WorldWideScience

Sample records for archaeological specimens

  1. Application of 12 MeV proton activation to the analysis of archaeological specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    12 MeV proton activation analysis is applied to a variety of archaeological specimens (glass, pottery, mortar and ivory) and its usefulness studied. The method is non-destructive and Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Y, Zr and Sb, ranging from percentage to parts per million (ppm) level were determined. The detection limits in archaeological glass for Ti, V, Cr, Fe, As, Sr, Y and Zr are at 1-10 ppm level; Cu, Zn and Sb at 20-35 ppm level, and Ca at 150 ppm level. (author)

  2. Analysis of Mexican archaeological specimens by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several archaeological specimens pertaining to the museums of Anthropology and History and Mexico City's Major Temple were analyzed. To perform this analysis a HgI2 (mercury iodine) detector property of Xsirius Inc. of United States which still is in experimental stage, a Norland multichannel, two Am-241 sources a P.C. Sillicon Valley, property of the University of Rome were used. Depending on culture type, the elements Au, Ag, Cu, Zn and Mo were analyzed. Mexica, Mixteca, Western or Michoacana and Mayan were the cultures in study. This work was undertaken with the cooperation of National Museum of Anthropology and History, University of Rome, Xsirius Inc. International Atomic Energy Agency and National Institute of Nuclear Research. (Author)

  3. The Archaeology of Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Smet, T. S.; Holcomb, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Context and chronology are of critical importance in archaeological research. Unfortunately, however, many previously excavated sites lack adequate detail in these aspects. As such, archaeologists are increasingly returning to previously investigated sites in order to reassess the integrity of prior excavations and answer new research questions. Near-surface geophysics can be used to locate and map the extent of prior excavations at these sites. Here, we present two case studies of the use of geophysics to find previously excavated archaeological trenches. At Copper's Ferry (10IH73), in western Idaho, magnetic gradiometry was used to locate a trench excavated by Idaho State University in 1961. This trench yielded cultural materials associated with the Western Stemmed Tradition that potentially date to the Pleistocene. At Goat Springs Pueblo (LA285), New Mexico, electromagnetic induction was used to find UCLA's 1960 excavation trench within a central kiva. Ground-truthing at both sites proved the efficacy of these methods, and allowed for a reexamination of the context and chronology at both sites.

  4. Archaeological analogues and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One solution retained for the management of high-level and long living radioactive wastes is the disposal in deep underground. Among the studies carried out by the Andra for the evaluation this solution, one concerns the research on metals corrosion for the development of reliable containers. Laboratory corrosion tests are in progress and are compared to the corrosion state of archaeological metal specimens of several hundred years old. Gallic or Mesopotamian remnants are some of these archaeological analogues which are analyzed using the most advanced techniques of materials science. (J.S.)

  5. Ethics in Archaeological Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Jennbert, Kristina

    2004-01-01

    The ethical dimensions of Swedish archaeology will be discussed from several angles – those of the archaeology of the past, critical archaeology, contemplative archaeology, and antiquarian archaeology. These themes overlap in the various fields of archaeology. In my opinion ethical perspectives on archaeological practice are vital for the survival and legitimacy of archaeology. Thus, archaeologists should to an even greater extent relate “their” archaeology to the world at large. The types of...

  6. Analysis of archaeological pieces with nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work nuclear techniques such as Neutron Activation Analysis, PIXE, X-ray fluorescence analysis, Metallography, Uranium series, Rutherford Backscattering for using in analysis of archaeological specimens and materials are described. Also some published works and thesis about analysis of different Mexican and Meso american archaeological sites are referred. (Author)

  7. Liquid scintillators for radiocarbon dating in archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple scintillator counter with one photomultiplier and no cooling is used for determining the absolute age of archaeological specimens by means of radiocarbon. Background is reduced by using a steel- and lead-laminated shield and amplitude pulse-height selection, and by making the detector from selected 'clean' materials. Ethyl benzene is synthesized from the carbon contained in the archaeological specimen. From 18 to 72 ml of liquid scintillator was used in the measurements, corresponding to the introduction of 3 - 12 g of carbon from the specimen. With 40 ml of scintillator the background-count speed and the contemporaneous carbon speed (without background) were respectively 23.5 and 37 counts/min and with 70 ml, 28 and 57 counts/ min. The statistical error of 48-h measurements of specimens 5500 yr old is respectively 65 and 35 yr with 40 and 70 ml of the scintillator. Archaeological specimens from various regions of the Soviet Union were measured. (author)

  8. Tephra, tephrochronology and archaeology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riede, Felix; Thastrup, Mads

    2013-01-01

    instantaneous from a geological, archaeological, and evolutionary perspective. Often these volcanic products can be identified by various chemical and non-chemical means and if the eruption date is known, the occurrence of tephra from a given eruption in stratigraphic sequences provides a powerful means of...... to make a case for better linking tephra research to archaeology, all from a primarily Scandinavian perspective. We argue that the identification of tephra in archaeological sediments should, in due time, become as routine as other types of geo-archaeological analyses, especially given that tephra...

  9. Marine archaeological research in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Sundaresh; Vora, K.H.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    Marine archaeology is otherwise known as maritime, nautical or underwater archaeology. These terms include all aspects of marine archaeology in which water plays a dominant role. It deals with the study of past seafaring from material remains...

  10. The archaeology of artefacts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neustupný, Evžen

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2013), s. 169-174. ISSN 0323-1119. [Theory and method in the prehistoric archaeology of Central Europe. Mikulov, 24.10.2012-26.10.2012] Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Human World * (cultural) inheritance * degrees of complexity * archaeological institutes Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  11. Teaching Archaeology. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gail William

    How could handchipped stones, ancient ruins, old broken dishes, and antiquated garbage help students learn about the world and themselves? Within archaeology, these seemingly irrelevant items can enlighten students about the world around them through science, culture, and history. When teaching archaeology in the classroom, educators can lead…

  12. Biocorrosion of Archaeological Glass

    OpenAIRE

    Shelley, William L.

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates the physical manifestation and chemical mechanisms andprocesses of biologically-induced corrosion of archaeological glass. Archaeological glasssamples from Greece and Cyprus suspected to have undergone biocorrosion wereanalyzed to characterize the composition and surface topography and to determine thedifference in the chemistry and microstructure between the glass surface and the bulk.Microscopic and analytical techniques employed include digital microscopy, polari...

  13. Radiocarbon and Indian archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing use of radiocarbon (C14) dating techniques in Indian archaeology has been described in detail. Work done in Microlithic cultures, Neolithic period, Indus civilization and Iron age cultures have been reported. C14 dates of various archaeological sites are listed. (K.B.)

  14. OK computer? Digital community archaeologies in practice (Internet Archaeology 40

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seren Griffiths

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The articles in this section of Internet Archaeology came out of a Theoretical Archaeology Group session at Manchester University in 2014. The session was motivated to explore issues associated with 'digital public archaeology' (DPA. The articles presented here deal with a number of themes which arise when doing digital public archaeology.

  15. Archaeology and Photography: A Pragmatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Shanks, Michael

    This chapter is an exploration of meta-archaeology. We consider some of the premises, dispositions, infrastructures of archaeological practices, where the archaeological is no longer a substantive, but adjectival, an aspect of things and doings, where archaeology is part of the trans...

  16. History of Historical Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Schuyler

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available On Sunday April 19, 1998 Jean Carl Harrington (known to the profession as J.C. or "Pinky" Harrington passed away at his home in Richmond, Virginia. At 96 Harrington's life almost spanned the 20th century and did encompass the rise and establishment of professional Historical Archaeology in North America. Many consider Harrington to be the founder or "father" of Americanist Historical Archaeology. In 1936 he took over the newly created NPS-CCC project at Jamestown, Virginia and that event is arguably the inception of Historical Archaeology as an organized, scholarly discipline.

  17. Volcanology and archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings study fossil volcanism and archaeology relationships in several countries ( North Yemen, Italy, Greece, Turkey and Martinique ). Age estimation of several eruptions is given and economic consequences of volcanic risk is evaluated

  18. Iowa Intensive Archaeological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file contains intensive level archaeological survey areas for the state of Iowa. All intensive Phase I surveys that are submitted to the State Historic...

  19. "Mathematics and Archaeology" rediscovered

    OpenAIRE

    Greenacre, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The book "Mathematics and Archaeology", consisting of 25 chapters by a range of international scholars in archaeology, will be published by Chapman & Hall in 2014. The present document, written as an invited Epilogue to the book, recounts the rediscovery of the book 275 years later by an archaeolinguist. The remnants of the book have been found in the Universitat Pompeu Fabra?s dilapidated library, which fell into disuse after books were abandoned in favour of electronic publishing. The archa...

  20. Photographs and Archaeological Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeshna Guha

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores some of the ways in which photographs and their archives establish archaeological knowledge. It draws upon histories of photography and archaeology within South Asia to create focus upon archaeology’s evidentiary regimes. The aims are to: a demonstrate the importance of engaging with photographs and their archives as objects for reckoning archaeology’s evidentiary terrains, b draw attention to multiple social biographies a photograph or photographic archive acquires, c highlight the visual as a force of archaeology’s historiography, and d impress upon the necessity of attending to historiographical issues. The aims allow us in seeing some of the ways in which field sciences create their evidentiary frames, and have a special resonance within the context of South Asian archaeology where professional and amateur archaeologists continue to promote the belief that archaeological facts exist out there, and that archaeological research produces better and more robust sources for the past than scholarship based on texts. Visual histories also highlight the mutation of the so-called ‘colonialist’ historiography within the post-colonial histories of archaeology’s developments, and encourage us to go beyond the hackneyed formulations of colonial legacies and the hagiographic literature of individual practitioners.

  1. Archaeology of Spiritualities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan Doyle White

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Academic anthologies devoted to the archaeology of religion, ritual, and the sacred are nothing new. Since the 1991 publication of Sacred and Profane, we have seen such volumes as Archaeology and World Religion (2001, The Archaeology of Ritual (2007, and Cult in Context (2007 shine light on the various ways in which archaeologists can interpret the cosmological world views and ritual praxes of past societies. Archaeology of Spiritualities represents the latest foray into this fascinating topic, edited by three scholars with differing expertise; Rountree is a social anthropologist at New Zealand’s Massey University, while Christine Morris is a classical archaeologist at Ireland’s Trinity College, Dublin, and Alan A.D. Pearfield is a Minoan archaeologist at University College Dublin (UCD. Published in Springer’s “One World Archaeology” series, the book has its origins in a session of the Sixth World Archaeological Congress (WAC, held at UCD in 2008, which was organised by the trio alongside the University of Tanna’s Tõnno Junuks.

  2. Archaeological analogs and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the high level and long life radioactive wastes disposal deep underground, the ANDRA built a research program on the material corrosion. In particular they aim to design containers for a very long time storage. Laboratory experiments are in progress and can be completed by the analysis of metallic archaeological objects and their corrosion after hundred years. (A.L.B.)

  3. Bread in archaeology

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel, Delwen

    2005-01-01

    This introductory article gives a history of the research on archaeological bread from the nineteenth century until recently. The different aspects that are relevant to adequate analyses and the correct interpretation of bread remains are discussed with a particular stress on future prospectives.

  4. Islamic Archaeology in Qatar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Three years of archaeological research at Al Zubarah on the northwest coast of the Qatar peninsula has produced detailed information on social, cultural, and economic structures of a major trading town of the Gulf in the 18th and 19th centuries CE. Detailed investigations, undertaken in partnersh...

