species and weight classes studied. The preference for medium weight prey despite a lower nutrient content compared to large weight prey is attributed to a greater ease of capture.

  10. Evaluation of Propane Combustion Traps for the Collection of Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) in Southern Israel (United States)


    traps for the consumer market , which utilize the combustion of propane to produce carbon dioxide (CO2) and other attractants. While these...Z. Abramsky, B.P. Kotler , R.S. Ostfeld, I.Yarom, and A.Warburg. 2003a. Anthropogenic disturbances enhance occurrence of cutaneous

  11. CAPA-gene products in the haematophagous sandfly Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) - vector for leishmaniasis disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Predel, Reinhard; Neupert, Susanne; Russell, William K.


    Sandflies (Phlebotominae, Nematocera, Diptera) are responsible for transmission of leishmaniasis and other protozoan-borne diseases in humans, and these insects depend on the regulation of water balance to cope with the sudden and enormous intake of blood over a very short time period. The sandfly...... inventory of neuropeptides, including those that regulate diuretic processes, is completely unknown. Direct MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometric analysis of dissected ganglia of Phlebotomus papatasi, combined with a data-mining of sandfly genome 'contigs', was used to identify native CAPA-peptides, a peptide...... class associated with the regulation of diuresis in other hematophagous insects. The CAPA-peptides identified in this study include two CAPA-PVKs, differentially processed CAPA-PK, and an additional CAPA precursor peptide. The mass spectrometric analysis of different parts of the neuroendocrine system...

  12. Acetylcholinesterase of the Sand Fly, Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli): Construction, Expression and Biochemical Properties of the G119S Orthologous Mutant (United States)


    C, Pasteur N, Philips A, Fort P, Raymond M: Insecticide resistance in mosquito vectors. Nature 2003, 423:136–137. 27. Weill W, Lutfalla G, Mogensen K...Chandre F, Berthomieu A, Berticat C, Pasteur N, Philips A, Fort P, Raymond M: Corrigendum:Insecticide resistance in mosquito vectors. Nature 2003...1 biochemical properties. Comp Biochem Physiol B 2008, 150:271–277. 46. Alout H, Labbé P, Berthomieu A, Pasteur N, Weill M: Multiple duplications of

  13. Acetylcholinesterase of the Sand Fly, Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli): cDNA Sequence, Baculovirus Expression, and Biochemical Properties (United States)


    Iraq: 6. Evaluation of insecticides for the control of sand flies. J Med Entomol 2011, 48:584–599. 16. Hemingway J, Ranson H: Insecticide resistance...leishmaniasis in Morocco. Parasit Vectors 2012, 5:51. 18. Surendran SN, Karunaratne SHPP, Adams Z, Hemingway J, Hawkes NJ: Molecular and biochemical...2002, 37:213–218. 45. Vontas JG, Hejazi MJ, Hawkes NJ, Cosmidis N, Loukas M, Hemingway J: Resistance-associated point mutations of organophosphate

  14. Highly polytypic taxon complex: interspecific and intraspecific integrative taxonomic assessment of the widespread pollinator Bombus pascuorum Scopoli 1763 (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lecocq, T.; Brasero, N.; Martinet, B.; Valterová, Irena; Rasmont, P.


    Roč. 40, č. 4 (2015), s. 881-890 ISSN 0307-6970 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : integrative taxonomic approach * labial gland secretions * genetic markers * colour pattern Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.343, year: 2015

  15. Sperm dynamics in spiders (Araneae): ultrastructural analysis of the sperm activation process in the garden spider Argiope bruennichi (Scopoli, 1772). (United States)

    Vöcking, Oliver; Uhl, Gabriele; Michalik, Peter


    Storage of sperm inside the female genital tract is an integral phase of reproduction in many animal species. The sperm storage site constitutes the arena for sperm activation, sperm competition and female sperm choice. Consequently, to understand animal mating systems information on the processes that occur from sperm transfer to fertilization is required. Here, we focus on sperm activation in spiders. Male spiders produce sperm whose cell components are coiled within the sperm cell and that are surrounded by a proteinaceous sheath. These inactive and encapsulated sperm are transferred to the female spermathecae where they are stored for later fertilization. We analyzed the ultrastructural changes of sperm cells during residency time in the female genital system of the orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi. We found three clearly distinguishable sperm conditions: encapsulated sperm (secretion sheath present), decapsulated (secretion sheath absent) and uncoiled sperm (cell components uncoiled, presumably activated). After insemination, sperm remain in the encapsulated condition for several days and become decapsulated after variable periods of time. A variable portion of the decapsulated sperm transforms rapidly to the uncoiled condition resulting in a simultaneous occurrence of decapsulated and uncoiled sperm. After oviposition, only decapsulated and uncoiled sperm are left in the spermathecae, strongly suggesting that the activation process is not reversible. Furthermore, we found four different types of secretion in the spermathecae which might play a role in the decapsulation and activation process.

  16. Der Stellenwert des Lebenszyklus für das Überleben der uferbewohnenden Wolfspinnenarten Pardosa wagleri (Hahn, 1822 und Pirata knorri (Scopoli, 1763

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    Manderbach, Randolf


    Full Text Available Quantitative, time-limited samplings in monthly intervals from June 1995 to August 1996, in combination with the measurement of carapace width of juvenile and adult spiders has revealed the life cycle patterns of the riparian wolf spiders Pardosa wagleri and Pirata knorri and showed the effect of floods on their abundance at the Isar River (Germany, Bavaria. Adults and juvenile spiders are heavily affected by floods but the populations of both species are able to recover quickly. The life cycles of both species are synchronized with the season and display a spring/summer stenochrony. P. wagleri shows a second reproductive phase in early summer. This reproductive behaviour supports the persistence of populations in this disturbed environment.

  17. Sex pheromone of the baldcypress leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) (United States)

    Brian T. Sullivan; Jeremy D. Allison; Richard A. Goyer; William P. Shepherd


    The baldcypress leafroller, Archips goyerana Kruse (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a specialist on Taxodium distichum (L.) Richard and has caused serious defoliation in swamps of southeastern Louisiana, accelerating decline of baldcypress forests concurrently suffering from nutrient depletion, prolonged flooding, and saltwater...

  18. Uporaba načel vitke proizvodnje pri proizvodnji žarometov


    Šverko, Marko


    Magistrsko delo obravnava možnost uvajanja principov vitkosti v proizvodnji avtomobilskih žarometov. Uvodoma so strnjeno obdelani nekateri sodobni koncepti modeliranja in vodenja proizvodnih procesov. Podana je primerjava glavnih poudarkov in identificirane so stične točke med njimi. Vitka proizvodnja je v nadaljevanju obravnavana bolj poglobljeno. Opisani so glavni gradniki sistema vitke proizvodnje in priporočeni pristopi k uvajanju vitkosti v organizacije. Glavno vodilo vit...

  19. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The spermathecal complex of Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli (Diptera: Psychodidae) undergoes histological and physiological changes during its gonotropic cycle. The present histochemical study revealed a mucopolysaccharide secretory mass in the spermathecae of the newly emerged sandfly. Sperm competition occurs ...

  20. The typification of Cordia flavescens Aubl., the transfer of Firensia Scop. from Cordia L. (Cordiaceae; Boraginales) to the synonymy of Ocotea Aubl. (Lauraceae), and the identity of the species of Firensia




    Abstract Firensia Scop. was based on Cordia flavescens Aubl., a species described and illustrated from a mixed collection that Scopoli never transferred to Firensia . The genus included three additional species formally named by Rafinesque. Currently the four species are placed in three different families and none retained the epithet accepted by Scopoli or given by Rafinesque for reason of priority. A lectotype is designated for Cordia flavescens that places Firensia in the synonymy of Ocote...

  1. The typification of Cordia flavescens Aubl., the transfer of Firensia Scop. from Cordia L. (Cordiaceae; Boraginales to the synonymy of Ocotea Aubl. (Lauraceae, and the identity of the species of Firensia

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    Christian Feuillet


    Full Text Available Firensia Scop. was based on Cordia flavescens Aubl., a species described and illustrated from a mixed collection that Scopoli never transferred to Firensia. The genus included three additional species formally named by Rafinesque. Currently the four species are placed in three different families and none retained the epithet accepted by Scopoli or given by Rafinesque for reason of priority. A lectotype is designated for Cordia flavescens that places Firensia in the synonymy of Ocotea (Lauraceae.

  2. The typification of Cordia flavescens Aubl., the transfer of Firensia Scop. from Cordia L. (Cordiaceae, Boraginales) to the synonymy of Ocotea Aubl. (Lauraceae), and the identity of the species of Firensia. (United States)

    Feuillet, Christian


    Firensia Scop. was based on Cordia flavescens Aubl., a species described and illustrated from a mixed collection that Scopoli never transferred to Firensia. The genus included three additional species formally named by Rafinesque. Currently the four species are placed in three different families and none retained the epithet accepted by Scopoli or given by Rafinesque for reason of priority. A lectotype is designated for Cordia flavescens that places Firensia in the synonymy of Ocotea (Lauraceae).



