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Sample records for archean crustal evolution

  1. Archean komatiite volcanism controlled by the evolution of early continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mole, David R; Fiorentini, Marco L; Thebaud, Nicolas; Cassidy, Kevin F; McCuaig, T Campbell; Kirkland, Christopher L; Romano, Sandra S; Doublier, Michael P; Belousova, Elena A; Barnes, Stephen J; Miller, John

    2014-07-15

    The generation and evolution of Earth's continental crust has played a fundamental role in the development of the planet. Its formation modified the composition of the mantle, contributed to the establishment of the atmosphere, and led to the creation of ecological niches important for early life. Here we show that in the Archean, the formation and stabilization of continents also controlled the location, geochemistry, and volcanology of the hottest preserved lavas on Earth: komatiites. These magmas typically represent 50-30% partial melting of the mantle and subsequently record important information on the thermal and chemical evolution of the Archean-Proterozoic Earth. As a result, it is vital to constrain and understand the processes that govern their localization and emplacement. Here, we combined Lu-Hf isotopes and U-Pb geochronology to map the four-dimensional evolution of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, and reveal the progressive development of an Archean microcontinent. Our results show that in the early Earth, relatively small crustal blocks, analogous to modern microplates, progressively amalgamated to form larger continental masses, and eventually the first cratons. This cratonization process drove the hottest and most voluminous komatiite eruptions to the edge of established continental blocks. The dynamic evolution of the early continents thus directly influenced the addition of deep mantle material to the Archean crust, oceans, and atmosphere, while also providing a fundamental control on the distribution of major magmatic ore deposits.

  2. Archean crustal evolution of the Narryer Gneiss Terrane, Western Australia, as revealed by the U-Pb age and Hf-isotope compositions of zircon from the granitic gneisses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, P.; Souders, K.; Crowley, J. L.; Myers, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Narryer Gneiss Terrane of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, is an important area for studies of early crustal evolution because of the preservation of (1) detrital zircons of Hadean to Archean age in the Jack Hills and Mt. Narryer metasedimentary belts, and (2) several widespread units of granitic gneisses emplaced between ca. 3.7 and 2.6 Ga. We have analyzed the U-Pb geochronology and Hf-isotope geochemistry of magmatic zircons from 38 samples of the granitic gneisses using laser ablation - (multicollector) - ICPMS. The sample suite is dominated by the Meeberrie gneiss, a banded quartz-microcline-oligoclase-biotite gneiss of monzogranite to granodiorite composition, and the Dugel gneiss, a leucocratic, pegmatite-layered syenogranite gneiss, but gneisses of dioritic to tonalitic composition, as well as less deformed granite sheets, are also represented. Magmatic zircons were identified on the basis of the preservation of oscillatory zoning in BSE and CL images, igneous Th/U ratios (>0.2), and concordant U-Pb isotopic systematics with low common Pb contents. The results indicate many of the gneisses are composed of the products of multiple magmatic events, as has been reported previously for samples of the Meeberrie gneiss (Kinny & Nutman, 1996, Precambrian Res. 78, 165-178). Major ages of magmatism preserved in the gneisses occurred at ca. 3685-3665 Ma, 3620-3565 Ma, 3495-3440 Ma, 3375-3330 Ma, and 3300-3260 Ma. The late granite sheets crystallized at 2710-2645 Ma. Hf-isotope compositions of the zircons trend to less radiogenic values with decreasing age, with ɛHf values of ca. 0 to -5 for 3.7-3.4 Ga gneisses, ca. -1 to -9 for 3.4-3.2 Ga gneisses and ca. -5 to -20 for the late granite sheets. The array of the Hf isotopic compositions with time for the entire sample set are fit well by a regression indicating a source reservoir with a 176Lu/177Hf of 0.022 extracted from the depleted mantle at 3.9 Ga. This suggests that the Narryer gneisses and late granite

  3. Geochronological synthesis of Bahia state and the crustal evolution, based in evolution diagram of Sr and initial rate of Sr87/Sr86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, K.

    1986-01-01

    The crustal evolution of the ancient terrains of the State of Bahia, Brazil, is attempted with the aid of Sr isotopic results as natural tracers. Some Nd and Pb isotopic data are also available, and support the main conclusions based on Sr evolution diagrams. The analysis of the Sr evolution diagrams shows that the Archean Terrains are mainly formed by accretion from mantle-derived material, but crustal reworking is indicated by the high initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr value of the Jequie Complex. The Transamazonian mobile belt include both types of materials, but the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr value, generally lower than those of the Jequie Complex, markes improbable a direct derivation. During Middle and Late Proterozoic, the continental crust was already well consolidated, and reworking of crustal material predominated within the Espinhaco and Brasiliano folded systems [pt

  4. Evolution of the Archean Mohorovičić discontinuity from a synaccretionary 4.5 Ga protocrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Warren B.

    2013-12-01

    This review evaluates and rejects the currently dominant dogmas of geodynamics and geochemistry, which are based on 1950s-1970s assumptions of a slowly differentiating Earth. Evidence is presented for evolution of mantle, crust, and early Moho that began with fractionation of most crustal components, synchronously with planetary accretion, into mafic protocrust by ~ 4.5 Ga. We know little about Hadean crustal geology (> 3.9 Ga) except that felsic rocks were then forming, but analogy with Venus, and dating from the Moon, indicate great shallow disruption by large and small impact structures, including huge fractionated impact-melt constructs, throughout that era. The mantle sample and Archean (preserved Archean crust to its base, and of the thick mafic volcanic rocks erupted on that crust. Lower TTG crust, kept mobile by its high radioactivity and by insulating upper crust, rose diapirically into the upper crust as dense volcanic rocks sagged synformally. The mobile lower crust simultaneously flowed laterally to maintain subhorizontal base and surface, and dragged overlying brittler granite-and-greenstone upper crust. Petrologically required garnet-rich residual protocrust incrementally delaminated, sank through low-density high-mantle magnesian dunite, and progressively re-enriched upper mantle, mostly metasomatically. Archean and earliest Proterozoic craton stabilization and development of final Mohos followed regionally complete early delamination of residual protocrust, variously between ~ 2.9 and 2.2 Ga. Where some protocrust remained, Proterozoic basins, filled thickly by sedimentary and volcanic rocks, developed on Archean crust, beneath which delamination of later residual protocrust continued top-down enrichment of upper mantle. That reenrichment enabled modern-style plate tectonics after ~ 600 Ma, with a transition regime beginning ~ 850 Ma.

  5. Early Neoarchaean A-type granitic magmatism by crustal reworking ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    29

    marginal part of the Singhbhum craton whose origin and role in crustal evolution are poorly ...... Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope systematics of Archean komatiites; Earth Planet. ..... Association Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names; Can.

  6. Evolution of the Dharwar Craton: a terrain of early Archean crustal stability, long term orogenic cycles and large scale palaeobiological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, R.; Naqvi, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Traceable history of the Dharwar Craton goes back to approximately 3400 m.y. old tonalitic to trondhjemitic fundamental gneiss whose REE composition indicates its derivation from a preexisting basalt which apparently had very short time of crustal residence. The fundamental gneiss is preserved only as rare relicts in the vast gneissic complex of the Indian Peninsula (the Peninsular Gneiss), and as pebbles in the conglomerates of the Archean Dharwar sequence. Study of these relicts, shows evidence of a deformation episode prior to the deposition of the high- and low-grade Dharwar supracrustal sequence. The Dharwar supracrustal sequence is briefly described. Geochemistry of the volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Dharwar supracrustal belts are examined

  7. Evidence for crustal recycling during the Archean: the parental magmas of the stillwater complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallum, I.S.

    1988-01-01

    The petrology and geochemistry of the Stillwater Complex, an Archean (2.7 Ga) layered mafic intrusion in the Beartooth Mountains of Montana, is discussed. Efforts to reconstruct the compositions of possible parental magmas and thereby place some constraints on the composition and history of their mantle source regions was studied. A high-Mg andesite or boninite magma best matches the crystallization sequences and mineral compositions of Stillwater cumulates, and represents either a primary magma composition or a secondary magma formed, for example, by assimilation of crustal material by a very Mg-rich melt such as komatiite. Isotopic data do not support the extensive amounts of assimilation required by the komatiite parent hypothesis, and it is argued that the Stillwater magma was generated from a mantle source that had been enriched by recycling and homogenization of older crustal material over a large area

  8. Decreasing µ142Nd Variation in the Archean Convecting Mantle from 4.0 to 2.5 Ga: Heterogeneous Domain Mixing or Crustal Recycling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, A. D.; Debaille, V.

    2014-12-01

    The 146Sm-142Nd (t1/2=68 Ma) chronometer can be used to examine silicate differentiation in the first 400 Ma of Earth history. Early fractionation between Sm and Nd is recorded in cratonic Archean rocks in their 142Nd/144Nd ratios that that deviate up to ±20 ppm, or μ142Nd - ppm deviation relative to the present-day convecting mantle at 0. These values likely record early extraction of incompatible trace element (ITE) enriched material with -μ142Nd, either as crust or late stage residual melt from a magma ocean, and resulting in a complimentary ITE depleted residual mantle with +μ142Nd. If this early-formed ITE-enriched material was re-incorporated rapidly back into the convecting mantle, both ITE-enriched and ITE-depleted mantle domains would have been established in the Hadean. Alternatively, if it was early-formed crust that remained stable it could have slowly eroded and progressively remixed into the convecting mantle as subducted sediment during the Archean. Each of these scenarios could potentially explain the decrease in the maximum variation in µ142Nd from ±20 at 4.0 Ga to 0 at 2.5 Ga [1,2,3]. In the scenario where these variations reflect mixing of mantle domains, this implies long mantle mixing times of greater than 1 Ga in the Archean in order to preserve the early-formed heterogeneities. This can be achieved in a stagnant lid tectonic regime in the Archean with sporadic and short subduction cycles [2]. This scenario would also indicate that mixing times in the convecting mantle were much slower than the previously proposed 100 Ma in the Hadean and Archean. In the alternative scenario, sediment with -µ142Nd was progressively mixed into the mantle via subduction in the Archean [3]. This scenario doesn't require slow mantle mixing times or a stagnant-lid regime. It requires crustal resident times of up to 750 Ma to maintain a steady supply of ancient sediment recycling over the Archean. Each of these scenarios evoke very contrasting conditions for

  9. New Sm/Nd and U/Pb geochronological constraints of the Archean to neoproterozoic evolution of the Amparo basement complex of the Central Ribeira Belt, Southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetter, A.H.; Hackspacher, P.C.; Ebbert, H.D; Dantas, E.L; Costa, A.C.D. da

    2001-01-01

    The Amparo Basement Complex is a distinctive collage of migmatitic tronjhemitetonalite- granodiorite (TTG) orthogneisses that represents the older basement exposures within the Central Ribeira Belt, a Late Neoproterozoic (ca. 600 Ma) collisional belt in southeastern Brazil. These basement gneisses are overlain by Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic supracrustal sequences, and intruded by Neoproterozoic collisional granitoids. Pioneering Rb/Sr, Pb/Pb and K/Ar geochronological studies of the Amparo Complex, e.g. (Wernick et al., 1981; Wernick and Oliveira, 1986; Arthur, 1988; Tassinari, 1988; Campos Neto, 1991) provided some initial insights into the antiquity and geologic evolution of the complex, but little about the crustal evolution of the constituent gneisses. Furthermore, the susceptibility of these systems to partial isotopic resetting, left some doubt about the timing and true number of geologic events recorded by these polydeformed rocks. Recent Sm/Nd whole rock (Dantas et al., 2000) and new U/Pb single crystal zircon and monazite data obtained from the Amparo Complex, however, now furnish information on the crustal growth history of the basement and provide precise age constraints on the timing of events related to the geologic evolution of the complex. Based on these new data, it appears that the oldest rocks within the complex are polymigmatized tronjhemitic gneisses located near the town of Amparo. The oldest phase of this migmatite yields a U/Pb zircon age of 3,024 +/- 9 Ma. Sm/Nd data from this locale yields a Nd T(DM) model age of 3.28 Ga suggesting that the genesis of this crustal unit involved some input from yet older crust. Data from banded tonalitic gneisses collected ca. 50 km south of Amparo indicate that subsequent Archean crustal growth around the older core occurred around 2.77 Ga (U/Pb zircon age of 2,772 +/- 26 Ma. A Nd T(DM) model age of 3.02 Ga obtained from these tonalites also indicate enrichment from older crustal sources during their

  10. Multiple sulfur isotopes monitor fluid evolution of an Archean orogenic gold deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFlamme, Crystal; Sugiono, Dennis; Thébaud, Nicolas; Caruso, Stefano; Fiorentini, Marco; Selvaraja, Vikraman; Jeon, Heejin; Voute, François; Martin, Laure

    2018-02-01

    The evolution of a gold-bearing hydrothermal fluid from its source to the locus of gold deposition is complex as it experiences rapid changes in thermochemical conditions during ascent through the crust. Although it is well established that orogenic gold deposits are generated during time periods of abundant crustal growth and/or reworking, the source of fluid and the thermochemical processes that control gold precipitation remain poorly understood. In situ analyses of multiple sulfur isotopes offer a new window into the relationship between source reservoirs of Au-bearing fluids and the thermochemical processes that occur along their pathway to the final site of mineralisation. Whereas δ34S is able to track changes in the evolution of the thermodynamic conditions of ore-forming fluids, Δ33S is virtually indelible and can uniquely fingerprint an Archean sedimentary reservoir that has undergone mass independent fractionation of sulfur (MIF-S). We combine these two tracers (δ34S and Δ33S) to characterise a gold-bearing laminated quartz breccia ore zone and its sulfide-bearing alteration halo in the (+6 Moz Au) structurally-controlled Archean Waroonga deposit located in the Eastern Goldfields Superterrane of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. Over 250 analyses of gold-associated sulfides yield a δ34S shift from what is interpreted as an early pre-mineralisation phase, with chalcopyrite-pyrrhotite (δ34S = +0.7‰ to +2.9‰) and arsenopyrite cores (δ34S = ∼-0.5‰), to a syn-mineralisation stage, reflected in Au-bearing arsenopyrite rims (δ34S = -7.6‰ to +1.5‰). This shift coincides with an unchanging Δ33S value (Δ33S = +0.3‰), both temporally throughout the Au-hosting hydrothermal sulfide paragenesis and spatially across the Au ore zone. These results indicate that sulfur is at least partially recycled from MIF-S-bearing Archean sediments. Further, the invariant nature of the observed MIF-S signature demonstrates that sulfur is derived from a

  11. Geochemistry and geochronology of the Archean and palaeo-Proterozoic formations of southern Cameroon (Ntem group, Congo craton)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rchameni, R.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this work is to understand the crustal evolution of the NW margin of the Congo craton using structural, petrography, isotopic, geochemical and geochronological studies of the Archean and palaeo-Proterozoic formations of the Ntem group of southern Cameroon. The synthesis of these studies allows to propose a diapir-type gravity model linked with the genesis of granitoids to explain the geodynamical evolution of this part of the craton during the Archean. A convergence model with the collision of the Congo and Sao-Francisco cratons and with crust thickening followed by a relaxation phase is proposed for the palaeo-Proterozoic. (J.S.)

  12. High Ni in Archean tholeiites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Nicholas T.

    1991-03-01

    Archean tholeiites generally have higher Ni, Co. Cr and Fe than most younger tholeiites with similar MgO contents. These characteristics cannot be attributed to high T or P batch melting in the Archean mantle, because, although such melts are enriched in siderophile elements, they have higher MgO than normal tholeiites. As primary melts fractionate to lower MgO, they lose Ni, Co and Cr. Nor can the differences between Archean and younger tholeiites be attributed to secular variation in mantle compositions because Archean komatiites have Ni, Co, Cr contents similar to modern (Gorgona) komatiites. It is suggested that the high siderophile element content of Archean tholeiites results from mixing of either komatiitic with basaltic magmas, as might occur in an ascending, melting mantle plume or column, or of komatiite and more evolved rocks, as may take place when komatiite encounters and assimilates crustal rocks.

  13. SHRIMP-RG U-Pb isotopic systematics of zircon from the Angel Lake orthogneiss, East Humboldt Range, Nevada: is this really Archean crust? REPLY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premo, Wayne R.

    2010-01-01

    The comments from McGrew and Snoke are well received and their concerns for the interpretations in our paper (Premo et al., 2008), which questions the original contention that the Angel Lake orthogneiss is an Archean rock, are many and varied—all of which we will attempt to address. As they point out, this issue is an important one as this particular crustal exposure may delimit the southwestern extent of the Archean Wyoming province (Foster et al., 2006; Mueller and Frost, 2006), which has implications for the true crustal evolution of this region of the Great Basin and perhaps more importantly its relationship (if any) to the location of the world-class gold deposits of north-central Nevada (e.g., Howard, 2003).

  14. Middle proterozoic supra crustal and brazilian orogeny in the southeast Ceara state: a mono cyclic evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa, J.M.; Bezerra, F.H.R.; Freitas Macedo, M.H. de; Pereira, R.

    1988-01-01

    The Oros belt is situated in the southeastern part of Ceara state, Brazil, and geologically pertains to the Borborema province. This belt comprises a volcano-sedimentary sequence of middle proterozoic age resting unconformably upon basement of Archean/low proterozoic age. In the geological map of Ceara state, this belt displays an elongate shape towards N-S, turning to ENE-WSW in the south, and reaches 12 km wide in the central park. This paper describes the relationships between the country rocks and the supra crustal sequence, as well as the plutonic intrusions and their tectonic metamorphic evolution. New Rb-Sr whole-rock dates are presented which are very important to separate anorogenic and syn-orogenic granites. (author)

  15. Crustal evolution of South American Platform based on Sm-Nd isotope geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kei

    1998-01-01

    Sm-Nd isotopic systematics is relevant to the topics of origin and evolution the of continental crust, where model ages refer to the time when crustal material was differentiated from the upper mantle. Alternative interpretations are due to a lack of adequate information on crustal processes and the variable composition of the mantle sources. The Sm-Nd methods are presented, and applied on rock materials from the South American Platform. The main conclusions indicate juvenile accretion with higher growth rates (peaks), around 3.7-3.5 Ga (∼ 0.5% in volume), 3.1 - 2.9 Ga (∼16%), 2.7 - 2.6 (∼ 9%), 2.2 - 1.9 (35%) and 1.3-1.0 (7%). The continental growth curve indicates that about 35 % of the crust was formed by 2.5 Ga, 88% by 1.8 Ga and 99% by 1.0 Ga, and the remaining ∼ 1 % was added in the Phanerozoic. Rapid crustal growth occurred between 2.2 and 1.9 Ga. The main period of continental crust formation occurred during the Paleoproterozoic, corresponding to 54 % in volume. Sm-Nd model ages, when compared with the crystallisation ages of granitoid rocks, furnish a rough estimate of juvenile vs. reworked material. Within the South American Platform about 45% of juvenile continental crust is still preserved within tectonic provinces of different ages. The remainder represents continental crust reworked in younger tectono-thermal events. In particular crustal reworking was predominating over juvenile accretion during Meso-Neoproterozoic. The Transbrasiliano Lineament is a megasuture, active in the Neoproterozoic, which separates a large northwestern mass, including the Amazonian and Sao Luis Cratons, from a southeastern mass, formed by a collage of cratonic fragments, of which the Sao Francisco and Rio de La Plata are the largest. The crustal evolutions of these two large continental masses are considered individually, and can be resumed following form: I - Old Archean rocks (>3.4 Ga) are found only within the south-eastern part (Gaviao Block, Contendas

  16. Venus and the Archean Earth: Thermal considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleep, N.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Archean Era of the Earth is not a direct analog of the present tectonics of Venus. In this regard, it is useful to review the state of the Archean Earth. Most significantly, the temperature of the adiabatic interior of the Earth was 200 to 300 C hotter than the current temperature. Preservation biases limit what can be learned from the Archean record. Archean oceanic crust, most of the planetary surface at any one time, has been nearly all subducted. More speculatively, the core of the Earth has probably cooled more slowly than the mantle. Thus the temperature contrast above the core-mantle boundary and the vigor of mantle plumes has increased with time on the Earth. The most obvious difference between Venus and the present Earth is the high surface temperature and hence a low effective viscosity of the lithosphere. In addition, the temperature contrast between the adiabatic interior and the surface, which drives convection, is less on Venus than on the Earth. It appears that the hot lithosphere enhanced tectonics on the early Venus significantly enough that its interior cooled faster than the Earth's. The best evidence for a cool interior of Venus comes from long wavelength gravity anomalies. The low interior temperatures retard seafloor spreading on Venus. The high surface temperatures on Venus enhance crustal deformation. That is, the lower crust may become ductile enough to permit significant flow between the upper crust and the mantle. There is thus some analogy to modern and ancient areas of high heat flow on the Earth. Archean crustal blocks typically remained stable for long intervals and thus overall are not good analogies to the deformation style on Venus

  17. Crustal response to lithosphere evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans; Cherepanova, Yulia

    2012-01-01

    We present a new model for the structure of the crust in an area which stretches from the North Atlantic region in the west to the Verkhoyansk Ridge in the east and encompasses Greenland, Iceland, most of Europe, West Siberian basin, and the Siberian cratons. The model is based on critically asse......, thicknesses of different crustal layers, and Pn seismic velocities....... assessed results from various seismic studies, including reflection and refraction profiles and receiver function studies. The region includes a nearly continuous age record for crustal evolution over ca. 3.6-3.8 billion years. We present an analysis of the crustal structure heterogeneity in relation...

  18. Crustal evolution of South American Platform based on Sm-Nd isotope geochemistry; Evolucao crustal da plataforma sul americana com base na geoquimica isotopica Sm-Nd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Kei

    1998-07-01

    Sm-Nd isotopic systematics is relevant to the topics of origin and evolution the of continental crust, where model ages refer to the time when crustal material was differentiated from the upper mantle. Alternative interpretations are due to a lack of adequate information on crustal processes and the variable composition of the mantle sources. The Sm-Nd methods are presented, and applied on rock materials from the South American Platform. The main conclusions indicate juvenile accretion with higher growth rates (peaks), around 3.7-3.5 Ga ({approx} 0.5% in volume), 3.1 - 2.9 Ga ({approx}16%), 2.7 - 2.6 ({approx} 9%), 2.2 - 1.9 (35%) and 1.3-1.0 (7%). The continental growth curve indicates that about 35 % of the crust was formed by 2.5 Ga, 88% by 1.8 Ga and 99% by 1.0 Ga, and the remaining {approx} 1 % was added in the Phanerozoic. Rapid crustal growth occurred between 2.2 and 1.9 Ga. The main period of continental crust formation occurred during the Paleoproterozoic, corresponding to 54 % in volume. Sm-Nd model ages, when compared with the crystallisation ages of granitoid rocks, furnish a rough estimate of juvenile vs. reworked material. Within the South American Platform about 45% of juvenile continental crust is still preserved within tectonic provinces of different ages. The remainder represents continental crust reworked in younger tectono-thermal events. In particular crustal reworking was predominating over juvenile accretion during Meso-Neoproterozoic. The Transbrasiliano Lineament is a megasuture, active in the Neoproterozoic, which separates a large northwestern mass, including the Amazonian and Sao Luis Cratons, from a southeastern mass, formed by a collage of cratonic fragments, of which the Sao Francisco and Rio de La Plata are the largest. The crustal evolutions of these two large continental masses are considered individually, and can be resumed following form: I - Old Archean rocks (>3.4 Ga) are found only within the south-eastern part (Gaviao Block

  19. Two distinct origins for Archean greenstone belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithies, R. Hugh; Ivanic, Tim J.; Lowrey, Jack R.; Morris, Paul A.; Barnes, Stephen J.; Wyche, Stephen; Lu, Yong-Jun

    2018-04-01

    Applying the Th/Yb-Nb/Yb plot of Pearce (2008) to the well-studied Archean greenstone sequences of Western Australia shows that individual volcanic sequences evolved through one of two distinct processes reflecting different modes of crust-mantle interaction. In the Yilgarn Craton, the volcanic stratigraphy of the 2.99-2.71 Ga Youanmi Terrane mainly evolved through processes leading to Th/Yb-Nb/Yb trends with a narrow range of Th/Nb ('constant-Th/Nb' greenstones). In contrast, the 2.71-2.66 Ga volcanic stratigraphy of the Eastern Goldfields Superterrane evolved through processes leading to Th/Yb-Nb/Yb trends showing a continuous range in Th/Nb ('variable-Th/Nb' greenstones). Greenstone sequences of the Pilbara Craton show a similar evolution, with constant-Th/Nb greenstone evolution between 3.13 and 2.95 Ga and variable-Th/Nb greenstone evolution between 3.49 and 3.23 Ga and between 2.77 and 2.68 Ga. The variable-Th/Nb trends dominate greenstone sequences in Australia and worldwide, and are temporally associated with peaks in granite magmatism, which promoted crustal preservation. The increasing Th/Nb in basalts correlates with decreasing εNd, reflecting variable amounts of crustal assimilation during emplacement of mantle-derived magmas. These greenstones are typically accompanied in the early stages by komatiite, and can probably be linked to mantle plume activity. Thus, regions such as the Eastern Goldfields Superterrane simply developed as plume-related rifts over existing granite-greenstone crust - in this case the Youanmi Terrane. Their Th/Nb trends are difficult to reconcile with modern-style subduction processes. The constant-Th/Nb trends may reflect derivation from a mantle source already with a high and constant Th/Nb ratio. This, and a lithological association including boninite-like lavas, basalts, and calc-alkaline andesites, all within a narrow Th/Nb range, resembles compositions typical of modern-style subduction settings. These greenstones are very

  20. Nd isotopes in French Phanerzoic shales: external vs. internal aspects of crustal evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michard, A.; Gurriet, P.; Soudant, M.; Alberede, F.; Ecole Nationale Superieure de Geologie Appliquee et de Prospection Miniere, 54 - Nancy

    1985-01-01

    Nd isotopic composition has been determined on shales of Paleozoic (Brittany and Languedoc) and Mesozoic (Lorraine) age. epsilonsub(Nd)(T) values range from -6 to -12 while Nd crustal residence ages are typically in excess over their stratigraphic ages by some 1.4 Ga. Exceptions to this rule are the sediments coeval with Hercynian, Caledonian and Cadomian orogenic events, the epsilonsub(Nd)(T) values of which suggest addition of mantle material to the sediment in the form of volcanoclastic detritus. In Brittany, this is confirmed by the local zircon chronology which provides upper intercepts of Concordia up to 800 m.y. in excess of Nd crustal residence ages. Comparison of crustal residence ages with stratigraphic ages through geologic time suggests a three stage history: a) for rocks older than 2 Ga, stratigraphic and crustal residence ages coincide, b) from 2 to 1 Ga, crustal residence ages level off at ca. 2 Ga and then c) decrease down to 1.4 Ga in recent sediments. Two extreme models can account for the observed variations: an internally driven model, in which variable quantities of mantle material are added to the crust, and an externally driven model, in which the rate of crustal recycling is low in the Archean but increases rapidly at the onset of the atmospheric oxygen buildup. (author)

  1. MAGNETAR FIELD EVOLUTION AND CRUSTAL PLASTICITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lander, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    The activity of magnetars is believed to be powered by colossal magnetic energy reservoirs. We sketch an evolutionary picture in which internal field evolution in magnetars generates a twisted corona, from which energy may be released suddenly in a single giant flare, or more gradually through smaller outbursts and persistent emission. Given the ages of magnetars and the energy of their giant flares, we suggest that their evolution is driven by a novel mechanism: magnetic flux transport/decay due to persistent plastic flow in the crust, which would invalidate the common assumption that the crustal lattice is static and evolves only under Hall drift and Ohmic decay. We estimate the field strength required to induce plastic flow as a function of crustal depth, and the viscosity of the plastic phase. The star’s superconducting core may also play a role in magnetar field evolution, depending on the star’s spindown history and how rotational vortices and magnetic fluxtubes interact.

  2. Polycyclic evolution of the Quadrilatero Ferrifero: an analysis based on the actual knowledge of the U-Pb geochronology and Sm-Nd isotopic geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Mauricio Antonio; Noce, Carlos Mauricio; Teixeira, Wilson

    1995-01-01

    The tectonic evolution of the Quadrilatero Ferrifero region, based on geochronological U-Pb, Pb-Pb, Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr e K-Ar data, is characterized by several processes of crustal growth, which began in Middle Archean. The Lower Archean geological evolution of the Quadrilatero Ferrifero was finished by the Rio de Velhas tectono-thermal event around 2,78 Ga. After this, during the proterozoic era, three tectono-sedimentary cycles took place on this Lower Archean crustal fragment, whose products are represented by the meta sedimentary sequences of the Minas Supergroup, Itacolomi Group and Espinhaco Supergroup. The Transamazonico Event (ca. 2,0 Ga) ended the geological evolution of Minas Supergroup, but its geological records did not have the same size imprints throughout region. Many places, such as the Bonfim Metamorphic Complex, were not affected by this tectonic event. Later tectonic event. Later tectonic events (e.g. Brasiliano) had even more discrete geological occurred during the Proterozoic era, when many sedimentary basins developed (e.g. Espinhaco and Sao Francisco basins). (author)

  3. Mobility of nutrients and trace metals during weathering in the late Archean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jihua; Sverjensky, Dimitri A.; Hazen, Robert M.

    2017-08-01

    The evolution of the geosphere and biosphere depends on the availability of bio-essential nutrients and trace metals. Consequently, the chemical and isotopic variability of trace elements in the sedimentary record have been widely used to infer the existence of early life and fluctuations in the near-surface environment on the early Earth, particularly fluctuations in the redox state of the atmosphere. In this study, we applied late Archean weathering models (Hao et al., 2017), developed to estimate the behavior of major elements and the composition of late Archean world average river water, to explore the behavior of nutrient and trace metals and their potential for riverine transport. We focused on P, Mn, Cr, and Cu during the weathering of olivine basalt. In our standard late Archean weathering model (pCO2,g = 10-1.5 bars, pH2,g = 10-5.0 bars), crustal apatite was totally dissolved by the acidic rainwater during weathering. Our model quantitatively links the pCO2,g of the atmosphere to phosphate levels transported by rivers. The development of late Archean river water (pH = 6.4) resulted in riverine phosphate of at least 1.7 μmolar, much higher than at the present-day. At the end of the early Proterozoic snowball Earth event when pCO2,g could be 0.01-0.10 bars, river water may have transported up to 70 μmolar phosphate, depending on the availability of apatite, thereby stimulating high levels of oxygenic photosynthesis in the marine environment. Crustal levels of Mn in olivine dissolved completely during weathering, except at large extents of weathering where Mn was stored as a component of a secondary carbonate mineral. The corresponding Mn content of river water, about 1.2 μmolar, is higher than in modern river water. Whiffs of 10-5 mole O2 gas or HNO3 kg-1 H2O resulted in the formation of pyrolusite (MnO2) and abundant hematite and simultaneous dramatic decreases in the concentration of Mn(II) in the river water. Chromite dissolution resulted in negligible

  4. The crustal thickness of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clitheroe, G.; Gudmundsson, O.; Kennett, B.L.N.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the crustal structure of the Australian continent using the temporary broadband stations of the Skippy and Kimba projects and permanent broadband stations. We isolate near-receiver information, in the form of crustal P-to-S conversions, using the receiver function technique. Stacked receiver functions are inverted for S velocity structure using a Genetic Algorithm approach to Receiver Function Inversion (GARFI). From the resulting velocity models we are able to determine the Moho depth and to classify the width of the crust-mantle transition for 65 broadband stations. Using these results and 51 independent estimates of crustal thickness from refraction and reflection profiles, we present a new, improved, map of Moho depth for the Australian continent. The thinnest crust (25 km) occurs in the Archean Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia; the thickest crust (61 km) occurs in Proterozoic central Australia. The average crustal thickness is 38.8 km (standard deviation 6.2 km). Interpolation error estimates are made using kriging and fall into the range 2.5-7.0 km. We find generally good agreement between the depth to the seismologically defined Moho and xenolith-derived estimates of crustal thickness beneath northeastern Australia. However, beneath the Lachlan Fold Belt the estimates are not in agreement, and it is possible that the two techniques are mapping differing parts of a broad Moho transition zone. The Archean cratons of Western Australia appear to have remained largely stable since cratonization, reflected in only slight variation of Moho depth. The largely Proterozoic center of Australia shows relatively thicker crust overall as well as major Moho offsets. We see evidence of the margin of the contact between the Precambrian craton and the Tasman Orogen, referred to as the Tasman Line. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopic compositions of a suite of Large Archean, igneous rocks, eastern Beartooth Mountains - Implications for crust-mantle evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, J. L.; Mueller, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    Compositionally diverse Late Archean rocks (2.74-2.79 Ga old) from the eastern Beartooth Mountains (Montana and Wyoming) were studied and shown to have the same initial Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopic ratios. Lead and Sr initial ratios are higher and Nd initial values lower than predicted for rocks derived from model mantle sources and strongly indicate the involvement of an older crustal reservoir in the genesis of these rocks. A model involving subduction of continental detritus and contamination of the overlying mantle is suggested.

  6. The electrical lithosphere in Archean cratons: examples from Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoza, D. T.; Jones, A. G.; Muller, M. R.; Webb, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    The southern African tectonic fabric is made up of a number Archean cratons flanked by Proterozoic and younger mobile belts, all with distinctly different but related geological evolutions. The cratonic margins and some intra-cratonic domain boundaries have played major roles in the tectonics of Africa by focusing ascending magmas and localising cycles of extension and rifting. Of these cratons the southern extent of the Congo craton is one of the least-constrained tectonic boundaries in the African tectonic architecture and knowledge of its geometry and in particular the LAB beneath is crucial for understanding geological process of formation and deformation prevailing in the Archean and later. In this work, which forms a component of the hugely successful Southern African MagnetoTelluric Experiment (SAMTEX), we present the lithospheric electrical resistivity image of the southern boundary of the enigmatic Congo craton and the Neoproterozoic Damara-Ghanzi-Chobe (DGC) orogenic belt on its flanks. Magnetotelluric data were collected along profiles crossing all three of these tectonic blocks. The two dimensional resistivity models resulting from inverting the distortion-corrected responses along the profiles all indicate significant lateral variations in the crust and upper mantle structure along and across strike from the younger DGC orogen to the older adjacent craton. The are significant lithospheric thickness variations from each terrane. The The Moho depth in the DGC is mapped at 40 km by active seismic methods, and is also well constrained by S-wave receiver function models. The Damara belt lithosphere, although generally more conductive and significantly thinner (approximately 150 km) than the adjacent Congo and Kalahari cratons, exhibits upper crustal resistive features interpreted to be caused by igneous intrusions emplaced during the Gondwanan Pan-African magmatic event. The thinned lithosphere is consistent with a 50 mW.m-2 steady-state conductive

  7. Archean crustal growth of the Imataca complex, Amazonian craton: Evidence from U-Pb-Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr geochronology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassinari, C.C.G.; Teixeira, W; Nutman, A.P; Szabo, G.; Mondin, M.; Sato, K; Santos, A.P; Siso, C.S

    2001-01-01

    The Archean Imataca Complex (IC), NW Amazonian Craton, forms a ENE-trending, fault-bounded block adjacent to the Paleoproterozoic Maroni-Itacai as magmatic arc (2.2 2.0 Ga) (Tassinari and Macambira, 1999). The IC rocks are complexely deformed, exhibiting elongated and symmetrical domes and thrusts combined with isoclinal folds. Transcurrent faults are also important, like the Guri Fault System - a zone of multiple faulting, shearing and mylonitization along the southeastern edge of the IC. In a pre-Pangean reconstruction using paleomagnetic data from rocks of the African counterpart, the Guri System is contiguous to the Sassandra (Ivory coast) and Zednes (Mauritaine) faults, in agreement also with the comparable geologic evolution between the NW Amazonian and the West Africa cratons, during the Archean and Late-Paleoproterozoic. The IC mainly composed of medium- to high grade quartz-feldspathic paragneiss, exhibits extensive mortar, augen, flaser and mylonitic textures. Calc-alkaline gneiss and granitoid rocks of igneous protolith are also present in the IC, as well as dolomitic marbles, orthopyroxene and magnetite quartzites, and BIFs that include huge ore deposits of Algoma type. Moreover, migmatite injections and anatexis (devoid of metasedimentary components) are widespread in the western part of Complex, the largest migmatite mass centered in Cerro La Ceiba. This paper reports zircon U-Pb SHRIMP, Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic data of different IC rocks in order to investigate their age and geological evolution within the tectonic framework of the Amazonian Craton (au)

  8. A summary of Rb-Sr isotope studies in the Archean Hopedale Block and the adjacent proterozoic Makkovik subprovince, Labrador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, N.K.; Hickman, M.H.; Marzano, M.S.; Ermanovics, I.F.

    1983-01-01

    Rb-Sr isotope study of thirteen whole-rock suites of Archean and Proterozoic rocks from Hopedale block and Makkovik Subprovince shows that the crustal history began about 3115 Ma ago. We tentatively recognize younger crustal segments that formed 2920 Ma ago, from which Kanairktok intrusives were derived at 2832 +- 178 Ma. In Makkovik Subprovince the Island Harbour granites range in age from 1843 +- 90 to 1794 +- 71 Ma. These ages overlap with the 1847 +-87 Ma age for Kanairktok shear zone mylonites. The Island Harbour granodiorites from inland localities to the southwest are contaminated with Archean rocks in Makkovik Subprovince and their initial 87 Sr/ 86 ratios imply a crustal contribution to their source. In contrast, the Island Harbour granites of Striped Island were derived from a mantle source. The sills of Striped Island are 1635 +- 47 Ma old. An undeformed northeast trending Kikkertavak dolerite dyke from Hopedale block is 1206 +- 120 Ma

  9. Crustal structure and tectonic model of the Arctic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrov, Oleg; Morozov, Andrey; Shokalsky, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    We present a new model of the crustal and tectonic structure of the Arctic region north of 60° N latitude, constrained as a part of the international Atlas of Geological Maps of the Circumpolar Arctic under the aegis of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World. The region is largely...... formed by (i) Archean-Paleoproterozoic shields and platforms, (ii) orogenic belts of the Neoproterozoic to the Late Mesozoic ages overlain by platform and basin sediments, (iii) Cenozoic rift structures formed in part as a consequence of seafloor spreading in the North East Atlantic Ocean...... and thickness of the sedimentary cover and presents tectonic regionalization based on 18 major crustal types (oceanic, transitional, and continental) recognized in the Arctic. A 7600. km-long crustal geotransect across the region illustrates the details of its crustal and tectonic structure. We discuss...

  10. Cyclic formation and stabilization of Archean lithosphere by accretionary orogenesis: Constraints from TTG and potassic granitoids, North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Cawood, Peter A.; Liu, Shuwen; Guo, Rongrong; Bai, Xiang; Wang, Kang

    2017-09-01

    Accretionary orogens are major sites of modern continental growth, yet their role in the development of Archean continental crust remains enigmatic. Diverse granitoid suites from tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) to potassic granitoids appeared during late Archean, representing a period of major continental formation and stabilization. In this study, whole-rock geochemical and zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic data are reported for Neoarchean granitoid gneisses from the Northern Liaoning Terrane, northeastern North China Craton (NCC). Older granitoid gneisses ( 2592-2537 Ma) define three magmatic zones migrating from southeast to northwest, each showing a common magmatic evolution from high-pressure TTGs to medium-/low-pressure TTGs and potassic granitoids. They have depleted zircon ƐHf(t) of +0.5 to +8.7. Younger 2529-2503 Ma potassic granitoids and TTGs occur throughout the terrane, which are marked by variable zircon ƐHf(t) of -4.7 to +8.1, and are coeval with regional high-grade metamorphism. Petrogenetic modeling and changing Sr/Y and (La/Yb)N of the granitoids suggest that the crust experienced episodic thickening and thinning and became progressively evolved through development of potassic granitoids and sedimentary successions. The metavolcanic basement to the granitoids display tholeiitic to calc-alkaline affinities, together with the top-to-the-northwest thrusting and associated volcanogenic massive sulfide-type Cu-Zn deposits, suggesting cyclic crustal formation of Northern Liaoning within an accretionary orogen with a SE-dipping subduction polarity. Cyclic crustal thickening and thinning is related to tectonic switching from advancing to retreating relations between the downgoing and overriding plate. After 2530 Ma, this accretionary system accreted to the ancient continental nucleus of NCC (Anshan-Benxi Terrane), signifying final lithosphere stabilization.

  11. Precambrian crustal history of the Nimrod Group, central Transantarctic Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodge, J.W.; Fanning, C.M.

    2002-01-01

    High-grade metamorphic and igneous rocks of the Nimrod Group represent crystalline basement to the central Transantarctic Mountains. Despite metamorphism and penetrative deformation during the Ross Orogeny, they preserve a deep record of Precambrian geologic history in this sector of the East Antarctic shield. A review of available U-Pb geochronometric data reveals multiple geologic events spanning 2.5 b.y. of Archean to Early Paleozoic time, including: (1) juvenile Archean crust production by magmatism between 3150 and 3000 Ma; (2) crustal stabilisation and metamorphism between 2955 and 2900 Ma; (3) ultra-metamorphism or anatexis at c. 2500 Ma; (4) deep-crustal metamorphism and magmatism between 1720 and 1730 Ma, redefining the Nimrod Orogeny; (5) post-1700 Ma sedimentation; and (6) basement reactivation involving high-grade metamorphism, magmatism, and penetrative deformation during the Ross Orogeny between 540 and 515 Ma. A strong regional metamorphic and deformational Ross overprint, dated by U-Pb and Ar thermochronology, had pronounced thermomechanical effects on the basement assemblage, yet rocks of the Nimrod Group retain robust evidence of their Precambrian ancestry. The zircon U-Pb record therefore demonstrates that primary crustal lithosphere of the East Antarctic shield extends to the central Transantarctic Mountains, and that it has undergone multiple episodes of reactivation culminating in the Ross Orogeny. (author). 48 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  12. Archean inheritance in zircon from late Paleozoic granites from the Avalon zone of southeastern New England: an African connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zartman, R.E.; Don, Hermes O.

    1987-01-01

    In southeastern New England the Narragansett Pier Granite locally intrudes Carboniferous metasedimentary rocks of the Narragansett basin, and yields a monazite UPb Permian emplacement age of 273 ?? 2 Ma. Zircon from the Narragansett Pier Granite contains a minor but detectable amount of an older, inherited component, and shows modern loss of lead. Zircon from the late-stage, aplitic Westerly Granite exhibits a more pronounced lead inheritance -permitting the inherited component to be identified as Late Archean. Such old relict zircon has not been previously recognized in Proterozoic to Paleozoic igneous rocks in New England, and may be restricted to late Paleozoic rocks of the Avalon zone. We suggest that the Archean crustal component reflects an African connection, in which old Archean crust was underplated to the Avalon zone microplate in the late Paleozoic during collision of Gondwanaland with Avalonia. ?? 1987.

  13. Millennia of magmatism recorded in crustal xenoliths from alkaline provinces in Southwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Matthijs; Waight, Tod Earle; Nielsen, Troels

    2016-01-01

    Neoproterozoic alkaline provinces in West Greenland: 1)Sarfartôq, which overlies Archean ultra-depleted SCLM and yielded ultra-deep mineral indicators, and 2)Sisimiut, where the SCLM is refertilized and deep xenoliths (>120km) are lacking. We focused on the rare and understudied crustal xenoliths, which preserve...

  14. Tectonic-thermal evolution from the northeast region of Minas Gerais and South of Bahia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litwinski, N.

    1985-01-01

    The northeast region of Minas Gerais and South Bahia are centered to the east of 42 0 00 ' WGr, between parallels 15 0 and 18 0 . Its tectonic-thermal evolution is presented here with the support of stratigraphy/lithology, structural analysis, petrography, petrochemistry, regional metamorphism/retro metamorphism and radio chronology. It is pointed out that the evolution occurred in a mobile belt initiating its history in the terminal Archean up to Inferior Proterozoic. The northeast of the region attained crustal stability during 1700 My up to 1800 My (Sao Francisco Craton) meanwhile the rest of the zone kept mobilized till upper proterozoic times. Radio chronological studies suggest for the post tectonic granitic rocks, ages from the brasiliano cycle as well as for those pre-existing rocks which suffered isotopic regeneration and metamorphose in that same cycle an original age from Archean to inferior proterozoic times, except for those which are situated in the northeast part of the region. Petrochemical data point to an origin from sedimentary processes for the majority of the metamorphosed rocks in this region. (author)

  15. Crustal thickness controlled by plate tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina M.; Meissner, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    /gabbro–eclogite phase transition in crustal evolution and the links between lithosphere recycling, mafic magmatism, and crustal underplating. We advocate that plate tectonics processes, togetherwith basalt/gabbro–eclogite transition, limit crustal thickness worldwide by providing effective mechanisms of crustal...

  16. A Geological Model for the Evolution of Early Continents (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, P. F.; Coltice, N.; Flament, N. E.; Thébaud, N.

    2013-12-01

    Geochemical probing of ancient sediments (REE in black shales, strontium composition of carbonates, oxygen isotopes in zircons...) suggests that continents were a late Archean addition at Earth's surface. Yet, geochemical probing of ancient basalts reveals that they were extracted from a mantle depleted of its crustal elements early in the Archean. Considerations on surface geology, the early Earth hypsometry and the rheology and density structure of Archean continents can help solve this paradox. Surface geology: The surface geology of Archean cratons is characterized by thick continental flood basalts (CFBs, including greenstones) emplaced on felsic crusts dominated by Trondhjemite-Tonalite-Granodiorite (TTG) granitoids. This simple geology is peculiar because i/ most CFBs were emplaced below sea level, ii/ after their emplacement, CFBs were deformed into relatively narrow, curviplanar belts (greenstone basins) wrapping around migmatitic TTG domes, and iii/ Archean greenstone belts are richly endowed with gold and other metals deposits. Flat Earth hypothesis: From considerations on early Earth continental geotherm and density structure, Rey and Coltice (2008) propose that, because of the increased ability of the lithosphere to flow laterally, orogenic processes in the Archean produced only subdued topography (Archean CFB were emplaced on flooded continents, Flament et al. (2008) proposed a theory for the hypsometry of the early Earth showing that, until the late Archean, most continents were flooded and Earth was largely a water world. From this, a model consistent with many of the peculiar attributes of Archean geology, can be proposed: 1/ Continents appeared at Earth's surface at an early stage during the Hadean/Archean. However, because they were i/ covered by continental flood basalts, ii/ below sea level, and iii/ deprived of modern-style mountain belts and orogenic plateaux, early felsic

  17. Diversity in the Archean Biosphere: New Insights from NanoSIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Robert, François; Walter, Malcolm R.; Sugitani, Kenichiro; Meibom, Anders; Mostefaoui, Smail; Gibson, Everett K.

    2010-05-01

    The origin of organic microstructures in the ˜3 Ga Farrel Quartzite is controversial due to their relatively poor state of preservation, the Archean age of the cherts in which they occur, and the unusual spindle-like morphology of some of the forms. To provide more insight into the significance of these microstructures, nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) maps of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, silicon, and oxygen were obtained for spheroidal and spindle-shaped constituents of the Farrel Quartzite assemblage. Results suggest that the structures are all bona fide ˜3 Ga microfossils. The spindles demonstrate an architecture that is remarkable for 3 Ga organisms. They are relatively large, robust, and morphologically complex. The NanoSIMS element maps corroborate their complexity by demonstrating an intricate, internal network of organic material that fills many of the spindles and extends continuously from the body of these structures into their spearlike appendages. Results from this study combine with previous morphological and chemical analyses to argue that the microstructures in the Farrel Quartzite comprise a diverse assemblage of Archean microfossils. This conclusion adds to a growing body of geochemical, stromatolitic, and morphological evidence that indicates the Archean biosphere was varied and well established by at least ˜3 Ga. Together, the data paint a picture of Archean evolution that is one of early development of morphological and chemical complexity. The evidence for Archean evolutionary innovation may augur well for the possibility that primitive life on other planets could adapt to adverse conditions by ready development of diversity in form and biochemistry.

  18. Earth's earliest biosphere: Its origin and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schopf, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Some of the subjects discussed are related to the early biogeologic history, the nature of the earth prior to the oldest known rock record, the early earth and the Archean rock record, the prebiotic organic syntheses and the origin of life, Precambrian organic geochemistry, the biochemical evolution of anaerobic energy conversion, the isotopic inferences of ancient biochemistries, Archean stromatolites providing evidence of the earth's earliest benthos, Archean microfossils, the geologic evolution of the Archean-Early Proterozoic earth, and the environmental evolution of the Archean-Early Proterozoic earth. Other topics examined are concerned with geochemical evidence bearing on the origin of aerobiosis, biological and biochemical effects of the development of an aerobic environment, Early Proterozoic microfossils, the evolution of earth's earliest ecosystems, and geographic and geologic data for processed rock samples. Attention is given to a processing procedure for abiotic samples and calculation of model atmospheric compositions, and procedures of organic geochemical analysis

  19. Seismic studies of crustal structure and tectonic evolution across the central California margin and the Colorado Plateau margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, John Mark

    This thesis presents results from two integrated deep-crustal seismic-reflection and wide-angle-reflection/refraction studies that improve our understanding of crustal structure and tectonic evolution in two tectonically active areas of the western United States. A multi-faceted approach to the study of crustal structure includes the use of compressional and shear wave seismic data. Supplementing the controlled source seismic observations with seismicity, gravity, heat flow, laboratory measurements and available geologic information allows a much improved understanding of crustal structure and tectonic evolution than would be available from the seismic data alone. Chapter 1 introduces the data integration strategy applied to the studies completed. In Chapter 2, an integrated crustal-velocity model across the south-central California margin west of the San Adreas fault is presented. The crustal structure defines tectonostratigraphic terranes 15 to 20 km thick underlain by a 6-km-thick high-velocity layer (6.8-7.0 km/s) interpreted as tectonically underplated oceanic crust. Structures defined in the oceanic crust indicate significant compressional and strike-slip deformation within the oceanic crust that probably formed during the final stages of subduction from 24-16 Ma. In Chapter 3, the crustal model from Chapter 2 is used as a constraint for models of the tectonic evolution of the Pacific-North American transform plate boundary. By combining the crustal structure with thermal models for asthenospheric upwelling associated with a slab-free window, I find that the mantle lithosphere east of the coast beneath south-central California probably delaminated from the oceanic crust, stranding the oceanic crust beneath the margin. In Chapter 4, results from a high-resolution reflection experiment in central Arizona across the southwestern edge of the Colorado Plateau address the relationship between strength of the crust and localization of extensional tectonism. A low

  20. U enrichment and Th/U fractionation in Archean boninites: Implications for paleo-ocean oxygenation and U cycling at juvenile subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikyamba, C.; Said, Nuru; Santosh, M.; Saha, Abhishek; Ganguly, Sohini; Subramanyam, K. S. V.

    2018-05-01

    Phanerozoic boninites record enrichments of U over Th, giving Th/U: 0.5-1.6, relative to intraoceanic island arc tholeiites (IAT) where Th/U averages 2.6. Uranium enrichment is attributed to incorporation of shallow, oxidized fluids, U-rich but Th-poor, from the slab into the melt column of boninites which form in near-trench to forearc settings of suprasubduction zone ophiolites. Well preserved Archean komatiite-tholeiite, plume-derived, oceanic volcanic sequences have primary magmatic Th/U ratios of 4.4-3.6, and Archean convergent margin IAT volcanic sequences, having REE and HFSE compositions similar to Phanerozoic IAT equivalents, preserve primary Th/U of 4-3.6. The best preserved Archean boninites of the 3.0 Ga Olondo and 2.7 Ga Gadwal greenstone belts, hosted in convergent margin ophiolite sequences, also show relative enrichments of U over Th, with low average Th/U ∼3 relative to coeval IAT, and Phanerozoic counterparts which are devoid of crustal contamination and therefore erupted in an intraoceanic setting, with minimal contemporaneous submarine hydrothermal alteration. Later enrichment of U is unlikely as Th-U-Nb-LREE patterns are coherent in these boninites whereas secondary effects induce dispersion of Th/U ratios. The variation in Th/U ratios from Archean to Phanerozoic boninites of greenstone belts to ophiolitic sequences reflect on genesis of boninitic lavas at different tectono-thermal regimes. Consequently, if the explanation for U enrichment in Phanerozoic boninites also applies to Archean examples, the implication is that U was soluble in oxygenated Archean marine water up to 600 Ma before the proposed great oxygenation event (GOE) at ∼2.4 Ga. This interpretation is consistent with large Ce anomalies in some hydrothermally altered Archean volcanic sequences aged 3.0-2.7 Ga.

  1. Volcanoes: Where and Why? Crustal Evolution Education Project. Teacher's Guide [and] Student Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoever, Edward C., Jr.

    Crustal Evolution Education Project (CEEP) modules were designed to: (1) provide students with the methods and results of continuing investigations into the composition, history, and processes of the earth's crust and the application of this knowledge to man's activities and (2) to be used by teachers with little or no previous background in the…

  2. U/Pb (SHRIMP), 207Pb/206Pb, Rb/Sr, Sm/Nd e K/Ar geochronology of granite-greenstone terrains of Gaviao Block: implications for the Proterozoic and Archean evolution of Sao Francisco Craton, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, Luiz Rogerio Bastos

    1998-01-01

    The Gaviao Block (GB) in the northern portion of the Sao Francisco Craton-Northeast of Brazil, constitutes one of the oldest Archean fragments of the South American Platform Archean crust. GB underwent several events of juvenile accretion and reworking of continental crust along its evolutionary history, notably between the Archean and the Paleoproterozoic. 207 Pb/ 206 Pb isotopic analyses were carried out in two zircons populations from strongly migmatized TTG terranes found in the proximity of Brumado: the first population (7 crystals) is taken as representative of the crystallization period of the TTG terranes at 3300 ± 45 Ma; the second (2 crystals) represents the age of the first even of metamorphism/migmatization at 2910 ± 10 Ma. 207 Pb/ 206 Pb analyses in zircons from an outcrop of non-migmatized TTG in the area yielded a 3202 ± 15 Ma age (4 crystals), interpreted to be the crystallization period of the gneiss protolith. Sm/Nd analyses on the TTG rocks of the Brumado region yielded T DM model ages varying between 3.26 and 3.36 Ga and ε Nd (t) between -3.5 and +0.7. These data suggest the occurrence of juvenile accretions to the continental crust during the Archean, with differential involvement of crustal materials. The geochemical data of rare earth elements corresponding to the TTG terranes revealed moderate LRRE contents (La N =83,5), low HREE contents (La N =2,5) and a fairly fractionated pattern (La/Yb) N =34, besides lack of negative Eu anomaly, showing that these rocks have similar compositions to those TTG terranes of cratonic continents, as well as some Archean rocks from CSF (e.g. Sete Voltas, Boa Vista). Finally, the youngest ages present in GB rocks (ca. 1.2-0.45 Ga) represent the role played by tectono thermal events, which produced partial or total rejuvenation of the Rb/Sr and K/Ar isotopic systems during the Espinhaco and Brasiliano cycles. In particular, K/Ar ages illustrate the effect of younger regional cooling episodes related to the

  3. Drifting Continents and Wandering Poles. Crustal Evolution Education Project. Teacher's Guide [and] Student Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoever, Edward C., Jr.

    Crustal Evolution Education Project (CEEP) modules were designed to: (1) provide students with the methods and results of continuing investigations into the composition, history, and processes of the earth's crust and the application of this knowledge to man's activities and (2) to be used by teachers with little or no previous background in the…

  4. Drifting Continents and Magnetic Fields. Crustal Evolution Education Project. Teacher's Guide [and] Student Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoever, Edward C., Jr.

    Crustal Evolution Education Project (CEEP) modules were designed to: (1) provide students with the methods and results of continuing investigations into the composition, history, and processes of the earth's crust and the application of this knowledge to man's activities and (2) to be used by teachers with little or no previous background in the…

  5. Crustal evolution inferred from apollo magnetic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyal, P.; Daily, W.D.; Vanyan, L.L.

    1978-09-01

    Magnetic field and solar wind plasma density measurements were analyzed to determine the scale size characteristics of remanent fields at the Apollo 12, 15, and 16 landing sites. Theoretical model calculations of the field-plasma interaction, involving diffusion of the remanent field into the solar plasma, were compared to the data. The information provided by all these experiments shows that remanent fields over most of the lunar surface are characterized by spatial variations as small as a few kilometers. Large regions (50 to 100 km) of the lunar crust were probably uniformly magnetized during early crustal evolution. Bombardment and subsequent gardening of the upper layers of these magnetized regions left randomly oriented, smaller scale (5 to 10 km) magnetic sources close to the surface. The larger scale size fields of magnitude approximately 0.1 gammas are measured by the orbiting subsatellite experiments and the small scale sized remanent fields of magnitude approximately 100 gammas are measured by the surface experiments

  6. Evolution of the Archean continental crust in the nucleus of the Yangtze block: Evidence from geochemistry of 3.0 Ga TTG gneisses in the Kongling high-grade metamorphic terrane, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiao-Fei; Ling, Wen-Li; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Shan-Song; Jiang, Tuo; Wei, Yun-Xu; Peng, Lian-Hong; Tan, Juan-Juan

    2018-04-01

    Archean Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) rocks are scattered within the Kongling high-grade metamorphic terrane (KHMT) in the northern South China block. A comprehensive geochronological and geochemical study is carried out on the Taoyuan granitic gneisses, a newly recognized TTG suite in the northwestern KHMT. This suite has long been regarded as a Mesoproterozoic magmatic pluton, but U-Pb zircon ages of 2994 ± 22 Ma and 2970 ± 15 Ma are obtained by LA-ICP-MS method in this study. The Taoyuan gneiss suite is trondhjemitic in composition, and has high SiO2 (67.80-74.93 wt.%), Na2O (5.11-5.81 wt.%) contents with Na2O/K2O ratios greater than unity, and low Ni (2.56-7.61 ppm), Cr (1.26-7.67 ppm), Yb (0.32-0.82 ppm) and Y (4.48-11.5 ppm) contents. Plots show large variation in La/Yb and Sr/Y ratios and pronounced depletion in Nb, Ta and Ti in the primitive mantle-normalized spiderdiagram. The gneiss suite also displays two-stage Nd model ages close to its crystallization age with corresponding εNd(t) values of -2.5 to +3.5. It is thus suggested that the Taoyuan gneisses, in fact, is part of the Archean Kongling basement complex. Geochemical evidence implies that the TTG rocks may be derived from partial melting of subducted oceanic crust from a garnetiferous amphibolite source with residual assemblage of garnet + amphibole + plagioclase. Our study further indicates that the nucleus of the Yangtze block might experience a juvenile continental crustal growth during Mesoarchean. We also suggest that the Yangtze block may have its own crustal evolutionary history independent from the North China craton and the Tarim block before Paleoproterozoic.

  7. Nd isotopes and crustal growth rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albarede, F.

    1988-01-01

    Sm/Nd isotopic constraints on crustal growth is discussed. In order to constrain Sm/Nd fractionation between continental crust and depleted mantle, an extensive data base of isotopic measurements (assumed to be adequately representative of continental crust) was compiled. The results imply that the evolution of depleted mantles was roughly linear, with no major discontinuities over the course of geologic time. This is different from other determinations of depleting mantle evolution, which show nonlinear behavior. The Sm/Nd evolution lines for continental crust and depleted mantle intersect between 3.8 to 4.0 Ga, which may indicate that the onset of continental growth was later than 4.5 Ga. A mathematical model is described, the results of which imply that time integrated crustal additions from the mantle are about 1.8 to 2.5 cu km/a, whereas crustal subtractions by sediment recycling are about 0.6 to 1.5 cu km/a. This results in a net time integrated crustal growth rate of about 1 cu km/a, which is similar to present day rates determined, for example, by Reymer and Schubert

  8. Early Archean serpentine mud volcanoes at Isua, Greenland, as a niche for early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Marie-Laure; Quitté, Ghylaine; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Rosing, Minik T; Reynard, Bruno; Moynier, Frederic; Douchet, Chantal; Albarède, Francis

    2011-10-25

    The Isua Supracrustal Belt, Greenland, of Early Archean age (3.81-3.70 Ga) represents the oldest crustal segment on Earth. Its complex lithology comprises an ophiolite-like unit and volcanic rocks reminiscent of boninites, which tie Isua supracrustals to an island arc environment. We here present zinc (Zn) isotope compositions measured on serpentinites and other rocks from the Isua supracrustal sequence and on serpentinites from modern ophiolites, midocean ridges, and the Mariana forearc. In stark contrast to modern midocean ridge and ophiolite serpentinites, Zn in Isua and Mariana serpentinites is markedly depleted in heavy isotopes with respect to the igneous average. Based on recent results of Zn isotope fractionation between coexisting species in solution, the Isua serpentinites were permeated by carbonate-rich, high-pH hydrothermal solutions at medium temperature (100-300 °C). Zinc isotopes therefore stand out as a pH meter for fossil hydrothermal solutions. The geochemical features of the Isua fluids resemble the interstitial fluids sampled in the mud volcano serpentinites of the Mariana forearc. The reduced character and the high pH inferred for these fluids make Archean serpentine mud volcanoes a particularly favorable setting for the early stabilization of amino acids.

  9. Crustal nature and origin of the Russian Altai: Implications for the continental evolution and growth of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Keda; Sun, Min; Buslov, M. M.; Jahn, Bor-ming; Xiao, Wenjiao; Long, Xiaoping; Chen, Huayong; Wan, Bo; Chen, Ming; Rubanova, E. S.; Kulikova, A. V.; Voytishek, E. E.

    2016-04-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt is a gigantic tectonic collage of numerous accreted terranes. However, its geodynamic evolution has been hotly debated primarily due to incomplete knowledge on the nature of these enigmatic terranes. This work presents new detrital zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data to constrain the crustal nature and origin of the Russian Altai, a critical segment of Altai-Mongolian terrane. The youngest zircon 206Pb/238U ages of 470 Ma constrain that the Terekta Formation, previously envisaged as Precambrian basement, was actually deposited after the Middle Ordovician. As for the three more sedimentary sequences above the Terekta Formation, they have youngest zircon 206Pb/238U ages of 425 Ma, 440 Ma and 380 Ma, respectively, indicating their depositions likely in the Late Silurian to Devonian. From all analyses, it is noted that many zircon U-Pb ages cluster at ca. 520 Ma and ca. 800 Ma, and these zircons display oscillatory zoning and have subhedral to euhedral morphology, which, collectively, suggests that adjacent Neoproterozoic to Paleozoic igneous rocks were possibly dominant in the sedimentary provenance. Additionally, a few rounded Archean to Mesoproterozoic zircon grains are characterized by complex texture, which are interpreted as recycling materials probably derived from the Tuva-Mongolian microcontinent. Precambrian rocks have not been identified in the Russian Altai, Chinese Altai and Mongolian Altai so far, therefore, Precambrian basement may not exist in the Altai-Mongolian terrane, but this terrane probably represents a large subduction-accretion complex built on the margin of the Tuva-Mongolian microcontinent in the Early Paleozoic. Multiple episodes of ridge-trench interaction may have caused inputs of mantle-derived magmas to trigger partial melting of the newly accreted crustal materials, which contributed to the accretionary complex. During accretionary orogenesis of the CAOB, formation of such subduction-accretion complex is

  10. Hot Spots in the Earth's Crust. Crustal Evolution Education Project. Teacher's Guide [and] Student Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoever, Edward C., Jr.

    Crustal Evolution Education Project (CEEP) modules were designed to: (1) provide students with the methods and results of continuing investigations into the composition, history, and processes of the earth's crust and the application of this knowledge to man's activities and (2) to be used by teachers with little or no previous background in the…

  11. New insight on the paleoproterozoic evolution of the São Francisco Craton: Reinterpretation of the geology, the suture zones and the thicknesses of the crustal blocks using geophysical and geological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Edson E. S.; Barbosa, Johildo S. F.; Correa-Gomes, Luiz C.

    2017-07-01

    The Archean-Paleoproterozoic Jequié (JB) and Itabuna-Salvador-Curaçá (ISCB) blocks and their tectonic transition zone in the Valença region, Bahia, Brazil are potentially important for ore deposits, but the geological knowledge of the area is still meager. The paucity of geological information restricts the knowledge of the position and of the field characteristics of the tectonic suture zone between these two crustal segments JB and ISCB. Therefore, interpretation of geophysical data is necessary to supplement the regional structural and petrological knowledge of the area as well as to assist mining exploration programs. The analysis of the airborne radiometric and magnetic data of the region has established, respectively, five radiometric domains and five magnetic zones. Modeling of a gravity profile has defined the major density contrasts of the deep structures. The integrated interpretation of the geophysical data fitted to the known geological information substantially improved the suture zone (lower plate JB versus upper plate ISCB) delimitation, the geological map of the area and allowed to estimate the thicknesses of these two blocks, and raised key questions about the São Francisco Craton tectonic evolution.

  12. Petrochronology in constraining early Archean Earth processes and environments: Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosch, Eugene

    2017-04-01

    Analytical and petrological software developments over the past decade have seen rapid innovation in high-spatial resolution petrological techniques, for example, laser-ablation ICP-MS, secondary ion microprobe (SIMS, nano-SIMS), thermodynamic modelling and electron microprobe microscale mapping techniques (e.g. XMapTools). This presentation will focus on the application of petrochronology to ca. 3.55 to 3.33 billion-year-old metavolcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Onverwacht Group, shedding light on the earliest geologic evolution of the Paleoarchean Barberton greenstone belt (BGB) of South Africa. The field, scientific drilling and petrological research conducted over the past 8 years, aims to illustrate how: (a) LA-ICP-MS and SIMS U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology has helped identify the earliest tectono-sedimentary basin and sediment sources in the BGB, as well as reconstructing geodynamic processes as early as ca. 3.432 billion-years ago; (b) in-situ SIMS multiple sulphur isotope analysis of sulphides across various early Archean rock units help to reconstruct atmospheric, surface and subsurface environments on early Archean Earth and (c) the earliest candidate textural traces for subsurface microbial life can be investigated by in-situ LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of titanite, micro-XANES Fe-speciation analysis and metamorphic microscale mapping. Collectively, petrochronology combined with high-resolution field mapping studies, is a powerful multi-disciplinary approach towards deciphering petrogenetic and geodynamic processes preserved in the Paleoarchean Barberton greenstone belt of South Africa, with implications for early Archean Earth evolution.

  13. The magmatic model for the origin of Archean Au-quartz vein ore systems: an assessment of the evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spooner, E.T.C.

    1991-01-01

    The magmatic model for the origin of Archean Au-quartz vein ore systems suggests that Au was derived by partition between silicate (± sulphide) melts of certain compositions and H 2 O-CO 2 -NaCl magmatic fluids. Supporting evidence includes partial/structural geological relationships, timing relationships, H and C isotope geochemistry, probable primary Au enrichment in the Lamaque stocks, and fluid inclusion volatile geochemistry. Evidence is currently negative with respect to various within- and sub-greenstone belt metamorphic/deep crustal fluid models for primary Au mineralization; however a U-Pb age for vein stage 3 sphene from the Camflo deposit, Quebec which is ∼ 55-60 Ma younger than the host stock at 2685-2680 Ma indicates dissolution/reprecipitation of Au by late, (?) upper crustal saline fluids. Evidence is accumulating that epithermal-meso thermal Au-Ag mineralization in island arc and cordilleran settings may also have been magmatically derived ± high level fluid mixing from calc-alkaline, shoshonitic and other igneous compositions. (author)

  14. A coupled petrological-geodynamical model to investigate the evolution of crustal magmatic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaus, B. J. P.; Rummel, L.; White, R. W.

    2017-12-01

    The evolution of crustal magmatic systems can be analyzed from different physical and chemical perspectives. Most previous work focus either on the petrological side (considering thermal effects and ignoring mechanics), or on the mechanical evolution (assuming a fixed melt chemistry). Here, we consider both by combining a 2D finite element code, MVEP2, with a thermodynamic modelling approach (Perple_X). Density, melt fraction and the chemical composition of the liquid and solid phase are computed for different starting rock compositions and the evolving chemistry is tracked on markers via 10 main oxides (SiO2-TiO2-Al2O3-Cr2O3-MgO-FeO-CaO-Na2O-K2O-H2O). As soon as the local chemistry changes due to melt extraction, new phase diagrams are computed based on the residual solid chemistry for the deflated magma chamber or on the liquid chemistry for newly generated magma filled fractures. To investigate the chemical evolution in magma chambers and magma filled fractures, we inject mafic sills periodically at varying depth levels into the continental crust. The initial sill injections are focused in either one or two main zones in the crust and may interact with each other. The formation of magma filled fractures from this partially molten zone is tracked with a semi analytical dike initiation algorithm that forms new dikes as a function of the local stress field above the partially molten region and subsequently depletes and compacts the magma source region. Dike generation is thus affected by the background strain rate, amount and depth of melt accumulations as well as parameters that control the plastic and viscous behaviour of the crust (e.g. cohesion, viscous creep flow low etc.). Results show that magma filled fractures triggered by sill injections preferentially form under extensional conditions, particularly within the middle crust (in ca. 25 km depth). Magma chambers in the lower continental crust, on the other hand, are stable over a longer period of time due a

  15. The precambrian crustal evolution and mineralization cycle of uranium in the northeast of norern China platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhitian.

    1986-01-01

    According to the evolution history of the crust the region is divided into three Precambrian structural structural units: (1) Archaean craton; (2) Early Proterozoic zone of fold; (3) Middle-late Proterozoic depression zone. The Archaean-craton mainly consists of granite complex and metasediments. They form the first generation of uranium sources. Proterozoic is characterized by the obvious cycle of sedimentation which consists of the second generation of uranium source. There were multiplestage and congenetic nature in the formation of uranium deposit. The mineralization of uranium coincides with geotectonicdeveloping stage -- igneous activity -- metamorphism in their time. The formation of uranium deposits generally underwent the weathering and erosion of original uraniferous bodies-the migration, redeposition and reformed concentration by metamorphism and metamorphosed hydrothermal solution, and the mineralization was not only of intermittence, but also of inheritance. The evolutional process of forming uranium deposits undergoing various geological function of a structural cycle in the uranium geochemical anomalous area is called uranium mineralizational cycle. The Northeast of Northern China Platform had undergone multiple times structural movements causing migration and concentration of uranium and having mutiple cycle mineralizational character. Corresponding to the three main developing stages of the crustal evolution the Precambrian uranium mineralization in the Northeast of northern China platform area may be divided into three cycles: Late Archaeozoic mineralizational cycle, Early Proterozoic mineralizational cycle, and Middle Proterozoic mineralizational cycle. It is possible to search for potential uranium metallogenetic provinces to study the crustal evolution and the multiple cycle characters of uranium minerogenetic process in the Northern China platform

  16. Sulfate was a trace constituent of Archean seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crowe, Sean Andrew; Paris, Guillaume; Katsev, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    In the low-oxygen Archean world (>2400 million years ago), seawater sulfate concentrations were much lower than today, yet open questions frustrate the translation of modern measurements of sulfur isotope fractionations into estimates of Archean seawater sulfate concentrations. In the water column...

  17. Oxidative Weathering of Archean Sulfides: Implications for the Great Oxidation Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A.; Romaniello, S. J.; Reinhard, C.; Garcia-Robledo, E.; Revsbech, N. P.; Canfield, D. E.; Lyons, T. W.; Anbar, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    The first widely accepted evidence for oxidation of Earth's atmosphere and oceans occurs ~2.45 Ga immediately prior to the Great Oxidation Event (GOE). A major line of evidence for this transition includes the abundances and isotopic variations of redox-sensitive transition metals in marine sediments (e.g., Fe, Mo, Re, Cr, and U). It is often assumed that oxidative weathering is required to liberate these redox-sensitive elements from sulfide minerals in the crust, and hence that their presence in early Archean marine sediments signifies that oxidative weathering was stimulated by small and/or transient "whiffs" of O2 in the environment.1 However, studies of crustal sulfide reactivity have not been conducted at O2 concentrations as low as those that would have prevailed when O2 began its rise during the late Archean (estimated at molybdenite oxidation kinetics at the nanomolar O2 concentrations that are relevant to late Archean environments. These measurements were made using recently developed, highly sensitive optical O2 sensors to monitor the rates at which the powdered minerals consumed dissolved O2 in a range of pH-buffered solutions.3Our data extend the range of experimental pyrite oxidation rates in the literature by three orders of magnitude from ~10-3 present atmospheric O2 to ~10-6. We find that molybdenite and pyrite oxidation continues to <1 nM O2 (4 x 10-6 present atmospheric O2). This implies that oxidative weathering of sulfides could occur under conditions which preserve MIF S fractionation. Furthermore, our results indicate that the rate law and reaction order of pyrite oxidation kinetics change significantly at nanomolar concentrations of O2 when compared to previous compilations.2 Our results provide new empirical data that should allow for more precise quantitative constraints on atmospheric pO2 based on the sedimentary rock record. 1Anbar, A.D. et al., 2007. Science, 317, i. 5846: 1903-1906. 2Williamson & Rimstidt, 1994. Geochim. et Cosmochim

  18. Role of upper-most crustal composition in the evolution of the Precambrian ocean-atmosphere system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large, R. R.; Mukherjee, I.; Zhukova, I.; Corkrey, R.; Stepanov, A.; Danyushevsky, L. V.