  5. Galactic Archaeology: Current Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Wyse, Rosemary F G

    2016-01-01

    I present an overview of the science goals and achievements of ongoing spectroscopic surveys of individual stars in the nearby Universe. I include a brief discussion of the development of the field of Galactic Archaeology - using the fossil record in old stars nearby to infer how our Galaxy evolved and place the Milky Way in cosmological context.

  6. Archaeology in Social Studies: An Integrated Approach. Theme: Archaeology in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Heather

    1989-01-01

    Provides a rationale for integrating archaeology into the social studies classroom, suggesting archaeology topics that satisfy knowledge goals in the curriculum. Describes field trip, excavation, and experimental archaeology activities. Includes lists of archaeological agencies and teacher references. (LS)

  7. Additive archaeology: an alternative framework for recontextualising archaeological entities

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly Paul

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing poses a number of challenges to conventional understandings of materiality, including the so-called archaeological record. In particular, concepts such as real, virtual, and authentic are becoming increasingly unstable, as archaeological artefacts and assemblages can be digitalised, reiterated, extended and distributed through time and space as 3D printable entities. This paper argues that additive manufacturing represents a ‘grand disciplinary challenge’ to archaeologi...

  8. Archaeology, landscape and aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Cooper

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role, if any, of aesthetic reflections in the discipline of landscape archaeology. It begins by rejecting the charge that archaeologists should set aside their own aesthetic sensibility when studying landscapes. The bulk of the paper, however, is concerned with arguing that attention to the aesthetic sensibilities of the peoples who made the landscapes studied is essential to the kind of understanding and reconstruction of ways of life that landscape archaeology aims to provide. Two important themes that are developed during the course of this argument are: (1 a distinction (ignored by some archaeologists who are critical of appeals to aesthetic enjoyment between aesthetic appreciation and a dilettante “aestheticism” and (2 the aesthetic satisfactions that must be taken in work, such as farming, if this is to flourish.

  9. Drones in Archaeology

    KAUST Repository

    Smith, Neil

    2014-09-01

    In late 2013, a joint archaeological and computer vision project was initiated to digitally capture the archaeological remains in the al-Ula valley, Saudi Arabia. The goal of our team of archeologists and computer scientists is to integrate 3D scanning technologies to produce 3D reconstructions of archaeological sites. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) serve as the vehicle which makes this scanning possible. UAVs allow the acquisition of 3D data as easily from the air as from the ground. This project focuses on the recent excavations carried out in ancient Dedan by King Saud University and the country\\'s conservation of the Lihyanite "lion tombs" carved into the ancient city\\'s cliff faces. Over the next several years this site will be used as a test bed to validate the potential of this emerging technology for rapid cultural heritage documentation. We additionally scanned several areas in Mada\\'in Saleh, an ancient Nabatean city filled with monumental carved sandstone tomb facades, rivaled only by the capital of the Nabatean empire: Petra.

  10. Future archaeologies : method and story.

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This will be an account of an ongoing experiment called 'future archaeology'. Despite it’s name it's not strictly an archaeological experiment, since I’m not an archaeologist. Nor is it strictly scientific, since I’m not a natural scientist. However, it is an empirical experiment: it draws on evidence, it draws on artefacts, it has a method, and is theoretically grounded in critical social sciences, science studies, anthropology, and archaeological theory.

  11. Archaeological parks: what are they?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulette M. McManus

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Most in-situ conservation and presentation of archaeological sites focuses more on the monuments and other artefacts themselves than on them and the landscapes of which they are a part. The concept of an archaeological park can overcome this limitation. In this personal view of what constitutes an archaeological park, the intellectual roots and contemporary meaning of this relatively new concept are explored.

  12. History of marine archaeological research in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    Marine archaeology is also known as maritime, underwater and nautical archaeology. Each terminology has specific meaning and purpose in which water plays a dominant role. In India it is known as marine archaeology. In maritime or underwater...

  13. Indigenous Archaeology as Decolonizing Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Sonya

    2006-01-01

    Archaeological methods of analysis, research directions, and theoretical approaches have changed dramatically since the early days of the discipline, and today archaeological research topics relate to various aspects of cultural heritage, representation, and identity that overlap with fields such as ethnic studies, cultural anthropology, art and…

  14. An Exercise in Theoretical Archaeology: Do Archaeological Cultures Exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Porčić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological culture still persists as a basic analytical and interpretative concept in Serbian archaeology despite criticism. This paper presents a formal view of archaeological cultures and explores the epistemological implications of this formalization. Formal analysis of archaeological culture is achieved through logical and quantitative explication of the traditional definition of archaeological cultures. The main result of the formal analysis is that there are real patterns of formal variability of material culture that may or may not correspond to traditional archaeological cultures. These patterns are real only in the analytical sense – they are real for given input data and scale of analysis. Unlike the traditional approach where this patterns are equated with archaeological cultures which are furthered interpreted in essentialist terms or as quasi- organic entities such as ethnic groups, it is claimed here that discovered patterns are only the starting point – the empirical situation that needs to be accounted for in anthropological an historical terms. This paper shows how patterns that are traditionally identified as archaeological cultures can arise as a consequence of an entire range of processes – different social and historical realities. The main conclusion is that the traditional concept of archaeological culture is not useful neither as analytical or interpretative tools for two reasons: 1 traditional cultures are subjectively defined entities with no theoretical justification for the criteria used in their definition and 2 the empirical pattern cannot be an explanation in itself because it is the thing that needs to be explained. Cultural evolutionary (transmission theory is proposed as a general framework for defining and interpreting patterns of formal variability of material culture in time and space.

  15. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  16. Biomarker in archaeological soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedner, Katja; Glaser, Bruno; Schneeweiß, Jens

    2015-04-01

    The use of biomarkers in an archaeological context allow deeper insights into the understanding of anthropogenic (dark) earth formation and from an archaeological point of view, a completely new perspective on cultivation practices in the historic past. During an archaeological excavation of a Slavic settlement (10th/11th C. A.D.) in Brünkendorf (Wendland region in Northern Germany), a thick black soil (Nordic Dark Earth) was discovered that resembled the famous terra preta phenomenon. For the humid tropics, terra preta could act as model for sustainable agricultural practices and as example for long-term CO2-sequestration into terrestrial ecosystems. The question was whether this Nordic Dark Earth had similar properties and genesis as the famous Amazonian Dark Earth in order to find a model for sustainable agricultural practices and long term CO2-sequestration in temperate zones. For this purpose, a multi-analytical approach was used to characterize the sandy-textured Nordic Dark Earth in comparison to less anthropogenically influenced soils in the adjacent area in respect of ecological conditions (e.g. amino sugar), input materials (faeces) and the presence of stable soil organic matter (black carbon). Amino sugar analyses showed that Nordic Dark Earth contained higher amounts of microbial residues being dominated by soil fungi. Faecal biomarkers such as stanols and bile acids indicated animal manure from omnivores and herbivores but also human excrements. Black carbon content of about 30 Mg ha-1 in the Nordic Dark Earth was about four times higher compared to the adjacent soil and in the same order of magnitude compared to terra preta. Our data strongly suggest parallels to anthropogenic soil formation in Amazonia and in Europe by input of organic wastes, faecal material and charred organic matter. An obvious difference was that in terra preta input of human-derived faecal material dominated while in NDE human-derived faecal material played only a minor role

  17. Archaeology in Indiana: The Science Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James R., III, Ed.; Johnson, Amy, Ed.; Bennett, Pamela J., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This issue continues the Indiana Historical Bureau's collaboration with the Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology, Indiana Department of Natural Resources. The articles include "The Science of Archaeology," chronicling the remarkable transformation of the science of archaeology to date; "Archaeology in Indiana," providing a brief…

  18. Archaeological soybean (Glycine max in East Asia: does size matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyoung-Ah Lee

    Full Text Available The recently acquired archaeological record for soybean from Japan, China and Korea is shedding light on the context in which this important economic plant became associated with people and was domesticated. This paper examines archaeological (charred soybean seed size variation to determine what insight can be gained from a comprehensive comparison of 949 specimens from 22 sites. Seed length alone appears to represent seed size change through time, although the length × width × thickness product has the potential to provide better size change resolution. A widespread early association of small seeded soybean is as old as 9000-8600 cal BP in northern China and 7000 cal BP in Japan. Direct AMS radiocarbon dates on charred soybean seeds indicate selection resulted in large seed sizes in Japan by 5000 cal BP (Middle Jomon and in Korea by 3000 cal BP (Early Mumun. Soybean seeds recovered in China from the Shang through Han periods are similar in length to the large Korean and Japanese specimens, but the overall size of the large Middle and Late Jomon, Early Mumun through Three Kingdom seeds is significantly larger than any of the Chinese specimens. The archaeological record appears to disconfirm the hypothesis of a single domestication of soybean and supports the view informed by recent phyologenetic research that soybean was domesticated in several locations in East Asia.

  19. Indian Archaeology and Postmodernism: Fashion or Necessity?

    OpenAIRE

    Pratap, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    This paper begins by considering the origins and trajectory of growth of Indian Archaeology, from an Antiquarian stage, through to its present state, which may best be described, positioned between cultural historical, Positivist and Post-positivist approaches. The school of archaeological thought informed by Positivist Philosophy has been called variously as the New Archaeology, Hypothetico-Deductive Archaeology, and more lately as Processual Archaeology (Paddayya, 1990). The school of India...

  20. Indigenous archaeology as complement to, not separate from, scientific archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Watkins

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Defining Indigenous Archaeology is as difficult as defining “Indigenous”. In some areas the term “Indigenous” is applied to people who existed in an area prior to colonization (“Geography”; in other areas it is applied to people who are to those people whose ancestors created the culture being (“Descendancy”; in others it is applied to the community of people who live in the area where the archaeology is being conducted (“Proximity”. This paper recognizes that Archaeology, however defined, has characteristics that add to the scientific study of the human past; that Indigenous Archaeology is not meant to supplant scientific archaeology but to add to archaeology’s powers. In this paper I will provide an overview of Indigenous Archaeology, examine some of the in trying to discuss its many facets as a single disciplinary approach to the of the past, and then close with an examination of the in the generalized approach to the study of the past by partnering with communities and organizations.

  1. The Archaeology of Egyptian Monasticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Louise

    The study of Egyptian monasticism has traditionally relied heavily on the rich corpus of textual sources, while the archaeological remains have been secondary to our understanding of monastic life. This imbalance has resulted in a situation where questions pertinent to the physical remains of...... monasteries ha ve largely remained unanswered. Based on first - hand archaeological material from the White Monastery federation and comparative material obtained through archaeological reports, the thesis addresses Egypt ian Monasticism in the transition from Late Antiquity to the Early Islamic period, by...... examining three main themes through seven chapters. These themes are: 1. the relationship between the archaeological and textual sources pertinent to the White Monastery; 2. the diachronic development of the White Monastery and the process es that caused its abandonment; 3. the economy of the White...

  2. Archaeology and global information systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ian Hodder

    1999-01-01

    In this paper I wish to reinforce the view that there is a potential in the use of the Internet by archaeology for an important change in the organisation and institutionalisation of archaeological knowledge. As many have argued, this change involves a shift from hierarchy to networks and flows. But there are dangers that the Internet will simply translate old forms of elite knowledge into new forms, increasingly excluding the un-networked. Care needs to be taken to provide different mod...