    Domanjko, Jernej


    Diplomsko delo opisuje razvoj sončnega pasivnega grelnika zraka in primerja različne izvedbe te naprave. Najprej so opisane teoretično možne moči grelnika, natančno je razloženo fizikalno delovanje naprave, navedeni so parametri, ki najbolj vplivajo na njen izkoristek. Nato je opisan potek načrtovanja, izgradnje in testiranja prototipa, na koncu pa je podana ekonomska ocena na podlagi primerjav rezultatov med različicami te naprave ter med različnimi napravami, primernimi za ogrevanje. V dipl...

  4. Trophic systems and chorology: data from shrews, moles and voles of Italy preyed by the barn owl / Sistemi trofici e corologia: dati su Soricidae, Talpidae ed Arvicolidae d'Italia predati da Tyto alba (Scopoli 1769

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    Longino Contoli


    Full Text Available Abstract In small Mammals biogeography, available data are up to now by far too scanty for elucidate the distribution of a lot of taxa, especially with regard to the absence from a given area. In this respect, standardized quantitative sampling techniques, like Owl pellets analysis can enable not only to enhance faunistic knowledges, but also to estimate the actual absence probability of a given taxon "m", lacking from the diet of an individual raptor. For the last purpose, the relevant frequencies of "m" in the other ecologically similar sites of the same raptor species diets are averaged ($f_m$ : the relevant standard error (multiplicated by a coefficient, according to the desired degree of accuracy, in relation of the integral of probabilities subtracted ($overline{F}_m - a E$: then, the probability that a single specimen is not pertaining to "m" is obtained ($P_0 = 1 - F_m + a E$; lastly, the desiderate accuracy probability ($P_d$ is chosen. Now, "$N_d$" (the number of individuals of all prey species in a single site needed for obtain, with the desired probability, a specimen at least of "m" is obtained through $$N = frac{ln P_d}{ln P_0}$$ Obviously, every site-diet with more than "N" preyed individuals and without any "i" specimen is considered to be lacking of such taxon. A "usefulness index" for the above purposes is outlined and checked about three raptors. Some exanples about usefulness of the Owl pellet analysis method in biogeography are given, concerning Tyto alba diets in peninsular Italy about: - Sorex minutus, lacking in some quite insulated areas; - Sorex araneus (sensu stricto, after GRAF et al., 1979, present also in lowland areas in Emilia-Romagna; - Crocidura suaveolens and - Suncus etruscus, present also in the southermost part of Calabria (Reggio province; - Talpa caeca, present also in the Antiapennines of Latium (Cimini mounts; - Talpa romana, present also in the middle of Tuscany; - Clethrionomys glareolus, lacking in few small, insulated areas, but present in coastal woodlands; - Microtus (Pitymys sp., apparently lacking only in some coastal areas of Toscana and Liguria, or in some Etna slopes (Linguaglossa. Riassunto Un metodo standardizzato e quantitativo di raccolta dei dati quale l'esame delle borre di rapaci consente non solo di integrare le conoscenze faunistiche, ma pure di tentare una valutazione della probabilità di assenza di un dato taxon da un'area geografica. In proposito, vengono presentati esempi originali circa Sorex minutus, Sorex araneus, Crocidura suaveolens, Suncus etruscus, Talpa caeca, Microtus (Pitymys savii e Microtus (Pitymys multiplex in Italia peninsulare.

  5. Nontarget lepidoptera species found in the pheromone traps for selected Tortricid species in 2002 and 2003 years

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    Eva Hrudová


    Full Text Available Pheromone traps were used to monitor the following tortricid moths, i.e. Adoxophyes orana, Archips podanus, A. rosanus, Hedya nubiferana, Pandemis heparana, Spilonota ocellana, Cydia pomonella, Cydia funebrana and Cydia molesta in the localities Brno-Tuřany (Brno-město, Nebovidy (Brno-venkov and Prakšice (Uherské Hradiště. Other Lepidoptera non-target species were present in these target-species pheromone traps, i.e. Adoxophyes orana, Agrotis segetum, Amphipoea oculaea, Archips rosanus, Celypha striana, Cydia coronillana, Enarmonia formosana, Epiblema scutulanum, Epinotia huebneriana, Eucosma fervidana, Euxoa tritici, Hedya pruniana, H. nubiferana, Lymantria dispar, Noctua pronuba, Notocelia rosaecolana, N. roborana, Pammene albuginana, P. suspectana, Pandemis cerasana, Pyrausta rectefascialis, P. aurata, Spilonota ocellana, Yponomeuta malinellus and Zygaena purpuralis.

  6. Repellency and other biological effects of natural substances against the sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi (United States)

    Leishmaniasis is an insect-borne disease caused by several protozoan species in the genus Leishmania, vectored by sand fly species in the genera Phlebotomus, Lutzomyia or others, with different species affecting different geographic ranges. Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) is a major vector of Leishma...

  7. Новые данные о географическом распространении лилейной трещалки Lilioceris lilii scopoli, 1763 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Criocerinae)


    Орлова-беньковская, М.


    Обобщение фаунистических данных (647 местонахождений) поз-волило получить наиболее полное представление об ареале трещалки лилейной в Евразии, выяснить его границы и составить карту. Область распространения проходит сплошной полосой – от атлантического по-бережья до тихоокеанского. Естественная часть ареала располагается в горах Сибири, Дальнего Востока, Северного Китая, Монголии и Казах-стана и лежит между 43° и 63° с. ш. Крайняя восточная точка имеет долготу 135° 30'' в. д. Вторичная часть ...

  8. Trogulus martensi Chemini, 1983 im Raum Basel (Arachnida, Opiliones, Trogulidae

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    Weiss, Ingmar


    Full Text Available Trogulus martensi Chemini, 1983, formerly thought to be endemic in northern Italy, is recorded from several places near Basle (first records in Switzerland and France. The species is close to T. galasensis Avram, 1971. Important differences to the syntopic T. closanicus Avram, 1971 (first published record in Fance and the sympatric T. nepaeformis (Scopoli, 1763 are shown and discussed. Additional biometric, autecological and phenological data of Trogulus martensi are presented.

  9. De « l’île absolue » à « l’île barrière » : l’exemple de la Caraïbe

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    Pascal Saffache


    Full Text Available Les mondes archipélagiques japonais et caribéens s’opposent, tant du point de vue de leur structure intrinsèque que de la vision qu’en ont les populations extérieures. Constitué de 7 000 îles environ (6 852 pour être précis, l’archipel nippon - appelé aussi « Japonésie » - apparaît comme un tout, une entité homogène, une « île absolue » ; ne dit-on pas « le Japon » et non « les Japons ». A contrario, la Caraïbe qui n’est constituée que de 25 îles, s’affirme comme un entité plurielle en quête...

  10. Carolus Linnaeus and the Edible Dormouse

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    Carlo Violani


    Full Text Available Abstract Carolus Linnaeus was totally unacquainted with the Edible Dormouse Myoxus glis (L., a species not found in Sweden: while describing Mus Rattus in the 10th Edition of the "Systema Naturae" (1758, the Swedish naturalist confessed his ignorance concerning the "Glis" of the ancients and suggested that it might have been the marmot or the hamster. Thanks to written information received from his correspondent in Slovenia, Giovanni Antonio Scopoli, Linnaeus was able to include the new species Sciurus Glis in his 12th Edition of the "Systema Naturae" (1766, reporting almost verbatim a summary of Scopoli's description of the rodent. Scopoli's letter is still preserved in the Library of the Linnean Society of London. The Linnean type locality "Habitat in Europa australi" for the Edible Dormouse Myoxus glis glis must therefore be restricted to "Southern Carniola, Slovenia", contra "Germany" as stated, for instance, by Miller (1912, Toschi (1965, Corbet (1978 and Storch (1978. A new name is required for the continental European form, for which M. glis germanicus ssp. nov. is here proposed. Some information on the appreciation of Myoxus glis as a delicacy ("carnes avide eduntur" in Linnaeus' words conclude the paper. Riassunto Carlo Linneo ed il Ghiro - Dopo aver descritto Mus Rattus nella decima edizione del "Systema Naturae" (1758 il naturalista svedese Carlo Linneo confessava di non essere a conoscenza del "Glis" degli antichi autori e ne suggeriva l'identificazione con la Marmotta o con il Criceto comune; è infatti noto che Myoxus glis non è diffuso in Svezia. In base ad una lettera ricevuta dal suo corrispondente in Slovenia, Giovanni Antonio Scopoli, Linneo fu in grado di descrivere questa nuova specie come Sciurus Glis nella dodicesima edizione del "Systema

  11. Ankara Vespidae (Insecta, Hymenoptera) Türleri Üzerine Faunistik Çalışmalar ve Ekolojik Gözlemler




    Bu araştırma, 1998-2001 yılları arasında Türkiye’nin başkenti Ankara ili civarında yapılan arazi çalışmaları sonucunda elde edilen 683 örneğe dayanmaktadır. Çalışma sonucunda 4 cinse ait (Vespa, Vespula, Dolichovespula, Polistes ) 9 tür ve 1 alt tür; Vespa orientalis Linnaeus, 1771, Vespula (Paravespula) germanica (Fabricius, 1793), Vespula (Paravespula) vulgaris (Linnaeus, 1758), Dolichovespula (Metavespula) slyvestris (Scopoli, 1763), Polistes (s.str.) gallicus (Linnaeus, 1767), Polistes (s...