    2018-04-01

    Recent research has emphasized the potential relationships between supercontinent cycles, mountain building, nutrient flux, ocean-atmosphere chemistry and the origin of life. The composition of the Upper-Most Continental Crust (UMCC) also figures prominently in these relationships, and yet little detailed data on each component of this complex relationship has been available for assessment. Here we provide a new set of data on the trace element concentrations, including the Rare Earth Elements (REE), in the matrix of 52 marine black shale formations spread globally through the Archean and Proterozoic. The data support previous studies on the temporal geochemistry of shales, but with some important differences. Results indicate a change in provenance of the black shales (upper-most crustal composition), from more mafic in the Archean prior to 2700 Ma, to more felsic from 2700 to 2200 Ma, followed by a return to mafic compositions from 2200 to 1850 Ma. Around 1850 to 1800 Ma there is a rapid change to uniform felsic compositions, which remained for a billion years to 800 Ma. The shale matrix geochemistry supports the assertion that the average upper-most continental source rocks for the shales changed from a mix of felsic, mafic and ultramafic prior to 2700 Ma to more felsic after 1850 Ma, with an extended transition period between. The return to more mafic UMCC from 2200 to 1850 Ma is supported by the frequency of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) and banded iron formations, which suggest a peak in major mantle-connected plume events and associated Fe-rich hydrothermal activity over this period. Support for the change to felsic UMCC around 1850 Ma is provided by previous geological data which shows that felsic magmas, including, A-type granites and K-Th-U-rich granites intruded vast areas of the continental crust, peaking around 1850 Ma and declining to 1000 Ma. The implications of this change in UMCC are far reaching and may go some way to explain the distinct

  19. Archean crustal evolution in the central Minto block, northern Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skulski, T.; Percival, J.A.; Stern, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The central Minto block contains three volcano-sedimentary successions. Near Lake Qalluviartuuq, an isotopically primitive ( 2.83 Ga ε Nd +3.8 to +2.3) 2.83 Ga volcano-plutonic sequence comprises depleted tholeiitic basalts, anorthositic gabbro, and diorite-granodiorite that is unconformably overlain by 2.76 Ga ε Nd +1.8) calc-alkaline sequence of pillow basalts, andesites, and peridotite cut by 2.73 Ga diorite. To the west, and in inferred tectonic contact, the sediment-dominated Kogaluc sequence includes both isotopically evolved calc-alkaline rocks ( 2.76 Ga ε Nd +1.6 to -0.1) including 2.78Ga ε Nd Nd 2.725Ga ε Nd - 1. 6). (author). 19 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  20. Archean crustal evolution in the central Minto block, northern Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skulski, T; Percival, J A; Stern, R A [Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The central Minto block contains three volcano-sedimentary successions. Near Lake Qalluviartuuq, an isotopically primitive ({sup 2.83} {sup Ga}{epsilon}{sub Nd} +3.8 to +2.3) 2.83 Ga volcano-plutonic sequence comprises depleted tholeiitic basalts, anorthositic gabbro, and diorite-granodiorite that is unconformably overlain by <2.77 Ga conglomerates. Overlying the conglomerate is a more evolved ({sup 2.76} {sup Ga}{epsilon}{sub Nd} +1.8) calc-alkaline sequence of pillow basalts, andesites, and peridotite cut by 2.73 Ga diorite. To the west, and in inferred tectonic contact, the sediment-dominated Kogaluc sequence includes both isotopically evolved calc-alkaline rocks ({sup 2.76} {sup Ga}{epsilon}{sub Nd} +1.6 to -0.1) including <2.76 Ga rhyolitic tuff, pillowed andesites, and 2.76 Ga quartz-feldspar porphyry, and less abundant, depleted tholeiitic basalts (2.76 GaF-Nd +2.4). These are interlain with sedimentary rocks including banded iron-formation, quartzite, and metagreywacke. Calc-alkaline batholiths include 2.78 Ga pyroxene-bearing intermediate and felsic plutons ({sup 2.78Ga}{epsilon}{sub Nd} <+2.7) and younger, peraluminous tonalites ({epsilon}{sub Nd} <+1.3). Late, 2.73 Ga peraluminous granitoids are isotopically evolved ({sup 2.725Ga}{epsilon}{sub Nd} - 1. 6). (author). 19 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  1. Provenance and tectonic setting of siliciclastic rocks associated with the Neoproterozoic Dahongliutan BIF: Implications for the Precambrian crustal evolution of the Western Kunlun orogenic belt, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Wang, He; Wang, Min

    2017-10-01

    The Late Neoproterozoic Dahongliutan BIF is associated with siliciclastic rocks in the Tianshuihai terrane of the Western Kunlun orogenic belt (WKO), NW China. The sedimentary rocks have various weathering indices (e.g., CIA = 57-87, PIA = 61-96 and Th/U = 4.85-12.45), indicative of varying degrees of weathering in the source area. The rocks have trace element ratios, such as Th/Sc = 0.60-1.21 and Co/Th = 0.29-1.67, and light rare earth element (LREE) enriched chondrite-normalized REE patterns, suggesting that they were mainly sourced from intermediate and felsic rocks. Available U-Pb ages of detrital zircon from these rocks reveal that the detrital sources may have been igneous and metamorphic rocks from the WKO and the Tarim Block. Our study suggests that the Dahongliutan BIF and hosting siliciclastic rocks may have deposited in a setting transitional from a passive to active continental margin, probably related to the Late Neoproterozoic-Early Cambrian seafloor spreading and subduction of the Proto-Tethys Ocean. U-Pb dating of 163 detrital zircons defines five major age populations at 2561-2329 Ma, 2076-1644 Ma, 1164-899 Ma, 869-722 Ma and 696-593 Ma. These age groups broadly correspond to the major stages of supercontinent assembly and breakup events widely accepted for Columbia, Rodinia and Gondwana. Some zircons have TDM2 model ages of 3.9-1.8 Ga and negative εHf(t) values, suggesting that the Archean to Paleoproterozoic (as old as Eoarchean) crustal materials were episodically reworked and incorporated into the late magmatic process in the WKO. Some Neoproterozoic zircons have TDM2 model ages of 1.47-1.07 Ga and 1.81-1.53 Ga and positive εHf(t) values, indicating juvenile crustal growth during the Mesoproterozoic. Our new results, combined with published data, imply that both the Tianshuihai terrane in the WKO and the Tarim Block share the same Precambrian tectonic evolution history.

  2. Geological development and uranium and thorium evolutions in volcanic basin No.460

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Dean.

    1989-01-01

    On the basis of summarizing the geological features and the developmental history of tectono-magmatic activity, the uranium and thorium evolutional rules of rocks in different times are studied. It is suggested that the uranium and thorium increments caused by potassic migmatization of late Archean basement rocks in this area is the material base which affected the subsequent evolution of the cover of volcanic rocks and uranium mineralization. The Upper Jurassic acid volcanic cover belonging to crustal remelting origin constituted the favorable stratigraphic background for uranium mineralization in this area due to its wide distribution, large thickness, various rock associations and lithological sequences, as well as high content of uranium and thorium. During the late Yanshanian stage acid subvolanic rocks or small intrusions with high uranium intruded along the regional fractures are the decisive factors for the emplacement of uranium mineralization in this area, which othen became the favorable wall rocks for preserving ores itself. During the late stage the hydrothermal uranium mineralization was the main geological process from which uranium and thorium in stratigraphy and terrain were finally separated

  3. An Archean Biosphere Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, A. D.; Boyd, E. S.; Buick, R.; Claire, M.; DesMarais, D.; Domagal-Goldman, D.; Eigenbrode, J.; Erwin, D.; Freeman, K.; Hazen, R.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The search for life on extrasolar planets will necessarily focus on the imprints of biolgy on the composition of planetary atmospheres. The most notable biological imprint on the modern terrestrial atmosphere is the presence of 21 % O2, However, during most of the past 4 billion years, life and the surface environments on Earth were profoundly different than they are today. It is therefore a major goal of the astrobiology community to ascertain how the O2 content of the atmosphere has varied with time. and to understand the causes of these variations. The NAI and NASA Exobiology program have played critical roles in developing our current understanding of the ancient Earth's atmosphere, supporting diverse observational, analytical, and computational research in geoscience, life science, and related fields. In the present incarnation of the NAI, ongoing work is investigating (i) variations in atmospheric O2 in the Archean to the Cambrian, (ii) characterization of the redox state of the oceans shortly before, during and after the Great Oxidation Event (GOE), and (iii) unraveling the complex connections between environmental oxygenation, global climate, and the evolution of life.

  4. Sulfur MIF, Organic Haze, and the Gaia Hypothesis in the Archean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagal-Goldman, S.; James, K. F.

    2006-05-01

    The presence of mass-independent fractionation (MIF) of sulfur isotopes in Archean sedimentary rocks provides evidence for a low-O2 atmosphere prior to 2.4 Ga. Recent data suggest that S-MIF vanished transiently between ~3.2 Ga and 2.8 Ga. The absence of S-MIF after 2.4 Ga is commonly attributed to the rise of O2 in the atmosphere, as the presence of free O2 would have oxidized all sulfur species, thereby erasing any MIF created by atmospheric photochemistry. However, if free O2 did not appear in the atmosphere until 2.4 Ga, then why did S-MIF disappear transiently much earlier? Could S-MIF have been eliminated from the rock record without the presence of free atmospheric O2? We used a 1-dimensional photochemical model to demonstrate how this might have happened. Increasing the CH4/CO2 ratio in the model atmosphere results in the formation of organic haze. If the haze was sufficiently thick, it would have blocked out much of the solar UV radiation shortward of 220 nm that dissociates SO2 and SO, and thereby causes MIF. The haze should also have caused anti-greenhouse cooling and may have triggered the (putative) 2.8-Ga glaciations. Speculatively, an increase in CH4 at 3.0 Ga could have been caused by the evolution of methanogens, while a CH4 decrease at 2.7 Ga could correspond to the evolution of cyanobacteria. The presence of an optically thin organic haze between 2.4 and 2.7 Ga may explain the larger S-MIF values seen at this time, as compared to the early Archean. If such an organic haze existed, it could have resulted in a biologically-mediated negative feedback loop that stabilized the Archean climate. This feedback loop would have operated as follows: an increase in the biological CH4 flux would have led to an increase in haze thickness and a stronger anti-greenhouse effect, cooling the surface. The surface cooling would have caused a reduction of methanogen productivity, thus offsetting the original increase in the CH4 flux. Such stabilizing feedbacks

  5. Evolution of deep crustal magma structures beneath Mount Baekdu volcano (MBV) intraplate volcano in northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhie, J.; Kim, S.; Tkalcic, H.; Baag, S. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Heterogeneous features of magmatic structures beneath intraplate volcanoes are attributed to interactions between the ascending magma and lithospheric structures. Here, we investigate the evolution of crustal magmatic stuructures beneath Mount Baekdu volcano (MBV), which is one of the largest continental intraplate volcanoes in northeast Asia. The result of our seismic imaging shows that the deeper Moho depth ( 40 km) and relatively higher shear wave velocities (>3.8 km/s) at middle-to-lower crustal depths beneath the volcano. In addition, the pattern at the bottom of our model shows that the lithosphere beneath the MBV is shallower (interpret the observations as a compositional double layering of mafic underplating and a overlying cooled felsic structure due to fractional crystallization of asthenosphere origin magma. To achieve enhanced vertical and horizontal model coverage, we apply two approaches in this work, including (1) a grid-search based phase velocity measurement using real-coherency of ambient noise data and (2) a transdimensional Bayesian joint inversion using multiple ambient noise dispersion data.

  6. The geophysical character of southern Alaska - Implications for crustal evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltus, R.W.; Hudson, T.L.; Wilson, Frederic H.

    2007-01-01

    The southern Alaska continental margin has undergone a long and complicated history of plate convergence, subduction, accretion, and margin-parallel displacements. The crustal character of this continental margin is discernible through combined analysis of aeromagnetic and gravity data with key constraints from previous seismic interpretation. Regional magnetic data are particularly useful in defining broad geophysical domains. One of these domains, the south Alaska magnetic high, is the focus of this study. It is an intense and continuous magnetic high up to 200 km wide and ∼1500 km long extending from the Canadian border in the Wrangell Mountains west and southwest through Cook Inlet to the Bering Sea shelf. Crustal thickness beneath the south Alaska magnetic high is commonly 40–50 km. Gravity analysis indicates that the south Alaska magnetic high crust is dense. The south Alaska magnetic high spatially coincides with the Peninsular and Wrangellia terranes. The thick, dense, and magnetic character of this domain requires significant amounts of mafic rocks at intermediate to deep crustal levels. In Wrangellia these mafic rocks are likely to have been emplaced during Middle and (or) Late Triassic Nikolai Greenstone volcanism. In the Peninsular terrane, the most extensive period of mafic magmatism now known was associated with the Early Jurassic Talkeetna Formation volcanic arc. Thus the thick, dense, and magnetic character of the south Alaska magnetic high crust apparently developed as the response to mafic magmatism in both extensional (Wrangellia) and subduction-related arc (Peninsular terrane) settings. The south Alaska magnetic high is therefore a composite crustal feature. At least in Wrangellia, the crust was probably of average thickness (30 km) or greater prior to Triassic mafic magmatism. Up to 20 km (40%) of its present thickness may be due to the addition of Triassic mafic magmas. Throughout the south Alaska magnetic high, significant crustal growth

  7. Triassic rejuvenation of unexposed Archean-Paleoproterozoic deep crust beneath the western Cathaysia block, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi-Yao; Zheng, Jian-Ping; Xiong, Qing; Zhou, Xiang; Xiang, Lu

    2018-01-01

    Jurassic (ca. 150 Ma) Daoxian basalts from the western Cathaysia block (South China) entrained a suite of deep-seated crustal xenoliths, including felsic schist, gneiss and granulite, and mafic two-pyroxene granulite and metagabbro. Zircon U-Pb-Hf isotopic, whole-rock elemental and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions have been determined for these valuable xenoliths to reveal the poorly-known, unexposed deep crust beneath South China. Detrital zircons from the garnet-biotite schists show several populations of ages at 0.65-0.5 Ga, 1.1-0.75 Ga, 1.6-1.4 Ga, 1.8-1.7 Ga, 2.5-2.4 Ga, 2.8 Ga, and 3.5 Ga, representing a multi-sourced, meta-sedimentary origin with deposition time at the early Cambrian. One mafic granulite contains zircons with concordant U-Pb ages of Neoarchean ( 2520 Ma), as well as Hf model ages of 2.8-2.6 Ga and positive εHf(t) values (up to 6.3), suggesting an accretion of juvenile crust in Neoarchean, probably as the main framework of the lower crust. Geochemical and geochronological evidence shows the mafic granulite and metagabbro were produced by underplating of magmas derived from the depleted asthenosphere and mixed with EM2-type materials during the Late Triassic (205-196 Ma). This magmatic underplating also resulted in the widespread metamorphism of the mafic lower crust and felsic middle crust (e.g., the felsic granulite and gneiss) at 202-201 Ma. We suggest the existence of a highly evolved Archean-Paleoproterozoic basement beneath the western Cathaysia block, which experienced episodic accretion and reworking and the strong rejuvenation during the Triassic. A three-layered structure of the lower crust could exist beneath the Daoxian area during the Jurassic time: its upper layer is an evolved Archean-Paleoproterozoic basement; the middle hybrid layer represents a mixture of Archean-Paleoproterozoic basement with newly accreted/reworked Proterozoic to Phanerozoic materials; and the deeper layer consists of mafic granulites derived from the

  8. U Pb and Lu Hf isotope record of detrital zircon grains from the Limpopo Belt Evidence for crustal recycling at the Hadean to early-Archean transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeh, Armin; Gerdes, Axel; Klemd, Reiner; Barton, J. M., Jr.

    2008-11-01

    Detrital zircon grains from Beit Bridge Group quartzite from the Central Zone of the Limpopo Belt near Musina yield mostly ages of 3.35-3.15 Ga, minor 3.15-2.51 Ga components, and numerous older grains grouped at approximately 3.4, 3.5 and 3.6 Ga. Two grains yielded concordant Late Hadean U-Pb ages of 3881 ± 11 Ma and 3909 ± 26 Ma, which are the oldest zircon grains so far found in Africa. The combined U-Pb and Lu-Hf datasets and field relationships provide evidence that the sedimentary protolith of the Beit Bridge Group quartzite was deposited after the emplacement of the Sand River Gneisses (3.35-3.15 Ga), but prior to the Neoarchean magmatic-metamorphic events at 2.65-2.60 Ga. The finding of abundant magmatic zircon detritus with concordant U-Pb ages of 3.35-3.15 Ga, and 176Hf/ 177Hf of 0.28066 ± 0.00004 indicate that the Sand River Gneiss-type rocks were a predominant source. In contrast, detrital zircon grains older than approximately 3.35 Ga were derived from the hinterland of the Limpopo Belt; either from a so far unknown crustal source in southern Africa, possibly from the Zimbabwe Craton and/or a source, which was similar but not necessarily identical to the one that supplied the Hadean zircons to Jack Hills, Western Australia. The Beit Bridge Group zircon population at >3.35 Ga shows a general ɛHf t increase with decreasing age from ɛHf 3.9Ga = -6.3 to ɛHf 3.3-3.1Ga = -0.2, indicating that Hadean crust older than 4.0 Ga ( TDM = 4.45-4.36 Ga) was rejuvenated during magmatic events between >3.9 and 3.1 Ga, due to a successive mixing of crustal rocks with mantle derived magmas. The existence of a depleted mantle reservoir in the Limpopo's hinterland is reflected by the ˜3.6 Ga zircon population, which shows ɛHf 3.6Ga between -4.6 and +3.2. In a global context, our data suggest that a long-lived, mafic Hadean protocrust with some tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite constituents was destroyed and partly recycled at the Hadean/Archean transition, perhaps

  9. Evidence of early Archean crust in northwest Gondwana, from U-Pb and Hf isotope analysis of detrital zircon, in Ediacaran surpacrustal rocks of northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Thanusha; Zimmermann, Udo; Vervoort, Jeff; Tait, Jenny

    2018-03-01

    The Mora Formation (Narcea Group) is one of the oldest Precambrian supracrustal successions in northern Spain. Here, we use U-Pb and in situ Hf isotope analysis on detrital zircon to determine its age and provenance. The youngest U-Pb dates constrain the maximum depositional age of the Mora Formation at 565 ± 11 Ma. Results indicate: (1) a dominant Ediacaran zircon population (33%; 565-633 Ma, Cadomian) within a spectrum of Neoproterozoic ages (40%; 636-996 Ma); and (2) smaller Mesoproterozoic (5%; 1004-1240 Ma), Palaeoproterozoic (11%; 1890-2476 Ma) and Archean (11%; 2519-3550 Ma) populations. Results here do not point to one specific cratonic source area; instead, detritus may have been derived from the West African craton and Amazonia, or even the concealed Iberian basement. The lack of 1.3-1.8 Ga grains suggests exclusion of the Sahara Craton as a major source, but this is not certain. This mixed composition favours a complex source history with reworking of detritus across terrane/craton boundaries. Hafnium isotope compositions indicate a range of crustal and juvenile sources, with initial ɛHf values between -15.8 and 11.1, and Hf model ages from 0.8 to 3.7 Ga. For Neoproterozoic zircons (80%), juvenile components (ɛHf(i) +10) may be related to Rodinia fragmentation and the onset of an active margin setting leading to the Cadomian orogeny. Palaeoproterozoic to Paleoarchean grains (20%) all have negative ɛHf values and Meso- to Eoarchean Hf model ages. This indicates an early (Archean) sialic crustal component for northwestern Gondwana.

  10. Along Arc Structural Variation in the Izu-Bonin Arc and its Implications for Crustal Evolution Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodaira, S.; Sato, T.; Takahashi, N.; Ito, A.; Kaneda, Y.

    2005-12-01

    A continental-type middle crust having Vp = 6.1 - 6.3 km/s has been imaged at several oceanic island arcs (e.g. northern Izu, Mariana, Tonga, Kyushu-Palau ridge) since Suyehiro et al. (1996) has found a felsic middle crust in the northern Izu arc. A high velocity lower crust (Vp > 7.3 km/s) underlying the felsic middle crust has been also underlined as a characteristic structure in the northern Izu arc. A bulk composition of the crust in the Izu arc may indicate more mafic than that of a typical continental crust due to a large volume of the high velocity lower crust. Since a crust becomes more mature toward the north along the Izu-Bonin arc, investigating structural variation along the volcanic front has been believed to provide a fundamental knowledge for a crustal evolution process. In 2004 and 2005, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology has conducted two along arc wide-angle seismic surveys from the Sagami-bay to the Kita-Iwo jima, a total profile length of about 1000 km. Although data from the Bonin-part of the profile which were acquired this year has not been processed yet, a result from the Izu-part, from the Sagami-bay to Tori shima, shows significant structural variations along the volcanic front. The crustal thickness are varied with a wavelength of several tens of km, i.e., thickened up to 25-30 km around the volcanoes (the Miyake jama, Hachijo jima, Aoga sima, Sumisu jima), while thinned down to 20 km between them. The fine seismic velocity image obtained by refraction tomography as well as a wide-angle reflection migration shows that the variation of the crustal block having 6.0 - 6.7 km/s, which is a typical continental crustal velocity, is mainly responsible for the observed variation of the crustal thickness. The thickness of the high velocity lower crust is not significantly varied along the arc. Therefore, an average crustal seismic velocity (varied 6.6 to 7.0 km/s) represents a higher velocity that that of a typical continental

  11. An investigation of the Archean climate using the NCAR CCm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, G.S.

    1991-01-01

    The Archean (2.5 to 3.8 billion years ago) is of interest climatically, because of the 'Faint-Young Sun Paradox', which can be characterized by the Sun's reduced energy output. This lower energy output leads to a frozen planet if the climate existed as it does today. But, the geologic record shows that water was flowing at the earth's surface 3.8 billion years ago. Energy Balance Models (EBMs) and one-dimensional radiative-convective (1DRC) models predict a frozen planet for this time period, unless large carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations exist in the Archean atmosphere. The goal is to explore the Archean climate with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Community Climate Model (CCM). The search for negative feedbacks to explain the 'Faint-Young Sun Paradox' is the thrust of this study. This study undertakes a series of sensitivity simulations which first explores individual factors that may be important for the Archean. They include rotation rate, lower solar luminosity, and land fraction. Then, these climatic factors along with higher CO2 concentrations are combined into a set of experiments. A faster rotation rate may have existed in the Archean. The faster rotation rate simulations show warmer globally averaged surface temperatures that are caused by a 20 percent decrease in the total cloud fraction. The smaller cloud fraction is brought about by dynamical changes. A global ocean is a possibility for the Archean. A global ocean simulation predicts 4 K increase in global mean surface temperatures compared to the present-day climate control

  12. Temporal Evolution of the Upper Continental Crust: Implications for the Mode of Crustal Growth and the Evolution of the Hydrosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, R. L.; Gaschnig, R. M.; Li, S.; Tang, M.; Qiu, L.; Valley, J. W.; Zurkowski, C.; McDonough, W. F.

    2014-12-01

    The upper continental crust (UCC), the interface between the atmosphere and solid Earth, is the site of weathering that produces sedimentary rocks, influences ocean chemistry through runoff of soluble elements, and affects climate through CO2 draw-down. The UCC also contains more than 50% of the crust's highly incompatible element budget (including K, Th, and U). Therefore, understanding its composition and evolution provides insight into how continents have formed, evolved, and interacted with the hydrosphere. New major and trace element compositions of >100 glacial diamictites and >100 Archean shales, plus δ7Li and δ18O for a subset of these samples, combined with data from the literature, show that the average composition of the UCC has changed through time, reflecting both the rise of atmospheric oxygen and its attendant effects on weathering, as well as the mode of crust formation and differentiation. Some changes that occur as a step function near the Archean/Proterozoic boundary (increased Th/U, decreased Mo/Pr, V/Lu) reflect the rise of oxygen at the great oxidation event (GOE) and its influence on chemical weathering signatures in the UCC. Other changes are more gradual with time (e.g., higher Th/Sc and δ18O, lower Ni/Co, La/Nb, Eu/Eu* and transition metal abundances) and reflect an UCC that has transitioned from a more mafic to a more felsic bulk composition, and which experienced increased interaction with the hydrosphere with time. The gradual nature of these compositional changes likely reflects the waning heat production of the Earth, rather than an abrupt change in tectonics or style of crust formation. These more gradual changes in crust composition, which contrast with the abrupt changes associated with the GOE, suggest that a fundamental change in the nature of crust differentiation is unlikely to be responsible for the rise of atmospheric oxygen (cf. Keller and Schoene, 2012). Indeed, it appears that the opposite may be true: that the rise of

  13. Microbes, Mineral Evolution, and the Rise of Microcontinents-Origin and Coevolution of Life with Early Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosch, Eugene G; Hazen, Robert M

    2015-10-01

    Earth is the most mineralogically diverse planet in our solar system, the direct consequence of a coevolving geosphere and biosphere. We consider the possibility that a microbial biosphere originated and thrived in the early Hadean-Archean Earth subseafloor environment, with fundamental consequences for the complex evolution and habitability of our planet. In this hypothesis paper, we explore possible venues for the origin of life and the direct consequences of microbially mediated, low-temperature hydrothermal alteration of the early oceanic lithosphere. We hypothesize that subsurface fluid-rock-microbe interactions resulted in more efficient hydration of the early oceanic crust, which in turn promoted bulk melting to produce the first evolved fragments of felsic crust. These evolved magmas most likely included sialic or tonalitic sheets, felsic volcaniclastics, and minor rhyolitic intrusions emplaced in an Iceland-type extensional setting as the earliest microcontinents. With the further development of proto-tectonic processes, these buoyant felsic crustal fragments formed the nucleus of intra-oceanic tonalite-trondhjemite-granitoid (TTG) island arcs. Thus microbes, by facilitating extensive hydrothermal alteration of the earliest oceanic crust through bioalteration, promoted mineral diversification and may have been early architects of surface environments and microcontinents on young Earth. We explore how the possible onset of subseafloor fluid-rock-microbe interactions on early Earth accelerated metavolcanic clay mineral formation, crustal melting, and subsequent metamorphic mineral evolution. We also consider environmental factors supporting this earliest step in geosphere-biosphere coevolution and the implications for habitability and mineral evolution on other rocky planets, such as Mars.

  14. Electrical structure and its implication across the lower- and upper-crustal settings of South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, U.

    1988-01-01

    Measurements of a large scale MMA experiment covering both the granulite and greenstone terrains of Archeans in the southern part of India is re-visited and re-analyzed. The induced field variations contain the signatures of crustal and subcrustal electrical conductivities, although substantially distorted by the sea-land interfaces and cenozoic sediments. However, through a selection of some reconnaissance profiles and temporal variations, an attempt is made to deduce whether: (1) significant differences exist between the electrical structures of the high and low grade complexes (i.e., if the electrical conductivity of the lower crust is due to minerological composition or is intrinsic to the positioning at depths greater than 15 km); (2) the probable seaward extension of the continental crust and its transition to oceanic type may also contribute (through intracrustal DC-like telluric sheets) to the induction field in addition to or rather than the sharply localized zones; (3) the observed parameters are indicative of a formal anisotropy and/or undulations in the deep crust; and (4) the postulate of relatively hotter Indian shield is reflected particularly with regard to differential metamorphism. In the last case, the crust-mantle coupling in this region - unlike other similar areas - seems to be markedly affected by the evolution of Ne-plate velocity field.

  15. Magnetotelluric evidence for a deep-crustal mineralizing system beneath the Olympic Dam iron oxide copper-gold deposit, southern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinson, Graham S.; Direen, Nicholas G.; Gill, Rob M.

    2006-07-01

    The iron oxide copper-gold Olympic Dam deposit, situated along the margin of the Proterozoic Gawler craton, South Australia, is the world's largest uranium deposit and sixth-largest copper deposit; it also contains significant reserves of gold, silver, and rare earth elements. Gaining a better understanding of the mechanisms for genesis of the economic liberalization is fundamental for defining exploration models in similar crustal settings. To delineate crustal structures that may constrain mineral system fluid pathways, coincident deep crustal seismic and magnetotelluric (MT) transects were obtained along a 220 km section that crosses Olympic Dam and the major crustal boundaries. In this paper we present results from 58 long-period (10 104 s) MT sites, with site spacing of 5 10 km. A two-dimensional inversion of MT data from 33 sites to a depth of 100 km shows four notable features: (1) sedimentary cover sequences with low resistivity (1000 Ω·m) Archean crustal core from a more conductive crust and mantle to the north (typically Olympic Dam, the upper-middle crust to ˜20 km is quite resistive (˜1000 Ω·m), but the lower crust is much more conductive (Olympic Dam, we image a low-resistivity region (Olympic Dam may be due to the upward movement of CO2-bearing volatiles near the time of deposit formation that precipitated conductive graphite liberalization along grain boundaries, simultaneously annihilating acoustic impedance boundaries. The source of the volatiles may be from the mantle degassing or retrograde metamorphism of the lower crust associated with Proterozoic crustal deformation.

  16. Lithosphere structure in Madagascar as revealed from receiver functions and surface waves analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindraharisaona, E. J.; Tilmann, F. J.; Yuan, X.; Dreiling, J.; Priestley, K. F.; Barruol, G.; Wysession, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    The geological history of Madagascar makes it an ideal place to study the lithospheric structure and its evolution. It comprises Archean to Proterozoic units on the central eastern part, which is surrounded by a Triassic to Jurassic basin formation in the west and Cretaceous volcanics along the coasts. Quaternary volcanic rocks have been embedded in crystalline and sedimentary rocks. The aim of the present work is to characterize the crustal structure and determine the imprint of the dominant geodynamic events that have affected Madagascar: the Pan-African orogeny, the breakup of Gondwanaland and Neogene tectonic activity. From 2011 to 2014 different temporary seismic arrays were deployed in Madagascar. We based the current study mostly on SELASOMA project, which is composed of 50 seismic stations that were installed traversing southern Madagascar from the west to the east, sampling the different geological units. To measured seismic dispersion curves, one a wide period ranges using ambient noise, Rayleigh and Love surface waves. To compute the average crustal Vp/Vs ratio internal crustal structure and discontinuities in the mantle, we use both P- and S-waves receiver functions. To better resolve of the crustal structure, we jointly inverted P-wave receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocity.The crustal extension during the Carboniferous to Cenozoic has thinned the igneous crust down to 15 km in the western Morondava basin by removing much of the lower crust, while the thickness of the upper crust is nearly identical in the sedimentary basin and under Proterozoic and Archaean rocks of the eastern two thirds of Southern Madagascar. In general, the Archean crust is thicker than the Proterozoic, because mafic component is missing in the Proterozoic domain while it forms the bottom of the Archean crust. The lithosphere thickness in the southern part of Madagascar is estimated to be between 90 and 125 km.

  17. On the photosynthetic potential in the very Early Archean oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Daile; Cardenas, Rolando; Martin, Osmel

    2013-02-01

    In this work we apply a mathematical model of photosynthesis to quantify the potential for photosynthetic life in the very Early Archean oceans. We assume the presence of oceanic blockers of ultraviolet radiation, specifically ferrous ions. For this scenario, our results suggest a potential for photosynthetic life greater than or similar to that in later eras/eons, such as the Late Archean and the current Phanerozoic eon.

  18. The Archean komatiite-hosted, PGE-bearing Ni-Cu sulfide deposit at Vaara, eastern Finland: evidence for assimilation of external sulfur and post-depositional desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konnunaho, J. P.; Hanski, E. J.; Bekker, A.; Halkoaho, T. A. A.; Hiebert, R. S.; Wing, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    Archean komatiites host important resources of Ni, Cu, Co, and PGE, particularly in Western Australia and Canada. In Finland, several small, low-grade sulfide deposits have been found in komatiites, including the ca. 2.8 Ga Vaara deposit in the Archean Suomussalmi greenstone belt. It occurs in the central part of the serpentinized olivine cumulate zone of a komatiitic extrusive body and is composed of disseminated interstitial sulfides consisting of pyrite, pentlandite, millerite, violarite, and chalcopyrite accompanied by abundant magnetite. Although currently subeconomic, the mineralization is interesting due to the very high chalcophile element contents of the sulfide fraction (38 wt% Ni, 3.4 wt% Cu, 0.7 wt% Co, 22.4 ppm Pd, and 9.5 ppm Pt). The sulfides occur in relatively Cr-poor olivine cumulates suggesting involvement of a chromite-undersaturated magma. The parental magma was an Al-undepleted komatiite with an estimated MgO content of at least 24 wt%. In contrast to the common komatiite types in the eastern Finland greenstone belts, the Vaara rocks are moderately enriched in LREE relative to MREE, suggesting that crustal contamination played an important role in the genesis of the Vaara deposit. Multiple sulfur isotope data reveal considerable mass-independent sulfur isotope fractionation both in country rock sedimentary sulfides (Δ33S ranges from -0.50 to +2.37 ‰) and in the Vaara mineralization (Δ33S ranges from +0.53 to +0.66 ‰), which provides strong evidence for incorporation of crustal sulfur. Extensive replacement of interstitial sulfides by magnetite and the presence of millerite- and violarite-bearing, pyrrhotite-free sulfide assemblages indicate significant post-magmatic, low-temperature hydrothermal oxidation of the primary magmatic pyrrhotite-pentlandite-chalcopyrite assemblages and associated sulfur loss that led to a significant upgrading of the original metal tenors of the Vaara deposit.

  19. Reactivation of the Archean-Proterozoic suture along the southern margin of Laurentia during the Mazatzal orogeny: Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of ca. 1.63 Ga granite in southeastern Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel S.; Barnes, Calvin G.; Premo, Wayne R.; Snoke, Arthur W.

    2013-01-01

    The presence of ca. 1.63 Ga monzogranite (the “white quartz monzonite”) in the southern Sierra Madre, southeastern Wyoming, is anomalous given its distance from the nearest documented plutons of similar age (central Colorado) and the nearest contemporaneous tectonic margin (New Mexico). It is located immediately south of the Cheyenne belt—a ca. 1.75 Ga Archean-Proterozoic tectonic suture. New geochronological, isotopic, and geochemical data suggest that emplacement of the white quartz monzonite occurred between ca. 1645 and 1628 Ma (main pulse ca. 1628 Ma) and that the white quartz monzonite originated primarily by partial melting of the Big Creek Gneiss, a modified arc complex. There is no evidence that mafic magmas were involved. Open folds of the ca. 1750 Ma regional foliation are cut by undeformed white quartz monzonite. On a regional scale, rocks intruded by the white quartz monzonite have experienced higher pressure and temperature conditions and are migmatitic as compared to the surrounding rocks, suggesting a genetic relationship between the white quartz monzonite and tectonic exhumation. We propose that regional shortening imbricated the Big Creek Gneiss, uplifting the now-exposed high-grade rocks of the Big Creek Gneiss (hanging wall of the thrust and wall rock to the white quartz monzonite) and burying correlative rocks, which partially melted to form the white quartz monzonite. This tectonism is attributed to the ca. 1.65 Ga Mazatzal orogeny, as foreland shortening spread progressively into the Yavapai Province. Mazatzal foreland effects have also been described in the Great Lakes region and have been inferred in the Black Hills of South Dakota. We suggest that the crustal-scale rheologic contrast across the Archean-Proterozoic suture, originally developed along the southern margin of Laurentia, and including the Cheyenne belt, facilitated widespread reactivation of that boundary during the Mazatzal orogeny. This finding emphasizes the degree to

  20. Granite-hosted molybdenite mineralization from Archean ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013). The Bundelk- hand Tectonic Zone has now been established as an Archean ... The molybdenite is only encountered in geochemical analysis. (f) Mo vein is ...... Collins W J, Beams S D, White A J R and Chappell B W. 1982 Nature and ...

  1. Drilling for the Archean Roots of Life and Tectonic Earth in the Barberton Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola McLoughlin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Barberton Scientific Drilling Program (BSDP we successfully completed three drill holes in 2008 across strategically selected rock formations in the early Archean Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. This collaborative project’s goal is to advance understanding of geodynamic and biogeochemical processes of the young Earth. The program aims to better define and characterize Earth’s earliest preserved ocean crust shear zones and microbial borings in Archean basaltic glass, and to identify biogeochemical fingerprints of ancient ecological niches recorded in rocks. The state-of-the-art analytical and imaging work will address the question of earliest plate tectonics in the Archean, the δ18O composition, the redox state and temperature of Archean seawater, and the origin of life question.

  2. Crustal evolution derived from the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc velocity images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, N.; Kodaira, S.; Tatsumi, Y.; Miura, S.; Sato, T.; Yamashita, M.; No, T.; Takahashi, T.; Noguchi, N.; Takizawa, K.; Kaiho, Y.; Kaneda, Y.

    2010-12-01

    The Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc is known as one of typical oceanic island arcs, which has developed by subduction between oceanic crusts producing continental materials. Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology has carried out seismic surveys using a multi-channel reflection survey system (MCS) and ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs) in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc since 2002, and reported these crustal images. As the results, we identified the structural characteristics of whole Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc. Rough structural characteristics are, 1) middle crust with Vp of 6 km/s, 2) upper part of the lower crust with Vp of 6.5-6.8 km/s, 3) lower part of the lower crust with Vp of 6.8-7.5 km/s, and 4) lower mantle velocity beneath the arc crusts. In addition, structural variation along the volcanic front, for example, thickness variation of andesitic layers was imaged and the distributions is consistent with those of rhyolite volcanoes, that is, it suggested that the cause the structural variation is various degree of crustal growth (Kodaira et al., 2007). Moreover, crustal thinning with high velocity lower crust across arc was also imaged, and it is interpreted that such crust has been influenced backarc opening (Takahashi et al., 2009). According to Tatsumi et al. (2008), andesitic middle crust is produced by differentiation of basaltic lower crust and a part of the restites are transformed to the upper mantle. This means that region showing much crustal differentiation has large volume of transformation of dense crustal materials to the mantle. We calculated volume profiles of the lower crust along all seismic lines based on the petrologic model, and compared them with observed real volumes obtained by seismic images. If the real volume of the lower crust is large, it means that the underplating of dense materials to the crustal bottom is dominant rather than transformation of dense materials to the upper mantle. According to obtained profiles to judge if the

  3. Early Evolution of Earth's Geochemical Cycle and Biosphere: Implications for Mars Exobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesMarais, David J.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Carbon (C) has played multiple key roles for life and its environment. C has formed organics, greenhouse gases, aquatic pH buffers, redox buffers, and magmatic constituents affecting plutonism and volcanism. These roles interacted across a network of reservoirs and processes known as the biogeochemical C cycle. Changes in the cycle over geologic time were driven by increasing solar luminosity, declining planetary heat flow, and continental and biological evolution. The early Archean C cycle was dominated by hydrothermal alteration of crustal rocks and by thermal emanations of CO2 and reduced species (eg., H2, Fe(2+) and sulfides). Bioorganic synthesis was achieved by nonphotosynthetic CO2-fixing bacteria (chemoautotrophs) and, possibly, bacteria (organotrophs) utilizing any available nonbiological organic C. Responding both to abundant solar energy and to a longterm decline in thermal sources of chemical energy and reducing power, the blaspheme first developed anoxygenic photosynthesis, then, ultimately, oxygenic photosynthesis. O2-photosynthesis played a central role in transforming the ancient environment and blaspheme to the modem world. The geochemical C cycles of early Earth and Mars were quite similar. The principal differences between the modem C cycles of these planets arose during the later evolution of their heat flows, crusts, atmospheres and, perhaps, their blasphemes.

  4. Provenance and depositional age of the neoproterozoic volcanometasedimentary sequence in the Santa Terezinha region, Goias based on U-Pb single zircon and Sm-Nd isotope data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Elton Luiz; Jost, Hardy; Fuck, Reinhardt A.; Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Brod, Jose Affonso

    2001-01-01

    Some of the volcano-sedimentary sequences of the Tocantins Province have been considered to be formed during the evolution of a Neoproterozoic intra oceanic island arc system (Pimentel et al., 2000). However, the interpretation of supra crustal rocks of some areas of the central portions of the Goias Massif, such as the region of Santa Terezinha de Goias, is still controversial. These rocks have been considered either as part of the Archean greenstone belts or as Paleoproterozoic sequences (Ribeiro Filho 1981, Souza and Le Neto 1981, Machado et al.1981, Ribeiro Filho and Lacerda Filho 1985, Biondi and Pidevin 1994, Arantes et al. 1991) rather than an extension of the Neoproterozoic Mara Rosa magmatic arc (Viana et al.1995, Pimentel et al. 1997). An area of about 800 km 2 near the town of Santa Terezinha de Goias was recently mapped on a 1:25.000 scale (Jost et al. 2001). Its northern part consists of Proterozoic supra crustal rocks in tectonic contact with Archean rocks in the south. We present new Sm-Nd and U-Pb zircon data for the supra crustal rocks that crop out in the northern part of the area and discuss their provenance and depositional age (au)

  5. Crustal and upper mantle structure of Siberia from teleseismic receiver functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Thybo, Hans; Artemieva, Irina

    2015-01-01

    ). With this method, we determine seismic P- and S-velocities that are comparable to the results of teleseismic body wave and surface wave tomography techniques. The RF model shows variations in the crustal thickness between 35 and 55 km. Intracrustal structures are identified, in particular using the high......This study presents seismic images of the crustal and lithospheric structure in Siberia based on the available broadband seismic data using teleseismic receiver functions (RFs). We invert P- and S-RFs jointly. The inversion technique is carried out by approach described by Vinnik et al. (2004....... The current results of RF analysis of the crustal and mantle structure will help to build a model for tectonic and geodynamic evolution of different provinces of Siberia. We compare our results to the recent detailed models of crustal structure in the area and with seismic models for similar geodynamic...

  6. Assessing the effects of ultraviolet radiation on the photosynthetic potential in Archean marine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Alonso, Dailé; Baetens, Jan M.; Cardenas, Rolando; de Baets, Bernard

    2017-07-01

    In this work, the photosynthesis model presented by Avila et al. in 2013 is extended and more scenarios inhabited by ancient cyanobacteria are investigated to quantify the effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on their photosynthetic potential in marine environments of the Archean eon. We consider ferrous ions as blockers of UV during the Early Archean, while the absorption spectrum of chlorophyll a is used to quantify the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by photosynthetic organisms. UV could have induced photoinhibition at the water surface, thereby strongly affecting the species with low light use efficiency. A higher photosynthetic potential in early marine environments was shown than in the Late Archean as a consequence of the attenuation of UVC and UVB by iron ions, which probably played an important role in the protection of ancient free-floating bacteria from high-intensity UV radiation. Photosynthetic organisms in Archean coastal and ocean environments were probably abundant in the first 5 and 25 m of the water column, respectively. However, species with a relatively high efficiency in the use of light could have inhabited ocean waters up to a depth of 200 m and show a Deep Chlorophyll Maximum near 60 m depth. We show that the electromagnetic radiation from the Sun, both UV and visible light, could have determined the vertical distribution of Archean marine photosynthetic organisms.

  7. Hazy Archean Earth as an Analog for Hazy Earthlike Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, Giada; Meadows, Victoria; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Claire, Mark; Schwieterman, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Hazy exoplanets may be common (Bean et al. 2010, Sing et al. 2011, Kreidberg et al 2014), and in our solar system, Venus and Titan have photochemically-produced hazes. There is evidence that Earth itself had a hydrocarbon haze in the Archean (Zerkle et al. 2012, Domagal-Goldman et al. 2008) with important climatic effects (Pavlov et al. 2001, Trainer et al. 2006, Haqq-Misra et al. 2008, Wolf and Toon 2012). We use a 1D coupled photochemical-climate model and a line-by-line radiative transfer model to investigate the climactic and spectral impacts of a fractal hydrocarbon haze on Archean Earth. The haze absorbs significantly at shorter wavelengths and can strongly suppress the Rayleigh scattering tail, a broadband effect that would be remotely detectable at low spectral resolution at wavelengths less than 0.5 μm. Hazes may have a more significant impact on transit transmission spectra. Using the transit transmission radiative transfer model developed by Misra et al. (2014) to generate hazy Archean spectra, we find that even a thin hydrocarbon haze masks the lower atmosphere from the visible into the near infrared where the haze optical depth exceeds unity. The transit transmission spectra we generate for hazy Archean Earth are steeply sloped like the Titan solar occultation spectrum observed by Robinson et al. (2014). Thick hazes can also cool the planet significantly: for example, the thick fractal haze generated around Archean Earth with 0.3% CH4, 1% CO2 and 1 ppm C2H6 cools the planet from roughly 290 K without the haze to below freezing with the haze. Finally, we investigate the impact of host star spectral type on haze formation, comparing the hazes generated around a solar-type star to those generated at an Earth analog planet around the M dwarf AD Leo. Our results indicate hazes around M dwarfs for the same initial atmospheric composition may be thinner due to decreased UV photolysis of methane and other hydrocarbons needed for haze formation. Earthlike

  8. Constraining Δ33S signatures of Archean seawater sulfate with carbonate-associated sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y.; Bao, H.; Bekker, A.; Hofmann, A.

    2017-12-01

    Non-mass dependent sulfur isotope deviation of S-bearing phases in Archean sedimentary strata, and expressed as Δ33S, has a consistent pattern, i.e., sulfide (pyrite) predominantly bear positive Δ33S values, while Paleoarchean sulfate (barite) has negative Δ33S values. This pattern was later corroborated by observations of negative Δ33S values in Archean volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits and negative Δ33S values in early diagenetic nodular pyrite with a wide range of δ34S values, which is thought to be due to microbial sulfate reduction. These signatures have provided a set of initial conditions for a mechanistic interpretation at physical chemistry level. Unlike the younger geological times when large bodies of seawater evaporite deposits are common, to expand seawater sulfate records, carbonate-associated sulfate (CAS) was utilized as a proxy for ancient seawater sulfate. CAS extracted from the Archean carbonates carries positive Δ33S values. However, CAS could be derived from pyrite oxidation following exposure to modern oxidizing conditions and/or during laboratory extraction procedures. It is, therefore, important for us understanding context of the overall early earth atmospheric condition to empirically confirm whether Archean seawater sulfate was generally characterized by negative Δ33S signatures. Combined δ18O, Δ17O, δ34S, and Δ33S analyses of sequentially extracted water-leachable sulfate (WLS) and acid-leachable sulfate (ALS = CAS) and δ34S and Δ33S analyses of pyrite can help to identify the source of extracted sulfate. We studied drill-core samples of Archean carbonates from the 2.55 Ga Malmani and Campell Rand supgroups, South Africa. Our preliminary results show that 1) neither WLS nor ALS were extracted from samples with extremely low pyrite contents (less than 0.05 wt.%); 2) extractable WLS and ALS is present in samples with relatively high pyrite contents (more than 1 wt.%), and that δ34S and Δ33S values of WLS, ALS, and

  9. Estimating Crustal Properties Directly from Satellite Tracking Data by Using a Topography-based Constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, S. J.; Sabaka, T. J.; Genova, A.; Mazarico, E. M.; Nicholas, J. B.; Neumann, G. A.; Lemoine, F. G.

    2017-12-01

    The crust of a terrestrial planet is formed by differentiation processes in its early history, followed by magmatic evolution of the planetary surface. It is further modified through impact processes. Knowledge of the crustal structure can thus place constraints on the planet's formation and evolution. In particular, the average bulk density of the crust is a fundamental parameter in geophysical studies, such as the determination of crustal thickness, studies of the mechanisms of topography support, and the planet's thermo-chemical evolution. Yet even with in-situ samples available, the crustal density is difficult to determine unambiguously, as exemplified by the results for the Gravity and Recovery Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, which found an average crustal density for the Moon that was lower than generally assumed. The GRAIL results were possible owing to the combination of its high-resolution gravity and high-resolution topography obtained by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), and high correlations between the two datasets. The crustal density can be determined by its contribution to the gravity field of a planet, but at long wavelengths flexure effects can dominate. On the other hand, short-wavelength gravity anomalies are difficult to measure, and either not determined well enough (other than at the Moon), or their power is suppressed by the standard `Kaula' regularization constraint applied during inversion of the gravity field from satellite tracking data. We introduce a new constraint that has infinite variance in one direction, called xa . For constraint damping factors that go to infinity, it can be shown that the solution x becomes equal to a scale factor times xa. This scale factor is completely determined by the data, and we call our constraint rank-minus-1 (RM1). If we choose xa to be topography-induced gravity, then we can estimate the average bulk crustal density directly from the data

  10. Crustal contamination and crystal entrapment during polybaric magma evolution at Mt. Somma-Vesuvius volcano, Italy: Geochemical and Sr isotope evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piochi, M.; Ayuso, R.A.; de Vivo, B.; Somma, R.

    2006-01-01

    New major and trace element analyses and Sr-isotope determinations of rocks from Mt. Somma-Vesuvius volcano produced from 25 ky BP to 1944 AD are part of an extensive database documenting the geochemical evolution of this classic region. Volcanic rocks include silica undersaturated, potassic and ultrapotassic lavas and tephras characterized by variable mineralogy and different crystal abundance, as well as by wide ranges of trace element contents and a wide span of initial Sr-isotopic compositions. Both the degree of undersaturation in silica and the crystal content increase through time, being higher in rocks produced after the eruption at 472 AD (Pollena eruption). Compositional variations have been generally thought to reflect contributions from diverse types of mantle and crust. Magma mixing is commonly invoked as a fundamental process affecting the magmas, in addition to crystal fractionation. Our assessment of geochemical and Sr-isotopic data indicates that compositional variability also reflects the influence of crustal contamination during magma evolution during upward migration to shallow crustal levels and/or by entrapment of crystal mush generated during previous magma storage in the crust. Using a variant of the assimilation fractional crystallization model (Energy Conservation-Assimilation Fractional Crystallization; [Spera and Bohrson, 2001. Energy-constrained open-system magmatic processes I: General model and energy-constrained assimilation and fractional crystallization (EC-AFC) formulation. J. Petrol. 999-1018]; [Bohrson, W.A. and Spera, F.J., 2001. Energy-constrained open-system magmatic process II: application of energy-constrained assimilation-fractional crystallization (EC-AFC) model to magmatic systems. J. Petrol. 1019-1041]) we estimated the contributions from the crust and suggest that contamination by carbonate rocks that underlie the volcano (2 km down to 9-10 km) is a fundamental process controlling magma compositions at Mt. Somma

  11. Subsidence history, crustal structure and evolution of the Nogal Rift, Northern Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M. Y.; Watts, A. B.

    2013-12-01

    Seismic reflection profile, gravity anomaly, and biostratigraphic data from deep exploration wells have been used to determine the tectonic subsidence, structure and evolution of the Nogal basin, Northern Somalia, one of a number of ENE-WSW trending early Mesozoic rifts that formed prior to opening of the Gulf of Aden. Backstripping of biostratigraphic data at the Nogal-1 and Kali-1 wells provides new constraints on the age of rifting, and the amount of crustal and mantle extension. The tectonic subsidence and uplift history at the wells can be generally explained as a consequence of two, possibly three, major rifting events. The first event initiated in the Late Jurassic (~156 Ma) and lasted for ~10 Myr. We interpret the rift as a late stage event associated with the break-up of Gondwana and the separation of Africa and Madagascar. The second event initiated in the Late Cretaceous (~80 Ma) and lasted for ~20 Myr. This event probably correlates with a rapid increase in spreading rate on the ridges separating the African and Indian and African and Antarctica plates and a contemporaneous slowing down of Africa's plate motion. The backstripped tectonic subsidence data can be explained by a multi-rift extensional model with a stretching factor, β, in the range 1.17-1.38. The third and most recent event occurred in the Oligocene (~32 Ma) and lasted for ~10 Myr. This rift only developed at the centre of the basin close to Nogal-1 well, and is related to the opening of the Gulf of Aden. The amount of crustal thinning inferred at the Kali-1 well is consistent with the results of Process-Oriented Gravity and Flexure (POGM) modelling, assuming an elastic thickness of ~30 km. The thinning at the Nogal-1 well, however, is greater by ~ 7 km than predicted suggesting that the basin may be locally underplated by magmatic material. Irrespective, POGM suggests the transition between thick crust beneath Northern Somalia to thin crust beneath the Indian Ocean forms a ~500 km wide

  12. NanoSIMS analysis of Archean fossils and biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilburn, M.R.; Wacey, D.

    2008-01-01

    The study of fossils and biomarkers from Archean rocks is of vital importance to reveal how life arose on Earth and what we might expect to find on other planets such as Mars. The Cameca NanoSIMS 50 has the unique ability to measure stable isotopes and map biologically relevant elements at the micron-scale, in situ. This makes it the perfect tool for testing the biogenicity of a range of putative biomarkers from early Archean rocks (∼3.50 billion-year-old). NanoSIMS has been used to investigate ambient inclusion trails (AITs) in a 3.43 Ga beach sand deposit from the Pilbara craton, Western Australia. Chemical maps of the light elements necessary for life (C, N and O) and several transition metals commonly associated with biological processing (Ni, Zn and Fe), coupled with 13 C/ 12 C isotope ratios from carbonaceous linings, strongly suggest a biological component in the formation of AITs

  13. Recent crustal movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maelzer, H.

    Calculation of temporal height changes for the determination of recent vertical crustal movements in northern, western, and southern Germany is described. Precise geodetic measurements and their analysis for the determination of recent crustal movements in north-eastern Iceland, western Venezuela, and central Peru are described. Determination of recent vertical crustal movements by leveling and gravity data; geodetic modeling of deformations and recent crustal movements; geodetic modeling of plate motions; and instrumental developments in geodetic measuring are discussed.

  14. Geostable molecules and the Late Archean 'Whiff of Oxygen'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summons, R. E.; Illing, C. J.; Oduro, H. D.; French, K. L.; Ono, S.; Hallmann, C.; Strauss, H.

    2012-12-01

    exhibits a 'MIF' signal that is significantly amplified compared to co-occurring pyrite sulfur. Limited isotopic exchange between the organic and inorganic sulfur pools suggests Archean origin of these organic sulfur compounds. We also report new results from the 2012 Agouron Pilbara drilling project. Anbar A.D. et al. A whiff of oxygen before the great oxidation event. Science 317, 1903-1906. (2007). Bosak T. et al., Morphological record of oxygenic photosynthesis in conical stromatolites. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106:10939-10943 (2009). Kopp, R.E. et al.,The Paleoproterozoic snowball Earth: A climate disaster triggered by the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102: 11131-11136 (2005). Waldbauer J.R. et al., Late Archean molecular fossils from the Transvaal Supergroup record the antiquity of microbial diversity and aerobiosis. Precambrian Research 169, 28-47 (2008). Waldbauer J.R. et al., 2011. Microaerobic steroid biosynthesis and the molecular fossil record of Archean life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 108, 13409-13414

  15. Variability in Rock Thermal Properties in the Late Archean Crust of the Kapuskasing Structural Zone and Implications for its Thermal Structure and Metamorphic History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, J. D.; Whittington, A. G.; Hofmeister, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    The thermal properties of rocks such as internal heat production and thermal diffusivity (α) play a key role in determining the thermal structure of the lithosphere, and consequently, the rates and styles of metamorphism within the crust. Over the last decade, measurements of α using the method laser flash analysis have shown the ability of a rock to conduct heat can vary by as much as a factor of 5 between common rock types, and decrease by up to a factor of 10 for the same rock between 25-1000°C. Here we present a preliminary model for the variability in rock throughout the crust based on measurements of the α of a suite of 100 samples from late Archean crust exposed in and around the Kapuskasing Structural Zone in Ontario, Canada. Preliminary results suggest that α is controlled primarily by mineralogy, and can vary not only between different rock types as described above, but also within the same rock by a factor of 1.5 (or more). Thermal diffusivity results were combined with heat producing element concentrations measured with ICP-MS to create a thermal model of the Kapuskasing Structural Zone prior its uplift and exposure. To provide additional constraints for P-T conditions within the pre-uplift KSZ crust, a combination of trace-element and pseudosection thermobarometry was used to estimate metamorphic temperatures during an extended period of crustal stability at the end of the Archean. Preliminary results were compared to finite-difference numerical models of the steady-state geothermal gradient using heat production back-calculated to 2.6 Ga. Results suggest a minimum thickness of the continental lithosphere during the late Archean of at least 150 km. To test the response of the crust to the effects of large thermal events such as pluton emplacement, we also performed time-dependent models of the thermal structure of the pre-uplift KSZ crust. These models suggest that heat from thermal events in the upper and middle crust result in a more insulating

  16. Crustal balance and crustal flux from shortening estimates in the Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, David; Kley, Jonas; Oncken, Onno; Sobolev, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    The Central Andes of South America form the second largest high elevation plateau on earth. Extreme elevations have formed on a noncollisional margin with abundant associated arc magmatism. It has long been thought that the crustal thickness necessary to support Andean topography was not accounted for by known crustal shortening alone. We show that this may in part be due to a two-dimensional treatment of the problem. A three-dimensional analysis of crustal shortening and crustal thickness shows that displacement of material towards the axis of the bend in the Central Andes has added a significant volume of crust not accounted for in previous comparisons. We find that present-day crustal thickness between 12°S and 25°S is accounted for (∼-10% to ∼+3%)with the same shortening estimates, and the same assumed initial crustal thickness as had previously led to the conclusion of a ∼25-35% deficit in shortening relative to volume of crustal material. We suggest that the present-day measured crustal thickness distribution may not match that predicted due to shortening, and substantial redistribution of crust may have occurred by both erosion and deposition at the surface and lower crustal flow in regions of the thermally weakened middle and lower crust.

  17. Heat production in an Archean crustal profile and implications for heat flow and mobilization of heat-producing elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwal, L. D.; Morgan, P.; Kelley, S. A.; Percival, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    Concentrations of heat producing elements (Th, U, and K) in 58 samples representative of the main lithologies in a 100-km transect of the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield have been obtained. The relatively large variation in heat production found among the silicic plutonic rocks is shown to correlate with modal abundances of accessory minerals, and these variations are interpreted as premetamorphic. The present data suggest fundamental differences in crustal radioactivity distributions between granitic and more mafic terrains, and indicate that a previously determined apparently linear heat flow-heat production relationship for the Kapuskasing area does not relate to the distribution of heat production with depth.

  18. The forearc crustal evolution of Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara) region obtained by seismic reflection and refraction surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, M.; Kodaira, S.; Takahashi, N.; Tatsumi, Y.; Kaneda, Y.

    2009-12-01

    The Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara)-Mariana (IBM) arc is known to the typical oceanic island arc, and it is the most suitable area to understand the growth process of island arc. By previous seismic survey and deep sea drilling, convex basements are distributed along North-South direction in present forearc region. The convex basements are reported to be formed during Oligocene and Eocene (Taylor, 1992). In IBM forearc region, the middle crust with 6 km/s is recognized by seismic survey using OBSs. In IBM region, four IODP drilling sites are proposed in order to understand comprehensive growth process of arc and continental crust evolution. Two of them are located in forearc region. Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) carried out multi-channel seismic reflection survey using 7,800/12,000 cu.in. air gun and 5-6 km streamer with 444/204 ch hydrophones in the IBM region since 2004. We investigate the crustal structure beneath the Izu-Bonin forearc region for contribution of IBM drilling site along five long survey lines, which are across from present volcanic front to forearc basin. Seismic refraction survey is also conducted across forearc region using 84 OBSs every 1 km interval. Shallow crustal structure can be classified four units including basement which compared between previous drilling results and obtained seismic profiles. In IBM forearc region, thick sedimentary basin distribute from east side of volcanic front. Two convex basement peaks are indicated in across profile of forearc region. These peaks are estimated the top of paleoarc (Oligocene and Eocene) by previous ODP drilling. The half graben structure with major displacement is identified from west side of present volcanic front to the top of Oligocene arc. On the other hand, there is no displacement of sediments between the Oligocene arc and Eocene arc. This result shows the same origin of basement between the present volcanic front and Oligocene arc. There is long time difference of

  19. "Storms of crustal stress" and AE earthquake precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Gregori

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic emission (AE displays violent paroxysms preceding strong earthquakes, observed within some large area (several hundred kilometres wide around the epicentre. We call them "storms of crustal stress" or, briefly "crustal storms". A few case histories are discussed, all dealing with the Italian peninsula, and with the different behaviour shown by the AE records in the Cephalonia island (Greece, which is characterized by a different tectonic setting.

    AE is an effective tool for diagnosing the state of some wide slab of the Earth's crust, and for monitoring its evolution, by means of AE of different frequencies. The same effect ought to be detected being time-delayed, when referring to progressively lower frequencies. This results to be an effective check for validating the physical interpretation.

    Unlike a seismic event, which involves a much limited focal volume and therefore affects a restricted area on the Earth's surface, a "crustal storm" typically involves some large slab of lithosphere and crust. In general, it cannot be easily reckoned to any specific seismic event. An earthquake responds to strictly local rheological features of the crust, which are eventually activated, and become crucial, on the occasion of a "crustal storm". A "crustal storm" lasts typically few years, eventually involving several destructive earthquakes that hit at different times, at different sites, within that given lithospheric slab.

    Concerning the case histories that are here discussed, the lithospheric slab is identified with the Italian peninsula. During 1996–1997 a "crustal storm" was on, maybe elapsing until 2002 (we lack information for the period 1998–2001. Then, a quiet period occurred from 2002 until 26 May 2008, when a new "crustal storm" started, and by the end of 2009 it is still on. During the 1996–1997 "storm" two strong earthquakes occurred (Potenza and

  20. Crustal stress evolution of last 700 years in North China and earthquake occurrences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Y.; Shen, Z.; Gan, W.; Li, T.; Zeng, Y.

    2004-12-01

    We simulate the evolution process of cumulative Coulomb failure stress change (Δ CFS) in North China since 1303, manifested by secular tectonic stress loading and occurrence of large earthquakes. Secular tectonic stress loading is averaged from crustal strain rates derived from GPS. Fault rupture parameters of historical earthquakes are estimated as follows: the earthquake rupture length and the amount of slip are derived based on their statistical relationships with the earthquake intensity distribution and magnitude, calibrated using parameters of instrumental measured contemporary earthquakes. The earthquake rake angle is derived based on geologically determined fault setting parameters and seismically estimated orientation of regional tectonic stresses. Assuming a layered visco-elastic medium, we calculate stress evolution resulted from secular tectonic loading and coseismic and postseismic deformation. 49 M¡Y6.5 earthquakes occurred in North China since 1303. Statistics shows that 39 out of the 48 subsequent events were triggered by positive Δ CFS, yielding a triggering rate of 81.3%. The triggering rate for M¡Y5 earthquakes after the 1976 Tangshan earthquake is 82.1%. The triggering rate is up to 90% if corrections are made for some aftershocks which were wrongly identified as occurred in stress shadow zones because of errors in parameter estimates of historical earthquakes. Our study shows very high correlation between positive Δ CFS and earthquake occurrences. Relatively high Δ CFS in North China at present time is concentrated around the Bohai Sea, the west segment of the Northern Qinling fault, western end of the Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic zone, and the Taiyuan basin in Shanxi rift zone, suggesting relatively higher earthquake potential in these areas.

  1. Evidence for ancient atmospheric xenon in Archean rocks and implications for the early evolution of the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, M.; Marty, B.; Burnard, P.; Hofmann, A.

    2012-12-01

    The initial atmospheric xenon isotopic composition has been much debated over the last 4 decades. A Non radiogenic Earth Atmospheric xenon (NEA-Xe) composition has been proposed to be the best estimate of the initial signature ([1]). NEA-Xe consists of modern atmospheric Xe without fission (131-136Xe) or radioactive decay (129Xe) products. However, the isotope composition of such non-radiogenic xenon is very different to that of potential cosmochemical precursors such as solar or meteoritic Xe, as it is mass-fractionated by up to 3-4 % per amu relative to the potential precursors, and it is also elementally depleted relative to other noble gases. Because the Xe isotopic composition of the Archean appears to be intermediate between that of these cosmochemical end-members and that of the modern atmosphere, we argued that isotopic fractionation of atmospheric xenon did not occur early in Earth's history by hydrodynamic escape, as postulated by all other models ([1], [2], [3]), but instead was a continuous, long term process that lasted during at least the Hadean and Archean eons. Taken at face value, the decrease of the Xe isotopic fractionation from 1.6-2.1 % amu-1 3.5 Ga ago ([4]) to 1 % amu-1 3.0 Ga ago (Ar-Ar age in fluid inclusions trapped in quartz from the same Dresser Formation, [5]) could reflect a secular variation of the atmospheric Xe signature. Nevertheless, up until now, all data showing an isotopic mass fractionation have been measured in rocks and fluids from the same formation (Dresser Formation, Western Australia, aged 3.5 Ga), and have yet to be confirmed in rocks from different locations. In order to better constrain xenon isotopic fractionation of the atmosphere through time, we decided to analyze barites from different ages, geological environments and metamorphism grade. We started this study with barite from the Fig Tree Formation (South Africa, aged 3.26 Ga). This barite was sampled in old mines so have negligible modern exposure time. It is

  2. New stratigraphic proposal for supra crustal the Dom Feliciano Belt ( Proterozoic , Uruguay )

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F.; Sanchez Bettucci, L.; Oyhantcabal, P.; Pecoits, E.; Aubet, N.; Peel, E.; Basei, M.

    2005-01-01

    Dom Feliciano Belt (Fragoso Cesar 1980) is represented in Uruguay so Preciozzi et to the. (1991) defined as Dionisio Blade Belt. It brings together all affected units by metamorphism and deformation during the Brasiliano (sensu Almeida et al. 1973) and magmatism in the same age range, which develops constituting a belt in southeastern Uruguay. Various supra crustal successions have been recognized in the Western domain of this belt in Uruguay, namely Fm. Zanja del Tigre (Sanchez-Bettucci 1998), Lavalleja Group (Bossi 1966), Arroyo del Soldado Group (Gaucher et al. 1996) and Formations Playa Hermosa (Masquelin and Sanchez Bettucci 1993) and Las Ventanas (Midot 1984), among others. The Group has been Lavalleja correlated with Porongos Group and the Brazilian Brusque Metamorphic Complex (Hasui et al. 1975; Silva and Dias 1981). This group has a granitic basement-probably associated gnéissico to Block Valentines (Preciozzi et al. 1979) and the Land Pavas, aged Paleoproterozoicas and Archean (Hartmann et al. 2001). It comprises varied lithologies, metasedimentary; metavolcanic acid; basic and metagabbros metavolcanic

  3. Stages of material transformations of Archean-Proterozoic rocks (Central-Karelian domain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradov, V.I.; Buyakajte, M.I.; Kolodyazhnyj, S.Yu.; Leonov, M.G.; Orlov, S.Yu.

    2001-01-01

    The age of the Archean-Proterozoic rocks from the south-east part of the Central-Karelian domain was determined by the method of Rb-Sr dating. It was ascertained that the age of the least tectonized rocks of granite-greenstone Archean foundation makes up 2800±70 mln. years at initial strontium isotopic ratio of 0.7022±0.0007. Gneisses of mainly plagiogranite composition, their age 1930±118 mln. years and strontium isotopic ratio 0.7170±0.0026, constitute the second group of the rocks. It is shown that isotopic age defined for the two groups of rocks agrees well with major geological events on the Baltic shield and planet as a whole [ru

  4. Crustal growth history of the Korean Peninsula:Constraints from detrital zircon ages in modern river sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taejin Choi; Yong Il Lee; Yuji Orihashi

    2016-01-01

    U-Pb analyses were carried out on detrital zircon grains from major river-mouth sediments draining South Korea to infer provenance characteristics and the crustal growth history of the southern Korean Peninsula, using a laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS). The Korean Peninsula is located in the East Asian continental margin and mainly comprises three Precambrian massifs and two metamorphic belts in between them. We obtained 515 concordant to slightly discordant zircon ages ranging from ca. 3566 to ca. 48 Ma. Regardless of river-mouth location, predominance of Mesozoic (249e79 Ma) and Paleoproterozoic (2491e1691 Ma) ages with subordinate Archean ages in-dicates that the zircon ages reflect present exposures of plutonic/metamorphic rocks in the drainage basins of the South Korean rivers and the crustal growth of the southern Korean Peninsula was focused in these two periods. Comparison of detrital zircon-age data between the North and South Korean river sediments reveals that the Paleoproterozoic zircon age distributions of both regions are nearly identical, while the NeoproterozoicePaleozoic ages exist and the Mesozoic ages are dominant in southern Korean Peninsula. This result suggests that Precambrian terrains in Korea record the similar pre-Mesozoic magmatic history and that the influence of Mesozoic magmatism was mainly focused in South Korea.

  5. Granulite belts of Central India with special reference to the Bhopalpatnam Granulite Belt: Significance in crustal evolution and implications for Columbia supercontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansutre, Sandeep; Hari, K. R.

    2010-11-01

    The Central Indian collage incorporates the following major granulite belts: (1) the Balaghat-Bhandara Granulite Belt (BBG), (2) the Ramakona-Katangi Granulite Belt (RKG), (3) the Chhatuabhavna Granulite (CBG) of Bilaspur-Raigarh Belt, (4) the Makrohar Granulite Belt (MGB) of Mahakoshal supracrustals, (5) the Kondagaon Granulite Belt (KGGB), (6) the Bhopalpatnam Granulite Belt (BGB), (7) the Konta Granulite Belt (KTGB) and (8) the Karimnagar Granulite Belt (KNGB) of the East Dharwar Craton (EDC). We briefly synthesize the general geologic, petrologic and geochronologic features of these belts and explain the Precambrian crustal evolution in Central India. On the basis of the available data, a collisional relationship between Bastar craton and the EDC during the Paleo-Mesoproterozoic is reiterated as proposed by the earlier workers. The tectonic evolution of only few of the orogenic belts (BGB in particular) of Central India is related to Columbia.

  6. Decoding mass-independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes in modern atmosphere using cosmogenic 35S: A five-isotope approach and possible implications for Archean sulfur isotope records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M.; Thiemens, M. H.; Shen, Y.; Zhang, X.; Huang, X.; Chen, K.; Zhang, Z.; Tao, J.

    2017-12-01

    The signature of sulfur isotopic mass-independent fractionation (S-MIF) observed in Archean sediments have been interpreted as a proxy of the origins and evolution of atmospheric oxygen and early life on Earth [1]. Photochemistry of SOx in the short (negative Δ36S. After eliminating combustion impacts, the obtained Δ36S/Δ33S slope of -4.0 in the modern atmosphere is close to the Δ36S/Δ33S slope (-3.6) in some records from Paleoarchean [4], an era probably with active volcanism [5]. The significant role of volcanic OCS in the Archean atmosphere has been called for in terms of its ability to provide a continual SO2 high altitude source for photolysis [2]. The strong but previously underappreciated stratospheric signature of S-MIF in tropospheric sulfates suggests that a more careful investigation of wavelength-dependent sulfur isotopic fractionation at different altitudes are required. The combustion-induced negative Δ36S may be linked to recombination reactions of elemental sulfur [6], and relevant experiments are being conducted to test the isotope effect. Although combustion is unlikely in Archean, recombination reactions may occur in other previously unappreciated processes such as volcanism and may contribute in part to the heavily depleted 36S in some Paleoarchean records [5,7]. The roles of both photochemical and non-photochemical reactions in the variability of Archean S-MIF records require further analysis in the future. Refs: [1] Farquhar et al., Science 2000; [2] Shaheen et al., PNAS 2014; [3] Lin et al., PNAS 2016; [4] Wacey et al., Precambrian Res 2015; [5] Muller et al., PNAS 2016; [6] Babikov, PNAS 2017; [7] Shen et al., EPSL, 2009.

  7. Bouguer gravity trends and crustal structure of the Palmyride Mountain belt and surrounding northern Arabian platform in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, John A.; Barazangi, Muawia; Al-Saad, Damen; Sawaf, Tarif; Gebran, Ali

    1990-12-01

    This study examines the crustal structure of the Palmyrides and the northern Arabian platform in Syria by two- and three-dimensional modeling of the Bouguer gravity anomalies. Results of the gravity modeling indicate that (1) western Syria is composed of at least two different crustal blocks, (2) the southern crustal block is penetrated by a series of crustal-scale, high-density intrusive complexes, and (3) short-wavelength gravity anomalies in the southwest part of the mountain belt are clearly related to basement structure. The crustal thickness in Syria, as modeled on the gravity profiles, is approximately 40 ±4 km, which is similar to crustal thicknesses interpreted from refraction data in Jordan and Saudi Arabia. The different crustal blocks and large-scale mafic intrusions are best explained, though not uniquely, by Proterozoic convergence and suturing and early Paleozoic rifting, as interpreted in the exposed rocks of the Arabian shield. These two processes, combined with documented Mesozoic rifting and Cenozoic transpression, compose the crustal evolution of the northern Arabian platform beneath Syria.

  8. Bouguer gravity trends and crustal structure of the Palmyride Mountain belt and surrounding northern Arabian platform in Syria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, J.A.; Barazangi, M. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA)); Al-Saad, D.; Sawaf, T.; Gebran, A. (Syrian Petroleum Company, Damascus (Syria))

    1990-12-01

    This study examines the crustal structure of the Palmyrides and the northern Arabian platform in Syria by two- and three-dimensional modeling of the Bouguer gravity anomalies. Results of the gravity modeling indicate that (1) western Syria is composed of at least two different crustal blocks, (2) the southern crustal block is penetrated by a series of crustal-scale, high-density intrusive complexes, and (3) short-wavelength gravity anomalies in the southwest part of the mountain belt are clearly related to basement structure. The crustal thickness in Syria, as modeled on the gravity profiles, is approximately 40{plus minus}4 km, which is similar to crustal thicknesses interpreted from refraction data in Jordan and Saudi Arabia. The different crustal blocks and large-scale mafic intrusions are best explained, though not uniquely, by Proterozoic convergence and suturing and early Paleozoic rifting, as interpreted in the exposed rocks of the Arabian shield. These two processes, combined with documented Mesozoic rifting and Cenozoic transpression, compose the crustal evolution of the northern Arabian platform beneath Syria.

  9. Archean crust-mantle geochemical differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, G. R.

    Isotope measurements on carbonatite complexes and komatiites can provide information on the geochemical character and geochemical evolution of the mantle, including the sub-continental mantle. Measurements on young samples establish the validity of the method. These are based on Sr, Nd and Pb data from the Tertiary-Mesozoic Gorgona komatiite and Sr and Pb data from the Cretaceous Oka carbonatite complex. In both cases the data describe a LIL element-depleted source similar to that observed presently in MORB. Carbonatite data have been used to study the mantle beneath the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield one billion years (1 AE) ago. The framework for this investigation was established by Bell et al., who showed that large areas of the province appear to be underlain by LIL element-depleted mantle (Sr-85/Sr-86=0.7028) at 1 AE ago. Additionally Bell et al. found four complexes to have higher initial Sr ratios (Sr-87/Sr-86=0.7038), which they correlated with less depleted (bulk earth?) mantle sources, or possibly crustal contamination. Pb isotope relationships in four of the complexes have been studied by Bell et al.

  10. Archean crust-mantle geochemical differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    Isotope measurements on carbonatite complexes and komatiites can provide information on the geochemical character and geochemical evolution of the mantle, including the sub-continental mantle. Measurements on young samples establish the validity of the method. These are based on Sr, Nd and Pb data from the Tertiary-Mesozoic Gorgona komatiite and Sr and Pb data from the Cretaceous Oka carbonatite complex. In both cases the data describe a LIL element-depleted source similar to that observed presently in MORB. Carbonatite data have been used to study the mantle beneath the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield one billion years (1 AE) ago. The framework for this investigation was established by Bell et al., who showed that large areas of the province appear to be underlain by LIL element-depleted mantle (Sr-85/Sr-86=0.7028) at 1 AE ago. Additionally Bell et al. found four complexes to have higher initial Sr ratios (Sr-87/Sr-86=0.7038), which they correlated with less depleted (bulk earth?) mantle sources, or possibly crustal contamination. Pb isotope relationships in four of the complexes have been studied by Bell et al.

  11. Oblique reactivation of lithosphere-scale lineaments controls rift physiography - the upper-crustal expression of the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone, offshore southern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Thomas B.; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Bell, Rebecca E.; Duffy, Oliver B.

    2018-04-01

    Pre-existing structures within sub-crustal lithosphere may localise stresses during subsequent tectonic events, resulting in complex fault systems at upper-crustal levels. As these sub-crustal structures are difficult to resolve at great depths, the evolution of kinematically and perhaps geometrically linked upper-crustal fault populations can offer insights into their deformation history, including when and how they reactivate and accommodate stresses during later tectonic events. In this study, we use borehole-constrained 2-D and 3-D seismic reflection data to investigate the structural development of the Farsund Basin, offshore southern Norway. We use throw-length (T-x) analysis and fault displacement backstripping techniques to determine the geometric and kinematic evolution of N-S- and E-W-striking upper-crustal fault populations during the multiphase evolution of the Farsund Basin. N-S-striking faults were active during the Triassic, prior to a period of sinistral strike-slip activity along E-W-striking faults during the Early Jurassic, which represented a hitherto undocumented phase of activity in this area. These E-W-striking upper-crustal faults are later obliquely reactivated under a dextral stress regime during the Early Cretaceous, with new faults also propagating away from pre-existing ones, representing a switch to a predominantly dextral sense of motion. The E-W faults within the Farsund Basin are interpreted to extend through the crust to the Moho and link with the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone, a lithosphere-scale lineament, identified within the sub-crustal lithosphere, that extends > 1000 km across central Europe. Based on this geometric linkage, we infer that the E-W-striking faults represent the upper-crustal component of the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone and that the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone represents a long-lived lithosphere-scale lineament that is periodically reactivated throughout its protracted geological history. The upper-crustal component of

  12. Crustal structure and evolution of the Pyrenean-Cantabrian belt: A review and new interpretations from recent concepts and data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixell, A.; Labaume, P.; Ayarza, P.; Espurt, N.; de Saint Blanquat, M.; Lagabrielle, Y.

    2018-01-01

    . To the west, oceanic subduction of the Bay of Biscay under the North Iberian margin is supported by an upper plate thrust wedge, gravity and magnetic anomalies, and 3D inclined sub-crustal reflections. However, discrepancies remain for the location of continent-ocean transitions in the Bay of Biscay and for the extent of oceanic subduction. The plate-kinematic evolution during the Mesozoic, which involves issues as the timing and total amount of opening, as well as the role of strike-slip drift, is also under debate, discrepancies arising from first-order interpretations of the adjacent oceanic magnetic anomaly record.