  3. Luminescence dating in archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating is routinely applied to burnt lithic material. Simple fires are capable of enabling stones weighing a few hundred grams to reach 450oC, thus zeroing the TL signal. TL dates have been obtained for Upper and Lower Paleolithic sites in Europe and the Near East. TL dating continues to be used for dating pottery and for authentification of ceramic works of art. Some recent studies report the use of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) (also know as photoluminescence) for dating very small samples of quartz, e.g. from small pieces of pottery or frm metallurgical slag The major recent advance has been in the development of a reliable laboratory procedure for using the OSL signal from quartz to obtain the past radiation exposure. The quartz OSL signal is extremely sensitive to light and is reduced to a negligible level on exposure to direct sunlight for radionuclides during burial, signal to date san.sized quartz grains extracted from sediments, The OSL signal is stimulated by 470 nm light from emitting diodes and the detected using flirters centred on 340 nm A similar signal can be obtained from feldspar grain when are exposed to infrared wavelengths around 880 nm. The infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals is also rapidly depleted by exposure to sunlight, and dating of colluvial deposits from archaeological sites has been reported

  4. Archaeology on Screen: Representing Archaeology on Film in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Bandović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Reading the popular culture may contribute to the reflexive view on a discipline such as archaeology. Film, as a part of popular culture, frequently unveils the hidden messages, which may be an echo of a discipline or its distorted image in the mirror. Film and archaeology share not only the common origins in the modernity, but also the imaginary spaces where the past and the present meet and intertwine. The subjects treated in films, the contexts in which archaeology appears, speak of the place the discipline holds in the society, reminding us at the same time of all the elements encompassed by the archaeological discourse. On the other hand, if we compare the portraits of the imaginary archaeologists (such as Professor Mihajlo Pavlović, Vera Zarić, with the witnesses of archaeology in Serbia over the 20th century (Nikola Vulić, Dragoslav Srejović, Milutin Garašanin, we shall approach the meeting point between academic and general public, science and the audience, theory and practice. Extraordinary individuals, unemployed dreamers living at the borders of the worlds, charming connoisseurs of the underworlds – these are but some of the qualities ascribed to the discipline by the films. However, these stereotypes do not generate out of the void, they are the consequence of the self-representation. This mystification of the discipline leads us back to the debate on the responsibility and ethics of the social scientists inside the society they live in. Of course, the suggested reading is one of the many possibilities, one of the archaeological interpretations.

  5. Archaeological Excursion into Proximal Colony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Palavestra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia-Herzegovina by the end of the 19th century, presided by Benjamin Kallay, the Empire’s Minister of Finance and governor of Bosnia and Herzegovina, strived to gain wider international justification for its years’ long project of “civilizing” Bosnia and Herzegovina, or particular “historizing” of this proximal colony. In the summer of 1894 the Austro-Hungarian government in Bosnia and Herzegovina organized the Congress of Archaeologists and Anthropologists in the Landesmuseum in Sarajevo. The aim of the Congress was to inform archaeologists and anthropologists about the results of archaeological investigations in the country, and to seek their advice in directing further work. The wider ideological, political, as well as theoretical context of this congress, however, was much more complex and layered, with the aim to present the constructed image of Bosnia and Herzegovina as a country of tamed and civilized European Orient of rich past and luxurious folklore. The participants of the Congress discussed the archaeological and anthropological data presented to them by the hosts, including the specially organized excavations at Butmir and Glasinac. It is interesting to analyze, from the point of view of the history of archaeological ideas, the endeavours of the participants to adapt the archaeological finds before them to the wishes of the hosts, and, on the other hand, to their favoured archaeological paradigms dominant at the time.

  6. Introduction: Critical Blogging in Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Morgan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This special volume of Internet Archaeology collects the leading voices of blogging in archaeology to provide a critical examination of informal, online self-publication. This collection of articles is one result of over a decade of digital communication; the confluence of a conversation that grew from a few lonely voices to a tumultuous cacophony. Even so, blogging has had very little scrutiny in wider archaeological publication (but see Caraher 2008; Kansa and Deblauwe 2011. The first movement toward this volume was the Blogging Archaeology session at the 2011 Society for American Archaeology meetings, accompanied by a "Blog Carnival," a groundbreaking effort to foment reflexive discussion prior to the conference. Several participants of this original session and blog carnival have contributed to this volume; these articles are intermingled with perspectives from contributors who have started blogging in the intervening time, and with peer review comments from archaeologists who have blogged for a long time, and from those who do not blog at all.

  7. North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proceedings of the Tenth North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles, held in Copenhagen, 14-17 May 2008......Proceedings of the Tenth North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles, held in Copenhagen, 14-17 May 2008...

  8. Qatar Islamic Archaeology and Heritage Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Report on the archaeological fieldwork at Al Zubarah and environs for the Qatar Museums Authority......Report on the archaeological fieldwork at Al Zubarah and environs for the Qatar Museums Authority...

  9. Introducing the Centre for Applied Archaeology

    OpenAIRE

    Dominic Perring

    2008-01-01

    The Centre for Applied Archaeology (CAA) is a new research centre within the Institute of Archaeology, established in 2006 to develop the work of the Institute’s Field Archaeology Unit, Archaeology South-East (ASE), through the creation of a productive research environment and the building of links with academic staff members of the Institute. In this article the Director of CAA defines “applied archaeology” and describes the aims and work of the Centre.

  10. Use of radiography in archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : Radiography is a versatile technique with many applications to archaeological and art historical artefacts. It can be used to assess the condition of objects before conservation treatment, to gain insight into materials used and methods of construction and to reveal the secrets of the embalmers art, hidden within mummified remains. X-ray radiography is an invaluable investigative technique that is non-destructive, quick and cost effective. The study described below covers the investigations of the archaeological artefacts in order to determine their corrosion conditions and production histories which are important for restoration, conservation, replica, dating and inventory works

  11. Archaeology and global information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Hodder

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I wish to reinforce the view that there is a potential in the use of the Internet by archaeology for an important change in the organisation and institutionalisation of archaeological knowledge. As many have argued, this change involves a shift from hierarchy to networks and flows. But there are dangers that the Internet will simply translate old forms of elite knowledge into new forms, increasingly excluding the un-networked. Care needs to be taken to provide different modes of access for different groups and to find ways round the exclusive tendencies associated with the dispersal of any new technology.

  12. Prehistoric archaeology in Central Europe: beyond diversity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sosna, D.; Kolář, Jan; Květina, Petr; Trampota, F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2013), s. 123-130. ISSN 0323-1119. [ Theory and method in the prehistoric archaeology of Central Europe. Mikulov, 24.10.2012-26.10.2012] Institutional support: RVO:67985912 ; RVO:67985939 Keywords : archaeological theory * artefact * communication * environment * history of archaeology * reflexivity Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  13. Archaeology Excavation Simulation: Correcting the Emphasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thistle, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    Museums offering archaeological programs often attempt to use the "sandbox approach" to simulate archaeological excavation work. However, in light of the definition of simulation, and given the realities of actual professional practice in archaeological excavation, the author argues that the activity of troweling for artifacts in loose sand places…

  14. The Times of Archaeology and Archaeologies of Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Gardner

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of archaeology as a discipline is explicitly structured by time, and ‘timetravel’ is a common feature of popular discourses about the study of the past. Yet archaeology is also the discipline which, amongst its other theoretical shortcomings, has singularly failed to develop any theory of time. Chronology is ever-present as a measuring tool, but only in rare cases has there been any consideration of this as but one, culturally-specific kind of temporality among many others experienced by people in their daily lives. In this paper, I will discuss various perspectives on archaeological times, including more sophisticated approaches developed since the later 1980s, and argue for an abandoning of the dualism between ‘measured’ and ‘experienced’ times which has emerged in some of these more critical attempts to grapple with the issue. Time is fundamental to archaeology, but not just because we ‘use’ dates. Rather, archaeologists should be able to contribute to wider discussions of time from their understandings of the materialized temporalities of past human agents, and to develop perspectives on the importance of these to the very nature of human social agency as a form of engagement with the world.

  15. OR Specimen Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervakis Brent, Mary Ann

    2016-02-01

    Mislabeled surgical specimens jeopardize patient safety and quality care. The purpose of this project was to determine whether labeling surgical specimens with two patient identifiers would result in an 80% reduction in specimen labeling errors within six months and a 100% reduction in errors within 12 months. Our failure mode effects analysis found that the lack of two patient identifiers per label was the most unsafe step in our specimen handling process. We piloted and implemented a new process in the OR using the Plan-Do-Check-Act conceptual framework. The audit process included collecting data and making direct observations to determine the sustainability of the process change; however, the leadership team halted the direct observation audit after four months. The total number of surgical specimen labeling errors was reduced by only 60% within six months and 62% within 12 months; therefore, the goal of the project was not met. However, OR specimen labeling errors were reduced. PMID:26849982

  16. Transport of viral specimens.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, F. B.

    1990-01-01

    The diagnosis of viral infections by culture relies on the collection of proper specimens, proper care to protect the virus in the specimens from environmental damage, and use of an adequate transport system to maintain virus activity. Collection of specimens with swabs that are toxic to either virus or cell culture should be avoided. A variety of transport media have been formulated, beginning with early bacteriological transport media. Certain swab-tube combinations have proven to be both e...

  17. Maritime archaeological studies in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Vora, K.H.

    India with more than 7000 km long coastline and about 5000 years old maritime history is dotted with several ancient ports. Marine archaeological research during last two and half decades has revealed a number of sites along the Indian coast, which...

  18. Archaeological dating using physical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of the science-based techniques that have been used to establish archaeological chronologies from the million-year range down to the historical period. In addition to the discussion of nuclear, atomic and chemical methods indication is given of the way in which the Earth's magnetic field and perturbations of the Earth's orbital motions are useful in this. (author)

  19. Franklin Fenenga and California Archaeology

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, William J

    1999-01-01

    Franklin Fenenga died suddenly on April 7, 1994, of pneumonia. Shortly before, ha had learned that he had inoperable lung cancer and only a relatively short time to live. His death ended a long and noteworthy career of research into California's archaeological past.

  20. Archaeology for the Seventh Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Sara L.; Modzelewski, Darren; Panich, Lee M.; Schneider, Tsim D.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the 2004 summer field program, the Kashaya Pomo Interpretive Trail Project (KPITP), which is an extension of the Fort Ross Archaeological Project (FRAP). Both are collaborative projects involving UC Berkeley, the California Department of Parks and Recreation, and the Kashaya Pomo tribe. The project attempts to integrate the…

  1. The Archaeology of Old Nuulliit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mikkel

    ¬aeo-Eskimo culture groups in Alaska. Knuth never published his findings in detail, which be¬came a mystery in Arctic archaeology circles. New investigations by the author of the material shows that the site was settled repeatedly by the first immigrants between 2500 BC and 1900 BC, and in addition that a total of...

  2. Chemical Principles Revisited: Archaeological Dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses methods used to date archaeological artifacts and other remains. They include: (1) nuclear dating techniques (radiocarbon dating, accelerator radiocarbon dating, thermoluminescence, and others); (2) chemical dating techniques (amino acid racemization, obsidian hydration dating, elemental content changes, and thermal analysis dating); and…

  3. A manufactured past: virtual reality in archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glyn Goodrick

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality and visualisation technologies developed over the past thirty years have been readily accessible to the archaeological community since the mid 1990s. Despite the high profile of virtual archaeology (Reilly 1991 both within the media and professional archaeology it has not been taken on board as a generally useful and standard technique by archaeologists. In this article we wish to discuss the technical and other issues which have resulted in a reluctance to adopt virtual archaeology and, more importantly, discuss ways forward that can enable us routinely to benefit from this technology in the diversity of archaeological practice.