  12. Fitness-related traits of entomopoxviruses isolated from Adoxophyes honmai (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) at three localities in Japan. (United States)

    Takatsuka, Jun; Okuno, Shohei; Ishii, Takayoshi; Nakai, Madoka; Kunimi, Yasuhisa


    Three entomopoxviruses (EPVs) isolated from diseased Adoxophyes honmai larvae at different localities (Tsukuba, Itsukaichi, and Miyazaki) in Japan were compared for biochemical identity and key parameters of virus fitness, fatal infection, speed of kill, and virus yield. When the structural peptides of occlusion bodies (OBs) and occlusion-derived viral particles were compared using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, no difference in banding patterns was observed. However, DNA restriction endonuclease analysis showed that the three isolates were genotypically different, but many commonly sized DNA fragments were observed. Five tortricid species, A. honmai, Adoxophyes orana, Adoxophyesdubia, Homona magnanima, and Archips insulanus were susceptible to all isolates. No significant differences in the key viral fitness parameters were detected among the isolates in A. orana. However, the Miyazaki isolate had a different effect on H. magnanima; it allowed infected insects to survive longer and develop to a larger size, but had a lower yield of OBs per larva at any given time to death. OB yields per unit cadaver weight for the Miyazaki isolate, which indicate the conversion rate of the insect to virus, were lower over time compared to the other two isolates. The implications for selecting a candidate isolate to control tortricid pests are discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Aphids and ladybird beetle’s abundance and diversity in alfalfa fields of Yasouj, southwestern of Iran

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    S. Mirfakhraie


    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is the oldest and the most important forage legume. It has been cultivated for forage longer than any other crop. Diversity indices provide information about community composition. Diversity indices are measured by species richness and species evenness therefore, it could give us more ecological information rather than a simple species list in the fields. During 2015-2016, aphids and ladybird beetle’s abundance and diversity were monitored in alfalfa fields of Yasouj. Samplings were conducted with 150 plants in the alfalfa fields from mid-May to mid-November. Species richness was measured using Shannon and Simpson indices. In this study, six aphids and five coccinellid species were collected and identified. Among the collected aphid species, Aphis fabae (Scopoli, 1763 and Therioaphis maculata (Buckton, 1899 were most abundant in the fields. For coccinellids, Coccinella septempunctata L. was the most abundant species. Highest aphid species diversity was observed on 17 May 2016.


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    G. M. Abdurakhmanov


    Full Text Available The results of study of the spiders fauna of Daghestan on 2011 were summed up at most in the work. The annotated lost of species was cited according to the world catalogue of Norman Platnik [1]. By the present time the composition of spe-cies of studied district includes 311 species, from which 59 species are cited as new for Daghestan, and 2 species (Dras-sodes archibensis Ponomarev & Alieva, 2008, Drassodes dagestanus Ponomarev & Alieva, 2008 are described as new for science. The indicated specimen earlier as sp. are identified to species – the species Nurscia albosignata Simon, 1874, earlier was identified as Nurscia sp. [8], the species Clubiona alpicola Kulczynski, 1881, earlier was identified as Clubiona sp.[8], and the species Clubiona brevipes Blackwall, 1841, earlier was identified as Clubiona sp.[8]. The mista-ken definition is corrected – the species Pirata hurkai Buchar, 1966, earlier identified as Pirata knorri (Scopoli, 1763.

  15. Taxonomia e morfologia de espécies neotropicais de Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae Taxonomic study of neotropical species of Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae

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    Bianca Marques


    Full Text Available Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae pode ser reconhecido por padrões cromáticos característicos no mesonoto e abdômen e pelas cerdas catepisternais 0:2. Das 14 espécies citadas na literatura para a Região Neotropical, sete são redescritas, com descrições das terminálias masculina e feminina - G. analis (Macquart, G. maculata (Scopoli, G. meridionalis Townsend, G. mexicana Giglio-Tos, G. occidentalis Arntfield, G. podexaurea(Enderlein e G. tropicalis Malloch, aqui revalidada. Ilustrações coloridas do mesonoto e do abdômen são apresentadas para facilitar o reconhecimento das espécies. O neótipo de G. maculata é designado. A fêmea de G. podexaurea é registrada pela primeira vez. O registro geográfico das seguintes espécies é ampliado: G. meridionalis para o Equador e Peru; G. mexicana e G. podexaurea para o Brasil; G. tropicalis para Colômbia e Brasil.Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae is recognized by characteristic color patterns on mesonotum and abdomen and by the disposition of the katepisternal setae 0:2. From the 14 species recorded in the Neotropical Region, seven are redescribed with the descriptions of male and female terminalia - G. analis (Macquart, G. maculata (Scopoli, G. meridionalis Townsend, G. mexicana Giglio-Tos, G. occidentalis Arntfield, G. podexaurea(Enderlein and G. tropicalis Malloch, herein revalidated. Colored illustrations of mesonotum and abdomen are presented in order to aid the recognition of the species. The neotype of G. maculata is designated. The female of G. podexaurea is recorded for the first time. The geographic record of the following species is enlarged: G. meridionalis for Ecuador and Peru; G. mexicana and G. podexaurea for Brazil and G. tropicalis for Colombia and Brazil.

  16. Updated distribution of Osmoderma eremita in Abruzzo (Italy and agro-pastoral practices affecting its conservation (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae

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    Patrizia Giangregorio


    Full Text Available New records of Osmoderma eremita (Scopoli, 1763 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae are reported for Abruzzo (Italy, together with a review of its distribution in this region. O. eremita is a saproxylic beetle dependent on the presence of hollow deciduous trees with abundant wood mould in their cavities. The major threats for the species are habitat loss and fragmentation. EU Habitats Directive requests to the member States its protection and the monitoring of its conservation status. Detection of its occurrence is the first step to protect the species. The surveys have been carried out in ten sites of Abruzzo by using black cross-windows traps baited with specific pheromone. The species has been recorded for the first time in the Sant’Antonio forest and its presence is confirmed in the Peligna Valley, after a decade. The populations seem to be confined to small patches of suitable habitats. At local level, the abandonment of the pollarding practice (willow and beech forests and the use of pollarded trees as biomass for fuel are the major threats for this species. Indeed some key actions, such as the protection of old hollow trees and the continuation of pollarding practice in rural landscape, could be key factors for the conservation strategies of the species in the study area.

  17. Raman-atomic force microscopy of the ommatidial surfaces of Dipteran compound eyes (United States)

    Anderson, Mark S.; Gaimari, Stephen D.


    The ommatidial lens surfaces of the compound eyes in several species of files (Insecta: Diptera) and a related order (Mecoptera) were analyzed using a recently developed Raman-atomic force microscope. We demonstrate in this work that the atomic force microscope (AFM) is a potentially useful instrument for gathering phylogenetic data and that the newly developed Raman-AFM may extend this application by revealing nanometer-scale surface chemistry. This is the first demonstration of apertureless near-field Raman spectroscopy on an intact biological surface. For Chrysopilus testaceipes Bigot (Rhagionidae), this reveals unique cerebral cortex-like surface ridges with periodic variation in height and surface chemistry. Most other Brachyceran flies, and the "Nematoceran" Sylvicola fenestralis (Scopoli) (Anisopodidae), displayed the same morphology, while other taxa displayed various other characteristics, such as a nodule-like (Tipula (Triplicitipula) sp. (Tipulidae)) or coalescing nodule-like (Tabanus punctifer Osten Sacken (Tabanidae)) morphology, a smooth morphology with distinct pits and grooves (Dilophus orbatus (Say) (Bibionidae)), or an entirely smooth surface (Bittacus chlorostigma MacLachlan (Mecoptera: Bittacidae)). The variation in submicrometer structure and surface chemistry provides a new information source of potential phylogenetic importance, suggesting the Raman-atomic force microscope could provide a new tool useful to systematic and evolutionary inquiry.

  18. Diversity of Quill Mites of the Family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata) Parasitizing Owls (Aves: Strigiformes) With Remarks on the Host-Parasite Relationships. (United States)

    Skoracki, Maciej; Unsoeld, Markus; Marciniak, Natalia; Sikora, Bozena


    The quill mite fauna of the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata: Cheyletoidea) associated with owls (Aves: Strigiformes) is reviewed. A new genus is proposed, Neobubophilus Skoracki & Unsoeld gen. nov. It differs from closely related Bubophilus (Bubophilus Philips and Norton, 1978) by the absence of leg setae vsII in the both sexes. In addition, four new species are described: (1) Neobubophilus cunicularius Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Athene cunicularia (Molina, 1782) (Strigidae) from Paraguay; (2) Neobubophilus atheneus Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Athene noctua (Scopoli, 1769) and Athene brama (Temminck, 1821) (Strigidae), both from India; (3) Bubophilus tytonus Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Tyto alba affinis (Blyth, 1862) (Tytonidae) from Cameroon, and (4) Megasyringophilus dalmas Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Megascops choliba (Vieillot, 1817) (Strigidae) from Venezuela. The following new host species are given: Bubo bubo (Linnaeus, 1758) (Strigidae) from Nepal for Bubophilus ascalaphus (Philips and Norton 1978) and Strix woodfordii (Smith, 1834) (Strigidae) from Tanzania for Bubophilus aluconis (aluconis Nattress and Skoracki 2009). A key for syringophilid genera and species associated with owls is constructed. The host-parasite relationships of syringophilid mites and owls are discussed. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: Version of Record, first published online May 24, 2016 with fixed content and layout in compliance with Art. ICZN.