  13. The crustal structures from Wuyi-Yunkai orogen to Taiwan orogen: the onshore-offshore wide-angle seismic experiment of TAIGER and ATSEE projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuochen, H.; Kuo, N. Y. W.; Wang, C. Y.; Jin, X.; Cai, H. T.; Lin, J. Y.; Wu, F. T.; Yen, H. Y.; Huang, B. S.; Liang, W. T.; Okaya, D. A.; Brown, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    The crustal structure is key information for understanding the tectonic framework and geological evolution in the southeastern China and its adjacent area. In this study, we integrated the data sets from the TAIGER and ATSEE projects to resolve onshore-offshore deep crustal seismic profiles from the Wuyi-Yunkai orogen to the Taiwan orogen in southeastern China. Totally, there are three seismic profiles resolved and the longest profile is 850 km. Unlike 2D and 3D first arrival travel-time tomography from previous studies, we used both refracted and reflected phases (Pg, Pn, PcP, and PmP) to model the crustal structures and the crustal reflectors. 40 shots, 2 earthquakes, and about 1,950 stations were used and 15,319 arrivals were picked among three transects. As a result, the complex crustal evolution since Paleozoic era are shown, which involved the closed Paleozoic rifted basin in central Fujian, the Cenozoic extension due to South China sea opening beneath the coastline of southern Fujian, and the on-going collision of the Taiwan orogen.

  14. Constraints on the formation of the Martian crustal dichotomy from remnant crustal magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citron, Robert I.; Zhong, Shijie

    2012-12-01

    The Martian crustal dichotomy characterizing the topographic difference between the northern and southern hemispheres is one of the most important features on Mars. However, the formation mechanism for the dichotomy remains controversial with two competing proposals: exogenic (e.g., a giant impact) and endogenic (e.g., degree-1 mantle convection) mechanisms. Another important observation is the Martian crustal remnant magnetism, which shows a much stronger field in the southern hemisphere than in the northern hemisphere and also magnetic lineations. In this study, we examine how exogenic and endogenic mechanisms for the crustal dichotomy are constrained by the crustal remnant magnetism. Assuming that the dichotomy is caused by a giant impact in the northern hemisphere, we estimate that the average thickness of ejecta in the southern hemisphere is 20-25 km. While such a giant impact may cause crustal demagnetization in the northern hemisphere, we suggest that the impact could also demagnetize the southern hemisphere via ejecta thermal blanketing, impact demagnetization, and heat transfer from the hot layer of ejecta, thus posing a challenge for the giant impact model. We explore how the pattern of magnetic lineations relates to endogenic theories of dichotomy formation, specifically crustal production via degree-1 mantle convection. We observe that the pattern of lineations roughly corresponds to concentric circles about a single pole, and determine the pole for the concentric circles at 76.5° E and 84.5° S, which nearly overlaps with the centroid of the thickened crust in the southern hemisphere. We suggest that the crustal magnetization pattern, magnetic lineations, and crustal dichotomy (i.e., thickened crust in the highlands) can be explained by a simple endogenic process; one-plume convection causes melting and crustal production above the plume in the southern hemisphere, and strong crustal magnetization and magnetic lineations are formed in the southern

  15. Re-Os, Sm-Nd, U-Pb, and stepwise lead leaching isotope systematics in shear-zone hosted gold mineralization: genetic tracing and age constraints of crustal hydrothermal activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, R.; Nägler, Th. F.; Schönberg, R.; Kramers, J. D.

    1998-06-01

    A combined Re-Os, Sm-Nd, U-Pb, and stepwise Pb leaching (PbSL) isotope study of hydrothermal (Mo-W)-bearing minerals and base metal sulfides from two adjacent shear zone hosted gold deposits (RAN, Kimberley) in the Harare-Shamva greenstone belt (Zimbabwe) constrain the timing of the mineralizing events to two periods. During an initial Late Archean event (2.60 Ga) a first molybdenite-scheelite bearing paragenesis was deposited in both shear zone systems, followed by a local reactivation of the shear systems during an Early Proterozoic (1.96 Ga) tectono-thermal overprint, during which base metal sulfides and most of the gold was (re-)deposited. While PbSL has revealed an open-system behavior of the U-Pb systematics in molybdenite and wolframite from the RAN mine, initial Archean Re-Os ages are still preserved implying that this system in these minerals was more resistant to the overprint. A similar retentivity could be shown for the Sm-Nd system in scheelite and powellite associated with the above ore minerals. Re-Os isotopic data from the Proterozoic mineralization in the Kimberley mine point to a recent gain of Re, most pronouncedly affecting Fe-rich sulfides such as pyrrhotite. A significant Re-loss in powellitic scheelite (an alteration phase of molybdenite-bearing scheelite), coupled with a marked loss of U in W-Mo ore minerals, complements the observation of a major Re uptake in Fe-sulfides during oxidizing conditions in a weathering environment. Pyrrhotite under these conditions behaves as an efficient Re-sink. Lead isotope signatures from PbSL residues of molybdenite, powellite, and quartz indicate a continental crustal source and/or contamination for the mineralizing fluid by interaction of the fluids with older sedimentary material as represented by the direct host country rocks. Our investigation reveals the potential of the Re-Os isotopic system applied to crustal hydrothermal ore minerals for genetic tracing and dating purposes. The simplified chemical

  16. The Pale Orange Dot: The Spectrum and Habitability of Hazy Archean Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, Giada; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D; Meadows, Victoria S; Wolf, Eric T; Schwieterman, Edward; Charnay, Benjamin; Claire, Mark; Hébrard, Eric; Trainer, Melissa G

    2016-11-01

    Recognizing whether a planet can support life is a primary goal of future exoplanet spectral characterization missions, but past research on habitability assessment has largely ignored the vastly different conditions that have existed in our planet's long habitable history. This study presents simulations of a habitable yet dramatically different phase of Earth's history, when the atmosphere contained a Titan-like, organic-rich haze. Prior work has claimed a haze-rich Archean Earth (3.8-2.5 billion years ago) would be frozen due to the haze's cooling effects. However, no previous studies have self-consistently taken into account climate, photochemistry, and fractal hazes. Here, we demonstrate using coupled climate-photochemical-microphysical simulations that hazes can cool the planet's surface by about 20 K, but habitable conditions with liquid surface water could be maintained with a relatively thick haze layer (τ ∼ 5 at 200 nm) even with the fainter young Sun. We find that optically thicker hazes are self-limiting due to their self-shielding properties, preventing catastrophic cooling of the planet. Hazes may even enhance planetary habitability through UV shielding, reducing surface UV flux by about 97% compared to a haze-free planet and potentially allowing survival of land-based organisms 2.7-2.6 billion years ago. The broad UV absorption signature produced by this haze may be visible across interstellar distances, allowing characterization of similar hazy exoplanets. The haze in Archean Earth's atmosphere was strongly dependent on biologically produced methane, and we propose that hydrocarbon haze may be a novel type of spectral biosignature on planets with substantial levels of CO 2 . Hazy Archean Earth is the most alien world for which we have geochemical constraints on environmental conditions, providing a useful analogue for similar habitable, anoxic exoplanets. Key Words: Haze-Archean Earth-Exoplanets-Spectra-Biosignatures-Planetary habitability

  17. U/Pb (SHRIMP), {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, Rb/Sr, Sm/Nd e K/Ar geochronology of granite-greenstone terrains of Gaviao Block: implications for the Proterozoic and Archean evolution of Sao Francisco Craton, Brazil; Geocronologia U/Pb (SHRIMP), {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, Rb/Sr, Sm/Nd e K/Ar dos terrenos granito-greenstone do Bloco do Gaviao: implicacoes para a evolucao arqueana e proterozoica do craton do Sao Francisco, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, Luiz Rogerio Bastos

    1998-07-01

    The Gaviao Block (GB) in the northern portion of the Sao Francisco Craton-Northeast of Brazil, constitutes one of the oldest Archean fragments of the South American Platform Archean crust. GB underwent several events of juvenile accretion and reworking of continental crust along its evolutionary history, notably between the Archean and the Paleoproterozoic. {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb isotopic analyses were carried out in two zircons populations from strongly migmatized TTG terranes found in the proximity of Brumado: the first population (7 crystals) is taken as representative of the crystallization period of the TTG terranes at 3300 {+-} 45 Ma; the second (2 crystals) represents the age of the first even of metamorphism/migmatization at 2910 {+-} 10 Ma. {sup 207} Pb/{sup 206} Pb analyses in zircons from an outcrop of non-migmatized TTG in the area yielded a 3202 {+-} 15 Ma age (4 crystals), interpreted to be the crystallization period of the gneiss protolith. Sm/Nd analyses on the TTG rocks of the Brumado region yielded T{sub DM} model ages varying between 3.26 and 3.36 Ga and {epsilon}{sub Nd}{sup (t)} between -3.5 and +0.7. These data suggest the occurrence of juvenile accretions to the continental crust during the Archean, with differential involvement of crustal materials. The geochemical data of rare earth elements corresponding to the TTG terranes revealed moderate LRRE contents (La{sub N}=83,5), low HREE contents (La{sub N}=2,5) and a fairly fractionated pattern (La/Yb){sub N}=34, besides lack of negative Eu anomaly, showing that these rocks have similar compositions to those TTG terranes of cratonic continents, as well as some Archean rocks from CSF (e.g. Sete Voltas, Boa Vista). Finally, the youngest ages present in GB rocks (ca. 1.2-0.45 Ga) represent the role played by tectono thermal events, which produced partial or total rejuvenation of the Rb/Sr and K/Ar isotopic systems during the Espinhaco and Brasiliano cycles. In particular, K/Ar ages illustrate the

  18. Hydrothermal Processes in the Archean - New Insights from Imaging Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruitenbeek, F.J.A. van

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this research was to gain new insights in fossil hydrothermal systems using airborne imaging spectroscopy. Fossil submarine hydrothermal systems in Archean greenstone belts and other geologic terranes are important because of their relationship with volcanic massive sulfide (VMS) mineral

  19. Spatial relationships between crustal structures and mantle seismicity in the Vrancea Seismogenic Zone of Romania: Implications for geodynamic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciu, Dana-Mihaela

    Integration of active and passive-source seismic data is employed to study the relationships between crustal structures and seismicity in the SE Carpathian foreland of Romania, and the connection with the Vrancea Seismogenic Zone. Relocated crustal epicenters and focal mechanisms are correlated with industry seismic profiles Comanesti, Ramnicu Sarat, Braila and Buzau, the reprocessed DACIA PLAN profile and the DRACULA (Deep Reflection Acquisition Constraining Unusual Lithospheric Activity) II and III profiles in order to understand the link between neo-tectonic foreland deformation and Vrancea mantle seismicity. Projection of crustal foreland hypocenters onto deep seismic profiles identified active crustal faults suggesting a mechanical coupling between sedimentary, crustal and upper mantle structures on the Trotus, Sinaia and newly observed Ialomita Faults. Seismic reflection imaging revealed the absence of west dipping reflectors in the crust and an east dipping to horizontal Moho in the proximity of the Vrancea area. These findings argue against both 'subduction-in-place' and 'slab break-off' as viable mechanisms for generating Vrancea mantle seismicity.

  20. Pb-Pb and U-Pb zircon ages of archean syntetocnic granites of the Carajas metallogenic province, northern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Carlos Eduardo de Mesquita; Sardinha, Alex Souza; Barbosa, Jaime dos Passos de Oliveira; Krimski, Robert; Macambira, Moacir Jose Buenano

    2001-01-01

    The Carajas Metallogenic Province is located in the southeastern Amazonian Craton. It has been divided in two domains, the southernmost comprises the Rio Maria region and the northernmost corresponds to Caraj region (Souza et al. 1996). The former domain is made up of Archean greenstone sequences (2,97 Ga), TTG (2,9 Ga) and calc-alkaline granitoids (2,87 Ga) (Macambira and Lafon 1995, Leite et al. 1999, Althoff et al. 2000). The Carajas block is constituted of minor mafic granulites (3,00 Ga) and quartzofeldspathic gneisses (2,81 Ga), metavolcanosedimentary sequences (2,76 Ga) and granites (2,76 to 2,56 Ga) (Machado et al. 1991; Huhn et al. 1999, Pidgeon et al. 2000). Widespread anorogenic A-type granites are found in both areas (Docegeo 1988; Dall'Agnol et al. 1994). In the last two decades several authors (Lindenamyer et al. 1994, Barros and Barbey 1998, Huhn et al. 1999 and others) have emphasized the role of the Archean granite magmatism in the tectonicthermal evolution in the Carajas Province. In this paper we discuss the tectonic significance of the Pb- Pb and U-Pb ages obtained in some granitoids from the Carajas region. The Estrela Granite Complex and the granitoids located to the north of Parauapebas were dated by Pb- Pb evaporation zircon method (cf. Kober 1987). Data are presented considering 2σ ∼ . The Pb corrections have been done in the basis of the evolution model of Pb in double stage (cf. Stacey and Kramers 1975). U-Pb zircon method (cf. Krogh 1973, Stacey and Kramers 1975, Parrish 1987, Ludwuig 1999), recently put on routine in the Para-Iso laboratories, was employed to date the granite from the Serra do Rabo area. Analyses were carried on the Finnigan Mat 262 spectrometer (au)

  1. A lithospheric perspective on structure and evolution of Precambrian cratons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to provide a summary of geophysical data on the structure of the stable continental lithosphere and its evolution since the Archean. Here, the term lithosphere is used to define the outer layer of the Earth which includes the crust and uppermost mantle, forms the ro...

  2. Geochemical evolution of Cenozoic-Cretaceous magmatism and its relation to tectonic setting, southwestern Idaho, U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, M.D.; Leeman, W.P.

    1989-01-01

    Magmatism in the western United States spanned a change in tectonic setting from Mesozoic and early Tertiary plate convergence to middle and late Tertiary crustal extension. This paper presents new major element, trace element, and isotopic (Sr, Nd, Pb) data on a diverse suite of Cretaceous to Neogene igneous rocks from the Owyhee area of southwestern Idaho to evaluate possible relationships between the evolving tectonic regime and temporal changes in igneous activity. The oldest studied rocks are Cretaceous granitic intrusives that probably formed by large-scale mixing of Precambrian crust with subduction-related magmas. Silicic Eocene tuffs are also rich in crustal components, but have isotopic compositions unlike the Cretaceous intrusives. These data require at least two crustal sources that may correspond to domains of significantly different age (Archean vs. Proterozoic). The oldest mafic lavas in the study area are Oligocene andesites and basalts compositionally similar to subduction-related magmas derived from asthenospheric mantle and erupted through thick continental crust. Direct crustal involvement during oligocene time was limited to minor interaction with the mafic magmas. Miocene activity produced bimodal basalt-rhyolite suites and minor volumes of hybrid lavas. Compositions of Miocene basalts demonstrate the decline of subduction-related processes, and increased involvement of subcontinental lithospheric mantle as a magma source. Crustally-derived Miocene rhyolites have isotopic compositions similar to those of the Cretaceous granitic rocks but trace element abundances more typical of within-plate magmas. (orig./WB)

  3. Deep Crustal Melting and the Survival of Continental Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, D.; Teyssier, C. P.; Rey, P. F.; Korchinski, M.

    2017-12-01

    Plate convergence involving continental lithosphere leads to crustal melting, which ultimately stabilizes the crust because it drives rapid upward flow of hot deep crust, followed by rapid cooling at shallow levels. Collision drives partial melting during crustal thickening (at 40-75 km) and/or continental subduction (at 75-100 km). These depths are not typically exceeded by crustal rocks that are exhumed in each setting because partial melting significantly decreases viscosity, facilitating upward flow of deep crust. Results from numerical models and nature indicate that deep crust moves laterally and then vertically, crystallizing at depths as shallow as 2 km. Deep crust flows en masse, without significant segregation of melt into magmatic bodies, over 10s of kms of vertical transport. This is a major mechanism by which deep crust is exhumed and is therefore a significant process of heat and mass transfer in continental evolution. The result of vertical flow of deep, partially molten crust is a migmatite dome. When lithosphere is under extension or transtension, the deep crust is solicited by faulting of the brittle upper crust, and the flow of deep crust in migmatite domes traverses nearly the entire thickness of orogenic crust in Recognition of the importance of migmatite (gneiss) domes as archives of orogenic deep crust is applicable to determining the chemical and physical properties of continental crust, as well as mechanisms and timescales of crustal differentiation.

  4. Deep-Time drilling in the Australian Archean: the Agouron Institute geobiological drilling project. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buick, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Agouron Institute has sponsored deep-time drilling across the South African Archean-Proterozoic boundary, investigating the rise of oxygen over an onshore-offshore environmental transect. It is now supporting a drilling program in the Australian Archean of the Pilbara Craton, addressing a similar theme but with the added goal of resolving controversy over the age and origin of hydrocarbon biomarker molecules in ancient kerogenous shales. As these have been claimed to provide evidence for the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis long before the rise of atmospheric oxygen to persistently high levels during the ~2.3 Ga “Great Oxidation Event”, their syngenesis with their host shales is thus of critical importance for the interpretation of Earth’s early oxygenation history. During the first drilling season, 3 holes were drilled using techniques and equipment to minimize organic geochemical contamination (new drill-string components cleaned before drilling potentially biomarker-bearing rocks, pre-contamination of drilling fluid with a synthetic organic compound of similar geochemical characteristics to biomarkers, sterile cutting and storage of samples immediately upon retrieval from the core-barrel). The initial hole was a blank control for organic geochemistry, drilled into rocks too metamorphosed to retain biomarker molecules. These rocks, cherts, carbonates and pelites of the 3.52 Ga Coucal Formation, Coonterunah Group, have been metamorphosed to upper greenschist facies at temperatures near 500°C and so should have had any ancient soluble hydrocarbons destroyed. However, because they contain both carbonate and organic carbon, these rocks can instead provide isotopic information about the earliest evolution of biological metabolism as they possess residues of both the reactant and product sides of the carbon-fixation reaction. The second hole sampled an on-shore section of carbonates and kerogenous shales in the ~2.65 Ga Carawine Dolomite and Lewin Shale

  5. Diversification in the Archean Biosphere: Insight from NanoSIMS of Microstructures in the Farrel Quartzite of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, D. Z.; Robert, F.; Walter, M. R.; Sugitani, K.; Meibom, A.; Mostefaoui, S.; Gibson, E. K.

    2010-01-01

    The nature of early life on Earth is difficult to assess because potential Early Archean biosignatures are commonly poorly preserved. Interpretations of such materials have been contested, and abiotic or epigenetic derivations have been proposed (summarized in [1]). Yet, an understanding of Archean life is of astrobiological importance, as knowledge of early evolutionary processes on Earth could provide insight to development of life on other planets. A recently-discovered assemblage of organic microstructures in approx.3 Ga charts of the Farrel Quartzite (FQ) of Australia [2-4] includes unusual spindle-like forms and a variety of spheroids. If biogenicity and syngeneity of these forms could be substantiated, the FQ assemblage would provide a new view of Archean life. Our work uses NanoSIMS to further assess the biogenicity and syngeneity of FQ microstructures. In prior NanoSIMS studies [5-6], we gained an understanding of nano-scale elemental distributions in undisputed microfossils from the Neoproterozoic Bitter Springs Formation of Australia. Those results provide a new tool with which to evaluate poorly preserved materials that we might find in Archean sediments and possibly in extraterrestrial materials. We have applied this tool to the FQ forms.

  6. Estimating the Crustal Power Spectrum From Vector Magsat Data: Crustal Power Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, David A. J.; Parker, Robert L.; Purucker, Michael E.; Constable, Catherine G.

    2000-01-01

    The Earth's magnetic field can be subdivided into core and crustal components and we seek to characterize the crustal part through its spatial power spectrum (R(sub l)). We process vector Magsat data to isolate the crustal field and then invert power spectral densities of flight-local components along-track for R(sub l) following O'Brien et al. [1999]. Our model (LPPC) is accurate up to approximately degree 45 (lambda=900 km) - this is the resolution limit of our data and suggests that global crustal anomaly maps constructed from vector Magsat data should not contain features with wavelengths less than 900 km. We find continental power spectra to be greater than oceanic ones and attribute this to the relative thicknesses of continental and oceanic crust.

  7. What is a craton? How many are there? How do they relate? And how did they form?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleeker, W.; Davis, B. W.

    2004-05-01

    , however, e.g. in the context of younger continental reconstructions such as that of Rodinia or Pangaea, cratons are typically large crustal fragments (e.g., Laurentia) that were only amalgamated and attained stability during the Proterozoic. There are ca. 35 large crustal fragments of Archean age around the globe,the Archean cratons (s.s.). These originated from break-up of larger, transient, late Archean landmasses, which we refer to as "supercratons". Hence, although commonly neglected, the evolution of Archean cratons (and their lithospheric keels) should always be considered in the context of these ancestral landmasses. Given good correlation between some well-known cratons but not others, the ensemble of ca. 35 remaining Archean cratons probably originated from more than one supercraton rather than a single late Archean supercontinent. The fact that the mean age of continental crust is ca. 2 Ga, in conjunction with Archean cratons only representing ca.7-10 percent of the exposed continental crust, must mean that the 35 remaining cratons represent a biased sample of Archean crust and lithosphere, their preservation guided by the Darwinian principle of "survival of the fittest".

  8. Archean greenstone-tonalite duality: Thermochemical mantle convection models or plate tectonics in the early Earth global dynamics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrich, Robert; Polat, Ali

    2006-03-01

    Mantle convection and plate tectonics are one system, because oceanic plates are cold upper thermal boundary layers of the convection cells. As a corollary, Phanerozoic-style of plate tectonics or more likely a different version of it (i.e. a larger number of slowly moving plates, or similar number of faster plates) is expected to have operated in the hotter, vigorously convecting early Earth. Despite the recent advances in understanding the origin of Archean greenstone-granitoid terranes, the question regarding the operation of plate tectonics in the early Earth remains still controversial. Numerical model outputs for the Archean Earth range from predominantly shallow to flat subduction between 4.0 and 2.5 Ga and well-established steep subduction since 2.5 Ga [Abbott, D., Drury, R., Smith, W.H.F., 1994. Flat to steep transition in subduction style. Geology 22, 937-940], to no plate tectonics but rather foundering of 1000 km sectors of basaltic crust, then "resurfaced" by upper asthenospheric mantle basaltic melts that generate the observed duality of basalts and tonalities [van Thienen, P., van den Berg, A.P., Vlaar, N.J., 2004a. Production and recycling of oceanic crust in the early earth. Tectonophysics 386, 41-65; van Thienen, P., Van den Berg, A.P., Vlaar, N.J., 2004b. On the formation of continental silicic melts in thermochemical mantle convection models: implications for early Earth. Tectonophysics 394, 111-124]. These model outputs can be tested against the geological record. Greenstone belt volcanics are composites of komatiite-basalt plateau sequences erupted from deep mantle plumes and bimodal basalt-dacite sequences having the geochemical signatures of convergent margins; i.e. horizontally imbricated plateau and island arc crust. Greenstone belts from 3.8 to 2.5 Ga include volcanic types reported from Cenozoic convergent margins including: boninites; arc picrites; and the association of adakites-Mg andesites- and Nb-enriched basalts. Archean cratons

  9. The Imaging and Evolution of Seismic Layer 2A Thickness from a 0-70 Ma Oceanic Crustal Transect in the South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, J. D.; Reece, R.; Kardell, D. A.; Christeson, G. L.; Carlson, R. L.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic layer 2A, the uppermost igneous portion of oceanic crust, is commonly used to refer to the seismic velocities of upper crust that are bounded below by a steep vertical velocity gradient. Layer 2A velocities are known to increase with crustal age, from 2.5 km/s in crust 15 Ma. Thickness of layer 2A has been shown to increase by a factor of 2 within 1 Ma at fast spreading ridges and then remain relatively constant, while layer 2A maintains a fairly consistent thickness, irrespective of age, at slow-intermediate spreading ridges. Layer 2A thickness and velocity evolution studies to date have been largely focused on young oceanic crust very proximal to a spreading center with little investigation of changes (or lack thereof) that occur at crustal ages >10 Ma. We utilize a multichannel seismic dataset collected at 30° S in the western South Atlantic that continuously images 0 - 70 Ma oceanic crust along a single flowline generated at the slow-intermediate spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge. We follow the methods of previous studies by processing the data to image the layer 2A event, which is then used for calculating thickness. 1D travel time forward modeling at regularly spaced age intervals across the transect provides for the conversion of time to depth thickness, and for determining the evolution of velocities with age. Our results show layer 2A in 20 Ma crust is roughly double the thickness of that in crust 0-5 Ma (830 vs. 440 m), but thickness does not appear to change beyond 20 Ma. The layer 2A event is readily observable in crust 0-50 Ma, is nearly completely absent in crust 50-65 Ma, and then reappears with anomalously high amplitude and lateral continuity in crust 65-70 Ma. Our results suggest that layer 2A thickens with age at the slow-intermediate spreading southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and that layer 2A either continues to evolve at the older crustal ages, well beyond the expected 10-15 Ma "mature age", or that external factors have altered the crust at

  10. Extreme Hf and light Fe isotopes in Archean komatiites - a remnant of very early mantle depletion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebel, O.; Sossi, P.; Campbell, I. H.; Van Kranendonk, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Hafnium isotope signatures in some Archean komatiites (ca. 3.5-3.0 billion years old) require a mantle source with a time-integrated Lu/Hf that exceeds average modern depleted mantle. Investigation of the timing and locus of parent-daughter fractionation in their mantle sources potentially constrains differentiation processes in the early Earth and their subsequent distribution and storage. In addition, they may help to constrain the Hf isotope evolution of the greater depleted mantle. In order to shed light on these processes, we discuss radiogenic Hf isotopes in conjunction with stable Fe isotope systematics in Archean komatiites from the Pilbara craton in Western Australia. Our findings indicate that, after careful evaluation of the effects of alteration, pristine samples are characterised by initial 176Hf/177Hf, which lie above the age-corrected depleted mantle, as a consequence of ancient melt extraction. Iron isotope systematics for these samples further point to a mantle source that is isotopically lighter than average modern depleted mantle, which is also consistent with melt-depletion. Taken together, these observations require a component of an old, super-depleted reservoir in the komatiite mantle source(s) that survived in the mantle for possibly hundreds of millions of years. The Lu/Hf of this refractory mantle appears to be complementary to, and therefore contemporaneous with, the first terrestrial crust, as preserved in Hadean (i.e., > 4 Ga) detrital zircon cores, which may indicate a causal relationship between them. We will discuss implications for very early mantle dynamics and the formation of very early mantle reservoirs.

  11. Tropics in Antarctica? Crustal Evaluation Education Project. Teacher's Guide [and] Student Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoever, Edward C., Jr.

    Crustal Evolution Education Project (CEEP) modules were designed to: (1) provide students with the methods and results of continuing investigations into the composition, history, and processes of the earth's crust and the application of this knowledge to man's activities and (2) to be used by teachers with little or no previous background in the…

  12. Crustal Structure and Evolution of the Eastern Himalayan Plate Boundary System, Northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, S.; Priestley, K. F.; Borah, Kajaljyoti; Gaur, V. K.

    2018-01-01

    We use data from 24 broadband seismographs located south of the Eastern Himalayan plate boundary system to investigate the crustal structure beneath Northeast India. P wave receiver function analysis reveals felsic continental crust beneath the Brahmaputra Valley, Shillong Plateau and Mikir Hills, and mafic thinned passive margin transitional crust (basement layer) beneath the Bengal Basin. Within the continental crust, the central Shillong Plateau and Mikir Hills have the thinnest crust (30 ± 2 km) with similar velocity structure, suggesting a unified origin and uplift history. North of the plateau and Mikir Hills the crustal thickness increases sharply by 8-10 km and is modeled by ˜30∘ north dipping Moho flexure. South of the plateau, across the ˜1 km topographic relief of the Dawki Fault, the crustal thickness increases abruptly by 12-13 km and is modeled by downfaulting of the plateau crust, overlain by 13-14 km thick sedimentary layer/rocks of the Bengal Basin. Farther south, beneath central Bengal Basin, the basement layer is thinner (20-22 km) and has higher Vs (˜4.1 km s-1) indicating a transitional crystalline crust, overlain by the thickest sedimentary layer/rocks (18-20 km). Our models suggest that the uplift of the Shillong Plateau occurred by thrust faulting on the reactivated Dawki Fault, a continent margin paleorift fault, and subsequent back thrusting on the south dipping Oldham Fault, in response to flexural loading of the Eastern Himalaya. Our estimated Dawki Fault offset combined with timing of surface uplift of the plateau reveals a reasonable match between long-term uplift and convergence rate across the Dawki Fault with present-day GPS velocities.

  13. Crustal seismicity and the earthquake catalog maximum moment magnitudes (Mcmax) in stable continental regions (SCRs): correlation with the seismic velocity of the lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Walter D.; Ritsema, Jeroen; Hwang, Yong Keun

    2012-01-01

    A joint analysis of global seismicity and seismic tomography indicates that the seismic potential of continental intraplate regions is correlated with the seismic properties of the lithosphere. Archean and Early Proterozoic cratons with cold, stable continental lithospheric roots have fewer crustal earthquakes and a lower maximum earthquake catalog moment magnitude (Mcmax). The geographic distribution of thick lithospheric roots is inferred from the global seismic model S40RTS that displays shear-velocity perturbations (δVS) relative to the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM). We compare δVS at a depth of 175 km with the locations and moment magnitudes (Mw) of intraplate earthquakes in the crust (Schulte and Mooney, 2005). Many intraplate earthquakes concentrate around the pronounced lateral gradients in lithospheric thickness that surround the cratons and few earthquakes occur within cratonic interiors. Globally, 27% of stable continental lithosphere is underlain by δVS≥3.0%, yet only 6.5% of crustal earthquakes with Mw>4.5 occur above these regions with thick lithosphere. No earthquakes in our catalog with Mw>6 have occurred above mantle lithosphere with δVS>3.5%, although such lithosphere comprises 19% of stable continental regions. Thus, for cratonic interiors with seismically determined thick lithosphere (1) there is a significant decrease in the number of crustal earthquakes, and (2) the maximum moment magnitude found in the earthquake catalog is Mcmax=6.0. We attribute these observations to higher lithospheric strength beneath cratonic interiors due to lower temperatures and dehydration in both the lower crust and the highly depleted lithospheric root.

  14. Crustal seismicity and the earthquake catalog maximum moment magnitude (Mcmax) in stable continental regions (SCRs): Correlation with the seismic velocity of the lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Walter D.; Ritsema, Jeroen; Hwang, Yong Keun

    2012-12-01

    A joint analysis of global seismicity and seismic tomography indicates that the seismic potential of continental intraplate regions is correlated with the seismic properties of the lithosphere. Archean and Early Proterozoic cratons with cold, stable continental lithospheric roots have fewer crustal earthquakes and a lower maximum earthquake catalog moment magnitude (Mcmax). The geographic distribution of thick lithospheric roots is inferred from the global seismic model S40RTS that displays shear-velocity perturbations (δVS) relative to the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM). We compare δVS at a depth of 175 km with the locations and moment magnitudes (Mw) of intraplate earthquakes in the crust (Schulte and Mooney, 2005). Many intraplate earthquakes concentrate around the pronounced lateral gradients in lithospheric thickness that surround the cratons and few earthquakes occur within cratonic interiors. Globally, 27% of stable continental lithosphere is underlain by δVS≥3.0%, yet only 6.5% of crustal earthquakes with Mw>4.5 occur above these regions with thick lithosphere. No earthquakes in our catalog with Mw>6 have occurred above mantle lithosphere with δVS>3.5%, although such lithosphere comprises 19% of stable continental regions. Thus, for cratonic interiors with seismically determined thick lithosphere (1) there is a significant decrease in the number of crustal earthquakes, and (2) the maximum moment magnitude found in the earthquake catalog is Mcmax=6.0. We attribute these observations to higher lithospheric strength beneath cratonic interiors due to lower temperatures and dehydration in both the lower crust and the highly depleted lithospheric root.

  15. Geotectonic structural interpretation of the basement complex at the eastern border of the Espinhaco ridge, in Guanhaes and Gouveia region, based on an integration of their U/Pb and K/Ar geochronology united

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, W.; Salvador, E.D.; Siga Junior, O.; Sato, K.; Dossin, I.A.; Dossin, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    The basement complex at the eastern border of the Espinhaco ridge is composed of predominantly gneissic rocks which were subjected to migmatization and granitization. Overall the area shows complex tectonic evolution with recurrence of tectonomagmatic and metamorphic events as supported by geological, geochronological and structural studies. The Rb/Sr geochronology carried out on the basement rocks and metavolcanics from the Espinhaco interpreted together with the published U-Pb, Rb-Sr and K-Ar data defines the following scenario for the Precambrian crustal evolution. 1. Primary origin of a sialic crust at 2.97-2.84 Ga. ago as supported by U-Pb zircon ages. 2. Crustal reworking of the Archean crust and subordinate juvenile accretion from upper mantle during the 2.2-2.OGa. period, as suggested by the isochrons. 3. Recurrence of Middle Proterozoic events over the basement rocks (gneisses and charnockites) and metavolcanics of the Espinhaco as showed by isochrons. 4. Development of Late Proterozoic migmatization over the basement rocks (0.75 Ga., R.I.= 0.787) is association with Collisional tectonics and resetting of K-Ar mineral systems. (author)

  16. Crustal structure, and topographic relief in the high southern Scandes, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratford, W.; Thybo, H.; Frassetto, A.

    2010-05-01

    Resolving the uplift history of southern Norway is hindered by the lack of constraint available from the geologic record. Sediments that often contain information of burial and uplift history have long since been stripped from the onshore regions in southern Norway, and geophysical, dating methods and geomorphological studies are the remaining means of unraveling uplift history. New constraints on topographic evolution and uplift in southern Norway have been added by a recent crustal scale refraction project. Magnus-Rex (Mantle investigation of Norwegian uplift Structure, refraction experiment) recorded three ~400 km long active source seismic profiles across the high southern Scandes Mountains. The goal of the project is to determine crustal thickness and establish whether these mountains are supported at depth by a crustal root or by other processes. The southern Scandes Mountains were formed during the Caledonian Orogeny around 440 Ma. These mountains, which reach elevations of up to ~2.5 km, are comprised of one or more palaeic (denudation) surfaces of rolling relief that are incised by fluvial and glacial erosion. Extreme vertical glacial incision of up to 1000 m cuts into the surfaces in the western fjords, while the valleys of eastern Norway are more fluvial in character. Climatic controls on topography here are the Neogene - Recent effects of rebound due to removal of the Fennoscandian ice sheet and isostatic rebound due to incisional erosion. However, unknown tectonic uplift mechanisms may also be in effect, and separating the tectonic and climate-based vertical motions is often difficult. Sediment and rock has been removed by the formation of the palaeic surfaces and uplift measurements cannot be directly related to present elevations. Estimates so far have indicated that rebound due to incisional erosion has a small effect of ~500 m on surface elevation. Results from Magnus-Rex indicate the crust beneath the high mountains is up to 40 km thick. This

  17. Updating the Geologic Barcodes for South China: Discovery of Late Archean Banded Iron Formations in the Yangtze Craton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hui; Wu, Chang-Zhi; Yang, Tao; Santosh, M; Yao, Xi-Zhu; Gao, Bing-Fei; Wang, Xiao-Lei; Li, Weiqiang

    2017-11-08

    Banded iron formations (BIFs) in Archean cratons provide important "geologic barcodes" for the global correlation of Precambrian sedimentary records. Here we report the first finding of late Archean BIFs from the Yangtze Craton, one of largest Precambrian blocks in East Asia with an evolutionary history of over 3.3 Ga. The Yingshan iron deposit at the northeastern margin of the Yangtze Craton, displays typical features of BIF, including: (i) alternating Si-rich and Fe-rich bands at sub-mm to meter scales; (ii) high SiO 2  + Fe 2 O 3total contents (average 90.6 wt.%) and Fe/Ti ratios (average 489); (iii) relative enrichment of heavy rare earth elements and positive Eu anomalies (average 1.42); (iv) and sedimentary Fe isotope compositions (δ 56 Fe IRMM-014 as low as -0.36‰). The depositional age of the BIF is constrained at ~2464 ± 24 Ma based on U-Pb dating of zircon grains from a migmatite sample of a volcanic protolith that conformably overlied the Yingshan BIF. The BIF was intruded by Neoproterozoic (805.9 ± 4.7 Ma) granitoids that are unique in the Yangtze Craton but absent in the North China Craton to the north. The discovery of the Yingshan BIF provides new constraints for the tectonic evolution of the Yangtze Craton and has important implications in the reconstruction of Pre-Nuna/Columbia supercontinent configurations.

  18. Alteration of submarine volcanic rocks in oxygenated Archean oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmoto, H.; Bevacqua, D.; Watanabe, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Most submarine volcanic rocks, including basalts in diverging plate boundaries and andesites/dacites in converging plate boundaries, have been altered by low-temperature seawater and/or hydrothermal fluids (up to ~400°C) under deep oceans; the hydrothermal fluids evolved from shallow/deep circulations of seawater through the underlying hot igneous rocks. Volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits (VMSDs) and banded iron formations (BIFs) were formed by mixing of submarine hydrothermal fluids with local seawater. Therefore, the behaviors of various elements, especially of redox-sensitive elements, in altered submarine volcanic rocks, VMSDs and BIFs can be used to decipher the chemical evolution of the oceans and atmosphere. We have investigated the mineralogy and geochemistry of >500 samples of basalts from a 260m-long drill core section of Hole #1 of the Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP #1) in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. The core section is comprised of ~160 m thick Marble Bar Chert/Jasper Unit (3.46 Ga) and underlying, inter-bedded, and overlying submarine basalts. Losses/gains of 65 elements were quantitatively evaluated on the basis of their concentration ratios against the least mobile elements (Ti, Zr and Nb). We have recognized that mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of many of these samples are essentially the same as those of hydrothermally-altered modern submarine basalts and also those of altered volcanic rocks that underlie Phanerozoic VMSDs. The similarities include, but are not restricted to: (1) the alteration mineralogy (chlorite ± sericite ± pyrophyllite ± carbonates ± hematite ± pyrite ± rutile); (2) the characteristics of whole-rock δ18O and δ34S values; (3) the ranges of depletion and enrichment of Si, Al, Mg, Ca, K, Na, Fe, Mn, and P; (4) the enrichment of Ba (as sulfate); (5) the increases in Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios; (6) the enrichment of U; (7) the depletion of Cr; and (8) the negative Ce anomalies. Literature data

  19. Geological Sulfur Isotopes Indicate Elevated OCS in the Archean Atmosphere, Solving the Faint Young Sun Paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ueno, Yuichiro; Johnson, Matthew Stanley; Danielache, Sebastian Oscar

    2009-01-01

    Distributions of sulfur isotopes in geological samples would provide a record of atmospheric composition if the mechanism producing the isotope effects could be described quantitatively. We determined the UV absorption spectra of 32SO2, 33SO2, and 34SO2 and use them to interpret the geological re......-rich, reducing Archean atmosphere. The radiative forcing, due to this level of OCS, is able to resolve the faint young sun paradox. Further, the decline of atmospheric OCS may have caused the late Archean glaciation....

  20. Crustal Seismic Anisotropy: Implications for Understanding Crustal Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, A.; Christensen, N.; Okaya, D.

    2003-12-01

    The Nanga Parbat - Haramosh massif, in the core of the western syntaxis of the Himalaya, represents a unique exposure of mid-lower continental crust from beneath a collisional orogen. The exhumed core of the massif forms a large scale antiformal structure with axial orientation of N10E and associated lineation directed north-south with near-vertical dips. Laboratory measurements of seismic velocity on a suite of quartzofeldspathic gneisses from the massif show a relatively strong degree of anisotropy, up to 12.5% for compressional waves and up to 21% for shear waves. The degree of velocity anisotropy is primarily a function of mica content and rock fabric strength. The strong anisotropy measured in these rocks should be observable in recorded seismic field data and provides a means of mapping rock fabric at depth provided the rock fabric is coherent over appropriate length scales. An IRIS/PASSCAL deployment of 50 short period instruments recorded local and regional earthquakes to characterize seismicity and determine crustal structure beneath the massif as part of a multidisciplinary NSF Continental Dynamics study investigating the active tectonic processes responsible for exhumation and crustal reworking at Nanga Parbat. Microseismicity at Nanga Parbat is distributed along strike beneath the massif but exhibits a sharp drop-off laterally into adjacent terranes and with depth. This data set is ideal for studying crustal seismic anisotropy because the raypaths are restricted to the crust, sharp onsets in P and S allow for clear identification of arrivals, and source-receiver geometries sample a range of azimuths with respect to structure. Preliminary analysis indicates that the majority of local events exhibit some degree of splitting and that splitting patterns, while complicated, are coherent. While splitting delay normally increases with distance traveled through anisotropic material, the range of delay times can be due to heterogeneity in composition, lateral

  1. Evidence for and implications of an Early Archean terrestrial impact record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, D.R.; Byerly, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    Early Archean, 3.5 to 3.2 Ga, greenstone sequences in South Africa and Western Australia contain a well-preserved record of early terrestrial meteorite impacts. The main impact-produced deposits are layers, 10 cm to over 1 m thick, composed largely of sand-sized spherules, 0.1 to 4 mm in diameter. The beds studied to date show an assemblage of features indicating formation by the fall of debris from impact-generated ejecta clouds. Some presented data effectively rule out normal magmatic or sedimentary processes in the origin of these units and provide substantial support for an origin by large impacts on the early earth. The presence of at least four, remarkably thick, nearly pure spherule layers suggests that smaller-scale impact deposits may be even more abundant in these sequences. The existence of a well-preserved Archean terrestrial impact record suggests that a direct source of evidence is available regarding a number of important aspects of early earth history

  2. Generation of TTG rocks in the Archean: insight from numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozel, Antoine; Golabek, Gregor; Gerya, Taras; Jain, Charitra; Tackley, Paul

    2017-04-01

    We study the creation of primordial continental crust (TTG rocks) for the first time employing fully self-consistent numerical models of thermochemical convection on a global scale. Starting from a pyrolytic bulk composition and an initially hot core, we first generate oceanic crust and depleted mantle. In our model, the basaltic material is both erupted at the surface and intruded at the base of the crust following a predefined partitioning. Second, we track the pressure-temperature conditions of the newly formed hydrated basalt and check if it matches the conditions necessary for the formation of primordial continental crust. We show that the "heat-pipe" model (assuming 100% eruption and no intrusion) proposed to be the main heat loss mechanism during the Archean epoch (Moore & Webb 2013) is not able to produce continental crust since it forms a cold and thick lithosphere. We systematically test various mechanical properties of the brittle domain (friction coefficients). Using our parameter study, we are also able to show that an intrusion fraction close to 70% (in agreement with [Crisp 1984]) combined with a friction coefficient of 0.2 products the expected amount of the three main petrological TTG compositions previously reported (Moyen 2011). This study represents a major step towards the production of self-consistent convection models able to generate the continental crust of the Earth. REFERENCES Crisp, J. A. (1984), Rates of magma emplacement and volcanic output. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 20(3-4), 177-211. Moore, W., and A. Webb (2013), Heat-pipe earth. Nature, 501, 501-505, doi:10.1038/nature12473. Moyen, J. (2011), The composite archaean grey gneisses: Petrological significance, and evidence for a non-unique tectonic setting for archaean crustal growth. Lithos, 123, 21-36, doi: 10.1016/j.lithos.2010.09.015.

  3. Where are uranium and thorium stored in the Archean basement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwinner, R

    1949-01-01

    The author advances a theory which makes it possible to predict where prospecting for new deposits of uranium and thorium should prove successful. According to this theory, such deposits occur chiefly where the equatorial and the meridional branches of the oldest primitive rock systems cross one another. An outline of the earth's Archean basement is included.

  4. ADMAP-2: The second generation Antarctic crustal magnetic anomaly map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraccioli, F.; Golynsky, A.; Golynsky, D.; Young, D. A.; Eagles, G.; Damaske, D.; Finn, C.; Aitken, A.; von Frese, R. R. B.; Ghidella, M. E.; Kim, H. R.; Hong, J.

    2017-12-01

    ADMAP-2 is the second generation crustal magnetic anomaly compilation for the Antarctic region south of 60°S. It was produced from more than 3.5 million line-km of near-surface terrestrial, airborne and marine magnetic observations collected since the International Geophysical Year 1957/58 through 2013. The data were edited, IGRF corrected, profile levelled and gridded at a 1.5-km interval on a polar stereographic projection using the minimum curvature technique. Given the ubiquitous polar cover of snow, ice and sea water, the magnetic anomaly compilation offers important constraints on the global tectonic processes and crustal properties of the Antarctic. It also links widely separated areas of outcrop to help unify disparate geologic studies, and provides insights on the lithospheric transition between Antarctica and adjacent oceans, as well as the geodynamic evolution of the Antarctic lithosphere in the assembly and break-up of the Gondwana, Rodinia, and Columbia supercontinents and key piercing points for reconstructing linkages between the protocontinents. The magnetic data together with ice-probing radar and gravity information greatly facilitate understanding the evolution of fundamental large-scale geological processes such as continental rifting, intraplate mountain building, subduction and terrane accretion processes, and intraplate basin formation.

  5. A new method of discriminating different types of post-Archean ophiolitic basalts and their tectonic significance using Th-Nb and Ce-Dy-Yb systematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Saccani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new discrimination diagram using absolute measures of Th and Nb is applied to post-Archean ophiolites to best discriminate a large number of different ophiolitic basalts. This diagram was obtained using >2000 known ophiolitic basalts and was tested using ∼560 modern rocks from known tectonic settings. Ten different basaltic varieties from worldwide ophiolitic complexes have been examined. They include two basaltic types that have never been considered before, which are: (1 medium-Ti basalts (MTB generated at nascent forearc settings; (2 a type of mid-ocean ridge basalts showing garnet signature (G-MORB that characterizes Alpine-type (i.e., non volcanic rifted margins and ocean-continent transition zones (OCTZ. In the Th-Nb diagram, basalts generated in oceanic subduction-unrelated settings, rifted margins, and OCTZ can be distinguished from subduction-related basalts with a misclassification rate <1%. This diagram highlights the chemical variation of oceanic, rifted margin, and OCTZ basalts from depleted compositions to progressively more enriched compositions reflecting, in turn, the variance of source composition and degree of melting within the MORB-OIB array. It also highlights the chemical contributions of enriched (OIB-type components to mantle sources. Enrichment of Th relative to Nb is particularly effective for highlighting crustal input via subduction or crustal contamination. Basalts formed at continental margin arcs and island arc with a complex polygenetic crust can be distinguished from those generated in intra-oceanic arcs in supra-subduction zones (SSZ with a misclassification rate <1%. Within the SSZ group, two sub-settings can be recognized with a misclassification rate <0.5%. They are: (1 SSZ influenced by chemical contribution from subduction-derived components (forearc and intra-arc sub-settings characterized by island arc tholeiitic (IAT and boninitic basalts; (2 SSZ with no contribution from subduction

  6. Albedo and heat transport in 3-D model simulations of the early Archean climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kienert

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the Archean eon (ca. 3.8 billion years ago, the Earth's climate state was significantly different from today due to the lower solar luminosity, smaller continental fraction, higher rotation rate and, presumably, significantly larger greenhouse gas concentrations. All these aspects play a role in solutions to the "faint young Sun paradox" which must explain why the ocean surface was not fully frozen at that time. Here, we present 3-D model simulations of climate states that are consistent with early Archean boundary conditions and have different CO2 concentrations, aiming at an understanding of the fundamental characteristics of the early Archean climate system. In order to do so, we have appropriately modified an intermediate complexity climate model that couples a statistical-dynamical atmosphere model (involving parameterizations of the dynamics to an ocean general circulation model and a thermodynamic-dynamic sea-ice model. We focus on three states: one of them is ice-free, one has the same mean surface air temperature of 288 K as today's Earth and the third one is the coldest stable state in which there is still an area with liquid surface water (i.e. the critical state at the transition to a "snowball Earth". We find a reduction in meridional heat transport compared to today, which leads to a steeper latitudinal temperature profile and has atmospheric as well as oceanic contributions. Ocean surface velocities are largely zonal, and the strength of the atmospheric meridional circulation is significantly reduced in all three states. These aspects contribute to the observed relation between global mean temperature and albedo, which we suggest as a parameterization of the ice-albedo feedback for 1-D model simulations of the early Archean and thus the faint young Sun problem.

  7. Glacial rebound and crustal stress in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambeck, K.; Purcell, A.

    2003-11-01

    The last ice age of Fennoscandinavia continues to have geological repercussions across Finland despite the last ice having retreated almost 10,000 years ago: land uplift, shoreline retreat, and the stress state of the crust continues to evolve. This report focusses on the glacial rebound signals for Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia and explores the consequences of the ongoing deformation. The rebound signals include the geological evidence as well as instrumental observations: the tide gauge and lake-level measurements of the past century, the changes in geodetic levels recorded in the repeat levelling surveys of the region and the direct measurement of crustal deformation (radial and horizontal) using high-precision space-geodesy measurements. These signals provide constraints on the Earth's rheology, its elasticity and viscosity, and the glacial history of the region. Once observationally constrained, the rebound models are used to predict both the ongoing evolution of shorelines and the changing state of stress within the crust. This report covers: (i) A review of glacial rebound modelling for Scandinavia (Sections 2 and 3). (ii) Review of observational evidence relating to sea-level change and crustal rebound (Section 4). (iii) New earth and ice-sheet model results from the inversion of the geological evidence for sea-level change, including models of shoreline evolution (Sections 5 and 6). (iv) Earth-model results from the inversion of the geodetic evidence for sea-level change (Section 7). (v) Development of crustal stress models for past and present stress states (Section 8). (vi) Conclusions and recommendations (Section 9). Specific conclusions reached pertain to: (i) Thickness of ice cover over Scandinavia since the Last Glacial Maximum, particularly for the Lateglacial period. (ii) Sea-level change and shoreline evolution for the Baltic area since the time the region became ice-free for the last time. (iii) The predicted rates of present-day crustal

  8. Reassessment of the geologic evolution of selected precambrian terranes in Brazil, based on new SHRIMP U-Pb data, part 1: central-eastern border of Sao Francisco Craton in Bahia state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Luiz Carlos da; Pimentel, Marcio; Jost, Hardy; Armstrong, Richard

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses new U-Pb SHRIMP zircon data for 12 key-exposures of several geological units exposed at the eastern border of the Sao Francisco Craton. The samples represent mostly Archean basement units within the Paleoproterozoic Eastern Bahia Belt (Orogen). Samples were collected along several E-W tran sects trying to more accurately assess the areal distribution of the Archean polycyclic basement of the Sao Francisco Craton and to identify the limits of Paleoproterozoic metamorphic overprint resulting from the development of the Eastern Bahia Orogen. Owing to the polycyclic evolution and/or high grade metamorphic conditions which most of the rock units investigated have undergone, zircon morphology and the U-Pb analytical data exhibit very complex patterns. These are characterized by a combination of inheritance, partial resetting and new zircon growth during high grade metamorphism. As a consequence, very careful and detailed analyses of cathodoluminescence imagery were required to allow distinction between inheritance, newly melt-precipitated zircon and partially reset zircons, as well as between the ages of magmatic and metamorphic events. Except for one unit (sample LH 44), which present crystallization age of ca 3000 Ma - interpreted, therefore, as the eastern extension of the Serrinha Craton - the others are ascribed to two major age groups at ca. 2870-2500 Ma and ca. 2200?-2030 Ma. The former group includes ortho gneisses with crystallization ages between ca. 2870-2500 Ma, which have been mapped and interpreted, in its major extension, as juvenile Paleoproterozoic arc (Itabuna and Salvador-Curaca belts/domains). The new data presented in this study, however, indicate that these ortho gneisses represent a multi-episodic collage of primitive Archean orogenic arcs, which gave rise to the Archean basement of that part of the Sao Francisco Craton. All the investigated zircon populations were extensively recrystallized at ca. 2080-2050 Ma as a result of

  9. Reconciling atmospheric temperatures in the early Archean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pope, Emily Catherine; Bird, Dennis K.; Rosing, Minik Thorleif

    rock record. The goal of this study is to compile and reconcile Archean geologic and geochemical features that are in some way controlled by surface temperature and/or atmospheric composition, so that at the very least paleoclimate models can be checked by physical limits. Data used to this end include...... weathering on climate). Selective alteration of δD in Isua rocks to values of -130 to -100‰ post-dates ca. 3.55Ga Ameralik dikes, but may be associated with a poorly defined 2.6-2.8Ga metamorphic event that is coincident with the amalgamation of the “Kenorland supercontinent.”...

  10. Lower-crustal xenoliths from Jurassic kimberlite diatremes, upper Michigan (USA): Evidence for Proterozoic orogenesis and plume magmatism in the lower crust of the southern Superior Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zartman, Robert E.; Kempton, Pamela D.; Paces, James B.; Downes, Hilary; Williams, Ian S.; Dobosi, Gábor; Futa, Kiyoto

    2013-01-01

    Jurassic kimberlites in the southern Superior Province in northern Michigan contain a variety of possible lower-crustal xenoliths, including mafic garnet granulites, rare garnet-free granulites, amphibolites and eclogites. Whole-rock major-element data for the granulites suggest affinities with tholeiitic basalts. P–T estimates for granulites indicate peak temperatures of 690–730°C and pressures of 9–12 kbar, consistent with seismic estimates of crustal thickness in the region. The granulites can be divided into two groups based on trace-element characteristics. Group 1 granulites have trace-element signatures similar to average Archean lower crust; they are light rare earth element (LREE)-enriched, with high La/Nb ratios and positive Pb anomalies. Most plot to the left of the geochron on a 206Pb/€204Pb vs 207Pb/€204Pb diagram, and there was probably widespread incorporation of Proterozoic to Archean components into the magmatic protoliths of these rocks. Although the age of the Group 1 granulites is not well constrained, their protoliths appear to be have been emplaced during the Mesoproterozoic and to be older than those for Group 2 granulites. Group 2 granulites are also LREE-enriched, but have strong positive Nb and Ta anomalies and low La/Nb ratios, suggesting intraplate magmatic affinities. They have trace-element characteristics similar to those of some Mid-Continent Rift (Keweenawan) basalts. They yield a Sm–Nd whole-rock errorchron age of 1046 ± 140 Ma, similar to that of Mid-Continent Rift plume magmatism. These granulites have unusually radiogenic Pb isotope compositions that plot above the 207Pb/€204Pb vs 206Pb/€204Pb growth curve and to the right of the 4·55 Ga geochron, and closely resemble the Pb isotope array defined by Mid-Continent Rift basalts. These Pb isotope data indicate that ancient continental lower crust is not uniformly depleted in U (and Th) relative to Pb. One granulite xenolith, S69-5, contains quartz, and has a

  11. Why Wet Kaolin can be used as a Crustal Analog and its Application to Fault Evolution at Restraining Bends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, M. L.; van der Elst, N.; Schottenfeld, M. T.

    2010-12-01

    To simulate geologic deformation on observable time and length scales within the lab, a subset of analog modelers have used wet kaolin. Unlike the more often used sand, wet kaolin beautifully exhibits detailed fault structures. Furthermore, faults within the kaolin are more readily reactivated than those in sand. The low plasticity of kaolin (compared to other clays) gives it low shear strength. Consequently, the clay is a suitable analog material if we assume that the wet kaolin deforms by coulomb frictional failure. Koalin generally deforms as a Bingham solid and exhibits more complex deformation than the perfectly plastic behavior assumed with Coulomb failure. We performed fall cone and rheometric tests on wet kaolin to refine our quantitative understanding of its rheology. We use North American wet kaolin with density 1.65-1.7 g/cm3 and water content of 37.5-38.5%. The fall cone tests reveal that the undrained shear strength (100-160 Pa) is greater than previously measured with a viscometer. The rheometer tests show that the wet koalin exhibits many of the same properties of crustal materials including: 1) elastic behavior at low strains, 2) stress relaxation at near-failure strains, 3) creep under static load, 4) yield strength sensitive to strain rate and 5) rate and state dependent failure. Armed with quantitative values for this complex deformation, we can better scale the length and strain rate of the wet koalin experiments to specific crustal settings. Experiments of deformation around restraining bends show features very similar to those found in natural examples. The detailed fault structures produced in the wet kaolin can be analyzed to understand the evolution of active faulting at restraining bends.

  12. Petrology and geochemistry of charnockites (felsic ortho-granulites) from the Kerala Khondalite Belt, Southern India: Evidence for intra-crustal melting, magmatic differentiation and episodic crustal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindra Kumar, G. R.; Sreejith, C.

    2016-10-01

    The Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB) of the southern India encompasses volumetrically significant magmatic components. Among these, orthopyroxene-bearing, felsic ortho-granulites, popularly known as charnockites in Indian context, constitute an important lithology. In contrast to the well-known phenomena of arrested charnockitization, the geochemical characteristics and petrogenesis of these ortho-granulite suites remain poorly studied, leaving geodynamic models envisaged for the KKB highly conjectural. In this paper, we try to bridge this gap with detailed results on orthopyroxene-bearing, felsic ortho-granulites spread over the entire KKB and propose a new petrogenetic and crustal evolution model. Based on geochemical characteristics, the orthopyroxene-bearing, felsic ortho-granulites (charnockites sensu lato) of KKB are classified into (1) tonalitic (TC), (2) granitic (GC), and (3) augen (AC) suites. Members of the TC follow sodic (characterized by decreasing CaO/Na2O), whereas those of the GC and AC follow calc-alkaline trends of differentiation. Geochemical patterns of the TC resemble those of the Archaean tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) suites, with slightly magnesian character (average Mg# = 33), moderate LREE (average LaN = 154), low HREE (average YbN = 6) and Y (1-53 ppm; average 11 ppm). The TC is also characterized by positive to slightly negative europium anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.7 to 1.67). The GC and AC suites, on the other hand, resemble post-Archaean arc-related granites. The GC displays ferroan nature (average Mg# = 22), low to moderate degrees of REE fractionation (average [La/Yb]N = 34.84), high contents of Y (5-128 ppm; average 68), and low Sr/Y (1-98) ratios. Significant negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.18-0.91; average 0.50) and low Sr (65-690 ppm) are also noted in the GC. Similar chemical characteristics are shown by the AC, with ferroan nature (average Mg# = 21), low to moderate degrees of REE fractionation (average [La/Yb]N = 26), high

  13. Evaluation of early Archean volcaniclastic and volcanic flow rocks as possible sites for carbonaceous fossil microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Maud M

    2004-01-01

    Sedimentary rocks have traditionally been the focus of the search for Archean microfossils; the Earth's oldest fossil bacteria are associated with carbonaceous matter in sedimentary cherts in greenstone belts in the eastern Pilbara block of Western Australia and Barberton greenstone belt of South Africa. Reports of possible fossils in a martian meteorite composed of igneous rock and the discovery of modern bacteria associated with basalts have stimulated a new look at Archean volcanic rocks as possible sites for fossil microbes. This study examines silicified volcaniclastic rocks, near-surface altered volcanic flow rocks, and associated stromatolite- like structures from the Archean Barberton greenstone belt to evaluate their potential for the preservation of carbonaceous fossils. Detrital carbonaceous particles are widely admixed with current-deposited debris. Carbonaceous matter is also present in altered volcanic flow rocks as sparse particles in silica veins that appear to be fed by overlying carbonaceous chert layers. Neither microfossils nor mat-like material was identified in the altered volcanic rocks or adjacent stromatolite-like structures. Ancient volcanic flow and volcaniclastic rocks are not promising sites for carbonaceous fossil preservation.

  14. Fine-scale crustal structure of the Azores Islands from teleseismic receiver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, K.; Rondenay, S.; Ramalho, R. S.; Thomas, C.; Helffrich, G. R.

    2016-12-01

    The Azores plateau is located near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and consists of nine islands, most of which lie east of the MAR. Various methods including seismic reflection, gravity, and passive seismic imaging have been used to investigate the crustal thickness beneath the islands. They have yielded thickness estimates that range between roughly 10 km and 30 km, but until now models of the fine-scale crustal structure have been lacking. A comparison of the crustal structure beneath the islands that lie west and east of the MAR might give further constraints on the evolution of the islands. For example, geochemical studies carried out across the region predict the existence of volcanic interfaces that should be detected seismically within the shallow crust of some of the islands. In this study, we use data from ten seismic stations located on the Azores Islands to investigate the crustal structure with teleseismic P-wave receiver functions. We query our resulting receiver functions for signals associated with the volcanic edifice, the crust-mantle boundary, and potential underplated layers beneath the various islands. The islands west of the MAR have a crustal structure comprising two discontinuities - an upper one at 1-2 km depth marking the base of the volcanic edifice, and a lower one at 10 km depth that we interpret as crust-mantle boundary. The islands east of the MAR can be subdivided into two groups. The central islands that are closer to the MAR exhibit a crustal structure similar to that of the western islands, with a volcanic edifice reaching a depth of 2 km and an average crust-mantle boundary at around 12 km depth. The easternmost islands, located on the oldest lithosphere, exhibit a more complex crustal structure with evidence for a mid-crustal interface and an underplated layer, yielding an effective crust-mantle boundary at >15 km depth. The difference in structure between proximal and distal islands might be related to the age of the plate at the

  15. Stagnant lids and mantle overturns: Implications for Archaean tectonics, magmagenesis, crustal growth, mantle evolution, and the start of plate tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean H. Bédard

    2018-01-01

    probability that oceanic crustal segments could founder in an organized way, producing a gradual evolution of pre-subduction convergent margins into modern-style active subduction systems around 2.5 Ga. Plate tectonics today is constituted of: (1 a continental drift system that started in the Early Archaean, driven by deep mantle currents pressing against the Archaean-age sub-continental lithospheric mantle keels that underlie Archaean cratons; (2 a subduction-driven system that started near the end of the Archaean.

  16. Magmatism and Tectonics in the Meso-Archean Pongola Supergroup, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Allan

    2013-04-01

    vents is a feature of this uniquely preserved magmatic record. New precise zircon U-Pb ages give an indication that the entire basin formed in a remarkably short period of geological time between 2980 ±10 Ma and 2954 ±9 Ma, although complications arising from inherited zircons cannot be ruled out. While komatiites are not present in the Pongola a sequence of volcaniclastic rocks with well-preserved bombs of picrite composition and contained within a sandy matrix gives rise to a geochemical signature high in Cr and Ni which is the first evidence of an ultramafic component to this succession. Evidence of rapid deposition, a preponderance of intermediate lavas, discordance of bounding (earlier) crustal blocks and consistent structural trends in the area, are similar to features found in continental arc basins currently observed in the south-western USA, and may present an alternative model to those currently accepted for Archean terranes in early-formed cratons.

  17. Archean Age Fossils from Northwestern Australia (Approximately 3.3 to 3.5 GA, Warrawoona Group, Towers Formation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Penny A. Morris

    1999-01-01

    Archean aged rocks from the Pilbara Block area of western Australia (Warrawoona Group, Towers Formation, -3.3-3.5 Ga) contain microfossils that are composed of various sizes of spheres and filaments. The first descriptions of these microfossils were published in the late 1970's (Dunlop, 1978; Dunlop, et. al., 1978). The authenticity of the microfossils is well established. The small size of the microfossils prevents isotope dating, at least with the present technology. Microbiologists, however, have established guidelines to determine the authenticity of the Archean aged organic remains (Schopf, Walter, 1992).

  18. The geotectonic evolution of southern part of Sao Francisco Craton, based in geochronologic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, W.

    1985-01-01

    Interpretation of available radiometric data from poly metamorphic terranes of southern part of the Sao Francisco Craton demonstrates the importance of geochronology as a tool in the study of ancient crustal evolution. In addition, radiometric study of basic intrusive magmatism helps define the most important epochs of crustal rifting during the Proterozoic. The definition of the southern border of the cratonic area based on distinctive age patterns of the geochronological provinces is also discussed. Finally, the geochronologic evolution of the Bambui platform cover is presented. Approximately 250 radiometric age determinations (Rb-Sr, K-Ar and Pb-Pb methods) were interpreted principally through the use of iso chronic diagrams. The geologic history tectonomagnetic events identified in this study is compared to the crustal evolution of similar segments of the Sao Francisco Craton and elsewhere. (author)

  19. Global variations in gravity-derived oceanic crustal thickness: Implications on oceanic crustal accretion and hotspot-lithosphere interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J.; Zhu, J.

    2012-12-01

    We present a new global model of oceanic crustal thickness based on inversion of global oceanic gravity anomaly with constrains from seismic crustal thickness profiles. We first removed from the observed marine free-air gravity anomaly all gravitational effects that can be estimated and removed using independent constraints, including the effects of seafloor topography, marine sediment thickness, and the age-dependent thermal structure of the oceanic lithosphere. We then calculated models of gravity-derived crustal thickness through inversion of the residual mantle Bouguer anomaly using best-fitting gravity-modeling parameters obtained from comparison with seismically determined crustal thickness profiles. Modeling results show that about 5% of the global crustal volume (or 9% of the global oceanic surface area) is associated with model crustal thickness 8.6 km and is interpreted to have been affected by excess magmatism. The percentage of oceanic crustal volume that is associated with thick crustal thickness (>8.6 km) varies greatly among tectonic plates: Pacific (33%), Africa (50%), Antarctic (33%), Australia (30%), South America (34%), Nazca (23%), North America (47%), India (74%), Eurasia (68%), Cocos (20%), Philippine (26%), Scotia (41%), Caribbean (89%), Arabian (82%), and Juan de Fuca (21%). We also found that distribution of thickened oceanic crust (>8.6 km) seems to depend on spreading rate and lithospheric age: (1) On ocean basins younger than 5 Ma, regions of thickened crust are predominantly associated with slow and ultraslow spreading ridges. The relatively strong lithospheric plate at slow and ultraslow ridges might facilitate the loading of large magmatic emplacements on the plate. (2) In contrast, crustal thickness near fast and intermediately fast spreading ridges typically does not exceed 7-8 km. The relatively weak lithosphere at fast and intermediately fast ridges might make it harder for excess magmatism to accrete. We further speculate that

  20. Interaction between mantle and crustal detachments: A nonlinear system controlling lithospheric extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Gideon; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus; Weinberg, Roberto F.

    2010-11-01

    We use numerical modeling to investigate the development of crustal and mantle detachments during lithospheric extension. Our models simulate a wide range of extensional systems with varying values of crustal thickness and heat flow, showing how strain localization in the mantle interacts with localization in the upper crust and controls the evolution of extensional systems. Model results reveal a richness of structures and deformation styles as a response to a self-organized mechanism that minimizes the internal stored energy of the system by localizing deformation. Crustal detachments, here referred as low-angle normal decoupling horizons, are well developed during extension of overthickened (60 km) continental crust, even when the initial heat flow is relatively low (50 mW m-2). In contrast, localized mantle deformation is most pronounced when the extended lithosphere has a normal crustal thickness (30-40 km) and an intermediate heat flow (60-70 mW m-2). Results show a nonlinear response to subtle changes in crustal thickness or heat flow, characterized by abrupt and sometimes unexpected switches in extension modes (e.g., from diffuse extensional deformation to effective lithospheric-scale rupturing) or from mantle- to crust-dominated strain localization. We interpret this nonlinearity to result from the interference of doming wavelengths in the presence of multiple necking instabilities. Disharmonic crust and mantle doming wavelengths results in efficient communication between shear zones at different lithospheric levels, leading to rupturing of the whole lithosphere. In contrast, harmonic crust and mantle doming inhibits interaction of shear zones across the lithosphere and results in a prolonged history of extension prior to continental breakup.

  1. Interaction between mantle and crustal detachments: a non-linear system controlling lithospheric extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, G.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.; Weinberg, R. F.

    2009-12-01

    We use numerical modelling to investigate the development of crustal and mantle detachment faults during lithospheric extension. Our models simulate a wide range of rift systems with varying values of crustal thickness and heat flow, showing how strain localization in the mantle interacts with localization in the upper crust and controls the evolution of extensional systems. Model results reveal a richness of structures and deformation styles, which grow in response to a self-organized mechanism that minimizes the internal stored energy of the system by localizing deformation at different levels of the lithosphere. Crustal detachment faults are well developed during extension of overthickened (60 km) continental crust, even when the initial heat flow is relatively low (50 mW/m2). In contrast, localized mantle deformation is most pronounced when the extended lithosphere has a normal crustal thickness (30-40 km) and an intermediate (60-70 mW/m2) heat flow. Results show a non-linear response to subtle changes in crustal thickness or heat flow, characterized by abrupt and sometime unexpected switches in extension modes (e.g. from diffuse rifting to effective lithospheric-scale rupturing) or from mantle- to crust-dominated strain localization. We interpret this non-linearity to result from the interference of doming wavelengths. Disharmony of crust and mantle doming wavelengths results in efficient communication between shear zones at different lithospheric levels, leading to rupturing of the whole lithosphere. In contrast, harmonious crust and mantle doming inhibits interaction of shear zones across the lithosphere and results in a prolonged rifting history prior to continental breakup.

  2. Organic compounds in fluid inclusions of Archean quartz-Analogues of prebiotic chemistry on early Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Ulrich; Mayer, Christian; Schmitz, Oliver J; Rosendahl, Pia; Bronja, Amela; Greule, Markus; Keppler, Frank; Mulder, Ines; Sattler, Tobias; Schöler, Heinz F

    2017-01-01

    The origin of life is still an unsolved mystery in science. Hypothetically, prebiotic chemistry and the formation of protocells may have evolved in the hydrothermal environment of tectonic fault zones in the upper continental crust, an environment where sensitive molecules are protected against degradation induced e.g. by UV radiation. The composition of fluid inclusions in minerals such as quartz crystals which have grown in this environment during the Archean period might provide important information about the first organic molecules formed by hydrothermal synthesis. Here we present evidence for organic compounds which were preserved in fluid inclusions of Archean quartz minerals from Western Australia. We found a variety of organic compounds such as alkanes, halocarbons, alcohols and aldehydes which unambiguously show that simple and even more complex prebiotic organic molecules have been formed by hydrothermal processes. Stable-isotope analysis confirms that the methane found in the inclusions has most likely been formed from abiotic sources by hydrothermal chemistry. Obviously, the liquid phase in the continental Archean crust provided an interesting choice of functional organic molecules. We conclude that organic substances such as these could have made an important contribution to prebiotic chemistry which might eventually have led to the formation of living cells.

  3. Crustal thickness and Vp/Vs beneath the southeastern United States: Constraints from receiver function stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q.; Gao, S. S.; Liu, K. H.

    2017-12-01

    To provide new constraints on crustal structure and evolution models beneath a collage of tectonic provinces in the southeastern United States, a total of 10,753 teleseismic receiver functions recorded by 125 USArray and other seismic stations are used to compute crustal thickness and Vp/Vs values. The resulting crustal thicknesses range from 25 km at the coast to 51 km beneath the peak of the southern Appalachians with an average of 36.2 km ± 5.5 km. The resulting crustal thicknesses correlate well with surface elevation and Bouguer gravity anomalies. Beneath the Atlantic Coastal Plain, the crustal thicknesses show a clear eastward thinning with a magnitude of 10 km, from about 40 km beneath the western margin to 30 km beneath the coast. The Vp/Vs values for the entire study area range from 1.71 to 1.90 with a mean value of 1.80 ± 0.04. The mean Vp/Vs value is 1.82±0.035 in the southern Appalachian Mountain. The slightly larger than normal crustal Vp/Vs for this area might be the result of significant erosion of the felsic upper crust over the past 300 million years. Alternatively, it could also suggest the existence of pervasive magmatic intrusion into the Appalachian crust. The Vp/Vs measurements in the Atlantic Coastal Plain increase toward the east, ranging from 1.75 to 1.82, probably indicating a gradual increase of mafic magmatic intrusion into thinner crust during the development of the passive continental margin.

  4. Crustal tomographic imaging and geodynamic implications toward south of Southern Granulite Terrain (SGT), India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Laxmidhar

    2011-09-01

    The crustal structure toward southern part of SGT is poorly defined leaving an opportunity to understand the tectonic and geodynamic evolution of this high-grade granulite terrain surrounded by major shear and tectonically disturbed zones like Achankovil Shear Zone (AKSZ) and Palghat Cauvery Shear Zone (PCSZ). To develop a geologically plausible crustal tectonic model depicting major structural elements, a comprehensive tomographic image was derived using deep-seismic-sounding data corroborated by Bouguer gravity modeling, coincident-reflection-seismic, heat-flow and available geological/geochronological informations along the N-S trending Vattalkundu-Kanyakumari geotransect. The final tectonic model represents large compositional changes of subsurface rocks accompanied by velocity heterogeneities with crustal thinning (44-36 km) and Moho upwarping from north to south. This study also reveals and successfully imaged anomalous zone of exhumation near AKSZ having transpression of exhumed rocks at mid-to-lower crustal level (20-30 km) with significant underplating and mantle upwelling forming a complex metamorphic province. The presence of shear zones with high-grade charnockite massifs in the upper-crust exposed in several places reveal large scale exhumation of granulites during the Pan-African rifting (~ 550 Ma) and provide important insights of plume-continental lithosphere interaction with reconstruction of the Gondwanaland.

  5. Controls on Atmospheric O2: The Anoxic Archean and the Suboxic Proterozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasting, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Geochemists have now reached consensus that the Archean atmosphere was mostly anoxic, that a Great Oxidation Event (GOE) occurred at around 2.5 Ga, and that the ensuing Proterozoic atmosphere was consistently oxidized [1,2]. Evidence for this broad-scale change in atmospheric composition comes from a variety of sources, most importantly from multiple sulfur isotopes [3,4]. The details of both the Archean and Proterozoic environments remain controversial, however, as does the underlying cause of the GOE. Evidence of 'whiffs' of oxygen during the Archean [5] now extend back as far as 3.0 Ga, based on Cr isotopes [6]. This suggests that O2 was being produced by cyanobacteria well before the GOE and that the timing of this event may have been determined by secular changes in O2 sinks. Catling et al. [7] emphasized escape of hydrogen to space, coupled with progressive oxidation of the continents and a concomitant decrease in the flux of reduced gases from metamorphism. But hydrogen produced by serpentinization of seafloor could also have been a controlling factor [8]. Higher mantle temperatures during the Archean should have resulted in thicker, more mafic seafloor and higher H2 production; decreasing mantle temperatures during the Proterozoic should have led to seafloor more like that of today and a corresponding decrease in H2 production, perhaps by enough to trigger the GOE. Once the atmosphere became generally oxidizing, it apparently remained that way during the rest of Earth's history. But O2 levels in the mid-Proterozoic could have been as low at 10-3 times the Present Atmospheric Level (PAL) [9]. The evidence, once again, is based on Cr isotopes. Possible mechanisms for maintaining such a 'suboxic' Proterozoic atmosphere will be discussed. Refs: 1. H. D. Holland, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 66, 3811 (2002). 2. H. D. Holland, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 361, 903 (Jun 29, 2006). 3. J. Farquhar, H. Bao, M. Thiemans, Science

  6. MEVTV Workshop on Early Tectonic and Volcanic Evolution of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, H.

    1988-01-01

    Although not ignored, the problems of the early tectonic and volcanic evolution of Mars have generally received less attention than those later in the evolution of the planet. Specifically, much attention was devoted to the evolution of the Tharsis region of Mars and to the planet itself at the time following the establishment of this major tectonic and volcanic province. By contrast, little attention was directed at fundamental questions, such as the conditions that led to the development of Tharsis and the cause of the basic fundamental dichotomy of the Martian crust. It was to address these and related questions of the earliest evolution of Mars that a workshop was organized under the auspices of the Mars: Evolution of Volcanism, Tectonism, and Volatiles (MEVTV) Program. Four sessions were held: crustal dichotomy; crustal differentiation/volcanism; Tharsis, Elysium, and Valles Marineris; and ridges and fault tectonics

  7. Extreme Mesozoic crustal thinning in the Eastern Iberia margin: The example of the Columbrets Basin (Valencia Trough)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, G.; Etheve, N.; Frizon de Lamotte, D.; Roca, E.; Tugend, J.; Gómez-Romeu, J.

