WorldWideScience

Sample records for archaeometry

  1. Archaeometry: changes and current trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montero Ruiz, Ignacio

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks through the definition of the term Archaeometry and its different meanings since the first use of the term in the1950s to the present. It is also concerned with the historical background of Archaeometry, its evolution throughout recent decades and the fields currently covered by this new area of knowledge, which must be understood within the limits of archaeology. In addition, a bibliometric analysis has served to show in depth the trends of archaeometric studies and to assess their role in current archaeological research. Finally, some ideas on the particular knowledge generated by Archaeometry as well as its future and immediate perspectives are also discussed.  

    Este trabajo realiza un recorrido por la definición del término Arqueometría y las distintas acepciones que ha ido teniendo desde su aparición en la década de los 50 del siglo pasado hasta el presente. También se profundiza en los antecedentes históricos, en la evolución acaecida en las últimas décadas y en los campos de actuación cubiertos en la actualidad por esta nueva área de conocimiento, cuyo desarrollo no puede entenderse al margen de la propia arqueología. Un análisis bibliométrico ha servido además para conocer en profundidad las tendencias en este tipo de estudios arqueométricos y valorar el papel que juegan en la investigación arqueológica actual. Por último, se discuten algunas ideas sobre las particulares características del conocimiento generado por la Arqueometría, así como su futuro y perspectivas más inmediatas.

  2. Radiation in archaeometry: archaeological dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most recurring questions in archaeometry concerns the age of the studied objects. Not all the materials can be dated so far, but the presence of the natural radiation environment has been of great help in finding mechanisms on which many dating techniques are based. The continuous irradiation from the naturally occurring radioisotopes and from cosmic rays causes the filling of electronic trapping levels in non-metallic materials. This kind of materials can, in principles, be dated through the analysis of these filled electronic traps, provided that the manufacturing of the object to be dated coincides with the starting time of filling traps. This condition is satisfied in the case of Thermoluminescence (TL) Dating, that can in principle be applied to all materials whose manufacturing requires a high temperature heating, typically all kinds of clays, but also bricks, burnt flints, porcelains, cooked hearths, bronze clay-cores. The main fields of application of TL Dating are then architectural history, through the analysis of bricks, and Dating in Archaeology which is the subject of this work. A number of examples will be reported to put in evidence usefulness and limits of TL Dating in Archaeology. The statistical precision that can be achieved is limited by the number of different measurements and treatments that are necessary. In some cases the incompleteness of information, typically in relation to environmental radiation and water content in the burial site, can seriously limit TL Dating precision. The sources of errors that affect TL Dating and the meaningful contribution to the archaeological research coming from TL Dating, when correctly and extensively applied, will be discussed relatively to some archaeological excavations and to a few important bronze statues, that have been dated through the analysis of their clay-cores. (author)

  3. Sixth Australasian archaeometry conference. Conference handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    These proceedings provide an overview of the present state-of-the-art in the fields of archaeometry. Topics covered include radiocarbon or other isotope dating as well as AMS, PIXE/PIGME and other nuclear analytical techniques applied to a variety of archeological specimens, sediments and artefacts. Palaecological, anthropological and archaeometallurgical study are also reported. Altogether, 85 abstracts/extended abstracts are included in the proceedings; out of these, 59 were separately indexed for inclusion in the INIS database.

  4. Sixth Australasian archaeometry conference. Conference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings provide an overview of the present state-of-the-art in the fields of archaeometry. Topics covered include radiocarbon or other isotope dating as well as AMS, PIXE/PIGME and other nuclear analytical techniques applied to a variety of archeological specimens, sediments and artefacts. Palaecological, anthropological and archaeometallurgical study are also reported. Altogether, 85 abstracts/extended abstracts are included in the proceedings; out of these, 59 were separately indexed for inclusion in the INIS database

  5. Why is archaeometry so boring for archaeologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a tentative for shaking the intellectual confort of physicists, chemists and mathematicians working for archaeology. It is a well-known fact that the meetings for archaeometry attract more and more scientists, but archaeologists, in principle directly interested in the methods, the objects and the results of the work are not present in a significant amount in those meetings. The aim of this paper is a brief analysis of this phenomenon and of various solutions attempted. It would be simplistic attributing only to archaeologists the responsability of this situation. In fact some archaeometrists are happy with it. Also, the archaeological impact of a few communications in the Archaeometry Symposia is low, either from the hit pursued or because the results are irrelevant for misuse of methods, or inconsistent sampling. Technical details interesting only a small circle are sometimes explained in large sessions. They are not only problems of organization common to any large congress but could be a sign of a scientific community loosing sometimes a clear consciousness of its own object. The organization of the interdisciplinary permanent team in Orsay-Saclay is presented as a search for keeping a good link between laboratory and field work. The choosen example, the study of the Gallo-Roman production and trade of amphorae, is studied in a methodological point of view showing the interest of permanent exchange and control of the historical validity of the results without neglecting the technical needs for building up relevant data

  6. Archaeometry of ceramic materials: an evaluation of the andalusian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordero Ruiz, Tomás

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the impact that the introduction of scientific methods for materials characterisation (conventionally grouped under the label of Archaeometry has had in the methodological configuration of Spanish archaeology over the last two decades. This is achieved through a bibliometric study of publications dealing with characterisation of archaeological ceramics from Andalucía (southern Spain. The variables handled in this study include aspects such as the number of sampled sites and items, their geographical provenance, the chronological and functional dimensions of the archaeological contexts they were taken from as well as the analytical techniques employed in their study.

    Este artículo intenta valorar el impacto que la introducción de métodos de caracterización de materiales procedentes de la física y la química (y agrupados habitualmente bajo la denominación genérica de Arqueometría ha tenido en la configuración metodológica de la investigación arqueológica de nuestro país durante las últimas dos décadas. Para ello se realiza un análisis bibliométrico de un ámbito específico de la aplicación de las técnicas arqueométricas, cual es el de la caracterización de materiales cerámicos dentro de la Arqueología andaluza. Las variables tenidas en cuenta incluyen aspectos tales como la cantidad de sitios arqueológicos muestreados y de muestras analizadas, su procedencia geográfica, los contextos cronológicos y funcionales de los que las muestras fueron tomadas y las técnicas analíticas empleadas.

  7. Incipient archaeometry in Venezuela. Provenance study of pre-Hispanic pottery figurines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of different analytical techniques contributed with new results to the interpretation and the provenance study of Venezuelan figurines dating from the 12th and 15th centuries. Elements in bulk samples, powdered samples of figurines and soil were determined using total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF), instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA). Results and ceramics macroscopic observations indicate that average elemental composition of the figurines from the mainland significantly differ from those encountered on the Caribbean islands. The multidisciplinary experience de facto formed a group dedicated to archaeometry and provided data for provenance study of pre-Hispanic pottery figurines. (author)

  8. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence and archaeometry: Application in the Argentinean cultural heritage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archaeometry is an interdisciplinary research area involved in the development and use of scientific methods in order to answer questions concerned with the human history. In this way the knowledge of archaeological objects through advanced chemical and physical analyses permits a better preservation and conservation of the cultural heritage and also reveals materials and technologies used in the past. In this sense, analytical techniques play an important role in order to provide chemical information about cultural objects. Considering the non destructive characteristic of this study, analytical techniques must be adequate in order to prevent any alteration or damage and in addition to allow the conservation of their integrity. Taking into account the irreplaceable character of the archaeological and artistic materials considered in this study, analytical techniques must be adequate in order to prevent any alteration or damage and in addition to allow the conservation of their integrity. Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry as a geometric variant of conventional X-ray fluorescence is a proved microanalytical technique considering the small amount of sample required for the analysis. A few micrograms are enough in order to reveal valuable information about elemental composition and in this context it is highly recommended for artwork studies. In this paper a case study is presented in which Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry has been successfully employed in the archaeometry field. Examples from Argentinean cultural heritage sites related with the determination of pigments in paintings on canvas and in rock sites as well as in underwater archaeology research are shown

  9. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence and archaeometry: Application in the Argentinean cultural heritage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, Cristina [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (B1650KNA) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Laboratorio de Quimica de Sistemas Heterogeneos, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, P. Colon 850 (C1063ACU), Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: Cristina.Vazquez@cnea.gov.ar; Albornoz, Ana [Agencia Rio Negro Cultura, Museo de la Patagonia F.P.Moreno, Centro Civico s/n Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Hajduk, Adam [CONICET, Museo de la Patagonia F.P.Moreno, Centro Civico s/n Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Elkin, Dolores [CONICET Instituto Nacional de Antropologia y Pensamiento Latinoamericano, 3 de febrero 1378 (C1426AEL) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Custo, Graciela; Obrustky, Alba [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (B1650KNA) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2008-12-15

    Archaeometry is an interdisciplinary research area involved in the development and use of scientific methods in order to answer questions concerned with the human history. In this way the knowledge of archaeological objects through advanced chemical and physical analyses permits a better preservation and conservation of the cultural heritage and also reveals materials and technologies used in the past. In this sense, analytical techniques play an important role in order to provide chemical information about cultural objects. Considering the non destructive characteristic of this study, analytical techniques must be adequate in order to prevent any alteration or damage and in addition to allow the conservation of their integrity. Taking into account the irreplaceable character of the archaeological and artistic materials considered in this study, analytical techniques must be adequate in order to prevent any alteration or damage and in addition to allow the conservation of their integrity. Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry as a geometric variant of conventional X-ray fluorescence is a proved microanalytical technique considering the small amount of sample required for the analysis. A few micrograms are enough in order to reveal valuable information about elemental composition and in this context it is highly recommended for artwork studies. In this paper a case study is presented in which Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry has been successfully employed in the archaeometry field. Examples from Argentinean cultural heritage sites related with the determination of pigments in paintings on canvas and in rock sites as well as in underwater archaeology research are shown.

  10. In situ mobile subaquatic archaeometry evaluated by non-destructive Raman microscopy of gemstones lying under impure waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David C.

    2003-08-01

    A series of laboratory simulations have been made in order to evaluate the credibility of carrying out physico-chemical analysis of cultural heritage items by Raman spectral fingerprinting using a mobile Raman microscope in situ under natural impure water in subaquatic or submarine conditions. Three different kinds of gemstone (zircon, microcline and sodalite) were successively placed under different kinds of impure water into which a low power microscope objective was immersed to eliminate the normal aerial pathway between the objective and the object to be analysed. According to the nature of the impurities (inorganic or organic, dissolved or suspended, transparent or coloured) the results obtained variously gave Raman band intensities stronger than, similar to or weaker than those of spectra obtained without water, i.e. in air. The significant point is that after only minor spectral treatment the less good spectra nevertheless yielded exploitable data with most, if not all, of the key Raman bands being detected. Thus the problems of fluorescence or peak absences under water are of a similar degree of magnitude to the other problems inherent with the Raman spectroscopic technique in aerial conditions, e.g. relative peak intensities varying with crystal orientation; peak positions varying with chemical composition. These results indicate that even if at certain sites of submerged cities or sunken ships, the combination of animal, vegetal, mineral and microbial impurities join together to inhibit or hinder the success of subaquatic or submarine archaeometry, there will certainly be other sites where such activity is indeed credible.

  11. 启以新知,发人新思——《科技考古文集》读后思考%New Knowledge Inspiring New Thinking: Reading An Anthology on Archaeometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何驽

    2011-01-01

    本文从动物考古、环境考古、科技考古三方面,简要介绍了袁靖先生《科技考古文集》有关动物考古的深入研究及对科技考古理论与学科建设的思考,从中可以看到中国科技考古的日新月异,看到科技考古人与考古人通力合作的累累硕果。%From the aspects of zooarchaeology, environmental archaeology, and archaeometry, this paper briefly introduces important researches on zooarchaeology, theory on archaeometry, and ideas about the development of this discipline discussed in Yuan Jing' s An Anthology on Archaeometry. This book enables readers to see the development of archaeometry in China and the fruits produced by collaboration between archaeologists and scientists.

  12. Radiation protection, dosimetry and archaeometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities performed by the radiation protection, dosimetry and archeometry group of the Atomic Institute of the Austrian Universities during 1999-2001 are briefly described, they include: internal radiation protection (a pilot project based on select x-ray diagnostics investigations where the surface dose was measured and compared against the EU standards), dose rates for patients and personnel during radiological check up, environmental monitoring. In the field of dosimetry, a new dosimeter material (CaF2:Tm was investigated), an active and a passive Bonner-Kugel-spectrometer to measure the neutron spectrum and their dose at high altitudes was built. In the project phantom during 600 days the energy distribution and equivalent dose in a human phantom was measured. Dosimetry and spectrometry (neutrons) on high mountains and airplanes were performed. Earlier cells apoptosis after irradiation with 60Co gamma radiation and neutrons was investigated and age estimation was performed on samples from middle Neolithic period, Bronze age an Roman empire. (nevyjel)

  13. Applications of SNMS in archaeometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, H; Müller, K H; Melzer, W; Peine, H W; Thier, B; Weisgerber, A

    1995-10-01

    The recently developed High Frequency Mode HFM of electron gas SNMS allows investigations on insulating samples with the well known advantages of the SNMS Direct Bombardment Mode DBM for the analysis of conducting samples. HFM has been applied to analyses of different historic ceramic and glass samples in order to demonstrate the possibilities of SNMS in this field. It is shown that manufacturing places of ceramic samples could be distinguished by SNMS mass spectra ("fingerprints"). Furthermore questions of the constituents of colour remains on a painted ceramic ("Kaisermedaillon") could be answered by our SNMS analyses. SNMS investigations have been also applied to corrosion phenomena on different glass samples. PMID:15048501

  14. Radiation in archaeometry: archaeological dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystalline inclusions contained in ceramics act as thermoluminescent dosimeters, the irradiation source being the natural radiation environment. Because of this, various ceramic materials (pottery, bricks, cooked clays, bronze clay-cores) have been dated by thermoluminescence (TL). A short review of the main possibilities of TL dating is given, with some examples that enlighten the advantages and limits of this method in the field of archaeological dating, compared to TL dating of buildings. The assessment of the chronology of Valdivia culture (Ecuador), based on a three-year project of TL dating, is presented and discussed. The overall uncertainty at around 4-5% can be considered the best limit presently available. The uncertainty distribution found among 700 archaeological TL datings and for about 500 building TL datings is also presented. (author)

  15. Applications of TOF neutron diffraction in archaeometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron radiation meets the demand for a versatile diagnostic probe for collecting information from the interior of large, undisturbed museum objects or archaeological findings. Neutrons penetrate through coatings and corrosion layers deep into centimetre-thick materials, a property that makes them ideal for non-destructive examination of objects for which sampling is impractical or unacceptable. A particular attraction of neutron techniques for archaeologists and conservation scientists is the prospect of locating hidden materials and structures inside objects. Time-of-flight (TOF) neutron diffraction allows for the examination of mineral and metal phase contents, crystal structures, grain orientations, and microstructures as well as micro- and macro strains. A promising application is texture analysis which may provide clues to the deformation history of the material, and hence to specific working processes. Here we report on instructive examples of TOF neutron diffraction, including phase analyses of medieval Dutch tin-lead spoons, texture analyses of bronze specimens as well as of 16th-century silver coins. (orig.)

  16. Radiation applications in art and archaeometry. X-ray fluorescence applications to archaeometry. Possibility of obtaining non-destructive quantitative analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Mario

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of obtaining quantitative XRF analysis in archaeometric applications is considered in the following cases: Examinations of metallic objects with irregular surface: coins, for instance. Metallic objects with a natural or artificial patina on the surface. Glass or ceramic samples for which the problems for quantitative analysis rise from the non-detectability of matrix low Z elements. The fundamental parameter method for quantitative XRF analysis is based on a numerical procedure involving he relative values of XRF lines intensity. As a consequence it can be applied also to the experimental XRF spectra obtained for metallic objects if the correction for the irregular shape consists only in introducing a constant factor which does not affect the XRF intensity relative value. This is in fact possible in non-very-restrictive conditions for the experimental set up. The finenesses of coins with a superficial patina can be evaluated by resorting to the measurements of Rayleigh to Compton scattering intensity ratio at an incident energy higher than the one of characteristic X-ray. For glasses and ceramics the measurements of the Compton scattered intensity of the exciting radiation and the use of a proper scaling law make possible to evaluate the matrix absorption coefficients for all characteristic X-ray line energies.