  19. Small mammals in the diet of barn owls, Tyto alba (Aves: Strigiformes along the mid-Araguaia river in central Brazil

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    Rita G. Rocha


    Full Text Available We collected and analyzed 286 Barn owl, Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769, pellets from two nests in different environments along the mid-Araguaia River in central Brazil. Our analyses revealed that these owls feed mainly on small mammals, especially rodents. Owls from the riverbanks at Fazenda Santa Fé had a more diverse diet, preying mainly on rodents that typically inhabit riparian grasslands - Holochilus sciureus Wagner, 1842 - and forests - Hylaeamys megacephalus (Fischer, 1814 and Oecomys spp., which probably also occur in forest borders or clearings. On the other hand, owls from an agroecosystem at Fazenda Lago Verde preyed mostly on rodent species common in these agrarian fields, Calomys tocantinsi Bonvicino, Lima & Almeida, 2003. Additionally, we compared small mammal richness estimates based on the analysis of owl pellets with estimates from live-trapping in the same areas. Owl pellets revealed two rodent species undetected by live traps - Euryoryzomys sp. and Rattus rattus (Linnaeus, 1758 - and four rodent species were trapped, but not found in owl pellets - Oecomys roberti Thomas, 1904, Pseudoryzomys simplex (Winge, 1887, Rhipidomys ipukensis Rocha, B.M.A. Costa & L.P. Costa, 2011, and Makalata didelphoides (Desmarest, 1817. Traps yielded higher species richness, but these two methods complement each other for surveying small rodents.

  20. Characteristic odor of Osmoderma eremita identified as a male-released pheromone. (United States)

    Larsson, Mattias C; Hedin, Jonas; Svensson, Glenn P; Tolasch, Till; Francke, Wittko


    Osmoderma eremita (Scopoli) is an endangered scarab beetle living in hollow trees. It has mainly been known for its characteristic odor, typically described as a fruity, peachlike or plumlike aroma. The odor emanating from a single beetle can sometimes be perceived from a distance of several meters. In this paper, we show that the characteristic odor from O. eremita is caused by the compound (R)-(+)-gamma-decalactone, released in large quantities mainly or exclusively by male beetles. Antennae from male and female beetles responded in a similar way to (R)-(+)-gamma-decalactone in electroantennographic recordings. Field trapping experiments showed that (R)-(+)-gamma-decalactone is a pheromone attracting female beetles. Lactones similar to (R)-(+)-gamma-decalactone are frequently used as female-released sex pheromones by phytophagous scarabs. This is, however, the first evidence of a lactone used as a male-produced pheromone in scarab beetles. We propose that the strong signal from males is a sexually selected trait used to compete for females and matings. The signal could work within trees but also act as a guide to tree hollows, which are an essential resource for O. eremita. Males may, thus, attract females dispersing from their natal tree by advertising a suitable habitat. This signal could also be exploited by other males searching for tree hollows or for females, which would explain the catch of several males in our traps.

  1. The Earliest Zoography of Slovenian Fauna: Comments by Pietro Andrea Matthioli on Dioscorides’ Pharmacological Work Περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς

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    Boštjan Kiauta


    Full Text Available Matthioli’s monumental work, Commentarii in sex libros Pedacii Dioscoridis Anazarbei de Medica materia […], has so far remained unnoticed by Slovenian zoologists. Subsequent to the Italian, non-illustrated edition of 1544, several dozens of richly illustrated Latin, French, German and Czech editions were published. The work includes the descriptions and illustrations of a great number of pharmacologically applicable vertebrate-, insect-, other arthropod- and amerian species from the Slovenian territories of Carniola and Istria, brought together by the author during his service years in Gorica/Gorizia (1541–1555, and represents the first zoography of the Slovenian fauna. A brief description of the structure of the work is provided, along with references to it in various publications on the history of entomology. A note on some important Renaissance insect collections is added and a list is given of Matthioli’s 12 arthropod taxa listed by I. A. Scopoli (Entomologia carniolica, Vindobonae: Trattener, 1763. The translation of most of Matthioli’s other animal appellations into modern taxonomic nomenclature is still lacking, therefore the faunistic importance of the work cannot be fully assessed as yet.

  2. Avispora mochogalegoi n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae in the little owl, Athene noctua (Strigiformes: Strigidae, in mainland Portugal

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    Sergian Vianna Cardozo

    Full Text Available Abstract The little owl Athene noctua (Scopoli, 1769 is a small raptor that is widely distributed from northern to southern Portugal and several other countries in Europe, Asia and North Africa, and which has been introduced into New Zealand. In the current study, 18 fecal samples were collected from little owls kept at the Lisbon Center for Wild Animal Recovery, which is located in Monsanto Forest Park, Lisbon, Portugal. Twelve (67% of them were found to be passing an undescribed species of Avispora in their feces. The oocysts of Avispora mochogalegoi n. sp. were ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall and measured 38.9 × 32.9 µm, with a shape index of 1.18. No micropyle, oocyst residuum or polar granule was present. The sporocysts were subspherical, measuring 21.1 × 20.1 µm. Stieda, sub-Stieda and para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum was composed of a compact subspherical mass of granules. This is the fourth species of Avispora reported in Strigiformes.

  3. Üç Pestisitin Parazitoit Itoplectis maculator (Fabricius, 1775 (Hymenoptera:Ichneumonıdae Üzerine Toksisitesi

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    Mitat AYDOĞDU


    Full Text Available Tarım alanlarında kullanılan pestisitler, sadece doğadaki zararları organizmaları değil aynı zamanda doğrudan veya dolaylı olarak parazitoid arılar gibi yararlı canlıları da etkilerler. İnsektisitlerin sürekli ve aşırı doz kullanımı zararlı organizmaların yok edilmesinde önem arz eden yararlı canlıların da doğal ortamdan elemine edilmesine neden olmaktadır. Tarım alanlarına büyük zararı olan Avrupa yaprak bükeni Archips rosana larvaları çeşitli meyve ağaçları üzerinden toplanmış ve laboratuvar ortamında Itoplectis maculator erginleri elde edilmiştir. Tarımda yoğun olarak kullanılan Dichlorvos, Diazinon ve Deltamethrin pestisitlerinin önerilen ve sulandırılarak seyreltilmiş dozları 12 ve 24 saat süreyle örnekler ile muamele edilmiş ve örneklere ait ölüm yüzdeleri hesaplanmıştır. Sonuçlara göre 12 ve 24 saatlik ölüm yüzdeleri pestisitlere göre sırasıyla Dichlorvos>Diazinon>Deltamethrin şeklinde belirlenmiştir. Tarımsal alanlarda zararlı olan A. rosana üzerinde etkili olan yararlı böcek I. maculator’ un sayısının uygulanan dozlar ile anlamlı derecede azaldığı ortaya çıkmıştır. Tüm bu bilgiler tarım alanlarında zararlılar ile mücadelenin en etkili ve modern yöntemi olan biyolojik mücadele için katkılar sağlayacaktır.

  4. Bioacoustic investigations and taxonomic considerations on the Cicadetta montana species complex (Homoptera: Cicadoidea: Tibicinidae

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    Matija Gogala


    Full Text Available Recent bioacoustic investigations have shown that Cicadetta montana Scopoli 1772 is a complex of morphologically similar sister species that are best characterized by their song patterns. At the type locality of C. montana, only mountain cicadas with simple, long lasting song phrases were heard, recorded and collected. Therefore, we have good reasons to suggest that this type of song is characteristic for C. montana s. str. Boulard described a song of C. montana from France with phrases composed of a long and a short echeme; this type of song is characteristic for cicadas morphologically corresponding to C. montana var. brevipennis Fieber 1876; we suggest to raise this taxon to species level. On the basis of specific song, Puissant and Boulard described C. cerdaniensis from Pyrénées. A similar case was the discovery and description of C. montana macedonica Schedl 1999 from Macedonia; since these Macedonian cicadas are sympatric with at least two other cryptic species in the C. montana group and molecular investigations showed substantial genetic differences between C. macedonica and C. montana or C. brevipennis, we conclude that this taxon should also be raised to species level. Songs of closely related C. podolica and Korean mountain cicada are presented as well.Pesquisas recentes de bioacústica mostraram que Cicadetta montana Scopoli 1772 é um complexo de espécie-irmãs morfologicamente semelhantes e melhor caracterizadas por seus padrões de canto. Na localidade-tipo de C. montana somente cigarras serranas de longas frases de canto foram ouvidas, gravadas e coletadas. Portanto, temos boas razões para propor este tipo de canto como característico de C. montana s. str. Boulard descreveu um canto de C. montana da França com frases compostas de uma estridulação longa e uma curta; este tipo de canto é característico das cigarras correspondendo morfologicamente a C. montana var. brevipennis Fieber 1876; sugerimos elevar este táxon ao n

  5. Toxic and Repellent effecto of Harmal (Peganum harmala L. Acetonic Extract on Several Aphids and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst Efecto Tóxico y Repelente del Extracto Acetónico de Harmal (Peganum harmala L. sobre varias especies de Áfidos y Tribolium castaneum (Herbst