    2017-12-01

    Eastern Iberia preserves a complex succession of Mesozoic rifts partly or completely inverted during the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic in relation with Africa-Eurasia convergence. Notably, the Valencia Trough, classically viewed as part of the Cenozoic West Mediterranean basins, preserves in its southwestern part a thick Mesozoic succession (locally »10km thick) over a highly thinned continental basement (locally only »3,5km thick). This sub-basin referred to as the Columbrets Basin, represents a Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous hyper-extended rift basin weakly overprinted by subsequent events. Its initial configuration is well preserved allowing us to unravel its 3D architecture and tectono-stratigraphic evolution in the frame of the Mesozoic evolution of eastern Iberia. The Columbrets Basin benefits from an extensive dataset combining high resolution reflection seismic profiles, drill holes, refraction seismic data and Expanding Spread Profiles. Its Mesozoic architecture is controlled by interactions between extensional deformation and halokinesis involving the Upper Triassic salt. The thick uppermost Triassic to Cretaceous succession describes a general synclinal shape, progressively stretched and dismembered towards the basin borders. The SE-border of the basin is characterized by a large extensional detachment fault acting at crustal scale and interacting locally with the Upper Triassic décollement. This extensional structure accommodates the exhumation of the continental basement and part of the crustal thinning. Eventually our results highlight the complex interaction between extreme crustal thinning and occurrence of a pre-rift salt level for the deformation style and tectono-stratigraphic evolution of hyper-extended rift basins.

  8. Litho stratigraphy of precambrian rocks in middle Xingu river basin -Altamira, Para state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, M.V. dos; Sousa Filho, E.E. dos; Tassinari, C.C.G.

    1988-01-01

    The basement rocks from the Xingu river is divided into five litho stratigraphic units. They are broadly characterized by domains of ortho and para gneisses, volcano-sedimentary sequences, migmatites and by syntectonic and latetectonic granitoids. In addition acid to intermediate volcanics (Iriri formation) and several sub-volcanic granitic plutons (Maloquinha suite) also occur within the investigated area, as well as basic intrusions and minor arenous sediments covers, slightly metamorphosed. Geochronological studies carried out on the basement rocks and on the volcanics demonstrates an geologic evolution restricted to the trans Amazonian cycle (2.1 - 1.9 Ga). Sr isotopic evolution (high initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios) suggest that strong reworking of crustal material occurred at this time, in association with the tectonic evolution of the Maroni-Itacaiunas mobile belt related to the lower proterozoic, which borders the northern and northerneast part of the Archean central Amazonian province. (author)

  9. Crustal-scale alpine tectonic evolution of the western Pyrenees - eastern Cantabrian Mountains (N Spain) from integration of structural data, low-T thermochronology and seismic constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFelipe, I.; Pedreira, D.; Pulgar, J. A.; Van der Beek, P.; Bernet, M.; Pik, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Pyrenean-Cantabrian Mountain belt extends in an E-W direction along the northern border of Spain and resulted from the convergence between the Iberian and European plates from the Late Cretaceous to the Miocene, in the context of the Alpine orogeny. The main aim of this work is to characterize the tectonic evolution at a crustal-scale of the transition zone from the Pyrenees to the Cantabrian Mountains, in the eastern Basque-Cantabrian Basin (BCB). We integrate structural work, thermochronology (apatite fission track and zircon (U-Th)/He) and geophysical information (shallow seismic reflection profiles, deep seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profiles and seismicity distribution) to propose an evolutionary model since the Jurassic to the present. During the Albian, hyperextension related to the opening of the Bay of Biscay yielded to mantle unroofing to the base of the BCB. This process was favored by a detachment fault that connected the mantle in its footwall with the base of a deep basin in its hanging wall. During this process, the basin experienced HT metamorphism and fluid circulation caused the serpentinization of the upper part of the mantle. There is no evidence of seafloor mantle exhumation before the onset of the Alpine orogeny. The thermochronological study points to a N-vergent phase of contractional deformation in the late Eocene represented by the thin-skinned Leiza fault system followed in the early Oligocene by the S-vergent, thick-skinned, Ollín thrust. Exhumation rates for the late Eocene-early Oligocene are of 0.2-0.7 km/Myr. After that period, deformation continues southwards until the Miocene. The crustal-scale structure resultant of the Alpine orogeny consists of an Iberian plate that subducts below the European plate. The crust is segmented into four blocks separated by three S-vergent crustal faults inherited from the Cretaceous extensional period. The P-wave velocities in this transect show anomalous values (7.4 km/s) in the

  10. SHRIMP-RG U-Pb isotopic systematics of zircon from the Angel Lake orthogneiss, East Humboldt Range, Nevada: Is this really archean crust?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premo, Wayne R.; Castineiras, Pedro; Wooden, Joseph L.

    2008-01-01

    New SHRIMP-RG (sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry) data confirm the existence of Archean components within zircon grains of a sample from the orthogneiss of Angel Lake, Nevada, United States, previously interpreted as a nappe of Archean crust. However, the combined evidence strongly suggests that this orthogneiss is a highly deformed, Late Cretaceous monzogranite derived from melting of a sedimentary source dominated by Archean detritus. Zircon grains from the same sample used previously for isotope dilution-thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) isotopic work were analyzed using the SHRIMP-RG to better define the age and origin of the orthogneiss. Prior to analysis, imaging revealed a morphological variability and intragrain, polyphase nature of the zircon population. The SHRIMP-RG yielded 207Pb/206Pb ages between ca. 2430 and 2580 Ma (a best-fit mean 207Pb/206Pb age of 2531 ± 19 Ma; 95% confidence) from mostly rounded to subrounded zircons and zircon components (cores). In addition, several analyses from rounded to subrounded cores or grains yielded discordant 207Pb/206Pb ages between ca. 1460 and ca. 2170 Ma, consistent with known regional magmatic events. All cores of Proterozoic to latest Archean age were encased within clear, typically low Th/U (206Pb/238U ages between 72 and 91 Ma, consistent with magmatic ages from Lamoille Canyon to the south. An age of ca. 90 Ma is suggested, the younger 206Pb/238U ages resulting from Pb loss. The Cretaceous and Precambrian zircon components also have distinct trace element characteristics, indicating that these age groups are not related to the same igneous source. These results support recent geophysical interpretations and negate the contention that the Archean-Proterozoic boundary extends into the central Great Basin area. They further suggest that the world-class gold deposits along the Carlin Trend are not underlain by Archean cratonal crust, but rather by the Proterozoic Mojave

  11. Modes of continental extension in a crustal wedge

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Guangliang

    2015-07-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. We ran numerical experiments of the extension of a crustal wedge as an approximation to extension in an orogenic belt or a continental margin. We study the effects of the strength of the lower crust and of a weak mid-crustal shear zone on the resulting extension styles. A weak mid-crustal shear zone effectively decouples upper crustal extension from lower crustal flow. Without the mid-crustal shear zone, the degree of coupling between the upper and the lower crust increases and extension of the whole crust tends to focus on the thickest part of the wedge. We identify three distinct modes of extension determined by the strength of the lower crust, which are characterized by 1) localized, asymmetric crustal exhumation in a single massif when the lower crust is weak, 2) the formation of rolling-hinge normal faults and the exhumation of lower crust in multiple core complexes with an intermediate strength lower crust, and 3) distributed domino faulting over the weak mid-crustal shear zone when the lower crust is strong. A frictionally stronger mid-crustal shear zone does not change the overall model behaviors but extension occurred over multiple rolling-hinges. The 3 modes of extension share characteristics similar to geological models proposed to explain the formation of metamorphic core complexes: 1) the crustal flow model for the weak lower crust, 2) the rolling-hinge and crustal flow models when the lower crust is intermediate and 3) the flexural uplift model when the lower crust is strong. Finally we show that the intensity of decoupling between the far field extension and lower crustal flow driven by the regional pressure gradient in the wedge control the overall style of extension in the models.

  12. Modes of continental extension in a crustal wedge

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Guangliang; Lavier, Luc L.; Choi, Eunseo

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. We ran numerical experiments of the extension of a crustal wedge as an approximation to extension in an orogenic belt or a continental margin. We study the effects of the strength of the lower crust and of a weak mid-crustal shear zone on the resulting extension styles. A weak mid-crustal shear zone effectively decouples upper crustal extension from lower crustal flow. Without the mid-crustal shear zone, the degree of coupling between the upper and the lower crust increases and extension of the whole crust tends to focus on the thickest part of the wedge. We identify three distinct modes of extension determined by the strength of the lower crust, which are characterized by 1) localized, asymmetric crustal exhumation in a single massif when the lower crust is weak, 2) the formation of rolling-hinge normal faults and the exhumation of lower crust in multiple core complexes with an intermediate strength lower crust, and 3) distributed domino faulting over the weak mid-crustal shear zone when the lower crust is strong. A frictionally stronger mid-crustal shear zone does not change the overall model behaviors but extension occurred over multiple rolling-hinges. The 3 modes of extension share characteristics similar to geological models proposed to explain the formation of metamorphic core complexes: 1) the crustal flow model for the weak lower crust, 2) the rolling-hinge and crustal flow models when the lower crust is intermediate and 3) the flexural uplift model when the lower crust is strong. Finally we show that the intensity of decoupling between the far field extension and lower crustal flow driven by the regional pressure gradient in the wedge control the overall style of extension in the models.

  13. Time-scale invariant changes in atmospheric radon concentration and crustal strain prior to a large earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kawada

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior to large earthquakes (e.g. 1995 Kobe earthquake, Japan, an increase in the atmospheric radon concentration is observed, and this increase in the rate follows a power-law of the time-to-earthquake (time-to-failure. This phenomenon corresponds to the increase in the radon migration in crust and the exhalation into atmosphere. An irreversible thermodynamic model including time-scale invariance clarifies that the increases in the pressure of the advecting radon and permeability (hydraulic conductivity in the crustal rocks are caused by the temporal changes in the power-law of the crustal strain (or cumulative Benioff strain, which is associated with damage evolution such as microcracking or changing porosity. As the result, the radon flux and the atmospheric radon concentration can show a temporal power-law increase. The concentration of atmospheric radon can be used as a proxy for the seismic precursory processes associated with crustal dynamics.

  14. Molybdenum isotopes in modern marine hydrothermal Fe/Mn deposits: Implications for Archean and Paleoproterozoic Mo cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, K. T.; Hein, J. R.; Shimoda, G.; Aoki, S.; Ishikawa, A.; Suzuki, K.; Gordon, G. W.; Anbar, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    Molybdenum isotope (δ98/95Mo) variations recorded in Archean and Paleoproterozoic Fe/Mn-rich sediments have been used to constrain ocean redox conditions at the time of deposition (Canfield et al., 2013 PNAS; Planavsky et al., 2014 Nat. Geo.; Kurzweil et al., 2015 GCA). However, except for hydrogenous Fe-Mn crusts (Siebert et al., 2003), δ98/95Mo variation of modern Fe and Mn oxide deposits has been poorly investigated. Marine hydrothermal systems are thought to be the major source of Fe and Mn in Archean and Paleoproterozoic Fe- and Mn-rich sediments. Hence, to accurately interpret Mo isotope data of those ancient sedimentary rocks, it is important to evaluate the possible influence of hydrothermally derived Mo on δ98/95Mo of modern Fe- and Mn-rich sediments. In this study, we analyzed Mo isotopic compositions of one hydrothermal Fe oxide and 15 Mn oxides from five different hydrothermal systems in the modern ocean. The Fe oxide is composed mainly of goethite, and has a δ98/95Mo of 0.7‰, which is 1.4‰ lighter than that of present-day seawater. The observed offset is similar to isotope fractionation observed during adsorption experiments of Mo on goethite (Δ98/95Mogoethite-solution = -1.4 ± 0.5%; Goldberg et al., 2009 GCA). The 15 hydrothermal Mn oxides show large variations in δ98/95Mo ranging from -1.7 to 0.5‰. However, most of the values are similar to those of modern hydrogenous Fe-Mn crusts (Siebert et al., 2003 EPSL), and fall within the range of estimated δ98/95Mo of Mn oxides precipitated from present-day seawater using the isotope offset reported from adsorption experiments (Δ98/95Mo = -2.7 ± 0.3‰; Wasylenki et al., 2008 GCA). These findings indicate that seawater is the dominant source of Mo for modern hydrothermal Fe and Mn deposits. However, the observed large variation indicates that the contribution Mo from local hydrothermal systems is not negligible. The oceanic Mo inventory during the Archean and Paleoproterozoic is thought to be

  15. 2.9-1.9 Ga paleoalterations of Archean granitic basement of the Franceville basin (Gabon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouélé, Idalina Moubiya; Dudoignon, Patrick; El Albani, Abderrazak; Meunier, Alain; Boulvais, Philippe; Gauthier-Lafaye, François; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Martin, Hervé; Cuney, Michel

    2014-09-01

    The Archean granitoids in the Kiéné area, Gabon, are overlained by the Paleoproterozoic sediments of the Franceville basin (2.1 Ga). The basin is known for its high-grade uranium deposits among which some have been forming natural nuclear fission reactors. Most of the studies were dedicated to the FA-FB Paleoproterozoic sediments hosting these uranium deposits. Little is known on the Archean basement itself and specifically on the hydrous alteration events it experienced before and after the sediment deposition. The present work is focused on their petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical characterization. Dating the successive alteration events has been attempted on altered monazite crystals. Rocks in different alteration states have been sampled from eight drill cores crosscutting the Archean - Paleoproterozoic unconformity. The Archean granitoids observed in the deepest levels exhibit typical petrographical features of a propylitic alteration while they are intensely illitized up to the unconformity. The propylitic alteration is mainly pervasive but the original texture of the granitoïds is conserved in spite of the formation of new minerals: Mg-chlorite, allanite and epidote forming a typical paragenesis. The illitic alteration is much more invasive near the unconformity. The illitization process leads to the replacement of feldspars and the corrosion of quartz crysals by an illitic matrix while the ferromagnesian minerals are pseudomorphosed by a Fe-chlorite + phengite + hematite assemblage. The final fluid-rock interaction step is marked by fissural deposits of calcite and anhydrite. The δ13C isotopic data show that the fissural carbonates precipitated from diagenetic fluids enriched carbon products deriving from the maturation of organic matter. The U-Pb isotopic analyzes performed on monazite crystals have dated three distinct events: 3.0-2.9 Ga (magmatic), 2.6 Ga (propylitic alteration) and 1.9 Ga (diagenetic illitization). The calculation of

  16. The crustal structure of Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada—teleseismic mapping across a remote intraplate orogenic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Christian; Stephenson, Randell; Oakey, Gordon N.; Jacobsen, Bo H.

    2016-03-01

    Ellesmere Island in Arctic Canada displays a complex geological evolution. The region was affected by two distinct orogenies, the Palaeozoic Ellesmerian orogeny (the Caledonian equivalent in Arctic Canada and Northern Greenland) and the Palaeogene Eurekan orogeny, related to the opening of Baffin Bay and the consequent convergence of the Greenland plate. The details of this complex evolution and the present-day deep structure are poorly constrained in this remote area and deep geophysical data are sparse. Receiver function analysis of seven temporary broad-band seismometers of the Ellesmere Island Lithosphere Experiment complemented by two permanent stations provides important data on the crustal velocity structure of Ellesmere Island. The crustal expression of the northernmost tectonic block of Ellesmere Island (˜82°-83°N), Pearya, which was accreted during the Ellesmerian orogeny, is similar to that at the southernmost part, which is part of the Precambrian Laurentian (North America-Greenland) craton. Both segments have thick crystalline crust (˜35-36 km) and comparable velocity-depth profiles. In contrast, crustal thickness in central Ellesmere Island decreases from ˜24-30 km in the Eurekan fold and thrust belt (˜79.7°-80.6°N) to ˜16-20 km in the Hazen Stable Block (HSB; ˜80.6°-81.4°N) and is covered by a thick succession of metasediments. A deep crustal root (˜48 km) at ˜79.6°N is interpreted as cratonic crust flexed beneath the Eurekan fold and thrust belt. The Carboniferous to Palaeogene sedimentary succession of the Sverdrup Basin is inferred to be up to 1-4 km thick, comparable to geologically-based estimates, near the western margin of the HSB.

  17. The Crustal Structure of the North-South Earthquake Belt in China Revealed from Deep Seismic Soundings and Gravity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Guo, Lianghui; Shi, Lei; Li, Yonghua

    2018-01-01

    The North-South earthquake belt (NSEB) is one of the major earthquake regions in China. The studies of crustal structure play a great role in understanding tectonic evolution and in evaluating earthquake hazards in this region. However, some fundamental crustal parameters, especially crustal interface structure, are not clear in this region. In this paper, we reconstructed the crustal interface structure around the NSEB based on both the deep seismic sounding (DSS) data and the gravity data. We firstly reconstructed the crustal structure of crystalline basement (interface G), interface between upper and lower crusts (interface C) and Moho in the study area by compiling the results of 38 DSS profiles published previously. Then, we forwardly calculated the gravity anomalies caused by the interfaces G and C, and then subtracted them from the complete Bouguer gravity anomalies, yielding the regional gravity anomalies mainly due to the Moho interface. We then utilized a lateral-variable density interface inversion technique with constraints of the DSS data to invert the regional anomalies for the Moho depth model in the study area. The reliability of our Moho depth model was evaluated by comparing with other Moho depth models derived from other gravity inversion technique and receiver function analysis. Based on our Moho depth model, we mapped the crustal apparent density distribution in the study area for better understanding the geodynamics around the NSEB.

  18. Crustal-Scale Fault Interaction at Rifted Margins and the Formation of Domain-Bounding Breakaway Complexes: Insights From Offshore Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmundsen, P. T.; Péron-Pinvidic, G.

    2018-03-01

    The large-magnitude faults that control crustal thinning and excision at rifted margins combine into laterally persistent structural boundaries that separate margin domains of contrasting morphology and structure. We term them breakaway complexes. At the Mid-Norwegian margin, we identify five principal breakaway complexes that separate the proximal, necking, distal, and outer margin domains. Downdip and lateral interactions between the faults that constitute breakaway complexes became fundamental to the evolution of the 3-D margin architecture. Different types of fault interaction are observed along and between these faults, but simple models for fault growth will not fully describe their evolution. These structures operate on the crustal scale, cut large thicknesses of heterogeneously layered lithosphere, and facilitate fundamental margin processes such as deformation coupling and exhumation. Variations in large-magnitude fault geometry, erosional footwall incision, and subsequent differential subsidence along the main breakaway complexes likely record the variable efficiency of these processes.

  19. Reconciling "Whiffs" of O2 with the Archean MIF S Record: Insights from Sulfide Oxidation Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A.; Reinhard, C. T.; Romaniello, S. J.; Greaney, A. T.; Garcia-Robledo, E.; Revsbech, N. P.; Canfield, D. E.; Lyons, T. W.; Anbar, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    The Archean-Proterozoic transition is marked by the first appreciable accumulation of O2 in Earth's oceans and atmosphere at 2.4 billion years ago (Ga). However, this Great Oxidation Event (GOE) is not the first evidence for O2 in Earth's surface environment. Paleoredox proxies preserved in ancient marine shales (Mo, Cr, Re, U) suggest transient episodes of oxidative weathering before the GOE, perhaps as early as 3.0 Ga. One marine shale in particular, the 2.5 Ga Mount McRae Shale of Western Australia, contains a euxinic interval with Mo enrichments up to 50 ppm. This enrichment is classically interpreted as the result of oxidative weathering of sulfides on the continental surface. However, prior weathering models based on experiments suggested that sulfides require large amounts of O2 [>10-4 present atmospheric level (PAL) pO2] to produce this weathering signature, in conflict with estimates of Archean pO2 from non-mass-dependent (NMD) sulfur isotope anomalies (molybdenite from 3 - 700 nM O2 (equivalent at equilibrium to 10-5 - 10-3 PAL) to measure oxidation kinetics as a function of the concentration of dissolved O2. We measured rates by injecting oxygenated water at a steady flow rate and monitoring dissolved O2 concentrations with LUMOS sensors. Our data extend the O2 range explored in pyrite oxidation experiments by three orders of magnitude and provide the first rates for molybdenite oxidation at O2 concentrations potentially analogous to those characteristic of the Archean atmosphere. Our results show that pyrite and molybdenite oxidize significantly more rapidly at lower O2 levels than previously thought. As a result, our revised weathering model demonstrates that the Mo enrichments observed in late Archean marine shales are potentially attainable at extremely low atmospheric pO2 values (e.g., <10-5 PAL), reconciling large sedimentary Mo enrichments with co-occurring NMD sulfur isotope anomalies.

  20. Crustal growth of the Izu-Ogasawara arc estimated from structural characteristics of Oligocene arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, N.; Yamashita, M.; Kodaira, S.; Miura, S.; Sato, T.; No, T.; Tatsumi, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) carried out seismic surveys using a multichannel reflection system and ocean bottom seismographs, and we have clarified crustal structures of whole Izu-Ogasawara (Bonin)-Marina (IBM) arc since 2002. These refection images and velocity structures suggest that the crustal evolution in the intra-oceanic island arc accompanies with much interaction of materials between crust and mantle. Slow mantle velocity identified beneath the thick arc crusts suggests that dense crustal materials transformed into the mantle. On the other hand, high velocity lower crust can be seen around the bottom of the crust beneath the rifted region, and it suggests that underplating of mafic materials occurs there. Average crustal production rate of the entire arc is larger than expected one and approximately 200 km3/km/Ma. The production rate of basaltic magmas corresponds to that of oceanic ridge. Repeated crustal differentiation is indispensable to produce much light materials like continental materials, however, the real process cannot still be resolved yet. We, therefore, submitted drilling proposals to obtain in-situ middle crust with P-wave velocity of 6 km/s. In the growth history of the IBM arc, it is known by many papers that boninitic volcanisms preceded current bimodal volcanisms based on basaltic magmas. The current volcanisms accompanied with basaltic magmas have been occurred since Oligocene age, however, the tectonic differences to develop crustal architecture between Oligocene and present are not understood yet. We obtained new refraction/reflection data along an arc strike of N-S in fore-arc region. Then, we estimate crustal structure with severe change of the crustal thickness from refraction data, which are similar to that along the volcanic front. Interval for location of the thick arc crust along N-S is very similar to that along the volcanic front. The refection image indicates that the basement of the fore

  1. Geochronology and geochemistry of deep-seated crustal xenoliths in the northern North China Craton: Implications for the evolution and structure of the lower crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yuping; Zheng, Jianping; Griffin, William L.; Huang, Yan; Wei, Ying; Ping, Xianquan

    2017-11-01

    The age and composition of the lower crust are critical in understanding the processes of continental formation and evolution, and deep-seated granulite xenoliths can offer direct information on the lower crust. Here, we report mineral chemistry, whole-rock major and trace elements, Sr-Nd isotopes and zircon U-Pb-Hf results for a suite of deep-seated crustal xenoliths, recently discovered in the Cenozoic basalts of the Nangaoya area in the northern part of the North China Craton (NCC). Based on the P-T estimates, these xenoliths including mafic, intermediate and felsic granulites and hornblendites were sampled from different levels of the lower crust. While a hornblendite has a flat REE pattern, all other xenoliths display LREE enrichment and depletion of Nb, Ta, Th and Ti. The mafic granulite xenolith has relatively high whole-rock εNd(t) value of - 13.37, and yields Mesozoic (188-59 Ma) zircons ages with high εHf(t) values from - 15.3 to - 9.2. The garnet-bearing intermediate granulite-facies rocks show low εNd(t) values from - 16.92 to - 17.48, and reveal both Paleoproterozoic (1948 Ma) and Mesozoic (222-63 Ma) zircon U-Pb ages. Their Mesozoic zircons have lower εHf(t) values (from - 18.4 to - 13.8) than those from the mafic xenolith. The remaining intermediate to felsic xenoliths show Paleoproterozoic zircon ages, and the lowest εNd(t) values (from - 20.78 to - 24.03). The mafic-intermediate granulites with Mesozoic zircons originated from the interaction of lower crust-derived magmas with mantle melts, with higher proportions of mantle magmas involved in the generation of mafic granulite, whereas intermediate to felsic xenoliths without Mesozoic zircons represent ancient Paleoproterozoic to Neoarchean deep crust. These deep-seated xenoliths reveal complicated crustal evolution processes, including crustal growth during Neoarchean (2.5-2.7 Ga), middle Paleoproterozoic (2.2-2.1 Ga) and Mesozoic, and reworking during early Paleoproterozoic, late

  2. The Glacial BuzzSaw, Isostasy, and Global Crustal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levander, A.; Oncken, O.; Niu, F.

    2015-12-01

    The glacial buzzsaw hypothesis predicts that maximum elevations in orogens at high latitudes are depressed relative to temperate latitudes, as maximum elevation and hypsography of glaciated orogens are functions of the glacial equilibrium line altitude (ELA) and the modern and last glacial maximum (LGM) snowlines. As a consequence crustal thickness, density, or both must change with increasing latitude to maintain isostatic balance. For Airy compensation crustal thickness should decrease toward polar latitudes, whereas for Pratt compensation crustal densities should increase. For similar convergence rates, higher latitude orogens should have higher grade, and presumably higher density rocks in the crustal column due to more efficient glacial erosion. We have examined a number of global and regional crustal models to see if these predictions appear in the models. Crustal thickness is straightforward to examine, crustal density less so. The different crustal models generally agree with one another, but do show some major differences. We used a standard tectonic classification scheme of the crust for data selection. The globally averaged orogens show crustal thicknesses that decrease toward high latitudes, almost reflecting topography, in both the individual crustal models and the models averaged together. The most convincing is the western hemisphere cordillera, where elevations and crustal thicknesses decrease toward the poles, and also toward lower latitudes (the equatorial minimum is at ~12oN). The elevation differences and Airy prediction of crustal thickness changes are in reasonable agreement in the North American Cordillera, but in South America the observed crustal thickness change is larger than the Airy prediction. The Alpine-Himalayan chain shows similar trends, however the strike of the chain makes interpretation ambiguous. We also examined cratons with ice sheets during the last glacial period to see if continental glaciation also thins the crust toward

  3. Reconnaissance isotopic investigations in the Namaqua mobile belt and implications for proterozoic crustal evolution - Namaqualand geotraverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, E.S.

    1983-01-01

    Fourteen rock units in the western portion of the Namaqua mobile belt were investigated by some or all of the following isotopic methods: Rb-Sr, Pb-Pb, Th-Pb total-rock and Rb-Sr mineral age measurements. Two major tectogenetic events are recongnised. The early Orange River event is represented by the emplacement and metamorphism of the volcanic rocks of the Haib Subgroup and the emplacement of granitoids of the Vioolsdrif and Gladkop suites in the regions of the Richtersveld Province and the Steinkopf domain. The later Namaqua event is represented mainly by extensive granitoid emplacement and high-grade granulite facies metamorphism in the Okiep Copper District, with minor granitoid and dyke emplacement taking place in the Steinkopf domain. The polymetamorphism associated with these tectonic events had far-reaching effects in the form of long continued isotopic resetting of rock and mineral systems. In the instances where the regression of the total-rock isotopic data define errorchron results, geological disturbance is inferred. The Sr-isotopic results indicate substrantial crustal reworking and two periods of mantle differentiation producing continental crust at approximately 2 000 and approximately 1 200 Ma ago. The Pb-isotopic data for these rocks indicate μ 2 values for the source regions that are compatible with crustal reworking for the felsic rocks or a significant amount of crustal recycling into the mantle for the mafic rocks. On this basis a magmatic arc environment is envisaged for the rocks generated during the Orange River event. The deformation fabrics associated with the Orange River and Namaqua tectogenetic episodes are dated by the time of emplacement of syn- and post-tectonic granitic rocks. The regional fabric observed in the Steinkopf domain and in the Okiep Copper District was not synchronously developed

  4. How Does Heat Flow Vary in the Ocean Floor? Crustal Evaluation Education Project. Teacher's Guide [and] Student Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoever, Edward C., Jr.

    Crustal Evolution Education Project (CEEP) modules were designed to: (1) provide students with the methods and results of continuing investigations into the composition, history, and processes of the earth's crust and the application of this knowledge to man's activities and (2) to be used by teachers with little or no previous background in the…

  5. Rhyacian evolution of the eastern São Luís Craton: petrography, geochemistry and geochronology of the Rosário Suite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Karine Correa Nogueira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The São Luís Cráton comprises an area between northeast Pará state and northwest Maranhão that exposes Paleoproterozoic granitic suites and meta-volcanosedimentary sequences. In the east of this geotectonic unit, about 70 km south of São Luís, there is a portion of the São Luís Craton, represented by the intrusive Rosario Suite (RS. This work is focused on rocks of this suite, including petrographic, lithochemical and geochronological studies to understand the crustal evolution of these granitoid rocks. The rock spectrum varies from tonalitic to granodioritic, quartz dioritic and granitic compositions, and there are partial structural and mineralogical changes related to deformation along transcurrent shear zones. The geochemical studies show granitic metaluminous compositions of the calc-alkaline series with I-type affinity typical of magmatic arc. Rare earth elements show marked fractionation and slight Eu positive or negative anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.82 to 1.1. Zircon U-Pb data provided consistent ages of 2165 ± 7 Ma, 2170 ± 7 Ma, 2170 ± 7 Ma, 2161 ± 4 Ma and 2175 ± 8 Ma, dating emplacement of these granitoids as Paleoproterozoic (Rhyacian. Sm-Nd isotopic data provided model ages (TDM of 2.21 to 2.31 Ga with positive values of εNd +1.9 to +3.2 (t = 2.17 Ga, indicating predominantly Rhyacian crustal sources for the parental magmas, similar to those ones found in other areas of the São Luís Craton. The data, integrated with published geological and geochronological information, indicate the occurrence of an important continental crust formation event in this area. The Paleoproterozoic evolution between 2.17 and 2.15 Ga is related to the Transamazonian orogeny. The granitoids of the Rosario Suite represent the main phase of continental arc magmatism that has continuity in other parts of the São Luís Craton and can be correlated with Rhyacian accretionary magmatism in the northwestern portion of the Amazonian Craton that

  6. Evaluating the earliest traces of Archean sub-seafloor life by NanoSIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcloughlin, N.; Grosch, E. G.; Kilburn, M.; Wacey, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Paleoarchean sub-seafloor has been proposed as an environment for the emergence of life with titanite microtextures in pillow lavas argued to be the earliest traces of microbial micro-tunneling (Furnes et al. 2004). Here we use a nano-scale ion microprobe (NanoSIMS) to evaluate possible geochemical traces of life in 3.45 Ga pillow lavas of the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. We investigated both surface and drill core samples from the original "Biomarker" outcrop in the Hooggenoeg Fm. Pillow lava metavolcanic glass contain clusters of segmented microcrystalline titanite filaments, ~4μm across and sedimentary sulfides (δ34S = +8 to -23‰). We propose that the Hooggenoeg sulfides probably formed during early fluid-rock-microbe interaction involving sulfate-reducing microbes (c.f. Rouxel et al. 2008). The pillow lavas were then metamorphosed, the glass transformed to a greenschist facies assemblage and titanite growth encapsulated the microbial sulfides. In summary, the extreme sulfur isotope fractionations reported here independently point towards the potential involvement of microbes in the alteration of Archean volcanic glass. In situ sulfur isotope analysis of basalt-hosted sulfides may provide an alternative approach to investigating the existence of an Archean sub-seafloor biosphere that does not require the mineralization of early microbial microborings with organic linings.

  7. Thinned crustal structure and tectonic boundary of the Nansha Block, southern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Miao; Wu, Shi-Guo; Zhang, Jian

    2016-12-01

    The southern South China Sea margin consists of the thinned crustal Nansha Block and a compressional collision zone. The Nansha Block's deep structure and tectonic evolution contains critical information about the South China Sea's rifting. Multiple geophysical data sets, including regional magnetic, gravity and reflection seismic data, reveal the deep structure and rifting processes. Curie point depth (CPD), estimated from magnetic anomalies using a windowed wavenumber-domain algorithm, enables us to image thermal structures. To derive a 3D Moho topography and crustal thickness model, we apply Oldenburg algorithm to the gravity anomaly, which was extracted from the observed free air gravity anomaly data after removing the gravity effect of density variations of sediments, and temperature and pressure variations of the lithospheric mantle. We found that the Moho depth (20 km) is shallower than the CPD (24 km) in the Northwest Borneo Trough, possibly caused by thinned crust, low heat flow and a low vertical geothermal gradient. The Nansha Block's northern boundary is a narrow continent-ocean transition zone constrained by magnetic anomalies, reflection seismic data, gravity anomalies and an interpretation of Moho depth (about 13 km). The block extends southward beneath a gravity-driven deformed sediment wedge caused by uplift on land after a collision, with a contribution from deep crustal flow. Its southwestern boundary is close to the Lupar Line defined by a significant negative reduction to the pole (RTP) of magnetic anomaly and short-length-scale variation in crustal thickness, increasing from 18 to 26 km.

  8. Yellowstone-Snake River Plain seismic profilling experiment: Crustal structure of the eastern Snake River Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braile, L.W.; Smith, R.B.; Ansorge, J.; Baker, M.R.; Sparlin, M.A.; Prodehl, C.; Schilly, M.M.; Healy, J.H.; Mueller, S.; Olsen, K.H.

    1982-01-01

    Seismic refraction profiles recorded along the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) in southeastern Idaho during the 1978 Yellowstone-Snake River Plain cooperative seismic profiling experiment are interpreted to infer the crustal velocity and attenuation (Q-1) structure of the ESRP. Travel-time and synthetic seismogram modeling of a 250 km reversed refraction profile as well as a 100 km detailed profile indicate that the crust of the ESRP is highly anomalous. Approximately 3 to 6 km of volcanic rocks (with some interbedded sediments) overlie an upper-crustal layer (compressional velocity approx. =6.1 km/s) which thins southwestward along the ESRP from a thickness of 10 km near Island Park Caldera to 2 to 3 km beneath the central and southwestern portions of the ESRP. An intermediate-velocity (approx. =6.5 km/s) layer extends from approx. =10 to approx. =20 km depth. a thick (approx. =22 km) lower crust of compressional velocity 6.8 km/s, a total crustall thickness of approx. =42 km, and a P/sub n/ velocity of approx. =7.9 km/s is observed in the ESRP, similar to the western Snake River Plain and the Rocky Mountains Provinces. High attenuation is evident on the amplitude corrected seismic data due to low-Q values in the volcanic rocks (Q/sub p/ = 20 to 200) and throughout the crust (Q/sub p/ = 160 to 300). Based on these characteristics of the crustal structure and volcanic-age progression data, it is suggested that the ESRP has resulted from an intensitive period of intrusion of mantle-derived basaltic magma into the upper crust generating explosive silicic volcanism and associated regional uplift and caldera collapse. This activity began about 15 m.y. ago in southwestern Idaho and has migrated northeast to its present position at Yellowstone. Subsequent cooling of the intruded upper crust results in the 6.5 km/s velocity intermediate layer. Crustal subsidence and periodic basaltic volcanism as represented by the ESRP complete the sequence of crustal evolution

  9. Geological and Chemical Factors that Impacted the Biological Utilization of Cobalt in the Archean Eon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Eli K.; Hao, Jihua; Prabhu, Anirudh; Zhong, Hao; Jelen, Ben I.; Meyer, Mike; Hazen, Robert M.; Falkowski, Paul G.

    2018-03-01

    The geosphere and biosphere coevolved and influenced Earth's biological and mineralogical diversity. Changing redox conditions influenced the availability of different transition metals, which are essential components in the active sites of oxidoreductases, proteins that catalyze electron transfer reactions across the tree of life. Despite its relatively low abundance in the environment, cobalt (Co) is a unique metal in biology due to its importance to a wide range of organisms as the metal center of vitamin B12 (aka cobalamin, Cbl). Cbl is vital to multiple methyltransferase enzymes involved in energetically favorable metabolic pathways. It is unclear how Co availability is linked to mineral evolution and weathering processes. Here we examine important biological functions of Co, as well as chemical and geological factors that may have influenced the utilization of Co early in the evolution of life. Only 66 natural minerals are known to contain Co as an essential element. However, Co is incorporated as a minor element in abundant rock-forming minerals, potentially representing a reliable source of Co as a trace element in marine systems due to weathering processes. We developed a mineral weathering model that indicates that dissolved Co was potentially more bioavailable in the Archean ocean under low S conditions than it is today. Mineral weathering, redox chemistry, Co complexation with nitrogen-containing organics, and hydrothermal environments were crucial in the incorporation of Co in primitive metabolic pathways. These chemical and geological characteristics of Co can inform the biological utilization of other trace metals in early forms of life.

  10. Empirical Records of Environmental Change across the Archean-Proterozoic Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, A. J.

    2011-12-01

    Time-series geochemical analyses of scientific drill cores intersecting the Archean-Proterozoic transition suggest a coupling of environmental and biological change that culminated in the pervasive oxygenation of Earth's atmosphere and oceans. Elemental and multiple isotope measurements of sedimentary archives, including carbonate, shale, and banded iron-formation from Western Australia, South Africa, Brazil, and southern Canada, indicate important changes in the carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen cycles that monitor the redox state of the oceans and the cyanobacterial buildup of atmospheric oxygen and ozone. In response, continental weathering would have increased, resulting in the enhanced delivery of sulfate and nutrients to seawater, further stimulating photoautotrophic fluxes of oxygen to surface environments. The positive feedback may additionally be responsible for the decline of atmospheric methane and surface refrigeration, represented by a series of discrete ice ages beginning around 2.4 billion years ago, due to the loss of greenhouse capacity during a time of lower solar luminosity. While speculative, the linkage of surface oxidation with enhanced nutrient supply and development of stratospheric sunscreen soon after the Archean-Proterozoic boundary suggests that the earliest perturbation in the carbon cycle may be associated with the rapid expansion of single-celled eukaryotes. Both sterol synthesis in eukaryotes and aerobic respiration require significant levels of oxygen in the ambient environment. Hence, Earth's earliest ice age(s) and onset of a modern and far more energetic carbon cycle may have been directly related to the global expansion of cyanobacteria that released oxygen to the environment, and of eukaryotes that respired it.

  11. Application of SAR interferometry to low-rate crustal deformation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Paul

    Differential SAR interferometry is applied to the study of low-rate interseismic crustal deformation fields along three regions of the San Adreas fault system: Salton Sea (southernmost region), Pinto Mountain fault (south-central region), and San Francisco Bay (northern region). New techniques are developed to analyze and model these low-rate deformation fields including constrained horizontal-vertical component deconvolution, deformation phase pattern analysis and strain field evolution modeling. Several new active faults were discovered as well as unmeasured activity on existing faults in the process of this SAR interferometry study. The feasibility and limitations of InSAR as a tool to study low-rate deformation fields is also addressed.

  12. Petrographic, geochemical and isotopic evidence of crustal assimilation processes in the Ponte Nova alkaline mafic-ultramafic massif, SE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzone, Rogério Guitarrari; Montecinos Munoz, Patricio; Enrich, Gaston Eduardo Rojas; Alves, Adriana; Ruberti, Excelso; Gomes, Celsode Barros

    2016-09-01

    Crustal assimilation plus crystal fractionation processes of different basanite magma batches control the evolution of the Ponte Nova cretaceous alkaline mafic-ultramafic massif in SE Brazil. This massif is composed of several intrusions, the main ones with a cumulate character. Disequilibrium features in the early-crystallized phases (e.g., corrosion and sieve textures in cores of clinopyroxene crystals, spongy-cellular-textured plagioclase crystals, gulf corrosion texture in olivine crystals) and classical hybridization textures (e.g., blade biotite and acicular apatite crystals) provide strong evidence of open-system behavior. All samples are olivine- and nepheline-normative rocks with basic-ultrabasic and potassic characters and variable incompatible element enrichments. The wide ranges of whole-rock 87Sr/86Sri and 143Nd/144Ndi ratios (0.70432-0.70641 and 0.512216-0.512555, respectively) are indicative of crustal contribution from the Precambrian basement host rocks. Plagioclase and apatite 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70422-0.70927) obtained for the most primitive samples of each intrusion indicate disequilibrium conditions from early- to principal-crystallization stages. Isotope mixing-model curves between the least contaminated alkaline basic magma and heterogeneous local crustal components indicate that each intrusion of the massif is differentiated from the others by varied degrees of crustal contribution. The primary mechanisms of crustal contribution to the Ponte Nova massif involve the assimilation of host rock xenoliths during the development of the chamber environment and the assimilation of partial melts from the surrounding host rocks. Thermodynamic models using the melts algorithm indicate that parental alkaline basic magmas can be strongly affected by contamination processes subsequently to their initial stages of crystallization when there is sufficient energy to assimilate partial melts of crustal host rocks. The assimilation processes are considered to

  13. Crustal thickness and Moho sharpness beneath the Midcontinent rift from receiver functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moikwathai Moidaki

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Mesoproterozoic Midcontinent rift (MCR in the central US is an approximately 2000 km long, 100 km wide structure from Kansas to Michigan. During the 20-40 million years of rifting, a thick (up to 20 km layer of basaltic lava was deposited in the rift valleys. Quantifying the effects of the rifting and associated volcanic eruptions on the structure and composition of the crust and mantle beneath the MCR is important for the understanding of the evolution of continental lithosphere. In this study we measure the crustal thickness (H, and the sharpness of the Moho (R at about 24 portable and permanent stations in Iowa, Kansas, and South Dakota by stacking Pto- S converted waves (PmS and their multiples (PPmS and PSmS. Under the assumption that the crustal mean velocity in the study area is the same as the IASP91 earth model, we find a significantly thickened crust beneath the MCR of about 53 km. The crustal Vp/Vs ratios increases from about 1.80 off rift to as large as 1.95 within the rift, which corresponds to an increase of Poisson’s ratio from 0.28 to 0.32, suggesting a more mafic crust beneath the MCR. The R measurements are spatially variable and are relatively small in the vicinity of the MCR, indicating the disturbance of the original sharp Moho by the rifting and magmatic intrusion and volcanic eruption.

  14. Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor - Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor Poster was created at NGDC using the Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor database draped digitally over a relief of the ocean floor...

  15. Radiogenic isotopes: the case for crustal recycling on a near-steady-state no-continental-growth Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The proposition that continental crust is recycled into the mantle and that the Earth is in a near-steady state with essentially constant volumes of oceans and crust through geological time is defended. Constancy of continental freeboard and uniformity of thickness of stable continental crust with age are the only two quantitative measures of crustal volume through time and these imply negligible crustal growth since 2.9 Ga B.P. Planetary analogies, Pb isotopes, atmospheric evolution, and palaeomagnetism also argue for early terrestrial differentiation. Rates of crustal growth and recycling are sufficient to reach a near-steady state over the first 1 Ga of Earth history, before widespread cratonization. Pb, Sr and Nd isotopic compositions of igneous rocks from the mantle are explainable in terms of a near-steady-state model. The recycling process can be observed on the Earth today. The observed escape of primordial 3 He from the mantle is not evidence for continuing continental differentiation or against early differentiation of the Earth. Even if nearly complete equilibrium chemical differentiation occurred at 4.6 Ga B.P., some 3 He would remain dissolved in the interior and would escape as recycling continued. (U.K.)

  16. The development and evolution of landform based on neotectonic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lingmin Zhong

    2018-02-14

    Feb 14, 2018 ... involving integration of data from the aspects of structural geology ... regions is very sensitive to crustal movement such as folding and faulting ...... drainage network evolution in the upper Narmada Valley: Implication to ...

  17. An Archean Geomagnetic Reversal in the Kaap Valley Pluton, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layer; Kroner; McWilliams

    1996-08-16

    The Kaap Valley pluton in South Africa is a tonalite intrusion associated with the Archean Barberton Greenstone Belt. Antipodal paleomagnetic directions determined from the central and marginal parts of the pluton record a geomagnetic reversal that occurred as the pluton cooled. The age of the reversal is constrained by an 40Ar/39Ar plateau age from hornblende at 3214 +/- 4 million years, making it the oldest known reversal. The data presented here suggest that Earth has had a reversing, perhaps dipolar, magnetic field since at least 3.2 billion years ago.

  18. Avalonian crustal controls on basin evolution: implications for the Mesozoic basins of the southern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Jeroen; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2015-04-01

    Little is known of the Southern North Sea Basin's (SNSB) Pre-Permian basement due to a lack of outcrop and cores. The nature and structure of the East Avalonian crust and lithosphere remain even less constrained in the absence of deep seismic (refraction) lines. However, various studies have hinted at the importance of the Reactivation of the Early Carboniferous fault network during each consecutive Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic phase, demonstrating the key role of weak zones from the Early Carboniferous structural grain in partitioning of structural deformation and vertical basin motions at various scales. Although the older basin history and the basement attract increasing attention, the Pre-Permian tectonics of the SNSB remains little studied with most attention focused on the Permian and younger history. The strong dispersal of existing constraints requires a comprehensive study from Denmark to the UK, i.e. the East Avalonian microplate, bordered by the Variscan Rheïc suture, the Atlantic and Baltica. Based on an extensive literature study and the reinterpretation of publicly available data, linking constraints from the crust and mantle to stratigraphic-sedimentological information, we complement the map of Early Carboniferous rifting of East Avalonia and propose a new tectonic scenario. From the reinterpretation of the boundary between Avalonia and Baltica we propose a new outline for the Avalonian microplate with implications for the tectonics of the North German Basin. Furthermore, we highlight the nature and extent of the major crustal/lithospheric domains with contrasting structural behaviour and the major boundaries that separate them. Results shed light on the effects of long lived differences in crustal fabric that are responsible for spatial heterogeneity in stress and strain magnitudes and zonations of fracturing, burial history and temperature history. The geomechanical control of large crustal-scale fault structures will provide the constraints

  19. Improved H-κ Method by Harmonic Analysis on Ps and Crustal Multiples in Receiver Functions with respect to Dipping Moho and Crustal Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Song, X.; Wang, P.; Zhu, L.

    2017-12-01

    The H-κ method (Zhu and Kanamori, 2000) has been widely used to estimate the crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio with receiver functions. However, in regions where the crustal structure is complicated, the method may produce uncertain or even unrealistic results, arising particularly from dipping Moho and/or crustal anisotropy. Here, we propose an improved H-κ method, which corrects for these effects first before stacking. The effect of dipping Moho and crustal anisotropy on Ps receiver function has been well studied, but not as much on crustal multiples (PpPs and PpSs+PsPs). Synthetic tests show that the effect of crustal anisotropy on the multiples are similar to Ps, while the effect of dipping Moho on the multiples is 5 times that on Ps (same cosine trend but 5 times in time shift). A Harmonic Analysis (HA) method for dipping/anisotropy was developed by Wang et al. (2017) for crustal Ps receiver functions to extract parameters of dipping Moho and crustal azimuthal anisotropy. In real data, the crustal multiples are much more complicated than the Ps. Therefore, we use the HA method (Wang et al., 2017), but apply separately to Ps and the multiples. It shows that although complicated, the trend of multiples can still be reasonably well represented by the HA. We then perform separate azimuthal corrections for Ps and the multiples and stack to obtain a combined receiver function. Lastly, the traditional H-κ procedure is applied to the stacked receiver function. We apply the improved H-κ method on 40 CNDSN (Chinese National Digital Seismic Network) stations distributed in a variety of geological setting across the Chinese continent. The results show apparent improvement compared to the traditional H-κ method, with clearer traces of multiples and stronger stacking energy in the grid search, as well as more reliable H-κ values.

  20. Tectonometamorphic evolution of Ghana, Togo and Benin in the light of the Pan-African/Brasiliano orogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaing, C.; Triboulet, C.; Feybesse, J. L.; Chèvremont, P.

    1993-02-01

    The South Pan-African belt of West Africa (Ghana, Togo and Benin province) can be divided into three domains: (1) the external nappes thrust over the West African craton, derived from passive-margin sedimentary deposits (Middle to Late Proterozoic) and displaying middle- to high-pressure metamorphism, such as the Kanté and Atacora nappes; (2) the intermediate nappes including the suture-zone rocks with eclogitic assemblages (protoliths ca. 800 Ma), and mainly monocyclic metasedimentary rock and orthogneiss, that are found in central Togo and northwest Benin; (3) the internal nappes composed of high-grade commonly anatectic gneiss (anatexis ca. 600 Ma), including orthogneiss (Eburnian plutons), elongated granulite belts, reworked Archean basement, and an intrusive granite and charnockite association (ca. 600 Ma), which are exposed in Benin and Nigeria. The P- T- t- d paths calculated from rocks in these three domains show a prograde-retrograde evolution: (1) an initial clockwise evolution related to an early burial stage ( HP- HT in the intermediate nappes) followed by oblique thrusting in a SW direction, that caused nappe stacking and subsequent uplift; (2) a second anti-clockwise evolution with late temperature and pressure increases, only recorded in the more internal units. This temperature increase was a consequence of the previous crustal thickening with subsequent doming, extension and anatexis. The pressure increase was related to movement along the Kandi fault, working as a dextral strike-slip fault with a transpressional component under late E-W shortening. The retrograde trend corresponds to the final uplift. The evolution of the belt can thus be divided into three successive stages: (1) a first stage was characterized by an oblique collision inducing SW oblique thrusting with associated syn-foliation reverse metamorphism; (2) during a second stage anatectic doming took place; followed by (3) a third stage at still high temperature with dextral wrench

  1. Crustal evolution at mantle depths constrained from Pamir xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, E.; Hacker, B. R.; Smit, M. A.; Kylander-Clark, A. R.; Ratschbacher, L.

    2012-12-01

    Lower crustal xenoliths erupted in the Pamir at ~11 Ma provide an exclusive opportunity to study the evolution of crust at mantle depths during a continent-continent collision. To investigate, and constrain the timing of, the petrologic processes that occurred during burial to the peak conditions (2.5-2.8 GPa, 1000-1100 °C; [1]), we performed chemical- and isotope analyses of accessory minerals in 10 xenoliths, ranging from eclogites to grt-ky-qtz granulites. In situ laser ablation split-stream ICPMS yielded 1) U-Pb ages, Ti concentrations and REE in zircon, 2) U/Th-Pb ages and REE in monazite, and 3) U-Pb ages and trace elements in rutile. In addition, garnet, and biotite and K-feldspar were dated using Lu-Hf and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, respectively. Zircon and monazite U-(Th-)Pb ages are 101.9±1.8, 53.7±1.0, 39.1±0.8, 21.7±0.4, 18.2±0.5, 16.9±0.8, 15.1±0.3 (2σ) and 12.5-11.1 Ma; most samples showed several or all of these populations. The 53.7 Ma and older ages are xenocrystic or detrital. For younger ages, zircon and monazite in individual samples recorded different ages-although zircon in one rock and monazite in another can be the same age. The 39.1 Ma zircon and monazite mostly occur as inclusions in minerals of the garnet-bearing assemblage that represents the early, low-P stages of burial. Garnet Lu-Hf ages of 37.8±0.3 Ma support garnet growth at this time. Spinifex-like textures containing 21.7-11.1 Ma zircon and monazite record short-lived partial melting events during burial. Aligned kyanite near these patches indicates associated deformation. Zircons yielding ≤12.5 Ma exhibit increased Eu/Eu* and markedly decreased HREE concentrations, interpreted to record feldspar breakdown and omphacite growth during increasing pressure. Rutile U-Pb cooling ages are 10.8±0.3 Ma in all samples. This agrees with the weighted mean 40Ar/39Ar age of eight biotite, K-feldspar and whole rock separates of 11.00+0.16/-0.09 Ma. Rutile in eclogites provides Zr

  2. Tectonic evolution of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, D.U.; Golombek, M.P.; McGill, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    Any model for the tectonic evolution of Mars must account for two major crustal elements: the Tharsis bulge and the topographically low and lightly crated northern third of the planet. Ages determined by crater density indicate that both of these elements came into existence very early in Martian history, a conclusion that holds no matter which of the current crater density versus age curves is used. The size of these two major crustal elements and their sequential development suggest that both may be related to a global-scale internal process. It is proposed that the resurfacing of the northern third of Mars is related to subcrustal erosion and isostatic foundering during the life of a first-order convection cell. With the demise of the cell, denser segregations of metallic materials began to coalesce as a gravitatively unstable layer which finally overturned to form the core. In the overturn, lighter crustal materials was shifted laterally and underplated beneath Tharsis to cause rapid and permanent isostatic rise. This was followed by a long-lived thermal phase produced by the hot underplate and by the gravitative energy of core formation slowly making its way to the surface to produce the Tharsis volcanics

  3. Petrogenesis of early cretaceous silicic volcanism in SE Uruguay. The role of mantle and crustal sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lustrino, Michele; Morbidelli, Lucio; Marrazzo, Marianna; Melluso, Leone; Brotzu, Pietro; Tassinari, Colombo C.G.; Gomes, Celso B.; Ruberti, Excelso

    2010-01-01

    Early Cretaceous (∼129 Ma) silicic rocks crop out in SE Uruguay between the Laguna Merin and Santa Lucia basins in the Lascano, Sierra Sao Miguel, Salamanca and Minas areas. They are mostly rhyolites with minor quartz-trachytes and are nearly contemporaneous with the Parana-Etendeka igneous province and with the first stages of South Atlantic Ocean opening. A strong geochemical variability (particularly evident from Rb/Nb, Nb/Y trace element ratios) and a wide range of Sr-Nd isotopic ratios ( 143 Nd/ 144 Nd (129) =0.51178-0.51209; 87 Sr/ 86 Sr (129) =0.70840-0.72417) characterize these rocks. Geochemistry allows to distinguish two compositional groups, corresponding to the north-eastern (Lascano and Sierra Sao Miguel, emplaced on the Neo-Proterozoic southern sector of the Dom Feliciano mobile belt) and south-eastern localities (Salamanca, Minas, emplaced on the much older (Archean) Nico Perez terrane or on the boundary between the Dom Feliciano and Nico Perez terranes). These compositional differences between the two groups are explained by variable mantle source and crust contributions. The origin of the silicic magmas is best explained by complex processes involving assimilation and fractional crystallization and mixing of a basaltic magma with upper crustal lithologies, for Lascano and Sierra Sao Miguel rhyolites. In the Salamanca and Minas rocks genesis, a stronger contribution from lower crust is indicated. (author)

  4. Petrogenesis of siliceous high-Mg series rocks as exemplified by the Early Paleoproterozoic mafic volcanic rocks of the Eastern Baltic Shield: enriched mantle versus crustal contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogina, Maria; Zlobin, Valeriy; Sharkov, Evgenii; Chistyakov, Alexeii

    2015-04-01

    The Early Paleoproterozoic stage in the Earth's evolution was marked by the initiation of global rift systems, the tectonic nature of which was determined by plume geodynamics. These processes caused the voluminous emplacement of mantle melts with the formation of dike swarms, mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions, and volcanic rocks. All these rocks are usually considered as derivatives of SHMS (siliceous high-magnesian series). Within the Eastern Baltic Shield, the SHMS volcanic rocks are localized in the domains with different crustal history: in the Vodlozero block of the Karelian craton with the oldest (Middle Archean) crust, in the Central Block of the same craton with the Neoarchean crust, and in the Kola Craton with a heterogeneous crust. At the same time, these rocks are characterized by sufficiently close geochemical characteristics: high REE fractionation ((La/Yb)N = 4.9-11.7, (La/Sm)N=2.3-3.6, (Gd/Yb)N =1.66-2.74)), LILE enrichment, negative Nb anomaly, low to moderate Ti content, and sufficiently narrow variations in Nd isotope composition from -2.0 to -0.4 epsilon units. The tectonomagmatic interpretation of these rocks was ambiguous, because such characteristics may be produced by both crustal contamination of depleted mantle melts, and by generation from a mantle source metasomatized during previous subduction event. Similar REE patterns and overlapping Nd isotope compositions indicate that the studied basaltic rocks were formed from similar sources. If crustal contamination en route to the surface would play a significant role in the formation of the studied basalts, then almost equal amounts of contaminant of similar composition are required to produce the mafic rocks with similar geochemical signatures and close Nd isotopic compositions, which is hardly possible for the rocks spaced far apart in a heterogeneous crust. This conclusion is consistent with analysis of some relations between incompatible elements and their ratios. In particular, the

  5. K-Ar geochronology of mafic dyke swarms from the meridional part of Sao Francisco craton and implications on tectonic context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, W.; Kawashita, K.; Pecchio, M.; Tame, N.R.

    1988-01-01

    The southern region of the Sao Francisco Craton is made up of gneissic-granitoid terranes (mainly of amphibolite facies) associated with supracrustals, which can be separed into two crustal provinces, the oldest formed during the Archean (3-2-2.6 Ga.), and the youngest in the Early Proterozoic (2.4-2.0 Ga.). Mafic dyke swarms inject the basement complexes in the area west of Belo Horizonte city, but not the Late proterozoic Bambui sedimentary cover. These dykes show NNW, NW, WNW, NNE and ENE trends and are of anorogenic character. Most dykes are tholeiitic in composition. Metamorphic recrystallization at greenschist to amphibolite facies as well as minor hidrothermal and/or deuteric transformations are characteristics in the majority of the these dykes. About sixty K/Ar determinations have been performed on plagioclases, amphiboles and whole rocks. They are interpretated combining the use of K/Ar diagrams and histogram, and according to the crustal evolution proposed for the craton. The available radiometric data suggest that the main period of mafic intrusions took place in the Early proterozoic as supported by the apparent ages on amphiboles. However, the beginning of the Middle Proterozoic (1.7-1.5 Ga.) probably corresponds to a period of tensional tectonics as well. On the other hand, most ages obtained on plagioclases and whole rocks, can be associated with Late Proterozoic processes of argon gain or loss. The results are tectonicaly associated with crustal rifting of the continental mass. This two radiometric groupings are characteristic for the evolution of the Early proterozoic crustal provine and of the Mid-Proterozoic intracratonic Espinhaco System respectively. The youngest Late Proterozoic apparent ages associated with the reflections of the contemporaneous evolution of the Braziliano marginal mobile belt which is also suggested by the partial resetting of the K/Ar ages of basement rocks within the eastern part of the Sao Francisco Craton. (author) [pt

  6. Archean evolution of Enderby Land (Antarctica) and isotope-geochronological evidences for its ancient history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krylov, D.P.; Belyatskij, B.V.

    1987-01-01

    Revew of published isotope-geochronological data on Ender by Land (Antarctica), which is the region of highly metamorphic formations predominant development which includes ancient rock relicts, is presented. Three tectonic-thermal events present the Archeau evolution in the region. Correlation of isotope-geochronological (U-Pb, Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd) data with micro textural processing allows to estimate tectonic-thermal events age: 3000-3100 about 2900 and about 2500 million years. Metamorphism of 3000-3100 million years age has essentially modified all the isotope systems, while model calculations for evolution of U-Pb, Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd systems have shown that rocks primary formation accurred 3500-3900 million years ago

  7. Crustal Gravitational Potential Energy Change and Subduction Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, P. P.

    2017-05-01

    Crustal gravitational potential energy (GPE) change induced by earthquakes is an important subject in geophysics and seismology. For the past forty years the research on this subject stayed in the stage of qualitative estimate. In recent few years the 3D dynamic faulting theory provided a quantitative solution of this subject. The theory deduced a quantitative calculating formula for the crustal GPE change using the mathematic method of tensor analysis under the principal stresses system. This formula contains only the vertical principal stress, rupture area, slip, dip, and rake; it does not include the horizontal principal stresses. It is just involved in simple mathematical operations and does not hold complicated surface or volume integrals. Moreover, the hanging wall vertical moving (up or down) height has a very simple expression containing only slip, dip, and rake. The above results are significant to investigate crustal GPE change. Commonly, the vertical principal stress is related to the gravitational field, substituting the relationship between the vertical principal stress and gravitational force into the above formula yields an alternative formula of crustal GPE change. The alternative formula indicates that even with lack of in situ borehole measured stress data, scientists can still quantitatively calculate crustal GPE change. The 3D dynamic faulting theory can be used for research on continental fault earthquakes; it also can be applied to investigate subduction earthquakes between oceanic and continental plates. Subduction earthquakes hold three types: (a) crust only on the vertical up side of the rupture area; (b) crust and seawater both on the vertical up side of the rupture area; (c) crust only on the vertical up side of the partial rupture area, and crust and seawater both on the vertical up side of the remaining rupture area. For each type we provide its quantitative formula of the crustal GPE change. We also establish a simplified model (called

  8. The Mars Crustal Magnetic Field Control of Plasma Boundary Locations and Atmospheric Loss: MHD Prediction and Comparison with MAVEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaohua; Ma, Yingjuan; Masunaga, Kei; Dong, Chuanfei; Brain, David; Halekas, Jasper; Lillis, Robert; Jakosky, Bruce M.; Connerney, Jack; Grebowsky, Joseph; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present results from a global Mars time-dependent MHD simulation under constant solar wind and solar radiation impact considering inherent magnetic field variations due to continuous planetary rotation. We calculate the 3-D shapes and locations of the bow shock (BS) and the induced magnetospheric boundary (IMB) and then examine their dynamic changes with time. We develop a physics-based, empirical algorithm to effectively summarize the multidimensional crustal field distribution. It is found that by organizing the model results using this new approach, the Mars crustal field shows a clear, significant influence on both the IMB and the BS. Specifically, quantitative relationships have been established between the field distribution and the mean boundary distances and the cross-section areas in the terminator plane for both of the boundaries. The model-predicted relationships are further verified by the observations from the NASA Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission. Our analysis shows that the boundaries are collectively affected by the global crustal field distribution, which, however, cannot be simply parameterized by a local parameter like the widely used subsolar longitude. Our calculations show that the variability of the intrinsic crustal field distribution in Mars-centered Solar Orbital itself may account for approx.60% of the variation in total atmospheric loss, when external drivers are static. It is found that the crustal field has not only a shielding effect for atmospheric loss but also an escape-fostering effect by positively affecting the transterminator ion flow cross-section area.

  9. landforms evolution in collisional-dominated settings: the case of Northern Sicily (Central Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Fabrizio; Renda, Pietro; Favara, Rocco

    2010-05-01

    In the young mountain chains underwent to emersion, the different crustal blocks which compose the belt may be subjected to differentiate tilting during uplift. The tilting process may be revealed both by the stratal pattern of the syn-uplifting deposits or deduced by the function altitude/area ratio. The prevailing of the uplift rate with respect to the tilting rate (and vice versa) result from the shape of this function. So, in young mountains the hypsometric analysis may results a useful tool for decipher how the crustal blocks are underwent to uplift. An integrate analysis based on stratigraphy, structural and morphometric data represents the correctly approach for characterise the landform evolution in regions underwent to active tectonics. In the aim to evaluate the recent tectonic history from topography in regions underwent to active deformations, by deducing the effect of tectonisms on landforms, the definition of the boundary conditions (regarding the crustal deformation) is fundamental for morphometric analysis. In fact, the morphologic style and the morphometric pattern in tectonically active settings are closely related to the dominance of rock masses exceeding for uplift (or failure for subsidence) with respect to the exogenous erosional processes. Collisional geodynamic processes induce crustal growth for faulting and folding. In this earth's sectors, the uplift of crustal blocks is a very common effect of compressional deformation. It reflects for example fold amplification and thrusting, but it is a very common process also in settings dominated by crustal thinning, where the viscoelastic properties of the lithosphere induce tilting and localised uplift of normal-faulted crustal blocks. The uplift rate is rarely uniform for wide areas within the orogens on the passive margins, but it changes from adjacent crustal blocks as the effect of space-variation of kinematics conditions or density. It also may change within a single block, as the effect of

  10. NASA Space Geodesy Program: GSFC data analysis, 1992. Crustal Dynamics Project VLBI geodetic results, 1979 - 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. W.; Ma, C.; Caprette, D. S.

    1993-01-01

    The Goddard VLBI group reports the results of analyzing 1648 Mark 3 data sets acquired from fixed and mobile observing sites through the end of 1991, and available to the Crustal Dynamics Project. Two large solutions were used to obtain Earth rotation parameters, nutation offsets, radio source positions, site positions, site velocities, and baseline evolution. Site positions are tabulated on a yearly basis for 1979 to 1995, inclusive. Site velocities are presented in both geocentric Cartesian and topocentric coordinates. Baseline evolution is plotted for 200 baselines, and individual length determinations are presented for an additional 356 baselines. This report includes 155 quasar radio sources, 96 fixed stations and mobile sites, and 556 baselines.

  11. Simulations of tremor-related creep reveal a weak crustal root of the San Andreas Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, David R.; Bradley, Andrew M.; Johnson, Kaj M.

    2013-01-01

    Deep aseismic roots of faults play a critical role in transferring tectonic loads to shallower, brittle crustal faults that rupture in large earthquakes. Yet, until the recent discovery of deep tremor and creep, direct inference of the physical properties of lower-crustal fault roots has remained elusive. Observations of tremor near Parkfield, CA provide the first evidence for present-day localized slip on the deep extension of the San Andreas Fault and triggered transient creep events. We develop numerical simulations of fault slip to show that the spatiotemporal evolution of triggered tremor near Parkfield is consistent with triggered fault creep governed by laboratory-derived friction laws between depths of 20–35 km on the fault. Simulated creep and observed tremor northwest of Parkfield nearly ceased for 20–30 days in response to small coseismic stress changes of order 104 Pa from the 2003 M6.5 San Simeon Earthquake. Simulated afterslip and observed tremor following the 2004 M6.0 Parkfield earthquake show a coseismically induced pulse of rapid creep and tremor lasting for 1 day followed by a longer 30 day period of sustained accelerated rates due to propagation of shallow afterslip into the lower crust. These creep responses require very low effective normal stress of ~1 MPa on the deep San Andreas Fault and near-neutral-stability frictional properties expected for gabbroic lower-crustal rock.

  12. Magma Supply of Southwest Indian Ocean: Implication from Crustal Thickness Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiheng, L.; Jianghai, L.; Huatian, Z.; Qingkai, F.

    2017-12-01

    The Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) is one of the world's slowest spreading ridges with a full spreading rate of 14mm a-1, belonging to ultraslow spreading ridge, which are a novel class of spreading centers symbolized by non-uniform magma supply and crustal accretion. Therefore, the crustal thickness of Southwest Indian Ocean is a way to explore the magmatic and tectonic process of SWIR and the hotspots around it. Our paper uses Residual Mantle Bouguer Anomaly processed with the latest global public data to invert the relative crustal thickness and correct it according to seismic achievements. Gravity-derived crustal thickness model reveals a huge range of crustal thickness in Southwest Indian Ocean from 0.04km to 24km, 7.5km of average crustal thickness, and 3.5km of standard deviation. In addition, statistics data of crustal thickness reveal the frequency has a bimodal mixed skewed distribution, which indicates the crustal accretion by ridge and ridge-plume interaction. Base on the crustal thickness model, we divide three types of crustal thickness in Southwest Indian Ocean. About 20.31% of oceanic crust is 9.8km thick as thick crust. Furthermore, Prominent thin crust anomalies are associated with the trend of most transform faults, but thick crust anomalies presents to northeast of Andrew Bain transform fault. Cold and depleted mantle are also the key factors to form the thin crust. The thick crust anomalies are constrained by hotspots, which provide abundant heat to the mantle beneath mid-ocean ridge or ocean basin. Finally, we roughly delineate the range of ridge-plume interaction and transform fault effect.

  13. Satellite measurements of the earth's crustal magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnetzler, C. C.

    1989-01-01

    The literature associated with the Magsat mission has evaluated the capabilities and limitations of satellite measurements of the earth's crustal magnetic field, and demonstrated that there exists a 300-3000 km magnetic field, related to major features in the earth's crust, which is primarily caused by induction. Due to its scale and sensitivity, satellite data have been useful in the development of models for such large crustal features as subduction zones, submarine platforms, continental accretion boundaries, and rifts. Attention is presently given to the lack of agreement between laboratory and satellite estimates of lower crustal magnetization.

  14. Topography of the Betics: crustal thickening, dynamic topography and relief inheritance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowski, Marianne; Loget, Nicolas; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Husson, Laurent; Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Meyer, Bertrand

    2017-04-01

    The main mechanism that explains high orogenic topographies is the isostatic adjustment due to crustal thickening. However in the Betic Cordillera (South Spain), the present-day elevation and crustal thickness are not correlated. That is at odds with the general premise of isostasy and requires reappraising the question of the driving mechanisms leading to the current topography. The Betics are located at the western edge of the alpine Mediterranean belt. Its Cenozoic orogenic building was disrupted by a major crustal thinning event induced by a slab rollback in the internal zones (Alboran domain) during Neogene. Topography was largely levelled and flooded by the sea during Neogene extension, and then has been folded since the Late Tortonian inversion. The present-day topography shows flat summits still preserved from fluvial regression in the internal zones (central and eastern Betics). These low-relief surfaces may be inherited from the Neogene planation toward sea-level as rocks cooling histories inferred from low-temperature thermochronology seem to point it out. Post-Tortonian shortening estimated thanks to a crustal-scale N-S cross-section in the eastern Betics (at the Sierra Nevada longitude) does not exceed few kilometers which is much lower than the shortening required by isostatic equilibrium, and is thus insufficient to explain the post-Tortonian topography building. We tested the hypothesis that mantle dynamics could in fact be an important mechanism that explains the topography of the Betics. We first computed the residual topography (i.e. the non-isostatic component of the elevation) using the most recent published Moho mapping of the area. In the western Betics, our results show important negative residual topography (down to -3 km) possibly associated with the west-Alboran slab suction. In the eastern Betics however, positive residual topography is important (up to +3 km) and can be explained by the dynamic mantle support of the topography, possibly

  15. Investigation of lunar crustal structure and isostasy. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurber, C.H.

    1987-07-01

    The lunar mascon basins have strongly free air gravity anomalies, generally exceeding 100 milligals at an elevation of 100 km. The source of the anomalies is a combination of mantle uplift beneath the impact basins and subsequent infilling by high-density mare basalts. The relative contribution of these two components is still somewhat uncertain, although it is generally accepted that the amount of mantle uplift greatly exceeds the thickness of the basalts. Extensive studies have been carried out of the crustal structure of mare basins, based on gravity data, and their tectonic evolution, based on compressive and extensional tectonic features. The present study endeavored to develop a unified, self-consistent model of the lunar crust and lithosphere incorporating both gravity and tectonic constraints

  16. Crustal structure along the west flank of the Cascades, western Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K.C.; Keller, Gordon R.; Gridley, J.M.; Luetgert, J.H.; Mooney, W.D.; Thybo, H.

    1997-01-01

    Knowledge of the crustal structure of the Washington Cascades and adjacent Puget Lowland is important to both earthquake hazards studies and geologic studies of the evolution of this tectonically active region. We present a model for crustal velocity structure derived from analysis of seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection data collected in 1991 in western Washington. The 280-km-long north-south transect skirts the west flank of the Cascades as it crosses three tectonic provinces including the Northwest Cascades Thrust System (NWCS), the Puget Lowland, and the volcanic arc of the southern Cascades. Within the NWCS, upper crustal velocities range from 4.2 to 5.7 km s-1 and are consistent with the presence of a diverse suite of Mesozoic and Paleozoic metasediments and metavolcanics. In the upper 2-3 km of the Puget Lowland velocities drop to 1.7-3.5 km s-1 and reflect the occurrence of Oligocene to recent sediments within the basin. In the southern Washington Cascades, upper crustal velocities range from 4.0 to 5.5 km s-1 and are consistent with a large volume of Tertiary sediments and volcanics. A sharp change in velocity gradient at 5-10 km marks the division between the upper and middle crust. From approximately 10 to 35 km depth the velocity field is characterized by a velocity increase from ???6.0 to 7.2 km s-1. These high velocities do not support the presence of marine sedimentary rocks at depths of 10-20 km beneath the Cascades as previously proposed on the basis of magnetotelluric data. Crustal thickness ranges from 42 to 47 km along the profile. The lowermost crust consists of a 2 to 8-km-thick transitional layer with velocities of 7.3-7.4 km s-1. The upper mantle velocity appears to be an unusually low 7.6-7.8 km s-1. When compared to velocity models from other regions, this model most closely resembles those found in active continental arcs. Distinct seismicity patterns can be associated with individual tectonic provinces along the seismic transect. In

  17. Crustal structure and evolution of the NW Zagros Mountains (Iran): Insights from numerical modeling of the interplay between surface and tectonic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saura, Eduard; Garcia-Castellanos, Daniel; Casciello, Emilio; Vergés, Jaume

    2014-05-01

    Protracted Arabia-Eurasia convergence resulted in the closure of the >2000 km wide Neo-Tethys Ocean from early Late Cretaceous to Recent. This process was controlled by the structure of the NE margin of the Arabian plate, the NE-dipping oceanic subduction beneath Eurasia, the obduction of oceanic lithosphere and the collision of small continental and volcanic arc domains of the SW margin of Eurasia. The evolution of the Zagros Amiran and Mesopotamian foreland basins is studied in this work along a ~700 km long transect in NW Zagros constrained by field, seismic and published data. We use the well-defined geometries and ages of the Amiran and Mesopotamian foreland basins to estimate the elastic thickness of the lithosphere and model the evolution of the deformation to quantitatively link the topographic, tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the system. Modelling results show two major stages of emplacement. The obduction (pre-collision) stage involves the thin thrust sheets of the Kermanshah complex together with the Bisotun basement. The collision stage corresponds to the emplacement of the basement duplex and associated crustal thickening, coeval to the out of sequence emplacement of Gaveh Rud and Imbricated Zone in the hinterland. The geodynamic model is consistent with the history of the foreland basins, with the regional isostasy model, and with a simple scenario for the surface process efficiency. The emplacement of Bisotun basement during obduction tectonically loaded and flexed the Arabian plate triggering deposition in the Amiran foreland basin. The basement units emplaced during the last 10 My, flexed the Arabian plate below the Mesopotamian basin. During this stage, material eroded from the Simply Folded belt and the Imbricated zone was not enough to fill the Mesopotamian basin, which, according to our numerical model results, required a maximum additional sediment supply of 80 m/Myr. This additional supply had to be provided by an axial drainage system

  18. Mars - Crustal structure inferred from Bouguer gravity anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R. J.; Saunders, R. S.; Conel, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    Bouguer gravity has been computed for the equatorial region of Mars by differencing free air gravity and the gravity predicted from topographic variations. The free air gravity was generated from an eighth-order set of spherical harmonic coefficients. The gravity from topographic variations was generated by integrating a two-dimensional Green's function over each contour level. The Bouguer gravity indicates crustal inhomogeneities on Mars that are postulated to be variations in crustal thickness. The Tharsis ridge is a region of thick continental type crust. The gravity data, structural patterns, topography, and surface geology of this region lead to the interpretation of the Tharsis topographic high as a broad crustal upwarp possibly associated with local formation of lower-density crustal material and subsequent rise of a thicker crust. The Amazonis region is one of several basins of relatively thin crust, analogous to terrestrial ocean basins. The Libya and Hellas basins, which are probable impact features, are also underlain by thin crust and are possible regions of mantle upwelling.

  19. CRUSTAL THICKNESS VARIATIONS AND SEISMICITY OF NORTHWESTERN SOUTH AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Kim Jeong

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Any uncompensated mass of the northern Andes Mountains is presumably under pressure to adjust within the Earth to its ideal state of isostatic equilibrium. Isostasy is the ideal state that any
    uncompensated mass seeks to achieve in time. These pressures interact with the relative motions between adjacent plates that give rise to earthquakes along the plate boundaries. By combining the
    gravity MOHO estimates and crustal discontinuities with historical and instrumental seismological catalogs the correlation between isostatically disturbed terrains and seismicity has been established.
    The thinner and thicker crustal regions were mapped from the zero horizontal curvature of the crustal thickness estimates. These boundaries or edges of crustal thickness variations were compared to
    crustal discontinuities inferred from gravity and magnetic anomalies and the patterns of seismicity that have been catalogued for the last 363 years. The seismicity is very intense along the Nazca-North
    Andes, Caribbean-North American and North Andes-South American collision zones and associated with regional tectonic compressional stresses that have locally increased and/or diminished by
    compressional and tensional stress, respectively, due to crustal thickness variations. High seismicity is also associated with the Nazca-Cocos diverging plate boundary whereas low seismicity is associated with the Panama-Nazca Transform Fault and the South American Plate.