  17. Radiation applications in art and archaeometry X-ray fluorescence applications to archaeometry. Possibility of obtaining non-destructive quantitative analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of obtaining quantitative XRF analysis in archaeometric applications is considered in the following cases: - Examinations of metallic objects with irregular surface: coins, for instance. - Metallic objects with a natural or artificial patina on the surface. - Glass or ceramic samples for which the problems for quantitative analysis rise from the non-detectability of matrix low Z elements. The fundamental parameter method for quantitative XRF analysis is based on a numerical procedure involving he relative values of XRF lines intensity. As a consequence it can be applied also to the experimental XRF spectra obtained for metallic objects if the correction for the irregular shape consists only in introducing a constant factor which does not affect the XRF intensity relative value. This is in fact possible in non-very-restrictive conditions for the experimental set up. The finenesses of coins with a superficial patina can be evaluated by resorting to the measurements of Rayleigh to Compton scattering intensity ratio at an incident energy higher than the one of characteristic X-ray. For glasses and ceramics the measurements of the Compton scattered intensity of the exciting radiation and the use of a proper scaling law make possible to evaluate the matrix absorption coefficients for all characteristic X-ray line energies

  18. Archaeometry: the science at the service of the art; Arqueometria: la ciencia al servicio del arte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenorio, M.D.; Mendez G, B. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The modern technology allows unsuspected conjunctions. In this case, that of the physics with the archaeology, in technical as the electronic microscopy that allows us to decipher the enigma of a beautiful pigment of the antiquity: the Mayan blue. (Author)

  19. The archaeometry of ancient glassmaking: reconstructing ancient technology and the trade of raw materials

    OpenAIRE

    Degryse, Patrick; Scott, Rebecca B.; Brems, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    La provenance et le commerce des objets et des matières premières ont toujours revêtu un grand intérêt pour les archéologues. Les artefacts anciens ne sont pas simplement des matériaux à classer, mais constituent une preuve directe de l’évolution des technologies anciennes. Cela permet de répondre à de nombreux questionnements sur l’exploitation minière, les arts, l’artisanat et le commerce, mais aussi de documenter la stratigraphie sociale (par la présence, par exemple, d’objets exotiques) e...

  20. Archaeometry Applications of Cold Neutron Based Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis. Chapter 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) is based on the detection of prompt gamma radiation following the capture of neutrons into the atomic nucleus. Since every atomic nucleus emits characteristic prompt gamma radiation, this method is suitable for multielemental (panorama) analysis. The PGAA method can be regarded as absolutely non-destructive, because of the relatively low intensity of the beam. The main focus of this project was on the research of ancient ceramics. Pottery production was one of the most important crafts of prehistoric communities. As the first aim of this project, pottery findings from Neolithic and later prehistoric sites in Hungary were investigated with PGAA. Compositions of local sediments, as potential raw material sources, were compared with those of pottery. As the second aim of the project, pottery fragments from the multiperiod site at Voers, in south-west Hungary, were analysed, together with clay from the surrounding areas. In a firing experiment, an attempt to reproduce the ancient production techniques was made. As a third aim of the project, PGAA was tested from a methodological point of view. The reliability of the method has been occasionally checked through parallel measurements of archaeological samples with instrumental neutron activation analysis and X ray fluorescence analysis as well. The authors took part in a proficiency test, organized by the IAEA, on a porcelain material. (author)

  1. Archaeometry Applications of Cold Neutron Based Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA) is based on the detection of prompt gamma radiation following the capture of the neutrons into the atomic nucleus. Since every atomic nucleus emits characteristic prompt gamma radiation, this method is suitable for multielemental (panorama) analysis. The PGAA method can be regarded absolutely non-destructive, because of the relatively low intensity of the beam. In this project, we mainly focus on the research of ancient ceramics. Pottery production is one of the most important crafts of prehistoric communities. In the first task, pottery findings from Neolithic later prehistoric sites in Hungary were investigated with PGAA. Compositions of local sediments, as potential raw material sources were compared with those of pottery. In the second task, pottery fragments from the multiperiodical site of Voers, SW-Hungary were analyzed together with clay from the surrounding areas. In a firing experiment, an attempt to reproduce the ancient production techniques was done. As a third task of the project, PGAA was tested from methodological point of view. The reliability of the method has been occasionally checked through parallel measurements of archaeological samples with INAA and XRF as well. We took part in a proficiency test on a porcelane material, organized by IAEA. (author)

  2. Scientific methods and cultural heritage an introduction to the application of materials science to archaeometry and conservation science

    CERN Document Server

    Artioli, Gilberto

    2010-01-01

    Artioli provides an introduction to the methods and rationales of the scientific investigation of cultural heritage materials, with an emphasis placed on the analytical strategies, modes of operation and resulting information rather than on technicalities.

  3. On-line database of voltammetric data of immobilized particles for identifying pigments and minerals in archaeometry, conservation and restoration (ELCHER database).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doménech-Carbó, Antonio; Doménech-Carbó, María Teresa; Valle-Algarra, Francisco Manuel; Gimeno-Adelantado, José Vicente; Osete-Cortina, Laura; Bosch-Reig, Francisco

    2016-07-13

    A web-based database of voltammograms is presented for characterizing artists' pigments and corrosion products of ceramic, stone and metal objects by means of the voltammetry of immobilized particles methodology. Description of the website and the database is provided. Voltammograms are, in most cases, accompanied by scanning electron microphotographs, X-ray spectra, infrared spectra acquired in attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy mode (ATR-FTIR) and diffuse reflectance spectra in the UV-Vis-region. For illustrating the usefulness of the database two case studies involving identification of pigments and a case study describing deterioration of an archaeological metallic object are presented. PMID:27237832

  4. Fourth Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis: AINSE, Lucas Heights, N.S.W. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conference sessions covered the areas of materials science, semiconductors, ceramics and metals, archaeometry, industrial applications, environmental applications, bioscience, instrumentation, surfaces and geoscience

  5. Fifth Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis : proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference was divided into sessions on the following topics : environmental applications, archaeometry, instrumentation, materials science, industrial applications, surfaces, bioscience applications, geoscience and mining applications

  6. Outstanding Achievements in Archaeometric Studies at CAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Changsui; HU Yaowu

    2010-01-01

    @@ Introduction Integration of disciplines is a predictable path of scientific development.Among the interdisciplinary operations,archaeometry is unique.On the one hand,it is a product of the integration of archaeology and natural science.

  7. Early Medieval silver pearl from Lumbe's garden cemetery at Prague Castle: Composition, manufacture, deterioration, and conservation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Děd, J.; Ottenwelter, Estelle; Šejvlová, Ludmila

    -, - (2016). ISSN 0039-3630 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP405/12/2195 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : medieval jewellery * Lumbe's Garden * archaeometry Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 0.506, year: 2014

  8. Proceedings of the 8. Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings contain the abstracts or extended abstracts of 72 out of 77 presentations. The topics focus on instrumentation, nuclear techniques and their applications for material science, surfaces, archaeometry, art, geological, environmental and biomedical studies. An outline of the Australian facilities available for research purposes is also provided. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual papers in this volume

  9. Different use of magnetometric field methods in Czech archaeology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivánek, Roman

    Leuven : KU Leuven, 2014 - (Scott, R.; Braekmans, D.; Carremans, M.; Degryse, P.), s. 302-305 ISBN 978-94-6165-120-4. [International symposium on archaeometry /39./. Leuven (BE), 28.05.2012-01.06.2012] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : magnetometry * non-destructive archaeology * geophysical survey Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  10. Different use of magnetometric methods in Czech archaeology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivánek, Roman

    Leuven : Centre of archaeological sciences, 2012 - (Braekmans, D.; Honings, J.; Degryse, P.). s. 438 ISBN 978-94-6165-043-6. [International symposium on archaeometry /39./. 28.05.2012-01.06.2012, Leuven] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : geophysical survey * archaeological prospection * magnetometric method Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  11. Sixth Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings contain the abstracts of 77 lectures. The topics focus on instrumentation, nuclear techniques and their applications for material science, surfaces, archaeometry, art, geological, environmental and biomedical studies. An outline of the Australian facilities available for research purposes is also provided. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual papers in this volume

  12. Technical study of jewellery from the "Lumbe Garden" cemetery at Prague Castle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ottenwelter, Estelle; Děd, J.; Barčáková, Ludmila

    Vol. 2. Praha : Archeologický ústav AV ČR, Praha, 2014 - (Frolík, J.), s. 163-287 ISBN 978-80-87365-80-9. - (Castrum Pragense. 12) R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP405/12/2195 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : medieval jewellery * Prague Castle * archaeometry Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  13. Meč z hrobu 120 ze Staré Kouřimi - doklad raně středověké zbraně vyrobené z kelímkové oceli?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Košta, J.; Hošek, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 1 (2012), s. 157-175. ISSN 0323-1267 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP405/12/2289 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : sword * Stará Kouřim * archaeometry * Middle Ages Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  14. Max-Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics. Annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research in the fields of nuclear physics and particle physics focusses on experimental investigations into the structure of hadrons, hadron interactions, and the relation between the hadronic properties and nuclearphysics phenomena. The experimental and theoretical cosmophysics studies investigate solar neutrinos, cosmic radiation, the interstellar and extragalactic media, C60, the atmosphere of the planetary system, extraterrestric solid matter, and archaeometry. (DG)

  15. Evidence of the Earliest Salt Production Found in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Being critical in the development of the human civilization, the ancient salt-making has been an important research issue for both historians and archaeologists. Since salt dissolves in water, it is difficult to tell whether the salt in archaeological samples was caused by human production of salt or underground water. So how to judge the existence of salt production has been a world-wide problem in archaeology and archaeometry.

  16. Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics. Annual report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report contains short notes and abstracts about the work performed at the named institute together with a list of publications and talks. The work concerns technical developments of accelerators and ion sources, experimental and theoretical studies on nuclear structure and reactions, high-energy physics, studies on meteorites and lunar rocks, comets, interplanetary and interstellar dust, interstellar dynamics, nuclear geology, and archaeometry. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

  17. 2000 Surtepe Hoyuk salvage excavation report

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Charvát, Petr; Fuensanta, J. G.; Bucak, E.

    Ankara : Kultur Bakanligi Milli Kutuphane Basimevi (Ministerstvo kultury Turecké republiky), 2002, s. 197-204. ISBN 975-17-2818-5. ISSN 1017-7655. [International Symposium of Excavations, Surveys and Archaeometry /23./. Ankara (TR), 28.05.2001-01.06.2001] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z9021901 Keywords : Archaeology * Ancient History * Near East Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  18. Nuclear Physics Group progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises the work of the Nuclear Physics Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences during the period January-December 1983. Commissioning of the EN-tandem electrostatic accelerator continued, with the first proton beam produced in June. Many improvements were made to the vacuum pumping and control systems. Applications of the nuclear microprobe on the 3MV accelerator continued at a good pace, with applications in archaeometry, dental research, studies of glass and metallurgy

  19. Metalograficko-restaurátorský průzkum železných předmětů ze žalovských pohřebišť

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hošek, Jiří; Ottenwelter, Estelle

    Vol. 1. Praha: Archeologický ústav AV ČR, 2012 - (Tomková, K.), s. 282-289 ISBN 978-80-87365-48-9 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA404/09/1135; GA ČR GA404/05/0232 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : Žalov * knives * spurs * archaeometry Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF HELLENISTIC PERIOD MEGARIAN BOWLS FROM DORYLAION

    OpenAIRE

    HAKAN SİVAS; TACİSER SİVAS; FİSUN OKYAR; ALPAGUT KARA; ALI İSSİ

    2011-01-01

    The excavation works being carried out since 1989 at Dorylaion (Eskişehir/Turkey) results in many findings belonging to different civilizations spanning from the First Bronze age to Ottoman period. One of the important groups of these findings is the moldmade bowls, familiarly known as the Megarian bowls from the Hellenistic period (330-30 B.C.). In a frame of an archaeometry project work, these artifacts were characterized with different analytical techniques. Wavelength dispersive X-ray flu...

  1. Recent developments in atomic/nuclear methodologies used for the study of cultural heritage objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appoloni, Carlos Roberto

    2013-05-01

    Archaeometry is an area established in the international community since the 60s, with extensive use of atomic-nuclear methods in the characterization of art, archaeological and cultural heritage objects in general. In Brazil, however, until the early '90s, employing methods of physics, only the area of archaeological dating was implemented. It was only after this period that Brazilian groups became involved in the characterization of archaeological and art objects with these methodologies. The Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics, State University of Londrina (LFNA/UEL) introduced, pioneered in 1994, Archaeometry and related issues among its priority lines of research, after a member of LFNA has been involved in 1992 with the possibilities of tomography in archaeometry, as well as the analysis of ancient bronzes by EDXRF. Since then, LFNA has been working with PXRF and Portable Raman in several museums in Brazil, in field studies of cave paintings and in the laboratory with material sent by archaeologists, as well as carrying out collaborative work with new groups that followed in this area. From 2003/2004 LAMFI/DFN/IFUSP and LIN/COPPE/UFRJ began to engage in the area, respectively with methodologies using ion beams and PXRF, then over time incorporating other techniques, followed later by other groups. Due to the growing number of laboratories and institutions/archaeologists/conservators interested in these applications, in may 2012 was created a network of available laboratories, based at http://www.dfn.if.usp.br/lapac. It will be presented a panel of recent developments and applications of these methodologies by national groups, as well as a sampling of what has been done by leading groups abroad.