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    Elham Salari


    Full Text Available To reduce the dependence on the sometimes unwise use of synthetic pesticides in fruit and vegetable plantations, the toxicity and repellence of Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae acetonic seed extract was assayed against several insect pests. For contact toxicity, 3- to 4-d-old individuals of Aphis fabae Scopoli, A. gossypii Glover, A. nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe, and Myzus persicae (Sulzer were included, as well as 1- to 7-d-old adult Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Repellent effect experiments were conducted on adult, 1- to 2- and 3- to 4-d old M.persicae individuals. At 60 mg mL4, the topical bioassay mortality percentage was significantly higher in A. gossypii than in A. fabae and A. nerii after 12-72 h. Mortality of the treatments on M.persicae was 87.1% and 90.0% after 24 and 48 h, respectively, and significantly higher than A. fabae and A. nerii during this period. At 60 mg mL-1, the mortality of T. castaneum was much lower than that of the aphid species. The highest repellent index (over 72% was observed on 1- to 2-d-old M. persicae individuals.Para reducir la dependencia de los pesticidas sintéticos en plantaciones frutales y hortalizas, se realizó un ensayo para medir la toxicidad y repelencia de un extracto acetónico obtenido a partir de semillas de Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae contra diferentes especies de plagas. Para evaluar la toxicidad del extracto al contacto con los insectos, se incluyeron individuos de 3-4 d de edad de Aphis fabae Scopoli, Aphis gossypii Glover, Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe, y Myzus persicae (Sulzer, así como adultos 1-7 d de edad de Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Experimentos para medir el efecto repelente se llevaron a cabo con individuos de 1-2 y 3-4 d de edad de M. persicae. En los resultados de los bioensayos tópicos el porcentaje de mortalidad fue significativamente mayor en la especie A. gossypii que en A. fabae y A. nerii, después de 12-72 h con una concentración de 60 mg mL-1. La mortalidad

  6. Laboratory evaluation of temperature effects on the germination and growth of entomopathogenic fungi and on their pathogenicity to two aphid species. (United States)

    Yeo, Helen; Pell, Judith K; Alderson, Peter G; Clark, Suzanne J; Pye, Barry J


    As part of an approach to select potential mycoinsecticides for aphid biocontrol, we investigated the effects of temperature on the growth, germination and pathogenicity of some hyphomycete fungi. Commercially available mycoinsecticides (based on Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin and Verticillium lecanii (Zimmermann) Viegas) and other isolates of B bassiana, V lecanii, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize) Brown & Smith were evaluated. The rate of in vitro conidial germination of all isolates was slower at 10 and 15 degrees C than at 20 and 25 degrees C. Similarly, in vitro growth of most isolates was adversely affected at 10 and 15 degrees C. The greatest reduction at 10 degrees C in rates of conidial germination and colony growth, compared with other temperatures, was for M anisopliae isolates. Germination of V lecanii (isolate HRI 1.72) was fastest at 10 degrees C compared with the other fungi. It was also the most pathogenic of three isolates tested against Aphis fabae Scopoli and Myzus persicae Sulzer at 10, 18 and 23 degrees C. Generally, A fabae was more susceptible than M persicae to infection by the fungal isolates tested. A significant interaction between aphid species and temperature indicated that the pathogenic nature of an isolate was dependent not only on the target aphid species but also the temperature conditions of the bioassay. The series of studies, detailed above, allowed a temperature profile to be formed for the different isolates. Verticillium lecanii isolate HRI 1.72 (commercialised as Vertalec) was the most promising isolate selected from results of the series of experiments. Temperature profiles in conjunction with infectivity assays can be useful in selecting appropriate isolates for a particular thermal environment.

  7. Parasites of Columba livia (Aves: Columbiformes in Tenerife (Canary Islands and their role in the conservation biology of the Laurel pigeons

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    Foronda P.


    Full Text Available The prevalence and intensity of the parasites from 50 wild doves (Columba livia from the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in the island of Tenerife (Canary Archipelago, were studied. The following ectoparasites were found in apparently healthy pigeons (prevalences are shown in percentage (% and mean intensities with their standard deviations: the acari Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778 (6 241 .0 ± 138.9 and Tinaminyssus melloi Fain, 1962 (10 %, 218.3 ± 117.3; the louses, Columbicola columbae Linnaeus, 1758 (100 %, 111.4 ± 76.8 and Campanulotes bidentatus Scopoli, 1763 (94 %, 48.4 ± 26.6; and the pigeon fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis Macquart, 1839 (36 %, 6.2 ± 1.6. The endoparasites we found, were: a haemoprotozoan species, Haemoproteus columbae Kruze, 1890 (82 %, 14.8 ± 10.3 per 1000; coccidian oocysts, Eimeria sp. (50 %, 0.2 x 103 ± 1.7 x 103 per gr; a cestode species Raillietina micracantha (Fuhrmann, 1909 López Neyra, 1947 (44 %, 12.3 ± 9.4; and four nematode species, Tetrameres (Tetrameres fissispina (Diesing, 1861 Travassos, 1915 (4 %, 99.5 ± 34,1, Synhimantus (Dispharynx spiralis (Molin, 1858 (8 %, 46. 8 ± 11.6, Ascaridia columbae (Gmelin, 1790 Travassos, 1913 (40 %, 8.4 ± 8.8 and Aonchotheca sp. (18 %, 6.0 ± 3.1. Several species detected in our study can be pathogens for C. bollii and C. junoniae, which are endemic pigeons of the Canary Islands, considered endangered species. Parasites (ectoparasites, protozoa and helminths of C. livia found in Tenerife and others from wild and farm birds in the island were considered as healthy controls.

  8. Parasites of Columba livia (Aves: Columbiformes) in Tenerife (Canary Islands) and their role in the conservation biology of the laurel pigeons. (United States)

    Foronda, P; Valladares, B; Rivera-Medina, J A; Figueruelo, E; Abreu, N; Casanova, J C


    The prevalence and intensity of the parasites from 50 wild doves (Columba livia) from the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in the island of Tenerife (Canary Archipelago), were studied. The following ectoparasites were found in apparently healthy pigeons (prevalences are shown in percentage (%) and mean intensities with their standard deviations): the acari Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (6, 241.0 +/- 138.9) and Tinaminyssus melloi Fain, 1962 (10%, 218.3 +/- 117.3); the louses, Columbicola columbae Linnaeus, 1758 (100%, 111.4 +/- 76.8) and Campanulotes bidentatus Scopoli, 1763 (94%, 48.4 +/- 26.6); and the pigeon fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis Macquart, 1839 (36%, 6.2 +/- 1.6). The endoparasites we found were: a haemoprotozoan species, Haemoproteus columbae Kruze, 1890 (82%, 14.8 +/- 10.3 per 1000); coccidian oocysts, Eimeria sp. (50%, 0.2 x 10(3) +/- 1.7 x 10(3) per gr); a cestode species Raillietina micracantha (Fuhrmann, 1909) López Neyra, 1947 (44%, 12.3 +/- 9.4); and four nematode species, Tetrameres (Tetrameres) fissispina (Diesing, 1861) Travassos, 1915 (4%, 99.5 +/- 34.1), Synhimantus (Dispharynx) spiralis (Molin, 1858) (8%, 46.8 +/- 11.6), Ascaridia columbae (Gmelin, 1790) Travassos, 1913 (40%, 8.4 +/- 8.8) and Aonchotheca sp. (18%, 6.0 +/- 3.1). Several species detected in our study can be pathogens for C. bollii and C. junoniae, which are endemic pigeons of the Canary Islands, considered endangered species. Parasites (ectoparasites, protozoa and helminths) of C. livia found in Tenerife and others from wild and farm birds in the island were considered as healthy controls.

  9. Species Composition of Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and Modeling the Spatial Distribution of Main Vectors of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Hormozgan Province, Southern Iran. (United States)

    Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Khoobdel, Mehdi; Soleimani-Ahmadi, Moussa; Azizi, Kourosh; Aghaei Afshar, Abbas; Jaberhashemi, Seyed Aghil; Fekri, Sajjad; Safari, Reza


    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is one of the main neglected vector-borne diseases in the Middle East, including Iran. This study aimed to map the spatial distribution and species composition of sand flies in Hormozgan Province and to predict the best ecological niches for main CL vectors in this area. A database that included all earlier studies on sand flies in Hormozgan Province was established. Sand flies were also collected from some localities across the province. Prediction maps for main vectors were developed using MaxEnt model. A total of 27 sand fly species were reported from the study area. Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli, Phlebotomus sergenti s.l. Parrot, Phlebotomus alexandri Sinton, Sergentomyia sintoni Pringle, Sergentomyia clydei Sinton, Sergentomyia tiberiadis Adler, and Sergentomyia baghdadis Adler (Diptera: Psychodidae) had the widest distribution range. The probability of their presence as the main vectors of CL was calculated to be 0.0003-0.9410 and 0.0031-0.8880 for P. papatasi and P. sergenti s.l., respectively. The best ecological niches for P. papatasi were found in the central south, southeast, and a narrow area in southwest, whereas central south to northern area had better niches for P. sergenti s.l. The endemic areas are in Bandar-e Jask, where transmission occurs, whereas in Bastak, the cases were imported from endemic foci of Fars province. In conclusion, proven and suspected vectors of CL and VL were recorded in this study. Due to the existence of endemic foci of CL, and favorite ecological niches for its vectors, there is potential risk of emerging CL in new areas.