  4. 37 CFR 2.59 - Filing substitute specimen(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filing substitute specimen(s..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Drawing § 2.59 Filing substitute specimen(s). (a... specimen(s), the applicant must: (1) For an amendment to allege use under § 2.76, verify by affidavit...

  5. Archaeological Atlas of Bohemia. Explaining archaeological remains in the landscape

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langová, Michaela; Kuna, Martin

    Glasgow: University of Glasgow, 2015 - (Campbell, L.). s. 377 ISBN N. [Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists /21./. 02.09.2015-05.09.2015, Glasgow] R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF12P01OVV003 Keywords : Archaeological Atlas of Bohemia Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://eaaglasgow2015.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/EAA-Glasgow-Abstract-Book.pdf

  6. Computerized Archaeology – 3D Tools for Investigating Archaeological Artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computerized revolution poses challenges and creates new opportunities in archaeological research. The Computerized Archaeology Laboratory at the Hebrew University integrates techniques and ideas from computer science (e.g., computer graphics, machine learning) in the archaeological research methodologies. We operate optical scanners which provide the three dimensional (3D) digital models that are then analyzed with the computer programs developed in our laboratory. These programs address research issues and needs which could not be addressed without the availability of digital 3D models. Beyond ‘capturing’ and visualizing data, I will focus on the process of analysis and provide novel ways of interpretation. For example, recently we developed new ways for determining the degree of similarity between flakes from various Middle Paleolithic lithic assemblages in the Southern Levant. Preliminary results are promising since the methodology applied distinguished between assemblages not using the traditional techno-typological criteria. This may provide a novel method for clustering and separation of prehistoric assemblages, new means to check the validity of the traditional classification. (author)

  7. Radiation in archaeometry: archaeological dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystalline inclusions contained in ceramics act as thermoluminescent dosimeters, the irradiation source being the natural radiation environment. Because of this, various ceramic materials (pottery, bricks, cooked clays, bronze clay-cores) have been dated by thermoluminescence (TL). A short review of the main possibilities of TL dating is given, with some examples that enlighten the advantages and limits of this method in the field of archaeological dating, compared to TL dating of buildings. The assessment of the chronology of Valdivia culture (Ecuador), based on a three-year project of TL dating, is presented and discussed. The overall uncertainty at around 4-5% can be considered the best limit presently available. The uncertainty distribution found among 700 archaeological TL datings and for about 500 building TL datings is also presented. (author)

  8. Archaeology and the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Isaksen, Leif

    2011-01-01

    This thesis explores the application of Semantic Web technologies to the discipline of Archaeology. Part One (Chapters 1-3) offers a discussion of historical developments in this field. It begins with a general comparison of the supposed benefits of semantic technologies and notes that they partially align with the needs of archaeologists. This is followed by a literature review which identifies two different perspectives on the Semantic Web: Mixed-Source Knowledge Representation (MSKR), whic...

  9. Radiation in archaeometry: archaeological dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most recurring questions in archaeometry concerns the age of the studied objects. Not all the materials can be dated so far, but the presence of the natural radiation environment has been of great help in finding mechanisms on which many dating techniques are based. The continuous irradiation from the naturally occurring radioisotopes and from cosmic rays causes the filling of electronic trapping levels in non-metallic materials. This kind of materials can, in principles, be dated through the analysis of these filled electronic traps, provided that the manufacturing of the object to be dated coincides with the starting time of filling traps. This condition is satisfied in the case of Thermoluminescence (TL) Dating, that can in principle be applied to all materials whose manufacturing requires a high temperature heating, typically all kinds of clays, but also bricks, burnt flints, porcelains, cooked hearths, bronze clay-cores. The main fields of application of TL Dating are then architectural history, through the analysis of bricks, and Dating in Archaeology which is the subject of this work. A number of examples will be reported to put in evidence usefulness and limits of TL Dating in Archaeology. The statistical precision that can be achieved is limited by the number of different measurements and treatments that are necessary. In some cases the incompleteness of information, typically in relation to environmental radiation and water content in the burial site, can seriously limit TL Dating precision. The sources of errors that affect TL Dating and the meaningful contribution to the archaeological research coming from TL Dating, when correctly and extensively applied, will be discussed relatively to some archaeological excavations and to a few important bronze statues, that have been dated through the analysis of their clay-cores. (author)

  10. LANDSCAPE ARCHAEOLOGY ALONG LIMES TRANSALUTANUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen S. Teodor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The project addresses the historical monuments comprised in the longest Roman ‘linear defence’ structure present on the Romanian territory.Despite it being the longest, this historic structure is the least protected and the least known in its technical details. Was indeed Limes Transalutanus an incomplete limes (lacking civilian settlements, for example, an odd construction (a vallum without fossa, an early-alarm line rather than a proper defensive line? Taking on these historical and archaeological challenges, the team attempts to develop an investigation technology applicable to large scale archaeological landscapes - a full evaluation chain, involving aerial survey, surface survey, geophysical investigation, multispectral images analysis, statistic evaluation and archaeological diggings. This technological chain will be systematically applied on the whole length of the objective, that is, on a 155 km distance. The attempt to find answers to issues related to the earth works’ functionality, layout, structure, chronology and relation with adjacent sites will be grounded on exploring the relations of the monument with the surrounding environment, by focussing on finding methods to reconstruct the features of the ancient landscapes, like systematic drilling, palynological tests and toponymical studies.

  11. Quantitative multiphase analysis of archaeological bronzes by neutron diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Siano, S; Celli, M; Pini, R; Salimbeni, R; Zoppi, M; Kockelmann, W A; Iozzo, M; Miccio, M; Moze, O

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we report the first investigation on the potentials of neutron diffraction to characterize archaeological bronze artifacts. The preliminary feasibility of phase and structural analysis was demonstrated on standardised specimens with a typical bronze alloy composition. These were realised through different hardening and annealing cycles, simulating possible ancient working techniques. The Bragg peak widths that resulted were strictly dependent on the working treatment, thus providing an important analytical element to investigate ancient making techniques. The diagnostic criteria developed on the standardised specimens were then applied to study two Etruscan museum pieces. Quantitative multiphase analysis by Rietveld refinement of the diffraction patterns was successfully demonstrated. Furthermore, the analysis of patterns associated with different artifact elements also yielded evidence for some peculiar perspective of the neutron diffraction diagnostics in archeometric applications. (orig.)

  12. Tourism and Archaeology: Back to Origins

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina PĂTRAŞCU; Florin FODOREAN; Ioan FODOREAN

    2011-01-01

    Archaeological tourism is an alternative form of cultural tourism, which aims to promote the passion for history and the preservation of historical sites. Unfortunately, today, in Romania, there is not a real connection between archaeology and tourism and there are only few sites exploited for tourism. The interests between archaeology and tourism due to the preservation and the capitalization of the historical remains, generates, in fact a sustainable form of tourism. From this point of view...

  13. Intransigent archaeology. An interview with Evžen Neustupný on his life in archaeology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuna, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 1 (2012), s. 3-28. ISSN 1380-2038 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : archaeological paradigm * processual archaeology * history of archaeology * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  14. Controlled Environment Specimen Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Hansen, Thomas Willum;

    2014-01-01

    environmental transmission electron microscope to an in situ X-ray diffractometer through a dedicated transmission electron microscope specimen transfer holder, capable of sealing the specimen in a gaseous environment at elevated temperatures. Two catalyst material systems have been investigated; Cu/ZnO/Al2O3...... transferred in a reactive environment to the environmental transmission electron microscope where further analysis on the local scale were conducted. The Co/Al2O3 catalyst was reduced in the environmental microscope and successfully kept reduced outside the microscope in a reactive environment. The in situ......Specimen transfer under controlled environment conditions, such as temperature, pressure, and gas composition, is necessary to conduct successive complementary in situ characterization of materials sensitive to ambient conditions. The in situ transfer concept is introduced by linking an...

  15. Decolonizing Indigenous Archaeology: Developments from Down Under

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claire; Jackson, Gary

    2006-01-01

    In this article the authors discuss recent developments in the decolonization of Australian archaeology. From the viewpoint of Indigenous Australians, much archaeological and anthropological research has been nothing more than a tool of colonial exploitation. For the last twenty years, many have argued for greater control over research and for a…

  16. Paleopathological analysis of changes on animal bones originating from archaeological sites Caricin Grad and Studenica Monastery

    OpenAIRE

    Marković Nemanja; Stevanović Oliver; Marinković Darko

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the estimation of incidence and analysis of paleopathological changes on skeletal remains of the animals from archaeological sites Caricin Grad and Studenica Monastery. Moreover, there has been carried out the assessment of the skeletal elements, as well as taxonomic and age determination. The total of 2595 bones or bone fragments were examined. In 22 specimens there were noticed various abnormal skeletal changes in following animal speci...

  17. Biaxial Creep Specimen Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the results of the weld development and abbreviated weld qualification efforts performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for refractory metal and superalloy biaxial creep specimens. Biaxial creep specimens were to be assembled, electron beam welded, laser-seal welded, and pressurized at PNNL for both in-pile (JOYO reactor, O-arai, Japan) and out-of-pile creep testing. The objective of this test campaign was to evaluate the creep behavior of primary cladding and structural alloys under consideration for the Prometheus space reactor. PNNL successfully developed electron beam weld parameters for six of these materials prior to the termination of the Naval Reactors program effort to deliver a space reactor for Project Prometheus. These materials were FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, Alloy 617, Haynes 230, and Nirnonic PE16. Early termination of the NR space program precluded the development of laser welding parameters for post-pressurization seal weldments

  18. Biaxial Creep Specimen Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JL Bump; RF Luther

    2006-02-09

    This report documents the results of the weld development and abbreviated weld qualification efforts performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for refractory metal and superalloy biaxial creep specimens. Biaxial creep specimens were to be assembled, electron beam welded, laser-seal welded, and pressurized at PNNL for both in-pile (JOYO reactor, O-arai, Japan) and out-of-pile creep testing. The objective of this test campaign was to evaluate the creep behavior of primary cladding and structural alloys under consideration for the Prometheus space reactor. PNNL successfully developed electron beam weld parameters for six of these materials prior to the termination of the Naval Reactors program effort to deliver a space reactor for Project Prometheus. These materials were FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, Alloy 617, Haynes 230, and Nirnonic PE16. Early termination of the NR space program precluded the development of laser welding parameters for post-pressurization seal weldments.