  2. Nuclear Physics Group progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises the work of the Nuclear Physics Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences during the period January-December 1984. Commissioning of the EN-tandem accelerator was completed. The first applications included the production of 13N from a water target and the measurement of hydrogen depth profiles with a 19F beam. Further equipment was built for tandem accelerator mass spectrometry but the full facility will not be ready until 1985. The nuclear microprobe on the 3 MV accelerator was used for many studies in archaeometry, metallurgy, biology and materials analysis

  3. Thermoluminescence dating in the South-West Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The archaeometry laboratory of the University of Adelaide has undertaken a variety of dating projects for archaeologists in the region. For example, a survey of Pacific Island pottery has shown that themoluminescence dating is likely to be severely limited in usefulness on islands remote from the continental shelf i.e., the andesitic island arcs and oceanic islands. On the mainland of Australia, we have dated prehistoric campsites using ovenstones from fireplaces and have compared C-14 ages with themoluminescent ages. Where there is a close stratigraphic association of the C-14 and TL materials, there is good agreement between the two methods. (author)

  4. A recent application of thermoluminescence (TL) dating: the glass mosaic tesserae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archaeometry of ancient glass is a field of growing importance, also because absolute dating methods are not available for this material. So far, the presently assessed dating techniques apply only to a particular class of glasses. In the frame of a research project on chemical and physical characterisation of ancient glass, a thermoluminescence (TL) dating feasibility study of a particular class of glasses, the vitreous mosaic tesserae, has been carried out. Preliminary dating results are presented, together with a few considerations about the dependence of the TL sensitivity of such materials on the concentration of the main chromophorous and opacifiers ions. (author)

  5. X-ray fluorescence analysis and optical emission spectrometry of an roman mirror from Tomis, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The miscellaneous population of Roman Empire, their diverse cultural tradition, their ability to assimilate the roman civilization spirits, had determined a permanent reassessment superimposed upon the roman contribution. Analysis was undertaken using optical emission spectrometry and non-destructive X-ray fluorescence. X-ray fluorescence analysis is a well-established method and is often used in archaeometry and other work dealing with valuable objects pertaining to the history of art and civilization. Roman mirror analysed has been found not to be made of speculum (a high tin bronze). (authors)

  6. Activities on archaeology, art and cultural heritage conservation at the Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory (LFNA), State University of Londrina (UEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics from the State University of Londrina (LFNA/UEL) introduced Archaeometry and related issues pioneeringly among its main research lines in 1994. The current work aims at presenting an overview of the evolution of such activities and the development of human resources up to the present time. The activities related to Archaeology, Art and Cultural Heritage Conservation at the LFNA can be divided into five levels, as follows. (1) Study and implementation of experimental methodologies. (2) Related Basic Research - Physics issues involved in archaeometric applications have led to the need to conduct interesting specific basic research. (3) Works with specific materials - Among the several analysis conducted, the following should be mentioned: ceramics from the archaeological site Tupi Guarani Fazenda Sta. Dalmacia, PR; two archaeological sites in the Amazon Forest; objects from the MAE/USP collection; wall paintings in Imaculada Conceicao Church, SP; coins and other objects from the MHN/RJ; obsidians from Ecuador; etc. (4) Development of Human Resources. In this item there are two components: tutoring of scientific initiation students, Master's and Doctorate in atomic-nuclear methodologies applied to Archaeometry and a course of non-destructive nuclear techniques for the characterization of archaeological and art materials aimed at archaeologists and conservators, given since 1997. (5) Scientific collaborations - the construction of a common language between physicists and archeologists, conservators and other professionals involved in this area is an endeavor of mutual continuous learning and necessary conditions for the success of the projects. (author)

  7. X-ray fluorescence in investigations of cultural relics and archaeological finds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musilek, Ladislav, E-mail: musilek@fjfi.cvut.cz [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Brehova 7, 115 19 Praha 1 (Czech Republic); Cechak, Tomas; Trojek, Tomas [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Brehova 7, 115 19 Praha 1 (Czech Republic)

    2012-07-15

    Some characteristic features of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis make it an ideal method for investigations of cultural relics and archaeological finds. It has therefore become a standard method used in archaeometry. Paintings, frescos, manuscripts, pottery, metalwork, glass, and many other objects are analysed with the aim of recognising their materials, production technologies and origin, and for identifying counterfeits. This paper reviews various techniques used in XRF analyses of works of art, summarises the advantages and limitations of the method, and presents some typical examples of its use. The general review is supplemented by some techniques used and some results achieved at CTU-FNSPE in Prague. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Review of XRF analysis in archaeometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Instrumentation for XRF analysis with various sources of radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Materials and artefacts, which can be measured and information, which can be obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XRF analysis of artworks at the CTU Prague.

  8. Development of a new in-air micro-PIXE set-up with in-vacuum charge measurements in Atomki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Zs.; Huszánk, R.; Csedreki, L.; Dani, J.; Szoboszlai, Z.; Kertész, Zs.

    2015-11-01

    A new external microbeam set-up has recently been installed as the extension of the existing microprobe system at the Laboratory of Ion Beam Applications of Atomki, Debrecen, Hungary. The external beam set-up, based on the system of Oxford Microbeams (OM), is equipped with two X-ray detectors for PIXE analysis, a digital microscope, two alignment lasers and a precision XYZ stage for easy and reproducible positioning of the sample. Exit windows with different thicknesses and of different materials can be used according to the actual demands, currently silicon-nitride (Si3N4) film with 200 nm thickness is employed in our laboratory. The first application was demonstrated in the field of archaeometry, on Bronze Age hoards from Hungary.

  9. Characterization of the Teotihuacan mural painting: application of the external particle beam as non destructive technique; Caracterizacion de la pintura mural Teotihuacana: aplicacion de haz de particulas externo como tecnica no destructiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, C.; Manzanilla, L. [Instituto de Investigaciones Antropologicas, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ruvalcaba, J.L. [IFUNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ontalba, M.A. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Sevilla (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    The characterization of technical indicators contained in the painting mural should follow a minim methodology from their discovery in the archaeological excavations until their analysis in the laboratory, with the purpose of rescuing diagnostic elements that mark the stages of socio cultural development in the towns. With this spirit it was carried out the present study analyzing some fragments of the Teotihuacan mural painting. The analysis consisted on applying some of the analytical techniques with particle beams used for archaeometry like the Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and the particle elastic backscattering (RBS), due to it is treated of complementary techniques, very sensitive, of multielemental character, but mainly because its are non destructive analytical techniques. (Author)

  10. X-ray fluorescence in IAEA Member States: Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Research and development activities include: - development of quantification software for radioisotope and tube excited X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, based on use of fundamental parameters and emission-transmission method; - development of sensitive XRF technique for aerosol analysis, utilising excitation at small incident angles; - development of fast semi-quantitative analysis of samples in powder form by TXRF; - designing and manufacturing of portable XRF systems with radioisotope and tube excitation for use in archaeometry and for the analysis of pigments on paintings. Applications: - analysis of geological samples (geochemistry applications); - determination of P, S, Cl, K, Ca and some heavy metals in animal food (hay, grass silage and maize silage); - routine aerosol analysis in urban areas close to industrial facilities; - analysis of pigments from old paintings and other artefacts by TXRF; - analysis of vines and bee honey for the contents of S and some heavy metals by TXRF; - analysis of thin layers (Ti, Cr, Ni, and Zn ) used for anticorrosion protection. (author)

  11. External microbeam set-up at the CNA (Sevilla) and its application to the study of Tartesic jewellery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new external microbeam system has been installed recently at the +45 deg. beam line of the 3 MV Pelletron accelerator at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (Sevilla, Spain). The facility, based on the system from Oxford Microbeams (OM), includes two sets of slits, a doublet of magnetic quadrupole focusing lenses, a Faraday cup and an accurate positioning device. In addition, a beam profile monitor (BPM) and a quartz viewer have been installed in the line to facilitate the microbeam production. The first PIXE application of the new facility was made in the field of Archaeometry, on the study of Tartesic gold artefacts (700-500 BC, SW of Spain) from Ebora and other archaeological sites. The aim of the analysis was to perform an exhaustive and systematic study about the soldering procedures that were employed by the goldsmiths along the Valley of Guadalquivir River after the Phoenician colonisation

  12. 36. Colloquium Spectroscopicum Internationale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CSI36 conference will be held at the ELTE Convention Centre. In accordance with traditions, the programme consisted of invited plenary and keynote lectures, as well as oral and poster sessions. The scope of the conference, which encompasses the following fields of spectroscopy: Atomic plasma spectrometry (ICP, GD, AAS, etc.); Molecular spectrometry (UV-Vis, NMR, Raman, IR, etc.); Organic and inorganic mass spectrometry (TIMS, MALDI, LC-MS, GC-MS); X-ray spectrometry (XRF, XRD, XANES, PIXE, etc.); Hyphenated techniques; Laser spectroscopy; Imaging techniques; Nuclear techniques (Moessbauer spectroscopy, gamma spectroscopy, NAA); Quality control and chemometry. Contributions describing applications of the above spectroscopy techniques are also highly encouraged, such as in the area of: Material sciences (micro, surface and interface analysis); Environmental and geochemical analysis; Archaeometry and cultural heritage; Biological applications; Food analysis; Clinical and pharmaceutical analysis; Speciation; Mass spectrometry in post-genomics and proteomics; Miniaturisation and nano-technology. (S.I.)

  13. Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis of latin-american pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (EDXRF) induced by low power X- Ray tubes provides relatively inexpensive, fast and quantitative method of analysis with good reproducibility and sensitivity, in the field of archaeometry in general and for the analysis of ceramics in particular. Ancient Latin-American potteries have been analyzed: tupiguarani Brazilian pottery from the Fazenda Sta Dalmacia, Cambe', city; Mayan pottery from the Yucatan, Mexico, tainos cuban pottery, from Baracoa region. Minor and trace elements have been identified, that can be classified into three groups, following their atomic number and the EDXRF excitation energy: elements with low atomic number, such as K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn; elements with medium atomic number such as Rb, Sr, Y, and Zr; and Ba

  14. Mineralogy and cultural heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artioli, Gilberto

    2010-01-01

    In recent years there has been an escalation in the number of mineralogical studies involving cultural heritage materials. A number of factors have contributed to this exponential growth, including the shrinking budgets in traditional research fields, which forced the expansion of applications of mineralogical methods to novel research areas. Mineralogy as a discipline is traditionally connected to geology, petrology, and geochemistry, although it also has the strong tendency to embody the methods and techniques of modern crystallography and advanced materials science. Arguably, this makes it ideally suited and well equipped to meet the demanding challenges posed by archaeometric analysis and conservation problems. A few case studies linking mineralogy and archaeometry are discussed. PMID:21138159

  15. Characterization of the Teotihuacan mural painting: application of the external particle beam as non destructive technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characterization of technical indicators contained in the painting mural should follow a minim methodology from their discovery in the archaeological excavations until their analysis in the laboratory, with the purpose of rescuing diagnostic elements that mark the stages of socio cultural development in the towns. With this spirit it was carried out the present study analyzing some fragments of the Teotihuacan mural painting. The analysis consisted on applying some of the analytical techniques with particle beams used for archaeometry like the Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and the particle elastic backscattering (RBS), due to it is treated of complementary techniques, very sensitive, of multielemental character, but mainly because its are non destructive analytical techniques. (Author)

  16. Thermoluminescence dating of terrazzo from the monastery church of Tegernsee (Bavaria, Germany) using the 210 degrees C TL peak of quartz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göksu, H Y; Schwenk, P

    2000-12-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) is one of the most important physical methods used in archaeometry for dating ceramics. In this study the newly developed procedures based on the use of the 210 degrees C TL peak of quartz were applied to well-dated bricks of the church of the Tegernsee monastery in Bavaria. The resulting TL ages obtained from these well-dated bricks were used as a reference for selection of the suitable measurement procedure and to test the precision of the measurements and the accuracy of the technique. The optimized procedure was applied to the terrazzo fragments from the monastery church. The TL results provide a new understanding of the architectural history of the church. The improved measurement procedure including various dose evaluation techniques and the components of the annual dose assessment are described. PMID:11200974

  17. Thermoluminescence and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain the papers presented at the seminar. They give a broad outline of the current developments in India in the field of thermoluminescence (TL), also known as thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL). Although physical understanding of TL is still phenomenological, it is used on a large scale in the fields of radiation dosimetry and archaeometry. In India there are strong centres of research in TL phenomena at Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur; Maharaja Sayajirao University, Baroda; Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Bombay; Physical Research Laboratory (PRL), Ahmedabad. A broad-based research programme for developing thermoluminescent dosimetry system is continuing at BARC and an up to date facility of dating of archaeological earthen objects has been established at PRL. The papers cover a broad spectrum of different aspects of TL and allied phenomena and are arranged in two parts entitled : (1) Thermoluminescence and Luminescence Phenomena, and (2) Electroluminescence (M.G.B.)

  18. Archaeometric study of fictile tubes from three churches in Milan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, A.; Bonizzoni, L.; Martini, M.; Sibilia, E.

    2008-07-01

    Fictile tubes (or vaulting tubes) are architectural elements that sustain and underline the shapes of cupolas and vaults. Several of these, sampled in three churches of Milan (S. Ambrogio, S. Lorenzo and Duomo) have been recently dated at the Archaeometry Laboratory of Milano Bicocca University. These architectural elements, differently shaped, styled and sampled from different structures, were all produced, according to thermoluminescence (TL), in the period 970 1080 AD. Energy dispersive X-rays fluorescence (EDXRF) measurements were performed to obtain the elemental composition of the clays and to attempt a classification of the samples. Multivariate PCA (principal components analysis) analyses and HCA (hierarchical clusters analysis) did not show any grouping of similarity. On the basis of the results, a tentative historical interpretation could be proposed.

  19. Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics. Annual report 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report contains short descriptions of the research performed at the given institute together with an extensive list of publications. The research in nuclear physics is concerned with developments in accelerators and ion sources, radiation detectors, solid-state studies by nuclear methods, counting circuits, data processing, target preparation, fission, fusion, and nuclear friction, giant resonances, nuclear spectroscopy, nuclear reaction mechanisms, atomic physics and interaction of charged particles with matter, medium and high energy physics. The research in cosmophysics works on meteorites and lunar rocks, the gallium-solar-neutrino experiment (project GALLEX), problems of Halley's comet, interplanetary and interstellar dust, planetary atmospheres, interstellar medium and cosmic rays, molecular collision processes in the gas phase, nuclear geology and geochemistry, and archaeometry. (GG)

  20. Combined PIXE/PIGE and IBIL with external beam applied to the analysis of Merovingian glass beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New improvements on our archaeometry line at the cyclotron of the Institute of Nuclear and Atomic Physics and of Spectrometry of the University of Liege have allowed the use of PIXE/PIGE and IBIL in-air for the analysis of cultural heritage objects. The extraction is performed through a 100 nm thick Si3N4 window. The detection set-up consists now of two X-ray and one γ-ray detectors, together with a fiber optic UV-visible spectrometer. This set-up has already been tested for the analysis of modern corundum and is now adapted to the analysis of archaeological artefacts. In this work, we have used it to analyse 216 out of the 5000 Merovingian glass beads that come from the necropolis of Bossut-Gottechain (Belgium), one of the most important ever found in Belgium. The IBA analyses confirmed the typological division of different beads groups through chemical composition that gives us new insights on fabrication techniques of glass matrices and colorants.

  1. Pigments identification in Havana Colonial wall painting by portable XRF System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Havana City historical center is being recuperated in the las years. Numerous are the colonial houses with values typical wall painting as internal decoration that need to be investigated and restored. The pigment identification is essential to have knowledge about pictorial technique and to help and monitor the restoration process. The identification of inorganic pigments in the Havana colonial wall painting has been not almost studied. The opportunity to have a new Portable XRF system in the Archaeometry laboratory of the Conservation and Restoration Gabinet of Havana Historitian Office allows to investigate the wall painting, samples that because of its more of this nature it would be impossible to move to the laboratory for non destructive analysis. The most of the pigment are made of inorganic elements and they can be identified property by XRF technique. All complete archaeometric investigation has to use several technique and to work in a multidisciplinary research team to give a fundamental answer about the past, The suitable techniques selection to employ depends of the art Historitian and archaeologist's questions. The pictorial technique are traditionally investigated using stratigraphical information obtained by Optical Microscopy and organic compound determination by Gas Chromatography. The global analysis of the results from the different employed techniques and the discussion from the restaurateur point of view is presented

  2. Study of Pictorial technique in a colonial wall painting from El Padre coffee plantation using XRF and complementary technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation is based on the study of the pictorial technique employed in a wall painting from El Padre coffee plantation situation in Madruga, Havana, and built at beginning of XIX century. The knowledge about pictorical techniques that was used in a painting is a typical research in Archaeometry, because it is so important the art historical information as scientific results to conclude about the real materials and procedures that were used in the past by the artists . The prediction of a wall painting pictorical technique is carrying out trough the knowledge of pigments, mortars layers and binding substance composition. The non destructive inorganic microanalysis of mortars layers and pigments was determined by a portable XRF system, which is very useful because of the most of pigments are of inorganic nature. A pinpoint samples microanalysis of each color from the painting were done by complementary and traditional technique in stratigraphic studies such as: optical microscopy, micro- chemical drop test, Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-Ray attachment (SEM-EDX), gas chromatography and Fourier Transformed Infra Red Spectroscopy (FTIR). The overlapping of layers was obtained by optical microscopy, The mortars composition was investigated by micro-chemical drop test and SEM/EDX and further confirmed by FTIR. The presence of binding substances in colors layers was identified by specific staining test and Gas Chromatography