  10. Repellent and deterrent effects of SS220, Picaridin, and Deet suppress human blood feeding by Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Phlebotomus papatasi. (United States)

    Klun, Jerome A; Khrimian, Ashot; Debboun, Mustapha


    A series of behavioral tests with Aedes aegypti (L.), Anopheles stephensi Liston, mosquitoes, and the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli in the presence of Deet, SS220, and Picaridin topically applied to the skin of human volunteers showed that the insects were deterred from feeding on and repelled from surfaces emanating the compounds. When offered a 12- or 24-cm2 area of skin, one-half treated with compound and one-half untreated, the insects fed almost exclusively on untreated skin. The sand flies and mosquitoes did not at any time physically contact chemically treated surfaces. When treated and untreated skin areas were covered with cloth, insects contacted, landed, and bit only through cloth covering untreated skin. These observations provided evidence that the compounds deterred feeding and repelled insects from treated surfaces primarily as a result of olfactory sensing. When cloth, one-half untreated and one-half treated with chemical, was placed over untreated skin, insects only touched and specifically bit through the untreated cloth. This showed that the activity of the chemicals does not involve a chemical x skin interaction. In the presence of any of the three chemicals, no matter how they were presented to the insects, overall population biting activity was reduced by about one-half relative to controls. This reduction showed a true repellent effect for the compounds. Results clearly showed that Deet, SS220, and Picaridin exert repellent and deterrent effects upon the behavior of mosquitoes and sand flies. Heretofore, the combined behavioral effects of these compounds upon mosquito and sand fly behavior were unknown. Moreover, protection afforded by Deet, SS220, and Picaridin against the feeding of these three disease vectors on humans is mechanistically a consequence of the two chemical effects.

  11. Spider fauna in Caspian Costal region of Iran. (United States)

    Ghavami, Sahra


    The current study investigated spider fauna of Caspian Costal region of Iran (Guilan, Mazandaran and Golestan provinces) during 2005-2006. Spiders were collected from on the ground and under the stones and grasses by bottle, aspirator, Pitfall trap and pans and from branches, leaves and trunks of different trees and bushes by Steiner and Baggiolini method and insect net. They transferred to the laboratory and classified in 52 species and 51 genera belonged to 20 families. Thirty species, 13 genera and 2 families are reported for the first time from Iran, as follows: Family Agelenidae: Agelena labyrinthica (Clerck, 1757), Cicurina sp., Family Araneidae: Agalenatea redii (Scopoli, 1763), Araniella inconspicua (Simon, 1874), Araniella alpica (C.L. Koch, 1869), Araneus diadematus Clerck, 1757, Cercidia sp., Cyclosa conica (Pallas, 1772), Hypsosinga sanguinea (C.L. Koch,1845), Family Clubionidae: Clubiona neglecta O.P. Camridge, 1862, Family Amaurobiidae, Family Eresidae: Eresus sp., Dresserus sp., Family Gnaphosidae: Aphantaulax sp., Micaria sp., Family Metidae: Zygiella x-notata (Clerck,1757), Family Miturgidae: Cheiracanthium erraticum (Walckenaer, 1802), Cheiracanthium pennyi O.P. Cambridge, 1873, Family Linyphiidae: Microlinyphia sp., Family Lycosidae: Alopecosa pulverulenta (Clerck, 1757), Pardosa amentata (Clerck, 1757), Pardosa agrestis (Westring, 1861), Pardosa monticola (Clerck, 1757), Family Oxyopidae: Oxyopes salticus (Hentx, 1802), Family Philodromidae: Philodromus cespitum (Walckenaer, 1802),Family Pholcidae: Psilochorus simoni (Berland, 1911), Pholcus phalangioides (Fuesslin, 1775), Family Salticidae: Salticus scenicus (Clerck, 1757), Family Tetragnathidae: Tetragnatha montana, Simon, 1874, Tetragnatha javana (Thorell, 1890), Family Theridiidae: Dipoena prona (Menge, 1868), Steatoda albomaculata (Degeer, 1778), Theridion impressum C. L. Koch, Theridion simile C.L. Koch,1836, Family Thomisidae: Misumena vatia (Clerck, 1757), Thanatus formicinus (Clerck

  12. Cryptic Biodiversity and the Origins of Pest Status Revealed in the Macrogenome of Simulium colombaschense (Diptera: Simuliidae, History's Most Destructive Black Fly.

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    Peter H Adler

    Full Text Available The European black fly Simulium (Simulium colombaschense (Scopoli, once responsible for as many as 22,000 livestock deaths per year, is chromosomally mapped, permitting its evolutionary relationships and pest drivers to be inferred. The species is 12 fixed inversions removed from the standard sequence of the subgenus Simulium. Three of these fixed inversions, 38 autosomal polymorphisms, and a complex set of 12 X and 6 Y chromosomes in 29 zygotic combinations uniquely characterize S. colombaschense and reveal 5 cytoforms: 'A' in the Danube watershed, 'B' in Italy's Adige River, 'C' in the Aliakmonas River of Greece, 'D' in the Aoös drainage in Greece, and 'E' in the Belá River of Slovakia. 'C' and 'D' are reproductively isolated from one another, and 'B' is considered a cytotype of 'A,' the probable name bearer of colombaschense. The species status of 'E' cannot be determined without additional collections. Three derived polytene sequences, based on outgroup comparisons, place S. colombaschense in a clade of species composed of the S. jenningsi, S. malyschevi, and S. reptans species groups. Only cytoforms 'A' and 'B' are pests. Within the Simuliidae, pest status is reached through one of two principal pathways, both of which promote the production of large populations of blood-seeking flies: (1 colonization of the world's largest rivers (habitat specialization or (2 colonization of multiple habitat types (habitat generalization. Evolutionary acquisition of the ability to colonize large rivers by an ancestor of the S. jenningsi-malyschevi-reptans clade set the scene for the pest status of S. colombaschense and other big-river members of the clade. In an ironic twist, the macrogenome of S. colombaschense reveals that the name associated with history's worst simuliid pest represents a complex of species, two or more of which are nonpests potentially vulnerable to loss of their limited habitat.

  13. Predators and Parasitoids of Cacopsylla pyri (L. (Hemiptera: Psyllidae in Serbia

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    Dušanka Jerinić Prodanović


    Full Text Available The presence of C. pyri and its natural enemies was studied in both treated and untreated pear orchards in Serbia from 2005 to 2009. Five parasitoid and 21 predator species were identified as present on a considerable number of sites. The following parasitoid species were found: Prionomitus mitratus (Dalman,Psyllaephagus procerus Marcet,Syrphophagus ariantes (Walker,Syrphophagus taeniatus Förster and Tamarixia sp. In the study, the species Psyllaephagus procerus,Syrphophagus ariantes and Tamarixia sp. were forthe first time identified as parasitoids of C. pyri and as new species in the Serbian fauna.Among the parasitoids determined, Prionomitus mitratus predominated. Of the predators, the following species in four orders were registered: Dermaptera [Forficula auricularia Linnaeus (Forficulidae], Heteroptera [Anthocoris nemoralis(Fabricius, Anthocoris nemorum (Linnaeus, Orius (Heterorius minutus (Linnaeus, Orius (Heterorius nigerWolff (Anthocoridae, Campylomma verbasci (Mayer-Dür, Deraeocoris (Deraeocorisruber(Linnaeusand Deraeocoris(Knightocarsuslutescens (Schilling(Miridae],Neuroptera[Chrysopa pallens Rambur,Chrysoperla carnea(Stephens,Chrysopa sp.(Chrysopidae], and Coleoptera [Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus, Adalia bipunctata Linnaeus, Adalia decempunctata(Linnaeus, Hippodamia tredecimpunctata (Linnaeus,Hippodamia variegata(Goeze,Propylea quatuordecimpunctata (Linnaeus, Calvia (Anisocalvia quatuordecimguttata(Linnaeus(Coccinellidae, Cantharis rustica Fallén, Rhagonycha fulva (Scopoli and Rh. testacea(Linnaeus (Cantharidae]. Of the predators determined, 12 species were registered for the first time as predators of C. pyri in Serbia, while C. rustica, Rhagonycha fulva and Rh.testacea have so far been known neither in Serbia nor in the world as predators of pear suckers.

  14. Molecular detection of Leishmania infection due to Leishmania major and Leishmania turanica in the vectors and reservoir host in Iran. (United States)

    Rassi, Yavar; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Azani, Sadegh Mohammadi; Abaie, Mohammad Reza; Rafizadeh, Sina; Mohebai, Mehdi; Mohtarami, Fatemeh; Zeinali, Mohammad kazem


    An epidemiological study was carried out on the vectors and reservoirs of cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural areas of Damghan district, Semnan province, central Iran, during 2008-2009. Totally, 6110 sand flies were collected using sticky papers and were subjected to molecular methods for detection of Leishmania parasite. Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli was the common species in outdoor and indoor resting places. Polymerase chain reaction technique showed that 24 out of 218 P. papatasi (11%) and 4 out of 62 Phlebotomus caucasicus Marzinovskyi (6.5%) were positive for parasites Leishmania major Yakimoff and Schokhor. Twenty-one rodent reservoir hosts captured using Sherman traps were identified as Rhombomys opimus Lichtenstein (95%) and Meriones libycus Lichtenstein (5%). Microscopic investigation on blood smear of the animals for amastigote parasites revealed 8 (40%) rodents infected with R. opimus. L. major infection in these animals was then confirmed by polymerase chain reaction against internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA (rDNA) loci of the parasite followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Further, sequence analysis of 297 bp of ITS1-rDNA loci revealed the presence of L. major and Leishmania turanica in P. papatasi, and L. major in R. opimus. This is the first molecular report of L. major infection in both vectors (P. papatasi and P. caucasicus) and reservoir host (R. opimus) in this region. The results indicated that P. papatas was the primary vector of the disease and circulating the parasite between human and reservoirs, and P. caucasicus could be considered as a secondary vector. Further, our study showed that R. opimus is the most important host reservoir for maintenance of the parasite source in the area.