  19. Calibration specimens for microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolařík, Vladimír; Matějka, Milan; Matějka, František; Krátký, Stanislav; Urbánek, Michal; Horáček, Miroslav; Král, Stanislav; Bok, Jan

    Ostrava: TANGER Ltd, 2012, s. 713-716. ISBN 978-80-87294-32-1. [NANOCON 2012. International Conference /4./. Brno (CZ), 23.10.2012-25.10.2012] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA TA ČR TE01020233; GA MPO FR-TI1/576 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : E-beam technology * calibration specimen * scanning electron microscopy Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  20. Grid for Meso american Archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meso american archaeology works with large amounts of disperse and diverse information, thus the importance of including new methods that optimise the acquisition, conservation, retrieval, and analysis of data to generate knowledge more efficiently and create a better understanding of history. Further, this information --which includes texts, coordinates, raster graphs, and vector graphs-- comes from a considerable geographical area --parts of Mexico, Nicaragua, Honduras and Costa Rica as well as Guatemala, El Salvador and Belize-- is constantly expanding. This information includes elements like shards, buildings, mural paintings, high and low reliefs, topography, maps, and information about the fauna and soil. Grid computing offers a solution to handle all this information: it respects researchers' need for independence while supplying a platform to share, process and compare the data obtained. Additionally, the Grid can enhance space-time analyses with remote visualisation techniques that can, in turn, incorporate geographical information systems and virtual reality. (Author)

  1. Grid for Meso american Archaeology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucet, G.

    2007-07-01

    Meso american archaeology works with large amounts of disperse and diverse information, thus the importance of including new methods that optimise the acquisition, conservation, retrieval, and analysis of data to generate knowledge more efficiently and create a better understanding of history. Further, this information --which includes texts, coordinates, raster graphs, and vector graphs-- comes from a considerable geographical area --parts of Mexico, Nicaragua, Honduras and Costa Rica as well as Guatemala, El Salvador and Belize-- is constantly expanding. This information includes elements like shards, buildings, mural paintings, high and low reliefs, topography, maps, and information about the fauna and soil. Grid computing offers a solution to handle all this information: it respects researchers' need for independence while supplying a platform to share, process and compare the data obtained. Additionally, the Grid can enhance space-time analyses with remote visualisation techniques that can, in turn, incorporate geographical information systems and virtual reality. (Author)

  2. LIDAR, Point Clouds, and their Archaeological Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Devin A [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    It is common in contemporary archaeological literature, in papers at archaeological conferences, and in grant proposals to see heritage professionals use the term LIDAR to refer to high spatial resolution digital elevation models and the technology used to produce them. The goal of this chapter is to break that association and introduce archaeologists to the world of point clouds, in which LIDAR is only one member of a larger family of techniques to obtain, visualize, and analyze three-dimensional measurements of archaeological features. After describing how point clouds are constructed, there is a brief discussion on the currently available software and analytical techniques designed to make sense of them.

  3. Magnetometry and archaeological prospection in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba Pingarron, L.; Laboratorio de Prospeccion Arqueologica

    2013-05-01

    Luis Barba Laboratorio de Prospección Arqueológica Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México The first magnetic survey in archaeological prospection was published in 1958 in the first number of Archaeometry, in Oxford. That article marked the beginning of this applications to archaeology. After that, magnetic field measurements have become one of the most important and popular prospection tools. Its most outstanding characteristic is the speed of survey that allows to cover large areas in short time. As a consequence, it is usually the first approach to study a buried archaeological site. The first attempts in Mexico were carried out in 196. Castillo and Urrutia, among other geophysical techniques, used a magnetometer to study the northern part of the main plaza, zocalo, in Mexico City to locate some stone Aztec sculptures. About the same time Morrison et al. in La Venta pyramid used a magnetometer to measure total magnetic field trying to find a substructure. Some years later Brainer and Coe made a magnetic survey to locate large stone Olmec heads in San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan, Veracruz. Technology development has provided everyday more portable and accurate instruments to measure the magnetic field. The first total magnetic field proton magnetometers were followed by differential magnetometers and more recently gradiometers. Presently, multiple sensor magnetometers are widely used in European archaeology. The trend has been to remove the environmental and modern interference and to make more sensitive the instruments to the superficial anomalies related to most of the archaeological sites. There is a close relationship between the geology of the region and the way magnetometry works in archaeological sites. Archaeological prospection in Europe usually needs very sensitive instruments to detect slight magnetic contrast of ditches in old sediments. In contrast, volcanic conditions in Mexico produce large magnetic contrast

  4. Objects or Narratives. Archaeological Exhibitions in Serbia: Foundations of Museum Archaeology

    OpenAIRE

    Tatjana Cvjetićanin

    2016-01-01

    Although every local museum or parts of national museums keep archaeological finds, museums in general play a very limited role on the archaeological scene, often being passive and marginalized. Well-grounded investigation into the archaeological objects kept in museum collections and, above all, the public domain of museums, the nature of collections and exhibitions, both permanent and occasional, have not been adequately recognized, discussed or considered. In spite of the fact that museum ...

  5. The e-Depot for Dutch Archaeology. Archiving and publication of archaeological data

    OpenAIRE

    Hollander, H.S.

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the archiving and publication of archaeological research data has led to the establishment of the e-Depot for Dutch Archaeology (EDNA) accommodated at DANS. EDNA is a collaboration between DANS and the Cultural Heritage Agency (RCE). DANS is an institute of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW) and the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO). The slogan "Digital archaeology requires a digital memory" was used in 2007 to bring care for dig...

  6. Advancing Theory? Landscape Archaeology and Geographical Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Hu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper will focus on how Geographical Information Systems (GIS have been applied in Landscape Archaeology from the late 1980s to the present. GIS, a tool for organising and analysing spatial information, has exploded in popularity, but we still lack a systematic overview of how it has contributed to archaeological theory, specifically Landscape Archaeology. This paper will examine whether and how GIS has advanced archaeological theory through a historical review of its application in archaeology.

  7. NASA Biological Specimen Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonigal, K. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Johnson, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Biological Specimen Repository (NBSR) was established in 2006 to collect, process, preserve and distribute spaceflight-related biological specimens from long duration ISS astronauts. This repository provides unique opportunities to study longitudinal changes in human physiology spanning may missions. The NBSR collects blood and urine samples from all participating ISS crewmembers who have provided informed consent. These biological samples are collected once before flight, during flight scheduled on flight days 15, 30, 60, 120 and within 2 weeks of landing. Postflight sessions are conducted 3 and 30 days after landing. The number of in-flight sessions is dependent on the duration of the mission. Specimens are maintained under optimal storage conditions in a manner that will maximize their integrity and viability for future research The repository operates under the authority of the NASA/JSC Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects to support scientific discovery that contributes to our fundamental knowledge in the area of human physiological changes and adaptation to a microgravity environment. The NBSR will institute guidelines for the solicitation, review and sample distribution process through establishment of the NBSR Advisory Board. The Advisory Board will be composed of representatives of all participating space agencies to evaluate each request from investigators for use of the samples. This process will be consistent with ethical principles, protection of crewmember confidentiality, prevailing laws and regulations, intellectual property policies, and consent form language. Operations supporting the NBSR are scheduled to continue until the end of U.S. presence on the ISS. Sample distribution is proposed to begin with selections on investigations beginning in 2017. The availability of the NBSR will contribute to the body of knowledge about the diverse factors of spaceflight on human physiology.

  8. Rotating specimen rack repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1980, an operator at the UCI TRIGA Reactor noticed difficulties with the rotation of the specimen rack. Investigations showed that the drive bearing in the rack had failed and allowed the bearings to enter the rack. After some time of operation in static mode it was decided that installation of a bearing substitute - a graphite sleeve - would be undertaken. Procedures were written and approved for removal of the rack, fabrication and installation of the sleeve, and re-installation of the rack. This paper describes these procedures in some detail. Detailed drawings of the necessary parts may be obtained from the authors

  9. Maritime archaeology and shipwrecks off Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

    . It is hoped that this book will be an invaluable guide for students; teachers and scholars of Archaeology, History and allied disciplines besides general public. The book is well illustrated and comprehensively presented to be of use to everybody interested...

  10. Forensic archaeology and anthropology : An Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Kate

    2005-09-01

    Forensic archaeology is an extremely powerful investigative discipline and, in combination with forensic anthropology, can provide a wealth of evidentiary information to police investigators and the forensic community. The re-emergence of forensic archaeology and anthropology within Australia relies on its diversification and cooperation with established forensic medical organizations, law enforcement forensic service divisions, and national forensic boards. This presents a unique opportunity to develop a new multidisciplinary approach to forensic archaeology/anthropology within Australia as we hold a unique set of environmental, social, and cultural conditions that diverge from overseas models and require different methodological approaches. In the current world political climate, more forensic techniques are being applied at scenes of mass disasters, genocide, and terrorism. This provides Australian forensic archaeology/anthropology with a unique opportunity to develop multidisciplinary models with contributions from psychological profiling, ballistics, sociopolitics, cultural anthropology, mortuary technicians, post-blast analysis, fire analysis, and other disciplines from the world of forensic science. PMID:25870041

  11. Application of Spaceborne Remote Sensing to Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippen, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    Spaceborne remote sensing data have been underutilized in archaeology for a variety of seasons that are slowly but surely being overcome. Difficulties have included cost/availability of data, inadequate resolution, and data processing issues.

  12. Developing technologies for the management of the Archaeological Heritage: towards a model of Evaluation of the Archaeological Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Barreiro Martínez, David; Villoch Vázquez, Victoria; Criado Boado, Felipe

    1999-01-01

    This paper proposes to establish criteria and procedures of archaeological practice to solve the problems and demands posed by the Management of the Archaeological Heritage. Our Research Unit is developing the CLAAR Programme, to define criteria and conventions for Landscape Archaeology and Archaeological Heritage. The main aim of this programme is to contribute to the development of systems and methodologies to manage and evaluate the Archaeological Heritage. In a practica...

  13. A Faceted Query Engine Applied to Archaeology

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Kenneth A.; Angel Janevski; Julia Stoyanovich

    2007-01-01

    In this article we present the Faceted Query Engine, a system developed at Columbia University under the aegis of the inter-disciplinary project Computational Tools for Modeling, Visualizing and Analyzing Historic and Archaeological Sites. Our system is based on novel Database Systems research that has been published in Computer Science venues (Ross and Janevski, 2004 and Ross et al., 2005). The goal of this article is to introduce our system to the target user audience - the archaeology comm...

  14. Archaeologically Sustainable Development in an Urban Context

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, John C

    2013-01-01

    Archaeological deposits pose a financial risk for developers resulting from the planning constraints that are imposed by the premise that a public interest exists in those deposits and in the consequent impact that any development might have upon them. In England and Wales, those planning constraints arise from the principles now established by the National Planning Policy Framework. Here archaeological deposits are identified as being among the heritage assets that go to make up the heritage...

  15. Studying at the UCL Institute of Archaeology

    OpenAIRE

    Bill Sillar; Lisa Daniel; Charlotte Frearson

    2013-01-01

    Ranked 1st in 'The Guardian'(2013) league table for studying archaeology. Ranked 2nd in 'The Times'(2013) ‘Good University Guide’. 100% of Institute undergraduate finalists expressed satisfaction with our teaching and support in the UK National Student Surveys 2010 and 2011. Students at the UCL Institute of Archaeology discover the rich diversity of the human past, exploring societies from two million years ago to the present day, and asking questions of relevance to our shared global future....

  16. Palaeolithic research at the Institute of Archaeology

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Garrard; Norah Moloney; Dietrich Stout; Ignacio de la Torre

    2005-01-01

    Since its foundation in 1937, the Institute of Archaeology has been an important centre of research on Pleistocene environments and Palaeolithic archaeology. Frederick Zeuner (loA: 1937-1963) was greatly respected for his teaching and research on the subject, including his 1945 publication The Pleistocene period and John Waechter (loA: 1954-1978) for his Palaeolithic excavations at Gorham's Cave in Gibraltar and Swanscombe in the Thames Valley. Mark Newcomer (loA: 1973-1989) inspired many of...

  17. The study of archaeology in Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Bonanno, Anthony

    1996-01-01

    The University of Malta has made a late entry in the field of archaeology. The first graduate courses started only in 1987. One recalls with satisfaction, however, that Professor Temi Zammit, the distinguished Maltese archaeologist, was Rector of the Royal University of Malta between 1920 and 1926, and that for a short period, in the years 1938-1939, John Ward Perkins, then at the beginning of his brilliant and influential career, was appointed Professor of Archaeology...