  3. Some results about the dating of pre hispanic mexican ceramics by the thermoluminescence method; Algunos resultados sobre el fechamiento de ceramica prehispanica mexicana por el metodo de termoluminiscencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez M, P.; Mendoza A, D. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ramirez L, A.; Schaaf, P. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    One of the most frequently recurring questions in Archaeometry concerns the age of the studied objects. The some first dating methods were based in historical narrations, style of buildings manufacture techniques. However, has been observed that as consequence the continuous irradiation from naturally occurring radioisotopes and from cosmic rays some materials, such as archaeological ceramic, accumulate certain quantity of energy. These types of material can, in principle, be dated through the analysis of these accumulate energy. In that case, ceramic dating can be realized by thermoluminescence (TL) dating. In this work, results obtained by our research group about TL dating of ceramic belonging to several archaeological zones like to Edzna (Campeche), Calixtlahuaca and Teotenango (Mexico State) and Hervideros (Durango) are presented. The analysis was realized using the fine grained mode in a Daybreak model 1100 reader TL system. The radioisotopes that contribute in the accumulate annual dose in ceramic samples ({sup 40} K, {sup 238} U, {sup 232} Th) were determined by means of techniques such as Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and Neutron Activation Analysis (AAN). Our results are agree with results obtained through other methods. (Author) 7 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  4. Radiative neutron capture as a counting technique at pulsed spallation neutron sources: a review of current progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooneveld, E M; Pietropaolo, A; Andreani, C; Perelli Cippo, E; Rhodes, N J; Senesi, R; Tardocchi, M; Gorini, G

    2016-09-01

    Neutron scattering techniques are attracting an increasing interest from scientists in various research fields, ranging from physics and chemistry to biology and archaeometry. The success of these neutron scattering applications is stimulated by the development of higher performance instrumentation. The development of new techniques and concepts, including radiative capture based neutron detection, is therefore a key issue to be addressed. Radiative capture based neutron detectors utilize the emission of prompt gamma rays after neutron absorption in a suitable isotope and the detection of those gammas by a photon counter. They can be used as simple counters in the thermal region and (simultaneously) as energy selector and counters for neutrons in the eV energy region. Several years of extensive development have made eV neutron spectrometers operating in the so-called resonance detector spectrometer (RDS) configuration outperform their conventional counterparts. In fact, the VESUVIO spectrometer, a flagship instrument at ISIS serving a continuous user programme for eV inelastic neutron spectroscopy measurements, is operating in the RDS configuration since 2007. In this review, we discuss the physical mechanism underlying the RDS configuration and the development of associated instrumentation. A few successful neutron scattering experiments that utilize the radiative capture counting techniques will be presented together with the potential of this technique for thermal neutron diffraction measurements. We also outline possible improvements and future perspectives for radiative capture based neutron detectors in neutron scattering application at pulsed neutron sources. PMID:27502571

  5. The new external microbeam facility at the 5 MV Tandetron accelerator laboratory in Madrid: beam characterisation and first results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enguita, Olga E-mail: olga.enguita@uam.es; Fernandez-Jimenez, M.T.; Garcia, G.; Climent-Font, A.; Calderon, T.; Grime, G.W

    2004-06-01

    This paper describes the new external microbeam on the 15 deg. beamline of the 5 MV Tandetron accelerator recently installed at the CMAM in Madrid. The focusing and beam extraction system was supplied by Oxford Microbeams Ltd. and consists of a high precision quadrupole doublet with an interchangeable Kapton window exit nozzle and front-viewing video microscope. The sample is positioned in the beam using a stepper motor stage. The beam current and beam profile have been determined under different experimental conditions. A simple method based on the signal processing of ion-induced luminescence from quartz targets has been used to determine the beam profile in two dimensions simultaneously, without scanning. This is the first step in the development of a real time beam profile monitoring system, which could be used as part of an automated beam focusing procedure. The beam line will be primarily devoted to archaeometry and cultural heritage studies. As an example we report the characterisation of two Tang appearance antique porcelains.

  6. Portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer for Works of art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray fluorescence is an analytical technique of prier importance in archaeometry, for restoration and art history investigation; it is because of non-destructive and multi-elemental character of the analysis simplicity and high speed of operation, ability to produce immediate analytical results for the objects, which can neither be sampled nor removed to the laboratory Recent advances in X-ray tubes, X-ray detectors and electronic provided an opportunity to produce portable high resolution XRF spectrometers characterized by a good reliability and analytical performance; in this paper a prototype portable XRF spectrometer based on a small size, low power X-ray tube and a thermometrically cooled Si-Pin detector is described. The spectrometer provides a possibility for direct and secondary target excitation geometry use of proper secondary target and filter and size adjustment of the primary photon bean by using a set of different beam collimators; the portable XRF spectrometer was successfully applied to study art objects in the Art History Museum in Vienna, including such objects as old master paintings bronze and brass alloys of antique as well as Renaissance objects and silver/copper coins produced at different locations. Quantitative and Quantitative analysis were amedee depending of the curator questions and discussed from the point of view of art History. The importance of the results for restoration and authentification of the art objects is also emphasized

  7. The new external microbeam facility at the 5 MV Tandetron accelerator laboratory in Madrid: beam characterisation and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the new external microbeam on the 15 deg. beamline of the 5 MV Tandetron accelerator recently installed at the CMAM in Madrid. The focusing and beam extraction system was supplied by Oxford Microbeams Ltd. and consists of a high precision quadrupole doublet with an interchangeable Kapton window exit nozzle and front-viewing video microscope. The sample is positioned in the beam using a stepper motor stage. The beam current and beam profile have been determined under different experimental conditions. A simple method based on the signal processing of ion-induced luminescence from quartz targets has been used to determine the beam profile in two dimensions simultaneously, without scanning. This is the first step in the development of a real time beam profile monitoring system, which could be used as part of an automated beam focusing procedure. The beam line will be primarily devoted to archaeometry and cultural heritage studies. As an example we report the characterisation of two Tang appearance antique porcelains

  8. The archaeometric study of ceramic materials in JCR journals and conference proceedings during the last decade (2000-2010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceramic is the oldest synthetic material created by the mankind and has been present in human societies from around ten thousand years ago. During the last few decades, within the research field of Archaeometry, the study of archaeological and historical ceramic materials has experienced a significant increase in the application of chemical-physical techniques to obtain information on technology and production of these materials in the past. This paper presents the results obtained in a bibliometric study undertaken on 589 articles published on this subject in JCR journals and conference proceedings during the last decade (2000-2010). The main purpose of this research was to address the recent evolution and trends of this kind of investigations. The parameters analyzed were: date of publication, type of journal, topic, cultural-chronological classification of materials studied, origin country of authors, and analytical techniques used. Resulting data indicated a continual, stable, and growing publication rate on the subject in journals and conference proceedings of the three JCR indexes, namely SCI, AHCI, and SSCI, which evidences a high level of interdisciplinary. Authors from Europe and the United States carried out the majority of contributions. (Author) 30 refs.

  9. Uses of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most important fields of stable isotope use with examples are presented. In isotope dilution analysis the stable isotopes are used in trace analysis, measurements of volumes and masses. In the field of stable isotope use as tracers the following applications are encountered: transport phenomena, environmental studies, agricultural research, authentication of products and objects, archaeometry, studies of reaction mechanisms, structure and function determination of complex biological entities, studies of metabolism, breath test for diagnostic. In the domain of isotope equilibrium effects applications in the study of mechanism of drug action, study of natural processes, investigation of equilibrium conditions and water cycle as well as in temperature measurements are encountered. Stable isotopes are also used in advanced nuclear reactors, particularly, the uranium nitride with 15 N as nuclear fuel and 157 Gd for reactor control. In spite of some difficulties of stable isotope use, especially related to analytical techniques, which are slow and expensive, the number of papers reporting this subject is steadily growing as well the number of scientific meetings organized by International Isotope Society and IAEA, Gordon Conferences, and regional meetings in Germany, France, etc. Stable isotope application development on large scale is ensured by improving their production technologies, as well as by development of new labelled compounds and of analytical techniques. (author)

  10. Combined PIXE/PIGE and IBIL with external beam applied to the analysis of Merovingian glass beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, F.; Othmane, G.; Vrielynck, O.; Calvo del Castillo, H.; Chêne, G.; Dupuis, T.; Strivay, D.

    2010-06-01

    New improvements on our archaeometry line at the cyclotron of the Institute of Nuclear and Atomic Physics and of Spectrometry of the University of Liège have allowed the use of PIXE/PIGE and IBIL in-air for the analysis of cultural heritage objects. The extraction is performed through a 100 nm thick Si 3N 4 window. The detection set-up consists now of two X-ray and one γ-ray detectors, together with a fiber optic UV-visible spectrometer. This set-up has already been tested for the analysis of modern corundum [1] and is now adapted to the analysis of archaeological artefacts. In this work, we have used it to analyse 216 out of the 5000 Merovingian glass beads that come from the necropolis of Bossut-Gottechain (Belgium), one of the most important ever found in Belgium. The IBA analyses confirmed the typological division of different beads groups through chemical composition that gives us new insights on fabrication techniques of glass matrices and colorants.

  11. Characterization of historic lime mortars by neutron scattering and mercury porosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Lime mortars were commonly used in building from ancient Greek times through to the beginning of the nineteenth century [1]. In the past few years, the increased interest in conservation and restoration of historic monuments requires a better knowledge of the structure and composition of lime mortars resulting from the various additives, as well as the preparation technique each time used. Lime mortars from ancient Greek monuments have been dated by using the radiocarbon method [2]. Furthermore, a wide selection of lime mortars from known historic periods and monuments in Greece has been examined by mercury porosimetry. It was found that their structure depends on the utilization of the monument which come from. In specific, lime mortars coming from residences have more or less the same structure, whereas the preparation technique differs for lime mortars coming from tombs and walls. The weathering effects on the porous system of the mortars are studied by neutron scattering. (author) [1] Brown, P.W., and Clifton, J.R., 'Air pollution and conservation', eds. J. Roswall and S. Aleby, 225 (1988), Elsevier, Amsterdam.; [2] N. Zouridakis, J.F. Sliege, A. Person et al., Archaeometry, 60 (1987) 29

  12. Evaluation of relative comparator and k0-NAA for characterization of Aboriginal Australian ochre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochre is a significant material in Aboriginal Australian cultural expression from ceremonial uses to its application on many types of artifacts. However, ochre is a complex material, with associated surrounding minerals potentially challenging the overall analysis. In recent literature several studies have attempted to characterize ochre by a variety of techniques to understand procurement and trade. However, ochre is difficult to differentiate on major elemental or mineralogical composition and requires a detailed analysis of its geochemical 'fingerprint'. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) provides the high sensitivity (sub-ppm), precision and accuracy in multi-elemental analysis required for ochre. The elements of interest for ochre generally include rare earth elements (REEs) and certain transition metal elements as well as arsenic and antimony. Data from relative comparator NAA (MURR, University of Missouri, USA) is compared with data from k0-NAA OPAL (ANSTO, Lucas Heights, Australia). A discussion of the two methods will be examined for their utility in 'fingerprinting' the provenance of ochre. The continuing importance of NAA to archaeometry will also be discussed. (author)

  13. Application of the variable incident angle method for PIXE and Pige in the field of arrhythmic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For several years PIGE (particle induced gamma-ray emission) and PIXE(particle induced X-ray emission) have been considered as very suitable methods in the field of archaeometry. In fact these techniques, used under atmospheric pressure, are sensitive, multielemental and above all nondestructive. However both suffer from the same disadvantage: the information coming from the different part of the charged particle path is integrated and the inhomogeneities of the sample are not taken into account. The present paper shows how the use of several measurements at different incident angle could give an answer to this problem. The incident angle variation allows to investigate the material at different depths and then, either to distinguish between the elements belonging to the successive layers or even to deduce the concentration gradient. Several examples are given for PIXE in the case of multilayered painting, the measurements qualitatively show the stratigraphy and then allow to detect over painting or to understand how the artist has proceeded to obtain some special effects. For PIGE, the possibility to measure the evolution of the sodium concentration in the depth of ancient glasses allows to obtain information about the corrosion status. For achieving this work, the CGRMEV AVF cyclotron and the atmospheric PIGE-PIXE set-up of the (Institut de Physique Nucleare et Atomique et de Spectroscopy) have been used

  14. Accelerator-based research activities at 'Centro Nacional de Aceleradores', Seville (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Respaldiza, M.A. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departmento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: respaldiza@us.es; Ager, F.J. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departmento de Fisica Aplicada I, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain); Carmona, A. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Laboratoire de Chimie Nucleaire Analytique et Bioenvironnementale, Universite de Bordeaux (France); Ferrer, J. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Garcia-Leon, M.; Garcia-Lopez, J. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departmento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain); Garcia-Orellana, I. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Gomez-Tubio, B. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departmento de Fisica Aplicada III, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain); Morilla, Y. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Ontalba, M.A. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departmento de Fisica, Universidad de Extremadura, Caceres (Spain); Ortega-Feliu, I. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departmento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain)

    2008-05-15

    In February 1998, almost 10 years ago, the set-up of the first IBA (ion beam analysis) facility in Spain took place with the arrival of a 3 MV tandem accelerator [J. Garcia-Lopez, F.J. Ager, M. Barbadillo-Rank, F.J. Madrigal, M.A. Ontalba, M.A. Respaldiza, M.D. Ynsa, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 161-163 (2000) 1137]. Since then, an intensive research program using IBA techniques has been carried out. Subsequently, a cyclotron for 18 MeV protons has been also installed at the 'Centro Nacional de Aceleradores' (CNA), devoted mainly to isotope production for PET (positron emission tomography) techniques, but possibly applied to material analysis and damage studies on a dedicated beam line. Moreover, a 1 MV tandem has been recently installed for AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) {sup 14}C dating and environmental research with other isotopes. In the present paper we describe the new facilities and the developments of the 3 MV tandem beam lines occurred during the past years, as well as some examples of the most recent research activities in our Center in the fields of Material Science, Archaeometry, Biomedicine and Environment.

  15. Accelerator-based research activities at 'Centro Nacional de Aceleradores', Seville (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In February 1998, almost 10 years ago, the set-up of the first IBA (ion beam analysis) facility in Spain took place with the arrival of a 3 MV tandem accelerator [J. Garcia-Lopez, F.J. Ager, M. Barbadillo-Rank, F.J. Madrigal, M.A. Ontalba, M.A. Respaldiza, M.D. Ynsa, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 161-163 (2000) 1137]. Since then, an intensive research program using IBA techniques has been carried out. Subsequently, a cyclotron for 18 MeV protons has been also installed at the 'Centro Nacional de Aceleradores' (CNA), devoted mainly to isotope production for PET (positron emission tomography) techniques, but possibly applied to material analysis and damage studies on a dedicated beam line. Moreover, a 1 MV tandem has been recently installed for AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) 14C dating and environmental research with other isotopes. In the present paper we describe the new facilities and the developments of the 3 MV tandem beam lines occurred during the past years, as well as some examples of the most recent research activities in our Center in the fields of Material Science, Archaeometry, Biomedicine and Environment

  16. Physicochemical characterization of ceramics from Sao Paulo II archaeological site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archaeometry is a consolidated field with a wide application of nuclear analytical techniques for the characterization, protection, and restoration of archaeological pieces. This project aimed at studying the elementary chemical composition of 70 ceramic fragments samples from Sao Paulo II archaeological site, located along the Solimoes River channel, next to Coari city, in Brazilian Amazon. The characterization of samples was performed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). By the determination of 24 elements in the ceramic fragments ( Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sb, Sm. Rb, Se, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn), it was possible to define groups of samples regarding the similarity/dissimilarity in elementary chemical composition. For such a task, the multivariate statistical methods employed were cluster analysis (C A), principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA). Afterwards, seven ceramic fragments were selected based on the groups previously established, for the characterization of the site temporal horizon. Those ceramic fragments were analyzed by thermoluminescence (TL) and EPR for dating purposes. The firing temperatures were determined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique, in order to infer about some aspects of the ceramic manufacture employed by the ancient peoples that lived in Sao Paulo 11. By the results obtained in this study, it was possible to identify the quantity of clay sources employed by the ceramists and the age of the ceramic pieces. Therefore, the results of this research may contribute to the study on the occupation dynamics in the pre-colonial Brazilian Amazon. (author)

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF HELLENISTIC PERIOD MEGARIAN BOWLS FROM DORYLAION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAKAN SİVAS

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The excavation works being carried out since 1989 at Dorylaion (Eskişehir/Turkey results in many findings belonging to different civilizations spanning from the First Bronze age to Ottoman period. One of the important groups of these findings is the moldmade bowls, familiarly known as the Megarian bowls from the Hellenistic period (330-30 B.C.. In a frame of an archaeometry project work, these artifacts were characterized with different analytical techniques. Wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF and X-ray diffraction (XRD were used to study chemical and mineralogical composition of the bodies. Thermogravimetric-differential thermal analyses (TG-DTA were performed to make the estimation of firing temperature of the sherds. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX were performed for the microstructural and microchemical characterization of body and slip layers of the selected potsherds. Based on the analyses results, the bowls should have been prepared from carbonated and siliceous clays and fired at the temperatures from 600 to 1000 °C. They have also iron-rich slip layers with different colors indicating probable adjustment of the redox conditions during firing. In addition, the effect of maximum firing temperature on microstructural characteristics was evaluated.