  20. Seismically constrained two-dimentional crustal thermal structure of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cambay basin; P-wave velocity; heat flow; heat generation; 2-D modelling; crustal thermal structure; Mohodepth; Curie isotherm. ... This work deals with the two-dimensional thermal modelling to delineate the crustal thermal structure along a 230 km long Deep Seismic Sounding (DSS) profile in the north Cambay basin.

  1. The role of biology in planetary evolution: cyanobacterial primary production in low?oxygen Proterozoic oceans

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Trinity L.; Bryant, Donald A.; Macalady, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Understanding the role of biology in planetary evolution remains an outstanding challenge to geobiologists. Progress towards unravelling this puzzle for Earth is hindered by the scarcity of well?preserved rocks from the Archean (4.0 to 2.5?Gyr ago) and Proterozoic (2.5 to 0.5?Gyr ago) Eons. In addition, the microscopic life that dominated Earth's biota for most of its history left a poor fossil record, consisting primarily of lithified microbial mats, rare microbial body fossils and m...

  2. Petrography and geochemistry of the Javaherdasht basalts (east of Guilan Province): The investigation of the role of crystal fractionation and crustal contamination in the magmatic evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghnazar, Sh.; Malakotian, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Javaherdasht Basalts show compositional range from olivine basalts to quartz basaltic andesites. Petrographic studies indicate that the differentiation of clinopyroxene and olivine minerals has main role for lithologic variety of the basalts. The corrosion golf, crenated margins and lack of the same colour in the clinopyroxene phenochrysts margins with matrix Pyroxene grains express a nonequilibrium and are petrographic features for crustal contamination of the basalts.The positive correlation Ca O,Ca O/Al 2 O 3 and Cr with Mg and Ca O/Al 2 O 3 with Sc and the negative correlation Al 2 O 3 with Mg are geochemical characters for the differentiation of clinopyroxene and olivine in the magmatic evolution of the area.The high ratios of Ba/Zr and Pb/Nd and law ratio of Ce/Pb and positive correlation of SiO 2 and Rb with 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and negative correlation of Nd-Sr isotopes display the contamination of these basalts with continental crust.

  3. The fundamental structural framework of Goias state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasui, Y.; Haralyi, N.L.E.

    1986-01-01

    The fundamental structural framework of the State of Goias is done by the Araguacema, Porangatu, Brasilia and Parana crustal blocks, linked through obduction zones at late Archean time. This first-order structure deduced from gravimetric and magnetic data is consistent with the distribution of granite-greenstone terrains high-grade terrains and associated supracrustals. This crustal geometry was modified by vertical shear zones and polycyclic faults, mostly of NW to WNW and NE to ENE trends, to which total displacements up to 200 km are related. Some isotope dating of the rocks are also presented. (author)

  4. Crustal parameters in the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, E.

    1988-06-01

    The structure of the crust in the Iberian Peninsula has been investigated for the last 15 years by Spanish and Portuguese groups in close collaboration with other European institutions. The first experiments were carried out in Portugal (Mueller et al., 1973) with the aim of investigating the crustal structure of the Hercynian belt in the southwest corner of the Iberian peninsula. Other experiments have been subsequently realized to study different aspects of the crust in various regions of Portugal. In Spain the main effort has been focused in Alpine areas, with the first experiments in the Alboran Sea and the Betic Cordilleras (Working Group for Deep Seismic Sounding in Spain, 1974-1975, 1977; Working Group for Deep Seismic Sounding in the Alboran Sea, 1974-1975, 1978). Follow-up experiments until 1981 completed the work in the Betic Cordillera. Extensive experiments were carried out in the Pyrenees in 1978. Further surveys covered the Balearic Islands in 1976, the Valencia Trough in 1976 and 1983, and the Celtiberian Chain (or Iberic system) in 1981. The Hercynian belt has only been studied in detail in the northwest corner of Spain in 1982, with smaller studies in the central Iberian Massif in 1976 and 1986. Mostaanpour (1984) has compiled some crustal parameters (crustal thickness, average crustal velocity and Pn velocity) for western Europe. Meanwhile, more complete data are available for the Iberian Peninsula. The results presented here were derived from a large number of seismic refraction experiments which have been carried out mostly along or close to coastal areas of the Iberian Peninsula. Offshore explosions of various sizes were used as the energy source in most cases, in addition to some quarry blasts. Unfortunately this leaves most of the inner part of the Iberian Peninsula unsurveyed. Our purpose is to summarize some of the crustal parameters obtained so far and to detail the appropriate literature for the interested reader.

  5. Crustal deformation mechanism in southeastern Tibetan Plateau: Insights from numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Liu, S.; Chen, L.

    2017-12-01

    The Indo-Asian collision developed the complicated crustal deformation around the southeastern Tibetan plateau. Numerous models have proposed to explain the crustal deformation, but the mechanism remains controversial, especially the increasing multi-geophysics data, which demonstrate the existence of lower velocity, lower resistivity and high conductivity, implying that lower crustal flow is responsible for the crustal deformation, arguing for the lower crust flow model. To address the relations between the crust flow and the surface deformation, we employ a three-dimensional viscoelastic finite model to investigate the possible influence on the surface deformation, and discuss the stress field distribution under the model. Our preliminary results suggest that lower crustal flow plays an important role in crustal deformation in southeastern Tibetan plateau. The best fitting is achieved when the flow velocity of the lower crust is approximately 10-11 mm/a faster than that of the upper crust. Crustal rheological properties affect regional crustal deformation, when the viscosity of the middle and lower crust in the South China block reaches 1022 and 1023 Pa.s, respectively; the predicted match observations well, especially for the magnitude within the South China block. The maximum principal stress field exhibits clear zoning, gradually shifting from an approximately east-west orientation in the northern Bayan Har block to southeast in the South China block, southwest in the western Yunnan block, and a radially divergent distribution in the Middle Yunnan and Southern Yunnan blocks.

  6. Continental crustal formation and recycling: Evidence from oceanic basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, A. D.; Tarney, J.; Norry, M. J.

    1988-01-01

    Despite the wealth of geochemical data for subduction-related magma types, and the clear importance of such magmas in the creation of continental crust, there is still no concensus about the relative magnitudes of crustal creation versus crustal destruction (i.e., recycling of crust into the mantle). The role of subducted sediment in the formation of the arc magmas is now well documented; but what proportion of sediment is taken into the deeper mantle? Integrated isotopic and trace element studies of magmas erupted far from presently active subduction zones, in particular basaltic rocks erupted in the ocean basins, are providing important information about the role of crustal recycling. By identifying potential chemical tracers, it is impossible to monitor the effects of crustal recycling, and produce models predicting the mass of material recycled into the mantle throughout long periods of geological time.

  7. The co-evolution of seawater δ18O and δD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, E. C.

    2017-12-01

    The δ18O of marine carbonate and silica precipitates has increased by 15‰ over the last ca. 3.5 billion years. Whether this shift reflects a parallel increase in oxygen isotope compositions of seawater with time, Precambrian atmospheric temperatures >55°C, or complete alteration of ancient samples during diagenesis, remains controversial despite nearly a half-century of debate. Early mass balance models of the modern ocean system suggested near constant δ18OSEAWATER over time due to the buffering capacity of fresh oceanic crust. However, fluxes controlling 18O sources and sinks to the ocean (high-temperature alteration of the seafloor, and low-temperature weathering of continental and ocean crust, respectively) have not remained fixed throughout Earth history. I adapted published mass balance models for δ18OSEAWATER to evaluate how continental growth, the subaerial emergence of continents, and decreasing mantle temperature affect the magnitude of 18O sources and sinks, and thus the evolution of seawater δ18O since the early Archean. These factors also affect the δD of seawater, which is controlled by the flux of water between mantle, crustal and glacial reservoirs, such that its evolution can be used as an independent constraint on the magnitude that these variables have had on δ18O evolution. The models indicate that a key parameter controlling δ18OSEAWATER is the flux of water between the mantle and free water of the exosphere. Recent geophysical models suggest that the capacity for subducting slabs to sequester water into the deep ocean has increased as the mantle has cooled. Hydrous minerals in subducted oceanic crust have a net δ18O lower than seawater. Incomplete recycling of water from these phases in subduction zones results in progressive removal of 16O from the ocean and thus can explain a significant portion of the increase in δ18O recorded in the marine sediment record. However, mass balance constraints on the global hydrogen budget limits

  8. Crustal rifting and magmatic underplating in the Izu-Ogasawara (Bonin) intra-oceanic arc detected by active source seismic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, N.; Kodaira, S.; Yamashita, M.; Miura, S.; Sato, T.; No, T.; Tatsumi, Y.; Kaneda, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Rift has thicker crust than that beneath recent volcanic front, although crustal thinning with high velocity lower crust was detected beneath advanced rifted region. This suggests that the magmatic underplating play a role to make open the crust. The magmatic underplating accompanied with the initial rifting is one of important issues to discuss the crustal evolution.

  9. Crustal Structure and Mantle Transition Zone Thickness beneath the Central Mongolia from Teleseismic Receiver Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J.; Wu, Q.; Gao, M.; Munkhuu, U.; Demberel, S. G.

    2013-12-01

    The Mongolian Plateau (northern Asia) is situated between the Gobi-Altai range and the Siberian craton. In order to understand the crustal and mantle structure environmental characteristics, we use the teleseismic data recorded by 69 broadband stations located in the Central Mongolia(103.5°-111.5°E, 42°-50°N). The teleseismic events are selected from the global earthquakes between Aug. 2011 and Dec. 2013 with magnitude >5.5and the epicentral distance range from 30° to 95° to the center of the network. Lateral variations of the crustal thicknesses H and Vp/Vs ratios are obtained by using receiver function method. The crust thins gradually from northwest to southeast in the studying field. We found that the thinnest crust is ~37.5km in the southeast which is Gobi. The distribution of Vp/Vs ratios are between 1.68 and 1.84, which shows the heterogeneity. There are three high-anomaly areas: the Gobi range which is the Later Paleozoic Orogeny; the Khentei Mountains which is in the Jurassic-Cretaceous Reactive Continental Margin; the northwest area which is granite. Our research not only reveals the powerful evident of the crustal formation and evolution mechanism, but also provides some constraints on the mechanism of uplift of the Mongolian Plateau.This study was supported by the international cooperation project of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2011DFB20120).

  10. Magmatic and Crustal Differentiation History of Granitic Rocks from Hf-O Isotopes in Zircon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, , A. I. S.; Hawkesworth, , C. J.; Foster, , G. L.; Paterson, , B. A.; Woodhead, , J. D.; Hergt, , J. M.; Gray, , C. M.; Whitehouse, M. J.

    2007-02-01

    Granitic plutonism is the principal agent of crustal differentiation, but linking granite emplacement to crust formation requires knowledge of the magmatic evolution, which is notoriously difficult to reconstruct from bulk rock compositions. We unlocked the plutonic archive through hafnium (Hf) and oxygen (O) isotope analysis of zoned zircon crystals from the classic hornblende-bearing (I-type) granites of eastern Australia. This granite type forms by the reworking of sedimentary materials by mantle-like magmas instead of by remelting ancient metamorphosed igneous rocks as widely believed. I-type magmatism thus drives the coupled growth and differentiation of continental crust.

  11. Quantitative tectonic reconstructions of Zealandia based on crustal thickness estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobys, Jan W. G.; Gohl, Karsten; Eagles, Graeme

    2008-01-01

    Zealandia is a key piece in the plate reconstruction of Gondwana. The positions of its submarine plateaus are major constraints on the best fit and breakup involving New Zealand, Australia, Antarctica, and associated microplates. As the submarine plateaus surrounding New Zealand consist of extended and highly extended continental crust, classic plate tectonic reconstructions assuming rigid plates and narrow plate boundaries fail to reconstruct these areas correctly. However, if the early breakup history shall be reconstructed, it is crucial to consider crustal stretching in a plate-tectonic reconstruction. We present a reconstruction of the basins around New Zealand (Great South Basin, Bounty Trough, and New Caledonia Basin) based on crustal balancing, an approach that takes into account the rifting and thinning processes affecting continental crust. In a first step, we computed a crustal thickness map of Zealandia using seismic, seismological, and gravity data. The crustal thickness map shows the submarine plateaus to have a uniform crustal thickness of 20-24 km and the basins to have a thickness of 12-16 km. We assumed that a reconstruction of Zealandia should close the basins and lead to a most uniform crustal thickness. We used the standard deviation of the reconstructed crustal thickness as a measure of uniformity. The reconstruction of the Campbell Plateau area shows that the amount of extension in the Bounty Trough and the Great South Basin is far smaller than previously thought. Our results indicate that the extension of the Bounty Trough and Great South Basin occurred simultaneously.

  12. Crustal evolution of granitoids and gneisses from the Cambaizinho belt, southern Brazil: Review zircon Pb-Pb evaporation ages and Pb-Nd-Sr isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remus, M.V.D; Macambira, M.B; Hartmann, L.A.; Beilfuss, M

    2001-01-01

    Deformed granitoids and gneisses from the Cambai Complex (900-700 Ma) along Cambaizinho Creek and in the Vila Nova do Sul region, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were formed in a remarkably short time, about 10 m.y., between 704±13 and 697±3 Ma. The data base of this work includes eighteen zircon Pb/Pb evaporation analyses, five Pb isotope in feldspar and whole rock. The oldest known rocks in the region are polydeformed dioritic gneisses dated by conventional U-Pb zircon at 704±13 Ma. New Pb-Pb zircon evaporation data on the late transcurrent, less deformed and more evolved granitoids (Sanga do Jobim Granitoids) yield a 697± Ma age and indicates that the evolution of the plutonic magmatism in the area was nearly contemporaneous. These data contrast with previous interpretations based on Rb-Sr data which considered that these rock associations were formed during a longer time period (700-640 Ma). All these granitoids intruded the supracrustal sequence. These granitoids yield a minimum age of about 700 Ma for the formation of the supracrustal sequence and its regional dynamothermal metamorphism. Lead isotope composition of K-feldspar from Sanga do Jobim Granitoids plot close to, but slightly below the lead isotope evolution curve of orogeny in the Zartmann and Doe model (1981). This indicates that the setting for these granitoids was that of a juvenile magmatic arc. These new data plus previous data in the region also corroborate that the crustal evolution involved juvenile crust accreted between 760-700 Ma. In contrast, the Cacapava and Sao Sepe Granites intruded the supracrustal sequences along the eastern side of the Sao Gabriel Block at 562 Ma and 550 Ma, respectively, and show Pb and Nd isotope signatures from an old basement. This evidence suggests that the juvenile terrane was thrusted over the older basement situated along the eastern part of the shield during the Dom Feliciano collisional orogeny at about 620-590 Ma (au)

  13. Crustal Structure of Active Deformation Zones in Africa: Implications for Global Crustal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebinger, C. J.; Keir, D.; Bastow, I. D.; Whaler, K.; Hammond, J. O. S.; Ayele, A.; Miller, M. S.; Tiberi, C.; Hautot, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Cenozoic East African rift (EAR), Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL), and Atlas Mountains formed on the slow-moving African continent, which last experienced orogeny during the Pan-African. We synthesize primarily geophysical data to evaluate the role of magmatism in shaping Africa's crust. In young magmatic rift zones, melt and volatiles migrate from the asthenosphere to gas-rich magma reservoirs at the Moho, altering crustal composition and reducing strength. Within the southernmost Eastern rift, the crust comprises 20% new magmatic material ponded in the lower crust and intruded as sills and dikes at shallower depths. In the Main Ethiopian Rift, intrusions comprise 30% of the crust below axial zones of dike-dominated extension. In the incipient rupture zones of the Afar rift, magma intrusions fed from crustal magma chambers beneath segment centers create new columns of mafic crust, as along slow-spreading ridges. Our comparisons suggest that transitional crust, including seaward dipping sequences, is created as progressively smaller screens of continental crust are heated and weakened by magma intrusion into 15-20 km thick crust. In the 30 Ma Recent CVL, which lacks a hot spot age progression, extensional forces are small, inhibiting the creation and rise of magma into the crust. In the Atlas orogen, localized magmatism follows the strike of the Atlas Mountains from the Canary Islands hot spot toward the Alboran Sea. CVL and Atlas magmatism has had minimal impact on crustal structure. Our syntheses show that magma and volatiles are migrating from the asthenosphere through the plates, modifying rheology, and contributing significantly to global carbon and water fluxes.

  14. Finite-frequency P-wave tomography of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin: Implications for the lithospheric evolution in Western Laurentia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunfeng; Gu, Yu Jeffrey; Hung, Shu-Huei

    2017-02-01

    The lithosphere beneath the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin has potentially undergone Precambrian subduction and collisional orogenesis, resulting in a complex network of crustal domains. To improve the understanding of its evolutionary history, we combine data from the USArray and three regional networks to invert for P-wave velocities of the upper mantle using finite-frequency tomography. Our model reveals distinct, vertically continuous high (> 1%) velocity perturbations at depths above 200 km beneath the Precambrian Buffalo Head Terrane, Hearne craton and Medicine Hat Block, which sharply contrasts with those beneath the Canadian Rockies (Medicine Hat Block (200 km). These findings are consistent with earlier theories of tectonic assembly in this region, which featured distinct Archean and Proterozoic plate convergences between the Hearne craton and its neighboring domains. The highly variable, bimodally distributed craton thicknesses may also reflect different lithospheric destruction processes beneath the western margin of Laurentia.

  15. Crustal Viscosity Structure Estimated from Multi-Phase Mixing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinevar, W. J.; Behn, M. D.; Hirth, G.

    2014-12-01

    Estimates of lower crustal viscosity are typically constrained by analyses of isostatic rebound, post seismic creep, and laboratory-derived flow laws for crustal rocks and minerals. Here we follow a new approach for calculating the viscosity structure of the lower continental crust. We use Perple_X to calculate mineral assemblages for different crustal compositions. Effective viscosity is then calculated using the rheologic mixing model of Huet et al. (2014) incorporating flow laws for each mineral phase. Calculations are performed along geotherms appropriate for the Basin and Range, Tibetan Plateau, Colorado Plateau, and the San Andreas Fault. To assess the role of crustal composition on viscosity, we examined two compositional gradients extending from an upper crust with ~67 wt% SiO2 to a lower crust that is either: (i) basaltic with ~53 wt% SiO2 (Rudnick and Gao, 2003), or (ii) andesitic with ~64% SiO2 (Hacker et al., 2011). In all cases, the middle continental crust has a viscosity that is 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than that inferred for wet quartz, a common proxy for mid-crustal viscosities. An andesitic lower crust results in viscosities of 1020-1021 Pa-s and 1021-1022 Pa-s for hotter and colder crustal geotherms, respectively. A mafic lower crust predicts viscosities that are an order of magnitude higher for the same geotherm. In all cases, the viscosity calculated from the mixing model decreases less with depth compared to single-phase estimates. Lastly, for anhydrous conditions in which alpha quartz is stable, we find that there is a strong correlation between Vp/Vs and bulk viscosity; in contrast, little to no correlation exists for hydrous conditions.

  16. Crustal structural survey for the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, utilizing geophysical and geological information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haralyi, N.L.E.; Hasui, Y.; Mioto, J.A.; Hamza, V.M.

    1985-01-01

    Gravity, Magnetic (airborne, Magnet and Magsat), heat flow and seismicity available data for the state of Minas Gerais and adjacent regions is here analyzed, discussed and integrated with geologic information. The Late Archean crustal structure is defined as blocks of granite-greenstone separated by belts of high-grade terrains. The belts in eastern and southern Minas Gerais represent the lower parts of the Vitoria, Sao Paulo and Parana Blocks, which were up thrusted over the Brasilia Block through low-angle ductile simple shear Zones. That regional structure is cut and somewhat displaced by NW, ENE, NE and Ns fault sets. These faults are mostly related to the Transamazonian Event, and their geological expression appears to be as high-angle ductile simple shear zones. The development of the Middle/upper proterozoic folded sequences, the incidence of the Brasiliano/Uruacuano thermo tectonic events and the geometry of the Sao Francisco Craton were highly influenced by the preexistent weakness zones. The high-grade terrains, the borders of the Brasilia Block and the Transamazonian lineaments have been preferentially affected. The tectono-magmatic manifestations of the Wealdenian Reactivation, related to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean, occurred mostly among the uplifted zones (Alto Paranaiba Uplift) that developed partially until the rift stage (Mantiqueira Uplift). These processes clearly reveal the influence of the old structures of the state of Minas Gerais. The Mantiqueira Uplift presents a more accentuated seismic activity and thermal flow regime than the neighboring regions, so corresponding to the present less stable area of Minas Gerais. (DJM) [pt

  17. Iron isotopes in ancient and modern komatiites: Evidence in support of an oxidised mantle from Archean to present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbert, K. E. J.; Williams, H. M.; Kerr, A. C.; Puchtel, I. S.

    2012-03-01

    The mantle of the modern Earth is relatively oxidised compared to the initially reducing conditions inferred for core formation. The timing of the oxidation of the mantle is not conclusively resolved but has important implications for the timing of the development of the hydrosphere and atmosphere. In order to examine the timing of this oxidation event, we present iron isotope data from three exceptionally well preserved komatiite localities, Belingwe (2.7 Ga), Vetreny (2.4 Ga) and Gorgona (0.089 Ga). Measurements of Fe isotope compositions of whole-rock samples are complemented by the analysis of olivine, spinel and pyroxene separates. Bulk-rock and olivine Fe isotope compositions (δ57Fe) define clear linear correlations with indicators of magmatic differentiation (Mg#, Cr#). The mean Fe isotope compositions of the 2.7-2.4 Ga and 0.089 Ga samples are statistically distinct and this difference can be explained by greater extent of partial melting represented by the older samples and higher mantle ambient temperatures in the Archean and early Proterozoic relative to the present day. Significantly, samples of all ages define continuous positive linear correlations between bulk rock δ57Fe and V/Sc and δ57Fe and V, and between V/Sc and V with TiO2, providing evidence for the incompatible behaviour of V (relative to Sc) and of isotopically heavy Fe. Partial melting models calculated using partition coefficients for V at oxygen fugacities (fO2s) of 0 and + 1 relative to the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer (FMQ) best match the data arrays, which are defined by all samples, from late Archean to Tertiary. These data, therefore, provide evidence for komatiite generation under moderately oxidising conditions since the late Archean, and argue against a change in mantle fO2 concomitant with atmospheric oxygenation at ~ 2.4 Ga.

  18. Evolution of uranogenic and thorogenic lead. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amov, B.G.

    1983-01-01

    On the basis of a dynamic model of a continuous Pb isotope evolution, the variations in the isotopic ratios of uranogenic and thorogenic Pb in a number of young ore deposits, ocean sediments and volcanic rocks from mid-ocean ridges, oceanic islands, island arcs and continents are evaluated. The deviations in the Th/U ratio from its model values are calculated. A model parameter T which indicates a more ancient enrichment in U/Pb (crustal-type Pb sources) or younger enrichment in U/Pb (mantle-type Pb sources) is also calculated. The relative change in the Th/U ratio is close to 1 for mantle-type Pb sources (lower T values) and decreases for crustal-type Pb sources (higher T values). An interpretation of these changes could be connected with the differences in the U and Th geochemical behaviours in metamorphic processes under the conditions of a deeper (mantle) or crustal source owing to the differences in their valence states. In some cases they have similar (U 4+ and Th 4+ ) migration abilities; in others (U 6+ and Th 4+ ), considerably different. (orig.)

  19. New Crustal Thickness for Djibouti, Afar, Using Seismic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugda, Mulugeta; Bililign, Solomon

    2008-10-01

    Crustal thickness and Poisson's ratio for the seismic station ATD in Djibouti, Afar, has been investigated using two seismic techniques (H-κ stacking of receiver functions and a joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave group velocities). Both techniques give consistent results of crustal thickness 23±1.5 km and Poisson's ratio 0.31±0.02. We also determined a mean P-wave velocity (Vp) of ˜6.2 km/s but ˜6.9-7.0 km/s below a 2 - 5 km thick low velocity layer at the surface. Previous studies of crustal structure for Djibouti reported that the crust is 6 to 11 km thick while our study shows that the crust beneath Djibouti is between 20 and 25 km. This study argues that the crustal thickness values reported for Djibouti for the last 3 decades were not consistent with the reports for the other neighboring region in central and eastern Afar. Our results for ATD in Djibouti, however, are consistent with the reports of crustal thickness in many other parts of central and eastern Afar. We attribute this difference to how the Moho (the crust-mantle discontinuity) is defined (an increase of Vp to 7.4 km/s in this study vs. 6.9 km/s in previous studies).

  20. The Evolution of Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis of Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Wu, T.; Li, M.; Zhang, Y.; Hua, Y.; Zhang, B.

    2017-12-01

    Indian plate has been colliding with Eurasian plate since 50Ma years ago, resulting in the Tethys extinction, crust shortening and Tibetan plateau uplift. But it is still a debate how the Tibetan Plateau material escaped. This study tries to invert the distributions of dispersion phase velocity and anisotropy in Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis (EHS) based on the seismic data. We focused on the seven sub-blocks around EHS region. Sub-block "EHS" represents EHS corner with high velocity anomalies, significantly compressed in the axle and strike directions. Sub-blocks "LSD", "QTB" and "SP-GZB" are located at its northern areas with compressions also, and connected with low-velocity anomalies in both crustal and upper mantle rocks. Sub-block "ICB" is located at its southern area with low velocity anomaly, and connected with Tengchong volcano. Sub-blocks "SYDB" and "YZB" are located at its eastern areas with high velocity anomalies in both crustal and upper mantle rocks. Our results demonstrated that significant azimuthal anisotropy of crust (t£30s) and upper mantle (30s£t£60s). Crustal anisotropy indicates the orogenic belt matched well with the direction of fast propagation, and upper mantle anisotropy represents the lattic-preferred orientation (LPO) of mantle minerals (e.g. olivine and basalt), indicating the features of subducting Indian plate. Besides, Red River fault is a dextral strike fault, controlling the crustal and mantle migration. There is a narrow zone to be the channel flow of Tibetan crustal materials escaping toward Yunnan area. The evolution of EHS seems constrained by gravity isostatic mechanism. Keywords: Tibetan Plateau; Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis; Red River fault; crustal flow; surface wave; anisotropy

  1. Tracing crustal contamination along the Java segment of the Sunda Arc, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolis, E. M.; Troll, V.; Deegan, F.; Blythe, L.; Harris, C.; Freda, C.; Hilton, D.; Chadwick, J.; Van Helden, M.

    2012-04-01

    Arc magmas typically display chemical and petrographic characteristics indicative of crustal input. Crustal contamination can take place either in the mantle source region or as magma traverses the upper crust (e.g. [1]). While source contamination is generally considered the dominant process (e.g. [2]), late-stage crustal contamination has been recognised at volcanic arcs too (e.g. [3]). In light of this, we aim to test the extent of upper crustal versus source contamination along the Java segment of the Sunda arc, which, due its variable upper crustal structure, is an exemplary natural laboratory. We present a detailed geochemical study of 7 volcanoes along a traverse from Anak-Krakatau in the Sunda strait through Java and Bali, to characterise the impact of the overlying crust on arc magma composition. Using rock and mineral elemental geochemistry, radiogenic (Sr, Nd and Pb) and, stable (O) isotopes, we show a correlation between upper crustal composition and the degree of upper crustal contamination. We find an increase in 87Sr/86Sr and δ18O values, and a decrease in 143Nd/144Nd values from Krakatau towards Merapi, indicating substantial crustal input from the thick continental basement present. Volcanoes to the east of Merapi and the Progo-Muria fault transition zone, where the upper crust is thinner, in turn, show considerably less crustal input in their isotopic signatures, indicating a stronger influence of the mantle source. Our new data represent a systematic and high-resolution arc-wide sampling effort that allows us to distinguish the effects of the upper crust on the compositional spectrum of individual volcanic systems along the Sunda arc. [1] Davidson, J.P, Hora, J.M, Garrison, J.M & Dungan, M.A 2005. Crustal Forensics in Arc Magmas. J. Geotherm. Res. 140, 157-170; [2] Debaille, V., Doucelance, R., Weis, D., & Schiano, P. 2005. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 70,723-741; [3] Gasparon, M., Hilton, D.R., & Varne, R. 1994. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 126, 15-22.

  2. Late Archean Surface Ocean Oxygenation (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, B.; Reinhard, C.; Lyons, T. W.; Kaufman, A. J.; Anbar, A. D.

    2009-12-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis must have evolved by 2.45-2.32 Ga, when atmospheric oxygen abundances first rose above 0.001% present atmospheric level (Great Oxidation Event; GOE). Biomarker evidence for a time lag between the evolution of cyanobacterial oxygenic photosynthesis and the GOE continues to be debated. Geochemical signatures from sedimentary rocks (redox-sensitive trace metal abundances, sedimentary Fe geochemistry, and S isotopes) represent an alternative tool for tracing the history of Earth surface oxygenation. Integrated high-resolution chemostratigraphic profiles through the 2.5 Ga Mt. McRae Shale (Pilbara Craton, Western Australia) suggest a ‘whiff’ of oxygen in the surface environment at least 50 M.y. prior to the GOE. However, the geochemical data from the Mt. McRae Shale does not uniquely constrain the presence or extent of Late Archean ocean oxygenation. Here, we present high-resolution chemostratigraphic profiles from 2.6-2.5 Ga black shales (upper Campbellrand Subgroup, Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa) that provide the earliest direct evidence for an oxygenated ocean water column. On the slope beneath the Campbellrand - Malmani carbonate platform (Nauga Formation), a mildly oxygenated water column (highly reactive iron to total iron ratios [FeHR/FeT] ≤ 0.4) was underlain by oxidizing sediments (low Re and Mo abundances) or mildly reducing sediments (high Re but low Mo abundances). After drowning of the carbonate platform (Klein Naute Formation), the local bottom waters became anoxic (FeHR/FeT > 0.4) and intermittently sulphidic (pyrite iron to highly reactive iron ratios [FePY/FeHR] > 0.8), conducive to enrichment of both Re and Mo in sediments, followed by anoxic and Fe2+-rich (ferruginous) conditions (high FeT, FePY/FeHR near 0). Widespread surface ocean oxygenation is suggested by Re enrichment in the broadly correlative Klein Naute Formation and Mt. McRae Shale, deposited ~1000 km apart in the Griqualand West and Hamersley basins

  3. Seismological Constraints on Lithospheric Evolution in the Appalachian Orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, K. M.; Hopper, E.; Hawman, R. B.; Wagner, L. S.

    2017-12-01

    Crust and mantle structures beneath the Appalachian orogen, recently resolved by seismic data from the EarthScope SESAME Flexible Array and Transportable Array, provide new constraints on the scale and style of the Appalachian collision and subsequent lithospheric evolution. In the southern Appalachians, imaging with Sp and Ps phases reveals the final (Alleghanian) suture between the crusts of Laurentia and the Gondwanan Suwannee terrane as a low angle (Kellogg, 2017) isostatic arguments indicate crustal thicknesses were 15-25 km larger at the end of the orogeny, indicating a thick crustal root across the region. The present-day residual crustal root beneath the Blue Ridge mountains is estimated to have a density contrast with the mantle of only 104±20 kg/m3. This value is comparable to other old orogens but lower than values typical of young or active orogens, indicating a loss of lower crustal buoyancy over time. At mantle depths, the negative shear velocity gradient that marks the transition from lithosphere to asthenosphere, as illuminated by Sp phases, varies across the Appalachian orogen. This boundary is shallow beneath the northeastern U.S. and in the zone of Eocene volcanism in Virginia, where low velocity anomalies occur in the upper mantle. These correlations suggest recent active lithosphere-asthenosphere interaction.

  4. Average sedimentary rock rare Earth element patterns and crustal evolution: Some observations and implications from the 3800 Ma ISUA supracrustal belt, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymek, R. F.; Boak, J. L.; Gromet, L. P.

    1983-01-01

    Rare earth element (REE) data is given on a set of clastic metasediments from the 3800 Ma Isua Supracrustal belt, West Greenland. Each of two units from the same sedimentary sequence has a distinctive REE pattern, but the average of these rocks bears a very strong resemblance to the REE pattern for the North American Shale Composite (NASC), and departs considerably from previous estimates of REE patterns in Archaean sediments. The possibility that the source area for the Isua sediments resembled that of the NASC is regarded as highly unlikely. However, REE patterns like that in the NASC may be produced by sedimentary recycling of material yielding patterns such as are found at Isua. The results lead to the following tentative conclusions: (1) The REE patterns for Isua Seq. B MBG indicate the existence of crustal materials with fractionated REE and negative Eu anomalies at 3800 Ma, (2) The average Seq. B REE pattern resembles that of the North American Shale Composite (NASC), (3) If the Seq. B average is truly representative of its crustal sources, then this early crust could have been extensively differentiated. In this regard, a proper understanding of the NASC pattern, and its relationship to post-Archaean crustal REE reservoirs, is essential, (4) The Isua results may represent a local effect.

  5. Lower crustal earthquakes in the North China Basin and implications for crustal rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, D. A.; Dong, Y.; Ni, S.; LI, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The North China Basin is a Mesozoic-Cenozoic continental rift basin on the eastern North China Craton. It is the central region of craton destruction, also a very seismically active area suffering severely from devastating earthquakes, such as the 1966 Xingtai M7.2 earthquake, the 1967 Hejian M6.3 earthquake, and the 1976 Tangshan M7.8 earthquake. We found remarkable discrepancies of depth distribution among the three earthquakes, for instance, the Xingtai and Tangshan earthquakes are both upper-crustal earthquakes occurring between 9 and 15 km on depth, but the depth of the Hejian earthquake was reported of about 30 72 km, ranging from lowermost crust to upper mantle. In order to investigate the focal depth of earthquakes near Hejian area, we developed a method to resolve focal depth for local earthquakes occurring beneath sedimentary regions by P and S converted waves. With this method, we obtained well-resolved depths of 44 local events with magnitudes between M1.0 and M3.0 during 2008 to 2016 at the Hejian seismic zone, with a mean depth uncertainty of about 2 km. The depth distribution shows abundant earthquakes at depth of 20 km, with some events in the lower crust, but absence of seismicity deeper than 25 km. In particular, we aimed at deducing some constraints on the local crustal rheology from depth-frequency distribution. Therefore, we performed a comparison between the depth-frequency distribution and the crustal strength envelop, and found a good fit between the depth profile in the Hejian seismic zone and the yield strength envelop in the Baikal Rift Systems. As a conclusion, we infer that the seismogenic thickness is 25 km and the main deformation mechanism is brittle fracture in the North China Basin . And we made two hypotheses: (1) the rheological layering of dominant rheology in the North China Basin is similar to that of the Baikal Rift Systems, which can be explained with a quartz rheology at 0 10 km depth and a diabase rheology at 10 35 km

  6. High-spatial resolution SIMS U-Pb zircon dating on Malay tin granites: New insights to crustal evolution of the Malaysian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, S.; Searle, M. P.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Chung, S.; Robb, L. J.; Ghani, A. A.; Sone, M.

    2012-12-01

    characteristics, such as in sodium, potassium, ferric and ferrous ion concentration. Exceptionally high rubidium concentration in some samples also hinders the classification. The ɛNd(T) values of most of the samples lie between -2.5 and -9.7, suggesting that crustal remelting played an important role in the granite petrogenesis. Likewise tin mineralization is not restricted to S-type granites throughout all provinces. Further field studies and continuation of the U-Pb dating programme through southern Malaysia to Singapore Island should result in tighter constraints on the magmatic and tectonic evolution of the region. References Cobbing, E. J., Mallick, D. I. J., Pitfield, P. E. J., and Teoh, L. H., 1986, The granites of the Southeast Asian Tin Belt: Journal of Geological Society, v. 143, p. 537-550. Searle, M. P., Whitehouse, M. J., Robb, L. J., Ghani, A. A., Hutchison, C. S., Sone, M., Ng, S. W.-p., Roselee, M. H., Chung, S.-l., and Oliver, G. J. H., 2012, Tectonic evolution of the Sibumasu-Indochina terrane collision zone in Thailand and Malaysia; constraints from new U-Pb zircon chronology of SE Asian tin granitoids: Journal of Geological Society, v. 169, p. 489-500.

  7. West-directed thrusting south of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis indicates clockwise crustal flow at the indenter corner during the India-Asia collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haproff, Peter J.; Zuza, Andrew V.; Yin, An

    2018-01-01

    Whether continental deformation is accommodated by microplate motion or continuum flow is a central issue regarding the nature of Cenozoic deformation surrounding the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. The microplate model predicts southeastward extrusion of rigid blocks along widely-spaced strike-slip faults, whereas the crustal-flow model requires clockwise crustal rotation along closely-spaced, semi-circular right-slip faults around the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. Although global positioning system (GPS) data support the crustal-flow model, the surface velocity field provides no information on the evolution of the India-Asia orogenic system at million-year scales. In this work, we present the results of systematic geologic mapping across the northernmost segment of the Indo-Burma Ranges, located directly southeast of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. Early research inferred the area to have experienced either right-slip faulting accommodating northward indentation of India or thrusting due to the eastward continuation of the Himalayan orogen in the Cenozoic. Our mapping supports the presence of dip-slip thrust faults, rather than strike-slip faults. Specifically, the northern Indo-Burma Ranges exposes south- to west-directed ductile thrust shear zones in the hinterland and brittle fault zones in the foreland. The trends of ductile stretching lineations within thrust shear zones and thrust sheets rotate clockwise from the northeast direction in the northern part of the study area to the east direction in the southern part of the study area. This clockwise deflection pattern of lineations around the eastern Himalayan syntaxis mirrors the clockwise crustal-rotation pattern as suggested by the crustal-flow model and contemporary GPS velocity field. However, our finding is inconsistent with discrete strike-slip deformation in the area and the microplate model.

  8. Time-Dependent Crustal Deformation Associated With the 2004 Chuetsu and the 2007 Chuetsu-Oki Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses Gutierrez, A.; Sagiya, T.

    2013-12-01

    There is an ongoing concentrated deformation along the Japan Sea coast, which has been identified as Niigata Kobe Tectonic Zone (Sagiya et al., 2000). Large historical earthquakes have occurred in this area, and in recent years, Niigata has suffered the impact of two important events, known as the 2004 Mid-Niigata Prefecture earthquake (M 6.8) and The 2007 Niigata-ken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake (M 6.6), which considerately affected the crustal deformation pattern. For this reason, we review temporal variation of crustal deformation pattern in the mid Niigata region based on daily coordinates of 28 GPS sites from the GEONET network for three time windows: before 2004, 2004-2007 and after 2007 until March 2011, to avoid effects of crustal deformation associated with the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. We observed a migration of the deformation pattern in the East-West direction through the contraction belts for the above time windows. Before 2004, we recognize a clear shortening of 0.3ppm/yr in the area between the source regions of 2004 and 2007 quakes. After the 2004 Chuetsu earthquake, this shortening rate decreased. On the other hand, an accelerated contraction occurred to the east of this region, around the source region of the 2004 earthquake. After the 2007 earthquake, another contraction zone appeared to the northwest, near the 2007 source region. These time-dependent behaviors suggest there exists strong interaction between parallel fault segments in this area. It is crucially important to reveal such interaction to understand crustal deformation and seismogenesis in this region. We construct kinematic deformation models to interpret the time-dependent deformation pattern for each time period and to investigate mechanical interaction of coseismic as well as probably aseismic fault slips. Optimal faults parameters were established using a grid search, and computing the 95% confidence interval for each model parameter using the normalized Chi-squared distribution to

  9. Cooperative research in space geodesy and crustal dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This research grant, which covered the period of July 1991 to August 1994, was concerned with a variety of topics within the geodesy and crustal dynamics fields. The specific topics of this grant included satellite tracking and gravity field determinations and crustal dynamics (this concentrated of space geodetic site stability for VLBI sites). Summaries of the specific research projects are included along with a list of publications and presentations supported by this research grant.

  10. Awareness for natural radiation potential zones in Archean Terrain of Chhattisgarh State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diwan, H.D.; Pande, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    In the environment, the natural radiations emitted by rocks and soils containing radioactive minerals, largely affected the human being in various aspects. The Chhattisgarh region characterized by the mineral of natural radiations with their relative distribution found in Granitic rocks of Archean age. Adjacent to Cratonic margins, exposures of outer fringes became suitable sites for radiation spread. It constituting towards the emission of radiation by the intrinsic content of minerals present in the host rock i.e. the terrestrial sources of radiation. The Archean terrain covers the surrounding areas of oval cup shaped sedimentary basin and it lies in the S.O.I. toposheet no. 64 G. H.I.K.L. To locate the marked potential zone for natural radiation, the investigation nearby aquatic component of main river and tributaries of Mahanadi river system is important. The presence of Granitic/ Pegmatite rocks at the boundaries of shield areas became promising areas for radiation generating mineral components. Occurrence in the potential zones expressed as lense shaped deposits or strips in dimension of IX1/2 with few hundred long belt. Presence of weathering of Uraninite minerals content remain yellow orange coloured impressions on the surface. In urban areas the background radiation in form of ionic radiation by the residential dwelling units accredates radiations. It needs awareness for Natural Radiation of under zones (NRPZ) in the region. To ensure the effective awareness programme, the area under consideration of natural radiation should take care of socially sustainable activities and spatio-temporal spread to motivate and implement various safety provisions. The model experiments can be sued from R and D point of view, also to alert the people to provide 'Safety, health and welfare of society'. (author)

  11. Northeastern Brazilian margin: Regional tectonic evolution based on integrated analysis of seismic reflection and potential field data and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaich, Olav A.; Tsikalas, Filippos; Faleide, Jan Inge

    2008-10-01

    Integration of regional seismic reflection and potential field data along the northeastern Brazilian margin, complemented by crustal-scale gravity modelling, is used to reveal and illustrate onshore-offshore crustal structure correlation, the character of the continent-ocean boundary, and the relationship of crustal structure to regional variation of potential field anomalies. The study reveals distinct along-margin structural and magmatic changes that are spatially related to a number of conjugate Brazil-West Africa transfer systems, governing the margin segmentation and evolution. Several conceptual tectonic models are invoked to explain the structural evolution of the different margin segments in a conjugate margin context. Furthermore, the constructed transects, the observed and modelled Moho relief, and the potential field anomalies indicate that the Recôncavo, Tucano and Jatobá rift system may reflect a polyphase deformation rifting-mode associated with a complex time-dependent thermal structure of the lithosphere. The constructed transects and available seismic reflection profiles, indicate that the northern part of the study area lacks major breakup-related magmatic activity, suggesting a rifted non-volcanic margin affinity. In contrast, the southern part of the study area is characterized by abrupt crustal thinning and evidence for breakup magmatic activity, suggesting that this region evolved, partially, with a rifted volcanic margin affinity and character.

  12. History and Evolution of Precambrian plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ria; Gerya, Taras

    2014-05-01

    Plate tectonics is a global self-organising process driven by negative buoyancy at thermal boundary layers. Phanerozoic plate tectonics with its typical subduction and orogeny is relatively well understood and can be traced back in the geological records of the continents. Interpretations of geological, petrological and geochemical observations from Proterozoic and Archean orogenic belts however (e.g., Brown, 2006), suggest a different tectonic regime in the Precambrian. Due to higher radioactive heat production the Precambrian lithosphere shows lower internal strength and is strongly weakened by percolating melts. The fundamental difference between Precambrian and Phanerozoic tectonics is therefore the upper-mantle temperature, which determines the strength of the upper mantle (Brun, 2002) and the further tectonic history. 3D petrological-thermomechanical numerical modelling experiments of oceanic subduction at an active plate at different upper-mantle temperatures show these different subduction regimes. For upper-mantle temperatures 250 K above the present day value no subduction occurs any more. The whole lithosphere is delaminating and due to strong volcanism and formation of a thicker crust subduction is inhibited. This stage of 200-250 K higher upper mantle temperature which corresponds roughly to the early Archean (Abbott, 1994) is marked by strong volcanism due to sublithospheric decompression melting which leads to an equal thickness for both oceanic and continental plates. As a consequence subduction is inhibited, but a compressional setup instead will lead to orogeny between a continental or felsic terrain and an oceanic or mafic terrain as well as internal crustal convection. Small-scale convection with plume shaped cold downwellings also in the upper mantle is of increased importance compared to the large-scale subduction cycle observed for present temperature conditions. It is also observed that lithospheric downwellings may initiate subduction by

  13. The Crustal Structure and Seismicity of Eastern Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, M.; Martins, A.; Sobiesiak, M.; Alvarado, L.; Vasquez, R.

    2001-12-01

    Eastern Venezuela is characterized by a moderate to high seismicity, evidenced recently by the 1997 Cariaco earthquake located on the El Pilar Fault, a right lateral strike slip fault which marks the plate boundary between the Caribbean and South-American plates in this region. Recently, the seismic activity seems to migrate towards the zone of subduction of the Lesser Antilles in the northeast, where a mb 6.0 earthquake occurred in October 2000 at 120 km of depth. Periodical changes in the seismic activity are related to the interaction of the stress fields of the strike-slip and the subduction regimes. The seismic activity decreases rapidly towards to the south with some disperse events on the northern edge of the Guayana Shield, related to the Guri fault system. The crustal models used in the region are derived from the information generated by the national seismological network since 1982 and by microseismicity studies in northeastern Venezuela, coinciding in a crustal thickness of about 35 km in depth. Results of seismic refraction measurements for the region were obtained during field campains in 1998 (ECOGUAY) for the Guayana Shield and the Cariaco sedimentary basin and in 2001 (ECCO) for the Oriental Basin. The total crustal thickness decreases from about 45 km on the northern edge of the Guayana Shield to some 36 km close to El Tigre in the center of the Oriental Basin. The average crustal velocity decreases in the same sense from 6.5 to 5.8 km/s. In the Cariaco sedimentary basin a young sedimentary cover of 1 km thickness with a seismic velocity of 2 km/s was derived. Towards the northern limit of the South-American plate, no deep seismic refraction data are available up to now. The improvement of the crustal models used in that region would constitute a step forward in the analysis of the seismic hazard. Seismic refraction studies funded by CONICIT S1-97002996 and S1-2000000685 projects and PDVSA (additional drilling and blasting), recording equipment

  14. The role of biology in planetary evolution: cyanobacterial primary production in low‐oxygen Proterozoic oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Donald A.; Macalady, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Understanding the role of biology in planetary evolution remains an outstanding challenge to geobiologists. Progress towards unravelling this puzzle for Earth is hindered by the scarcity of well‐preserved rocks from the Archean (4.0 to 2.5 Gyr ago) and Proterozoic (2.5 to 0.5 Gyr ago) Eons. In addition, the microscopic life that dominated Earth's biota for most of its history left a poor fossil record, consisting primarily of lithified microbial mats, rare microbial body fossils and membrane‐derived hydrocarbon molecules that are still challenging to interpret. However, it is clear from the sulfur isotope record and other geochemical proxies that the production of oxygen or oxidizing power radically changed Earth's surface and atmosphere during the Proterozoic Eon, pushing it away from the more reducing conditions prevalent during the Archean. In addition to ancient rocks, our reconstruction of Earth's redox evolution is informed by our knowledge of biogeochemical cycles catalysed by extant biota. The emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis in ancient cyanobacteria represents one of the most impressive microbial innovations in Earth's history, and oxygenic photosynthesis is the largest source of O 2 in the atmosphere today. Thus the study of microbial metabolisms and evolution provides an important link between extant biota and the clues from the geologic record. Here, we consider the physiology of cyanobacteria (the only microorganisms capable of oxygenic photosynthesis), their co‐occurrence with anoxygenic phototrophs in a variety of environments and their persistence in low‐oxygen environments, including in water columns as well as mats, throughout much of Earth's history. We examine insights gained from both the rock record and cyanobacteria presently living in early Earth analogue ecosystems and synthesize current knowledge of these ancient microbial mediators in planetary redox evolution. Our analysis supports the hypothesis that anoxygenic

  15. The role of biology in planetary evolution: cyanobacterial primary production in low-oxygen Proterozoic oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Trinity L; Bryant, Donald A; Macalady, Jennifer L

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the role of biology in planetary evolution remains an outstanding challenge to geobiologists. Progress towards unravelling this puzzle for Earth is hindered by the scarcity of well-preserved rocks from the Archean (4.0 to 2.5 Gyr ago) and Proterozoic (2.5 to 0.5 Gyr ago) Eons. In addition, the microscopic life that dominated Earth's biota for most of its history left a poor fossil record, consisting primarily of lithified microbial mats, rare microbial body fossils and membrane-derived hydrocarbon molecules that are still challenging to interpret. However, it is clear from the sulfur isotope record and other geochemical proxies that the production of oxygen or oxidizing power radically changed Earth's surface and atmosphere during the Proterozoic Eon, pushing it away from the more reducing conditions prevalent during the Archean. In addition to ancient rocks, our reconstruction of Earth's redox evolution is informed by our knowledge of biogeochemical cycles catalysed by extant biota. The emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis in ancient cyanobacteria represents one of the most impressive microbial innovations in Earth's history, and oxygenic photosynthesis is the largest source of O2 in the atmosphere today. Thus the study of microbial metabolisms and evolution provides an important link between extant biota and the clues from the geologic record. Here, we consider the physiology of cyanobacteria (the only microorganisms capable of oxygenic photosynthesis), their co-occurrence with anoxygenic phototrophs in a variety of environments and their persistence in low-oxygen environments, including in water columns as well as mats, throughout much of Earth's history. We examine insights gained from both the rock record and cyanobacteria presently living in early Earth analogue ecosystems and synthesize current knowledge of these ancient microbial mediators in planetary redox evolution. Our analysis supports the hypothesis that anoxygenic photosynthesis

  16. Crustal structure beneath the Paleozoic Parnaíba Basin revealed by airborne gravity and magnetic data, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castroa, David L.; Fuck, Reinhardt A.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Vidotti, Roberta M.; Bezerra, Francisco H. R.; Dantas, Elton L.

    2014-01-01

    The Parnaíba Basin is a large Paleozoic syneclise in northeastern Brazil underlain by Precambrian crystalline basement, which comprises a complex lithostructural and tectonic framework formed during the Neoproterozoic–Eopaleozoic Brasiliano–Pan African orogenic collage. A sag basin up to 3.5 km thick and 1000 km long formed after the collage. The lithologic composition, structure, and role in the basin evolution of the underlying basement are the focus of this study. Airborne gravity and magnetic data were modeled to reveal the general crustal structure underneath the Parnaíba Basin. Results indicate that gravity and magnetic signatures delineate the main boundaries and structural trends of three cratonic areas and surrounding Neoproterozoic fold belts in the basement. Triangular-shaped basement inliers are geophysically defined in the central region of this continental-scale Neoproterozoic convergence zone. A 3-D gravity inversion constrained by seismological data reveals that basement inliers exhibit a 36–40.5 km deep crustal root, with borders defined by a high-density and thinner crust. Forward modeling of gravity and magnetic data indicates that lateral boundaries between crustal units are limited by Brasiliano shear zones, representing lithospheric sutures of the Amazonian and São Francisco Cratons, Tocantins Province and Parnaíba Block. In addition, coincident residual gravity, residual magnetic, and pseudo-gravity lows indicate two complex systems of Eopaleozoic rifts related to the initial phase of the sag deposition, which follow basement trends in several directions.

  17. 40Ar/39Ar incremental-release ages of biotite from a progressively remetamorphosed Archean basement terrane in southwestern Labrador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallmeyer, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    Gneisses within Archean basement terrane adjacent to the southwestern portion of the Labrador Trough were variably retrograded during a regional metamorphism of Grenville age (ca. 1000 Ma). Bioties from non-retrograded segments of the gneiss terrane record 40 Ar/ 39 Ar plateau and isochron ages which date times of cooling following an episode of the Kenoran orogeny (2376-2391 Ma). A suite of gneiss samples displaying varying degrees of retrograde alteration was collected across the Grenville metamorphic gradient. Bioties in these samples show no petrographic evidence of retrograde alteration, however they do record internally discordant 40 Ar/ 39 Ar age spectra. Although the extent of internal discordance is variable, the overall character of the release patterns is similar with younger apparent ages recorded in intermediate-temperature gas fractions. The total-gas dates range from 2257+-27 Ma (northwest) to 1751+-23 Ma (southeast), suggesting that variable quantities of radiogenic argon were lost from the Archean biotites during Grenville metamorphism. The 'saddle-shaped' nature of the discordant spectra indicates that argon loss was not accomplished through single-stage, volume diffusion processes. (orig./ME)

  18. Subduction initiation and recycling of Alboran domain derived crustal components prior to the intra-crustal emplacement of mantle peridotites in the Westernmost Mediterranean: isotopic evidence from the Ronda peridotite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varas-Reus, María Isabel; Garrido, Carlos J.; Bosch, Delphine; Marchesi, Claudio Claudio; Acosta-Vigil, Antonio; Hidas, Károly; Barich, Amel

    2014-05-01

    During Late Oligocene-Early Miocene different domains formed in the region between Iberia and Africa in the westernmost Mediterranean, including thinned continental crust and a Flysch Trough turbiditic deposits likely floored by oceanic crust [1]. At this time, the Ronda peridotite likely constituted the subcontinental lithospheric mantle of the Alboran domain, which mantle lithosphere was undergoing strong thinning and melting [2] [3] coevally with Early Miocene extension in the overlying Alpujárride-Maláguide stacked crust [4, 5]. Intrusive Cr- rich pyroxenites in the Ronda massif records the geochemical processes occurring in the subcontinental mantle of the Alboran domain during the Late Oligocene [6]. Recent isotopic studies of these pyroxenites indicate that their mantle source was contaminated by a subduction component released by detrital crustal sediments [6]. This new data is consistent with a subduction setting for the late evolution of the Alboran lithospheric mantle just prior to its final intracrustal emplacement in the early Miocene Further detailed structural studies of the Ronda plagioclase peridotites-related to the initial stages of ductile emplacement of the peridotite-have led to Hidas et al. [7] to propose a geodynamic model where folding and shearing of an attenuated mantle lithosphere occurred by backarc basin inversion followed by failed subduction initiation that ended into the intracrustal emplacement of peridotite into the Alboran wedge in the earliest Miocene. This hypothesis implies that the crustal component recorded in late, Cr-rich websterite dykes might come from underthrusted crustal rocks from the Flysch and/or Alpujárrides units that might have been involved in the earliest stages of this subduction initiation stage. To investigate the origin of crustal component in the mantle source of this late magmatic event recorded by Cr-pyroxenites, we have carried out a detail Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic study of a variety of Betic

  19. Anomalous Structure of Oceanic Lithosphere in the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans: A Preliminary Analysis Based on Bathymetry, Gravity and Crustal Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barantsrva, O.

    2014-12-01

    We present a preliminary analysis of the crustal and upper mantle structure for off-shore regions in the North Atlantic and Arctic oceans. These regions have anomalous oceanic lithosphere: the upper mantle of the North Atlantic ocean is affected by the Iceland plume, while the Arctic ocean has some of the slowest spreading rates. Our specific goal is to constrain the density structure of the upper mantle in order to understand the links between the deep lithosphere dynamics, ocean spreading, ocean floor bathymetry, heat flow and structure of the oceanic lithosphere in the regions where classical models of evolution of the oceanic lithosphere may not be valid. The major focus is on the oceanic lithosphere, but the Arctic shelves with a sufficient data coverage are also included into the analysis. Out major interest is the density structure of the upper mantle, and the analysis is based on the interpretation of GOCE satellite gravity data. To separate gravity anomalies caused by subcrustal anomalous masses, the gravitational effect of water, crust and the deep mantle is removed from the observed gravity field. For bathymetry we use the global NOAA database ETOPO1. The crustal correction to gravity is based on two crustal models: (1) global model CRUST1.0 (Laske, 2013) and, for a comparison, (2) a regional seismic model EUNAseis (Artemieva and Thybo, 2013). The crustal density structure required for the crustal correction is constrained from Vp data. Previous studies have shown that a large range of density values corresponds to any Vp value. To overcome this problem and to reduce uncertainty associated with the velocity-density conversion, we account for regional tectonic variations in the Northern Atlantics as constrained by numerous published seismic profiles and potential-field models across the Norwegian off-shore crust (e.g. Breivik et al., 2005, 2007), and apply different Vp-density conversions for different parts of the region. We present preliminary results

  20. U-Pb thermochronology of the lower crust: producing a long-term record of craton thermal evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, T.; Bowring, S. A.; Mahan, K. H.; Perron, T.; Schoene, B.; Dudas, F. O.

    2010-12-01

    The EarthScope initiative is focused on providing an enhanced view of the North American lithosphere and the present day stress field of the North American continent. Of key interest is the interaction between convecting asthenosphere and the conducting lithospheric mantle that underlie the continents, especially the cold ‘keels’ that underlie Archean domains. Cratonic regions are in general characterized by minimal erosion and or sediment accumulation. The Integration of seismic tomography, and mantle xenolith studies reveal a keel of seismically fast and relatively buoyant and viscous mantle; physical properties that are intimately linked with the long-term stability and topographic expression of the region. Missing from this model of the continental lithosphere is the 4th dimension--time--and along with it our understanding of the long-term evolution of these stable continental interiors. Here we present a thermal record from the North American craton using U-Pb thermochronology of lower crustal xenoliths. The use of temperature sensitive dates on lower crustal samples can produce a unique time-temperature record for a well-insulated and slowly cooling lithosphere. The base of the crust is insulated enough to remain unperturbed by any plausible changes to surface topography, yet unlike the subadjacent lithospheric mantle, contains accessory phases amenable to U-Pb dating (rutile, apatite, titanite). With near steady state temperatures in the lower crust between 400-600 °C, U-Pb thermochronometers with similar average closure temperatures for Pb are perfectly suited to record the long-term cooling of the lithosphere. Xenoliths from multiple depths, and across the craton yield time-temperature paths produced from U-Pb thermochronometers that record extremely slow cooling (<0.25 °C/Ma) over time scales of billions of years. Combining these data with numerical thermal modeling allow constraints to be placed on the dominant heat transfer mechanisms operating

  1. Characterizing the Purple Earth: Modeling the globally integrated spectral variability of the Archean Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanromá, E.; Pallé, E.; López, R.; Montañés-Rodríguez, P.; Parenteau, M. N.; Kiang, N. Y.; Gutiérrez-Navarro, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing searches for exoplanetary systems have revealed a wealth of planets with diverse physical properties. Planets even smaller than the Earth have already been detected and the efforts of future missions are aimed at the discovery, and perhaps characterization, of small rocky exoplanets within the habitable zone of their stars. Clearly, what we know about our planet will be our guideline for the characterization of such planets. However, the Earth has been inhabited for at least 3.8 Gyr and its appearance has changed with time. Here, we have studied the Earth during the Archean eon, 3.0 Gyr ago. At that time, one of the more widespread life forms on the planet was purple bacteria. These bacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms and can inhabit both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Here, we use a radiative transfer model to simulate the visible and near-infrared radiation reflected by our planet, taking into account several scenarios regarding the possible distribution of purple bacteria over continents and oceans. We find that purple bacteria have a reflectance spectrum that has a strong reflectivity increase, similar to the red edge of leafy plants, although shifted redward. This feature produces a detectable signal in the disk-averaged spectra of our planet, depending on cloud amount and purple bacteria concentration/distribution. We conclude that by using multi-color photometric observations, it is possible to distinguish between an Archean Earth in which purple bacteria inhabit vast extensions of the planet and a present-day Earth with continents covered by deserts, vegetation, or microbial mats.

  2. Lithospheric controls on crustal reactivation and intraplate mountain building in the Gobi Corridor, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, D.

    2017-12-01

    This talk will review the Permian-Recent tectonic history of the Gobi Corridor region which includes the actively deforming Gobi Altai-Altai, Eastern Tien Shan, Beishan and North Tibetan foreland. Since terrane amalgamation in the Permian, Gobi Corridor crust has been repeatedly reactivated by Triassic-Jurassic contraction/transpression, Late Cretaceous extension and Late Cenozoic transpression. The tectonic history of the region suggests the following basic principle for intraplate continental regions: non-cratonized continental interior terrane collages are susceptible to repeated intraplate reactivation events, driven by either post-orogenic collapse and/or compressional stresses derived from distant plate boundary convergence. Thus, important related questions are: 1) what lithospheric pre-conditions favor intraplate crustal reactivation in the Gobi Corridor (simple answer: crustal thinning, thermal weakening, strong buttressing cratons), 2) what are the controls on the kinematics of deformation and style of mountain building in the Gobi-Altai-Altai, Beishan and North Tibetan margin (simple answer: many factors, but especially angular relationship between SHmax and `crustal grain'), 3) how does knowledge of the array of Quaternary faults and the historical earthquake record influence our understanding of modern earthquake hazards in continental intraplate regions (answer: extrapolation of derived fault slip rates and recurrence interval determinations are problematic), 4) what important lessons can we learn from the Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic history of Central Asia that is applicable to the tectonic evolution of all intraplate continental regions (simple answer: ancient intraplate deformation events may be subtly expressed in the rock record and only revealed by low-temperature thermochronometers, preserved orogen-derived sedimentary sequences, fault zone evidence for younger brittle reactivation, and recognition of a younger class of cross-cutting tectonic

  3. Upper crustal structure of Madeira Island revealed from ambient noise tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Catarina; Silveira, Graça; Matias, Luís; Caldeira, Rita; Ribeiro, M. Luísa; Dias, Nuno A.; Krüger, Frank; Bento dos Santos, Telmo

    2015-06-01

    We present the first image of the Madeira upper crustal structure, using ambient seismic noise tomography. 16 months of ambient noise, recorded in a dense network of 26 seismometers deployed across Madeira, allowed reconstructing Rayleigh wave Green's functions between receivers. Dispersion analysis was performed in the short period band from 1.0 to 4.0 s. Group velocity measurements were regionalized to obtain 2D tomographic images, with a lateral resolution of 2.0 km in central Madeira. Afterwards, the dispersion curves, extracted from each cell of the 2D group velocity maps, were inverted as a function of depth to obtain a 3D shear wave velocity model of the upper crust, from the surface to a depth of 2.0 km. The obtained 3D velocity model reveals features throughout the island that correlates well with surface geology and island evolution.

  4. Lithospheric Structure, Crustal Kinematics, and Earthquakes in North China: An Integrated Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Yang, Y.; Sandvol, E.; Chen, Y.; Wang, L.; Zhou, S.; Shen, Z.; Wang, Q.

    2007-12-01

    The North China block (NCB) is geologically part of the Archaean Sino-Korean craton. But unusual for a craton, it was thermally rejuvenated since late Mesozoic, and experienced widespread extension and volcanism through much of the Cenozoic. Today, the NCB is characterized by strong internal deformation and seismicity, including the 1976 Tangshan earthquake that killed ~250,000 people. We have started a multidisciplinary study to image the lithospheric and upper mantle structure using seismological methods, to delineate crustal kinematics and deformation via studies of neotectonics and space geodesy, and to investigate the driving forces, the stress states and evolution, and seismicity using geodynamic modeling. Both seismic imaging and GPS results indicate that the Ordos plateau, which is the western part of the NCB and a relic of the Sino-Korean craton, has been encroached around its southern margins by mantle flow and thus is experiencing active cratonic destruction. Some of the mantle flow may be driven by the Indo-Asian collision, although the cause of the broad mantle upwelling responsible for the Mesozoic thinning of the NCB lithosphere remains uncertain. At present, crustal deformation in the NCB is largely driven by gravitational spreading of the expanding Tibetan Plateau. Internal deformation within the NCB is further facilitated by the particular tectonic boundary conditions around the NCB, and the large lateral contrasts of lithospheric strength and rheology. Based on the crustal kinematics and lithospheric structure, we have developed a preliminary geodynamic model for stress states and strain energy in the crust of the NCB. The predicted long-term strain energy distribution is comparable with the spatial pattern of seismic energy release in the past 2000 years. We are exploring the cause of the spatiotemporal occurrence of large earthquakes in the NCB, especially the apparent migration of seismicity from the Weihe-Shanxi grabens around the Ordos to

  5. Crustal seismicity and active fault system in the SE of Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raileanu, V; Bala, A.; Radulian, M.; Popescu, E.; Mateciuc, D.; Popa, M.; Dinu, C.; Diaconescu, V.

    2007-01-01

    Romania is known as a country with a high seismicity located in the Vrancea region where 2-3 strong intermediate depth earthquakes/century generate great damages and casualties. A moderate crustal seismicity is also observed in other zones of the country, with events having a moderate magnitude but sometimes with important economic and social effects on the locale scale. The crustal seismogenic zones are located in front of the Eastern Carpathian Bend, South Carpathians, Dobrogea, Banat, Crisana and Maramures regions. The SE part of Romania comprises some of the most active crustal seismic sources that generated earthquakes up to Mw=6.5 concentrated in more zones, namely: Vrancea crustal domain, E Vrancea zone that is overlapped on the Focsani basin, Barlad and Predobrogean depressions along with the North Dobrogea Orogen, Intramoesian and Shabla (Bulgaria) zones and Fagaras-Campulung-Sinaia zone. (authors)

  6. Basalt generation at the Apollo 12 site. Part 2: Source heterogeneity, multiple melts, and crustal contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Clive R.; Hacker, Matthew D.; Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Liu, Yun-Gang; Schmitt, Roman A.

    1994-01-01

    The petrogenesis of Apollo 12 mare basalts has been examined with emphasis on trace-element ratios and abundances. Vitrophyric basalts were used as parental compositions for the modeling, and proportions of fractionating phases were determined using the MAGFOX prograqm of Longhi (1991). Crystal fractionation processes within crustal and sub-crustal magma chambers are evaluated as a function of pressure. Knowledge of the fractionating phases allows trace-element variations to be considered as either source related or as a product of post-magma-generation processes. For the ilmenite and olivine basalts, trace-element variations are inherited from the source, but the pigeonite basalt data have been interpreted with open-system evolution processes through crustal assimilation. Three groups of basalts have been examined: (1) Pigeonite basalts-produced by the assimilation of lunar crustal material by a parental melt (up to 3% assimilation and 10% crystal fractionation, with an 'r' value of 0.3). (2) Ilmenite basalts-produced by variable degrees of partial melting (4-8%) of a source of olivine, pigeonite, augite, and plagioclase, brought together by overturn of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) cumulate pile. After generation, which did not exhaust any of the minerals in the source, these melts experienced closed-system crystal fractionation/accumulation. (3) Olivine basalts-produced by variable degrees of partial melting (5-10%) of a source of olivine, pigeonite, and augite. After generation, again without exhausting any of the minerals in the source, these melts evolved through crystal accumulation. The evolved liquid counterparts of these cumulates have not been sampled. The source compositions for the ilmenite and olivine basalts were calculated by assuming that the vitrophyric compositions were primary and the magmas were produced by non-modal batch melting. Although the magnitude is unclear, evaluation of these source regions indicates that both be composed of early- and

  7. Crustal Magnetic Field Anomalies and Global Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storetvedt, Karsten

    2014-05-01

    A wide variety of evidence suggests that the ruling isochron (geomagnetic polarity versus age) hypothesis of marine magnetic lineations has no merit - undermining therefore one of the central tenets of plate tectonics. Instead, variable induction by the ambient geomagnetic field is likely to be the principal agent for mega-scale crustal magnetic features - in both oceanic and continental settings. This revitalizes the fault-controlled susceptibility-contrast model of marine magnetic lineations, originally proposed in the late 1960s. Thus, the marine magnetic 'striping' may be ascribed to tectonic shearing and related, but variable, disintegration of the original iron-oxide mineralogy, having developed primarily along one of the two pan-global sets of orthogonal fractures and faults. In this way, fault zones (having the more advanced mineral alteration) would be characterized by relatively low susceptibility, while more moderately affected crustal sections (located between principal fault zones) would be likely to have less altered oxide mineralogy and therefore higher magnetic susceptibility. On this basis, induction by the present geomagnetic field is likely to produce oscillating magnetic field anomalies with axis along the principal shear grain. The modus operandi of the alternative magneto-tectonic interpretation is inertia-driven wrenching of the global Alpine age palaeo-lithosphere - triggered by changes in Earth's rotation. Increasing sub-crustal loss to the upper mantle during the Upper Mesozoic had left the ensuing Alpine Earth in a tectonically unstable state. Thus, sub-crustal eclogitization and associated gravity-driven delamination to the upper mantle led to a certain degree of planetary acceleration which in turn gave rise to latitude-dependent, westward inertial wrenching of the global palaeo-lithosphere. During this process, 1) the thin and mechanically fragile oceanic crust were deformed into a new type of broad fold belts, and 2) the continents

  8. An Approach to the Crustal Thickness Inversion Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, F.; Di Achille, G.

    2017-12-01

    We describe a method to estimate the crustal thickness of a planet and we apply it to Venus. As in the method of (Parker, 1972), modified by (Wieczorek & Phillips, 1998), the gravity field anomalies of a planet are assumed to be due to the combined effect of topography and relief on the crust-mantle interface. No assumptions on isostasy are necessary. In our case, rather than using the expansion of the powers of the relief in Taylor series, we model the gravitational field of topography/relief by means of a large number of prism-shaped masses covering the whole surface of the planet. Under the hypothesis that crustal and mantle densities are the same everywhere, we solve for the relief depths on the crust-mantle interface by imposing that observed and modeled gravity field at a certain reference spherical surface (external to the planet) must be equal. This method can be extended to the case of non-uniform densities. Finally, we calculate a map of the crustal thickness of Venus and compare our results with those predicted by previous work and with the global distribution of main geological features (e.g. rift zones, tesserae, coronae). We discuss the agremeent between our results and the main geodynamical and crustal models put forth to explain the origin of such features and the applicability of this method in the context of the mission VOX (Venus Origins Explore), proposed for NASA's NF4 call.

  9. Crustal structure of Central Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustiniani, Michela; Tinivella, Umberta; Nicolich, Rinaldo

    2018-01-01

    We processed crustal seismic profile SIRIPRO, acquired across Central Sicily. To improve the seismic image we utilized the wave equation datuming technique, a process of upward or downward continuation of the wave-field between two arbitrarily shaped surfaces. Wave equation datuming was applied to move shots and receivers to a given datum plane, removing time shifts related to topography and to near-surface velocity variations. The datuming procedure largely contributed to attenuate ground roll, enhance higher frequencies, increase resolution and improve the signal/noise ratio. Processed data allow recognizing geometries of crust structures differentiating seismic facies and offering a direct image of ongoing tectonic setting within variable lithologies characterizing the crust of Central Sicily. Migrated sections underline distinctive features of Hyblean Plateau foreland and above all a crustal thinning towards the Caltanissetta trough, to the contact with a likely deep Permo-Triassic rifted basin or rather a zone of a continent to oceanic transition. Inhomogeneity and fragmentation of Sicily crust, with a distinct separation of Central Sicily basin from western and eastern blocks, appear to have guided the tectonic transport inside the Caltanissetta crustal scale syncline and the accumulation of allochthonous terrains with south and north-verging thrusts. Major tectonic stack operated on the construction of a wide anticline of the Maghrebian chain in northern Sicily. Sequential south-verging imbrications of deep elements forming the anticline core denote a crust wedge indenting foreland structures. Deformation processes involved multiple detachment planes down to decoupling levels located near crust/mantle transition, supporting a presence of high-density lenses beneath the chain, interrelated to a southwards push of Tyrrhenian mantle and asthenosphere.

  10. Along-axis crustal structure of the Porcupine Basin from seismic refraction data modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Manel; Watremez, Louise; Chen, Chen; O'Reilly, Brian; Minshull, Tim; Reston, Tim; Wagner, Gerlind; Gaws, Viola; Klaschen, Dirk; Shannon, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The Porcupine Basin is a tongue-shaped offshore basin SW of Ireland that formed during the opening of the North Atlantic Ocean. Its history of development involved several rifting and subsidence phases during the Late Paleozoic and Cenozoic, with a particular major rift phase occurring in Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous times. Previous work, focused on subsidence analysis, showed that stretching factors (β) in the northern part of the basin are 6. However, recent studies based on seismic reflection and refraction profiles concluded that β in places along the basin axis were significantly higher, and suggested the presence of major crustal faulting and uppermost mantle serpentinization in the basin. Constraining β and the processes related to the formation of the basin will provide insights into aspects such as the tectonic response to lithospheric extension and the thermal evolution of the basin. Here we present the tomography results of five wide-angle seismic (WAS) profiles acquired across and along the basin axis. We used a travel time inversion method to model the WAS data and obtain P-wave velocity (Vp) models of the crust and uppermost mantle, together with the geometry of the main geological interfaces along each of these lines. Coincident seismic reflection profiles to each WAS line were also used to integrate the tectonic structure with the Vp model. These results improved constrains on the location of the base of the crust and allow to estimate maximum β (βmax) along each profile. The analysis shows that βmax values in the northern part of the basin are 5-6 times larger than estimates based on subsidence analysis. Towards the south, βmax increases up to 10, but then rapidly decreases to 3.3 southwards. These values are well within the range of crustal extension at which the crust becomes entirely brittle at magma-poor margins allowing the formation of major crustal faulting and serpentinization of the mantle. In agreement with this observation, Vp

  11. High resolution 2D numerical models from rift to break-up: Crustal hyper-extension, Margin asymmetry, Sequential faulting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Sascha; Heine, Christian; Pérez-Gussinyé, Marta; Sobolev, Stephan

    2013-04-01

    Numerical modelling is a powerful tool to integrate a multitude of geological and geophysical data while addressing fundamental questions of passive margin formation such as the occurrence of crustal hyper-extension, (a-)symmetries between conjugate margin pairs, and the sometimes significant structural differences between adjacent margin segments. This study utilises knowledge gathered from two key examples of non-magmatic, asymmetric, conjugate margin pairs, i.e. Iberia-New Foundland and Southern Africa-Brazil, where many published seismic lines provide solid knowledge on individual margin geometry. While both margins involve crustal hyper-extension, it is much more pronounced in the South Atlantic. We investigate the evolution of these two margin pairs by carefully constraining our models with detailed plate kinematic history, laboratory-based rheology, and melt fraction evaluation of mantle upwelling. Our experiments are consistent with observed fault patterns, crustal thickness, and basin stratigraphy. We conduct 2D thermomechanical rift models using the finite element code SLIM3D that operates with nonlinear stress- and temperature-dependent elasto-visco-plastic rheology, with parameters provided by laboratory experiments on major crustal and upper mantle rocks. In our models we also calculate the melt fraction within the upwelling asthenosphere, which allows us to control whether the model indeed corresponds to the non-magmatic margin type or not. Our modelling highlights two processes as fundamental for the formation of hyper-extension and margin asymmetry at non-magmatic margins: (1) Strain hardening in the rift center due to cooling of upwelling mantle material (2) The formation of a weak crustal domain adjacent to the rift center caused by localized viscous strain softening and heat transfer from the mantle. Simultaneous activity of both processes promotes lateral rift migration in a continuous way that generates a wide layer of hyper-extended crust on

  12. Density heterogeneity of the upper mantle beneath Siberia from satellite gravity and a new regional crustal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herceg, Matija; Thybo, Hans; Artemieva, Irina

    2013-01-01

    We present a new regional model for the density structure of the upper mantle below Siberia. The residual mantle gravity anomalies are based on gravity data derived from the GOCE gravity gradients and geopotential models, with crustal correction to the gravity field being calculated from a new...... on regional and global crustal models. We analyze how uncertainties and errors in the crustal model propagate from crustal densities to mantle residual gravity anomalies and the density model of the upper mantle. The new regional density model for the Siberian craton and the West Siberian Basin complements...... regional crustal model. This newly compiled database on the crustal seismic structure, complemented by additional constraints from petrological analysis of near-surface rocks and lower crustal xenoliths, allows for a high-resolution correction of the crustal effects as compared to previous studies based...