  15. Assessing Insecticide Susceptibility of Laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis and Phlebotomus papatasi Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae). (United States)

    Denlinger, David S; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Lawyer, Phillip G; Black, William C; Bernhardt, Scott A


    Chemical insecticides are effective for controlling Lutzomyia and Phlebotomus sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors of Leishmania parasites. However, repeated use of certain insecticides has led to tolerance and resistance. The objective of this study was to determine lethal concentrations (LCs) and lethal exposure times (LTs) to assess levels of susceptibility of laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Nieva) and Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) to 10 insecticides using a modified version of the World Health Organization (WHO) exposure kit assay and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassay. Sand flies were exposed to insecticides coated on the interior of 0.5-gallon and 1,000-ml glass bottles. Following exposure, the flies were allowed to recover for 24 h, after which mortality was recorded. From dose-response survival curves for L. longipalpis and P. papatasi generated with the QCal software, LCs causing 50, 90, and 95% mortality were determined for each insecticide. The LCs and LTs from this study will be useful as baseline reference points for future studies using the CDC bottle bioassays to assess insecticide susceptibility of sand fly populations in the field. There is a need for a larger repository of sand fly insecticide susceptibility data from the CDC bottle bioassays, including a range of LCs and LTs for more sand fly species with more insecticides. Such a repository would be a valuable tool for vector management. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  16. Diagnostic doses and times for Phlebotomus papatasi and Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) using the CDC bottle bioassay to assess insecticide resistance. (United States)

    Denlinger, David S; Creswell, Joseph A; Anderson, J Laine; Reese, Conor K; Bernhardt, Scott A


    Insecticide resistance to synthetic chemical insecticides is a worldwide concern in phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae), the vectors of Leishmania spp. parasites. The CDC bottle bioassay assesses resistance by testing populations against verified diagnostic doses and diagnostic times for an insecticide, but the assay has been used limitedly with sand flies. The objective of this study was to determine diagnostic doses and diagnostic times for laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Nieva) and Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) to ten insecticides, including pyrethroids, organophosphates, carbamates, and DDT, that are used worldwide to control vectors. Bioassays were conducted in 1,000-ml glass bottles each containing 10-25 sand flies from laboratory colonies of L. longipalpis or P. papatasi. Four pyrethroids, three organophosphates, two carbamates and one organochlorine, were evaluated. A series of concentrations were tested for each insecticide, and four replicates were conducted for each concentration. Diagnostic doses were determined only during the exposure bioassay for the organophosphates and carbamates. For the pyrethroids and DDT, diagnostic doses were determined for both the exposure bioassay and after a 24-hour recovery period. Both species are highly susceptible to the carbamates as their diagnostic doses are under 7.0 μg/ml. Both species are also highly susceptible to DDT during the exposure assay as their diagnostic doses are 7.5 μg/ml, yet their diagnostic doses for the 24-h recovery period are 650.0 μg/ml for Lu. longipalpis and 470.0 μg/ml for P. papatasi. Diagnostic doses and diagnostic times can now be incorporated into vector management programs that use the CDC bottle bioassay to assess insecticide resistance in field populations of Lu. longipalpis and P. papatasi. These findings provide initial starting points for determining diagnostic doses and diagnostic times for other sand fly vector species and wild populations using the CDC

  17. Morphological features of Delphinium sergii Wissjul. ex situ in M.M. Gryshko National Botanical Garden

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    Alla M. Gnatiuk


    Full Text Available Delphinium sergii Wissjul. is an endemic of eastern coast of Black Sea. It is listed in Red book of Ukraine with conservation status “vulnerable” (Didukh 2009. It grows mainly in eastern part of Ukraine in nature and is not typical for the Kyiv region. It is a perennial plant with bright blue flowers. The individuals of this specie are cultivated in the M.M. Gryshko National Botanical Garden during last 15 years. The results of the study of ontogenetic development and morphological diversity show that D. sergii is characterized by heterophylly and common morphological variability of leaf blade. The correlation of degree between leaf blade dissection and their formation and age was established. Dissected leaves are found to be “older” while with entire laminas – “younger”. Formation of different leaves in individuals of the same age states their dependence from lighting, soil moisture, crop density, genetic heterogeneity and plasticity of individuals in different conditions of growth. We observed a difference in terms of passing through ontogenetic stages among the individuals too. Our investigation established that the individuals of D. sergii ex situ can accelerate the ontogenetic development and reach the generative stage for just 2 years. The juvenile period in some individuals may last for just one growing season. It is noted that under the unfavorable factors (thickened crops, drought, and shading development of D. sergii individuals became slower. This species can be reproduced both by seed and vegetative. Propagation by seeds is the main way for distribution of these plants. Vegetative reproduction could be realized by particulation of individuals at g and ss stages. In Кyiv region D. sergii is blooming in June-July. Delphinium is well known as such representing the “bee-flowers syndrome”. According to our observations the main pollinators of D. sergii in conditions of our botanical garden were Bombus pascuorum (Scopoli

  18. The types of Palaearctic species of the families Apionidae, Rhynchitidae, Attelabidae and Curculionidae in the collection of Étienne Louis Geoffroy (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea

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    Alonso-Zarazaga, M. A.


    >Curculio nigrostriatus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio floriger Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum = Curculio subglobosus Gmelin, 1790, nom. oblitum; Anisorhynchus scabrosus (Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio barbatus Rossi, 1794; Hylobius abietis (Linnaeus, 1758 = Curculio tigris Gmelin, 1790; Sitophilus granarius (Linnaeus, 1758 = Curculio contractus Geoffroy, 1785; Phyllobius pomaceus Gyllenhal, 1834 = Curculio auratus Geoffroy, 1785; Hylobius transversovittatus (Goeze, 1777 = Curculio fascialis Gmelin, 1790. New combinations are: Leucophyes occidentalis (Dieckmann, 1982 (from Leucosomus and Anisorhynchus scabrosus (Geoffroy, 1785 (from Curculio. The following names have been reinstated (stat. res. as valid: Trachyphloeus spinosus (Goeze, 1777 for the species known as Trachyphloeus olivieri Bedel, 1883, Lixus pulverulentus (Scopoli, 1763 for the species known as Lixus angustatus (Fabricius, 1775. Hypera melancholica (Fabricius, 1793 is confirmed as the valid name for the species hitherto named Hypera fuscocinerea (Marsham, 1802 or Hypera murina (Fabricius, 1793. The following names are considered nomina dubia, since there is no identifiable type material: Curculio pulex Goeze, 1777, Rhinomacer minutus Geoffroy, 1785, Curculio pulex Gmelin, 1790 (non Goeze, 1777, Rhinomacer striatusi> Geoffroy, 1785, Rhinomacer fulgidusi> Geoffroy, 1785, Curculio transversofasciatus Goeze, 1777, Curculio fasciatus Geoffroy, 1785 (non Scopoli, 1763, nec Ström, 1768, nec Degeer, 1775, nec Mu.ller, 1776, Curculio fuscatus Gmelin, 1790, Curculio sulcatus Goeze, 1777: 410 (non Fabricius, 1775, nec Goeze, 1777: 381, Curculio incisus Geoffroy, 1785, Curculio exaratus Gmelin, 1790, Curculio quadratus Goeze, 1777, Curculio quadrilis Geoffroy, 1785, Curculio griseosericeus Goeze, 1777,

  19. Monitoring of aphid flight activities in seed potato crops in Serbia

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    Andja Vucetic


    Full Text Available Aphid flight activities in seed potato fields have been studied by the yellow water traps. It is a good method for monitoring aphids as vectors of viruses, but this study also showed it is a suitable method for insect-diversity research. During the four-year studies, over 11.500 specimens were collected and a total of 107 different taxa of aphids were identified. The most abundant species were polyphagous species, such as: Acyrthosiphon pisum (Haris, Aphis fabae Scopoli, Aphis gossypii Glover and Brachycaudus helichrysi (Kaltenbach. The results of the studies show that diversity of aphids in different regions of Serbia is similar regardless of the altitude and the diversity of terrain. At most sites it ranged from 2 to 3. The highest value was recorded in Begeč, locality in northern part of Serbia, in year 2008, and it was 2.92. The maximum values of the Shannon-Weaver diversity index at all sites were recorded in the first weeks of the monitoring of aphid flight activities. Morisita-Horn similarity index shows no significant differences between sites regardless of altitudes. The sites are grouped by year, not by similarity of relief. In spite of these results, the Chi-square analysis showed highly significant difference in vector frequencies among seasons and sites with more pronounced differences for PVY. As a consequence of differences in vector frequencies, the vector pressure index in some regions was different also. The number of vectors and vector pressure index vary depending on the altitude of localities. At localities at altitudes under 1000 m, they were high. The highest index was at Kotraža, locality in central part of Serbia, in 2007, when PVY index exceeded the value of 180, while for PLRV it was 60. At high altitudes on mountain Golija, above 1100 m, the number of aphids was low, as well as the vector pressure index which indicates that these regions are suitable for producing virus-free seed potato.