  18. Identification of protein binding in pictorial art Cuban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper were implemented microanalysis methodologies by histochemical analysis, and infrared spectroscopy to determine the nature of the binder in paintings and Gas Chromatography (GC) coupled to Mass Spectrometry (MS) for identification of protein binders of common use in tempera technique with the aim of having these methods as part of the identification of artistic materials in Cuban cultural heritage carried out by Archaeometry Laboratory of Havana city's Historian Cabinet. The methodologies implemented were evaluated using model samples of traditional painting techniques with variable protein binder: yolk, egg white, casein, nut oil and animal glue; ageing for 5 years. The models samples were correctly identified. It was determined the interference of pigments with the presence of nitrogen by histochemical analysis with Amido Black dye. IR spectroscopy technique allowed to differentiate between oily and mixed (oil plus protein) techniques and tempera with yolk. Oily technique was identified in wall paintings of the New San Francisco church (XIX century) and the Obrapia House (XVII century) and the technique of tempera with animal glue in the polychrome of the XVIII century which represents St. John the Evangelist belonging to the San Juan de Letran church

  19. X-ray fluorescence in IAEA Member States: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Archaeometry Unit (UA) of the Material Science Institute of the Valencia University (ICMUV) has got portable EDXRF spectrometers with small X-Ray tubes and thermoelectrically cooled semiconductor detectors (Cd(Zn)Te and Si-PIN). In June 2002 a new facility based on Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) analysis will also be in operation at the UA. The research activities of the UA include in situ EDXRF analysis of art objects from the Spanish Cultural Heritage. The following examples are worth mentioning: - Identification of the underglaze and overglaze cobalt blue decoration of painted ceramics from Valencia (XIV-XIX centuries). This project is carry out in collaboration with Dr. Jaume Coll from the National Ceramic and Luxurious Arts Museum 'Gonzalez Marti'. - Reconstruction of the original tonality of blue degraded smalts on canvas from the measurement of the relationship of Co/Pb. - Analyses and comparative studies of engravings elaborated with different techniques (etching and heliogravure) from the XVII - XX centuries, and EDXRF analysis of ancient and currently commercialised inks. This project is developed in collaboration with Dr. Rosa Vives from the Barcelona University. - Identification and characterization of forged works of art. - In the near future: quantitative and semi-quantitative multi-element microanalysis of solid and liquid samples by TXRF. (author)

  20. X-ray fluorescence in IAEA Member States: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Study of patrimonial works by non-destructive techniques has woken up great interest because they allow the analysis of unique pieces without affecting their integrity. The Archaeometry Unit of the Instituto de Ciencia de los Materiales de la Universitat de Valencia (ICMUV) has carried out EDXRF analysis in support of identification of forged works of art using portable instrumentation. The comparison of the EDXRF spectra of these objects with a data base, which contains the spectra and compositions of well-known originals, gives evidences to detect fakes. In addition to the detection of forged works of art, EDXRF may help to obtain information on the art pieces that could be important to determine their value. For instance, knowledge of the degree of originality is very important. Although the authenticity of the work can be clear, it could have been degraded and repainted or rebuilt. The EDXRF technique can help to distinguish between the original parts of the works and latter modifications. Another application is to obtain technological information about the process of making the work of art and the state of preservation. (author)

  1. Radiative neutron capture as a counting technique at pulsed spallation neutron sources: a review of current progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooneveld, E. M.; Pietropaolo, A.; Andreani, C.; Perelli Cippo, E.; Rhodes, N. J.; Senesi, R.; Tardocchi, M.; Gorini, G.

    2016-09-01

    Neutron scattering techniques are attracting an increasing interest from scientists in various research fields, ranging from physics and chemistry to biology and archaeometry. The success of these neutron scattering applications is stimulated by the development of higher performance instrumentation. The development of new techniques and concepts, including radiative capture based neutron detection, is therefore a key issue to be addressed. Radiative capture based neutron detectors utilize the emission of prompt gamma rays after neutron absorption in a suitable isotope and the detection of those gammas by a photon counter. They can be used as simple counters in the thermal region and (simultaneously) as energy selector and counters for neutrons in the eV energy region. Several years of extensive development have made eV neutron spectrometers operating in the so-called resonance detector spectrometer (RDS) configuration outperform their conventional counterparts. In fact, the VESUVIO spectrometer, a flagship instrument at ISIS serving a continuous user programme for eV inelastic neutron spectroscopy measurements, is operating in the RDS configuration since 2007. In this review, we discuss the physical mechanism underlying the RDS configuration and the development of associated instrumentation. A few successful neutron scattering experiments that utilize the radiative capture counting techniques will be presented together with the potential of this technique for thermal neutron diffraction measurements. We also outline possible improvements and future perspectives for radiative capture based neutron detectors in neutron scattering application at pulsed neutron sources.

  2. Evaluation of portable Raman spectroscopy and handheld X-ray fluorescence analysis (hXRF) for the direct analysis of glyptics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauwers, D.; Candeias, A.; Coccato, A.; Mirao, J.; Moens, L.; Vandenabeele, P.

    2016-03-01

    In archaeometry, the advantages of a combined use of Raman spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy are extensively discussed for applications such as the analysis of paintings, manuscripts, pottery, etc. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the advantage of using both techniques for analysing glyptics. These engraved gemstones or glass materials were originally used as stamps, to identify the owner, for instance on letters, but also on wine vessels. For this research, a set of 64 glyptics (42 Roman glass specimens and 22 modern ones), belonging to the collection of the museum 'Quinta das Cruzes' in Funchal (Madeira, Portugal), was analysed with portable Raman spectroscopy and handheld X-ray fluorescence (hXRF). These techniques were also used to confirm the gemological identification of these precious objects and can give extra information about the glass composition. Raman spectroscopy identifies the molecular composition as well as on the crystalline phases present. On the other hand, hXRF results show that the antique Roman glass samples are characterised with low Pb and Sn levels and that the modern specimens can be discriminated in two groups: lead-based and non-lead-based ones.

  3. Limitations of portable XRF implementations in evaluating depth information: an archaeometric perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portable instruments that can perform non-destructive analysis techniques are of great importance due to their high applicability, which can extend beyond the controlled laboratory environment. Their importance has long been recognised in the archaeometric field where art historians, conservators and restorers perform analyses on art works without causing any damage and without the need to move the objects to specialized laboratories. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique is a popular choice in the archaeometric field for in situ investigations with portable instrumentations. This enables qualitative (elemental analysis) and quantitative (chemical composition) information retrieval from the objects of interest. Quantitative analyses can be performed under the assumption that the sample is homogeneous and its surface material is the same as in the rest of the object. This work aims to expose various details, including the strengths and the weaknesses of typical XRF analyses in the case of surface alterations, focusing on portable implementations. The chosen approach will be in line with certain issues considered important in archaeometry; nevertheless the presented findings are valid beyond this. We will focus our discussion on two kinds of objects that can be found in the cultural heritage field: artefacts that had their surface material altered due to prolonged exposure to the environment and artefacts that have been gilded. Our work also includes a critically examined overview of relevant information available in the literature. The core of our analysis focuses on two main distinct cases, that of multilayer objects and that of bronzes. (orig.)

  4. Combined PIXE/PIGE and IBIL with external beam applied to the analysis of Merovingian glass beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathis, F., E-mail: francois.mathis@ulg.ac.b [Centre Europeen d' Archeometrie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15 4000 Liege (Belgium); Othmane, G. [Centre Europeen d' Archeometrie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15 4000 Liege (Belgium); Vrielynck, O. [Service Public de Wallonie Direction de l' Archeologie (Belgium); Calvo del Castillo, H. [Centre Europeen d' Archeometrie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15 4000 Liege (Belgium); Chene, G.; Dupuis, T. [Centre Europeen d' Archeometrie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15 4000 Liege (Belgium); Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Atomique et de Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege (Belgium); Strivay, D. [Centre Europeen d' Archeometrie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15 4000 Liege (Belgium); Service Public de Wallonie Direction de l' Archeologie (Belgium)

    2010-06-15

    New improvements on our archaeometry line at the cyclotron of the Institute of Nuclear and Atomic Physics and of Spectrometry of the University of Liege have allowed the use of PIXE/PIGE and IBIL in-air for the analysis of cultural heritage objects. The extraction is performed through a 100 nm thick Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} window. The detection set-up consists now of two X-ray and one {gamma}-ray detectors, together with a fiber optic UV-visible spectrometer. This set-up has already been tested for the analysis of modern corundum and is now adapted to the analysis of archaeological artefacts. In this work, we have used it to analyse 216 out of the 5000 Merovingian glass beads that come from the necropolis of Bossut-Gottechain (Belgium), one of the most important ever found in Belgium. The IBA analyses confirmed the typological division of different beads groups through chemical composition that gives us new insights on fabrication techniques of glass matrices and colorants.

  5. The INS nuclear microprobe and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear microprobe directs a well-focused beam of high-energy protons or deuterons at a solid specimen inside a vacuum chamber. Atomic and nuclear reactions are induced in those elements in a layer about 20 micro m thick, leading to the emission of characteristic x-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles as well as Rutherford scattering of the incident beam. These radiations impinge on several detectors near the specimen (NaI, Ge(Li), Si(Li) and Si surface barrier). Using proton-excited x-rays all elements above Na may be detected with sensitivities 10 or 100 times that of the electron probe, while elements which can be estimated from their gamma rays include C, N, O, F, Na and Al. In most of our projects the distribution of a trace or minor element (e.g. F, N) is compared to that of a major element (e.g. Ca or Fe). Recent areas of application include archaeometry (diffusion profiles of F in bones and teeth; depth profiles of sodium in obsidian), geology (F concentrations in mineral grains; studies of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary), metallurgy (C, O, N in steel and in welds; S, O, C in corrosion layers), fisheries management (Zn, Sr in otoliths; F in dogfish fin spines and vertebrae), biology (Fe, Sr, N in egg shells; trace elements in human hair), and dental research

  6. The Materials Science and its impact in the Archaeology- Volume 2; La ciencia de Materiales y su impacto en la Arqueologia- Volumen 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza A, D. (ed.) [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Arenas A, J.A. (ed.) [IFUNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rodriguez L, V. [Centro Universitario de Vinculacion, BUAP, 72540 Puebla (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    This book seeks to gather the different investigations carried out in the context of the materials science guided to the archaeometry, presented in the 'International Congress of Materials 2004', looking for with it to facilitate the knowledge transfer related with the application of the modern nuclear analytical techniques for the materials characterization as, X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Absorption spectroscopy, PIXE analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis among other techniques to understand with a bigger depth the characteristics and properties of the materials used in diverse activities in the different stages of the humanity, there have been characterized materials as ceramics, metals, polymers, biomaterials, composite materials, pigments, nano structured materials. Since the articles here presented are of quality and its approach each topic with an original vision, this volume 2 of the book 'The Science of Materials and their Impact in the Archaeology' it will woke up the interest of a wide number of investigators, and that the different presented topics allow to visualize that this methods and techniques here approached its represent powerful tools, to enlarge our knowledge on the different cultures that preceded us. (Author)

  7. Physicochemical characterization of ceramics from Sao Paulo II archaeological site; Caracterizacao fisico-quimica da ceramica do sitio arqueologico Sao Paulo II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Rogerio Baria

    2013-08-01

    Archaeometry is a consolidated field with a wide application of nuclear analytical techniques for the characterization, protection, and restoration of archaeological pieces. This project aimed at studying the elementary chemical composition of 70 ceramic fragments samples from Sao Paulo II archaeological site, located along the Solimoes River channel, next to Coari city, in Brazilian Amazon. The characterization of samples was performed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). By the determination of 24 elements in the ceramic fragments ( Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sb, Sm. Rb, Se, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn), it was possible to define groups of samples regarding the similarity/dissimilarity in elementary chemical composition. For such a task, the multivariate statistical methods employed were cluster analysis (C A), principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA). Afterwards, seven ceramic fragments were selected based on the groups previously established, for the characterization of the site temporal horizon. Those ceramic fragments were analyzed by thermoluminescence (TL) and EPR for dating purposes. The firing temperatures were determined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique, in order to infer about some aspects of the ceramic manufacture employed by the ancient peoples that lived in Sao Paulo 11. By the results obtained in this study, it was possible to identify the quantity of clay sources employed by the ceramists and the age of the ceramic pieces. Therefore, the results of this research may contribute to the study on the occupation dynamics in the pre-colonial Brazilian Amazon. (author)

  8. Some results about the dating of pre hispanic mexican ceramics by the thermoluminescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most frequently recurring questions in Archaeometry concerns the age of the studied objects. The some first dating methods were based in historical narrations, style of buildings manufacture techniques. However, has been observed that as consequence the continuous irradiation from naturally occurring radioisotopes and from cosmic rays some materials, such as archaeological ceramic, accumulate certain quantity of energy. These types of material can, in principle, be dated through the analysis of these accumulate energy. In that case, ceramic dating can be realized by thermoluminescence (TL) dating. In this work, results obtained by our research group about TL dating of ceramic belonging to several archaeological zones like to Edzna (Campeche), Calixtlahuaca and Teotenango (Mexico State) and Hervideros (Durango) are presented. The analysis was realized using the fine grained mode in a Daybreak model 1100 reader TL system. The radioisotopes that contribute in the accumulate annual dose in ceramic samples (40 K, 238 U, 232 Th) were determined by means of techniques such as Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and Neutron Activation Analysis (AAN). Our results are agree with results obtained through other methods. (Author) 7 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  9. Determination of gamma ray attenuation coefficient of archaeological ceramics from Parana State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work demonstrates an alternative methodology for the linear attenuation coefficient determination (μρ) of irregular form samples. This methodology aims the study of indigenous archaeological ceramics from the region of Londrina, North of Parana State, Brazil. These ceramics are from Padre Carlos Weiss Historic Museum, Londrina University and belong to the Kaingaing tradition. Firstly, μρ determination by two mean method was performed by the gamma ray beam attenuation of the immersed ceramics, by using two different means with well-known linear attenuation coefficient. Beyond, the deduction of the equation for the μρ determination by the two-means methods, was also realized. By the other side, μρ theoretical value was determined with the XCOM computer program. This program uses the ceramics chemistry composition and provides an energy versus mass attenuation coefficient table. To verify the two-means method efficiency, five ceramics sample of thickness 1.15 cm and 1.87 cm were prepared with homogeneous clay. Theses ceramics, we used for the μρ determination using the attenuation method, and two-means method. The results and the μρ obtained deviation were compared for these samples, for the two methods. With the obtained results, it was concluded that the two-means method is applicable for the mass attenuation coefficient determination for the archaeometry studies. (author). 6 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  10. In situ applications of X ray fluorescence techniques. Final report of a coordinated research project 2000-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    .This publication presents the results of the CRP. The IAEA officers responsible for the publication were A. Markowicz, D. Wegrzynek and K. Will of the Agency?s Laboratories, Seibersdorf. In the presented reports a summary of the work carried out by Member States and achievements at their laboratories related to the XRF and FPXRF techniques was given. The individual country reports are included in this publication. It was concluded that the participants carried out the research according to the agreed work plans and the objectives of the CRP were met. The following recommendations resulted from the CRP: Training courses in FPXRF analysis and in XRF data evaluation and interpretation are needed. Promotion of FPXRF spectrometry based on the advantages over other analytical techniques as applied for in situ soil analysis, geochemical prospecting, archaeometry and alloy identification is required. Regional Technical Cooperation projects are possible in order to improve implementation of XRF techniques in support of various areas of economy and development in the Member States. A database of certified standard reference materials applicable to XRF techniques is required. Development of dedicated FPXRF instruments for analysis of works of art and study of cultural heritage objects, environmental monitoring, etc., has to be continued. The Coordinated Research Project was very useful and cost effective. Therefore, further support of the XRF laboratories in Member States involved in research in the field of X ray fluorescence is required. Moreover, the uniqueness and potential applications of XRF techniques should be promoted. A new Coordinated Research Project in this field should be considered, e.g., focused on selected applications (such as environmental monitoring, archaeometry, material sciences or agriculture)

  11. Multi-analytical characterization of archaeological ceramics. A case study from the Sforza Castle (Milano, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberini, V.; Maspero, F.; Galimberti, L.; Fusi, N.