  13. An Integrated Geochronological, Petrological, Geochemical and Paleomagnetic Study of Paleoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic Mafic Dyke Swarms in the Nain Craton, Labrador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Tugce

    The Nain craton comprises the western, Labrador segment of the larger North Atlantic craton (NAC) which exposes Early through Late Archean gneisses. The NAC is bounded on all sides by Paleoproterozoic collisional orogens that involved either considerable structural reworking (Torngat-Nagssugtoqidian-Lewisian) or the accretion of juvenile arc magmas (Ketilidian-Makkovik). The NAC remains poorly understood compared to other Archean crustal blocks now dispersed globally. Compounding this problem is a lack of reliable paleomagnetic poles for NAC units that predate its assembly into the supercontinent Laurentia by ca. 1800 Ma, which could be used to test neighboring relationships with other cratonic fragments. In order to understand the history of the NAC as part of a possible, larger supercontinent, the record of mafic dyke swarms affecting the craton, particularly those that postdate the Late Archean terrane assembly, were examined in this study. Diabase or gabbroic dyke swarms are invaluable in such studies because their geometries offer possible locus points, they often have a punctuated emplacement and precisely datable crystallization histories, and they have cooling histories and oxide mineralogy amenable to recovering robust paleopoles. Coastal Labrador exposes a number of mafic dykes, some of which are demonstrably Paleoproterozoic (e.g. 2235 Ma Kikkertavak dykes; 2121 Ma Tikkigatsiagak dykes) or Mesoproterozoic (e.g. 1280-1270 Ma Nain and Harp dykes) in age (U-Pb; baddeleyite or zircon). The southern half of the Nain craton (Hopedale block) in particular preserves a rich array of mafic dykes. Dyke cross-cutting relationships are numerous and relatively well exposed, permitting multiple opportunities for paleomagnetic field tests (e.g. baked contact). The results presented here allow understanding of the tectonic evolution of the NAC with implications for strengthened Labrador-Greenland correlations, and testing possible Paleoproterozoic supercontinent

  14. Crustal structure of north Peru from analysis of teleseismic receiver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condori, Cristobal; França, George S.; Tavera, Hernando J.; Albuquerque, Diogo F.; Bishop, Brandon T.; Beck, Susan L.

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we present results from teleseismic receiver functions, in order to investigate the crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio beneath northern Peru. A total number of 981 receiver functions were analyzed, from data recorded by 28 broadband seismic stations from the Peruvian permanent seismic network, the regional temporary SisNort network and one CTBTO station. The Moho depth and average crustal Vp/Vs ratio were determined at each station using the H-k stacking technique to identify the arrival times of primary P to S conversion and crustal reverberations (PpPms, PpSs + PsPms). The results show that the Moho depth correlates well with the surface topography and varies significantly from west to east, showing a shallow depth of around 25 km near the coast, a maximum depth of 55-60 km beneath the Andean Cordillera, and a depth of 35-40 km further to the east in the Amazonian Basin. The bulk crustal Vp/Vs ratio ranges between 1.60 and 1.88 with the mean of 1.75. Higher values between 1.75 and 1.88 are found beneath the Eastern and Western Cordilleras, consistent with a mafic composition in the lower crust. In contrast values vary from 1.60 to 1.75 in the extreme flanks of the Eastern and Western Cordillera indicating a felsic composition. We find a positive relationship between crustal thickness, Vp/Vs ratio, the Bouguer anomaly, and topography. These results are consistent with previous studies in other parts of Peru (central and southern regions) and provide the first crustal thickness estimates for the high cordillera in northern Peru.

  15. Crustal fraction of moment of inertia in pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atta, Debasis; Mukhopadhyay, Somnath; Basu, D.N.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, stability of the β-equilibrated dense nuclear matter is analyzed with respect to the thermodynamic stability conditions. Based on the density dependent M3Y (DDM3Y) effective nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction, the location of the inner edge of neutron star crusts and core-crust transition density and pressure are calculated and crustal fraction of moment of inertia is determined. These results for pressure and density at core-crust transition together with the observed minimum crustal fraction of the total moment of inertia provide a new limit for the radius of the Vela pulsar

  16. Continental crust formation: Numerical modelling of chemical evolution and geological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, U.; Hendel, R.

    2017-05-01

    Oceanic plateaus develop by decompression melting of mantle plumes and have contributed to the growth of the continental crust throughout Earth's evolution. Occasional large-scale partial melting events of parts of the asthenosphere during the Archean produced large domains of precursor crustal material. The fractionation of arc-related crust during the Proterozoic and Phanerozoic contributed to the growth of continental crust. However, it remains unclear whether the continents or their precursors formed during episodic events or whether the gaps in zircon age records are a function of varying preservation potential. This study demonstrates that the formation of the continental crust was intrinsically tied to the thermoconvective evolution of the Earth's mantle. Our numerical solutions for the full set of physical balance equations of convection in a spherical shell mantle, combined with simplified equations of chemical continent-mantle differentiation, demonstrate that the actual rate of continental growth is not uniform through time. The kinetic energy of solid-state mantle creep (Ekin) slowly decreases with superposed episodic but not periodic maxima. In addition, laterally averaged surface heat flow (qob) behaves similarly but shows peaks that lag by 15-30 Ma compared with the Ekin peaks. Peak values of continental growth are delayed by 75-100 Ma relative to the qob maxima. The calculated present-day qob and total continental mass values agree well with observed values. Each episode of continental growth is separated from the next by an interval of quiescence that is not the result of variations in mantle creep velocity but instead reflects the fact that the peridotite solidus is not only a function of pressure but also of local water abundance. A period of differentiation results in a reduction in regional water concentrations, thereby increasing the temperature of the peridotite solidus and the regional viscosity of the mantle. By plausibly varying the

  17. Electromagnetic evidence of high angle convergence between the Congo and Kalahari cratons in southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoza, D. T.; Jones, A. G.; Muller, M. R.; Miensopust, M. P.; Webb, S. J.; Share, P.

    2010-12-01

    The southern African tectonic fabric is made up of a number Archean cratons flanked by Proterozoic and younger mobile belts, all with distinctly different but related geological evolutions. The cratonic margins and some intra-cratonic domain boundaries have played major roles in the tectonics of Africa by focusing ascending magmas and localising cycles of extension and rifting. Of these cratons the southern extent of the Congo craton is one of the least-constrained tectonic boundaries in the African tectonic architecture and knowledge of its geometry is crucial for understanding geological process of formation and deformation prevailing in the Archean and later. In this work, which forms a component of the hugely successful Southern African MagnetoTelluric Experiment (SAMTEX), we present the first-ever lithospheric electrical resistivity image of the southern boundary of the enigmatic Congo craton and the Neoproterozoic Damara-Ghanzi-Chobe (DGC) orogenic belt on its flanks. The DGC belt is highly complex and records the transpressive collision between the Congo to the north and Kalahari craton to the south. Magnetotelluric data were collected along a profile crossing all three of these tectonic blocks. The two-dimensional resistivity models resulting from inverting the distortion-corrected responses along the profiles all indicate significant lateral variations in the crust and upper mantle structure along and across strike from the younger DGC orogen to the older adjacent craton. The Moho depth in the DGC is mapped at 40 km by active seismic methods, and is also well constrained by S-wave receiver function models. The Damara belt lithosphere, although generally more conductive and significantly thinner (approximately 150 km) than the adjacent Congo and Kalahari cratons, exhibits upper crustal resistive features interpreted to be caused by igneous intrusions emplaced during the Gondwanan Pan-African magmatic event. The thinned lithosphere is consistent with a 50 m

  18. Comparison of publically available Moho depth and crustal thickness grids with newly derived grids by 3D gravity inversion for the High Arctic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Gaina, Carmen; Minakov, Alexander; Kashubin, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    deep Arctic Ocean: results of a 3D gravity modeling Russian Geology and Geophysics 54, 247-262. Jakobsson M, Mayer L, Coakley B, Dowdeswell JA, Forbes S, Fridman B, Hodnesdal H, Noormets R, Pedersen R, Rebesco M, Schenke HW, Zarayskaya Y, Accettella D, Armstrong A, Anderson RM, Bienhoff P, Camerlenghi A, Church I, Edwards M, Gardner JV, Hall JK, Hell B, Hestvik O, Krist-offersen Y, Marcussen C, Mohammad R, Mosher D, Nghiem SV, Pedrosa MT, Travaglini PG, Weatherall P (2012). The international bathymetric chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO) version 3.0. Geophys Res Lett 39, L12609. Laske, G., Masters., G., Ma, Z. and Pasyanos, M. (2013). Update on CRUST1.0 - A 1-degree Global Model of Earth's Crust, Geophys. Res. Abstracts, 15, Abstract EGU2013-2658, 2013. Minakov A, Faleide JI, Glebovsky VY, Mjelde R (2012) Structure and evolution of the northern Barents-Kara Sea continental margin from integrated analysis of potential fields, bathymetry and sparse seismic data. Geophys J Int 188, 79-102. Petrov O., Smelror M., Shokalsky S., Morozov A., Kashubin S., Grikurov G., Sobolev N., Petrov E., (2013). A new international tectonic map of the Arctic (TeMAr) at 1:5 M scale and geodynamic evolution in the Arctic region. EGU2013-13481. Reguzzoni, M., & Sampietro, D. (2014). GEMMA: An Earth crustal model based on GOCE satellite data. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation Spasojevic S. & Gurnis M., (2012). Sea level and vertical motion of continents from dynamic earth models since the late Cretaceous. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 96, pp. 2037-2064.

  19. Thickening the outer margins of the Tibetan Plateau: The role of crustal shortening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lease, R. O.; Burbank, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    One of the most direct consequences of the collision of two buoyant continents is large-scale crustal thickening that results in the upward and outward growth of high terrain. As the stronger Indian continent has collided with weaker Asia over at least the past 50 Myr, widespread crustal thickening has occurred over an area that is approximately 2.5 million km^2 at present. The resultant Tibetan crust is the thickest observed on Earth today with an average thickness of 65 km and a maximum that may reach 90 km in places. The mechanisms by which Tibetan crust has thickened, however, as well as the timing and distribution of these mechanisms across the plateau, remain debatable. Two of the most popular mechanisms for thickening the crust beneath the margins of the Tibetan Plateau are: 1) pure shear with faulting and folding in the upper crust and horizontal shortening below; and 2) flow and inflation of lower or middle crust without significant shortening of the upper crust. To help discriminate between the relative contributions of these two mechanisms, well-constrained estimates of upper crustal shortening are needed. Here we document the Cenozoic shortening budget across the northeastern Tibetan Plateau margin near 36°N 102.5°E with several 100- to 145-km-long balanced cross sections. Thermochronological and magnetostratigraphic data indicate that modest NNE-SSW shortening began in middle Eocene time, shortly after initial India-Asia collision. Accelerated east-west shortening, however, did not commence until ~35 Myr later. A five-fold acceleration in shortening rates in middle Miocene-to-Recent time accounts for more than half of the total Cenozoic crustal shortening and thickening in this region. Overall, the balanced cross sections indicate 11 ± 2 % east-west shortening since middle Miocene time, and ~9 ± 2 % NNE-SSW shortening between middle Eocene and middle Miocene times. Given the present-day crustal thickness of 56 ± 4 km in northeastern Tibet, crustal

  20. Crustal structure and regional tectonics of SE Sweden and the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milnes, A.G.; Gee, D.G.; Lund, C.E.

    1998-11-01

    In this desk study, the available geophysical and geological data on the crustal structure and regional tectonics of the wider surroundings of the Aespoe site (SE Sweden and adjacent parts of the Baltic Sea) are compiled and assessed. The aim is to contribute to the knowledge base for long-term rock mechanical modeling, using the Aespoe site as a proxy for a high-level radioactive waste repository site in Swedish bedrock. The geophysical data reviewed includes two new refraction/wide-angle reflection seismic experiments carried out within the EUROBRIDGE project, in addition to the numerous earlier refraction seismic profiles. The BABEL normal-incidence deep seismic profile is also considered. New geological data, presented at EUROBRIDGE workshops, and in recent SGU publications, are reviewed for the same area. In combination with the seismic data, these provide a base for interpreting the present composition and structure, and the Palaeoproterozoic-Mesoproterozoic evolution, of the crustal segment within which the Aespoe site lies - the Smaaland mega-block. This is characterized by having undergone little regionally significant deformation or magmatism since Neoproterozoic times (the last 1000 million years). It is shown that, at this scale of observation (of the order of 100 km), the long-term rheology of the lithosphere can be argued from a relatively tight observational network, when combined with the results of earlier SKB studies (seismo-tectonics, uplift patterns, state of stress, heat flow) and published research. Although many uncertainties exist, the present state of knowledge would suffice for first exploratory calculations and sensitivity studies of long-term, large-scale rock mechanics

  1. Crustal Structure in the Western Part of Romania from Local Seismic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharia, Bogdan; Grecu, Bogdan; Popa, Mihaela; Oros, Eugen; Radulian, Mircea

    2017-12-01

    The inner part of the Carpathians in Romania belongs to the Carpathians-Pannonian system bordered by the Eastern Carpathians to the north and east, Southern Carpathians to the south and Pannonian Basin to the west. It is a complex tectonic region with differential folding mechanisms, post-collisional kinematics, rheology and thermal properties, including within its area the Apuseni Mountains and the Transylvanian Basin. The purpose of this study is to map the 3-D structure of the crust over this region on the basis of local earthquake data. Input data were recorded during the South Carpathian Project (2009-2011), a successful collaboration between the Institute of Geophysics and Tectonics of the University of Leeds and the National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP), Romania. A temporary array of 32 broadband seismic stations (10 CMG-40T, 8 CMG-3T and 14 CMG-6TD) was installed across the western part of Romania (spaced at 40 to 50 km intervals) during the project. In addition, 25 stations deployed in the eastern Hungary and Serbia was considered. P- and S-wave arrivals are identified for all the selected events (minimum 7 phases per event with reasonable signal/noise ratio). All the events are first relocated using Joint Hypocentre Determination (JHD) technique. Then the well-located events were inverted to determine the crustal structure using LOTOS algorithm. The lateral variations of the crustal properties as resulted from the tomography image are interpreted in correlation with the station corrections estimated by JHD algorithm and with the post-collisional evolution of the Carpathians-Pannonian system.

  2. Crustal volumes of the continents and of oceanic and continental submarine plateaus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, G.; Sandwell, D.

    1989-01-01

    Using global topographic data and the assumption of Airy isostasy, it is estimated that the crustal volume of the continents is 7182 X 10 to the 6th cu km. The crustal volumes of the oceanic and continental submarine plateaus are calculated at 369 X 10 to the 6th cu km and 242 X 10 to the 6th cu km, respectively. The total continental crustal volume is found to be 7581 X 10 to the 6th cu km, 3.2 percent of which is comprised of continental submarine plateaus on the seafloor. An upper bound on the contintental crust addition rate by the accretion of oceanic plateaus is set at 3.7 cu km/yr. Subduction of continental submarine plateaus with the oceanic lithosphere on a 100 Myr time scale yields an upper bound to the continental crustal subtraction rate of 2.4 cu km/yr.

  3. A new model of crustal structure of Siberia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherepanova, Yulia; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans

    2010-01-01

    to the Verkoyansk Ridge/Lena river in the east, and from the Arctic shelf in the north to the Tien Shan and Altay-Sayans mountains in the south. The new crustal model is based on our new ("from scratch") compilation of all available reliable seismic data and includes the results of seismic reflection, refraction...... orientation. Low surface heat flow (on average around 20-22 microW/m3) and the absence of the high-velocity (Vp>7.2 km/s) lowercrustal layer in the block with the thick crust suggest that eclogitization in the crustal root was subdued, thus allowing preservation of the ultra thick, seismically distinguishable...

  4. The T-Reflection and the deep crustal structure of the Vøring Margin offshore Mid-Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmalak, M. M.; Faleide, J. I.; Planke, S.; Gernigon, L.; Zastrozhnov, D.; Shephard, G. E.; Myklebust, R.

    2017-12-01

    Volcanic passive margins are characterized by massive occurrence of mafic extrusive and intrusive rocks, before and during plate breakup, playing major role in determining the evolution pattern and the deep structure of magma-rich margins. Deep seismic reflection data frequently provide imaging of strong continuous reflections in the middle/lower crust. In this context, we have completed a detailed 2D seismic interpretation of the deep crustal structure of the Vøring volcanic margin, offshore mid-Norway, where high-quality seismic data allow the identification of high-amplitude reflections, locally referred to as the T-Reflection (TR). Using the dense seismic grid we have mapped the top of the TR in order to compare it with filtered Bouguer gravity anomalies and seismic refraction data. The TR is identified between 7 and 10 s. Sometimes it consists of one single smooth reflection. However, it is frequently associated with a set of rough multiple reflections displaying discontinuous segments with varying geometries, amplitude and contact relationships. The TR seems to be connected to deep sill networks and locally located at the continuation of basement high structures or terminates over fractures and faults. The spatial correlation between the filtered positive Bouguer gravity anomalies and the TR indicates that the latter represents a high impedance boundary contrast associated with a high-density/velocity body. Within an uncertainty of ± 2.5 km, the depth of the mapped TR is found to correspond to the depth of the top of the Lower Crustal Body (LCB), characterized by high P-wave velocities (>7 km/s), in 50% of the outer Vøring Margin areas, whereas different depths between the TR and the top LCB are estimated for the remaining areas. We present a tectonic scenario, where a large part of the deep structure could be composed of preserved upper continental basement and middle to lower crustal lenses of inherited and intruded high-grade metamorphic rocks. Deep

  5. Crustal Structure beneath Alaska from Receiver Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Li, A.

    2017-12-01

    The crustal structure in Alaska has not been well resolved due to the remote nature of much of the state. The USArray Transportable Array (TA), which is operating in Alaska and northwestern Canada, significantly increases the coverage of broadband seismic stations in the region and allows for a more comprehensive study of the crust. We have analyzed P-receiver functions from earthquake data recorded by 76 stations of the TA and AK networks. Both common conversion point (CCP) and H-K methods are used to estimate the mean crustal thickness. The results from the CCP stacking method show that the Denali fault marks a sharp transition from thick crust in the south to thin crust in the north. The thickest crust up to 52 km is located in the St. Elias Range, which has been formed by oblique collision between the Yakutat microplate and North America. A thick crust of 48 km is also observed beneath the eastern Alaska Range. These observations suggest that high topography in Alaska is largely compensated by the thick crust root. The Moho depth ranges from 28 km to 35 km beneath the northern lowlands and increases to 40-45 km under the Books Range. The preliminary crustal thickness from the H-K method generally agrees with that from the CCP stacking with thicker crust beneath high mountain ranges and thinner crust beneath lowlands and basins. However, the offshore part is not well constrained due to the limited coverage of stations. The mean Vp/Vs ratio is around 1.7 in the Yukon-Tanana terrane and central-northern Alaska. The ratio is about 1.9 in central and southern Alaska with higher values at the Alaska Range, Wrangell Mountains, and St. Elias Range. Further data analyses are needed for obtaining more details of the crustal structure in Alaska to decipher the origin and development of different tectonic terranes.

  6. Crustal structure and active tectonics in the Eastern Alps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brückl, E.; Behm, M.; Decker, K.

    2010-01-01

    fragment (PA), was interpreted and a triple junction was inferred. The goal of this study has been to relate these deep crustal structures to active tectonics. We used elastic plate modeling to reconsider the Moho fragmentation. We interpret subduction of EU below AD and PA from north to south......During the last decade, a series of controlled source seismic experiments brought new insight into the crustal and lithospheric structure of the Eastern Alps and their adjacent tectonic provinces. A fragmentation of the lithosphere into three blocks, Europe (EU), Adria (AD), and the new Pannonian...

  7. Low-pressure evolution of arc magmas in thickened crust: The San Pedro-Linzor volcanic chain, Central Andes, Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Benigno; Wörner, Gerhard; Kojima, Shoji; Aguilera, Felipe; Simon, Klaus; Hartmann, Gerald

    2014-07-01

    Magmatism at Andean Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ), or Central Andes, is strongly influenced by differentiation and assimilation at high pressures that occurred at lower levels of the thick continental crust. This is typically shown by high light to heavy rare earth element ratios (LREE/HREE) of the erupted lavas at this volcanic zone. Increase of these ratios with time is interpreted as a change to magma evolution in the presence of garnet during evolution of Central Andes. Such geochemical signals could be introduced into the magmas be high-pressure fractionation with garnet on the liquidus and/or assimilation from crustal rocks with a garnet-bearing residue. However, lavas erupted at San Pedro-Linzor volcanic chain show no evidence of garnet fractionation in their trace element patterns. This volcanic chain is located in the active volcanic arc, between 22°00‧S and 22°30‧S, over a continental crust ˜70 km thick. Sampled lavas show Sr/Y and Sm/Yb ratios Chile. We relate our geochemical observations to shallow crustal evolution of primitive magmas involving a high degree of assimilation of upper continental crust. We emphasize that low pressure AFC- (Assimilation Fractional Crystallization) type evolution of the San Pedro-Linzor volcanic chain reflects storage, fractionation, and contamination of mantle-derived magmas at the upper felsic crust (<40 km depth). The ascent of mantle-derived magmas to mid-crustal levels is related with the extensional regime that has existed in this zone of arc-front offset since Late-Miocene age, and the relatively thin portion of mafic lower crust observed below the volcanic chain.

  8. Crustal Poisson’s ratio anomalies in the eastern part of North China and their origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wencai Yang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Seismic tomography can provide both fine P-wave and S-wave velocity structures of the crust and upper mantle. In addition, with proper computation, Poisson’s ratio images from the seismic velocities can be determined. However, it is unknown whether Poisson’s ratio images have any advantages when compared with the P-wave and S-wave velocity images. For the purposes of this study, high-resolution seismic tomography under the eastern part of North China region was used to determine detailed 3-D crustal P- and S-wave seismic velocities structure, as well as Poisson’s ratio images. Results of Poisson’s ratio imaging show high Poisson’s ratio (high-PR anomalies located in the Hengshan-North Taihang-Zhangjiakou (H-NT-Z region, demonstrating that Poisson’s ratio imaging can provide new geophysical constraints for regional tectonic evolution. The H-NT-Z region shows a prominent and continuous high-PR anomaly in the upper crust. Based on Poisson’s ratio images at different depths, we find that this high-PR anomaly is extending down to the middle crust with thickness up to about 26 km. According to rock physical property measurements and other geological data, this crustal Poisson’s ratio anomaly can be explained by Mesozoic partial melting of the upper mantle and basaltic magma underplating related to the lithospheric thinning of the North China craton.

  9. Constraints on continental crustal mass loss via chemical weathering using lithium and its isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, R. L.; Liu, X. M.

    2012-04-01

    The continental crust has an "intermediate" bulk composition that is distinct from primary melts of peridotitic mantle (basalt or picrite). This mismatch between the "building blocks" and the "edifice" that is the continental crust points to the operation of processes that preferentially remove mafic to ultramafic material from the continents. Such processes include lower crustal recycling (via density foundering or lower crustal subduction - e.g., relamination, Hacker et al., 2011, EPSL), generation of evolved melts via slab melting, and/or chemical weathering. Stable isotope systems point to the influence of chemical weathering on the bulk crust composition: the oxygen isotope composition of the bulk crust is distinctly heavier than that of primary, mantle-derived melts (Simon and Lecuyer, 2005, G-cubed) and the Li isotopic composition of the bulk crust is distinctly lighter than that of mantle-derive melts (Teng et al., 2004, GCA; 2008, Chem. Geol.). Both signatures mark the imprint of chemical weathering on the bulk crust composition. Here, we use a simple mass balance model for lithium inputs and outputs from the continental crust to quantify the mass lost due to chemical weathering. We find that a minimum of 15%, a maximum of 60%, and a best estimate of ~40% of the original juvenile rock mass may have been lost via chemical weathering. The accumulated percentage of mass loss due to chemical weathering leads to an average global chemical weathering rate (CWR) of ~ 1×10^10 to 2×10^10 t/yr since 3.5 Ga, which is about an order of magnitude higher than the minimum estimates based on modern rivers (Gaillardet et al., 1999, Chem. Geol.). While we cannot constrain the exact portion of crustal mass loss via chemical weathering, given the uncertainties of the calculation, we can demonstrate that the weathering flux is non-zero. Therefore, chemical weathering must play a role in the evolution of the composition and mass of the continental crust.

  10. Estimates of volume and magma input in crustal magmatic systems from zircon geochronology: the effect of modelling assumptions and system variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca eCaricchi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Magma fluxes in the Earth’s crust play an important role in regulating the relationship between the frequency and magnitude of volcanic eruptions, the chemical evolution of magmatic systems and the distribution of geothermal energy and mineral resources on our planet. Therefore, quantifying magma productivity and the rate of magma transfer within the crust can provide valuable insights to characterise the long-term behaviour of volcanic systems and to unveil the link between the physical and chemical evolution of magmatic systems and their potential to generate resources. We performed thermal modelling to compute the temperature evolution of crustal magmatic intrusions with different final volumes assembled over a variety of timescales (i.e., at different magma fluxes. Using these results, we calculated synthetic populations of zircon ages assuming the number of zircons crystallising in a given time period is directly proportional to the volume of magma at temperature within the zircon crystallisation range. The statistical analysis of the calculated populations of zircon ages shows that the mode, median and standard deviation of the populations varies coherently as function of the rate of magma injection and final volume of the crustal intrusions. Therefore, the statistical properties of the population of zircon ages can add useful constraints to quantify the rate of magma injection and the final volume of magmatic intrusions.Here, we explore the effect of different ranges of zircon saturation temperature, intrusion geometry, and wall rock temperature on the calculated distributions of zircon ages. Additionally, we determine the effect of undersampling on the variability of mode, median and standards deviation of calculated populations of zircon ages to estimate the minimum number of zircon analyses necessary to obtain meaningful estimates of magma flux and final intrusion volume.

  11. Investigating Microbial Biofilm Formations on Crustal Rock Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, M.; D'Angelo, T.; Carr, S. A.; Orcutt, B.

    2017-12-01

    Ocean crust hosts microbial life that, in some cases, alter the component rocks as a means of obtaining energy. Variations in crust lithology, included trace metal and mineral content, as well as the chemistry of the fluids circulating through them, provide substrates for some microbes to metabolize, leading to formation of biofilm community structures. Microbes have different parameters for the situations in which they will form biofilms, but they must have some source of energy in excess at the site of biofilm formation for them to become stationary and form the carbohydrate-rich structures connecting the cells to one another and the substrate. Generally, the requirements for microbes to form biofilms on crustal minerals are unclear. We designed two experiments to test (1) mineral preference and biofilm formation rates by natural seawater microbial communities, and (2) biofilm development as a function of phosphate availability for an organism isolated from subseafloor ocean crust. In Experiment 1, we observed that phyric basalt groundmass is preferentially colonized over aphyric basalt or metal sulfides in a shallow water and oxic seawater environment. In experiment 2, tests of the anaerobic heterotroph Thalassospira bacteria isolated from oceanic crustal fluids showed that they preferentially form biofilms, lose motility, and increase exponentially in number over time in higher-PO4 treatments (50 micromolar), including with phosphate-doped basalts, than in treatments with low phosphate concentrations (0.5 micromolar) often found in crustal fluids. These observations suggest phosphate as a main driver of biofilm formation in subsurface crust. Overall, these data suggest that the drivers of microbial biofilm formation on crustal substrates are selective to the substrate conditions, which has important implications for estimating the global biomass of life harbored in oceanic crust.

  12. Crustal insights from gravity and aeromagnetic analysis: Central North Slope, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltus, R.W.; Potter, C.J.; Phillips, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    Aeromagnetic and gravity data are processed and interpreted to reveal deep and shallow information about the crustal structure of the central North Slope, Alaska. Regional aeromagnetic anomalies primarily reflect deep crustal features. Regional gravity anomalies are more complex and require detailed analysis. We constrain our geophysical models with seismic data and interpretations along two transects including the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect. Combined geophysical analysis reveals a remarkable heterogeneity of the pre-Mississippian basement. In the central North Slope, pre-Mississippian basement consists of two distinct geophysical domains. To the southwest, the basement is dense and highly magnetic; this basement is likely mafic and mechanically strong, possibly acting as a buttress to basement involvement in Brooks Range thrusting. To the northeast, the central North Slope basement consists of lower density, moderately magnetic rocks with several discrete regions (intrusions?) of more magnetic rocks. A conjugate set of geophysical trends, northwest-southeast and southwest-northeast, may be a factor in the crustal response to tectonic compression in this domain. High-resolution gravity and aeromagnetic data, where available, reflect details of shallow fault and fold structure. The maps and profile models in this report should provide useful guidelines and complementary information for regional structural studies, particularly in combination with detailed seismic reflection interpretations. Future challenges include collection of high-resolution gravity and aeromagnetic data for the entire North Slope as well as additional deep crustal information from seismic, drilling, and other complementary methods. Copyrights ?? 2006. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  13. Parallel Fast Multipole Boundary Element Method for crustal dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevedo, Leonardo; Morra, Gabriele; Mueller, R Dietmar

    2010-01-01

    Crustal faults and sharp material transitions in the crust are usually represented as triangulated surfaces in structural geological models. The complex range of volumes separating such surfaces is typically three-dimensionally meshed in order to solve equations that describe crustal deformation with the finite-difference (FD) or finite-element (FEM) methods. We show here how the Boundary Element Method, combined with the Multipole approach, can revolutionise the calculation of stress and strain, solving the problem of computational scalability from reservoir to basin scales. The Fast Multipole Boundary Element Method (Fast BEM) tackles the difficulty of handling the intricate volume meshes and high resolution of crustal data that has put classical Finite 3D approaches in a performance crisis. The two main performance enhancements of this method: the reduction of required mesh elements from cubic to quadratic with linear size and linear-logarithmic runtime; achieve a reduction of memory and runtime requirements allowing the treatment of a new scale of geodynamic models. This approach was recently tested and applied in a series of papers by [1, 2, 3] for regional and global geodynamics, using KD trees for fast identification of near and far-field interacting elements, and MPI parallelised code on distributed memory architectures, and is now in active development for crustal dynamics. As the method is based on a free-surface, it allows easy data transfer to geological visualisation tools where only changes in boundaries and material properties are required as input parameters. In addition, easy volume mesh sampling of physical quantities enables direct integration with existing FD/FEM code.

  14. Evaluation of six NEHRP B/C crustal amplification models proposed for use in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boore, David; Campbell, Kenneth W.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate six crustal amplification models based on National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) B/C crustal profiles proposed for use in western North America (WNA) and often used in other active crustal regions where crustal properties are unknown. One of the models is based on an interpolation of generic rock velocity profiles previously proposed for WNA and central and eastern North America (CENA), in conjunction with material densities based on an updated velocity–density relationship. A second model is based on the velocity profile used to develop amplification factors for the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA)‐West2 project. A third model is based on a near‐surface velocity profile developed from the NGA‐West2 site database. A fourth model is based on velocity and density profiles originally proposed for use in CENA but recently used to represent crustal properties in California. We propose two alternatives to this latter model that more closely represent WNA crustal properties. We adopt a value of site attenuation (κ0) for each model that is either recommended by the author of the model or proposed by us. Stochastic simulation is used to evaluate the Fourier amplification factors and their impact on response spectra associated with each model. Based on this evaluation, we conclude that among the available models evaluated in this study the NEHRP B/C amplification model of Boore (2016) best represents median crustal amplification in WNA, although the amplification models based on the crustal profiles of Kamai et al. (2013, 2016, unpublished manuscript, see Data and Resources) and Yenier and Atkinson (2015), the latter adjusted to WNA crustal properties, can be used to represent epistemic uncertainty.

  15. Geochronological data for lithostratigraphic complexes of a crystalline basement from the South regions of Minas Gerais and adjacent areas of the Sao Paulo state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashita, K.; Artur, A.C.; Wernick, E.

    1988-01-01

    New geochronological data (Rb/Sr, Pb/Pb) for the Amparo and Pinhal Complexes, southern State of Minas Gerais and adjacent areas of the State of Sao Paulo are presented and discussed with respect to other lithostratigraphic complexes which there occur. Among the different complexes considered, 4 are composed mainly by rock belonging to typical infrastructure associations. They are the Barcelona, the Guaxupe, the Amparo and the Pinhal complexes. The Barbacena Complex is a typical gray gneiss complex and geochronological data by different methods confirm its Archean age. The Guaxupe Complex is composed mainly by different types of charnockitic rocks and an Archean age is assumed on geotectonic basis due to its neighboring association with the gray gneiss/greenstone belt, a though confirming geochronological data are still missing, a normal feature in this type of mobile belts which generally show a complex, polycyling evolution. Geochronological data by different methods on diverse rock types indicates that the Amparo and Pinhal complexes are respectively of Lower an Upper proterozoic age. Geochronological, geological and petrographic data reveal that both complexes are composed mainly by 3 basic rock associations: a-mainly derived magmatic rocks including mafic/ultramafic ones as well as calc-alkaline, subalcaline and even alkaline granitoids; b-orthogneisses, migmatites and crustal granites derived by metamorphic processes acting on older, pre-existing rocks; corthogneisses and migmatites resulting from metamorphic processes acting on magmatic rocks intruded during the same tecto-metamorphic cycle during which its transformation took place. The results suggest a polycyclic evolution by successive tecto-metamorphic events which affected the older rocks of the considered are either by the reworking of enclosing rocks around pericratonic continental main magmatic arcs or by the remobilisation of older basement rocks during continental collisions. (author) [pt

  16. NASA plan for international crustal dynamics studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The international activities being planned as part of the NASA geodynamics program are described. Methods of studying the Earth's crustal movements and deformation characteristics are discussed. The significance of the eventual formalations of earthquake predictions methods is also discussed.

  17. Developing a Crustal and Upper Mantle Velocity Model for the Brazilian Northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia, J.; Nascimento, R.

    2013-05-01

    Development of 3D models for the earth's crust and upper mantle is important for accurately predicting travel times for regional phases and to improve seismic event location. The Brazilian Northeast is a tectonically active area within stable South America and displays one of the highest levels of seismicity in Brazil, with earthquake swarms containing events up to mb 5.2. Since 2011, seismic activity is routinely monitored through the Rede Sismográfica do Nordeste (RSisNE), a permanent network supported by the national oil company PETROBRAS and consisting of 15 broadband stations with an average spacing of ~200 km. Accurate event locations are required to correctly characterize and identify seismogenic areas in the region and assess seismic hazard. Yet, no 3D model of crustal thickness and crustal and upper mantle velocity variation exists. The first step in developing such models is to refine crustal thickness and depths to major seismic velocity boundaries in the crust and improve on seismic velocity estimates for the upper mantle and crustal layers. We present recent results in crustal and uppermost mantle structure in NE Brazil that will contribute to the development of a 3D model of velocity variation. Our approach has consisted of: (i) computing receiver functions to obtain point estimates of crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio and (ii) jointly inverting receiver functions and surface-wave dispersion velocities from an independent tomography study to obtain S-velocity profiles at each station. This approach has been used at all the broadband stations of the monitoring network plus 15 temporary, short-period stations that reduced the inter-station spacing to ~100 km. We expect our contributions will provide the basis to produce full 3D velocity models for the Brazilian Northeast and help determine accurate locations for seismic events in the region.

  18. Carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur geochemistry of Archean and Proterozoic shales from the Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yumiko; Naraoka, Hiroshi; Wronkiewicz, David J.; Condie, Kent C.; Ohmoto, Hiroshi

    1997-08-01

    The C, N, and S contents and VC and δ 13Cδ 34S values were analyzed for 100 shale samples from ten formations, 3.0 to 2.1 Ga in age, in the central and eastern regions of the Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa. The Kaapvaal shales are characterized by generally low contents of organic C (range 0.06-2.79 wt%, average 0.47 wt%), N (range facies). From the theoretical relationships between the H/C ratios of kerogen and organic C contents of shales, the original C contents of the Archean and Proterozoic shales from the Kaapvaal Craton are estimated to be on average ˜2 wt%. These values are similar to the average organic C content of modern marine sediments. This suggests that the primary organic productivity and the preservation of organic matter in the ocean during the period of 3.0 to 2.1 Ga were similar to those in the Phanerozoic era, provided the flux of clastic sediments to the ocean was similar. This would also imply that the rate of O 2 accumulation in the atmosphere-ocean system, which has equaled the burial rate of organic matter in sediments, has been the same since ˜3.0 Ga. The δ 34S values of bulk-rock sulfides (mostly pyrite) range from +2.7 to +7.4%‰ for seven sulfide-rich samples of ˜2.9 Ga to ˜2.6 Ga. These values are consistent with a suggestion by Ohmoto (1992) and Ohmoto et al. (1993) that most pyrite crystals in Archean shales were formed by bacterial reduction of seawater sulfate with δ 34S values between +2 and +10‰, and that the Archean seawater was sulfate rich. Changes in the δ 13C org values during maturation of kerogen were evaluated with theoretical calculations from the experimental data of Peters et al. (1981) and Lewan (1983), and from the observations by Simoneit et al. (1981) on natural samples. These evaluations suggest that the magnitudes of δ 13C org increase are much less than those estimated by Hayes et al. (1983) and Des Marais et al. (1992), and only about 2 to 3%‰ for the kerogens that decreased their H/C ratios from

  19. Crustal structure and regional tectonics of SE Sweden and the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milnes, A.G. [Bergen Univ. (Norway). Dept. of Geology; Gee, D.G.; Lund, C.E. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    1998-11-01

    In this desk study, the available geophysical and geological data on the crustal structure and regional tectonics of the wider surroundings of the Aespoe site (SE Sweden and adjacent parts of the Baltic Sea) are compiled and assessed. The aim is to contribute to the knowledge base for long-term rock mechanical modeling, using the Aespoe site as a proxy for a high-level radioactive waste repository site in Swedish bedrock. The geophysical data reviewed includes two new refraction/wide-angle reflection seismic experiments carried out within the EUROBRIDGE project, in addition to the numerous earlier refraction seismic profiles. The BABEL normal-incidence deep seismic profile is also considered. New geological data, presented at EUROBRIDGE workshops, and in recent SGU publications, are reviewed for the same area. In combination with the seismic data, these provide a base for interpreting the present composition and structure, and the Palaeoproterozoic-Mesoproterozoic evolution, of the crustal segment within which the Aespoe site lies - the Smaaland mega-block. This is characterized by having undergone little regionally significant deformation or magmatism since Neoproterozoic times (the last 1000 million years). It is shown that, at this scale of observation (of the order of 100 km), the long-term rheology of the lithosphere can be argued from a relatively tight observational network, when combined with the results of earlier SKB studies (seismo-tectonics, uplift patterns, state of stress, heat flow) and published research. Although many uncertainties exist, the present state of knowledge would suffice for first exploratory calculations and sensitivity studies of long-term, large-scale rock mechanics 101 refs, 22 figs

  20. Qinghai-Tibet Plateau crustal thickness derived from EGM2008 and CRSUT2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Hao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is the most complex region for crustal thickness inversion, while high-resolution earth gravity model (EGM makes it possible to obtain high precision gravity anomaly, which is a key parameter to depict the Earth’s inner structure in geodesy domain. On the basis of this principle, we calculated the Bouguer gravity anomalies in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with EGM2008 and SRTM6. 0 by efficient high-degree spherical harmonic synthesis algorithm. In order to obtain the gravity anomaly caused by Moho density mutant, the noises caused by the topography was removed by wavelet details. Then, the crustal thickness was corrected on the basis of CRUST 2. 0 with the deep-large-scale single density interface formula. The inversion result indicates that the crustal thickness in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is between 50 km and 75 km, which is in correspondence with the recent science research result. Compared with the 2 degree CRUST 2. 0 model, the spatial resolution of crustal thickness in our research can reach 40 arc minutes. In addition, there is a positive relationship between the inversed crustal thickness and topography, which can prove the effectiveness of Airy-Heiskanen isostatic model in gravity reduction.

  1. Influence of mid-crustal rheology on the deformation behavior of continental crust in the continental subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fucheng; Sun, Zhen; Zhang, Jiangyang

    2018-06-01

    Although the presence of low-viscosity middle crustal layer in the continental crust has been detected by both geophysical and geochemical studies, its influence on the deformation behavior of continental crust during subduction remains poorly investigated. To illustrate the crustal deformation associated with layered crust during continental subduction, we conducted a suite of 2-D thermo-mechanical numerical studies with visco-brittle/plastic rheology based on finite-differences and marker-in-cell techniques. In the experiments, we established a three-layer crustal model with a quartz-rich middle crustal layer embedded between the upper and lower continental crust. Results show that the middle crustal layer determines the amount of the accreted upper crust, maximum subduction depth, and exhumation path of the subducted upper crust. By varying the initial effective viscosity and thickness of the middle crustal layer, the further effects can be summarized as: (1) a rheologically weaker and/or thicker middle crustal layer results in a larger percentage of the upper crust detaching from the underlying slab and accreting at the trench zone, thereby leading to more serious crustal deformation. The rest of the upper crust only subducts into the depths of high pressure (HP) conditions, causing the absence of ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks; (2) a rheologically stronger and/or thinner middle crustal layer favors the stable subduction of the continental crust, dragging the upper crust to a maximum depth of ∼100 km and forming UHP rocks; (3) the middle crustal layer flows in a ductile way and acts as an exhumation channel for the HP-UHP rocks in both situations. In addition, the higher convergence velocity decreases the amount of subducted upper crust. A detailed comparison of our modeling results with the Himalayan collisional belt are conducted. Our work suggests that the presence of low-viscosity middle crustal layer may be another possible mechanism for

  2. Excess hafnium-176 in meteorites and the early Earth zircon record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizzarro, Martin; Connelly, James; Thrane, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    The long-lived Lu-to- Hf decay system is a powerful tool to understand ancient chemical fractionation events associated with planetary differentiation. Detrital Hadean zircons (>3.8 Gyr) from the Jack Hills metasedimentary belt of Western Australia record extremely enriched Hf-isotope signals sug...... crust prior to ~4.4 Gyr. This new view suggests continuous juvenile crustal growth and recycling throughout the Hadean and Archean eras, perhaps analogous to modern plate tectonics....

  3. Characterizing Lithospheric Thickness in Australia using Ps and Sp Scattered Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, H. A.; Fischer, K. M.; Rychert, C. A.

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to constrain the morphology of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary throughout Australia using scattered waves. Prior surface wave studies have shown a correlation between lithospheric thickness and the three primary geologic provinces of Australia, with the shallowest lithosphere located beneath the Phanerozoic province to the east, and the thicker lithosphere located beneath the Proterozoic and Archean regions. To determine lithospheric thickness, waveform data from twenty permanent broadband stations spanning mainland Australia and the island of Tasmania were analyzed using Ps and Sp migration techniques. Waveform selection for each station was based on epicentral distance (35° to 80° for Ps and 55° to 80° for Sp), and event depth (no greater than 300 km for Sp). For both Ps and Sp a simultaneous deconvolution was performed on the data for each of the twenty stations, and the resulting receiver function for each station was migrated to depth. Data were binned with epicentral distance to differentiate direct discontinuity phases from crustal reverberations (for Ps) and other teleseismic arrivals (for Sp). Early results in both Ps and Sp show a clear Moho discontinuity at most stations in addition to sharp, strong crustal reverberations seen in many of the Ps images. In the eastern Phanerozoic province, a strong negative phase at 100-105 km is evident in Ps for stations CAN and EIDS. The negative phase lies within a depth range that corresponds to the negative velocity gradient between fast lithosphere and slow asthenosphere imaged by surface waves. We therefore think that it is the lithosphere- asthenosphere boundary. On the island of Tasmania, a negative phase at 70-75 km in Ps images at stations TAU and MOO also appears to be the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. In the Proterozoic and Archean regions of the Australian continent, initial results for both Ps and Sp migration indicate clear crustal phases, but significantly

  4. Seismotectonics of Taiwan Shoal region in northeastern SCS: Insights from crustal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiyuan, Wan; Jinlong, Sun; Shaohong, Xia; Xiaoling, Xie; Xiang, Zhang; Huilong, Xu; Jinghe, Cao

    2017-04-01

    A seismicity cluster and a great 16 September 1994 earthquake occur in the Taiwan Shoal region, outer rise of the Manila subduction zone. To understand what mechanisms control and generate the earthquake cluster, it is important to investigate the deep crustal structure of the Taiwan Shoal region. We present a 2-D seismic tomographic image of the crustal structure along the OBS2012 profile based on ocean bottom seismographic (OBS) data. The structure exhibits that a high velocity anomaly in the upper crust beneath the Taiwan Shoal is flanked by lower velocity anomalies. Based on the crustal structure, we study the 765 earthquakes, which occurred in the period 1991-2015. These epicenters, combined with the regional faults, and crustal structure, allow us to better understand the nature of the active tectonics in this region. The high velocity area is interpreted as representing stronger, defining major asperities where stress is concentrated corresponding to the location of the earthquake cluster. The earthquake cluster is influenced by the fault interactions. However, the 16 September 1994 earthquake is independents of the seismic activities but associated with the reactivation of the preexisting fault. In Taiwan region, the slab-pull was resisted by the exposed pre-collision accretionary prism and the resistive force caused the in-plane compressive stress accumulation. This condition may favor the triggering of future damaging earthquakes in this region. Key words: earthquake cluster; crustal structure; fault interactions; outer rise; Taiwan Shoal

  5. Crustal permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Tom; Ingebritsen, Steven E.

    2016-01-01

    Permeability is the primary control on fluid flow in the Earth’s crust and is key to a surprisingly wide range of geological processes, because it controls the advection of heat and solutes and the generation of anomalous pore pressures.  The practical importance of permeability – and the potential for large, dynamic changes in permeability – is highlighted by ongoing issues associated with hydraulic fracturing for hydrocarbon production (“fracking”), enhanced geothermal systems, and geologic carbon sequestration.  Although there are thousands of research papers on crustal permeability, this is the first book-length treatment.  This book bridges the historical dichotomy between the hydrogeologic perspective of permeability as a static material property and the perspective of other Earth scientists who have long recognized permeability as a dynamic parameter that changes in response to tectonism, fluid production, and geochemical reactions. 

  6. Boron isotope fractionation in magma via crustal carbonate dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Frances M; Troll, Valentin R; Whitehouse, Martin J; Jolis, Ester M; Freda, Carmela

    2016-08-04

    Carbon dioxide released by arc volcanoes is widely considered to originate from the mantle and from subducted sediments. Fluids released from upper arc carbonates, however, have recently been proposed to help modulate arc CO2 fluxes. Here we use boron as a tracer, which substitutes for carbon in limestone, to further investigate crustal carbonate degassing in volcanic arcs. We performed laboratory experiments replicating limestone assimilation into magma at crustal pressure-temperature conditions and analysed boron isotope ratios in the resulting experimental glasses. Limestone dissolution and assimilation generates CaO-enriched glass near the reaction site and a CO2-dominated vapour phase. The CaO-rich glasses have extremely low δ(11)B values down to -41.5‰, reflecting preferential partitioning of (10)B into the assimilating melt. Loss of (11)B from the reaction site occurs via the CO2 vapour phase generated during carbonate dissolution, which transports (11)B away from the reaction site as a boron-rich fluid phase. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of boron isotope fractionation during crustal carbonate assimilation and suggest that low δ(11)B melt values in arc magmas could flag shallow-level additions to the subduction cycle.

  7. Boron isotope fractionation in magma via crustal carbonate dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Frances M.; Troll, Valentin R.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Jolis, Ester M.; Freda, Carmela

    2016-08-01

    Carbon dioxide released by arc volcanoes is widely considered to originate from the mantle and from subducted sediments. Fluids released from upper arc carbonates, however, have recently been proposed to help modulate arc CO2 fluxes. Here we use boron as a tracer, which substitutes for carbon in limestone, to further investigate crustal carbonate degassing in volcanic arcs. We performed laboratory experiments replicating limestone assimilation into magma at crustal pressure-temperature conditions and analysed boron isotope ratios in the resulting experimental glasses. Limestone dissolution and assimilation generates CaO-enriched glass near the reaction site and a CO2-dominated vapour phase. The CaO-rich glasses have extremely low δ11B values down to -41.5‰, reflecting preferential partitioning of 10B into the assimilating melt. Loss of 11B from the reaction site occurs via the CO2 vapour phase generated during carbonate dissolution, which transports 11B away from the reaction site as a boron-rich fluid phase. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of boron isotope fractionation during crustal carbonate assimilation and suggest that low δ11B melt values in arc magmas could flag shallow-level additions to the subduction cycle.

  8. Real-time and on-demand buoy observation system for tsunami and crustal displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, N.; Imai, K.; Ishihara, Y.; Fukuda, T.; Ochi, H.; Suzuki, K.; Kido, M.; Ohta, Y.; Imano, M.; Hino, R.

    2017-12-01

    We develop real-time and on-demand buoy observation system for tsunami and crustal displacement. It is indispensable for observation of crustal displacement to understand changes of stress field related to future large earthquakes. The current status of the observation is carried out by using a vessel with an interval of a few times per a year. When a large earthquake occurs, however, we need dense or on-demand observation of the crustal displacement to grasp nature of the slow slip after the rupture. Therefore, we constructed buoy system with a buoy station, wire-end station, seafloor unit and acoustic transponders for crustal displacement, and we installed a pressure sensor on the seafloor unit and GNSS system on the buoy in addition to measurement of e distance between the buoy and the seafloor acoustic transponders. Tsunami is evaluated using GNSS data and pressure data sent from seafloor. Observation error of the GNSS is about 10 cm. The crustal displacement is estimated using pressure sensor for vertical and acoustic measurement for horizontal. Using current slack ratio of 1.58, the observation error for the measurement of the crustal displacement is about 10 cm. We repeated three times sea trials and confirmed the data acquisition with high data quality, mooring without dredging anchor in the strong sea current with a speed of 5.5 knots. Current issues to be resolved we face are removing noises on the acoustic data transmission, data transmission between the buoy and wire-end stations, electrical consumption on the buoy station and large observation error on the crustal displacement due to large slack ratio. We consider the change of the acoustic transmission for pressure data, replace of a GNSS data logger with large electrical consumption, and reduce of the slack ratio, and search method to reduce resistance of the buoy on the sea water. In this presentation, we introduce the current status of the technical development and tsunami waveforms recorded on our

  9. Full 40 km crustal reflection seismic datasets in several Indonesian basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkelman, M. G.; Granath, J. W.; Christ, J. M.; Emmet, P. A.; Bird, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    sedimentary and burial metamorphosed sedimentary rock that we divide into two packages on the basis of seismic character. The upper is 8-15 km of undeformed late Precambrian sediments the top of which ties Eocambrian rocks in wells in offshore New Guinea. This package appears to correlate to the Wessel Group in northern Australia. The lower package is composed of 10-15 km of strongly bedded, presumably burial metamorphosed rocks that make up the bulk of the lower crust. These may equate to any of a number of northern Australian Mesoproterozoic basins. This lower package offlaps ‘pods’ of seismically transparent basement (?Paleoproterozoic or Archean) that make up at most the lowermost 15 km of the 40 km PSDM line. Both Precambrian packages appear to be craton-margin sedimentary wedges, the younger overlapping the older. The SE extent of the lowermost package is deformed in a thrust system which may mark the event that detached it from its original underlying oceanic or transitional crust during cratonization. The SPAN programs are important new data sets to clarify and in some cases solve outstanding problems in basin architecture and tectonic evolution.

  10. Temporal record of osmium concentrations and 187Os/188Os in organic-rich mudrocks: Implications for the osmium geochemical cycle and the use of osmium as a paleoceanographic tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinze; Kendall, Brian; Stein, Holly J.; Hannah, Judith L.

    2017-11-01

    We present a compilation of 192Os concentrations (representing non-radiogenic Os) and initial 187Os/188Os isotope ratios from organic-rich mudrocks (ORM) to explore the evolution of the Os geochemical cycle during the past three billion years. The initial 187Os/188Os isotope ratio of a Re-Os isochron regression for ORM constrains the local paleo-seawater 187Os/188Os, which is governed by the relative magnitudes of radiogenic Os (old continental crust) and unradiogenic Os (mantle, extraterrestrial, and juvenile/mafic/ultramafic crust) fluxes to seawater. A first-order increase in seawater 187Os/188Os ratios occurs from the Archean to the Phanerozoic, and may reflect a combination of increasing atmosphere-ocean oxygenation and weathering of progressively more radiogenic continental crust due to in-growth of 187Os from radioactive decay of 187Re. Superimposed on this long-term trend are shorter-term fluctuations in seawater 187Os/188Os ratios as a result of climate change, emplacement of large igneous provinces, bolide impacts, tectonic events, changes in seafloor spreading rates, and lithological changes in crustal terranes proximal to sites of ORM deposition. Ediacaran-Phanerozoic ORM have mildly higher 192Os concentrations overall compared with pre-Ediacaran Proterozoic ORM based on the mean and 95% confidence interval of 10,000 median values derived using a bootstrap analysis for each time bin (insufficient Archean data exist for robust statistical comparisons). However, there are two groups with anomalously high 192Os concentrations that are distinguished by their initial 187Os/188Os isotope ratios. Ediacaran-Cambrian ORM from South China have radiogenic initial 187Os/188Os, suggesting their high 192Os concentrations reflect proximal Os-rich crustal source(s), ultraslow sedimentation rates, and/or other unusual depositional conditions. In contrast, the unradiogenic initial 187Os/188Os and high 192Os concentrations of some Mesozoic ORM can be tied to emplacement

  11. 182W and HSE constraints from 2.7 Ga komatiites on the heterogeneous nature of the Archean mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchtel, Igor S.; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Touboul, Mathieu; Walker, Richard J.

    2018-05-01

    While the isotopically heterogeneous nature of the terrestrial mantle has long been established, the origin, scale, and longevity of the heterogeneities for different elements and isotopic systems are still debated. Here, we report Nd, Hf, W, and Os isotopic and highly siderophile element (HSE) abundance data for the Boston Creek komatiitic basalt lava flow (BCF) in the 2.7 Ga Abitibi greenstone belt, Canada. This lava flow is characterized by strong depletions in Al and heavy rare earth elements (REE), enrichments in light REE, and initial ε143Nd = +2.5 ± 0.2 and intial ε176Hf = +4.2 ± 0.9 indicative of derivation from a deep mantle source with time-integrated suprachondritic Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf ratios. The data plot on the terrestrial Nd-Hf array suggesting minimal involvement of early magma ocean processes in the fractionation of lithophile trace elements in the mantle source. This conclusion is supported by a mean μ142Nd = -3.8 ± 2.8 that is unresolvable from terrestrial standards. By contrast, the BCF exhibits a positive 182W anomaly (μ182W = +11.7 ± 4.5), yet is characterized by chondritic initial γ187Os = +0.1 ± 0.3 and low inferred source HSE abundances (35 ± 5% of those estimated for the present-day Bulk Silicate Earth, BSE). Collectively, these characteristics are unique among Archean komatiite systems studied so far. The deficit in the HSE, coupled with the chondritic Os isotopic composition, but a positive 182W anomaly, are best explained by derivation of the parental BCF magma from a mantle domain characterized by a predominance of HSE-deficient, differentiated late accreted material. According to the model presented here, the mantle domain that gave rise to the BCF received only ∼35% of the present-day HSE complement in the BSE before becoming isolated from the rest of the convecting mantle until the time of komatiite emplacement at 2.72 Ga. These new data provide strong evidence for a highly heterogeneous Archean mantle in terms of absolute

  12. Obtaining Crustal Properties From the P Coda Without Deconvolution: an Example From the Dakotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, A. W.; Delaney, C.

    2013-12-01

    Receiver functions are a popular technique for mapping variations in crustal thickness and bulk properties, as the travel times of Ps conversions and multiples from the Moho constrain both Moho depth (h) and the Vp/Vs ratio (k) of the crust. The established approach is to generate a suite of receiver functions, which are then stacked along arrival-time curves for a set of (h,k) values (the h-k stacking approach of Zhu and Kanamori, 2000). However, this approach is sensitive to noise issues with the receiver functions, deconvolution artifacts, and the effects of strong crustal layering (such as in sedimentary basins). In principle, however, the deconvolution is unnecessary; for any given crustal model, we can derive a transfer function allowing us to predict the radial component of the P coda from the vertical, and so determine a misfit value for a particular crustal model. We apply this idea to an Earthscope Transportable Array data set from North and South Dakota and western Minnesota, for which we already have measurements obtained using conventional h-k stacking, and so examine the possibility of crustal thinning and modification by a possible failed branch of the Mid-Continent Rift.

  13. The topography of a continental indenter: The interplay between crustal deformation, erosion, and base level changes in the eastern Southern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberer, B.; Prasicek, G.; Neubauer, F.; Hergarten, S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The topography of the eastern Southern Alps (ESA) reflects indenter tectonics causing crustal shortening, surface uplift, and erosional response. Fluvial drainages were perturbed by Pleistocene glaciations that locally excavated alpine valleys. The Late Miocene desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea and the uplift of the northern Molasse Basin led to significant base level changes in the far field of the ESA and the Eastern Alps (EA), respectively. Among this multitude of mechanisms, the processes that dominate the current topographic evolution of the ESA and the ESA‐EA drainage divide have not been identified. We demonstrate the expected topographic effects of each mechanism in a one‐dimensional model and compare them with observed channel metrics. We find that the normalized steepness index increases with uplift rate and declines from the indenter tip in the northwest to the foreland basin in the southeast. The number and amplitude of knickpoints and the distortion in longitudinal channel profiles similarly decrease toward the east. Changes in slope of χ‐transformed channel profiles coincide spatially with the Valsugana‐Fella fault linking crustal stacking and uplift induced by indenter tectonics with topographic evolution. Gradients in χ across the ESA‐EA drainage divide imply an ongoing, north directed shift of the Danube‐ESA watershed that is most likely driven by a base level rise in the northern Molasse basin. We conclude that the regional uplift pattern controls the geometry of ESA‐EA channels, while base level changes in the far field control the overall architecture of the orogen by drainage divide migration. PMID:28344912

  14. Thermal and petrologic constraints on lower crustal melt accumulation under the Salton Sea Geothermal Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakas, Ozge; Dufek, Josef; Mangan, Margaret T.; Wright, Heather M.; Bachmann, Olivier

    2017-06-01

    In the Salton Sea region of southern California (USA), concurrent magmatism, extension, subsidence, and sedimentation over the past 0.5 to 1.0 Ma have led to the creation of the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF)-the second largest and hottest geothermal system in the continental United States-and the small-volume rhyolite eruptions that created the Salton Buttes. In this study, we determine the flux of mantle-derived basaltic magma that would be required to produce the elevated average heat flow and sustain the magmatic roots of rhyolite volcanism observed at the surface of the Salton Sea region. We use a 2D thermal model to show that a lower-crustal, partially molten mush containing Salton Trough, and are consistent with seismic observations. Our results indicate limited melting and assimilation of pre-existing rocks in the lower crust. Instead, we find that basalt fractionation in the lower crust produces derivative melts of andesitic to dacitic composition. Such melts are then expected to ascend and accumulate in the upper crust, where they further evolve to give rise to small-volume rhyolite eruptions (Salton Buttes) and fuel local spikes in surface heat flux as currently seen in the SSGF. Such upper crustal magma evolution, with limited assimilation of hydrothermally altered material, is required to explain the slight decrease in δ18 O values of zircons (and melts) that have been measured in these rhyolites.

  15. Subsidence history, crustal structure, and evolution of the Somaliland-Yemen conjugate margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M. Y.; Watts, A. B.

    2013-04-01

    We have used biostratigraphic data from deep exploration wells to determine the tectonic subsidence history of the Somaliland (northwestern Somalia)-Yemen conjugate margin, a poorly known margin in the central part of the Gulf of Aden. Bathymetry and magnetic anomaly data suggest the Gulf of Aden is a young feature that formed following the rifting apart and breakup of the African and Arabian plates ~32 Ma. Our tectonic subsidence data suggest, however, that the present-day Gulf of Aden developed on an earlier Mesozoic rift system. The oldest episode of rifting initiated at ~156 Ma and lasted for ~10 Ma and had a NW-SE trend. We interpret the rift as a late stage event associated with the breakup of Gondwana and the separation of Africa and Madagascar. At ~80 Ma, there is evidence of an intermediate rift event which correlates with a rapid increase in spreading rate on the ridges separating the African and Indian and African and Antarctica plates and a contemporaneous slowing down of Africa's plate motion. The combined effect of all three rifting events has been to thin the crust and upper mantle by up to a factor of 2. The amount of thinning deduced from the wells is in accord with the crustal structure inferred from available seismic refraction data and process-oriented gravity and flexure modeling. The margin is asymmetric with a steeper gradient in the Moho on the Yemen side than the Somaliland side. The main discrepancy is on the Yemen side where the gravity-derived Moho is 10 km deeper than the well-derived Moho. We attribute the discrepancy to the addition of material at the base of the crust since rifting, possibly magma sourced from the Afar plume.

  16. Crustal structure of Tolfa domes complex (northern Latium - Italy) inferred from receiver functions analysis: an interplay between tectonics and magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttinelli, M.; Bianchi, I.; Anselmi, M.; Chiarabba, C.; de Rita, D.; Quattrocchi, F.

    2010-12-01

    this low Vs layer, we find some interesting features corresponding to: - a low Vs shallow and 2 km thick layer of Liguride and Plio-Pleistocene units (z = 0-2 km of depth) - a high Vs 4-5 km thick anisotropic layer of limestones (z = 2-7 km of depth) - a very high Vs (3.8 km/s) 4 km thick layer probably corresponding to the metamorphic basement. The analysis of the geometry of the velocity changes between these layers (from the surface to the bottom of metamorphic basement), also yield evidence of crustal block tilting, due to the development of the eastern continental passive margin of the Tyrrhenian sea. The general crustal setting observed between the TDC and the Argentario areas is also consistent with the simple shear models suggested for back-arc basins opening. Comparison of RF’s TDC models with MAON station data also led to important considerations confirming the initial evolutive phase of the Tyrrhenian sea opening, in association with the first occurrences of intrusive magmatism in these areas.

  17. Influence of crustal layering and thickness on co-seismic effects of Wenchuan earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Hongbo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Using the PSGRN/PSCMP software and the fault model offered by USGS and on the basis of finite rectangular dislocation theory and the local layered wave velocity structures of the crust-upper-mantle, the influences of crustal layering and thickness on co-seismic gravity changes and deformation of Wenchuan earthquake have been simulated. The results indicate that; the influences have a relationship with the attitude of faults and the relative position between calculated points and fault. The difference distribution form of simulated results between the two models is similar to that of co-seismic effect. For the per centum distribution, it’s restricted by the zero line of the co-seismic effects obviously. Its positive is far away from the zero line. For the crustal thickness, the effect is about 10% – 20%. The negative and the effect over 30% focus around the zero line. The average influences of crustal layering and thickness for the E-W displacement, N-S displacement, vertical displacement and gravity changes are 18.4%,18.0%, 15.8% and 16.2% respectively, When the crustal thickness is 40 km, they are 4.6%, 5.3%, 3.8% and 3.8%. Then the crustal thickness is 70 km, the average influences are 3.5%, 4.6%, 3.0% and 2.5% respectively.

  18. Spatial Relationship Between Crustal Structure and Mantle Seismicity in the Vrancea Seismogenic Zone of Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, C. C.; Enciu, D. M.; Knapp, J. H.

    2007-12-01

    Active crustal deformation and subsidence in the Southeast Carpathian foreland has previously been attributed to active foundering of thickened continental lithosphere beneath the Carpathian bend region (Knapp et al, 2005). The present study involves integration of active and passive-source seismic data in order to place constraints on the duration, timing, and scale of crustal deformation in the Carpathian foreland, and in particular to assess the genetic relationship with the Vrancea intermediate-depth seismogenic zone (VSZ). Relocated crustal earthquakes and focal mechanisms were correlated with four deep industry seismic profiles, the reprocessed DACIA PLAN deep seismic profile, and the DRACULA (Deep Reflection Acquisition Constraining Unusual Lithospheric Activity) II and III profiles. Projection of foreland crustal hypocenters onto the deep seismic lines correlates well with previously identified crustal faults such as the Trotus and Sinaia, as well as the newly identified Ialomita Fault. Specifically, results of this study (1) image the full crustal and uppermost mantle structure of the Focsani Basin in the close proximity of the VSZ, (2) show evidence for a sub-horizontal, slightly east-dipping Moho in the vicinity of the VSZ and thinning of the crust towards the Carpathian orogen, (3) illustrate the conspicuous absence of west-dipping fabrics or structures in the crust and across the Moho, (4) present evidence that the Trotus Fault is a crustal-scale active fault with a dextral sense of motion, (5) suggest that the Paleozoic age Peceneaga-Camena and Capidava-Ovidiu Faults have not been active in post-Paleozoic time, and (6) show evidence for a new active crustal scale sinistral fault, named the Ialomita fault. Both the seismogenic Vrancea body and deformation in the Focsani Basin appear to be concentrically bound by the Trotus Fault in the north and east and the Sinaia-Ialomita Fault in the south, suggesting a coupled deformation between the VSZ and the

  19. Statistical approach to thermal evolution of neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beznogov, M V; Yakovlev, D G

    2015-01-01

    Studying thermal evolution of neutron stars (NSs) is one of a few ways to investigate the properties of superdense matter in their cores. We study the cooling of isolated NSs (INSs) and deep crustal heating of transiently accreting NSs in X-ray transients (XRTs, binary systems with low-mass companions). Currently, nearly 50 of such NSs are observed, and one can apply statistical methods to analyze the whole dataset. We propose a method for such analysis based on thermal evolution theory for individual stars and on averaging the results over NS mass distributions. We calculate the distributions of INSs and accreting NSs (ANSs) in XRTs over cooling and heating diagrams respectively. Comparing theoretical and observational distributions one can infer information on physical properties of superdense matter and on mass distributions of INSs and ANSs. (paper)

  20. Crustal thickness of Antarctica estimated using data from gravimetric satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llubes, Muriel; Seoane, Lucia; Bruinsma, Sean; Rémy, Frédérique

    2018-04-01

    Computing a better crustal thickness model is still a necessary improvement in Antarctica. In this remote continent where almost all the bedrock is covered by the ice sheet, seismic investigations do not reach a sufficient spatial resolution for geological and geophysical purposes. Here, we present a global map of Antarctic crustal thickness computed from space gravity observations. The DIR5 gravity field model, built from GOCE and GRACE gravimetric data, is inverted with the Parker-Oldenburg iterative algorithm. The BEDMAP products are used to estimate the gravity effect of the ice and the rocky surface. Our result is compared to crustal thickness calculated from seismological studies and the CRUST1.0 and AN1 models. Although the CRUST1.0 model shows a very good agreement with ours, its spatial resolution is larger than the one we obtain with gravimetric data. Finally, we compute a model in which the crust-mantle density contrast is adjusted to fit the Moho depth from the CRUST1.0 model. In East Antarctica, the resulting density contrast clearly shows higher values than in West Antarctica.

  1. Geology and geochronology of Mata Surrao granites - South-West of Rio Maria - Para State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, K.D.; Pereira, E.D.; Dall'Agnol, R.; Lafon, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarize the preliminary data about a geological mapping on the scale 1:50.000 located at an area in the southeastern part of the Para State. The recognized units comprise the Mata Surrao granite, which is within the typical Archean Granite-Greenstone Terrain of Rio Maria, and has mainly a monzogranitic composition. Its foliation is restricted to the north and east borders. The mapped host rocks are represented by Tonalitic Ortho gneisses, Gneisses with Pegmatites, Migmatite Gneisses, both latter show different deformation rates. Rb/Sr on whole rock systematics had been applied for the Mata Surrao granite and yield an age of 2541 ± 74 Ma with Sr initial ratio of 0.71040 ± 343 (MSWD = 2.81). This data revealed another Archean granitic body (strictu sensu) related to the Rio Maria Granite-Greenstone Terrain. Such age can be interpreted either as the crystallization age of this granitic body, or a renewed one caused by the thermo tectonic event that affected the region at the end of Archean time. It can be deduced from the initial ratio that an important crustal contribution controlled the Mata Surrao granite genesis. (author)

  2. The PROTEUS Experiment: Active Source Seismic Imaging of the Crustal Magma Plumbing Structure of the Santorini Arc Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooft, E. E. E.; Morgan, J. V.; Nomikou, P.; Toomey, D. R.; Papazachos, C. V.; Warner, M.; Heath, B.; Christopoulou, M. E.; Lampridou, D.; Kementzetzidou, D.

    2016-12-01

    The goal of the PROTEUS seismic experiment (Plumbing Reservoirs Of The Earth Under Santorini) is to examine the entire crustal magma plumbing system beneath a continental arc volcano and determine the magma geometry and connections throughout the crust. These physical parameters control magma migration, storage, and eruption and inform the question of how physical and chemical processing of magma at arc volcanoes forms the andesitic rock compositions that dominate the lower continental crust. These physical parameters are also important to understand volcanic-tectonic interactions and geohazards. Santorini is ideal for these goals because the continental crust has been thinned by extension and so the deep magmatic system is more accessible, also it is geologically well studied. Since the volcano is a semi-submerged, it was possible to collect a unique 3D marine-land active source seismic dataset. During the PROTEUS experiment in November-December of 2015, we recorded 14,300 marine sound sources from the US R/V Langseth on 89 OBSIP short period ocean bottom seismometers and 60 German and 5 Greek land seismometers. The experiment was designed for high-density spatial sampling of the seismic wavefield to allow us to apply two state-of-the-art 3D inversion methods: travel time tomography and full waveform inversion. A preliminary travel time tomography model of the upper crustal seismic velocity structure of the volcano and surrounding region is presented in an accompanying poster. We also made marine geophysical maps of the seafloor using multi-beam bathymetry and of the gravity and magnetic fields. The new seafloor map reveals the detailed structure of the major fault system between Santorini and Amorgos, of associated landslides, and of newly discovered volcanic features. The PROTEUS project will provide new insights into the structure of the whole crustal magmatic system of a continental arc volcano and its evolution within the surrounding tectonic setting.

  3. Evidence for crustal low shear-wave speed in western Saudi Arabia from multi-scale fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group-velocity tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Zheng

    2018-05-15

    We investigate the crustal and upper-mantle shear-velocity structure of Saudi Arabia by fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group-velocity tomography and shear-wave velocity inversion. The seismic dataset is compiled using ∼140 stations of the Saudi National Seismic Network (SNSN) operated by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). We measure Rayleigh-wave group-velocities at periods of 8–40 s from regional earthquakes. After obtaining 1-D shear-wave velocity models by inverting group-velocities at each grid node, we construct a 3-D shear-velocity model for Saudi Arabia and adjacent regions by interpolating the 1-D models. Our 3-D model indicates significant lateral variations in crustal and lithospheric thickness, as well as in the shear-wave velocity over the study region. In particular, we identify zones of reduced shear-wave speed at crustal levels beneath the Cenozoic volcanic fields in the Arabian Shield. The inferred reductions of 2–5% in shear-wave speed may be interpreted as possibly indicating the presence of partial melts. However, their precise origin we can only speculate about. Our study also reveals an upper-mantle low velocity zone (LVZ) below the Arabian Shield, supporting the model of lateral mantle flow from the Afar plume. Further geophysical experiments are needed to confirm (or refute) the hypothesis that partial melts may exist below the Cenozoic volcanism in western Saudi Arabia, and to build a comprehensive geodynamic–geological model for the evolution and present state of the lithosphere of the Arabian Plate and the Red Sea.

  4. Evidence for crustal low shear-wave speed in western Saudi Arabia from multi-scale fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group-velocity tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Zheng; Mai, Paul Martin; Chang, Sung-Joon; Zahran, Hani

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the crustal and upper-mantle shear-velocity structure of Saudi Arabia by fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group-velocity tomography and shear-wave velocity inversion. The seismic dataset is compiled using ∼140 stations of the Saudi National Seismic Network (SNSN) operated by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). We measure Rayleigh-wave group-velocities at periods of 8–40 s from regional earthquakes. After obtaining 1-D shear-wave velocity models by inverting group-velocities at each grid node, we construct a 3-D shear-velocity model for Saudi Arabia and adjacent regions by interpolating the 1-D models. Our 3-D model indicates significant lateral variations in crustal and lithospheric thickness, as well as in the shear-wave velocity over the study region. In particular, we identify zones of reduced shear-wave speed at crustal levels beneath the Cenozoic volcanic fields in the Arabian Shield. The inferred reductions of 2–5% in shear-wave speed may be interpreted as possibly indicating the presence of partial melts. However, their precise origin we can only speculate about. Our study also reveals an upper-mantle low velocity zone (LVZ) below the Arabian Shield, supporting the model of lateral mantle flow from the Afar plume. Further geophysical experiments are needed to confirm (or refute) the hypothesis that partial melts may exist below the Cenozoic volcanism in western Saudi Arabia, and to build a comprehensive geodynamic–geological model for the evolution and present state of the lithosphere of the Arabian Plate and the Red Sea.

  5. Fossil imprints of the Pan-African collision process revealed by seismic anisotropy in southern Madagasca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmann, F. J.; Rindraharisaona, E. J.; Reiss, M. C.; Dreiling, J.; Rumpker, G.; Yuan, X.; Giese, J.; Priestley, K. F.; Wysession, M. E.; Barruol, G.; Rambolamanana, G.

    2017-12-01

    In the assembly of Pangaea during the Proterozoic Pan-African Orogeny and later rifting and break-up of Gondwanaland, Madagascar occupied a central position, sandwiched between East Africa and India-Seychelles. Today, its metamorphic terranes still bear witness to the collision process. In the SELASOMA project we have deployed a seismic array in southern Madagascar in order to determine the imprint of these events onto the present day-crustal structure. 25 broadband and 23 SP stations were deployed for a period of 1-2 years. We present an overview of the results of several studies (receiver functions, ambient noise surface wave analysis, SKS splitting) constraining the isotropic and anisotropic crustal structure of southern Madagascar based on this deployment, supplemented by permanent stations and the contemporaneous MACOMO and RHUM-RUM deployments. The upper and middle crust of the Archean and Proterozoic provinces is overall quite similar, but a remarkable difference is that the Archean crust shows clear signs of underplating; we surmise that the Proterozoic crust was lost in the Pan-African collision. Both horizontal (from shear-wave splitting) and radial (SH/SV from Love and Rayleigh discrepancy) anisotropy shows evidence of collisional processes. A 150 km-wide zone of anomalous splitting measurements (deviating from the APM-parallel fast directions in most of Madagascar) in the region, where several major fossil shear zones have been mapped, can be explained as a zone of extensive coherent deformation within the crust; fast directions here align with the dominant strike of the major fossil shear zones. Negative radial anisotropy (i.e., SV faster than SH) in the mid-crust, likewise interpreted to have been formed by the collision, highlights the likely role of vertical shearing, presumably caused by extensive folding. In the lower crust, however, positive radial anisotropy is found in most of the Proterozoic and Archean terranes, which, analogous to the

  6. Orphan Basin crustal structure from a dense wide-angle seismic profile - Tomographic inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watremez, Louise; Lau, K. W. Helen; Nedimović, Mladen R.; Louden, Keith E.; Karner, Garry D.