  20. Parásitos metazoos de Anas georgica Gmelin, 1789 (Aves: Anseriformes en Chile central: especificidad, prevalencia y variaciones entre localidades Host specificity, prevalence and between-sites variation in metazoan parasites of Anas georgica Gmelin, 1789 (Aves: Anseriformes in Chile

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    Full Text Available Se estudiaron los parásitos metazoos en 65 ejemplares del pato jergón grande Anas geórgica Gmelin, 1789 (Aves: Anseriformes, capturados entre los meses de mayo y julio de 2004, en seis localidades de la zona centro-sur de Chile. Se evaluó si existía correlación entre el valor del índice de especificidad STD (Statistical Taxonomic Distinctiveness, para cada taxón determinado a nivel de especie, con sus respectivas prevalencias e intensidades. Además, se evaluó la significancia estadística de las variaciones entre localidades en la prevalencia e intensidad de ectoparásitos y endoparásitos, en la abundancia total de parásitos y en la riqueza de las infracomunidades. Finalmente, se evaluó si el peso corporal y el sexo de los hospedadores eran relevantes para entender las variaciones de la abundancia de cada taxon, la abundancia total y la riqueza en las infracomunidades. En el 81.5 % de los ejemplares examinados se encontraron 1,653 parásitos, pertenecientes a un total de 11 taxa, a saber, los ectoparásitos del orden Phthiraptera Anaticola crassicornis (Scopoli, 1763, Anatoecus icterodes (Nitzsch, 1818 y Trinoton querquedulae (Linneus, 1758, y los endoparásitos Digenea Australapatemon burti (Miller, 1923 Dubois, 1968, Notocotylus imbricatus (Loss, 1893, Paramonostomum pseudoalveatum Price, 1931, Echinostoma sp. Rudolphi, 1809, Echinoparyphium sp. Dietz, 1909, el Nematoda Porrocaecum sp. Railliet & Henry, 1912 y los Cestoda Cloacotaenia megalops (Nitzsch in Creplin, 1829 Wolfhuegel, 1938 y Fuhrmanacanthus propeteres (Fuhrmann, 1907 Spasskii, 1966. La correlación entre el índice de especificidad STD y la prevalencia de los taxa parasitarios resultó ser negativa y significativa, no así la correlación con la intensidad. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en la abundancia o riqueza de los parásitos entre sexos de las aves, pero sí en la riqueza de especies y en la abundancia total entre sitios. Con excepción de los

  1. The Effects of Constant and Fluctuating Thermal Regimes for Reducing Chill Injuries During Cold Storage of Late-Instar Larva of Lysiphlebus fabarum (Hym., Braconidae

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    Hossein Mahi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Mass production of natural enemies has been considered a necessity for biological control programs. Most beneficial insects have a relatively short shelf-life, so suppliers do not have a sufficient number of biocontrol agents. The development of storage techniques for biocontrol agents provides flexibility and efficiency in mass production. Cold storage by prolonging insect development times provides a steady and sufficient supply of insects and synchronizes a desired developmental stage of biocontrol agents with times of pest outbreaks; so it reduces the cost of biocontrol programs by enlarging the production period over several months. Cold storage is usually associated with major fitness costs. Even if the insects remain alive after cold storage, a reduction of fitness may be observed, so the production of high quality natural enemies must be ensured. Developing effective methods is necessary in mass-producing. It has been reported that using fluctuating thermal regimes (FTR (i.e. cold exposure interrupted by periodic short pulses of high temperature versus constant thermal regimes (CTR can progress the quality of biological control agents and significantly reduce rates of mortality. In this study, the impact of fluctuating thermal regimes versus constant low temperatures on the emergence rate, sex ratio, post-storage development time, adult size, egg load and egg size of the parasitoid wasp, Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall was studied. The test was examined in three cold storage periods (1, 2, or 3 weeks. Lysiphlebus fabarum is an aphidiine parasitoid which attacks more than 70 species of aphids. Although both sexual (arrhenotokous and asexual (thelytokous populations of L. fabarum have been reported in Iran, the former population has been studied in this research. Materials and Methods: A stock colony of black bean aphid, Aphis fabae Scopoli (Hemi., Aphididae was established from material collected in bean fields in Khuzestan

  2. Influence of Different Diets on Two-sex Life Table Parameters of Oenopia conglobata contaminata (Menteries

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    H. Zohdi


    Full Text Available Introduction: The common pistachio psylla (CPP, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt and Lauterer, 1989 (Hem.: Psylloidea: Rhinocolinae is an important pest of pistachio trees. The presence of a large population of psyllid causes severe problems such as falling buds and leaves and therefore this pest causes heavy economic damage to farmers. Predators are the largest and the most diverse natural enemies of the CPP. They are offered as biological control agents against pistachio pests, especially CPP, although they are mostly general predators. Oenopia conglobata contaminata (Menteries is one of the common psylla predators of pistachio orchard that have a significant role in biological control of Agonoscena pistaciae population. Despite the importance of this efficient predator, the limited study has been done on the effect of different hosts on the biological parameters of this lady beetle. In this study, the demographic parameters of this lady beetle by feeding on 4 different prey species, A. pistaciae , Aphis fabae Scopoli (Hem.:Aphididae, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hem.:Aphididae and eggs of Ephestia kuehniella (Zell.(Lep.:Pyralidae were studied in the laboratory conditions (25 ± 2°C, relative humidity of %65 ±5 and photoperiod of 16 hours light and 8 hours of darkness. Materials and Methods: Nymphs of CPP (A.pistaciae and adults of O. conglobata contaminata beetles were collected on the pistachio leaves from a pistachio orchard. Aphids (A. fabae and A. gossypii were reared on the bean and the cotton plants planted in a greenhouse. Eggs of E. kuehniella were prepared from insectarium of Kerman Plant protection management and rearing of E. kuehniella was done in the laboratory conditions in Kerman Agricultural and Natural Resoarce Research Center. Before starting the experiment, one generation of O. conglobata contaminata was reared in the laboratory on the different host separately. One hundred eggs of O. conglobata contaminata were used to

  3. Nomenclatural Studies Toward a World List of Diptera Genus-Group Names. Part V: Pierre-Justin-Marie Macquart. (United States)

    Evenhuis, Neal L; Pape, Thomas; Pont, Adrian C


    of Phyllomya Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, n. syn. [Tachinidae]; Physogenia Loew, 1862 of Physegenua Macquart, 1848, n. syn. [Lauxaniidae]; Physogenua Giglio-Tos, 1895 of Physegenua Macquart, 1848, n. syn. [Lauxaniidae]; Phytomiza Macquart, 1835 of Phytomyza Fallén, 1810, n. syn. [Agromyzidae]; Platipalpus Macquart, 1850 of Platypalpus Macquart, 1828, n. syn. [Hybotidae]; Platipeza Macquart, 1850 of Platypeza Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Platypezidae]; Platynochoetus Macquart, 1834 of Platynochaetus Wiedemann, 1830 [Syrphidae]; Porphirops Macquart, 1838 of Porphyrops Meigen, 1824, n. syn [Dolichopodidae]; Rhinomyia Macquart, 1835 of Rhinomya Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, n. syn. [Tachinidae]; Rhynomyia Macquart, 1834 of Rhinomya Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, n. syn. [Tachinidae]; Scathopse Guérin-Méneville, 1839 of Scatopse Geoffroy, 1762, n. syn. [Scatopsidae]; Spherophoria Macquart, 1850 of Sphaerophoria Le Peletier & Audinet-Serville, 1828, n. syn. [Syrphidae]; Sphoerophoria Macquart, 1829 of Sphaerophoria Le Peletier & Audinet-Serville, 1828, n. syn. [Syrphidae]; Stenopteryx Schiner, 1864 of Stenepteryx Leach, 1817, n. syn. [Hippoboscidae]; Stenostoma Mik, 1890 of Senostoma Macquart, 1847, n. syn. [Tachinidae]; Tachydromyia Macquart, 1823 of Tachydromia Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Hybotidae]; Taenioptera Mik, 1898 of Taeniaptera Macquart, 1835, n. syn. [Micropezidae]; Trinevra Macquart, 1835 of Phora Latreille, 1797, n. syn. [Phoridae]; Uramyia Macquart, 1844 of Uramya Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, n. syn. [Tachinidae]; Xestomysa Macquart, 1851 of Xestomyza Wiedemann, 1820, n. syn. [Therevidae]; Zygonevra Macquart, 1834 of Zygoneura Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Sciaridae]. -Species-group names: Calobatemyia nigra Macquart, 1855 of Musca doronici Scopoli, 1763, n. syn. [Calliphoridae]; Cyrtonevra protorum Macquart, 1850 of Musca pratorum Meigen, 1826, n. syn. [Muscidae]; Eumerus oeneus Macquart, 1850 of Eumerus aeneus Macquart, 1829, n. syn. [Syrphidae]; Lucilia ceserion Macquart, 1850 of Musca