    2009-04-01

    is a very high value compared to those usually measured in TL analysis of non-irradiated samples. This has to be taken into account when planning CT and TL analyses on the same sample. References Ribechini E., Colombini M.P., Giachi G., Modugno F. and Palletti P., 2008, A multi-analytical approach for the characterization of commodities in a ceramic jar from Antinoe (Egypt). Archaeometry, DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-4754.2008.00406.x. Séguin F. H., 1991, High-Resolution Computed Tomography and Digital Radiography of Archaeological and Art-Historical Objects, in Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology II , edited by P.B. Vandiver, J. R. Druzik and G. Wheeler (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh). Tite M.S., Freestone I.C. and Bimsona M., 1984, Technological study of chinese porcelain of the Yuan dynasty. Archaeometry, 26 (2), 139-154.

  12. Nuclear reaction data for IBA applications to cultural heritage diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main aspects are discussed concerning nuclear reaction cross-sections for PIGE analyses, especially referring to cultural heritage diagnostics, within the framework of ion beam analysis (IBA) methods, also reviewing main results from recent international Conferences on Nuclear Data for Science and Technology and from NEA-NSC meetings and IAEA initiatives on the matter. In particular, within the frame of an overall summary on nuclear data requirements for IBA applications, main needs are pointed out specifically referred to the PIGE diagnostics purposes of present interest. Particularly, nuclear data relevant to light element analysis in archaeo-metry are specifically considered and their impact on the knowledge and conservation of the cultural heritage is pointed out, especially discussing most significant examples concerning the beneficial use from the evaluated nuclear data on the results obtained by the application of this nuclear analytical technique. Consistently, relevant topics are discussed concerning the evaluation of the requested nuclear reaction data, on the basis of the existing experimental values and nuclear model calculations, according to the appropriate parameterization and the consequent effects on the calculation results. Moreover, theoretical models on the nuclear structure and for estimation of the nuclear level densities are discussed, such as the modern algebraic models and the microscopic superfluid models, with emphasis on their influence on the calculations of photon production data, especially referring to the effects on the semi-empirical level density formula normally adopted in cross-section calculations, mainly to the parity-breaking effects and to the dependence of the most crucial level density parameter on the nuclear excitation energy. Accordingly, recent results are presented as obtained for (p,x) reaction data, by comparing critically selected experimental data and the relevant model calculations, with regard to significant

  13. ED-XRF analysis for Cultural Heritage: is quantitative evaluation always essential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonizzoni, L.

    2015-07-01

    Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) is a very suitable tool for examination of Cultural Heritage materials because of its simplicity, with no requirement for any sample preparation and the possibility of operating with portable instruments, and it can probably be considered the most useful non-destructive analytical technique for ancient valuable objects of archaeological, historical or artistic interest. As regards the possibility of getting quantitative analysis in archaeometric applications, the problems arising from the limited sensitivity in detecting low Z elements, the irregular shape or the non-homogeneous composition of the sample have generated a widespread opinion that only semi-quantitative analyses are possible in XRF applications to archaeometry. In fact, this is always true for non-homogeneous samples as, typically, painting layers. On the contrary, the problems deriving from limited sensitivity in detecting matrix light elements as well as from irregular surface under analysis can be solved in most cases. Notwithstanding, working on unique and not standardized objects requires to pay attention on details and to know how to choose correct parameters and calculation algorithms to obtain reliable results. Indeed opportunities to deal with these objects are very limited and results have implication in other fields, so that each information about materials and production technique is of great interest. Two typical materials of archaeological interest showing particular features are considered - namely high corroded metallic artefacts and ceramics - revealing that, even if in cultural heritage field detailed quantitative analysis is the goal, it is not always necessary as also qualitative information by XRF spectra increase the knowledge of artefact.

  14. μ-XRF analysis of glasses: a non-destructive utility for Cultural Heritage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaggelli, G; Cossio, R

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents a μ-XRF analytical approach for a non-destructive study of Cultural Heritage glass finds. This technique can be used for quantitative analysis of small volumes of solid samples, with a sensitivity that is superior to the electron microprobe but inferior to an ICP-MS system. An experimental set-up with natural and synthetic glass standards is proposed here for the quantitative analyses of major and trace elements on glass objects which cannot be sampled such as small archaeological or historical artefacts from Cultural Heritage. The described method, performed by means of the commercial μ-XRF Eagle III-XPL, was applied to Islamic glass specimens of Sasanian production (III-VII century A.D.) previously analyzed by ICP-MS and SEM-EDS techniques (P. Mirti, M. Pace, M. Negro Ponzi and M. Aceto, Archaeometry, 2008, 50(3), 429-450; P. Mirti, M. Pace, M. Malandrino and M. Negro Ponzi, J. Archaeol. Sci., 36, 1061-1069; and M. Gulmini, M. Pace, G. Ivaldi, M. Negro Ponzi and P. Mirti, J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 2009, 355, 1613-1621) and coming from the archaeological site of Veh Ardasir in modern Iraq. Major elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Fe) of glass specimens show an accuracy better than 5%. Trace elements (Cr, Mn, Sr and Zr) display an accuracy better than 5% when the checked elements have a concentration >100 ppm by weight, whereas it is around 10% with a concentration <100 ppm by weight. μ-XRF is, therefore, a suitable elemental analysis technique for the non-destructive study of small glass finds due to its relatively good accuracy, reproducibility and low detection limits (∼tens ppm). PMID:22163367

  15. Neutron Based Imaging and Element-mapping at the Budapest Neutron Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Z.; Szentmiklósi, L.; Belgya, T.; Balaskó, M.; Horváth, L. Z.; Maróti, B.

    The Budapest Neutron Centre (BNC) is a consortium of institutes to co-ordinate research activities carried out at the Budapest Research Reactor. It hosts two neutron imaging facilities (RAD and NORMA) operated by the Centre for Energy Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences and offers access to this scientific infrastructure for the domestic and international users. The radiography station (RAD) at the thermal neutron beamline of the reactor gives a possibility to study relatively large objects by thermal neutron-, gamma- and X-ray radiography, and to benefit from the complementary features of the different radiations. RAD is being extended in 2014 with digital imaging and tomographic capabilities. The image detection is based on suitable converter screens. The static radiography and tomography images are acquired by a new, large area sCMOS camera, whereas the dynamic radiography is accomplished by a low-light-level TV camera and a frame grabber card. The NORMA facility is designed to perform neutron radiography and tomography on small samples using guided cold neutrons. Here two non-destructive techniques are coupled to determine the chemical composition and to visualize the internal structure of heterogeneous objects. The position-sensitive element analysis with prompt-gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and the imaging with neutron radiography/tomography (NR/NT) are integrated into a unique facility called NIPS-NORMA. The goal of such a combination of these methods is to save substantial beam time in the so-called NR/NT-driven PGAI (Prompt Gamma Activation Imaging) mode, in which the interesting regions are first visualized and located, and subsequently the time-consuming prompt-gamma measurements are made only where it is really needed. The paper will give an overview about the technical details of the facilities, and the latest results of selected applications from the fields of archaeometry, engineering and material science.

  16. On the dose-rate estimate of carbonate-rich sediments for trapped charge dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a wide range of environmental conditions sediments are subject to changing water content and carbonate cementation during burial. Trapped charge dating of these carbonate-rich deposits requires the determination of a dose rate which is not constant during burial because sediments were subject to post-depositional geochemical alterations. The dose-rate model established in this study assumes linear increase of carbonate mass and linear decrease of water mass in pores between sediment particles during burial. Numerical modelling assesses the effect of carbonate and water on the infinite-matrix dose rate as a function of time. Sensitivity testing of the system indicated that water and carbonate content have the greatest effect on the resulting dose rate, followed by the timing of onset and completion of carbonate formation. As a consequence, a comprehensive re-calculation of the water correction factors was undertaken. It revealed a 5% lower value for the annual beta dose and a 10% lower value for the annual gamma dose compared to values formulated by Zimmerman [1971. Thermoluminescence dating using fine grains from pottery. Archaeometry 13, 29-52]. The dose-rate model was tested using samples from geologically well-constrained coastal sites. The differences between onset and final dose rate were up to 30% resulting in differences between modelled and conventional optical ages between 2% and 15% depending on the final (today's) water and carbonate content. The divergence of dates may be greater under certain conditions. The dose-rate model can be applied to a wide range of contexts similar to those considered in this case study

  17. Protocols for Thermoluminescence and Optically Stimulated Luminescence Research at DOSAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Life Sciences Division (LSD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a long record of radiation dosimetry research at the Dosimetry Applications Research (DOSAR) facility complex. These facilities have been used by a broad segment of the research community to perform a variety of experiments in areas including, but not limited to, radiobiology, radiation dosimeter and instrumentation development and calibration, and materials testing in a variety of radiation environments. Collaborations with the University of Tennessee-Knoxville (UTK) have also led to important contributions in the area of archaeometry, particularly as it relates to the use of radiation dosimetry to date archaeological artifacts. This manual is to serve as the primary instruction and operation manual for dosimetric and archaeometric research at DOSAR involving thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). Its purpose is to (1) provide protocols for common practices associated with the research, (2) outline the relevant organizational structure, (3) identify the Quality Assurance plan, and (4) describe all the procedures, operations, and responsibilities for safe and proper operation of associated equipment. Each person who performs research at DOSAR using TL/OSL equipment is required to read the latest revision of this manual and be familiar with its contents, and to sign and date the manual's master copy indicating that the manual has been read and understood. The TL/OSL Experimenter is also required to sign the manual after each revision to signify that the changes are understood. Each individual is responsible for completely understanding the proper operation of the TL/OSL equipment used and for following the guidance contained within this manual. The instructions, protocols, and operating procedures in this manual do not replace, supersede, or alter the hazard mitigation controls identified in the Research Safety Summary (''Thermoluminescence/Optically Stimulated

  18. Some new trends in the ionoluminescence of minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo del Castillo, H; Ruvalcaba, J L; Calderón, T

    2007-02-01

    Ionoluminescence (IL) has mainly been used to detect impurities or defects inside synthetic materials. This paper gives a summary of new applications of IL to natural minerals that might be found in ancient pieces of jewellery or decorative artefacts (affreschi, stucchi, mosaics). Some relevant examples of its use for archaeometrical purposes are given to highlight the potential of the technique. Chemical information can be obtained by luminescent characterization of minerals. IL spectra act as digital imprint for elements or defects inside each material, enabling differentiation of natural specimens from imitations and/or synthetic analogues. Crystal field theory indicates it is the coordination number of the emitter inside the crystalline structure that gives information on its valence. Historical confusion between rubies and red spinel can easily be resolved by analysis of IL spectra. Modern synthetic diamonds can also be discriminated and blue sapphire can be distinguished from blue kyanite, a silicate that is currently being sold as its imitation. The technique can also differentiate between the synthetic and the natural gems. Polymorphs can be identified, and it is possible to recognize minerals from isomorphic series (from the same chemical group with the same structure) even when they share the same light emitter (e.g. Mn(2+), in carbonates). High-quality glasses (e.g. laser glasses) which are normally used for faking gemstones can be also detected. We fully believe IL will, in the future, be a powerful technique for determining the crystallinity of solids. This paper gives an overview of possible applications of IL to archaeometry for mineral characterization; this is a new application that still requires further study. PMID:17180340

  19. Protocols for Thermoluninescence and Optically Stimulated Luminescence Research at DOSAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal, SM

    2004-10-11

    The Life Sciences Division (LSD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a long record of radiation dosimetry research at the Dosimetry Applications Research (DOSAR) facility complex. These facilities have been used by a broad segment of the research community to perform a variety of experiments in areas including, but not limited to, radiobiology, radiation dosimeter and instrumentation development and calibration, and materials testing in a variety of radiation environments. Collaborations with the University of Tennessee-Knoxville (UTK) have also led to important contributions in the area of archaeometry, particularly as it relates to the use of radiation dosimetry to date archaeological artifacts. This manual is to serve as the primary instruction and operation manual for dosimetric and archaeometric research at DOSAR involving thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). Its purpose is to (1) provide protocols for common practices associated with the research, (2) outline the relevant organizational structure, (3) identify the Quality Assurance plan, and (4) describe all the procedures, operations, and responsibilities for safe and proper operation of associated equipment. Each person who performs research at DOSAR using TL/OSL equipment is required to read the latest revision of this manual and be familiar with its contents, and to sign and date the manual's master copy indicating that the manual has been read and understood. The TL/OSL Experimenter is also required to sign the manual after each revision to signify that the changes are understood. Each individual is responsible for completely understanding the proper operation of the TL/OSL equipment used and for following the guidance contained within this manual. The instructions, protocols, and operating procedures in this manual do not replace, supersede, or alter the hazard mitigation controls identified in the Research Safety Summary (&apos

  20. Transmission electron microscopy for archaeo-materials research: Nanoparticles in glazes and red/yellow glass and inorganic pigments in painted context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickx, Peggy

    2004-10-01

    This dissertation addresses the application of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) to historic objects, concentrating on colour-causing nanoparticles in vitreous materials and pigments with the focus on substrates in lake pigments used in thin glaze layers, and on manuscript illustrations. TEM is well suited for archaeometry: it gives chemical elemental information, imaging and diffraction information and the amount of material needed is minimal. Sample preparation techniques suitable for historic materials are discussed. Nanoparticles can be incorporated in glass through staining. Yellow coloured glass plates contain Ag particles. Baking temperatures and different Ag-salts determine the density of the nanoparticles. Dense layers cause more saturated colours. Red glass plates can be obtained by staining with Cu-salts. Metallic Cu particles have a diameter of about 24 nm. Comparison with XRF results suggests that often a combination of Cu and Ag was used for warmer colours. Red glass can be "flashed" to the substrate glass. Then, the colour is also caused by metallic Cu particles. The red layer often displays a band structure of stacked red and transparent bands. In the transparent bands, no nanoparticles have been found. In lustre-ware, Ag and metallic Cu occur. Their distribution throughout the material determines the colour of the fragment. In both there is a dense top layer with particles of sizes smaller than 15 nm. If this top layer consists of Ag particles, the resulting colour is golden. In one sample, under this top layer the amount of Cu particles increases. This underlying layer causes the colour to redden. Particles are mainly between 5 and 15 nm in diameter. Using reconstructions, it has been demonstrated that TEM can detect and identify a stacking of thin layers in parchment decorations. A pink powder sample from Pompeii consists of a basis of allophane type clay. The lake substrates consist of Al, O, S and their amorphous structure does not seem to

  1. The Maltrata valley in the inter regional trade nets of the obsidian in Meso america: origin by neutron activation; El valle de Maltrata en las redes de intercambio interregional de la obsidiana en Mesoamerica: procedencia por activacion neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina V, R. O.