    2014-05-01

    Orphan Basin is located on the eastern margin of Canada, offshore of Newfoundland and East of Flemish Cap. It is an aborted continental rift formed by multiple episodes of rifting. The crustal structure across the basin has been determined by an earlier refraction study using 15 instruments on a 550 km long line. It shows that the continental crust was extended over an unusually wide region but did not break apart. The crustal structure of the basin thus documents stages in the formation of a magma-poor rifted margin up to crustal breakup. The OBWAVE (Orphan Basin Wide-Angle Velocity Experiment) survey was carried out to image crustal structures across the basin and better understand the processes of formation of this margin. The spacing of the 89 recording stations varies from 3 to 5 km along this 500-km-long line, which was acquired along a pre-existing reflection line. The highest resolution section corresponds to the part of the profile where the crust was expected to be the thinnest. We present the results from a joint tomography inversion of first and Moho reflected arrival times. The high data density allows us to define crustal structures with greater detail than for typical studies and to improve the understanding of the processes leading to the extreme stretching of continental crust. The final model was computed following a detailed parametric study to determine the optimal parameters controlling the ray-tracing and the inversion processes. The final model shows very good resolution. In particular, Monte Carlo standard deviations of crustal velocities and Moho depths are generally Orphan Basin is the result of rifting of a non-homogeneous Avalon terrane where the lower crust is primarily ductile.

  7. Reworked crustal of early Paleozoic WuYi Orogen revealed by receiver function data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Duan, Y.; Tian, X.; Zhao, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Intraplate orogenic belt, which occurs at the rigid and undeformable plate interiors, is a distinct new type of orogen rather than an interplate or plate marginal orogenic belt, whose deformation occurs exclusively at plate margins. Therefore, intraplate orogenic belts are the most obvious exception to the plate-tectonic paradigm, they are uncommon in Earth's history. The early Paleozoic Wuyi orogen in South China is one of the few examples of intraplate orogen, and is a key to understanding the process of intraplate orogenesis and global early Paleozoic geodynamics. In this study, we select teleseismic records from 45 mobile linear seismic stations deployed in Wuyi Mountain and 58 permanent stations setting in Jiangxi and Fujian provinces, from January 2011 to December 2012, and calculate the crustal thickness and average crustal Vp/Vs ratio using the H-κ stacking method. The main results include the following: 1) the crustal average Poission's ratio shows an increase tendency from land to sea, the interior of Wuyi orogen belt with an low ration less than 0.23, and the coastline with high ration which is up to 0.28, which indicate a very heterogeneous crustal structure and composition in Wuyi orogen and coast belt. 2) the crustal thickness ranges 28-34 km and shows a tendency of thinning from inland to coast in the region of SE China margin, which maight mean the eastern Eurasia lithospheric is extension and thinning induced by the subducted paleo-Pacific slab. To conclusion, we assume that Wuyi orogen experienced upper crustal thickening, lower crust and lithosphere delamination during the early Paleozoic orogeny, and lithosphere extension in Mesozoic. This research is founded by the Natural Science Foundation of China (41174052 and 41604048).

  8. Modeling the blockage of Lg waves from 3-D variations in crustal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Christopher J.; Cormier, Vernon F.

    2018-05-01

    Comprised of S waves trapped in Earth's crust, the high frequency (2-10 Hz) Lg wave is important to discriminating earthquakes from explosions by comparing its amplitude and waveform to those of Pg and Pn waves. Lateral variations in crustal structure, including variations in crustal thickness, intrinsic attenuation, and scattering, affect the efficiency of Lg propagation and its consistency as a source discriminant at regional (200-1500 km) distances. To investigate the effects of laterally varying Earth structure on the efficiency of propagation of Lg and Pg, we apply a radiative transport algorithm to model complete, high-frequency (2-4 Hz), regional coda envelopes. The algorithm propagates packets of energy with ray theory through large-scale 3-D structure, and includes stochastic effects of multiple-scattering by small-scale heterogeneities within the large-scale structure. Source-radiation patterns are described by moment tensors. Seismograms of explosion and earthquake sources are synthesized in canonical models to predict effects on waveforms of paths crossing regions of crustal thinning (pull-apart basins and ocean/continent transitions) and thickening (collisional mountain belts), For paths crossing crustal thinning regions, Lg is amplified at receivers within the thinned region but strongly disrupted and attenuated at receivers beyond the thinned region. For paths crossing regions of crustal thickening, Lg amplitude is attenuated at receivers within the thickened region, but experiences little or no reduction in amplitude at receivers beyond the thickened region. The length of the Lg propagation within a thickened region and the complexity of over- and under-thrust crustal layers, can produce localized zones of Lg amplification or attenuation. Regions of intense scattering within laterally homogeneous models of the crust increase Lg attenuation but do not disrupt its coda shape.

  9. Seismic crustal structure of the North China Craton and surrounding area: Synthesis and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, B.; Thybo, H.; Artemieva, I. M.

    2017-07-01

    We present a new digital model (NCcrust) of the seismic crustal structure of the Neoarchean North China Craton (NCC) and its surrounding Paleozoic-Mesozoic orogenic belts (30°-45°N, 100°-130°E). All available seismic profiles, complemented by receiver function interpretations of crustal thickness, are used to constrain a new comprehensive crustal model NCcrust. The model, presented on a 0.25° × 0.25°grid, includes the Moho depth and the internal structure (thickness and velocity) of the crust specified for four layers (the sedimentary cover, upper, middle, and lower crust) and the Pn velocity in the uppermost mantle. The crust is thin (30-32 km) in the east, while the Moho depth in the western part of the NCC is 38-44 km. The Moho depth of the Sulu-Dabie-Qinling-Qilian orogenic belt ranges from 31 km to 51 km, with a general westward increase in crustal thickness. The sedimentary cover is 2-5 km thick in most of the region, and typical thicknesses of the upper crust, middle crust, and lower crust are 16-24 km, 6-24 km, and 0-6 km, respectively. We document a general trend of westward increase in the thickness of all crustal layers of the crystalline basement and as a consequence, the depth of the Moho. There is no systematic regional pattern in the average crustal Vp velocity and the Pn velocity. We examine correlation between the Moho depth and topography for seven tectonic provinces in the North China Craton and speculate on mechanisms of isostatic compensation.

  10. The geology of the Vaalputs radioactive waste disposal site, with implications for granite-charnockite relationships and crustal evolution in western Namaqualand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreoli, M.A.G.; Brynard, H.J.; Anderson, N.J.B.; Hart, R.J.; Moore, J.M.; Welke, H.

    1990-01-01

    The Precambrian geology of the Valputs site is characterized by extensive sheets of Spektakel Suite syntectonic granite gneisses. Experimental methods used for the geological evaluation of the Vaalputs site included semi-regional and site-specific mapping. All main rock types were petrologically and geochemically classified. In addition, preliminary Rb-Sr whole-rock ages were calculated for the main lithotypes, together with Sm-Nd dating. The investigations for the licensing of the Vaalputs site have revealed numerous intriguing aspects of the crustal history in southwestern Namaqualand. 10 refs

  11. Particle-In-Cell Simulations of the Solar Wind Interaction with Lunar Crustal Magnetic Anomalies: Magnetic Cusp Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, A. R.; Halekas, J. S.; Delory, G. T.; Farrell, W. M.

    2012-01-01

    As the solar wind is incident upon the lunar surface, it will occasionally encounter lunar crustal remanent magnetic fields. These magnetic fields are small-scale, highly non-dipolar, have strengths up to hundreds of nanotesla, and typically interact with the solar wind in a kinetic fashion. Simulations, theoretical analyses, and spacecraft observations have shown that crustal fields can reflect solar wind protons via a combination of magnetic and electrostatic reflection; however, analyses of surface properties have suggested that protons may still access the lunar surface in the cusp regions of crustal magnetic fields. In this first report from a planned series of studies, we use a 1 1/2-dimensional, electrostatic particle-in-cell code to model the self-consistent interaction between the solar wind, the cusp regions of lunar crustal remanent magnetic fields, and the lunar surface. We describe the self-consistent electrostatic environment within crustal cusp regions and discuss the implications of this work for the role that crustal fields may play regulating space weathering of the lunar surface via proton bombardment.

  12. Sulfur Isotope Trends in Archean Microbialite Facies Record Early Oxygen Production and Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerkle, A.; Meyer, N.; Izon, G.; Poulton, S.; Farquhar, J.; Claire, M.

    2014-12-01

    The major and minor sulfur isotope composition (δ34S and Δ33S) of pyrites preserved in ~2.65-2.5 billion-year-old (Ga) microbialites record localized oxygen production and consumption near the mat surface. These trends are preserved in two separate drill cores (GKF01 and BH1-Sacha) transecting the Campbellrand-Malmani carbonate platform (Ghaap Group, Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa; Zerkle et al., 2012; Izon et al., in review). Microbialite pyrites possess positive Δ33S values, plotting parallel to typical Archean trends (with a Δ33S/δ34S slope of ~0.9) but enriched in 34S by ~3 to 7‰. We propose that these 34S-enriched pyrites were formed from a residual pool of sulfide that was partially oxidized via molecular oxygen produced by surface mat-dwelling cyanobacteria. Sulfide, carrying the range of Archean Δ33S values, could have been produced deeper within the microbial mat by the reduction of sulfate and elemental sulfur, then fractionated upon reaction with O2 produced by oxygenic photosynthesis. Preservation of this positive 34S offset requires that: 1) sulfide was only partially (50­­-80%) consumed by oxidation, meaning H2S was locally more abundant (or more rapidly produced) than O2, and 2) the majority of the sulfate produced via oxidation was not immediately reduced to sulfide, implying either that the sulfate pool was much larger than the sulfide pool, or that the sulfate formed near the mat surface was transported and reduced in another part of the system. Contrastingly, older microbialite facies (> 2.7 Ga; Thomazo et al., 2013) appear to lack these observed 34S enrichments. Consequently, the onset of 34S enrichments could mark a shift in mat ecology, from communities dominated by anoxygenic photosynthesizers to cyanobacteria. Here, we test these hypotheses with new spatially resolved mm-scale trends in sulfur isotope measurements from pyritized stromatolites of the Vryburg Formation, sampled in the lower part of the BH1-Sacha core. Millimeter

  13. Structure and tectonics of the northwestern United States from EarthScope USArray magnetotelluric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrosian, Paul A.; Feucht, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    The magnetotelluric component of the EarthScope USArray program has covered over 35% of the continental United States. Resistivity tomography models derived from these data image lithospheric structure and provide constraints on the distribution of fluids and melt within the lithosphere. We present a three-dimensional resistivity model of the northwestern United States which provides new insight into the tectonic assembly of western North America from the Archean to present. Comparison with seismic tomography models reveals regions of correlated and anti-correlated resistivity and velocity that help identify thermal and compositional variations within the lithosphere. Recent (Neogene) tectonic features reflected in the model include the subducting Juan de Fuca–Gorda plate which can be traced beneath the forearc to more than 100 km depth, high lithospheric conductivity along the Snake River Plain, and pronounced lower-crustal and upper-mantle conductivity beneath the Basin and Range. The latter is abruptly terminated to the northwest by the Klamath–Blue Mountains Lineament, which we interpret as an important structure during and since the Mesozoic assembly of the region. This boundary is interpreted to separate hot extended lithosphere from colder, less extended lithosphere. The western edge of Proterozoic North America, as indicated by the Cretaceous initial 87Sr/86Sr = 0.706 contour, is clearly reflected in the resistivity model. We further image an Archean crustal block (“Pend Oreille block”) straddling the Washington/Idaho border, which we speculate separated from the Archean Medicine Hat block in the Proterozoic. Finally, in the modern Cascades forearc, the geometry and internal structure of the Eocene Siletz terrane is reflected in the resistivity model. The apparent eastern edge of the Siletz terrane under the Cascades arc suggests that pre-Tertiary rocks fill the Washington and Oregon back-arc.

  14. Crustal structure and sedimentation history over the Alleppey platform, southwest continental margin of India: Constraints from multichannel seismic and gravity data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Unnikrishnan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Alleppey Platform is an important morphological feature located in the Kerala-Konkan basin off the southwest coast of India. In the present study, seismic reflection data available in the basin were used to understand the sedimentation history and also to carry out integrated gravity interpretation. Detailed seismic reflection data in the basin reveals that: (1 the Alleppey Platform is associated with a basement high in the west of its present-day geometry (as observed in the time-structure map of the Trap Top (K/T boundary, (2 the platform subsequently started developing during the Eocene period and attained the present geometry by the Miocene and, (3 both the Alleppey platform and the Vishnu fracture zone have had significant impact on the sedimentation patterns (as shown by the time-structure and the isochron maps of the major sedimentary horizons in the region. The 3-D sediment gravity effect computed from the sedimentary layer geometry was used to construct the crustal Bouguer anomaly map of the region. The 3-D gravity inversion of crustal Bouguer anomaly exhibits a Moho depression below the western border of the platform and a minor rise towards the east which then deepens again below the Indian shield. The 2-D gravity modelling across the Alleppey platform reveals the geometry of crustal extension, in which there are patches of thin and thick crust. The Vishnu Fracture Zone appears as a crustal-scale feature at the western boundary of the Alleppey platform. Based on the gravity model and the seismic reflection data, we suggest that the basement high to the west of the present day Alleppey platform remained as a piece of continental block very close to the mainland with the intervening depression filling up with sediments during the rifting. In order to place the Alleppey platform in the overall perspective of tectonic evolution of the Kerala-Konkan basin, we propose its candidature as a continental fragment.

  15. Geophysical evidence for the crustal variation and distribution of magmatism along the central coast of Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Christian Olaf; Jokat, Wilfried

    2017-08-01

    For our understanding of the timing and geometry of the initial Gondwana break-up, still a consistent image of the crustal composition of the conjugated margins of central Mozambique and Antarctica and the location of their continent-ocean boundaries is missing. In this regard, a main objective is the explanation for the source of the different magnetic signature of the conjugate margins. Based on a revised investigation of wide-angle seismic data along two profiles across the Mozambican margin by means of an amplitude modelling, this study presents the crustal composition across and along the continental margin of central Mozambique. Supported by 2D magnetic modelling, the results are compared to the conjugate margin in Antarctica and allow new conclusions about their joined tectonic evolution. An observed crustal diversity between the north-eastern and south-western parts of the central Mozambican margin, testifies to the complex break-up history of this area. Conspicuous is the equal spatial extent of the HVLCB along the margin of 190-215 km. The onset of oceanic crust at the central Mozambican margin is refined to chron M38n.2n (164.1 Ma). Magnetic modelling supports the presence of reversed polarized SDRs in the continent-ocean transition that were mainly emplaced between 168.5 and 166.8 Ma (M42-M40). Inferred SDRs in the Riiser-Larsen Sea might be emplaced sometime between 166.8 and 164.1 Ma (M39-M38), but got overprinted by normal polarized intrusions of a late stage of rift volcanism, causing the opposite magnetic signature of the conjugate margins. The distribution of the magmatic material along the central coast of Mozambique clearly indicates the eastern extension of the north-eastern branch of the Karoo triple rift along the entire margin. The main magmatic phase affecting this area lasted for at least 12 Myr between 169 and 157 Ma, followed by the cease of the magmatism, perhaps due to the relative southwards motion of the magmatic centre.

  16. Crustal Growth: In Defense of the Dogma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarede, F.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Guitreau, M.

    2012-12-01

    Plate tectonics was not even in its teens when Armstrong suggested that mantle and crust have interacted at steady-state over Earth's history. With the help of new geochemical tools and large-scale compilations, the concept of steady-state crust (as opposed to continuous crustal growth) is being revived with the implications that the equivalent of several volumes of present-day crust (PDCV) may have been subducted through geological times. Here we argue --or recall-- that four different lines of evidence invalidate this model. (i) The subduction filter must be particularly efficient for argon, even more so than for LILE and most other volatile elements. Atmosphere collects 40Ar degassed from both the extant crust and the crust dragged down at subduction zones over geological time. Regardless of the residence time of the crust at the surface, the amount of atmospheric 40Ar limits subduction of continental crust into the mantle to < 30% of the PDCV [1]. (ii) EM II, the only component that undoubtedly represents subducted continental crust in oceanic basalts, is extremely uncommon. (iii) Crustal age histograms are irrepressibly episodic. It has been argued that erosion selectively removes the crust with the elusive ages [2]. Ages of detrital zircons, which in the selective erosion conjecture should fill the voids, do not support this view [3]. Episodicity is difficult to reconcile with a continental protolith isolated by the common geological processes working either at mid-ocean ridges or subduction zones. A role may be recognized for Wilson cycles, if they can be shown to have prevailed for the entire history of the Earth. Geochemistry demonstrates that superplume material makes up the crustal protolith of all the major juvenile provinces. (iv) The residence time in the mantle of the elements distinctive of the crust is similar to the age of the Earth or even longer [4]. Continental crust finds its source in the instabilities of the lower mantle and the irreversible

  17. Estimating crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio with joint constraints of receiver function and gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Guo, Lianghui; Ma, Yawei; Li, Yonghua; Wang, Weilai

    2018-05-01

    The technique of teleseismic receiver function H-κ stacking is popular for estimating the crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio. However, it has large uncertainty or ambiguity when the Moho multiples in receiver function are not easy to be identified. We present an improved technique to estimate the crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio by joint constraints of receiver function and gravity data. The complete Bouguer gravity anomalies, composed of the anomalies due to the relief of the Moho interface and the heterogeneous density distribution within the crust, are associated with the crustal thickness, density and Vp/Vs ratio. According to their relationship formulae presented by Lowry and Pérez-Gussinyé, we invert the complete Bouguer gravity anomalies by using a common algorithm of likelihood estimation to obtain the crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio, and then utilize them to constrain the receiver function H-κ stacking result. We verified the improved technique on three synthetic crustal models and evaluated the influence of selected parameters, the results of which demonstrated that the novel technique could reduce the ambiguity and enhance the accuracy of estimation. Real data test at two given stations in the NE margin of Tibetan Plateau illustrated that the improved technique provided reliable estimations of crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio.

  18. The Crustal Thickness of the Philippine Sea Plate Derived from Gravity Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horng-Yuan Yen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We constructed a new free-air gravity anomaly map of the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP using ship-tracked gravity data from the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC. Our results show that the isogals trend correlates well with the tectonic structures in the PSP. After removing the gravity induced by sea water from the free-air gravity data, we obtained the regional Bouguer gravity anomaly, which is later used to compute the Moho geometry in the PSP by applying the Parker-Oldenburg iterative method. Our results indicate that in the southern part of the West Philippine Basin (WPB the crustal thickness is nearly homogeneous with a value of about 5 km, which implies that the WPB is quite stable. The low-amplitude and near-zero free-air gravity anomalies clearly indicate that the whole WPB, except at trenches and island arcs, is nearly in a state of isostatic equilibrium. The average crustal thickness of the Palau Kyushu Ridge (PKR is more than 10 km. In the eastern PSP the crustal thickness gradually increases eastward. Our results also imply that a relatively thin and low density mantle exists beneath the Parece Vela Basin (PVB as a consequence of back-arc spreading and serpentinized upwells of the thin crustal thickness.

  19. Fluvial archives, a valuable record of vertical crustal deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoulin, A.; Mather, A.; Whittaker, A.

    2017-06-01

    The study of drainage network response to uplift is important not only for understanding river system dynamics and associated channel properties and fluvial landforms, but also for identifying the nature of crustal deformation and its history. In recent decades, geomorphic analysis of rivers has proved powerful in elucidating the tectonic evolution of actively uplifting and eroding orogens. Here, we review the main recent developments that have improved and expanded qualitative and quantitative information about vertical tectonic motions (the effects of horizontal deformation are not addressed). Channel long profiles have received considerable attention in the literature, and we briefly introduce basic aspects of the behaviour of bedrock rivers from field and numerical modelling perspectives, before describing the various metrics that have been proposed to identify the information on crustal deformation contained within their steady-state characteristics. Then, we review the literature dealing with the transient response of rivers to tectonic perturbation, through the production of knickpoints propagating through the drainage network. Inverse modelling of river profiles for uplift in time and space is also shown to be very effective in reconstructing regional tectonic histories. Finally, we present a synthetic morphometric approach for deducing the tectonic record of fluvial landscapes. As well as the erosional imprint of tectonic forcing, sedimentary deposits, such as fluvial terrace staircases, are also considered as a classical component of tectonic geomorphology. We show that these studies have recently benefited from rapid advances in dating techniques, allowing more reliable reconstruction of incision histories and estimation of incision rates. The combination of progress in the understanding of transient river profiles and larger, more rigorous data sets of terrace ages has led to improved understanding of river erosion and the implications for terrace

  20. The evolution of volcanism, tectonics, and volatiles on Mars - An overview of recent progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbelman, James R.; Solomon, Sean C.; Sharpton, Virgil L.

    1991-01-01

    Significant results of the 'Mars: Evolution of Volcanism, Tectonics, and Volatiles' (MEVTV) project are presented. The data for the project are based on geological mapping from the Viking images, petrologic and chemical analyses of SNC meteorites, and both mapping and temporal grouping of major fault systems. The origin of the planet's crustal dichotomy is examined in detail, the kinematics and formation of wrinkle ridges are discussed, and some new theories are set forth. Because the SNC meteorites vary petrologically and isotopically, the sources of the parental Martian magma are heterogeneous. Transcurrent faulting coupled with the extensional strains that form Valles Marineris suggest early horizontal movement of lithospheric blocks. A theory which connects the formation of the crustal dichotomy to the Tharsis region associates the horizontal motions with plate tectonics that generated a new lithosphere.

  1. Crustal CO2 liberation during the 2006 eruption and earthquake events at Merapi volcano, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troll, Valentin R.; Hilton, David R.; Jolis, Ester M.; Chadwick, Jane P.; Blythe, Lara S.; Deegan, Frances M.; Schwarzkopf, Lothar M.; Zimmer, Martin

    2012-06-01

    High-temperature volcanic gas is widely considered to originate from ascending, mantle-derived magma. In volcanic arc systems, crustal inputs to magmatic gases mainly occur via subducted sediments in the mantle source region. Our data from Merapi volcano, Indonesia imply, however, that during the April-October 2006 eruption significant quantities of CO2 were added from shallow crustal sources. We show that prior to the 2006 events, summit fumarole gas δ13C(CO2) is virtually constant (δ13C1994-2005 = -4.1 ± 0.3‰), but during the 2006 eruption and after the shallow Yogyakarta earthquake of late May, 2006 (M6.4; hypocentres at 10-15 km depth), carbon isotope ratios increased to -2.4 ± 0.2‰. This rise in δ13C is consistent with considerable addition of crustal CO2 and coincided with an increase in eruptive intensity by a factor of ˜3 to 5. We postulate that this shallow crustal volatile input supplemented the mantle-derived volatile flux at Merapi, intensifying and sustaining the 2006 eruption. Late-stage volatile additions from crustal contamination may thus provide a trigger for explosive eruptions independently of conventional magmatic processes.

  2. Crustal structure of the Khartoum Basin, Sudan

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    El Tahir, N

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Basin ranges between 33 and 37 km, with an average of 35 km, and that the crustal Vp/Vs ratio ranges from 1.74 to 1.81, with an average of 1.78. From the joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocities,we obtained similar results...

  3. New constraints on the crustal structure beneath northern Tyrrhenian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, V. L.; Park, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    We present new seismological data on the seismic structure beneath the Tyrrhenian Sea between Corsica and the coast of Italy. Teleseismic receiver functions from two Tyrrhenian islands (Elba and Gorgona) identify clear P-to-S mode-converted waves from two distinct interfaces, at ~20 and ~45 km depth. Both interfaces are characterized by an increase of seismic wavespeed with depth. Using a summation of direct and multiply-reflected body waves within the P wave coda we estimate the mean ratio of compressional and shear wave speeds above the 45 km interface to be 1.75-1.80. Using reflectivity computations in 1D layered models we develop a model of seismic wavespeed distribution that yields synthetic seismograms very similar to those observed. We apply a Ps-multiple summation procedure to the synthetic waveforms to further verify the match between observed and predicted wavefields. The lower layer of our model, between 20 and 45 km, has Vp ~ 7.5 km/sec, a value that can be ascribed to either very fast crustal rocks or very slow upper mantle rocks. The Vp/Vs ratio is ~1.8 in this intermediate layer. On the basis of a well-constrained downward increase in seismic wave speed beneath this second layer, we interpret it as the magmatically reworked lower crust, a lithology that has been proposed to explain high-Vp layers in the crustal roots of island-arc terranes and volcanically altered continental margins, as well as lower-crustal high-Vp features sometimes seen beneath continental rifts. The presence of a thick layer of high-Vp, but crustal, lithology beneath the Tyrrhenian Sea differs considerably from previous estimates that interpreted the interface at ~20 km as the Moho. Our new interpretation obviates a need for a crustal thickness change of over 20 km at the crest of the Apennines orogen. We propose an alteration in the properties of the lower crust instead. We argue that ongoing convergent subduction of the Adriatic lithospehre is not required beneath northern

  4. Crustal thickness of Antarctica estimated using data from gravimetric satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Llubes

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Computing a better crustal thickness model is still a necessary improvement in Antarctica. In this remote continent where almost all the bedrock is covered by the ice sheet, seismic investigations do not reach a sufficient spatial resolution for geological and geophysical purposes. Here, we present a global map of Antarctic crustal thickness computed from space gravity observations. The DIR5 gravity field model, built from GOCE and GRACE gravimetric data, is inverted with the Parker–Oldenburg iterative algorithm. The BEDMAP products are used to estimate the gravity effect of the ice and the rocky surface. Our result is compared to crustal thickness calculated from seismological studies and the CRUST1.0 and AN1 models. Although the CRUST1.0 model shows a very good agreement with ours, its spatial resolution is larger than the one we obtain with gravimetric data. Finally, we compute a model in which the crust–mantle density contrast is adjusted to fit the Moho depth from the CRUST1.0 model. In East Antarctica, the resulting density contrast clearly shows higher values than in West Antarctica.

  5. Recycled Archean sulfur in the mantle wedge of the Mariana Forearc and microbial sulfate reduction within an extremely alkaline serpentine seamount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Shinnosuke; Nishizawa, Manabu; Miyazaki, Junichi; Shibuya, Takazo; Ueno, Yuichiro; Takai, Ken

    2018-06-01

    The identification of microbial activity under extreme conditions is important to define potential boundaries of the habitable and uninhabitable zones of terrestrial and extraterrestrial living forms. The subseafloor regimes of serpentinite seamounts in the Mariana Forearc are among the most extreme environments for life on earth owing to the widespread presence of highly alkaline fluids with pH values greater than 12. The potential activity of sulfate-reducing microorganisms has been suggested within the South Chamorro serpentinite seamounts on the basis of depletion of sulfate and enrichment of dissolved sulfide in pore water. However, the vertical distribution of sulfate-reducing microorganisms and the origin of sulfate are still uncertain. To address these issues, we analyzed quadruple sulfur isotopes of sulfide minerals and pore water sulfate in the upper 56 m of sedimentary sequences at the summit of the S. Chamorro Seamount and those of dissolved sulfate in upwelling fluids collected as deep as 202 mbsf (meters below the seafloor) in a cased hole near the summit of the same seamount. The depth profiles of the concentrations and the δ34S and Δ33S‧ values of sulfide minerals and pore water sulfate indicate microbial sulfate reduction as deep as 30 mbsf. Further, apparent isotopic fractionations (34ε) and exponents of mass dependent relationships (33λ) during sulfate reduction are estimated to be 62 ± 14‰ and 0.512 ± 0.002, respectively. The upwelling fluids show both the chlorine depletion relative to seawater and the negative δ15N values of ammonia (-4‰). Although these signatures point to dehydration of the subducting oceanic plate, the negative Δ33S‧ values of sulfate (-0.16‰ to -0.26‰ with analytical errors of ±0.01‰) are unlikely to originate from surrounding modern crusts. Instead, sulfate in the upwelling fluid likely possess non-mass-dependent (NMD) sulfur. Because NMD sulfur was produced primarily in the Archean atmosphere, our

  6. Crustal anisotropy from Moho converted Ps wave splitting and geodynamic implications in Northeastern margin of Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Z.; Wu, Q.; Zhang, R.

    2017-12-01

    Collision between Indian and Eurasian result in intense deformation and crustal shortening in the Tibetan Plateau. NE margin of Tibetan Plateau experienced complex deformation between Qilian orogen and its adjacent blocks, Alxa Block in the north and Ordos Block in the east. We focus on if there any evidences exist in the NE margin of Tibetan Plateau, which can support crustal channel flow model. China Earthquake Administration had deployed temporary seismic array which is called ChinaArray Phase Ⅱ, dense seismic stations covered NE margin of Tibetan Plateau. Seismic data recorded by 81 seismic stations is applied in this research. We calculated receiver functions with time-domain deconvolution. We selected RFs which have clear Ps phase both in radial and transverse components to measure Ps splitting owing to crustal anisotropy, and 130 pairs of anisotropy parameters of 51 seismic stations were obtained. We would like to discuss about dynamic mechanism of this area using crustal anisotropy associated with the result of SKS-splitting and surface constrains like GPS velocity. The result can be summarized as follows. The large scale of delay time imply that the crustal anisotropy mainly derives from middle to lower crust rather than upper crust. In the southeastern part of the research area, crustal anisotropy is well agree with the result computed form SKS-splitting and GPS velocity directions trending NWW-SEE or E-W direction. This result imply a vertically coherent deformation in the area as the directions of crustal anisotropy trend to be perpendicular to the direction of normal stress. In the middle and north part of the research area, the fast polarization direction of crustal anisotropy is NEE-SWW or E-W direction, parallels with direction of GPS velocity, but differ to the direction of the result of SKS-splitting. This result may imply that decoupled deformation in this area associated with middle to lower crustal flow.

  7. Early Neoarchaean A-type granitic magmatism by crustal reworking ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    29

    understand their petrogenesis and tectonic setting. .... crystallize from magmas with temperatures significantly higher than those of other intracrustal ...... blanketing by greenstone belt volcanic rocks, crustal thickening and hot subduction or a. 1.

  8. Crustal permeability: Introduction to the special issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Gleeson, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The topic of crustal permeability is of broad interest in light of the controlling effect of permeability on diverse geologic processes and also timely in light of the practical challenges associated with emerging technologies such as hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas production (‘fracking’), enhanced geothermal systems, and geologic carbon sequestration. This special issue of Geofluids is also motivated by the historical dichotomy between the hydrogeologic concept of permeability as a static material property that exerts control on fluid flow and the perspective of economic geologists, geophysicists, and crustal petrologists who have long recognized permeability as a dynamic parameter that changes in response to tectonism, fluid production, and geochemical reactions. Issues associated with fracking, enhanced geothermal systems, and geologic carbon sequestration have already begun to promote a constructive dialog between the static and dynamic views of permeability, and here we have made a conscious effort to include both viewpoints. This special issue also focuses on the quantification of permeability, encompassing both direct measurement of permeability in the uppermost crust and inferential permeability estimates, mainly for the deeper crust.

  9. Seismically imaged shallow and deep crustal structure and potential field anomalies across the Eastern Dharwar Craton, south Indian shield: Possible geodynamical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, O. P.; Chandrakala, K.; Vasanthi, A.; Kumar, K. Satish

    2018-05-01

    The time-bound crustal evolution and subsequent deformation of the Cuddapah basin, Nellore Schist Belt and Eastern Ghats terrain of Eastern Dharwar Craton, which have undergone sustained geodynamic upheavals since almost 2.0 billion years, remain enigmatic. An attempt is made here to integrate newly available potential field data and other geophysical anomalies with deep seismic structure, to examine the generative mechanism of major crustal features, associated with this sector. Our study indicates that the initial extent of the Cuddapah basin sedimentation may have been much larger, extending by almost 50-60 km west of Tadipatri during Paleoproterozoic period, which subsequently shrank due to massive erosion following thermal uplift, caused by SW Cuddapah mantle plume. Below this region, crust is still quite warm with Moho temperatures exceeding 500 °C. Similarly, Nallamalai Fold Belt rocks, bounded by two major faults and extremely low gravity, may have occupied a large terrain in western Cuddapah basin also, before their abrasion. No geophysical signatures of thrusting are presently seen below this region, and thus it could not be an alien terrain either. In contrast, Nellore Schist Belt is associated with strikingly high positive gravity, possibly caused by a conspicuous horst structure and up dipping mafic crustal layers underneath, that resulted due to India-east Antarctica collision after the cessation of prolonged subduction (1.6-0.95 Ga). Further, the crustal seismic and gravity signatures would confirm presence of a totally distinct geological terrain east of the Cuddapah basin, but the trace of Eastern Ghats Belt is all together missing. Instead, all the geophysical signatures, point out to presence of a Proterozoic sedimentary terrain, east of Nellore Schist Belt. It is likely that the extent of Prorerozoic sedimentation was much larger than thought today. In addition, presence of a seismically detected Gondwana basin over Nellore Schist Belt, apart

  10. Detailed crustal structure of the North China and its implication for seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenliang; Wang, Xin; Tian, Tian; Zhang, Jingfa; Wang, Donglei

    2014-02-01

    Since the Mesozoic-Cenozoic era the North China Craton has experienced an important tectonic transition and it has given rise to complicated crustal structure and strong earthquake activity. Based on the large-scale surface gravity data, we studied the detailed crustal structure and seismogenic mechanism of the North China. The results indicate that the North China presents typical characteristics of adjoining depression and uplift, alternating basins and hills, inhomogeneous density and also great differences in crustal structure and Moho topography. The upper and middle crustal structures are dominated by the NNE-striking tectonic units, with many faults cut down to the middle crust. The lower crust is characterized by the folding-structure, with high and low-density placed alternately from west to east, presenting lateral heterogeneous feature. Adjusted by the gravity isostasy, Moho topography of the North China fluctuates greatly. Compared with the North China Basin, crustal thickness in the Western Taihang, northern Yanshan and Luzhong areas are much thicker while those densities are lower than the North China Basin. The dominating tectonic direction of the Moho topography strikes NE to NNE and undulates alternately from west to east. The epicenters are mostly concentrated in the upper and middle crust, especially the transitional areas between the high and low-gravity anomalies. The Tancheng earthquake in 1668, Sanhe earthquake in 1673, Tangshan earthquake in 1976, and all other seismic tectonic zones of the North China are all distributed in area where magma moves strongly beneath the crust, which is considered to be related to the movement of the high density, unstable and heat flows along the deep passage from the uppermost and asthenosphere due to the subduction of the Pacific slab towards the Eurasian plate.

  11. The Thermal Structure and Strength of Cratons and their Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaupart, C. P.; Mareschal, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    The large cratons of today are made of younger terranes that wrap around older cores. Deformation due to accretion did not proceed in homogeneous fashion and was concentrated in the younger belts. This is illustrated clearly in the Archean Superior Province, Canada. In this area, one observes little imbrication of accreted crust and craton core, in contrast to the laterally extensive thrusting that has affected the younger terranes to the South. The boundary between the craton core and accreted belts is a nearly vertical interface delineated by steeply dipping electrical and seismic anomalies extending to the base of the lithosphere. These steeply dipping structures have been interpreted as relicts of the subduction that drove accretion. By contrast, the sub-crustal subduction remnant that is imaged beneath younger terranes to the south shows up as a moderately dipping (≈30°) structure. These observations suggest a stiff craton surrounded by weaker belts. This strength contrast may have affected later events, such as the Keweenawan rifing, which propagated northward through the accreted terranes but stopped short of impinging the craton core. In the Superior Province, crustal heat production is much higher in the accreted terranes than in the craton core, implying higher temperatures and lower mechanical strength. Such a remarkable dichotomy also exists in South Africa, where the Limpopo and Namaqua belts are characterized by higher heat flux and crustal heat production than the adjacent Archean Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons. The generality of this cannot be assessed on the basis of heat flow and heat production data which are scarce in most other cratons. These cratons, however, are characterized by post-orogenic high temperature metamorphism which is best explained by high crustal heat production. This is true, for example, for the Jimperding metamorphic belt at the edge of the Yilgarn craton, Western Australia. Thus, cratons appear to be surrounded, and

  12. Present-day crustal deformation and strain transfer in northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhang; Liu, Mian; Wang, Qingliang; Cui, Duxin

    2018-04-01

    The three-dimensional present-day crustal deformation and strain partitioning in northeastern Tibetan Plateau are analyzed using available GPS and precise leveling data. We used the multi-scale wavelet method to analyze strain rates, and the elastic block model to estimate slip rates on the major faults and internal strain within each block. Our results show that shear strain is strongly localized along major strike-slip faults, as expected in the tectonic extrusion model. However, extrusion ends and transfers to crustal contraction near the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. The strain transfer is abrupt along the Haiyuan Fault and diffusive along the East Kunlun Fault. Crustal contraction is spatially correlated with active uplifting. The present-day strain is concentrated along major fault zones; however, within many terranes bounded by these faults, intra-block strain is detectable. Terranes having high intra-block strain rates also show strong seismicity. On average the Ordos and Sichuan blocks show no intra-block strain, but localized strain on the southwestern corner of the Ordos block indicates tectonic encroachment.

  13. Martian crustal dichotomy: product of accretion and not a specific event?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, H.; Schultz, R.A.; Maxwell, T.A.

    1987-01-01

    Attempts to explain the fundamental crustal dichotomy on Mars range from purely endogenic to extreme exogenic processes, but to date no satisfactory theory has evolved. What is accepted is: (1) the dichotomy is an ancient feature of the Martian crust, and (2) the boundary between the cratered highlands and northern plains which marks the dichotomy in parts of Mars has undergone significant and variable modification during the observable parts of Martian history. Some ascribe it to a single mega-impact event, essentially an instantaneous rearrangement of the crustal structures (topography and lithospheric thickness). Others prefer an internal mechanism: a period of vigorous convection subcrustally erodes the northern one third of Mars, causing foundering and isostatic lowering of that part of Mars. The evidence for each theory is reviewed, with the conclusion that there is little to recommend either. An alternative is suggested: the formation of the crustal dichotomy on Mars was not a specific tectonic event but a byproduct of the accretionary process and therefore a primordial characteristic of the Martian crust, predating the oldest recognizable landforms

  14. Crustal moment of inertia of glitching pulsars with the KDE0v1 Skyrme interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhuri, K.; Routray, T.R.; Pattnaik, S.P. [Sambalpur University, School of Physics, Jyotivihar (India); Basu, D.N. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Center, Kolkata (India)

    2017-07-15

    The mass, radius and crustal fraction of moment of inertia in neutron stars are calculated using β-equilibrated nuclear matter obtained from the Skyrme effective interaction. The transition density, pressure and proton fraction at the inner edge separating the liquid core from the solid crust of the neutron stars are determined from the thermodynamic stability conditions using the KDE0v1 set. The neutron star masses obtained by solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations using neutron star matter obtained from this set are able to describe highly massive compact stars ∝ 2M {sub CircleDot}. The crustal fraction of the moment of inertia can be extracted from studying pulsar glitches. This fraction is highly dependent on the core-crust transition pressure and corresponding density. These results for pressure and density at core-crust transition together with the observed minimum crustal fraction of the total moment of inertia provide a limit for the radius of the Vela pulsar, R ≥ 3.69 + 3.44M/M {sub CircleDot}. Present calculations suggest that the crustal fraction of the total moment of inertia can be ∝ 6.3% due to crustal entrainment caused by the Bragg reflection of unbound neutrons by lattice ions. (orig.)

  15. Crustal development in the terrestrial planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of planetary crusts may be divided into primary, resulting from melting during accretion, and secondary crusts developed by partial melting from planetary mantles. The Mercurian crust is probably primary with no compelling evidence of later basaltic extrusions. Reflectance spectral evidence for the existence Fe2(+) is equivocal. The Viking Lander XRF data on Mars indicate basaltic material at both sites 4,000 km apart. Surface aeolian processes would be expected to provide a homogeneous average of the crust, but no evidence of more siliceous material is present. This conclusion is weakly supported by the Russian gamma ray data. No evidence for granite appears from the Russian Venera XRF data which indicates MORB-type and alkali basalt (4% K2O) surface compositions. The highlands of Ishtar Terra and Aphrodite probably owe their elevation to tectonic processes rather than compositional effects. Venus may thus resemble the early Archean Earth. The terrestrial granitic continental crust is a product of episodic multiple partial melting events, probably a consequence of the presence of surface water.

  16. Compositional stratigraphy of crustal material from near-infrared spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieters, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    An Earth-based telescopic program to acquire near-infrared spectra of freshly exposed lunar material now contains data for 17 large impact craters with central peaks. Noritic, gabbroic, anorthositic and troctolitic rock types can be distinguished for areas within these large craters from characteristic absorptions in individual spectra of their walls and central peaks. Norites dominate the upper lunar crust while the deeper crustal zones also contain significant amounts of gabbros and anorthosites. Data for material associated with large craters indicate that not only is the lunar crust highly heterogeneous across the nearside, but that the compositional stratigraphy of the lunar crust is nonuniform. Crustal complexity should be expected for other planetary bodies, which should be studied using high spatial and spectral resolution data in and around large impact craters

  17. Compositional stratigraphy of crustal material from near-infrared spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Carle M.

    1987-01-01

    An Earth-based telescopic program to acquire near-infrared spectra of freshly exposed lunar material now contains data for 17 large impact craters with central peaks. Noritic, gabbroic, anorthositic and troctolitic rock types can be distinguished for areas within these large craters from characteristic absorptions in individual spectra of their walls and central peaks. Norites dominate the upper lunar crust while the deeper crustal zones also contain significant amounts of gabbros and anorthosites. Data for material associated with large craters indicate that not only is the lunar crust highly heterogeneous across the nearside, but that the compositional stratigraphy of the lunar crust is nonuniform. Crustal complexity should be expected for other planetary bodies, which should be studied using high spatial and spectral resolution data in and around large impact craters.

  18. Prediction of long-term crustal movement for geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takeshi; Morikawa, Seiji; Tabei, Kazuto; Koide, Hitoshi; Tashiro, Toshiharu

    2000-01-01

    Long-term stability of the geological environment is essential for the safe geological disposal of radioactive waste, for which it is necessary to predict the crustal movement during an assessment period. As a case study, a numerical analysis method for the prediction of crustal movement in Japan is proposed. A three-dimensional elastic analysis by FEM for the geological block structure of the Kinki region and the Awaji-Rokko area is presented. Stability analysis for a disposal cavern is also investigated. (author)

  19. Density heterogeneity of the North American upper mantle from satellite gravity and a regional crustal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herceg, Matija; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans

    2014-01-01

    -density conversion and (ii) uncertainties in knowledge of the crustal structure (thickness and average Vp velocities of individual crustal layers, including the sedimentary cover). In this study, we address both sources of possible uncertainties by applying different conversions from velocity to density...... and by introducing variations into the crustal structure which corresponds to the uncertainty of its resolution by highquality and low-quality seismic models. We examine the propagation of these uncertainties into determinations of lithospheric mantle density. Given a relatively small range of expected density...

  20. The effects of lower crustal strength and preexisting midcrustal shear zones on the formation of continental core complexes and low-angle normal faults

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Guangliang

    2016-08-22

    To investigate the formation of core complexes and low-angle normal faults, we devise thermomechanical simulations on a simplified wedge-like orogenic hinterland that has initial topography, Moho relief, and a preexisting midcrustal shear zone that can accommodate shear at very low angles (<20°). We mainly vary the strength of the lower crust and the frictional strength of the preexisting midcrustal shear zone. We find that the strength of the lower crust and the existence and strength of a preexisting shear zone significantly affect the formation and evolution of core complexes. With increasing lower crustal strength, we recognize varying extensional features with decreasing exhumation rate: these are characterized by bivergent metamorphic massifs, classic Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes, multiple consecutive core complexes (or boudinage structures), and a flexural core complex underlined by a large subsurface low-angle detachment fault with a small convex curvature. Topographic loading and mantle buoyancy forces, together with divergent boundaries, drive a regional lower crustal flow that leads to the exhumation of the lower crust where intensive upper crustal faulting induces strong unloading. The detachment fault is a decoupling zone that accommodates large displacement and accumulates sustained shear strain at very low angle between upper and lower crust. Though the regional stress is largely Andersonian, we find non-Andersonian stress in regions adjacent to the preexisting shear zone and those with high topographic gradient. Our new models provide a view that is generally consistent with geological and geophysical observations on how core complexes form and evolve.

  1. The effects of lower crustal strength and preexisting midcrustal shear zones on the formation of continental core complexes and low-angle normal faults

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Guangliang; Lavier, Luc L.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the formation of core complexes and low-angle normal faults, we devise thermomechanical simulations on a simplified wedge-like orogenic hinterland that has initial topography, Moho relief, and a preexisting midcrustal shear zone that can accommodate shear at very low angles (<20°). We mainly vary the strength of the lower crust and the frictional strength of the preexisting midcrustal shear zone. We find that the strength of the lower crust and the existence and strength of a preexisting shear zone significantly affect the formation and evolution of core complexes. With increasing lower crustal strength, we recognize varying extensional features with decreasing exhumation rate: these are characterized by bivergent metamorphic massifs, classic Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes, multiple consecutive core complexes (or boudinage structures), and a flexural core complex underlined by a large subsurface low-angle detachment fault with a small convex curvature. Topographic loading and mantle buoyancy forces, together with divergent boundaries, drive a regional lower crustal flow that leads to the exhumation of the lower crust where intensive upper crustal faulting induces strong unloading. The detachment fault is a decoupling zone that accommodates large displacement and accumulates sustained shear strain at very low angle between upper and lower crust. Though the regional stress is largely Andersonian, we find non-Andersonian stress in regions adjacent to the preexisting shear zone and those with high topographic gradient. Our new models provide a view that is generally consistent with geological and geophysical observations on how core complexes form and evolve.

  2. Origin and evolution of multi-stage felsic melts in eastern Gangdese belt: Constraints from U-Pb zircon dating and Hf isotopic composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Harris, Nigel; Pan, Fa-Bin; Xu, Wang-Chun

    2011-11-01

    This integrated study of whole rock geochemistry, zircon U-Pb dating and Hf isotope composition for seven felsic rocks from the Nyingchi Complex in eastern Himalayan syntaxis has revealed a complex magmatic history for the eastern Gangdese belt. This involves multiple melt sources and mechanisms that uniquely identify the tectonic evolution of this part of the Himalayan orogen. Our U-Pb zircon dating reveals five stages of magmatic or anatectic events: 165, 81, 61, 50 and 25 Ma. The Jurassic granitic gneiss (165 Ma) exhibits εHf(t) values of + 1.4 to + 3.5. The late Cretaceous granite (81 Ma) shows variable εHf(t) values from - 0.9 to + 6.2, indicating a binary mixing between juvenile and old crustal materials. The Paleocene granodioritic gneiss (61 Ma) has εHf(t) values of + 5.4 to + 8.0, suggesting that it originated from partial melting of a juvenile crustal material. The Eocene anatexis is recorded in the leucosome, which has Hf isotopic composition similar to that of the Jurassic granite, indicating that the leucosome could be derived from partial melting of the Jurassic granite. The late Oligocene biotite granite (25 Ma) shows adakitic geochemical characteristics, with Sr/Y = 49.3-56.6. The presence of a large number of inherited zircons and negative εHf(t) values suggest that it sourced from anatexis of crustal materials. In contrast to the Gangdese batholiths that are mainly derived from juvenile crustal source in central Tibet, the old crustal materials play an important role for the magma generation of the felsic rocks, suggesting the existence of a crustal basement in the eastern Gangdese belt. These correspond to specific magmatic evolution stages during the convergence between India and Asia. The middle Jurassic granitic gneiss resulted from the northward subduction of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic slab. The late Cretaceous magmatism is probably related to the ocean ridge subduction. The Paleocene-Eocene magmatism, metamorphism and anatexis are

  3. Crustal inheritance and arc magmatism: Magnetotelluric constraints from the Washington Cascades on top-down control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrosian, P.; Peacock, J.; Bowles-martinez, E.; Schultz, A.; Hill, G.

    2017-12-01

    Worldwide, arc volcanism occurs along relatively narrow magmatic arcs, the locations of which are considered to mark the onset of dehydration reactions within the subducting slab. This `bottom-up' approach, in which the location of arc volcanism reflects where fluids and melt are generated, explains first-order differences in trench-to-arc distance and is consistent with known variations in the thermal structure and geometry of subducting slabs. At a finer scale, arc segmentation, magmatic gaps, and anomalous forearc and backarc magmatism are also frequently interpreted in terms of variations in slab geometry, composition, or thermal structure.The role of inherited crustal structure in controlling faulting and deformation is well documented; less well examined is the role of crustal structure in controlling magmatism. While the source distribution of melt and subduction fluids is critical to determining the location of arc magmatism, we argue that crustal structure provides `top-down' control on patterns or seismicity and deformation as well as the channeling and ascent of arc magmas. We present evidence within the Washington Cascades based upon correlation between a new three-dimensional resistivity model, potential-field data, seismicity, and Quaternary volcanism. We image a mid-Tertiary batholith, intruded within an Eocene crustal suture zone, and extending throughout much of the crustal column. This and neighboring plutons are interpreted to channel crustal fluids and melt along their margins within steeply dipping zones of marine to transitional metasedimentary rock. Mount St. Helens is interpreted to be fed by fluids and melt generated further east at greater slab depths, migrating laterally (underplating?) beneath the Spirit Lake batholith, and ascending through metasedimentary rocks within the brittle crust. At a regional scale, we argue that this concealed suture zone controls present-day deformation and seismicity as well as the distribution of forearc

  4. Modeling of periodic great earthquakes on the San Andreas fault: Effects of nonlinear crustal rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reches, Ze'ev; Schubert, Gerald; Anderson, Charles

    1994-01-01

    We analyze the cycle of great earthquakes along the San Andreas fault with a finite element numerical model of deformation in a crust with a nonlinear viscoelastic rheology. The viscous component of deformation has an effective viscosity that depends exponentially on the inverse absolute temperature and nonlinearity on the shear stress; the elastic deformation is linear. Crustal thickness and temperature are constrained by seismic and heat flow data for California. The models are for anti plane strain in a 25-km-thick crustal layer having a very long, vertical strike-slip fault; the crustal block extends 250 km to either side of the fault. During the earthquake cycle that lasts 160 years, a constant plate velocity v(sub p)/2 = 17.5 mm yr is applied to the base of the crust and to the vertical end of the crustal block 250 km away from the fault. The upper half of the fault is locked during the interseismic period, while its lower half slips at the constant plate velocity. The locked part of the fault is moved abruptly 2.8 m every 160 years to simulate great earthquakes. The results are sensitive to crustal rheology. Models with quartzite-like rheology display profound transient stages in the velocity, displacement, and stress fields. The predicted transient zone extends about 3-4 times the crustal thickness on each side of the fault, significantly wider than the zone of deformation in elastic models. Models with diabase-like rheology behave similarly to elastic models and exhibit no transient stages. The model predictions are compared with geodetic observations of fault-parallel velocities in northern and central California and local rates of shear strain along the San Andreas fault. The observations are best fit by models which are 10-100 times less viscous than a quartzite-like rheology. Since the lower crust in California is composed of intermediate to mafic rocks, the present result suggests that the in situ viscosity of the crustal rock is orders of magnitude

  5. On the geographical distribution of induced time-varying crustal magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thebault, E.; Hemant, K.; Hulot, G.

    2009-01-01

    A long standing question in geomagnetism is whether the time variation of the induced crustal field is a detectable quantity and, if so, at which spatial wavelengths. We tackle this problem with the help of a forward modeling approach using a vertically integrated susceptibility (VIS) grid...... of the Earth's crust. For spherical harmonic degrees 15-90, we estimate the root mean square of the crustal magnetic field secular variation to amount 0.06-0.12 nT/yr at the terrestrial surface between epochs 1960-2002.5. The geographical distribution of the signal shows absolute values reaching 0.65-1.30 n...

  6. Application of FE software Elmer to the modeling of crustal-scale processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maierová, Petra; Guy, Alexandra; Lexa, Ondrej; Cadek, Ondrej

    2010-05-01

    place during the late stage of the Variscan orogeny in the area of the Bohemian Massif and they are well documented in the geological record. Extensive geological data are thus available and they can be compared with the results of our numerical simulations. Firstly, we model the indentation of a stiff block into a thick and hot crustal root and the consequent flow of the orogenic crust. For the development of the flow, the free surface deformation and erosion are essential. The importance of plastic deformation varies with the thermal structure of the domain. Secondly, we show an influence of thermal, density and viscosity structure of the crust on the time evolution and the final geometry of diapirs. The importance of the strain-rate dependence of viscosity, which is neglected in some numerical models, is discussed.

  7. Adakite-like volcanism of Ecuador: lower crust magmatic evolution and recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaradia, Massimo; Müntener, Othmar; Beate, Bernardo; Fontignie, Denis

    2009-11-01

    In the Northern Andes of Ecuador, a broad Quaternary volcanic arc with significant across-arc geochemical changes sits upon continental crust consisting of accreted oceanic and continental terranes. Quaternary volcanic centers occur, from west to east, along the Western Cordillera (frontal arc), in the Inter-Andean Depression and along the Eastern Cordillera (main arc), and in the Sub-Andean Zone (back-arc). The adakite-like signatures of the frontal and main arc volcanoes have been interpreted either as the result of slab melting plus subsequent slab melt-mantle interactions or of lower crustal melting, fractional crystallization, and assimilation processes. In this paper, we present petrographic, geochemical, and isotopic (Sr, Nd, Pb) data on dominantly andesitic to dacitic volcanic rocks as well as crustal xenolith and cumulate samples from five volcanic centers (Pululagua, Pichincha, Ilalo, Chacana, Sumaco) forming a NW-SE transect at about 0° latitude and encompassing the frontal (Pululagua, Pichincha), main (Ilalo, Chacana), and back-arc (Sumaco) chains. All rocks display typical subduction-related geochemical signatures, such as Nb and Ta negative anomalies and LILE enrichment. They show a relative depletion of fluid-mobile elements and a general increase in incompatible elements from the front to the back-arc suggesting derivation from progressively lower degrees of partial melting of the mantle wedge induced by decreasing amounts of fluids released from the slab. We observe widespread petrographic evidence of interaction of primary melts with mafic xenoliths as well as with clinopyroxene- and/or amphibole-bearing cumulates and of magma mixing at all frontal and main arc volcanic centers. Within each volcanic center, rocks display correlations between evolution indices and radiogenic isotopes, although absolute variations of radiogenic isotopes are small and their values are overall rather primitive (e.g., ɛNd = +1.5 to +6, 87Sr/86Sr = 0

  8. Modelling of crustal rock mechanics for radioactive waste storage in Fennoscandia - problem definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephansson, O.

    1987-05-01

    Existing knowledge of crustal stresses for Fennoscandia is presented. Generic, two-dimensional models are proposed for vertical and planar sections of a traverse having a direction NW-SE in Northern Fennoscandia. The proposed traverse will include the major neotectonic structures at Lansjaerv and Paervie, respectively, and also the study site for storage of spent nuclear fuel at Kamlunge. The influence of glaciation, deglaciation, glacial rebound on crustal rock mechanics and stability is studied for the modelling work. Global models, with a length of roughly 100 km, will increase our over all understanding of the change in stresses and deformations. These can provide boundary conditions for regional and near-field models. Properties of strength and stiffness of intact granitic rock masses, faults and joints are considered in the modelling of the crustal rock mechanics for any of the three models described. (orig./HP)

  9. A geochemical and Pb, Sr isotopic study of the evolution of granite-gneisses from the Bastar craton, Central India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, G.; Paul, D.K.; Misra, V.P.; de Laeter, J.R.; Mc Naughton, N.J.

    1990-01-01

    Preliminary Pb-Pb and Rb-Sr geochronology of granitic and gneissic rocks from the Sukma area of the Bastar craton, Central India, provides important constraints on crustal evolution. Much of the craton is made up of felsic orthogneisses and younger granitic intrusives, compositionally ranging from tonalite to granite. Pb-Pb isotopic data suggest the presence of ca. 3.0 Ga old gneisses. Younger granitic intrusives have been dated at ca. 2.6 Ga which represents a widespread resetting and/or emplacement event. Comparison of the Pb-Pb and Rb-Sr whole rock ages suggests that the latter were more perturbed after the gneiss-forming or emplacement events. All rock suites show significant geological scatter of isotopic data probably because of sampling on a regional scale, and reflect multi-stage isotopic evolution in a complex terrain. The present isotopic data indicate the presence of Archaean rock in the Bastar craton and suggest temporal similarity with the oldest crustal rocks in the Singhbhum and Dharwar cratons. (author). 18 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs

  10. Sensitivity analysis of crustal correction for calculation of lithospheric mantle density from gravity data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herceg, Matija; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans

    2016-01-01

    for the crust and (ii) uncertainties in the seismic crustal structure (thickness and average VP velocities of individual crustal layers, including the sedimentary cover). We examine the propagation of these uncertainties into determinations of lithospheric mantle density and analyse both sources of possible......We investigate how uncertainties in seismic and density structure of the crust propagate to uncertainties in mantle density structure. The analysis is based on interpretation of residual upper-mantle gravity anomalies which are calculated by subtracting (stripping) the gravitational effect...... mantle, knowledge on uncertainties associated with incomplete information on crustal structure is of utmost importance for progress in gravity modelling. Uncertainties in the residual upper-mantle gravity anomalies result chiefly from uncertainties in (i) seismic VP velocity-density conversion...

  11. Single-zircon dating by stepwise Pb-evaporation constrains the Archean history of detrital zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kober, B.; Lippolt, H.J.; Pidgeon, R.T.

    1989-01-01

    Pb isotope analyses have been carried out on 42 zircon grains from a Western Australian metaconglomerate using stepwise Pb-evaporation directly in the ion source of a thermal ionization mass spectrometer. The metaconglomerate is from the Archean Jack Hills Metasedimentary Belt, and is known from ion microprobe (''SHRIMP'') analyses to contain a complex zircon population with ages between 4.2 Ga and 3.1 Ga. The same complex pattern of ages is found by the Pb evaporation studies. Five grains yielded minimum crystallization ages from 4.17 Ga to 4.07 Ga. The main population appears significantly younger, having been generated at about 3.55-3.3 Ga. The agreement between the two analytical approaches confirms the SHRIMP results and demonstrates the value of the stepwise-evaporation technique in determining the age patterns of mixing zircon populations. In many of the evaporative Pb isotope records the 207/206 ratios remained constant for all evaporation steps, which we interpret as evaporation from concordant zircon phases. However, for the majority of zircons 207/206 ratios increased with increasing evaporation temperature, and usually approached constant values during evaporation at the highest temperatures. This can be attributed to mixing of different radiogenic Pb components from either crystalline zircon phases of different ages or from domains of isotopically disturbed metamict zircon. Present results confirm > 4 Ga zircon ages in the metaconglomerate from the Hack Hills and substantiate formation of crust at a very early stage in the evolution of the earth. Results also confirm a major crust-forming event 3.55-3.3 Ga ago. (orig.)

  12. Preliminary crustal deformation model deduced from GPS and earthquakes’ data at Abu-Dabbab area, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Monem S. Mohamed

    2013-06-01

    From the seismic tomography study, the 3D Vp and Vp/Vs crustal models indicate high Vp/Vs values forms an elongated anomaly, in the central part of the study area, that extends from a depth of 12 km to about 1–2 km of depth is obtained. By using this crustal model in relocations all seismicity informed that most of the seismicity strongly tend to occur in a cluster manner exactly above the southern part of the study area. Based on the conducted source mechanism study, it is noticed that shallow earthquakes are associated by a high CLVD ratio (up to 40%. Furthermore, initiation of a high level seismic activity, without a large seismic main shock is observed in the Abu-Dabbab area. The distribution of micro-earthquakes tends to align in an ENE–WSW direction marking a zone of activity verse the Red Sea. The nucleation of the seismic activity beneath the southern part of the Abu-Dabbab crust is more consistent with the obtained crustal deformation result by increasing the crustal movement in the south part than the northern part. Then, based on the obtained results of the above mentioned studies; seismic tomography; source mechanisms, and crustal deformation we conclude that these seismic activities that are associated by crustal deformation are owing to some magma activity beneath the crust of the Abu-Dabbab area.

  13. Crustal block motion model and interplate coupling along Ecuador-Colombia trench based on GNSS observation network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, T.; Mora-Páez, H.; Peláez-Gaviria, J. R.; Kimura, H.; Sagiya, T.

    2017-12-01

    IntroductionEcuador-Colombia trench is located at the boundary between South-America plate, Nazca Plate and Caribrian plate. This region is very complexes such as subducting Caribrian plate and Nazca plate, and collision between Panama and northern part of the Andes mountains. The previous large earthquakes occurred along the subducting boundary of Nazca plate, such as 1906 (M8.8) and 1979 (M8.2). And also, earthquakes occurred inland, too. So, it is important to evaluate earthquake potentials for preparing huge damage due to large earthquake in near future. GNSS observation In the last decade, the GNSS observation was established in Columbia. The GNSS observation is called by GEORED, which is operated by servicing Geologico Colomiano. The purpose of GEORED is research of crustal deformation. The number of GNSS site of GEORED is consist of 60 continuous GNSS observation site at 2017 (Mora et al., 2017). The sampling interval of almost GNSS site is 30 seconds. These GNSS data were processed by PPP processing using GIPSY-OASYS II software. GEORED can obtain the detailed crustal deformation map in whole Colombia. In addition, we use 100 GNSS data at Ecuador-Peru region (Nocquet et al. 2014). Method We developed a crustal block movements model based on crustal deformation derived from GNSS observation. Our model considers to the block motion with pole location and angular velocity and the interplate coupling between each block boundaries, including subduction between the South-American plate and the Nazca plate. And also, our approach of estimation of crustal block motion and coefficient of interplate coupling are based on MCMC method. The estimated each parameter is obtained probably density function (PDF). Result We tested 11 crustal block models based on geological data, such as active fault trace at surface. The optimal number of crustal blocks is 11 for based on geological and geodetic data using AIC. We use optimal block motion model. And also, we estimate

  14. Contrasting magmatic structures between small plutons and batholiths emplaced at shallow crustal level (Sierras de Córdoba, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinotti, Lucio P.; D'Eramo, Fernando J.; Weinberg, Roberto F.; Demartis, Manuel; Tubía, José María; Coniglio, Jorge E.; Radice, Stefania; Maffini, M. Natalia; Aragón, Eugenio

    2016-11-01

    Processes like injection, magma flow and differentiation and influence of the regional strain field are here described and contrasted to shed light on their role in the formation of small plutons and large batholiths their magmatic structures. The final geometric and compositional arrangement of magma bodies are a complex record of their construction and internal flow history. Magma injection, flow and differentiation, as well as regional stresses, all control the internal nature of magma bodies. Large magma bodies emplaced at shallow crustal levels result from the intrusion of multiple magma batches that interact in a variety of ways, depending on internal and external dynamics, and where the early magmatic, growth-related structures are commonly overprinted by subsequent history. In contrast, small plutons emplaced in the brittle-ductile transition more likely preserve growth-related structures, having a relatively simple cooling history and limited internal magma flow. Outcrop-scale magmatic structures in both cases record a rich set of complementary information that can help elucidate their evolution. Large and small granitic bodies of the Sierra Pampeanas preserve excellent exposures of magmatic structures that formed as magmas stepped through different rheological states during pluton growth and solidification. These structures reveal not only the flow pattern inside magma chambers, but also the rheological evolution of magmas in response to temperature evolution.

  15. Crustal structure under the central High Atlas Mountains (Morocco) from geological and gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayarza, P.; Alvarez-Lobato, F.; Teixell, A.; Arboleya, M. L.; Tesón, E.; Julivert, M.; Charroud, M.

    2005-05-01

    Seismic wide angle and receiver function results together with geological data have been used as constraints to build a gravity-based crustal model of the central High Atlas of Morocco. Integration of a newly acquired set of gravity values with public data allowed us to undertake 2-2.5D gravity modelling along two profiles that cross the entire mountain chain. Modelling suggests moderate crustal thickening, and a general state of Airy isostatic undercompensation. Localized thickening appears restricted to the vicinity of a north-dipping crustal-scale thrust fault, that offsets the Moho discontinuity and defines a small crustal root which accounts for the minimum Bouguer gravity anomaly values. Gravity modelling indicates that this root has a northeasterly strike, slightly oblique to the ENE general orientation of the High Atlas belt. A consequence of the obliquity between the High Atlas borders and its internal and deep structure is the lack of correlation between Bouguer gravity anomaly values and topography. Active buckling affecting the crust, a highly elevated asthenosphere, or a combination of both are addressed as side mechanisms that help to maintain the high elevations of the Atlas mountains.

  16. Chemical and isotopic studies of granitic Archean rocks, Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming: Geochronology of an Archean granite, Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedge, C.E.; Simmons, K.R.; Stuckless, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    Rubidium-strontium analyses of whole-rock samples of an Archean granite from the Owl Creek Mountains, Wyo., indicate an intrusive age of 2640 ± 125 Ma. Muscovite-bearing samples give results suggesting that these samples were altered about 2300 Ma. This event may have caused extensive strontium loss from the rocks as potassium feldspar was altered to muscovite. Alteration was highly localized in nature as evidence by unaffected rubidium-strontium mineral ages in the Owl Creek Mountains area. Furthermore, the event probably involved a small volume of fluid relative to the volume of rock because whole-rock δ 18 O values of altered rocks are not distinct from those of unaltered rocks. In contrast to the rubidium-strontium whole-rock system, zircons from the granite have been so severely affected by the alteration event, and possibly by a late-Precambrian uplift event, that the zircon system yields little usable age information. The average initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr (0.7033 ± 0.0042) calculated from the isochron intercept varies significantly. Calculated initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios for nine apparently unaltered samples yield a range of 0.7025 to 0.7047. These calculated initial ratios correlate positively with whole-rock δ 18 O values; and, therefore, the granite was probably derived from an isotopically heterogeneous source. The highest initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio is lower than the lowest reported for the metamorphic rocks intruded by the granite as it would have existed at 2640 Ma. Thus, the metamorphic sequence, at its current level of exposure, can represent no more than a part of the protolith for the granite

  17. Seismically constrained two-dimensional crustal thermal structure of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The temperature field within the crust is closely related to tectonic history as well as many other geological processes inside the earth. Therefore, knowledge of the crustal thermal structure of a region is of great importance for its tectonophysical studies. This work deals with the two-dimensional thermal modelling to ...

  18. Deformation processes and weakening mechanisms within the frictional viscous transition zone of major crustal-scale faults: insights from the Great Glen Fault Zone, Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, M.; Holdsworth, R. E.; Strachan, R. A.

    2000-05-01

    The Great Glen Fault Zone (GGFZ), Scotland, is a typical example of a crustal-scale, reactivated strike-slip fault within the continental crust. Analysis of intensely strained fault rocks from the core of the GGFZ near Fort William provides a unique insight into the nature of deformation associated with the main phase of (sinistral) movements along the fault zone. In this region, an exhumed sequence of complex mid-crustal deformation textures that developed in the region of the frictional-viscous transition (ca. 8-15 km depth) is preserved. Fault rock fabrics vary from mylonitic in quartzites to cataclastic in micaceous shear zones and feldspathic psammites. Protolith mineralogy exerted a strong control on the initial textural development and distribution of the fault rocks. At lower strains, crystal-plastic deformation occurred in quartz-dominated lithologies to produce mylonites simultaneously with widespread fracturing and cataclasis in feldspar- and mica-dominated rocks. At higher strains, shearing appears to increasingly localise into interconnected networks of cataclastic shear zones, many of which are strongly foliated. Textures indicative of fluid-assisted diffusive mass transfer mechanisms are widespread in such regions and suggest that a hydrous fluid-assisted, grainsize-controlled switch in deformation behaviour followed the brittle comminution of grains. The fault zone textural evolution implies that a strain-induced, fluid-assisted shallowing and narrowing of the frictional-viscous transition occurred with increasing strain. It is proposed that this led to an overall weakening of the fault zone and that equivalent processes may occur along many other long-lived, crustal-scale dislocations.

  19. New Rb-Sr isotopic ages and geochemistry of granitic gneisses from southern Bastar: implications for crustal evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, G.; Gupta, S.N.; Bishui, P.K.

    1994-01-01

    Deformed gneisses from the southern Bastar craton yield Rb-Sr whole-rock ages of 2560 Ma and 2659 Ma with initial Sr ratios ranging between 0.70899 and 0.70726 respectively. The isotopic data are found to be scattered even at the outcrop scale which possibly indicate large-scale reworking of the gneisses during the period. The high initial Sr ratios that associate with scattering of the isotopic data reflect reworking of older gneisses. Geochemically, these gneisses are considered to be derived from an amphibolitic or basaltic protolith. The 2095 Ma (initial Sr ratio of 0.74312) old leucocratic granite intrusive into these gneisses represent early Proterozoic magmatic activity. Based on the available isotopic and geochemical data, it is suggested that the Bastar craton represents a polyphase, multicomponent terrain developed by repeated magmatism at a much earlier, probably during mid-Archaean, time and was extensively reworked during the time span between end-Archaean and early Proterozoic period. This reworking may be synchronous with coalescing of smaller crustal components possibly during the end-Archaean time. (author). 21 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Detrital Zircon Geochronology of Sedimentary Rocks of the 3.6 - 3.2 Ga Barberton Greenstone Belt: No Evidence for Older Continental Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabon, N.; Lowe, D. R.; Byerly, G. R.; Harrington, J.

    2017-12-01

    The crustal setting of early Archean greenstone belts and whether they formed on or associated with blocks of older continental crust or in more oceanic settings remains a major issue in Archean geology. We report detrital zircon U-Pb age data from sandstones of the 3.26-3.20 Ga Fig Tree and Moodies Groups and from 3.47 to 3.23 Ga meteorite impact-related deposits in the 3.55-3.20 Ga Barberton greenstone belt (BGB), South Africa. The provenance signatures of these sediments are characterized by zircon age peaks at 3.54, 3.46, 3.40, 3.30, and 3.25 Ga. These clusters are coincident either with the ages of major episodes of felsic to intermediate igneous activity within and around the belt or with the ages of thin felsic tuffs reflecting distant volcanic activity. Only 15 of the reported 3410 grains (old zircons could represent felsic rocks in older, unexposed parts of the BGB sequence, but are too few to provide evidence for a continental source. This finding offers further evidence that the large, thick, high-standing, highly evolved blocks of continental crust with an andesitic bulk composition that characterize the Earth during younger geologic times were scarce in the early Archean.

  1. Sharp at any Age: Moho boundary thickness estimates along a trans-sect through 2 Ga of tectonic history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servali, A.; Levin, V. L.; VanTongeren, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we evaluate crustal thickness and Moho sharpness beneath seismic stations in three different tectonic units of the North American continent: the Archean Superior Province, the Proterozoic Grenville Province, and the Paleozoic Appalachian Orogen. Our analysis involves two steps. First, for each site, we produce P-to-S receiver functions (RFs) organized by backazimuth and epicentral distance, and use them to identify the phase most likely representing a conversion from the Moho. Second, we construct averaged RFs for groups of telesismic events located in a similar geographic region, which we employ to examine shapes of Moho P-to-S converted phases in time series with maximum frequencies increasing from 0.25Hz to 2-3 Hz. At some sites we observe a progressive narrowing of a simple Moho converted phase with an increase in frequency, typical of a vertically instantaneous boundary, while at others the converted phase becomes progressively more complex, typical of a diffuse Moho. Thus, we adopt this difference in converted wave shape dependence on increasing frequency as a measure of Moho thickness. Our estimates of Moho thickness range from less than 300 m to over 2 km, with some locations showing evidence for multiple converting boundaries in the 35-50 km depth range. In this study we define "sharp" Moho at those sites where its vertical thickness is less than 1 km. Our results show that sharp Moho is universal in the Archean terranes regardless of surface lithology, likely due to higher Moho temperatures facilitating wide-spread delamination of dense lower crustal rocks. While a sharp Moho is not unique to the Superior Province, all Grenville and Appalachians sites where we find sharp Moho are in regions of granitic plutonism, suggesting a possible general association with reworking and density sorting of the crustal material (e.g. volcanic arc).

  2. Evaluation of Earth's Geobiosphere Emergy Baseline and the Emergy of Crustal Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vilbiss, Chris

    This dissertation quantitatively analyzed the exergy supporting the nucleosynthesis of the heavy isotopes, Earth's geobiosphere, and its crustal cycling. Exergy is that portion of energy that is available to drive work. The exergy sources that drive the geobiosphere are sunlight, Earth's rotational kinetic energy and relic heat, and radionuclides in Earth's interior. These four exergy sources were used to compute the Earth's geobiosphere emergy baseline (GEB), expressed as a single unit, solar equivalent joules (seJ). The seJ of radionuclides were computed by determining the quantity of gravitational exergy that dissipated in the production of both sunlight and heavy isotopes. This is a new method of computing solar equivalences also was applied to Earth's relic heat and rotational energy. The equivalent quantities of these four exergy sources were then added to express the GEB. This new baseline was compared with several other contemporary GEB methods. The new GEB is modeled as the support to Earth's crustal cycle and ultimately to the economical mineral deposits used in the US economy. Given the average annual cycling of crustal material and its average composition, specific emergies were calculated to express the average emergy per mass of particular crustal minerals. Chemical exergies of the minerals were used to develop transformities and specific emergies of minerals at heightened concentrations, i.e. minable concentrations. The effect of these new mineral emergy values were examined using the US economy as an example. The final result is an 83% reduction in the emergy of limestone, a 91% reduction in the aggregated emergy of all other minerals, and a 23% reduction in the emergy of the US economy. This dissertation explored three unique and innovative methods to compute the emergy of Earth's exergy sources and resources. First was a method for computing the emergy of radionuclides. Second was a method to evaluate the Earth's relic heat and dissipation of

  3. River Valley pluton, Ontario - A late-Archean/early-Proterozoic anorthositic intrusion in the Grenville Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwal, Lewis D.; Wooden, Joseph L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents Nd, Sr, and Pb isotopic data indicating a late-Archean/early-Proterozoic age for the River Valley anorthositic pluton of the southwestern Grenville Province of Sudbury, Ontario. Pb-Pb isotopic data on 10 whole-rock samples ranging in composition from anorthosite to gabbro yield an age of 2560 + or - 155 Ma. The River Valley pluton is thus the oldest anorthositic intrusive yet recognized within the Grenville Province. The Sm-Nd isotopic system records an age of 2377 + or - 68 Ma. High Pb-208/Pb-204 of deformed samples relative to igneous-textured rocks implies Th introduction and/or U loss during metamorphism in the River Valley area. Rb-Sr data from igneous-textured and deformed samples and from mineral separates give an age of 2185 + or - 105 Ma, indicating substantial disturbance of the Rb-Sr isotopic system.

  4. Sensitivity analysis of crustal correction and its error propagation to upper mantle residual gravity and density anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herceg, Matija; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans

    2013-01-01

    ) uncertainties in the velocity-density conversion and (ii) uncertainties in knowledge of the crustal structure (thickness and average Vp velocities of individual crustal layers, including the sedimentary cover). In this study, we address both sources of possible uncertainties by applying different conversions...... from velocity to density and by introducing variations into the crustal structure which corresponds to the uncertainty of its resolution by high-quality and low-quality seismic models. We examine the propagation of these uncertainties into determinations of lithospheric mantle density. The residual...

  5. Distinct crustal isostasy trends east and west of the Rocky Mountain Front

    KAUST Repository

    Schmandt, Brandon

    2015-12-14

    © 2015. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Seismic structure beneath the contiguous U.S. was imaged with multimode receiver function stacking and inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion and ellipticity measurements. Crust thickness and elevation are weakly correlated across the contiguous U.S., but the correlation is ∼3-4 times greater for separate areas east and west of the Rocky Mountain Front (RMF). Greater lower crustal shear velocities east of the RMF, particularly in low-elevation areas with thick crust, are consistent with deep crustal density as the primary cause of the contrasting crust thickness versus elevation trends. Separate eastern and western trends are best fit by Airy isostasy models that assume lower crust to uppermost mantle density increases of 0.18 g/cm3 and 0.40 g/cm3, respectively. The former value is near the minimum that is plausible for felsic lower crust. Location of the transition at the RMF suggests that Laramide to post-Laramide processes reduced western U.S. lower crustal density.

  6. Crustal and upper mantle investigations of the Caribbean-South American plate boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezada, Maximiliano J.