  18. Thermoluminescence dating of Indian archaeological sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an attempt to provide a chronology for Indian archaeological sites, an extensive pottery dating programme was initiated during 1978-1979. So far we have provided a chronology for seven important Indian archaeological sites. The dated cultures include: 1) the Ochre Colour Ware culture, 2) the Pre-Harappan culture, 3) the megalithic culture and 4) the Painted Grey Ware culture. A complete survey of recently measured TL dates are presented in a model format similar to that used in Radiocarbon. (author)

  19. Editorial - portable antiquities: archaeology, collecting, metal detecting

    OpenAIRE

    Suzie Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Metal detecting and archaeology do not always coexist peacefully. Indeed, even in the current climate of participation and inclusion within public and community archaeologies, there are still issues of trust to address, relating to both metal-detector users and archaeologists. While in the UK there have been disagreements between archaeologists and metal-detector users over the years, there have also been some significant steps made in encouraging metal-detector users to cooperate with the ar...

  20. Zinc and Brass in Archaeological Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kharakwal, J. S.; Gurjar, L. K.

    2006-01-01

    Brass has a much longer history than zinc. There has been a bit of confusion about the early beginning of zinc as several claims are made out side of India. Both literary as well as archaeological records reveal that production of pure zinc had begun in the second half of the first millennium BC, though production on commercial scale begun in the early Medieval times. This paper attempts to examine the archaeological record and literary evidence to understand the actual beginning of bra...

  1. Decolonizing the Archaeological Landscape: The Practice and Politics of Archaeology in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, George P.

    2006-01-01

    In British Columbia, Canada, the practice of archaeology has been strongly influenced by issues of First Nations rights and the ways government and industry have chosen to address them. In turn, this situation has affected academic (i.e., research-based) and consulting (i.e., cultural resource management) archaeology, which have had to respond to…

  2. Making space for an archaeology of place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wheatley

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Rather than attempt to write a balanced or complete overview of the application of GIS to archaeology (which would inevitably end up being didactic and uncritical this article sets out to present a discursive and contentious position with the deliberate aim of stimulating further debate about the future role of GIS within our discipline. To this end, existing applications of GIS to archaeology are reviewed, concentrating on two areas of application, predictive modelling and visibility analyses, and on their wider disciplinary context. It is argued that GIS cannot be simplistically held to have been a 'good thing' or a 'bad thing' for archaeology, but rather that these different application areas may be analysed separately and found to have quite different qualities. Although they are in no sense alternatives to one another, the areas of predictive modelling and visibility analysis can be seen to represent quite different agendas for the development of an archaeology of space and/or place. The development of correlative predictive models is considered first, both from the perspective of explanation and of cultural resource management. The arguments against predictive modelling as a means of explanation are rehearsed and it is found to be over-generalising, deterministic and de-humanised. As a consequence, it is argued that predictive modelling is now essentially detached from contemporary theoretical archaeological concerns. Moreover, it is argued to be an area with significant unresolved methodological problems and, far more seriously, that it presents very real dangers for the future representativity of archaeological records. Second, the development of GIS-based visibility analysis is reviewed. This is also found to be methodologically problematic and incomplete. However, it is argued that visibility studies — in direct contrast to predictive modelling — have remained firmly situated within contemporary theoretical debates, notably about

  3. Archaeological Narratives and Other Ways of Telling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluciennik

    1999-12-01

    With a few exceptions, archaeologists have been far less concerned with the form of their texts or problems of authorship than have ethnographers. Typically, archaeologies are presented in the form of narratives understood as sequential stories. Approaches to narrative analysis drawn from literary theory, philosophy, and sociology and definitions of characters, events, and plots are examined, together with particular problems these may pose for the discipline of archaeology. It is suggested that neither literary analysis nor the tendency to write and evaluate archaeological and historical narratives in terms of explanatory value takes sufficient account of the often hybrid nature and aims of these texts and the contexts in which they were produced. This argument is illustrated with particular reference to stories of the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition in Europe. It is argued that reconsidering archaeology's positioning across the 19th-century science-humanities divide suggests a broader approach to the idea of what constitutes a narrative which can offer fresh opportunities for useful reflexivity and experimentation in presentation. Further roles and possibilities of narrative and non-narrative ways of writing archaeologies are also considered. PMID:10539944

  4. Some observations on contemporary teaching of archaeology in universities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gojda, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 1 (2012), s. 9-16. ISSN 0081-3834 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : archaeology * university studies * teaching strategy * interpretive openness * archaeological sources Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  5. EIS Field Investigation in an Archaeological Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2000-01-01

    Nydam Mose is an area rich in archaeological artefacts from the Iron Age. Excavations have been conducted in this area since 1859. Environmental changes and probably disturbances caused by excavating the area are now expected to have lead to an accelerated rate of deterioration of both wood and...... environmental changes and changes in corrosion rate. The aim of this investigation is to determine which parameters and which techniques that are necessary and applicable in order to characterise the corrosivity of an archaeological site in view of in situ preservation of archaeological artefacts. There are...... large differences between the state of preservation of an artefact found in one specific area to another illustrating the diversity of the environment and the effect of the different history of the artefacts. This combined with general difficulties related to monitoring in soil makes it an ambitious...

  6. Sites, sacredness, and stories: Interactions of archaeology and contemporary Paganism

    OpenAIRE

    Wallis, R. J.; Blain, J.

    2003-01-01

    Folklore has, until very recently, been at the fringes of archaeological research. Post-processual archaeology has promoted plurality in interpretation, however, and archaeology more widely is required to make itself relevant to contemporary society; so, contemporary folkloric practices vis-à-vis archaeological remains are once again receiving attention. In this paper we examine contemporary Pagan understandings of and engagements with ‘sacred sites’ in England. Specifically, we explore how P...

  7. Pajarito Plateau archaeological surveys and excavations. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, C R

    1982-04-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory continues its archaeological program of data gathering and salvage excavations. Sites recently added to the archaeological survey are described, as well as the results of five excavations. Among the more interesting and important discoveries are (1) the apparently well-established local use of anhydrous lime, and (2) a late pre-Columbian use of earlier house sites and middens for garden plots. Evidence indicated that the local puebloan population was the result of an expansion of upper Rio Grande peoples, not an influx of migrants.

  8. Zinc and Brass in Archaeological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Kharakwal

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Brass has a much longer history than zinc. There has been a bit of confusion about the early beginning of zinc as several claims are made out side of India. Both literary as well as archaeological records reveal that production of pure zinc had begun in the second half of the first millennium BC, though production on commercial scale begun in the early Medieval times. This paper attempts to examine the archaeological record and literary evidence to understand the actual beginning of brass and zinc in India.

  9. #Archaeology and #SocialMedia at#ACRNCASPAR

    OpenAIRE

    Ogden, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    CASPAR, the Centre for Audio-Visual Study and Practicein Archaeology and the Archaeology and Communication Research Network held a workshop at UCL’s Institute for Archaeology. The workshop was hashtagged on Twitter as #ACRNCASPAR and it’s been blogged by Daniel Pett. This is a Storified collection of tweets by @jessogden

  10. Maturing Gracefully? Curriculum Standards for History and Archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Mary S.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the similarities and differences between the disciplines of history and archaeology. Examines the standards and principles recently proposed for teaching history and archaeology to determine the areas of difference and commonality. Addresses the issues of historical and archaeological thinking describing each in detail. (CMK)

  11. Transformations of the Past: Teachers' Knowledge of North American Archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Mary S.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that archaeology education should be included within the social studies curriculum and addresses various reasons why archaeology has been ignored within the classroom. Presents the findings from a survey that investigated preservice and experienced teachers' knowledge of archaeology. Concludes that there is a need for teacher preparation on…

  12. Archaeology for Dance: An Approach to Dance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez y. Royo, Alessandra

    2002-01-01

    The paper proposes that existing methodologies for dance studies can be extended through consideration of recently developing methodologies from social archaeology. It is first argued that an archaeological perspective on dance is enriching for archaeology, whose recent interest in dance as a focus of investigation can be seen as an attempt to…

  13. PHOTOGRAMMETRIC TECHNIQUES FOR PROMOTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL HERITAGE: THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM OF PARMA (ITALY)

    OpenAIRE

    E. Dall’Asta; Bruno, N.; Bigliardi, G.; Zerbi, A.; R. Roncella

    2016-01-01

    In a context rich in history and cultural heritage, such as the Italian one, promotion and enhancement of historical evidences are crucial. The paper describes the case study of the Archaeological Museum of Parma, which, for the main part, conserves evidences found in the roman archaeological site of Veleia (Piacenza, Italy). To enhance the comprehension of the past, the project aims to promote the exhibits through new digital contents, in particular 3D models and AR applications, to improve ...

  14. Objects or Narratives. Archaeological Exhibitions in Serbia: Foundations of Museum Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Cvjetićanin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although every local museum or parts of national museums keep archaeological finds, museums in general play a very limited role on the archaeological scene, often being passive and marginalized. Well-grounded investigation into the archaeological objects kept in museum collections and, above all, the public domain of museums, the nature of collections and exhibitions, both permanent and occasional, have not been adequately recognized, discussed or considered. In spite of the fact that museum exhibitions legitimize the dominant social and political norms of the present, museums remain marginalized, separated from the currents of various pertinent disciplines, and not prepared for the necessary changes. Archaeological theory, shaping the archaeological practice of museums as well, is not understood as its constituent part, and the interpretive context in which exhibitions are created, contents and nature of interpretation are not considered. The analysis of the exhibitions of the National Museum in Belgrade, being the paradigm of museum archaeology in Serbia up to the middle of the 20th century, has shown that the culture-historical approach, the idea of continuity and dynamic artistic presentations of alienated past have marked this public presence of museums. The Museum has developed from the storage space and knowledge presentation, over exhibition space to an ideal museum, dominated by estheticized expositions, establishing various official representations of the past. The changes in the theory of museology, somewhat coinciding with the changes in archaeological theory, have posed a new challenge to museum archaeology, that may be defined in short as the need for the new interpretation of the past.

  15. Archaeological Tourism Opportunity Spectrum: Experience Based Management and Design as Applied to Archaeological Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzola, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Archaeological sites need a new management and development framework to address the pressures resulting from an increasing interest in archaeological tourism. This new framework needs to address both the imminent threat that increased tourism brings (overuse, crowding and additional wear) to the site as well as the widening range of experiences that tourists expect. Over the last decades, management frameworks have been developed in many fields of tourism to address similar issues. The most w...

  16. Corrosion inhibitor testing in archaeological conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Faltermeier

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Metal objects from archaeological contexts often suffer serious damage by corrosion. Various methods for inhibiting corrosion have been developed, but their effects need to be evaluated. Here new research is described on how treatments to inhibit the corrosion of copper and copper-alloy artefacts may be tested.

  17. Studying at the UCL Institute of Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Sillar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ranked 1st in 'The Guardian'(2013 league table for studying archaeology. Ranked 2nd in 'The Times'(2013 ‘Good University Guide’. 100% of Institute undergraduate finalists expressed satisfaction with our teaching and support in the UK National Student Surveys 2010 and 2011. Students at the UCL Institute of Archaeology discover the rich diversity of the human past, exploring societies from two million years ago to the present day, and asking questions of relevance to our shared global future. To address these questions students integrate the humanities and the sciences; using a wide range of approaches to collect, evaluate and interpret relevant evidence. At UCL and during survey and excavation projects students make life-long friends while developing teamwork, management and leadership skills. Studying archaeology demands energy and enthusiasm, it challenges expectations while developing the problem-solving and transferable skills which all employers are looking for. Graduates from the Institute go on to make wide-ranging contributions to society, including business, academia and archaeology.