    2011-07-01

    described the chemical composition of the obsidian and some data about the deposits; also the archaeometry is defined, and the different physical and chemical techniques used for the characterization in the archaeology are revised, showing the advantages and disadvantages among each one of them. Lastly in the chapter fifth the obtained data of the activation neutron analysis are exposed which reflects in a temporary way the raw material deposits that they supplied from obsidian to the valley through the trade nets. (Author)

  2. Annual Report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annual Report 2000 of the Technological Research Direction at the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) of Mexico presents its activities during year 2000. It is described a work plan and budget for the exercise in 2001. The projects, services and work programs of those different management offices adscripted to this Direction were revised and evaluated. The Technological Innovation Management office is formed by two departments, the one of Control and the one Evaluation and Linking. The projects which form the Management office comprise: Neutron activation analysis, Environmental radiation surveillance, gamma spectroscopy, archaeometry, nuclear application studies and support to priority projects. The Radiological Safety management office provides internal and external services in matter of radiation protection and radioactive waste negotiation to fulfil with the applicable standardization. This management office realizes the link function with the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards (CNSNS) as for the licenses, authorizations and permissions for nuclear and radioactive facilities and for those activities which are involucrated with the use of radioactive material and devices generators of ionizing radiation in the National Institute of Nuclear Research. The Nuclear Technology management office is composed of two departments: Chemical Analysis wherever analytical studies are realized to fulfil with national standards and international codes to providing services at different enterprises and the Reactor wherever an aging negotiation program is established for him (thirty operation years) which allows to mitigate or to correct those effects by aging in facilities. The Health Nuclear applications management office consists of two departments: Metrology which obtains the authorization from the Commerce and Industrial Fomentation Secretary (SECOFI) of the national standards of beta particles, neutrons and coincidences, as well as the

  3. Annual Report 2000; Informe Anual 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The Annual Report 2000 of the Technological Research Direction at the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) of Mexico presents its activities during year 2000. It is described a work plan and budget for the exercise in 2001. The projects, services and work programs of those different management offices adscripted to this Direction were revised and evaluated. The Technological Innovation Management office is formed by two departments, the one of Control and the one Evaluation and Linking. The projects which form the Management office comprise: Neutron activation analysis, Environmental radiation surveillance, gamma spectroscopy, archaeometry, nuclear application studies and support to priority projects. The Radiological Safety management office provides internal and external services in matter of radiation protection and radioactive waste negotiation to fulfil with the applicable standardization. This management office realizes the link function with the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards (CNSNS) as for the licenses, authorizations and permissions for nuclear and radioactive facilities and for those activities which are involucrated with the use of radioactive material and devices generators of ionizing radiation in the National Institute of Nuclear Research. The Nuclear Technology management office is composed of two departments: Chemical Analysis wherever analytical studies are realized to fulfil with national standards and international codes to providing services at different enterprises and the Reactor wherever an aging negotiation program is established for him (thirty operation years) which allows to mitigate or to correct those effects by aging in facilities. The Health Nuclear applications management office consists of two departments: Metrology which obtains the authorization from the Commerce and Industrial Fomentation Secretary (SECOFI) of the national standards of beta particles, neutrons and coincidences, as well as the

  4. XRD applied to the determination of pigments and composition of lithic materials and ceramics from archaeological pre-hispanic sites of the Rio de la Plata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beovide, Laura [Department of Archeology, National Museum of Anthropology, Montevideo, (Uruguay); Pardo, Helena; Faccio, Ricardo; Mombru, Alvaro [Centro NanoMat, Polo Tecnologico de Pando, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Pando, Canelones (Uruguay); Crystallography, Solid State and Materials Laboratory (Cryssmat-Lab), DETEMA, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Gral, Montevideo (Uruguay); Piston, Mariela, E-mail: mpiston@fq.edu.u [Analytical Chemistry, Estrella Campos Department, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2011-07-01

    suggests that most likely the source of supply for the amphibolites instruments come from the sources of raw materials compared. Both studies are encouraging to improve the study of prehistoric materials through different archaeometry techniques. (author)

  5. X-ray fluorescence in IAEA Member States: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Instrumental facilities of the ICMUV include: a Total-reflection X-Ray Fluorencence (TXRF), a static and a portable Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometers. These equipments are employed in the field of the art and archaeometry, and some applications in this area are implemented. The portable EDXRF spectrometer is advisable to perform 'in situ' and on-line analysis in a multidisciplinary environment, the static EDXRF equipment is good to perform analysis on paper and metal pieces. The TXRF spectrometry is the best technique for very sensitive analysis of trace elements in microsamples. Using the last technique we have analyzed the cottons used by the restorers in the different steps of the restoration process; it appeared that the method is a good tool to study the composition of different layers and zones of the work of art. Current projects include: 1. Analysis of valuable antique ceramics that can be investigated only when the analysis does not result in any damage. EDXRF measurements with portable instrumentation provide non-destructive analysis that completely eliminates sampling. An alternative method to determine the overglaze or underglaze pigment decoration is the microscopic examination of a ceramic cross section, but this examination requires sampling and damage to the physical integrity of the object. The aim of our work is to apply nondestructive technique ensuring the physical integrity of the object. We have proposed a portable EDXRF spectrometer to identify the underglaze and overglaze pigment decoration of ceramics on the basis of different values for the ratio between the Pb(Lα) line from the main element of the glaze cover and the Kα lines from the main elements (Co, Mn, Ni) found in the pigment, when the angle of the incidence radiation is varied. If the position of the detector is fixed, these ratios (Pb(Lα)/Co(Kα), etc.) increases with the angle for underglaze decoration, and decreases for overglaze decoration

  6. EDXRF analysis of a baroque polychrome wooden sculpture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. In this work, a Baroque polychrome wooden sculpture, portraying the Virgin Mary, was analyzed using EDXRF technique. This sculpture belongs to the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro collection and was analyzed, by means of EDXRF and Computed Radiography, prior to perform its restoration. The scientific examination of artworks has gained increasing interest in the last years, allowing the characterization of materials and techniques employed by the artists, which can be extremely valuable to conservation and restoration treatments. The analysis can also reveal the presence of retouchings (concealed by past restorations), later added areas, changes of design, underpaintings, etc. X-Ray Fluorescence analysis is a widely used spectroscopic technique in archaeometry to investigate the composition of pigments (in manuscripts, paintings, ceramics and other artifacts), metal alloys, coins and statuary. It is a non-destructive technique that makes possible qualitative and quantitative multielemental analysis with good precision and accuracy. The EDXRF measurements were carried out with a portable system, developed by the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, consisting of an Oxford TF3005 X-ray tube, with W anode, and a Si-PIN XR-100CR detector from Amptek. The angle between the X-ray tube and the detector window is 60 deg, the source-sample and the detector-sample distances are 4 cm. The system is adapted to a tripod, which makes possible to reach higher regions during the analysis of paintings and statues. In order to identify the pigments used in the sculpture, were obtained several spectra, working at 25 kV and 100 μA, with an acquisition time of 500 s and a beam collimation of 2 mm. The spectra were processed and analyzed using the software QXAS-AXIL, from IAEA. The results revealed the presence of gypsum, used in the preparation layer. In the carnation regions, the artist used vermilion and lead white. In the dark-brown hairs of

  7. The Maltrata valley in the inter regional trade nets of the obsidian in Meso america: origin by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    described the chemical composition of the obsidian and some data about the deposits; also the archaeometry is defined, and the different physical and chemical techniques used for the characterization in the archaeology are revised, showing the advantages and disadvantages among each one of them. Lastly in the chapter fifth the obtained data of the activation neutron analysis are exposed which reflects in a temporary way the raw material deposits that they supplied from obsidian to the valley through the trade nets. (Author)

  8. X-ray fluorescence in IAEA Member States: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Instrumental facilities of the ICMUV include: a Total-reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF), laboratory and portable Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometers. These equipments are employed in the field of the art and archaeometry. Current projects are: EDXRF analysis of blue pigments used in Valencian ceramics. EDXRF analyses of cobalt-blue pigments were made on 73 pieces of Valencian ceramics from the beginning of the 14th century up to 20th century. These ceramic samples have the pigment decoration applied together with a tin opacified lead glaze cover on the clay body. The comparison between EDXRF spectra from coloured and non-coloured areas provides information about the pigment composition. The following elements: Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and As are identified as characteristics of the blue pigments. Different association of these elements as well as correlation with the chronology of the samples were found. These results can be used for identifying the different types of cobalt ores employed in the manufacture of the blue pigments to study their provenance. Non-destructive analysis of paper supports used in prints: In paper based works of art it is not possible to separate the support from the work of the author. Then, the maximum knowledge of the support in this kind of works is desirable. In this work, Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) was used to determine the elemental composition of a set of European and Oriental papers from the 20th century and an Arabian paper from the 14th century. These papers were manufactured with different production techniques and used as support for writing, drawing and printing. Normalised fluorescence yields of the elements to the weight of the paper show that there are some correlations between its elemental composition and the type of paper, provenance and use. Therefore, the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique could be used for a better characterization and

  9. X-ray fluorescence in IAEA Member States: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Instrumental facilities of the ICMUV include: a total reflection X ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometer, and laboratory and portable energy-dispersive X ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer. These instruments are applied in the field of art and archaeometry. Current projects are in collaboration with the Department of Prehistory and Archaeology (University of Valencia), the Valltorta Museum and Vetraria Munoz de Pablos S.L. In situ analysis of rock art painting by portable EDXRF spectrometry in the Valltorta Valley, East of Spain: A purpose of the research was to investigate the elemental composition of the prehistoric cave paintings located in the Valltorta Valley in Coves de Vinroma (Castellon, Spain) and to demonstrate the usefulness of portable EDXRF spectroscopy for in situ elemental analysis. Analysis of the red and black pigments by portable EDXRF showed the presence of iron and manganese compounds, respectively; in the future it will facilitate sampling decisions prior to use of other analytical methods to obtain additional information about chemical composition, structure and preparation techniques. Application of portable EDXRF system to the study of ancient glasses: Since there is no method available to determine directly the age of glass objects, it is necessary to compare the material composition of questionable pieces with genuine pieces. Therefore, a non-destructive and sensitive analytical technique was needed with a capability to perform in-situ measurements in order to avoid transportation of precious and fragile objects to the analytical laboratory. A portable EDXRF system meets these requirements more than adequately. The application of a portable XRF spectrometer for solving authenticity-related problems in the field of ancient glasses has demonstrated its capability for revealing essential information for study of the Stained Glass Windows of Avila Cathedral. During the restoration work, clear differences in the composition of

  10. Large Devices of Industrial Culture: the Preservation of their Historical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Kempas, Ruth

    Development of material science and engineering technology is present in devices of the last 150 years. How can the historical evidence of their construction and use, the transfer of technological stages of development be preserved as a special quality in cultural tradition? The conservation of technical artefacts as a cultural heritage of western civilisation has developed scientific methods of conservation so as to respect their authenticity as materialised references of the past. During the last fifteen years these methods have been evaluated in the unique training program for this specialisation of conservation discipline at the HTW Berlin, University for Applied Sciences. They are enough standardised now to be applied without hesitation on objects being kept indoor in a museum or private collection. It is much more difficult to keep devices outside or, as is the case in Observatory - at climates changing between inside aud outside situations. The paper will show a few examples of how to develop concepts for conservation and how it is teclinically possible to preserve the very important original surfaces of the objects, their authentic materiality. As soon as the objects are kept as part of cultural history or history of science they change their function and can not be kept in the same manner as before. They give evidence of their materiality. The archaeometry of modern times is a new and expanding branch of historic research. Moreover the surface of a historic device is the point of contact between passed times and the presence for the general public as much as for the scientists. It will be demonstrated how large the loss of historic information and thus of cultural value of objects can be by renovation instead of considerate conservation. Some examples of careful conservation work carried out on big objects other than an observatory are presented. The paper will then summarise the possibilities and difficulties of doing such work on large devices still in

  11. A revised burial dose estimation procedure for optical dating of youngand modern-age sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L.J.; Roberts, R.G.; Galbraith, R.F.; DeLong, S.B.

    2009-01-01

    The presence of genuinely zero-age or near-zero-age grains in modern-age and very young samples poses a problem for many existing burial dose estimation procedures used in optical (optically stimulated luminescence, OSL) dating. This difficulty currently necessitates consideration of relatively simplistic and statistically inferior age models. In this study, we investigate the potential for using modified versions of the statistical age models of Galbraith et??al. [Galbraith, R.F., Roberts, R.G., Laslett, G.M., Yoshida, H., Olley, J.M., 1999. Optical dating of single and multiple grains of quartz from Jinmium rock shelter, northern Australia: Part I, experimental design and statistical models. Archaeometry 41, 339-364.] to provide reliable equivalent dose (De) estimates for young and modern-age samples that display negative, zero or near-zero De estimates. For this purpose, we have revised the original versions of the central and minimum age models, which are based on log-transformed De values, so that they can be applied to un-logged De estimates and their associated absolute standard errors. The suitability of these 'un-logged' age models is tested using a series of known-age fluvial samples deposited within two arroyo systems from the American Southwest. The un-logged age models provide accurate burial doses and final OSL ages for roughly three-quarters of the total number of samples considered in this study. Sensitivity tests reveal that the un-logged versions of the central and minimum age models are capable of producing accurate burial dose estimates for modern-age and very young (<350??yr) fluvial samples that contain (i) more than 20% of well-bleached grains in their De distributions, or (ii) smaller sub-populations of well-bleached grains for which the De values are known with high precision. Our results indicate that the original (log-transformed) versions of the central and minimum age models are still preferable for most routine dating applications

  12. Pedological and mineralogical investigations on a soil-paleosoil sequence within Andosols in the Western Cordillera of the Peruvian Andes (region Laramate, 14.5S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leceta Gobitz, Fernando; Mächtle, Bertil; Schukraft, Gerd; Meyer, Hans-Peter; Eitel, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    -Columbian cultures." Archaeometry 47: 137-185. Miller, D. C. and P. W. Birkeland (1992). "Soil catena variation along an alpine climatic transect, northern Peruvian Andes." Geoderma 55(3): 211-223. Schittek, K., et al. (2014). "Holocene environmental changes in the highlands of the southern Peruvian Andes (14° S) and their impact on pre-Columbian cultures." Climate of the past discussions 10: 1707-1746.