    The evolution of the Caribbean --- South America plate boundary has been a matter of vigorous debate for decades and many questions remain unresolved. In this work, and in the framework of the BOLIVAR project, we shed light on some aspects of the present state and the tectonic history of the margin by using different types of geophysical data sets and techniques. An analysis of controlled-source traveltime data collected along a boundary-normal profile at ˜65°W was used to build a 2D P-wave velocity model. The model shows that the Caribbean Large Igenous Province is present offshore eastern Venezuela and confirms the uniformity of the velocity structure along the Leeward Antilles volcanic belt. In contrast with neighboring profiles, at this longitude we see no change in velocity structure or crustal thickness across the San Sebastian - El Pilar fault system. A 2D gravity modeling methodology that uses seismically derived initial density models was developed as part of this research. The application of this new method to four of the BOLIVAR boundary-normal profiles suggests that the uppermost mantle is denser under the South American continental crust and the island arc terranes than under the Caribbean oceanic crust. Crustal rocks of the island arc and extended island arc terranes of the Leeward Antilles have a relatively low density, given their P-wave velocity. This may be caused by low iron content, relative to average magmatic arc rocks. Finally, an analysis of teleseismic traveltimes with frequency-dependent kernels produced a 3D P-wave velocity perturbation model. The model shows the structure of the mantle lithosphere under the study area and clearly images the subduction of the Atlantic slab and associated partial removal of the lower lithosphere under northern South America. We also image the subduction of a section of the Caribbean plate under South America with an east-southeast direction. Both the Atlantic and Caribbean subducting slabs penetrate the

  7. Crustal structure of the Gulf of Aden southern margin: Evidence from receiver functions on Socotra Island (Yemen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Leroy, Sylvie; Keir, Derek; Korostelev, Félicie; Khanbari, Khaled; Rolandone, Frédérique; Stuart, Graham; Obrebski, Mathias

    2014-12-01

    Breakup of continents in magma-poor setting occurs primarily by faulting and plate thinning. Spatial and temporal variations in these processes can be influenced by the pre-rift basement structure as well as by early syn-rift segmentation of the rift. In order to better understand crustal deformation and influence of pre-rift architecture on breakup we use receiver functions from teleseismic recordings from Socotra which is part of the subaerial Oligo-Miocene age southern margin of the Gulf of Aden. We determine variations in crustal thickness and elastic properties, from which we interpret the degree of extension related thinning and crustal composition. Our computed receiver functions show an average crustal thickness of ~ 28 km for central Socotra, which decreases westward along the margin to an average of ~ 21 km. In addition, the crust thins with proximity to the continent-ocean transition to ~ 16 km in the northwest. Assuming an initial pre-rift crustal thickness of 35 km (undeformed Arabian plate), we estimate a stretching factor in the range of ~ 2.1-2.4 beneath Socotra. Our results show considerable differences between the crustal structure of Socotra's eastern and western sides on either side of the Hadibo transfer zone; the east displays a clear intracrustal conversion phase and thick crust when compared with the western part. The majority of measurements across Socotra show Vp/Vs ratios of between 1.70 and 1.77 and are broadly consistent with the Vp/Vs values expected from the granitic and carbonate rock type exposed at the surface. Our results strongly suggest that intrusion of mafic rock is absent or minimal, providing evidence that mechanical thinning accommodated the majority of crustal extension. From our observations we interpret that the western part of Socotra corresponds to the necking zone of a classic magma-poor continental margin, while the eastern part corresponds to the proximal domain.

  8. An isotopic perspective on growth and differentiation of Proterozoic orogenic crust: From subduction magmatism to cratonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Simon P.; Korhonen, Fawna J.; Kirkland, Christopher L.; Cliff, John B.; Belousova, Elena A.; Sheppard, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The in situ chemical differentiation of continental crust ultimately leads to the long-term stability of the continents. This process, more commonly known as ‘cratonization’, is driven by deep crustal melting with the transfer of those melts to shallower regions resulting in a strongly chemically stratified crust, with a refractory, dehydrated lower portion overlain by a complementary enriched upper portion. Since the lower to mid portions of continental crust are rarely exposed, investigation of the cratonization process must be through indirect methods. In this study we use in situ Hf and O isotope compositions of both magmatic and inherited zircons from several felsic magmatic suites in the Capricorn Orogen of Western Australia to highlight the differentiation history (i.e. cratonization) of this portion of late Archean to Proterozoic orogenic crust. The Capricorn Orogen shows a distinct tectonomagmatic history that evolves from an active continental margin through to intracratonic reworking, ultimately leading to thermally stable crust that responds similarly to the bounding Archean Pilbara and Yilgarn Cratons.

  9. A preliminary investigation of vertical crustal movements in the United Kingdom in the context of subsurface nuclear waste isolation for the Department of the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    The report falls under the headings: vertical crustal movements - a manifestation of intraplate geological processes (reports of vertical crustal movements observed by geodetic levelling in intraplate environments; vertical crustal movements and the geological record; possible causes of vertical crustal movements); an investigation of recent crustal movements in a test area of the United Kingdom by comparison of geodetic levelling records; vertical crustal movements and the isolation of nuclear waste in intraplate geological systems (conventional methods of site appraisal - a perspective of geological hazard assessment; the role of vertical crustal movements as a tool for rationalisation of hazard assessment, site selection and the assessment of future geological change); research options. (U.K.)

  10. Textural and mineral chemistry constraints on evolution of Merapi Volcano, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti, Sabrina; del Marmol, Mary-Ann; Voight, Barry; Andreastuti, Supriyati; Furman, Tanya

    2013-07-01

    We analyze and compare the textures of Merapi lavas (basalts and basaltic andesites) ranging in age from Proto-Merapi through modern activity, with the goal of gaining insights on the temporal evolution of Merapi's magmatic system. Analysis of textural parameters, such as phenocryst and microphenocryst crystallinity, coupled with crystal size distribution theory, provides information about the storage and transport of magmas. We combine textural analyses with geochemical investigations for a comprehensive comparison of erupted lavas over time. The chemical analyses identify crystal growth processes in magma chambers and underline differences between sample groups. Our work suggests the occurrence of two distinct histories, presumably associated with (at least) two generally distinct types of rheological behaviors and storage/transport systems. These behaviors are associated with different plagioclase growth patterns, with both groups influenced by late-stage shallow decompression degassing-induced microlite crystallization. Both groups contain amphibole crystals that indicate an early period of mid-crustal to deep-crustal storage of water-rich magmas. Dome lavas from the 20th century eruptive activity indicate quasi-steady-state nucleation-and-growth evolution interspersed with episodes of reheating and textural coarsening, suggesting residence in magma storage at multiple depths, both > 10 km, and conditions. These observations, coupled with our companion study of Merapi tephra samples, suggest that the relatively benign type of activity observed in the 20th century will be interrupted from time to time in the future by more explosive eruptions, such as that of 2010.

  11. Gravity anomaly and crustal structure characteristics in North-South Seismic Belt of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chongyang; Xuan, Songtbai; Yang, Guangliang; Wu, Guiju

    2017-04-01

    reflects basic frame work of the regional crust structure. The earth's crust basically present three layer structure, nearly horizontally distributes, undulation of Moho is obvious, which is consistent with the results of seismic sounding and seismic array detection; in the local area, there are lower density layer zonal distribution in the earth's crust what accelerates the lateral movement in up and middle crust; when the substance of the Tibetan plateau spreads around, the integrity in up and middle crust is well, and it is basically a coupling movement together; in the lower crust, the thickness of the Tibetan plateau is outward gradually thinning, there is decoupling phenomenon in crust-mantle; The results of the gravity and the crustal density structure show that the research area can be divided into several part such as Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Sichuan-Yunnan block, Ordos block and Alxa block, the transitional zones of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Sichuan basin, and Alxa and Ordos are complex, and Moho slope is bigger, where is the part of strong tectonic activity and strong earthquakes occur easily. The research is of great significance for study the crustal deep structure, geodynamic evolution process and environment of earthquake gestation of the NSSB region.

  12. The nature of crustal reflectivity at the southwest Iberian margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffett, G. G.; Torne, M.; Carbonell, R.; Melchiorre, M.; Vergés, J.; Fernàndez, M.

    2017-11-01

    Reprocessing of multi-channel seismic reflection data acquired over the northern margin of the Gulf of Cádiz (SW Iberian margin) places new constraints on the upper crustal structure of the Guadalquivir-Portimão Bank. The data presented have been processed with optimized stacking and interval velocity models, a better approach to multiple attenuation, preserved amplitude information to derive the nature of seismic reflectivity, and accurate time-to-depth conversion after migration. The reprocessed data reveal a bright upper crustal reflector just underneath the Paleozoic basement that spatially coincides with the local positive free-air gravity high called the Gulf of Cádiz Gravity High. To investigate the nature of this reflector and to decipher whether it could be associated with pieces of mantle material emplaced at upper crustal levels, we calculated its reflection coefficient and compared it to a buried high-density ultramafic body (serpentinized peridotite) at the Gorringe Bank. Its reflection coefficient ratio with respect to the sea floor differs by only 4.6% with that calculated for the high-density ultramafic body of the Gorringe Bank, while it differs by 35.8% compared to a drilled Miocene limestone unconformity. This means that the Gulf of Cádiz reflector has a velocity and/or density contrast similar to the peridotite at the Gorringe Bank. However, considering the depth at which it is found (between 2.0 and 4.0 km) and the available geological information, it seems unlikely that the estimated shortening from the Oligocene to present is sufficient to emplace pieces of mantle material at these shallow levels. Therefore, and despite the similarity in its reflection coefficient with the peridotites of the Gorringe Bank, our preferred interpretation is that the upper crustal Gulf of Cádiz reflector represents the seismic response of high-density intracrustal magmatic intrusions that may partially contribute to the Gulf of Cádiz Gravity High.

  13. A hybrid origin of the Martian crustal dichotomy: Degree-1 convection antipodal to a giant impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citron, Robert I.; Manga, Michael; Tan, Eh

    2018-06-01

    The Martian crustal dichotomy is the stark ∼5 km difference in surface elevation and ∼26 km difference in crustal thickness between the northern lowlands and southern highlands that originated within 100s of Myr of Mars' formation. The origin of the dichotomy has broad implications for the geodynamic history of Mars, but purely exogenic or endogenic theories so far cannot explain all of the large scale geophysical observations associated with dichotomy formation. A giant impact can produce the shape and slope of the dichotomy boundary, but struggles to explain Mars' remanent crustal magnetic signatures and the ultimate formation of Tharsis. Degree-1 mantle convection can relate the crustal dichotomy to the formation of Tharsis, but does not explain the elliptical dichotomy shape and must be initiated by a large pre-existing viscosity jump in the mantle. We propose a hybrid model of dichotomy formation in which a giant impact induces degree-1 convection with an upwelling antipodal to the impact site. In this scenario, a giant impact in the northern hemisphere excavates crust, creating an initial difference in crustal thickness and possibly composition between the two hemispheres. Over 10s to 100s of Myr, the dominant upwelling(s) would migrate to be under the thicker, insulating crust in the southern hemisphere, generating melt that further thickens the southern crust. We examine this process using 3-D mantle convection simulations, and find that a hemispherical difference in crustal thickness and composition caused by a giant impact can induce degree-1 convection with the upwelling(s) antipodal to the impact site in <100 Myr.

  14. Further constraints on neutron star crustal properties in the low-mass X-ray binary 1RXS J180408.9-342058

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, A. S.; Wijnands, R.; Degenaar, N.; Ootes, L.; Page, D.

    2018-05-01

    We report on two new quiescent XMM-Newton observations (in addition to the earlier Swift/XRT and XMM-Newton coverage) of the cooling neutron star crust in the low-mass X-ray binary 1RXS J180408.9-342058. Its crust was heated during the ˜4.5 month accretion outburst of the source. From our quiescent observations, fitting the spectra with a neutron star atmosphere model, we found that the crust had cooled from ˜100 to ˜73 eV from ˜8 to ˜479 d after the end of its outburst. However, during the most recent observation, taken ˜860 d after the end of the outburst, we found that the crust appeared not to have cooled further. This suggested that the crust had returned to thermal equilibrium with the neutron star core. We model the quiescent thermal evolution with the theoretical crustal cooling code NSCool and find that the source requires a shallow heat source, in addition to the standard deep crustal heating processes, contributing ˜0.9 MeV per accreted nucleon during outburst to explain its observed temperature decay. Our high quality XMM-Newton data required an additional hard component to adequately fit the spectra. This slightly complicates our interpretation of the quiescent data of 1RXS J180408.9-342058. The origin of this component is not fully understood.

  15. Topside ionosphere of Mars: Variability, transient layers, and the role of crustal magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopika, P. G.; Venkateswara Rao, N.

    2018-04-01

    The topside ionosphere of Mars is known to show variability and transient topside layers. In this study, we analyzed the electron density profiles measured by the radio occultation technique aboard the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft to study the topside ionosphere of Mars. The electron density profiles that we used in the present study span between 1998 and 2005. All the measurements are done from the northern high latitudes, except 220 profiles which were measured in the southern hemisphere, where strong crustal magnetic fields are present. We binned the observations into six measurement periods: 1998, 1999-north, 1999-south, 2000-2001, 2002-2003, and 2004-2005. We found that the topside ionosphere in the southern high latitudes is more variable than that from the northern hemisphere. This feature is clearly seen with fluctuations of wavelengths less than 20 km. Some of the electron density profiles show a transient topside layer with a local maximum in electron density between 160 km and 210 km. The topside layer is more prone to occur in the southern hemispheric crustal magnetic field regions than in the other regions. In addition, the peak density of the topside layer is greater in regions of strong crustal magnetic fields than in other regions. The variability of the topside ionosphere and the peak density of the topside layer, however, do not show one-to-one correlation with the strength of the crustal magnetic fields and magnetic field inclination. The results of the present study are discussed in the light of current understanding on the topside ionosphere, transient topside layers, and the role of crustal magnetic fields on plasma motions.

  16. Uranium cycle and tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Lufilian Pan-African orogenic belt (Zambia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eglinger, Aurelien

    2013-01-01

    Uranium is an incompatible and lithophile element, and thus more concentrated in silicate melt produced by the partial melting of the mantle related to continental crust formation. Uranium can be used as a geochemical tracer to discuss the generation and the evolution of continental crust. This thesis, focused on the Pan-African Lufilian belt in Zambia, combines structural geology, metamorphic petrology and thermos-barometry, fluid inclusions, geochemistry and geochronology in order to characterize the uranium cycle for this crustal segment. Silici-clastic and evaporitic sediments have been deposited within an intra-continental rift during the dislocation of the Rodinia super-continent during the early Neo-proterozoic. U-Pb ages on detrital zircon grains in these units indicate a dominant Paleo-proterozoic provenance. The same zircon grains show sub-chondritic εHf (between 0 and -15) and yield Hf model ages between ∼2.9 and 2.5 Ga. These data suggest that the continental crust was generated before the end of the Archean (< 2.5 Ga) associated with uranium extraction from the mantle. This old crust has been reworked by deformation and metamorphism during the Proterozoic. Uranium has been re-mobilized and reconcentrated during several orogenic cycles until the Pan-African orogeny. During this Pan-African cycle, U-Pb and REY (REE and Yttrium) signatures of uranium oxides indicate a first mineralizing event at ca. 650 Ma during the continental rifting. This event is related to late diagenesis hydrothermal processes at the basement/cover interface with the circulation of basinal brines linked to evaporites of the Roan. The second stage, dated at 530 Ma, is connected to metamorphic highly saline fluid circulations, synchronous to the metamorphic peak of the Lufilian orogeny (P=9±3 kbar; T=610±30 deg. C). These fluids are derived from the Roan evaporite dissolution. Some late uranium re-mobilizations are described during exhumation of metamorphic rocks and their

  17. Lithospheric strength in the active boundary between the Pacific Plate and Baja California microplate constrained from lower crustal and upper mantle xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzaras, Vasileios; van der Werf, Thomas; Kriegsman, Leo M.; Kronenberg, Andreas; Tikoff, Basil; Drury, Martyn R.

    2017-04-01

    The lower crust is the most poorly understood of the lithospheric layers in terms of its rheology, particularly at active plate boundaries. We studied naturally deformed lower crustal xenoliths within an active plate boundary, in order to link their microstructures and rheological parameters to the well-defined active tectonic context. The Baja California shear zone (BCSZ), located at the western boundary of the Baja California microplate, comprises the active boundary accommodating the relative motion between the Pacific plate and Baja California microplate. The basalts of the Holocene San Quintin volcanic field carry lower crustal and upper mantle xenoliths, which sample the Baja California microplate lithosphere in the vicinity of the BCSZ. The lower crustal xenoliths range from undeformed gabbros to granoblastic two-pyroxene granulites. Two-pyroxene geothermometry shows that the granulites equilibrated at temperatures of 690-920 oC. Phase equilibria (P-T pseudosections using Perple_X) indicate that symplectites with intergrown pyroxenes, plagioclase, olivine and spinel formed at 3.6-5.4 kbar, following decompression from pressures exceeding 6 kbar. FTIR spectroscopy shows that the water content of plagioclase varies among the analyzed xenoliths; plagioclase is relatively dry in two xenoliths while one xenolith contains hydrated plagioclase grains. Microstructural observations and analysis of the crystallographic texture provide evidence for deformation of plagioclase by a combination of dislocation creep and grain boundary sliding. To constrain the strength of the lower crust and upper mantle near the BCSZ we estimated the differential stress using plagioclase and olivine grain size paleopiezomtery, respectively. Differential stress estimates for plagioclase range from 10 to 32 MPa and for olivine are 30 MPa. Thus the active microplate boundary records elevated crustal temperatures, heterogeneous levels of hydration, and low strength in both the lower crust and

  18. 2-D Crustal thermal structure along Thuadara–Sindad DSS profile ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thuadara–Sindad Deep Seismic Sounding (DSS) profile which runs almost in the N–S direction ... These studies include four Deep Seis- ... Geology and tectonic frame work ..... alous high-velocity layer at shallow crustal depths in the.

  19. Crustal structure of the Eastern Alps and their foreland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grad, M.; Brückl, E.; Majdanski, M.

    2009-01-01

    The subject of this paper concerns the seismic modelling of the crustal structure in the transition zone from the Bohemian Massif, across the Molasse basin and the Eastern Alps to the Southern Alps, mainly on the territory of Austria. The CEL10/Alp04 profile crosses the triple point of the European......) are distinct up to 60-90 km offset and are characterized by large variations in apparent velocity and amplitude. The contact between the Molasse basin and the Eastern Alps represents a barrier for seismic waves. Mid-crustal reflections (Pc) are usually recorded at short distance intervals (20-50 km......, was undertaken using a ray-tracing technique. The P-wave velocity in the crystalline upper crust of the Bohemian Massif and Molasse basin is about 6.15 km s-1, which is slightly higher than in the Alpine area (about 6.0 km s-1). Below the northern accretionary wedge of the Eastern Alps low-velocity sediments...

  20. Monitoring Vertical Crustal Deformation and Gravity Variations during Water Level Changes at the Three Gorges Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Wei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring vertical crustal deformation and gravity changes during water level changes at the Three Gorges reservoir is important for the safe operation of the Three Gorges Dam and for the monitoring and prevention of a regional geological disaster. In this study, we determined vertical crustal deformation and gravity changes during water level variations of the Three Gorges reservoir from direct calculations and actual measurements and a comprehensive solution. We used water areas extracted image data from the ZY-3 satellite and water level data to calculate gravity changes and vertical crustal deformation caused by every 5 m change in the water level due to storage and drainage of the Three Gorges reservoir from 145 m to 175 m. The vertical crustal deformation was up to 30 mm. The location of gravity change above 20 μ Gal(1 Gal=10-2 m/s2 was less than 2 km from the centerline of the Yangtze River. The CORS ES13 in Badong, near the reservoir, measured the vertical crustal deformation during water level changes. Because of the small number of CORS and gravity stations in the Three Gorges reservoir area, monitoring deformation and gravity related to changes in the Three Gorges reservoir water level cannot be closely followed. Using 26 CORS and some of the gravity stations in the Three Gorges area and based on loading deformation and the spherical harmonic analysis method, an integrated solution of vertical deformation and gravity variations during water level changes of the reservoir was determined, which is consistent with the actual CORS monitoring results. By comparison, we found that an integrated solution based on a CORS network can effectively enhance the capability of monitoring vertical crustal deformation and gravity changes during water level variations of the reservoir.

  1. Three-dimensional Crustal Structure beneath the Tibetan Plateau Revealed by Multi-scale Gravity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C.; Luo, Z.; Sun, R.; Li, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau, the largest and highest plateau on Earth, was uplifted, shorten and thicken by the collision and continuous convergence of the Indian and Eurasian plates since 50 million years ago, the Eocene epoch. Fine three-dimensional crustal structure of the Tibetan Plateau is helpful in understanding the tectonic development. At present, the ordinary method used for revealing crustal structure is seismic method, which is inhibited by poor seismic station coverage, especially in the central and western plateau primarily due to the rugged terrain. Fortunately, with the implementation of satellite gravity missions, gravity field models have demonstrated unprecedented global-scale accuracy and spatial resolution, which can subsequently be employed to study the crustal structure of the entire Tibetan Plateau. This study inverts three-dimensional crustal density and Moho topography of the Tibetan Plateau from gravity data using multi-scale gravity analysis. The inverted results are in agreement with those provided by the previous works. Besides, they can reveal rich tectonic development of the Tibetan Plateau: (1) The low-density channel flow can be observed from the inverted crustal density; (2) The Moho depth in the west is deeper than that in the east, and the deepest Moho, which is approximately 77 km, is located beneath the western Qiangtang Block; (3) The Moho fold, the directions of which are in agreement with the results of surface movement velocities estimated from Global Positioning System, exists clearly on the Moho topography.This study is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41504015), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2015M572146), and the Surveying and Mapping Basic Research Programme of the National Administration of Surveying, Mapping and Geoinformation (Grant No. 15-01-08).

  2. Crustal evolution in north-east and east Africa from model Nd ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, N.B.W.; Hawkesworth, C.J.; Ries, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    The authors present the results of an Nd isotope study on the major rock units of the Pan-African (1,100-500 Myr BP) terrane. Charnockites from Jabel Uweinat, a basement inlier at the junction of Egypt, Libya and the Sudan, yield middle Archaean model Nd ages, whilst model ages of < 1,200 Myr have been obtained in a belt from the Eastern Desert of Egypt to north-west Kenya. Overall, the Pan-African rocks from north-east and east Africa and those from the Damara of Namibia exhibit a wide range of epsilonsub(Nd)(T) from +7.5 to -18.0 which reflects regional changes in tectonic style and is not readily reconciled with simple models for the evolution of average continental crust. (author)

  3. Inferring regional vertical crustal velocities from averaged relative sea level trends: A proof of concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bâki Iz H.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates that relative sea level trends calculated from long-term tide gauge records can be used to estimate relative vertical crustal velocities in a region with high accuracy. A comparison of the weighted averages of the relative sea level trends estimated at six tide gauge stations in two clusters along the Eastern coast of United States, in Florida and in Maryland, reveals a statistically significant regional vertical crustal motion of Maryland with respect to Florida with a subsidence rate of −1.15±0.15 mm/yr identified predominantly due to the ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment process. The estimate is a consilience value to validate vertical crustal velocities calculated from GPS time series as well as towards constraining predictive GIA models in these regions.

  4. Cratonic roots and lower crustal seismicity: Investigating the role of deep intrusion in the Western rift, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drooff, C.; Ebinger, C. J.; Lavayssiere, A.; Keir, D.; Oliva, S. J.; Tepp, G.; Gallacher, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Improved seismic imaging beneath the African continent reveals lateral variations in lithospheric thickness, and crustal structure, complementing a growing crust and mantle xenolith data base. Border fault systems in the active cratonic rifts of East Africa are characterized by lower crustal seismicity, both in magmatic sectors and weakly magmatic sectors, providing constraints on crustal rheology and, in some areas, magmatic fluid migration. We report new seismicity data from magmatic and weakly magmatic sectors of the East African rift zone, and place the work in the context of independent geophysical and geochemical studies to models for strain localization during early rifting stages. Specifically, multidisciplinary studies in the Magadi Natron rift sectors reveal volumetrically large magmatic CO2 degassing along border faults with seismicity along projections of surface dips to the lower crust. The magmatic CO2 degassing and high Vp/Vs ratios and reflectivity of the lower crust implies that the border fault serves a conduit between the lower crustal underplating and the atmospheric. Crustal xenoliths in the Eastern rift sector indicate a granulitic lower crust, which is relatively weak in the presence of fluids, arguing against a strong lower crust. Within magmatic sectors, seismic, structural, and geochemistry results indicate that frequent lower crustal earthquakes are promoted by elevated pore pressures from volatile degassing along border faults, and hydraulic fracture around the margins of magma bodies. Within some weakly magmatic sectors, lower crustal earthquakes also occur along projections of border faults to the lower crust (>30 km), and they are prevalent in areas with high Vp/Vs in the lower crust. Within the southern Tanganyika rift, focal mechanisms are predominantly normal with steep nodal planes. Our comparative studies suggest that pervasive metasomatism above a mantle plume, and melt extraction in thin zones between cratonic roots, lead to

  5. Present-Day Mars' Seismicity Predicted From 3-D Thermal Evolution Models of Interior Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesa, A.-C.; Knapmeyer, M.; Golombek, M. P.; Breuer, D.; Grott, M.; Kawamura, T.; Lognonné, P.; Tosi, N.; Weber, R. C.

    2018-03-01

    The Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport mission, to be launched in 2018, will perform a comprehensive geophysical investigation of Mars in situ. The Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure package aims to detect global and regional seismic events and in turn offer constraints on core size, crustal thickness, and core, mantle, and crustal composition. In this study, we estimate the present-day amount and distribution of seismicity using 3-D numerical thermal evolution models of Mars, taking into account contributions from convective stresses as well as from stresses associated with cooling and planetary contraction. Defining the seismogenic lithosphere by an isotherm and assuming two end-member cases of 573 K and the 1073 K, we determine the seismogenic lithosphere thickness. Assuming a seismic efficiency between 0.025 and 1, this thickness is used to estimate the total annual seismic moment budget, and our models show values between 5.7 × 1016 and 3.9 × 1019 Nm.

  6. Stable isotope and fluid inclusion signatures of hydrothermal fluids in transcrustal fault zones: significance for orogenic, Archean lode-gold mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumayr, P.; Hagemann, S.G.; Groves, D.I.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Large to giant (>1t) gold deposits are typically hosted in second- and third-order structures adjacent to largely barren, transcrustal fault zones. Gold-bearing hydrothermal fluids have been channelled within the transcrustal fault zones from mantle and deep crustal sources into the second- and third-order structures, where gold has been deposited. Transcrustal fault zones are long-lived structures with specific deformation events relating to gold deposition in the second- and third-order structures. For example the Archaean Perseverance Fault in the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia evolved from a wide (5km) ductile shear zone during D2 to a narrow ( 2 -CH 4 -dominated compositions with minor H 2 O and H 2 S components, whereas there are H 2 O-dominated H 2 O-CO 2 +CH 4 fluids with a significant H 2 S component in the second- and third-order shear zones at the Sigma gold deposit, a major gold deposit 5km to the north of the CTZ. These differences can be explained by continuous phase separation, with CO 2 -vapour escape into the upper portions of the ductile uncapped CTZ, contrasting with in-situ phase separation of the gold-bearing fluids in crack-seal veins in the second-order shear zones at Sigma, with trapping of both the episodic vapour and liquid components in individual sealed veins. Gold mineralization in the second- and third-order structures appears to be controlled by the high H 2 S activity of the aqueous hydrothermal fluids. because gold was likely carried in a bisulphide complex and was deposited during sulfidation reactions in the wallrock and phase separation in the quartz vein. In contrast, the carbonic fluids in the CTZ lacked the ability to carry significant metal ligands due to their low H 2 S activity. Oxygen isotopes from hydrothermal quartz within the CTZ (13.3 to 15.6 per mil, av. 14.0 per mil; VSMOW) are heavier than those from mineralized quartz veins in second- and third-order shear zones (11.8 to 19.6 per mil, av. 12.2 per

  7. Testing Predictions of Continental Insulation using Oceanic Crustal Thicknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggard, Mark; Shorttle, Oliver; White, Nicky

    2016-04-01

    The thermal blanketing effect of continental crust has been predicted to lead to elevated temperatures within the upper mantle beneath supercontinents. Initial break-up is associated with increased magmatism and the generation of flood basalts. Continued rifting and sea-floor spreading lead to a steady reduction of this thermal anomaly. Recently, evidence in support of this behaviour has come from the major element geochemistry of mid-ocean ridge basalts, which suggest excess rifting temperatures of ˜ 150 °C that decay over ˜ 100 Ma. We have collated a global inventory of ˜ 1000 seismic reflection profiles and ˜ 500 wide-angle refraction experiments from the oceanic realm. Data are predominantly located along passive margins, but there are also multiple surveys in the centres of the major oceanic basins. Oceanic crustal thickness has been mapped, taking care to avoid areas of secondary magmatic thickening near seamounts or later thinning such as across transform faults. These crustal thicknesses are a proxy for mantle potential temperature at the time of melt formation beneath a mid-ocean ridge system, allowing us to quantify the amplitude and duration of thermal anomalies generated beneath supercontinents. The Jurassic break-up of the Central Atlantic and the Cretaceous rifting that formed the South Atlantic Ocean are both associated with excess temperatures of ˜ 50 °C that have e-folding times of ˜ 50 Ma. In addition to this background trend, excess temperatures reach > 150 °C around the region of the Rio Grande Rise, associated with the present-day Tristan hotspot. The e-folding time of this more local event is ˜ 10 Ma, which mirrors results obtained for the North Atlantic Ocean south of Iceland. In contrast, crustal thicknesses from the Pacific Ocean reveal approximately constant potential temperature through time. This observation is in agreement with predictions, as the western Pacific was formed by rifting of an oceanic plate. In summary

  8. The birth, growth and ageing of the Kaapvaal subcratonic mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, Gerhard P.; Shu, Qiao

    2018-06-01

    The Kaapvaal craton and its underlying mantle is probably one of the best studied Archean entity in the world. Despite that, discussion is still vivid on important aspects. A major debate over the last few decades is the depth of melting that generated the mantle nuclei of cratons. Our new evaluation of melting parameters in peridotite residues shows that the Cr2O3/Al2O3 ratio is the most useful pressure sensitive melting barometer. It irrevocably constrains the pressure of melting (melt separation) to less than 2 GPa with olivine (ol), orthopyroxene (opx) and spinel (sp) as residual phases. Garnet (grt) grows at increasing pressure during lithosphere thickening and subduction via the reaction opx + sp → grt + ol. The time of partial melting is constrained by Re-depletion model ages (TRD) mainly to the Archean (Pearson and Wittig 2008). However, only 3% of the ages are older than 3.1 Ga while crustal ages lie mainly between 3.1 to 2.8 Ga for the W- and 3.7 to 2.8 Ga for the E-block. Many TRD-ages are probably falsified by metasomatism and the main partial melting period was older than 3.1 Ga. Also, Nd- and Hf- model ages of peridotitic lithologies from the W-block are 3.2 to 3.6 Ga old. The corresponding very negative ɛNd (-40) and ɛHf values (-65) signal the presence of subducted crustal components in these old mantle portions. Subducted components diversify the mantle in its chemistry and thermal structure. Adjustment towards a stable configuration occurs by fluid transfer, metasomatism, partial melting and heat transfer. Ages of metasomatism from the Lu-Hf isotope system are 3.2 Ga (Lace), 2.9 Ga (Roberts Victor) and 2.62 Ga (Finsch) coinciding with the collision of cratonic blocks, the growth of diamonds, metamorphism of eclogites and of Ventersdoorp magmatism. The cratonic lithosphere was stabilized thermally by the end of the Archean and cooled since then with a rate of 0.07 °C/Ma.

  9. Lower Crustal Seismicity, Volatiles, and Evolving Strain Fields During the Initial Stages of Cratonic Rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, C.; Muirhead, J.; Ebinger, C. J.; Tiberi, C.; Roecker, S. W.; Ferdinand-Wambura, R.; Kianji, G.; Mulibo, G. D.

    2014-12-01

    The volcanically active East African rift system in southern Kenya and northern Tanzania transects thick cratonic lithosphere, and comprises several basins characterized by deep crustal seismicity. The US-French-Tanzania-Kenya CRAFTI project aims to understand the role of magma and volatile movement during the initiation and evolution of rifting in cratonic lithosphere. Our 38-station broadband network spans all or parts of fault-bounded rift segments, enabling comparison of lithospheric structure, fault kinematics, and seismogenic layer thickness with age and proximity to the deeply rooted Archaen craton. Seismicity levels are high in all basins, but we find profound differences in seismogenic layer thickness along the length of the rift. Seismicity in the Manyara basin occurs almost exclusively within the lower crust, and in spatial clusters that have been active since 1990. In contrast, seismicity in the ~ 5 My older Magadi basin is localized in the upper crust, and the long border fault bounding the west side of the basin is seismically inactive. Between these two basins lies the Natron rift segment, which shows seismicity between ~ 20 and ~2 km depth, and high concentrations at Oldoinyo Lengai and Gelai volcanoes. Older volcanoes on the uplifted western flank (e.g., Ngorongoro) experience swarms of activity, suggesting that active magmatism and degassing are widespread. Focal mechanisms of the frequent earthquakes recorded across the array are spatially variable, and indicate a stress field strongly influenced by (1) Holocene volcanoes, (2) mechanical interactions between adjacent rift basins, and (3) a far-field ESE-WNW extensional stress regime. We explore the spatial correlation between zones of intense degassing along fault systems and seismicity, and examine the influence of high gas pressures on lower and upper crustal seismicity in this youthful cratonic rift zone.

  10. Combined Gravimetric-Seismic Crustal Model for Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, Alexey; Tenzer, Robert; Bagherbandi, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    The latest seismic data and improved information about the subglacial bedrock relief are used in this study to estimate the sediment and crustal thickness under the Antarctic continent. Since large parts of Antarctica are not yet covered by seismic surveys, the gravity and crustal structure models are used to interpolate the Moho information where seismic data are missing. The gravity information is also extended offshore to detect the Moho under continental margins and neighboring oceanic crust. The processing strategy involves the solution to the Vening Meinesz-Moritz's inverse problem of isostasy constrained on seismic data. A comparison of our new results with existing studies indicates a substantial improvement in the sediment and crustal models. The seismic data analysis shows significant sediment accumulations in Antarctica, with broad sedimentary basins. According to our result, the maximum sediment thickness in Antarctica is about 15 km under Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf. The Moho relief closely resembles major geological and tectonic features. A rather thick continental crust of East Antarctic Craton is separated from a complex geological/tectonic structure of West Antarctica by the Transantarctic Mountains. The average Moho depth of 34.1 km under the Antarctic continent slightly differs from previous estimates. A maximum Moho deepening of 58.2 km under the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains in East Antarctica confirmed the presence of deep and compact orogenic roots. Another large Moho depth in East Antarctica is detected under Dronning Maud Land with two orogenic roots under Wohlthat Massif (48-50 km) and the Kottas Mountains (48-50 km) that are separated by a relatively thin crust along Jutulstraumen Rift. The Moho depth under central parts of the Transantarctic Mountains reaches 46 km. The maximum Moho deepening (34-38 km) in West Antarctica is under the Antarctic Peninsula. The Moho depth minima in East Antarctica are found under the Lambert Trench (24

  11. Glacio-Seismotectonics: Ice Sheets, Crustal Deformation and Seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauber, Jeanne; Stewart, Iain S.; Rose, James

    2000-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a significant growth in our understanding of the past and continuing effects of ice sheets and glaciers on contemporary crustal deformation and seismicity. This growth has been driven largely by the emergence of postglacial rebound models (PGM) constrained by new field observations that incorporate increasingly realistic rheological, mechanical, and glacial parameters. In this paper, we highlight some of these recent field-based investigations and new PGMs, and examine their implications for understanding crustal deformation and seismicity during glaciation and following deglaciation. The emerging glacial rebound models outlined in the paper support the view that both tectonic stresses and glacial rebound stresses are needed to explain the distribution and style of contemporary earthquake activity in former glaciated shields of eastern Canada and Fennoscandia. However, many of these models neglect important parameters, such as topography, lateral variations in lithospheric strength and tectonic strain built up during glaciation. In glaciated mountainous terrains, glacial erosion may directly modulate tectonic deformation by resetting the orogenic topography and thereby providing an additional compensatory uplift mechanism. Such effects are likely to be important both in tectonically active orogens and in the mountainous regions of glaciated shields.

  12. Geochemical Relationships between Volcanic and Plutonic Upper to Mid Crustal Exposures of the Rosario Segment, Alisitos Arc (Baja California, Mexico): An Outstanding Field Analog to the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R.; DeBari, S. M.; Busby, C. J.; Medynski, S.

    2015-12-01

    Exposed paleo-arcs, such as the Rosario segment of the Cretaceous Alisitos Arc in Baja California, Mexico, provide an opportunity to explore the evolution of arc crust through time. Remarkable 3-D exposures of the Rosario segment record crustal generation processes in the volcanic rocks and underlying plutonic rocks. In this study, we explore the physical and geochemical connection between the plutonic and volcanic sections of the extensional Alisitos Arc, and elucidate differentiation processes responsible for generating them. These results provide an outstanding analog for extensional active arc systems, such as the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) Arc. Upper crustal volcanic rocks have a coherent stratigraphy that is 3-5 km thick and ranges in composition from basalt to dacite. The most felsic compositions (70.9% SiO2) are from a welded ignimbrite unit. The most mafic compositions (51.5% SiO2, 3.2% MgO) are found in basaltic sill-like units. Phenocrysts in the volcanic units include plagioclase +/- amphibole and clinopyroxene. The transition to deeper plutonic rocks is clearly an intrusive boundary, where plutonic units intrude the volcanic units. Plutonic rocks are dominantly a quartz diorite main phase with a more mafic, gabbroic margin. A transitional zone is observed along the contact between the plutonic and volcanic rocks, where volcanics have coarsely recrystallized textures. Mineral assemblages in the plutonic units include plagioclase +/- quartz, biotite, amphibole, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene. Most, but not all, samples are low K. REE patterns are relatively flat with limited enrichment. Normalization diagrams show LILE enrichment and HFSE depletion, where trends are similar to average IBM values. We interpret plutonic and volcanic units to have similar geochemical relationships, where liquid lines of descent show the evolution of least to most evolved magma types. We provide a model for the formation and magmatic evolution of the Alisitos Arc.

  13. Archean and proterozoic in the West-European Hercynian chain: isotopic geochemistry (Sr-Nd-Pb) and U-Pb geochronology on zircons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrot, C.

    1989-01-01

    The first part of this research thesis reports the study of isotopic (Sr-Nd-Pb) geochemistry and U-Pb geochronology on zircons in the immersed granulites of the Bay of Biscay: U-Pb geochronology on zircons, Nd isotopic geochemistry, Sr isotopic geochemistry, common Pb, Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and rare earth data on minerals, comparison with other European granulites, comparison with West-Africa, study of Archean and proterozoic in the Hercynian chain. The second part reports the study of the U-Pb geochronology on zircon in the Cadomian, and the third part addresses the Sr-Nd isotopic geochemistry of some Cadomian granitoid, and the crust contamination in different regions [fr

  14. The Apollo peak-ring impact basin: Insights into the structure and evolution of the South Pole-Aitken basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Ross W. K.; Head, James W.; Guo, Dijun; Liu, Jianzhong; Xiao, Long

    2018-05-01

    The 492 km-diameter Apollo impact basin post-dates, and is located at the inner edge of, the ∼2240 km-diameter South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin, providing an opportunity to assess the SPA substructure and lateral heterogeneity. Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory gravity data suggest an average crustal thickness on the floor of SPA of ∼20 km and within the Apollo basin of ∼5 km, yet remote sensing data reveal no conclusive evidence for the presence of exposed mantle material. We use the iSALE shock physics code to model the formation of the Apollo basin and find that the observational data are best fit by the impact of a 40 km diameter body traveling at 15 km/s into 20-40 km thick crustal material. These results strongly suggest that the Apollo impact occurred on ejecta deposits and collapsed crustal material of the SPA basin and could help place constraints on the location, size and geometry of the SPA transient cavity. The peak ring in the interior of Apollo basin is plausibly interpreted to be composed of inwardly collapsed lower crustal material that experienced peak shock pressures in excess of 35 GPa, consistent with remote sensing observations that suggest shocked plagioclase. Proposed robotic and/or human missions to SPA and Apollo would present an excellent opportunity to test the predictions of this work and address many scientific questions about SPA basin evolution and structure.

  15. Grenvillian vs Pan-African tectonic evolution in the Gamburtsev Province of East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraccioli, F.; Guochao, W.; Finn, C.; Bell, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    The Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains in interior East Antarctica are underlain by 50-60 km thick crust. In contrast, the Archean to Mesoproterozoic Mawson craton that occupies the Wilkes and Terre Adelie region features only 40-45 km thick crust. The Gamburtsev Province is underlain by 200 km thick lithoshere, as typically observed over Precambrian lithosphere that has not been substantially reworked during Phanerozoic subduction or collision. Ferraccioli et al., (2011) proposed that a segment of a stalled orogen (i.e. an orogen where widespread orogenic collapse and root delamination has not occurred) is preserved in the Gamburtsev Province and hypothesised that its origin relates to accretionary and subsequent collisional events at ca 1 Ga, linked to the assembly of Rodinia. However, passive seismic interpretations indicate that crustal thickening may relate instead to Pan-African age assembly of Gondwana (at ca 550 Ma). Here we interpret a set of enhanced magnetic and gravity images, depth to magnetic and gravity sources and 2D and forward and inverse models to characterise the crustal architecture of the Gamburtsev Province. Enhanced aeromagnetic images reveal a system of subglacial faults that segment the Gamburtsev Province into three distinct geophysical domains, the northern, central and southern domains. Apparent offsets in high-frequency magnetic anomalies within the central domain are interpreted as revealing a transpressional fault system parallel to the previously proposed Gamburtsev Suture. Our magnetic and gravity model, combined with independent constraints from sediment provenance ages, is interpreted as revealing arc and back arc terranes of inferred Grenvillian age in the northern and Central domains of the Gambrurtsev Province. Distinct magnetic anomalies correspond to inferred Paleoproterozoic crust that may have affinities with the Lambert Terrane and the South Pole Province, an inferred Mesoproterozoic (1.6-1.4 Ga?) igneous province. We

  16. TopoGreenland: crustal structure in central-eastern Greenland along a new refraction profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulgin, Alexey; Thybo, Hans; Field Team TopoGreenland

    2013-04-01

    We present the seismic structure in the interior of Greenland based on the first measurements by the seismic refraction/wide angle reflection method. Previous seismic surveys have only been carried out offshore and near the coast of Greenland, where the crustal structure is affected by oceanic break-up and may not be representative of the interior of the island. Acquisition of geophysical data in onshore Greenland is logistically complicated by the presence of an up to 3.4 km thick ice sheet, permanently covering most of the land mass. The seismic data was acquired by a team of six people during a two-month long experiment in summer of 2011 on the ice cap in the interior of central-eastern Greenland. The EW-trending profile extends 310 km inland from the approximate edge of the stable ice cap near Scoresby Sund across the center of the ice cap. The planned extension of the profile by use of OBSs and air gun shooting in Scoresbysund Fjord to the east coast of Greenland was unfortunately canceled, because navigation was prevented by ice drift. 350 Reftek Texan receivers recorded high-quality seismic data from 8 equidistant shots along the profile. Explosive charge sizes were 1 ton at the ends and ca. 500 kg along the profile, loaded with about 125 kg at 35-85 m depth in individual boreholes. Two-dimensional velocity model based on tomographic inversion and forward ray tracing modeling shows a decrease of crustal thickness from 47 km below the center of Greenland in the western part to 40 km in the eastern part of the profile. Earlier studies show that crustal thickness further decreases eastward to ca. 30 km below the fjord system, but details of the changes are unknown. Relatively high lower crustal velocities (Vp 6.8 - 7.3) in the western part of the TopoGreenland profile may indicate past collision tectonics or may be related or to the passage of the Iceland mantle plume. The origin of the pronounced circum-Atlantic mountain ranges in Norway and eastern Greenland

  17. Further Mapping of Mercury's Crustal Magnetic Field Using MESSENGER Magnetometer Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, L. L.; Oliveira, J. S.; Spudis, P. D.; Galluzzi, V.

    2018-05-01

    Further mapping of Mercury's crustal magnetic field shows that anomalies are associated with some impact craters but not others. Differences in impactor composition (e.g., iron content) may be indicated by this new observation.

  18. Effect of Crustal Density Structures on GOCE Gravity Gradient Observables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Tenzer Pavel Novák

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the gravity gradient components corrected for major known anomalous density structures within the Earth¡¦s crust. Heterogeneous mantle density structures are disregarded. The gravimetric forward modeling technique is utilized to compute the gravity gradients based on methods for a spherical harmonic analysis and synthesis of a gravity field. The Earth¡¦s gravity gradient components are generated using the global geopotential model GOCO-03s. The topographic and stripping gravity corrections due to the density contrasts of the ocean and ice are computed from the global topographic/bathymetric model DTM2006.0 (which also includes the ice-thickness dataset. The discrete data of sediments and crust layers taken from the CRUST2.0 global crustal model are then used to apply the additional stripping corrections for sediments and remaining anomalous crustal density structures. All computations are realized globally on a one arc-deg geographical grid at a mean satellite elevation of 255 km. The global map of the consolidated crust-stripped gravity gradients reveals distinctive features which are attributed to global tectonics, lithospheric plate configuration, lithosphere structure and mantle dynamics (e.g., glacial isostatic adjustment, mantle convection. The Moho signature, which is the most pronounced signal in these refined gravity gradients, is superimposed over a weaker gravity signal of the lithospheric mantle. An interpretational quality of the computed (refined gravity gradient components is mainly limited by a low accuracy and resolution of the CRUST2.0 sediment and crustal layer data and unmodeled mantle structures.

  19. Columbia River volcanism - The question of mantle heterogeneity or crustal contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, R. W.; Lugmair, G. W.; Macdougall, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    It is found that, although crystal fractionation played an important role in producing the chemical characteristics of Columbia River Province basalts displaying a wide range of chemical and isotopic compositions, the isotopic variability calls for the involvement of at least two isotopically distinct components. The major and trace element characteristics of the main volume of the basalts are not consistent with a metasomatized mantle source region, and the presence of a primordial mantel component is not supported by the chemical data. Models of simple binary mixing between a primary magma and Precambrian sialic crustal materials, while satisfying the observed Nd and Sr isotopic variations, fail to account for major trace element abundances. The combination of crustal assimilation and fractional crystalization is found to give a superior fit to the compositional data.

  20. An evaluation of information on vertical crustal movements pertaining to deep disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, J.E.; Quinlan, G.; Rogerson, R.; Welhan, J.

    1986-03-01

    The geological and historical information on the magnitude and distribution of uplift and differential movements of rock masses as well as groundwater flow system transients that result from glacial unloading, erosion and tectonic stress have been reviewed. Data presented in the literature show that vertical crustal movements have occurred during the Cenozoic. In addition, the literature indicates significant transients exist in groundwater flow systems. The documented evidence of vertical crustal movements, plus supporting data on the stress-permeability constitutive relationships for discontinuities in fractured crystalline rocks, and three-dimensional modelling capability justifies a detailed analysis of the effects of vertical uplift on bedrock and on groundwater as they pertain to the deep disposal of radioactive waste. 159 annotated refs

  1. Crustal and deep seismicity in Italy (30 years after

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Selvaggi

    1997-06-01

    recent important achievement of the prolonged detailed seismic monitoring of our territory, which will provide in the future more and more precise indications of where earthquakes will strike. In addition, the accurate location of hundreds of intermediate and deep earthquakes beneath the two arcs has recently provided (together with seismic tomography results new hints on the tectonic setting of Italy and its evolution over time, on the relations between deep processes and crustal stress, and ultimately on the mechanisms of earthquake generation in our country.

  2. Upper mantle and crustal structure of the East Greenland Caledonides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Balling, N.; Jacobsen, B. H.

    The East Greenland and Scandinavian Caledonides once formed a major coherent mountain range, as a consequence of the collision of the continents of Laurentia and Baltica. The crustal and upper mantle structure was furthermore influenced by several geodynamic processes leading to the formation of ...

  3. Thin Crust and High Crustal Vp/Vs beneath the Central Armenia Plateau of the Lesser Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, T. L.; Lin, C. M.; Huang, B. S.; Karakhanyan, A.

    2017-12-01

    Armenia volcanic highland is part of the Lesser Caucasus directly connected with the East Anatolian Plateau to the west and Iranian Plateau to the east. Abundant Quaternary volcanoes in Armenia are the youngest among those associated with post-collision of Arabia-Eurasian since Miocene ( 11 Ma). In this study, teleseismic receiver functions were analyzed from a temporary array to constrain the crustal structures under Armenia and the vicinity. The results show that the Moho depth is shallowest beneath central Armenia where the estimated crustal thickness is 32 km with high averaged crustal Vp/Vs of 1.8-2.0 using H-κ technique. The high crustal Vp/Vs is distributed in a wider area but thin crust is confined more locally around stratovolcano Aragats, whose last eruption was about 0.5 Ma. High crustal Vp/Vs value approaching to 2.1 is found near East of volcano Ghegam complex and NW of volcano Ararat with last dated ages of 0.5 and <0.1 Ma, respectively. Such high Vp/Vs (2.0) cannot be explained without high mafic content and the presence of partial melt in the crust. The 1-D velocity models inverted demonstrate that the partial melt is more likely in the low-velocity layer of the lower crust. To support the unusually thin crust in central Armenia, it requires additional thermal buoyancy in the uppermost mantle which is consistent with regionally low Pn velocity found in previous studies. We propose that the volcanism here is facilitated by the stretches of lithosphere.

  4. Lower crustal seismic activity in the Adana Basin (Eastern Mediterranean): Possible connection to gravitational flexure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Mehmet; Aktar, Mustafa

    2018-04-01

    High quality broadband data, together with the application of the double difference relocation technique, has been used to study the characteristics of the lower crustal seismicity in the Adana Basin, in southwestern Turkey. Deep events are clearly seen to be restricted only to the Adana Basin and never extend outside its boundaries. Furthermore, the seismogenic zone is observed to align roughly with the main axis of the basin and plunges steadily in the SSW-direction, following the basement trend of the Adana Basin. Similarities between geometries of the basin evolution and the deep seismic production suggest that both processes are closely related. A flexure process is proposed related to the subsidence of the Adana Basin. The seismogenic zone, originally at a shallow depth, is assumed to have been displaced vertically into the lower crust, by flexure. The temperature evolution of the crust during the flexure has been studied in detail using finite difference modeling, with amplitude and duration parameters taken from earlier studies. It has been concluded that the physical conditions for brittle fracturing remained unchanged for an extended period of time after the flexure. The brittle layers originally at shallow depths, preserved their original thermal properties after the subsidence and will continue to produce earthquakes at considerable depths. Numerical tests using inferred parameters imply a total vertical shift of 7-8 km for the seismogenic zone. Discussions for additional processes, which may further contribute to the cooling of the crust, are also included.

  5. Revised crustal architecture of the southeastern Carpathian foreland from active and passive seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciu, Dana M.; Knapp, Camelia C.; Knapp, James H.

    2009-08-01

    Integration of active and passive source seismic data is employed in order to study the nature of the relationships between crustal seismicity and geologic structures in the southeastern (SE) Carpathian foreland of Romania and the possible connection with the Vrancea Seismogenic Zone (VSZ) of intermediate-depth seismicity, one of the most active earthquake-prone areas in Europe. Crustal epicenters and focal mechanisms are correlated with four deep industry seismic profiles, the reprocessed Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Process in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics (DACIA PLAN) profile and the Deep Reflection Acquisition Constraining Unusual Lithospheric Activity II and III (DRACULA) profiles in order to understand the link between neotectonic foreland deformation and Vrancea mantle seismicity. Projection of crustal foreland hypocenters onto deep seismic profiles identifies several active crustal faults in the SE Carpathian foreland and suggests a mechanical coupling between the mantle located VSZ and the overlying foreland crust. The coupled associated deformation appears to take place on the Trotus Fault, the Sinaia Fault, and the newly detected Ialomita Fault. Seismic reflection imaging reveals the absence of west dipping reflectors in the crystalline crust and a slightly east dipping to horizontal Moho in the proximity of the Vrancea area. These findings argue against previously purported mechanisms to generate mantle seismicity in the VSZ including oceanic lithosphere subduction in place and oceanic slab break off, furthermore suggesting that the Vrancea seismogenic body is undetached from the overlying crust in the foreland.

  6. Magmatism at different crustal levels in the ancient North Cascades magmatic arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, E. K.; Bowring, S. A.; Miller, R. B.; Miller, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    The mechanisms of magma ascent and emplacement inferred from study of intrusive complexes have long been the subject of intense debate. Current models favor incremental construction based on integration of field, geochemical, geochronologic, and modeling studies. Much of this work has been focused on a single crustal level. However, study of magmatism throughout the crust is critical for understanding how magma ascends through and intrudes surrounding crustal material. Here, we present new geochronologic and geochemical work from intrusive complexes emplaced at a range of crustal depths in the Cretaceous North Cascades magmatic arc. These complexes were intruded between 92 and 87 Ma at depths of at ≤5 -10 km, ~20 km, and ~25 km during this time. U-Pb CA-TIMS geochronology in zircon can resolve Jack-Entiat intrusive complex, a highly elongate amalgamation of intrusions recording two episodes of magmatism between~92-88 Ma and ~80-77 Ma. Each of these complexes provides a window into crustal processes that occur at different depths. Our data suggest assembly of the Black Peak intrusive complex occurred via a series of small (0.5-2 km2) magmatic increments from ~92 Ma to ~87 Ma. Field relations and zircon trace element geochemistry indicate each of these increments were emplaced and crystallized as closed systems-we find no evidence for mixing between magmas in the complex. However, zircon inheritance becomes more common in younger intrusions, indicating assimilation of older plutonic material, possibly during magma production or transport. The Seven-Fingered Jack intrusive complex, emplaced around 15-20 km, preserves a much more discontinuous record of intrusion than the Black Peak. Our data indicate major magmatism in the complex occurred between ~92.1-91.1 Ma. Inheritance in the Seven-Fingered Jack is common, particularly along contacts between intrusions. The Tenpeak intrusive complex, assembled between ~92 Ma and 89 Ma, represents one of the deepest exhumed

  7. A preliminary investigation of vertical crustal movements in the United Kingdom in the context of subsurface nuclear waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    Two types of change will influence the environment of a subsurface nuclear waste isolation facility: natural geological changes and changes caused by the construction of the waste repository and introduction of the waste. This report is concerned with vertical crustal movements, which are an expression of natural geological changes. Vertical crustal movements observed outside the United Kingdom are reviewed, and vertical movements in a test region of the UK investigated by comparison of geodetic levellings. The implications of vertical crustal movement to waste isolation facilities and some potentially valuable lines of research are discussed. (author)

  8. Fault offsets and lateral crustal movement on Europa - Evidence for a mobile ice shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, P.M.; Mckinnon, W.B.

    1989-01-01

    An examination is conducted of Europa's cross-cutting structural relationships between various lineament types, in order to constrain the type of structure involved in each such case and, where possible, to also constrain the degree of extension across the lineaments. Evidence is adduced for significant lateral crustal movement, allowing alternative models and mechanisms for lineament formation to be discussed, as well as plausible lithospheric and crustal models. The question as to whether any of the water-ice layer has been, or currently is, liquid, is also treated in light of the evidence obtained. 53 refs

  9. Strain transformation between tectonic extrusion and crustal thickening in the growth of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Li, Y.; Sun, Y.; Shen, X.

    2017-12-01

    The Indo-Eurasian continental collision since 50 Ma has thickened the crust to raise the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau and driven lateral extrusion of Asian lithospheric blocks to affect Cenozoic tectonics in central and east Asia. The relative roles of crustal thickening and tectonic extrusion, and the strain partitioning between them over time and space, remain controversial. We have analyzed the strain rates using GPS velocities, and correlated the results with vertical motion derived from precise leveling. We found that tectonic extrusion largely transforms to crustal thickening near the margins of the Tibetan Plateau. Near the NW margin of the Tibetan Plateau, the shear stain transforms to compressive strain, consistent with neotectonic studies that indicate crustal shortening and uplift. Around the SE margin, shear stain largely terminates in the southern Yunnan province of China. The present-day crustal motion in SE Tibetan Plateau can be well explained by gravitational spreading without invoking plate-edge push as envisioned in the tectonic extrusion model. Using data collected from local seismic arrays, we derived receiver functions to image the lithospheric structures across the Tibetan Plateau and the Alashan block to its north and the Ordos block to its east. Our results indicate that the mantle lithosphere of these bounding Asian blocks has not been reworked by Tibetan tectonics; instead they have acted as restrictive walls to the growing Tibetan Plateau. Our finite element modeling shows that crustal deformation along the margins of the Tibetan Plateau are consistent with the notion that the east- and southeastward extrusion of the Tibetan lithosphere is largely confined to the Tibetan Plateau because of the restrictive bounding blocks of the Asian lithosphere. Thus the tectonic impact of the Indo-Eurasian collision on the Cenozoic Asian tectonics may not be as extensive as previously thought.

  10. Multisystem dating of modern river detritus from Tajikistan and China: Implications for crustal evolution and exhumation of the Pamir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara Carappa,; Mustapha, F.S.; Cosca, Michael A.; Gehrels, George E.; Schoenbhohm, L; Sobel, E.; DeCelles.P.,; Russell, Joellen; Goodman, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The Pamir is the western continuation of Tibet and the site of some of the highest mountains on Earth, yet comparatively little is known about its crustal and tectonic evolution and erosional history. Both Tibet and the Pamir are characterized by similar terranes and sutures that can be correlated along strike, although the details of such correlations remain controversial. The erosional history of the Pamir with respect to Tibet is significantly different as well: Most of Tibet has been characterized by internal drainage and low erosion rates since the early Cenozoic; in contrast, the Pamir is externally drained and topographically more rugged, and it has a strongly asymmetric drainage pattern. Here, we report 700 new U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope determinations and >300 40Ar/39Ar ages from detrital minerals derived from rivers in China draining the northeastern Pamir and >1000 apatite fission-track (AFT) ages from 12 rivers in Tajikistan and China draining the northeastern, central, and southern Pamir. U-Pb ages from rivers draining the northeastern Pamir are Mesozoic to Proterozoic and show affinity with the Songpan-Ganzi terrane of northern Tibet, whereas rivers draining the central and southern Pamir are mainly Mesozoic and show some affinity with the Qiangtang terrane of central Tibet. The εHf values are juvenile, between 15 and −5, for the northeastern Pamir and juvenile to moderately evolved, between 10 and −40, for the central and southern Pamir. Detrital mica 40Ar/39Ar ages for the northeastern Pamir (eastern drainages) are generally older than ages from the central and southern Pamir (western drainages), indicating younger or lower-magnitude exhumation of the northeastern Pamir compared to the central and southern Pamir. AFT data show strong Miocene–Pliocene signals at the orogen scale, indicating rapid erosion at the regional scale. Despite localized exhumation of the Mustagh-Ata and Kongur-Shan domes, average erosion rates for the northeastern Pamir

  11. The anatomy of an andesite volcano: A time-stratigraphic study of andesite petrogenesis and crustal evolution at Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, R.C.; Gamble, J.A.; Smith, I.E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Ruapehu, New Zealand’s largest active andesite volcano is located at the southern tip of the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ), the main locus of subduction-related volcanism in the North Island. Geophysical data indicate that crustal thickness transitions from ... Ruapehu. The volcano is built on a basement of Mesozoic metagreywacke and geophysical evidence together with xenoliths contained in lavas indicates that this is underlain by oceanic, meta-igneous lower crust. The present-day Ruapehu edifice has been constructed by a series of eruptive events that produced...... and andesite. Dacite also occurs but only one basalt flow has been identified. There have been progressive changes in the minor and trace element chemistry and isotopic composition of Ruapehu eruptives over time. In comparison with rocks from younger formations, Te Herenga eruptives have lower K2O abundances...

  12. Elementary Theoretical Forms for the Spatial Power Spectrum of Earth's Crustal Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhies, C.

    1998-01-01

    The magnetic field produced by magnetization in Earth's crust and lithosphere can be distinguished from the field produced by electric currents in Earth's core because the spatial magnetic power spectrum of the crustal field differs from that of the core field. Theoretical forms for the spectrum of the crustal field are derived by treating each magnetic domain in the crust as the point source of a dipole field. The geologic null-hypothesis that such moments are uncorrelated is used to obtain the magnetic spectrum expected from a randomly magnetized, or unstructured, spherical crust of negligible thickness. This simplest spectral form is modified to allow for uniform crustal thickness, ellipsoidality, and the polarization of domains by an periodically reversing, geocentric axial dipole field from Earth's core. Such spectra are intended to describe the background crustal field. Magnetic anomalies due to correlated magnetization within coherent geologic structures may well be superimposed upon this background; yet representing each such anomaly with a single point dipole may lead to similar spectral forms. Results from attempts to fit these forms to observational spectra, determined via spherical harmonic analysis of MAGSAT data, are summarized in terms of amplitude, source depth, and misfit. Each theoretical spectrum reduces to a source factor multiplied by the usual exponential function of spherical harmonic degree n due to geometric attenuation with attitude above the source layer. The source factors always vary with n and are approximately proportional to n(exp 3) for degrees 12 through 120. The theoretical spectra are therefore not directly proportional to an exponential function of spherical harmonic degree n. There is no radius at which these spectra are flat, level, or otherwise independent of n.

  13. Crustal geomagnetic field - Two-dimensional intermediate-wavelength spatial power spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcleod, M. G.

    1983-01-01

    Two-dimensional Fourier spatial power spectra of equivalent magnetization values are presented for a region that includes a large portion of the western United States. The magnetization values were determined by inversion of POGO satellite data, assuming a magnetic crust 40 km thick, and were located on an 11 x 10 array with 300 km grid spacing. The spectra appear to be in good agreement with values of the crustal geomagnetic field spatial power spectra given by McLeod and Coleman (1980) and with the crustal field model given by Serson and Hannaford (1957). The spectra show evidence of noise at low frequencies in the direction along the satellite orbital track (N-S). indicating that for this particular data set additional filtering would probably be desirable. These findings illustrate the value of two-dimensional spatial power spectra both for describing the geomagnetic field statistically and as a guide for diagnosing possible noise sources.

  14. New aeromagnetic data of eastern Dronning Maud Land: implications for the spatial extent of a major Early Neoproterozoic juvenile crustal province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, A. S.; Jacobs, J.; Eagles, G.; Läufer, A.; Jokat, W.

    2017-12-01

    A long-standing collaboration between Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) and the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) aims to investigate the sub-ice crustal architecture and tectonic evolution of East Antarctica. Its main emphasis is on Dronning Maud Land (DML). During the austral summers 2014 and 2015, ca. 40.000 line kilometre of new magnetic, gravity and ice-penetrating radar data were collected with 10 km line spacing. Here, we report on magnetic anomaly data to the east and south of Sør Rondane (eastern DML), analysed with several filtering techniques. These data are integrated with exposure information from Sør Rondane, the Belgica Mts., and the Yamato Mts.. The study area covers the eastern part of a major, recently revealed Early Neoproterozoic juvenile crustal block, the Tonian Oceanic Arc Super Terrane (TOAST). The western extent of the TOAST is well defined by the Forster Magnetic Anomaly and characterized by a province of subdued SE-striking parallel positive magnetic anomalies in the mostly ice-covered region of south-eastern DML (the SE DML province). Geological investigations showed that this area can be correlated with exposures in Sør Rondane and scattered nunataks west of it. U-Pb ages of ca. 1000-900 Ma, are documented from zircons of gabbro-trondhjemite-tonalite-granodiorite (GTTG) suites in both areas. Further, geochemical analyses prove a juvenile character of the GTTGs, which are interpreted as oceanic arc complexes. Glacial drift from southern Sør Rondane points to an inland continuation of the TOAST, so far of unknown dimensions. The new magnetic data constrain the southern and eastern minimum extent of the TOAST, which we think has a minimum area of 450.000 km2. The spatial extent of this major juvenile crustal province has major significance for the tectonic reconstruction of East Antarctica and its involvement in Rodinia since it is suggested having evolved

  15. Isotopic data bearing on the origin of Mesozoic and Tertiary granitic rocks in the western United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePaolo, D.J.; Farmer, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    A regional survey of initial Nd and Sr isotopic compositions has been done on Mesozoic and Tertiary granitic rocks from a 500 000 km 2 area in California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and Colorado. The plutons, which range in composition from quartz diorite to monzogranite, are intruded into accreted oceanic geosynclinal terrains in the west and north and into Precambrian basement in the east. Broad geographic coverage allows the data to be interpreted in the context of the regional pre-Mesozoic crustal structure. Initial Nd isotopic compositions exhibit a huge range, encompassing values typical of oceanic magmatic arcs and Archean basement. The sources of the magmas can be inferred from the systematic geographic variability of Nd isotopic compositions. The plutons in the accreted terrains represent mantle-derived magma that assimilated crust while differentiating at deep levels. Those emplaced into Precambrian basement are mainly derived from the crust. The regional patterns can be understood in terms of: (1) the flux of mantle magma entering the crust; (2) crustal thickness; and (3) crustal age. The mantle magma flux apparently decreased inland; in the main batholith belts purely crustal granitic rocks are not observed because the flux was too large. Inland, crustal granite is common because mantle magma was scarce and the crust was thick, and hot enough to melt. The epsilonsub(Nd) values of peraluminous granite formed by melting of the Precambrian basement depend on the age of the local basement source. (author)

  16. Seismotectonics and Crustal Thickness of Northwest Mindoro, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P. F.; Olavere, E. A.; Lee, K. M.; Bautista, B.; Solidum, R., Jr.; Huang, B. S.

    2015-12-01

    Mindoro Island locates where the Palawan Continental Block (PCB) indented into the Philippine Mobile Belt (PMB) during the Early Miocene and where the Manila Trench terminates, having ceased convergence due to collision. On the transition from subduction to collision, Northwest Mindoro exhibits vigorous seismic activity and has been debated about its affiliation being PCB or PMB. Here, we use data from both the EHB and Global Centroid Moment Tensor catalogues to study the regional seismotectonics. We also deployed five broadband stations to probe the crustal thickness beneath NW Mindoro using receiver function analysis. Results show that, following the southeasterly reduction of convergence rates at the southern termination of the Manila Trench, the slab dipping angles steepen, were initiated at depth (~200 km) and propagate upwards. The horizontal distances of the trench and slab, as measured from the Wadati-Benioff zone at 200 km depth, also reduce in a southeasterly direction. Observations of intermediate-depth earthquakes that exhibit predominantly down-dip extensional stress patterns attest that the steepening of slab dipping angles is due to the negative buoyancy of the slab. Preliminary results of receiver function analysis suggest that the crustal thickness beneath NW Mindoro is about 40 km and is probably PCB affiliated.

  17. Neutron star crustal plate tectonics. I. Magnetic dipole evolution in millisecond pulsars and low-mass X-ray binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruderman, M.

    1991-01-01

    Crust lattices in spinning-up or spinning-down neutron stars have growing shear stresses caused by neutron superfluid vortex lines pinned to lattice nuclei. For the most rapidly spinning stars, this stress will break and move the crust before vortex unpinning occurs. In spinning-down neutron stars, crustal plates will move an equatorial subduction zone in which the plates are forced into the stellar core below the crust. The opposite plate motion occurs in spinning-up stars. Magnetic fields which pass through the crust or have sources in it move with the crust. Spun-up neutron stars in accreting low-mass X-ray binaries LMXBs should then have almost axially symmetric magnetic fields. Spun-down ones with very weak magnetic fields should have external magnetic fields which enter and leave the neutron star surface only near its equator. The lowest field millisecond radiopulsars seem to be orthogonal rotators implying that they have not previously been spun-up in LMXBs but are neutron stars initially formed with periods near 0.001 s that subsequently spin down to their present periods. Accretion-induced white dwarf collapse is then the most plausible genesis for them. 29 refs

  18. Provenance and tectonic setting of the supra-crustal succession of the Qinling Complex: Implications for the tectonic affinity of the North Qinling Belt, Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Huang, Qianwen; Liu, Xijun; Krapež, Bryan; Yu, Jinhai; Bai, Zhian

    2018-06-01

    The Qinling Complex lies in the Qinling orogenic belt of Central China and holds the key to understanding the evolution of this feature. The Qinling Complex comprises a basement complex composed of amphibolite and ecologite, overlain by a supra-crustal succession that has been metamorphosed to the upper greenschist facies at approximately 516-509 Ma. The protoliths of the meta-sedimentary rocks are graywackes, which are divided into lower, middle and upper units. Detrital zircons from nine samples of the supra-crustal succession have ages ranging from 1182 to 1158 Ma for the lower unit, 957 to 955 Ma for the middle unit and 917 to 840 Ma for the upper unit. The lower unit is intruded by a ca. 960 Ma pluton. The bulk compositions of these meta-sedimentary rocks and their detrital zircon ages clearly indicate derivation from Meso- and Neo-proterozoic granites. Thus, we suggest that the sedimentary succession was derived from an arc-related tectonic setting and that none of the detritus was sourced from the southern margin of the North China Block or from the northern and western margins of the South China Block. We conclude that the North Qinling Belt was an independent micro-continental block during the Meso- to Neo-proterozoic.

  19. The Upper- to Middle-Crustal Section of the Alisitos Oceanic Arc, (Baja, Mexico): an Analog of the Izu-Bonin-Marianas (IBM) Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medynski, S.; Busby, C.; DeBari, S. M.; Morris, R.; Andrews, G. D.; Brown, S. R.; Schmitt, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    The Rosario segment of the Cretaceous Alisitos arc in Baja California is an outstanding field analog for the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc, because it is structurally intact, unmetamorphosed, and has superior three-dimensional exposures of an upper- to middle-crustal section through an extensional oceanic arc. Previous work1, done in the pre-digital era, used geologic mapping to define two phases of arc evolution, with normal faulting in both phases: (1) extensional oceanic arc, with silicic calderas, and (2) oceanic arc rifting, with widespread diking and dominantly mafic effusions. Our new geochemical data match the extensional zone immediately behind the Izu arc front, and is different from the arc front and rear arc, consistent with geologic relations. Our study is developing a 3D oceanic arc crustal model, with geologic maps draped on Google Earth images, and GPS-located outcrop information linked to new geochemical, geochronological and petrographic data, with the goal of detailing the relationships between plutonic, hypabyssal, and volcanic rocks. This model will be used by scientists as a reference model for past (IBM-1, 2, 3) and proposed IBM (IBM-4) drilling activities. New single-crystal zircon analysis by TIMS supports the interpretation, based on batch SIMS analysis of chemically-abraded zircon1, that the entire upper-middle crustal section accumulated in about 1.5 Myr. Like the IBM, volcanic zircons are very sparse, but zircon chemistry on the plutonic rocks shows trace element compositions that overlap to those measured in IBM volcanic zircons by A. Schmitt (unpublished data). Zircons have U-Pb ages up to 20 Myr older than the eruptive age, suggesting remelting of older parts of the arc, similar to that proposed for IBM (using different evidence). Like IBM, some very old zircons are also present, indicating the presence of old crustal fragments, or sediments derived from them, in the basement. However, our geochemical data show that the magmas are

  20. U-Pb zircon geochronology and Sm-Nd-Pb isotopic constraint for precambrian plutonic rocks in the northeastern part of Ryeongnam massif, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ho-Wan

    2003-01-01

    The Ryeongnam massif is composed of Precambrian gneisses, Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks and extensive Triassic-Jurassic plutonic rocks of felsic to mafic composition. In the northeast Ryeongnam massif, the oldest rocks belong to the Sobaegsan gneiss complex, which is composed of orthogneisses, paragneisses and mafic plutonic rocks. U-Pb zircon ages for the felsic and mafic intrusive bodies within the Sobaegsan gneiss complex are: the Icheon granite gneiss, 2357±43 and 2342±47 Ma; the Buncheon granite gneiss, 1963±5 Ma; the Pyeonghae granite gneiss, 1936±21 Ma; the Ogbang amphibolite, 1918±10 Ma; the Imwon leucogranite gneiss, 1826±20 Ma. The Hyeondong biotite schist, which is intruded by the Buncheon granite gneiss and the Ogbang amphibolite, yielded an age of 2271±44 Ma. The Nd-Sm-Pb isotopic data indicate that the felsic plutonic rocks are derived from an older Archean crust. The Nd T DM ages are Archean, and the εNd values are negative for the felsic rocks and positive for the amphibolite. Common Pb isotope compositions also indicate a crustal source for the felsic intrusives. The U-Pb ages of Precambrian rocks of the Ryeongnam massifs are similar to those in the Gyeonggi massif, and may have a similar crustal evolutionary history. The Precambrian rocks of South Korea could be related either to the North China block or to the South China block, as the isotope ages and patterns are not unique to either block. Similarly, a geologic correlation with Japan, although possible, is tenuous at present. (author)

  1. An isotopic perspective on growth and differentiation of Proterozoic orogenic crust: From subduction magmatism to cratonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Simon P.; Korhonen, Fawna J.; Kirkland, Christopher L.; Cliff, John B.; Belousova, Elena A.; Sheppard, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The in situ chemical differentiation of continental crust ultimately leads to the long-term stability of the continents. This process, more commonly known as 'cratonization', is driven by deep crustal melting with the transfer of those melts to shallower regions resulting in a strongly chemically stratified crust, with a refractory, dehydrated lower portion overlain by a complementary enriched upper portion. Since the lower to mid portions of continental crust are rarely exposed, investigation of the cratonization process must be through indirect methods. In this study we use in situ Hf and O isotope compositions of both magmatic and inherited zircons from several felsic magmatic suites in the Capricorn Orogen of Western Australia to highlight the differentiation history (i.e. cratonization) of this portion of late Archean to Proterozoic orogenic crust. The Capricorn Orogen shows a distinct tectonomagmatic history that evolves from an active continental margin through to intracratonic reworking, ultimately leading to thermally stable crust that responds similarly to the bounding Archean Pilbara and Yilgarn Cratons. The majority of magmatic zircons from the main magmatic cycles have Hf isotopic compositions that are generally more evolved than CHUR, forming vertical arrays that extend to moderately radiogenic compositions. Complimentary O isotope data, also show a significant variation in composition. However, combined, these data define not only the source components from which the magmas were derived, but also a range of physio-chemical processes that operated during magma transport and emplacement. These data also identify a previously unknown crustal reservoir in the Capricorn Orogen.

  2. Magnetic crustal thickness in Greenland from CHAMP and Ørsted data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maule, Cathrine Fox; Purucker, Michael E.; Olsen, Nils

    2005-01-01

    and observatory data. After correcting for the remanent magnetization, we determine the vertically integrated magnetization of the crust. Making some simplifying assumptions about the susceptibility, the thickness of the magnetic crust is determined by iteratively improving an initial crustal thickness model...

  3. The Chaotic Terrains of Mercury: A History of Large-Scale Crustal Devolatilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J. A. P.; Domingue, D. L.; Berman, D. C.; Kargel, J. S.; Baker, V. R.; Teodoro, L. F.; Banks, M.; Leonard, G.

    2018-05-01

    Approximately 400 million years after the Caloris basin impact, extensive collapse formed Mercury's chaotic terrains. Collapse likely resulted from regionally elevated heat flow devolatilizing crustal materials along NE and NW extensional faults.

  4. Crustal thickness and velocity structure across the Moroccan Atlas from long offset wide-angle reflection seismic data: The SIMA experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayarza, P.; Carbonell, R.; Teixell, A.; Palomeras, I.; Martí, D.; Kchi