  18. The fifth issue of Archaeology International

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, David R.

    2001-01-01

    With the appearance of this issue, Archaeology International (AI) reaches its fifth birthday. Since it was launched, as a successor to the former Bulletin and Annual Reports of the Institute, my aim each year has been to feature short articles on current research by Institute staff and research students, and to supplement them with summary information about other research-related matters.

  19. Palaeolithic research at the Institute of Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Garrard

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Since its foundation in 1937, the Institute of Archaeology has been an important centre of research on Pleistocene environments and Palaeolithic archaeology. Frederick Zeuner (loA: 1937-1963 was greatly respected for his teaching and research on the subject, including his 1945 publication The Pleistocene period and John Waechter (loA: 1954-1978 for his Palaeolithic excavations at Gorham's Cave in Gibraltar and Swanscombe in the Thames Valley. Mark Newcomer (loA: 1973-1989 inspired many of the students with his experimental research on prehistoric bone and flint technology and for his innovative work on the microwear analysis of flint tools. In 1982, Mark Roberts began his excavations at the Lower Palaeolithic site of Boxgrove in Sussex and more recently Matthew Pope has been involved in an extensive survey of the Middle Pleistocene raised beaches along the south Sussex coast. Simon Parfitt has been undertaking groundbreaking research into the Lower Palaeolithic of East Anglia. Andrew Garrard and Norah Moloney joined the staff of the Institute of Archaeology in 1990 and 1994 respectively, and Dietrich Stout and Ignacio de la Torre in 2005. Each are involved in research relating to human developments through the Pleistocene and this is outlined in the four sections that follow. Several other staff also undertake research in related fields, including Ole Gron, Simon Hills on, Richard Macphail, Marcello Mannino, Tim Schadla-Hall, James Steele and Ken Thomas. The work of several of these has featured in recent issues of Archaeology International.

  20. Studying at the UCL Institute of Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Sillar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ranked 1st in 'The Guardian' (2013 league table for studying archaeology Ranked 2nd in 'The Times' (2013 ‘Good University Guide’ 100% of Institute undergraduate finalists expressed satisfaction with our teaching and support in the UK National Student Surveys 2010 and 2011 Students at the UCL Institute of Archaeology discover the rich diversity of the human past, exploring societies from two million years ago to the present day, and asking questions of relevance to our shared global future. To address these questions students integrate the humanities and the sciences; using a wide range of approaches to collect, evaluate and interpret relevant evidence. At UCL and during survey and excavation projects students make life-long friends while developing teamwork, management and leadership skills. Studying archaeology demands energy and enthusiasm, it challenges expectations while developing the problem-solving and transferable skills which all employers are looking for. Graduates from the Institute go on to make wide-ranging contributions to society, including business, academia and archaeology.

  1. Moessbauer Studies in Chinese Archaeology: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsia Yuanfu; Huang Hongbo [Nanjing University, Department of Physics (China)

    2003-09-15

    The Moessbauer effect has been applied to a wide variety of objects related to Chinese archaeology. Besides ceramic artifacts, materials like porcelain, glazes, bronzes, ancient coins, ancient mineral drugs, and even fossils were studied. This article reviews these applications with particular emphasis on the study of the famous terracotta warriors and horses of the Qin Dynasty.

  2. Archaeometric studies on the Hatahara archaeological site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reconstruction of the past and the understanding of historical and cultural aspects of societies that developed at archaeological sites have been enabled by archaeometric studies undertaken on ceramics located at these areas. This study aims to be a contribution to the elucidation of these aspects with the application of three physical methods of analysis: neutron activation analysis (NAA), thermoluminescence dating (TL) an electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to ceramic fragments from the Hatahara archaeological site, located at central Amazon. The elemental concentrations obtained by NAA for 120 ceramic fragments were interpreted by means of cluster analysis and discriminant analysis. The results showed the existence of five distinct ceramic groups. This information, supported by archaeological interpretation, confirm the existence of four distinct occupation Phases at Hatahara site. In order to establish a chronology for the occupations, the ages of three ceramic fragments were determined by TL. The dating of two fragments did not confirm the archaeological interpretation about their occupation Phases. However, the dating of the third fragment allowed the confirmation that it belongs to the Manacapuru Phase. The determination of the burning temperatures of four ceramic fragments was performed by EPR. It was observed that although the analyzed ceramic samples belong to three distinct groups, there was no significant variation on their burning temperatures. (author)

  3. Archaeology for the Science Teacher: Interdisciplinary Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anslinger, C. Michael; Thiel, Daniel P.

    1984-01-01

    Provides an example of how archaeologists might conduct a hypothetical research program to illustrate how specific types of data are generated and then used to interpret prehistoric culture systems. A brief review of the historical development of American archaeology is also provided. (JN)

  4. Corrosion inhibitor testing in archaeological conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Faltermeier

    1997-01-01

    Metal objects from archaeological contexts often suffer serious damage by corrosion. Various methods for inhibiting corrosion have been developed, but their effects need to be evaluated. Here new research is described on how treatments to inhibit the corrosion of copper and copper-alloy artefacts may be tested.

  5. Educational Reconstruction through the Lens of Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewski, Patrice

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the educational reconstruction that was undertaken by the Department of Education in Ontario during the first years of the twentieth century. It draws on Foucault's method of archaeology to identify how schooling reforms comprised a discontinuity in pedagogic knowledge. This mutation created the conditions of possibility for…

  6. Research of archaeological and historical textiles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Březinová, Helena; Bravermanová, M.

    Liberec: Technical University of Liberec, 2013. s. 22. ISBN 978-80-7372-989-9. [Textile Science /8./. 23.09.2013-25.09.2013, Liberec] Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : archaeological textiles * historical textiles * textile technology Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  7. Editorial: Portable antiquities: archaeology, collecting, metal detecting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzie Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Metal detecting and archaeology do not always coexist peacefully. Indeed, even in the current climate of participation and inclusion within public and community archaeologies, there are still issues of trust to address, relating to both metal-detector users and archaeologists. While in the UK there have been disagreements between archaeologists and metal-detector users over the years, there have also been some significant steps made in encouraging metal-detector users to cooperate with the archaeological sector. Perhaps the most successful and best known of these is the Portable Antiquities Scheme (PAS, active across England and Wales. Add to this mix those that provide the commercial demand for metal-detected finds, the dealers and private collectors, and a clash of interests and motivations seems inevitable. Most would hope that relationships, positive in many cases but also problematic, will improve, both in the interests of enhancing the recording of non-stratified finds, and of promoting a publicly accessible and inclusive archaeology. However, is this an inevitable progression, or ultimately unachievable?

  8. Between archaeology and anthropology: imagining Neolithic settlements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Květina, Petr; Hrnčíř, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2013), s. 323-347. ISSN 0323-1119. [Theory and method in the prehistoric archaeology of Central Europe. Mikulov, 24.10.2012-26.10.2012] R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF12P01OVV032 Keywords : Neolithic longhouse * ethnographic analogy * settlement patterns Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  9. Male strategies and Plio-Pleistocene archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, J F; Hawkes, K; Lupo, K D; Blurton Jones, N G

    2002-12-01

    Archaeological data are frequently cited in support of the idea that big game hunting drove the evolution of early Homo, mainly through its role in offspring provisioning. This argument has been disputed on two grounds: (1) ethnographic observations on modern foragers show that although hunting may contribute a large fraction of the overall diet, it is an unreliable day-to-day food source, pursued more for status than subsistence; (2) archaeological evidence from the Plio-Pleistocene, coincident with the emergence of Homo can be read to reflect low-yield scavenging, not hunting. Our review of the archaeology yields results consistent with these critiques: (1) early humans acquired large-bodied ungulates primarily by aggressive scavenging, not hunting; (2) meat was consumed at or near the point of acquisition, not at home bases, as the hunting hypothesis requires; (3) carcasses were taken at highly variable rates and in varying degrees of completeness, making meat from big game an even less reliable food source than it is among modern foragers. Collectively, Plio-Pleistocene site location and assemblage composition are consistent with the hypothesis that large carcasses were taken not for purposes of provisioning, but in the context of competitive male displays. Even if meat were acquired more reliably than the archaeology indicates, its consumption cannot account for the significant changes in life history now seen to distinguish early humans from ancestral australopiths. The coincidence between the earliest dates for Homo ergaster and an increase in the archaeological visibility of meat eating that many find so provocative instead reflects: (1) changes in the structure of the environment that concentrated scavenging opportunities in space, making evidence of their pursuit more obvious to archaeologists; (2) H. ergaster's larger body size (itself a consequence of other factors), which improved its ability at interference competition. PMID:12473486

  10. Fantastic Archaeology: The Wild Side of North American Archaeology, by Stephen Williams. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce G. Trigger

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available For many years Stephen Williams has taught a course at Harvard University dealing with those aspects of Americanist archaeology that the finds to be based on fantasy rather than on carefully recovered archaeological evidence. He has now published a book based on this course, which provides a history of this archaeology. Much of the strength of this book is derived from Williams' recognition that fantastic archaeology has been an integral part of American archaeology from its earliest days, that the border between the fantastic and the scientific is problematical, and that weird ideas often fill real social needs.

  11. Archaeological analogous and industrials for deep storage: study of the archaeological metallic piece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of present research is to obtain information about archaeological analogous of iron and steel, useful for the model of deep geological repository (AGP). The analogous examined have remained buried between 1400 and 2400 years, in very assorted geochemical environments. The extraction of the archaeological pieces has been accomplished according to normalised protocols, trying to carry to the laboratory so the piece as its burial environment, avoiding all possible pollution. Trying to the archaeological analogous could provide valuable information to the AGP model, the study has been directed to related the physical-chemical characteristics of the terrain respect to the deterioration of the archaeological metallic piece. The geology of the surrounding terrain to the archaeological deposit, the geomorphological study of the terrain and data from the analysis of ground: pH, wetness, porosity, organic matter contents, bacteria presence, sulphates, carbonates, chlorides, etc., have allowed to explain the physical-chemical phenomena suffered by the archaeological iron and steel pieces. Also, an exhaustive study of the archaeological piece has been accomplished, concerning the microstructure of the corrosion layer and of the not deteriorated metallic rest. Obtained information concerns different items, such as corrosion velocity and formations of oxide layers, diffusion of chemical elements from the corrosion layer to the metal and viceversa, and structural changes in oxide layers and in the metallic remains by structural ageing. Obtained data have allowed to develop a mathematical model for calculation of corrosion velocity in buried iron and steels, based on physical-chemical variables of grounds, chemical composition and thermomechanical treatment given to the metal during its manufacture. (Author)

  12. Integrated Archaeological and Geophysical Surveys at the archaeological site of Priolo (Eastern Sicily, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leucci, G.; Malfitana, D.; Cacciaguerra, G.; Lanteri, R.; Fragalà, G.