  13. X-ray fluorescence in IAEA Member States: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The study of patrimonial works by non-destructive techniques has wakened up great interest because they allow the analysis of unique pieces without attempting their integrity. The Archaeometry Unit (UA) of the Instituto de Ciencia de los Materiales of the Universidad de Valencia (ICMUV) has carried out EDXRF analyses for the identification of forged works of art using portable instrumentation. In addition to the detection of forged works of art, EDXRF may help to obtain information of the art pieces that could be important to determine its value. In recent works we have presented some examples of the use of the EDXRF spectrometry to obtain information that can be important to value a work of art. First, we have applied this technique to detect fakes in some paintings which could be attributed to Joaquin Sorolla. The comparison of the EDXRF spectra of these paintings with a database of well-known Sorolla's paintings (database made by the UA) gives additional arguments to judge about the originality of the work. The fact of detecting titanium in 'Carros en la Playa' of the Museo de Bellas Artes de La Habana makes almost impossible that this painting was painted by Sorolla. In 'Portrait of Two Children' we have detected zinc as the most important element, which is not observed in our database. This could indicate that this work is also a fake although it is not a conclusive argument. In addition, the EDXRF technique has been found helpful to determine the degree of originality of a work of art because it is sometimes able to distinguish between the original part from the author and latter modifications from restorations. This has been used in the - 'Fondo de Lucillo Funerario Gotico de la Iglesia de San Esteban de Cuellar' among other works of art. The use of EDXRF analysis to obtain technological information of the process involved in producing the work of art for paintings and for gold-plated pieces has also been made. Finally, as example of the potential

  14. Art, historical and cultural heritage objects studied with different non-destructive analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    modifications performed at the time. The combination of these scientific examinations aimed better qualitative and quantitative analytical research in art and archaeology and also to supply results that subsidize the investigations of authenticity of these objects while stimulating research in the art and in archaeology objects (archaeometry) in Brazilian Museums. In this work we present some studies of ceramics, pigments, papers and photographs from the collections of the Museu Paulista, Museu de Arte Contemporanea (MAC), Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia (MAE) and Instituto de Estudos Brasileiros (IEB). (author)

  15. Magnetometry and archaeological prospection in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba Pingarron, L.; Laboratorio de Prospeccion Arqueologica

    2013-05-01

    Luis Barba Laboratorio de Prospección Arqueológica Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México The first magnetic survey in archaeological prospection was published in 1958 in the first number of Archaeometry, in Oxford. That article marked the beginning of this applications to archaeology. After that, magnetic field measurements have become one of the most important and popular prospection tools. Its most outstanding characteristic is the speed of survey that allows to cover large areas in short time. As a consequence, it is usually the first approach to study a buried archaeological site. The first attempts in Mexico were carried out in 196. Castillo and Urrutia, among other geophysical techniques, used a magnetometer to study the northern part of the main plaza, zocalo, in Mexico City to locate some stone Aztec sculptures. About the same time Morrison et al. in La Venta pyramid used a magnetometer to measure total magnetic field trying to find a substructure. Some years later Brainer and Coe made a magnetic survey to locate large stone Olmec heads in San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan, Veracruz. Technology development has provided everyday more portable and accurate instruments to measure the magnetic field. The first total magnetic field proton magnetometers were followed by differential magnetometers and more recently gradiometers. Presently, multiple sensor magnetometers are widely used in European archaeology. The trend has been to remove the environmental and modern interference and to make more sensitive the instruments to the superficial anomalies related to most of the archaeological sites. There is a close relationship between the geology of the region and the way magnetometry works in archaeological sites. Archaeological prospection in Europe usually needs very sensitive instruments to detect slight magnetic contrast of ditches in old sediments. In contrast, volcanic conditions in Mexico produce large magnetic contrast

  16. XRD applied to the determination of pigments and composition of lithic materials and ceramics from archaeological pre-hispanic sites of the Rio de la Plata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    materials compared. Both studies are encouraging to improve the study of prehistoric materials through different archaeometry techniques. (author)

  17. Art, historical and cultural heritage objects studied with different non-destructive analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzutto, Marcia A.; Tabacniks, Manfredo H.; Added, Nemitala; Campos, Pedro H.O.V.; Curado, Jessica F.; Kajiya, Elizabeth A.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2012-07-01

    modifications performed at the time. The combination of these scientific examinations aimed better qualitative and quantitative analytical research in art and archaeology and also to supply results that subsidize the investigations of authenticity of these objects while stimulating research in the art and in archaeology objects (archaeometry) in Brazilian Museums. In this work we present some studies of ceramics, pigments, papers and photographs from the collections of the Museu Paulista, Museu de Arte Contemporanea (MAC), Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia (MAE) and Instituto de Estudos Brasileiros (IEB). (author)

  18. Utilisation of the Research Reactor TRIGA Mainz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TRIGA Mark II reactor of the University of Mainz can be operated in the steady state mode with thermal powers up to a maximum of 100 kW and in the pulse mode with a maximum peak power of 250 MW. So far, more than 17 000 pulses have been performed. For irradiations the TRIGA Mainz has a central experimental tube, three pneumatic transfer systems and a rotary specimen rack. In addition, the TRIGA Mainz includes four horizontal beam ports and a graphite thermal column which provides a source of well-thermalised neutrons. A broad spectrum of commercial applications, scientific research and training can be executed. For education and training various courses in nuclear and radiochemistry, radiation protection, reactor operation and physics are held for scientists, advanced students, teachers, engineers and technicians. Isotope production and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) are applied in in-core positions for different applications. NAA in Mainz is focused to determine trace elements in different materials such as in archaeometry, forensics, biology and technical materials including semiconductors for photovoltaics. The beam ports and the thermal column are used for commercial as well as for special basic and applied research in medicine, biology, chemistry and physics. Experiments are in preparation to determine the fundamental neutron properties with very high precision using ultra cold neutrons (UCN) produced at the tangential beam port. A second source is under development at the radial piercing beam port. Another experiment under development is the determination of ground-state properties of radioactive nuclei with very high precision using a penning trap and collinear laser spectroscopy. For many years fast chemical separation procedures combining a gas-jet transport system installed in one beam tube with either continuous or discontinuous chemical separation are carried out. In addition the thermal column of the reactor is also used for medical and

  19. Rise and course of an elusive technology: metal gilding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perea, Alicia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on mercury or fire gilding technology during Prehistory and Antiquity is at its beginnings due to the fact that its identification and characterization is completely dependent on analytical techniques, mainly non destructive Archaeometry techniques allowing an easy characterization of the archaeological objects. Actually we rely on a small number of analytical data, much more limited if we place ourselves within the Iberian peninsula or if we are concerned with the early stages of the use of this technology because... nobody finds what it is not looked for.
    We submit a summary of data anlyisis by XRF and PIXE in order to characterize two groups of items: on the one hand a special type of iberian brooch with animals and hunting scenes, made up of gilded silver, and on the other the visigothic treasure of Torredonjimeno, Jaén. From the debate on these results the hypothesis of a local origin for fire gilding technology during the iberian period, about 4th century B.C., has come out regardless other centers of possible inception in Europe or the Mediterranean. A final stage would be represented by visigothic jewellery that closes the late Antiquity technological domain system up.

    La investigación sobre la técnica del dorado al fuego con amalgama de mercurio durante la Prehistoria y Antigüedad no ha hecho más que comenzar debido a que su identificación y caracterización es totalmente dependiente de las técnicas analíticas, fundamentalmente las no destructivas, puestas a punto desde la Arqueometría para facilitar el estudio del material arqueológico. Actualmente contamos con escasos datos analíticos, que se reducen drásticamente si nos situamos en la Península ibérica y concentramos nuestro interés en las primeras etapas de su utilización, porque... nadie encuentra lo que no se busca.
    Presentamos una recopilación de este tipo de datos mediante las técnicas analíticas XRF y PIXE para caracterizar dos grupos

  20. The effect of pre-Hispanic agriculture practices on soils in the Western Cordillera of the Peruvian Andes (region Laramate, 14.5°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leceta, Fernando; Mächtle, Bertil; Schukraft, Gerd; Eitel, Bernhard

    2013-04-01

    ) could be also attested in the Laramate area. Retention of eroded loessic material transported against the terrace walls could be associated to periods of increased geomorphodynamics founded in the surroundings by 600 AD (Forbriger & Schittek 2011, unpublished raw data). References Branch, N., Kemp, R., Silva, B., Meddens F., Williams, A., Kendall, A., Vivanco Pomacanchari, C. (2007): Testing the sustainability and sensitivity to climatic change of terrace agricultural systems in the Peruvian Andes: a pilot study. Journal of Archaeological Science 34 (2007) 1-9. Eitel, B., Hecht, S., Mächtle, B., Schukraft, G., Kadereit, A., Wagner, G. A., Kromer, B., Unkel, I., Reindel, M. (2005): Geoarchaeological evidence from desert loess in the Nasca-Palpa region, southern Peru: Palaeoenvironmental changes and their impact on Pre-Columbian cultures. Archaeometry 47, 137-185. Mächtle, B. (2007): Geomorphologisch-bodenkundliche Untersuchungen zur Rekonstruktion der holozänen Umweltgeschichte in der nördlichen Atacama im Raum Palpa/Südperu. Dissertation, Heidelberger Geographische Arbeiten 123.- 227 S.

  1. L'archeologia dell'architettura in Italia nell'ultimo quinquennio (1997-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brogiolo, Gian Pietro

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The author makes a summary on the situation of Building Archaeology in Italy from the 1990s onwards, when the creation of the journal “Archeologia dell’architettura” and several Congresses made it possible for different groups of investigators to share their strategies and experience, both regarding stratigraphic readings and their relationship to restoration and the study of buildings techniques, dimensional chronology and archaeometry. A key argument in this debate has been the application of this set of methods to architectural restoration, and experimentation on the static equilibrium sequence, degradation and wall coating as crucial instruments in a correct restoration process. This debate has given lesser focus to the main goal of the archaeologist: to obtain historical information from stratigraphic reconstructions, for which becomes in turn necessary to prepare repertoires and undertake extensive studies, relate archaeology to agrarian structures and landscape transformations as well as with social and economic structures. Archaeologists must work on this issue on the following years, without leaving aside the intimate relationship established with architectural restoration, to preserve the building patrimony in a context which should promote cultural multicentralism, the exchange of ideas and a recovery of civil society.Il contributo delinea un bilancio dell'Archeologia dell'architettura in Italia a partire dalla metà degli anni '90 del XX secolo, quando alcuni convegni e la neonata rivista "Archeologia dell'Architettura", misero a confronto le esperienze maturate in più centri di ricerca, che riguardavano non solo l’analisi stratigrafica delle murature il suo rapporto con il Restauro, ma anche allo studio delle tecniche costruttive, della mensiocronologia e dell’archeometria. Da questo punto di vista sono da segnalare da un lato le sperimentazioni nella costruzione delle sequenze degli equilibri statici, del degrado, degli

  2. Sobre límites y posibilidades de la investigación arqueológica de la arquitectura. De la estratigrafía a un modelo histórico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caballero Zoreda, Luis

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available By the beginning of the 1990s, critical readings on late antiquity and early medieval Spanish architecture put into relief avowed contradictions in the generally accepted theories about its genesis and evolution.This crisis suggested me the need to propose a new explanatory model, according to which the architectural revolution brought about by Visigoth architecture would have taken place through the contribution of the new Islamic culture, way into the Middle Ages. This approach prompted me to apply myself to Building Archaeology in order to turn it to the resolution of the problem. A decade after that proposal I intend to present my experience on the usefulness and limitations of Building Archaeology. It has in fact proved useful in order to ensure a renewal of the research interest on this architecture and to obtain a new corpus of data on a more rigorous basis, but it has not been enough to solve the problem in a definite way since, as each and every historical problem, it remains partly open and subject to continued renewal. Using different examples, I will delve on the site/building relationship,wall stratigraphy (building sequence, stratigraphy and style, stratigraphy and intervention, stratigraphy and diagnose, typology and decoration, archaeometry, documentation and absolute chronology.A comienzos de los años -90, diversas lecturas críticas sobre la arquitectura tardoantigua y altomedieval hispánica evidenciaron supuestas contradicciones en la teoría consensuada sobre su génesis y evolución. Personalmente, esta crisis de comprensión me obligó a un esfuerzo para resolverla, lo que dio lugar a que planteara un modelo explicativo nuevo, según el cual la revolución arquitectónica provocada por la nueva arquitectura visigoda se habría dado, en realidad, gracias a la aportación de la nueva cultura islámica, traspasada la Antigüedad tardía y ya en plena Edad Media. Al margen de otras connotaciones, en las que aquí no voy a

  3. EDXRF portable system used in the analysis of altars, sculptures and paintings from XVII and XVIII centuries in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The preservation of cultural heritage has acquired increasing interest in the last decades and many scientific techniques have been employed to analyze paintings, manuscripts, ceramics, glasses, statues, coins and metal artifacts in order to solve problems related to restoration, conservation, dating and attribution of artworks. There is also an increasing trend for non-destructive investigations since most of the samples are unique and precious objects of art and archaeology. X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) is the most widely used investigative technique in the field of archaeometry, due to a number of favorable analytical characteristics, such as multielemental and non-destructive analysis, high sensitivity and applicability to a wide range of samples. In this work, XRF was used to analyze altars, sculptures and paintings in the Saint Anthony Convent (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). The cornerstone of this convent was launched in 1608, by the Franciscan friars, and the construction of the church was finished in 1620. The Saint Anthony sculpture in the main altar is one of the few remaining pieces from the XVII century in Rio de Janeiro. The splendid Baroque carvings of the chapel, covered with integral gilding, in the national Portuguese style, dates from 1716 to 1719. The results obtained during the analyses have been used in the meticulous process of restoration, developed in the last two years, in order to recover the original splendour of this important piece of our cultural heritage. The analyses were carried out with an EDXRF portable system developed in the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, consisting of an X-ray tube Oxford TF3005 with W anode, operating at 25 kV and 100 μA, and a Si-PIN XR-100CR detector from Amptek. In each sample were obtained several spectra, with an acquisition time of 300 s and a beam collimation of 1.5 and 2 mm. The spectra were analyzed using the software QXAS-AXIL from IAEA. The analysis of the golden carvings of the altars, in

  4. PREFACE: EPS Euroconference XIX Nuclear Physics Divisional Conference: New Trends in Nuclear Physics Applications and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    It was with great pleasure that the Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics of the University of Pavia and the INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) Structure of Pavia organised the XIX Nuclear Physics Divisional Conference of the European Physical Society, which was held in the historical buildings of the University of Pavia from 5-9 September 2005. The Conference was devoted to the discussion of the most recent experimental and theoretical achievements in the field of Nuclear Physics applications, as well as of the latest developments in technological tools related to Nuclear Physics research. The University of Pavia has a long tradition in Physics and in Applied Physics, being the site where Alessandro Volta developed his "pila", the precursor of the modern battery. This is the place where the first experiments with electricity were conducted and where the term "capacitance" used for capacitors was invented. Today the University hosts a Triga Mark II nuclear reactor, which is used by the Departments of the University of Pavia and by other Universities and private companies as well. Moreover, Pavia is the site selected for the construction of the CNAO complex "Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica" (National Centre for Oncological Hadrontherapy), planned for 2005-2008 which represents a unique facility in Italy and will be among the first complexes of this type in Europe. The Conference has gathered together experts in various fields from different countries and has been the occasion to review the present status and to discuss the new emerging trends in Nuclear Physics and its applications to multidisciplinary researches and the development of new technologies. The following topics were treated: Nuclear Techniques in Medicine and Life Sciences (Cancer Therapy, new Imaging and Diagnostics Tools, Radioisotope production, Radiation Protection and Dosimetry). Applications of Nuclear Techniques in Art, Archaeometry and other Interdisciplinary fields

  5. Microstructure and microanalysis (SEM/EDX determination of glasses from Mallorca and Menorca caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rincón, Jesús María

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a field of research of growing interest has been the application of physico-chemical characterization methods on modern materials to the study of ancient materials found by the archaeologists. This new field on Materials Science is known as Archaeometry. Many questions about the origin and manufacture of ancient glasses can be solved by using the same methods of analysis and microstructure characterization applied normally to special and advanced glasses. The islands of Mallorca and Menorca, located in the Balearic archipelago in the Mediterranean sea, has long been a crossing place of cultures. Transparent, opal and coloured glasses have been found in various archaeological investigations carried out in these islands. In order to know the composition and microstructure of some of these glasses, an archaeometric study has been carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX, differential thermal analysis (DTA, and hot stage optical microscopy (HSM methods. The SEM/EDX average microanalysis results show that these glasses are deficient in sodium and highly enriched in Al2O3 and Fe2O3, their composition being in the range: 0.5-1.5 K2O, 8-10 CaO, 6-8 Al2O3, 6-8 Fe2O3, 74-76 SiO2 (wt%. Some of these glasses also contain high percentages of lead. Small quantities of TiO2, CuO and SO3 (0.5 % have also been detected. Surface decoration and blue colour are other features of these ancient glasses, the surface of which, depicted by SEM, is highly altered with flaked and corroded microstructures.

    En los últimos años la aplicación de los métodos físicoquímicos de caracterización de materiales modernos al estudio de materiales antiguos es un campo de investigación de creciente interés para

  6. Integration of thermal and hyperspectral VNIR imagery for architectural and artistic heritage analysis and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli, Rosa Maria; Masini, Nicola; Pascucci, Simone; Palombo, Angelo; Pignatti, Stefano

    2010-05-01

    statistical approach to the problem of frescos: the French experience. J. Ital. Statist. Soc., 1: 37-53. M. Danese, U. Demšar, N. Masini, M. Charlton 2009. Investigating material decay of historic buildings using Visual Analytics with multi-temporal infrared thermographic data, Archaeometry.