    2012-04-01

    Syracuse (Eastern Sicily, Italy) and its vast hinterland played a crucial role in the economy of ancient Sicily, largely because of the management, exploitation and trade of agricultural supply. Nevertheless, the socio-economic aspects of its territorial management and the relation between the countryside and coastal centres in the complex system of the Mediterranean markets have not yet been analysed in depth by scholars. Despite the historical, monumental and economic importance of the surrounding area of Syracuse in the Antiquity, the knowledge of the roman landscape and archaeological sites are still limited. The research undertaken by Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali - CNR of Catania (Sicily, Italy) attempted to remedy this omission by outlining a preliminary picture of the rich historical and archaeological heritage of Syracuse and its surrounding territory, which will be analysed using a multidisciplinary approach. Three contexts are under exploration: Aguglia d'Agosta, an early roman funerary monument; Ponte Diddino, a middle-late roman villa; Tavoliere-Maccaudo, a roman and byzantine settlement. Integrated archaeological and geophysical investigations allowed a wide range knowledge of the roman-byzantine landscapes, archaeological sites and monumental remains. This researches conducted to solve specific archaeological problems which are part of a wider debate regarding the phenomena connected to the role of settlements, use of lands, etc. to establish new parameters for the development of ancient sicilian landscapes.

  13. A Faceted Query Engine Applied to Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth A. Ross

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the Faceted Query Engine, a system developed at Columbia University under the aegis of the inter-disciplinary project Computational Tools for Modeling, Visualizing and Analyzing Historic and Archaeological Sites. Our system is based on novel Database Systems research that has been published in Computer Science venues (Ross and Janevski, 2004 and Ross et al., 2005. The goal of this article is to introduce our system to the target user audience - the archaeology community. We demonstrate the use of the Faceted Query Engine on a previously unpublished dataset: the Thulamela (South Africa collection. This dataset is comprised of iron-age finds from the Thulamela site at the Kruger National Park. Our project is the first to systematically compile and classify this dataset. We also use a larger dataset, a collection of ancient Egyptian artifacts from the Memphis site (Giddy,1999, to demonstrate some of the features of our system.

  14. Iron deposition in modern and archaeological teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.-M.M., E-mail: AnneMarie.Williams@utas.edu.au [School of Medicine, Private Bag 34, University of Tasmania, Hobart 7001 (Australia); Siegele, R. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2014-09-15

    Iron surface concentrations and profile maps were measured on the enamel of archaeological and modern teeth to determine how iron is deposited in tooth enamel and if it was affected by the post-mortem environment. Teeth from Australian children who died in the second half of the 19th century were compared with contemporary teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes. Surface analysis of the teeth was performed using the 3 MV Van Der Graff Accelerator at The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Sydney, Australia. A small sample of teeth were then cut in the mid sagittal plane and analysed using ANSTO High Energy Heavy Ion Microprobe. Maps and linear profiles were produced showing the distribution of iron across the enamel. Results show that both the levels and distribution of iron in archaeological teeth is quite different to contemporary teeth, raising the suggestion that iron has been significantly altered by the post-mortem environment.

  15. WATER AND ARCHAEOLOGY FOR SUSTAINABLE TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICHOLAS KATHIJOTES

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water is undoubtedly the most precious resource of the planet and the accessibility to water resources marked the history of mankind since the dawn of times. Water has been indeed very central to archaeology and anthropology, that studied the ways in which water was provisioned, tanked, distributed, worshipped, exploited for agricultural irrigation or to power machines like water-mills, used for leisure, hygiene and healing, or abused to confer power on particular groups ,and how it played a central role in political and economic strategies. More than any other factor, waterways marked cultural and economic developments in history. This paper outlines examples of water resources management throughout the ages, in Cyprus and the Hellenic Civilization on different aspects of the use and management of water, investigates technical issues and gives suggestions, thus promoting a new approach to archaeological heritage and sustainable tourism.

  16. Application of synchrotron radiation in archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports current status of archaeological application of synchrotron radiation (SR). The advantages of SR in archaeological research and various application possibilities of X-ray powder diffraction (XPD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analyses of objects and materials of cultural heritage value are demonstrated through a number of case studies from literatures. They include XPD characterizations of Egyptian cosmetic powder, Attic Black Gloss, and pigments in Gothic altarpieces, provenance analysis of Old-Kutani china wares by high energy XRF, and XAFS analyses to reveal to origin of red color in Satsuma copper-ruby glass and role of iron in Maya blue. (author)

  17. Iron deposition in modern and archaeological teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron surface concentrations and profile maps were measured on the enamel of archaeological and modern teeth to determine how iron is deposited in tooth enamel and if it was affected by the post-mortem environment. Teeth from Australian children who died in the second half of the 19th century were compared with contemporary teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes. Surface analysis of the teeth was performed using the 3 MV Van Der Graff Accelerator at The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Sydney, Australia. A small sample of teeth were then cut in the mid sagittal plane and analysed using ANSTO High Energy Heavy Ion Microprobe. Maps and linear profiles were produced showing the distribution of iron across the enamel. Results show that both the levels and distribution of iron in archaeological teeth is quite different to contemporary teeth, raising the suggestion that iron has been significantly altered by the post-mortem environment

  18. Andean Archaeological History and the Popular Press

    OpenAIRE

    David L. Browman

    1995-01-01

    The only available published reports on many archaeological sites in theAndes often are found solely in the popular press, in the daily or weekly papers of the local region where the sites occur, or in the science and culture sections of the larger dailies in departmental or national capitals. Dog-eared, faded xeroxes are passed from one generation of students to the next. Each serious scholar has a few dozen of these ...

  19. Contextualising Archaeological Information Through Interactive Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Johnson

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Many web sites use maps delivered as non-interactive images. With the development of web-enabled mapping, new methods of presenting and contextualising archaeological and historical data are becoming available. However, most current examples are static views of contemporary framework data or specific time slices, and do not provide interactivity relating to the time dimension, which is so important to archaeology and related disciplines. In this article I look at some of the advantages of time-enabled interactive mapping and map animation in providing educational experiences to museum visitors and the web-browsing public. These will be illustrated through three example applications of the TimeMap methodology developed at the University of Sydney Archaeological Computing Laboratory: 1. the Sydney TimeMap kiosk at the Museum of Sydney; 2. an embedded Java mapping applet developed for MacquarieNet, a major Australian online educational encyclopaedia; and 3. the metadata clearinghouse mapping applet developed for the Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative, Berkeley. In each of these examples, a wide range of resources are delivered through a time-enabled map interface which accesses live database data rather than pre-structured curated presentations of data. This flexibility brings its own challenges in providing intuitive pathways and appropriate levels of detail in response to free-ranging user enquiries. The paper outlines some of the approaches I have adopted to resolve these issues.

  20. TOF neutron diffraction study of archaeological ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The time-of flight (TOF) neutron diffractometer ROTAX [1] at ISIS has been used for identification and quantitative phase analysis of archaeological pottery. Neutron diffraction yields mineral phase fractions which, in parallel with information obtained from other archaeometric examination techniques, can provide a fingerprint that can be used to identify provenance and reconstruct methods of manufacturing of an archaeological ceramic product. Phase fractions obtained from a 13th century Rhenish stoneware jar compare well with those obtained from a powder sample prepared from the same fragment. This indicates that reliable results can be obtained by illuminating a large piece or even an intact ceramic object making TOF neutron diffraction a truly non-destructive examination technique. In comparison to X-ray diffraction, information from the bulk sample rather than from surface regions is obtained. ROTAX allows for a simple experimental set-up, free of sample movements. Programmes of archaeological study on ROTAX involve Russian samples (Upper-Volga culture, 5000-2000 BC), Greek pottery, (Agora/Athens, 500-300 BC), and medieval German earthenware and stoneware ceramics (Siegburg waster heap, 13-15th century). (author)

  1. Basic Issues in Harappan Archaeology: Some Thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasant Shinde

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the Harappan Civilization in the early twentieth century was considered to be the most significant archaeological discovery in the Indian Subcontinent as it pushed the beginning of settled life by 2000 years. Contemporary to the Mesopotamian and Egyptian Civilizations it was unique in its town planning. Spread over major parts of the western and north-western subcontinent, its influence is seen to the Tajikistan border in the north and the Gulf region in the west with over two thousand sites found till date. The past eight decades of research have brought to light many important details of the culture including the cultural process involving its origin, maturity and decline but certain aspects such as the terminology, climatic influence, regional variations, script etc are still very flimsy. To gain more information the focus of research will have to shift from Mega Site Archaeology to Small Site Archaeology with large multidisciplinary research projects to acquire a more holistic picture of the Harappan culture.

  2. Skyscape Archaeology: an emerging interdiscipline for archaeoastronomers and archaeologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henty, Liz

    2016-02-01

    For historical reasons archaeoastronomy and archaeology differ in their approach to prehistoric monuments and this has created a divide between the disciplines which adopt seemingly incompatible methodologies. The reasons behind the impasse will be explored to show how these different approaches gave rise to their respective methods. Archaeology investigations tend to concentrate on single site analysis whereas archaeoastronomical surveys tend to be data driven from the examination of a large number of similar sets. A comparison will be made between traditional archaeoastronomical data gathering and an emerging methodology which looks at sites on a small scale and combines archaeology and astronomy. Silva's recent research in Portugal and this author's survey in Scotland have explored this methodology and termed it skyscape archaeology. This paper argues that this type of phenomenological skyscape archaeology offers an alternative to large scale statistical studies which analyse astronomical data obtained from a large number of superficially similar archaeological sites.

  3. From Web to Grid, a new perspective for archaeology

    CERN Document Server

    Pelfer, Pier Giovanni

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that in Archaeology large use is done of digital technologies and computer applications for data acquisition, storage, analysis and visualisation. In the last years the amount of information coming from remote sensing. from precise and fast acquisition of 3-D artefacts images by scanners laser, from GPS precise reference of geographical points and from other human and natural sciences are increasing at a large extent the amount of data that it need to be stored and made available for analysis. Moreover the use of Virtual Archaeology as a new approach to the narration and visualisation in Archaeology, is expanding rapidly, not only in the museum and archaeology professions, but also in the broadcast media, tourism and heritage industries. From another side recent natural and social disasters (wars) created enormous damages to the archaeological heritage and in many case destroyed definitively any information about ancient civilisations. It is urgent a longterm project for saving archaeological...

  4. When Archaeology Begins: The Cultural and Political Context of Chinese Archaeological Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyi Liu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 19th century, the construction of world history has been dominated by Western Europe. In Jack Goody’s recent work, The Theft of History (2007, he demonstrates that the interpretation of the past is conceptualized and presented according to what happened in Europe, and more often in Western Europe. Chinese archaeology, under the control of Western imperialism in the early 20th century, believed that it had to destroy Confucianism and come up with a new philosophy. However, with the arrival of many different kinds of western ideas, such as evolution and diffusion, Chinese archaeology was reformulated many times. Such issues have been discussed in several publications (Chen 1997; Liu and Chen 1999; Falkenhausen 1993. In this paper, we reexamine some of the key concepts of Chinese archaeological thought.

  5. Prospective of the application of ultrasounds in archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a prospective analysis of non destructive testing (NDT) based on ultrasounds in the field of archaeology applications. Classical applications of ultrasounds techniques are reviewed, including ocean exploration to detect wrecks, imaging of archaeological sites, and cleaning archaeological objects. The potential of prospective applications is discussed from the perspective of signal processing, with emphasis on the area of linear time variant models. Thus, the use of ultrasound NDT is proposed for new ceramic cataloguing and restoration methods.

  6. Training and Maritime Archaeology in a University Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, David; Palma, Paola

    2008-12-01

    This paper draws on experience gained by Bournemouth University to consider undergraduate education in maritime archaeology. At Bournemouth maritime archaeology is taught firmly in the context of a broader archaeological education. Archaeological programmes vary with the institutions within which they are taught, each programme thus having an individual character that separates it from that of other institutions and further enriches the subject through the breadth of this education. At Bournemouth the value of teaching archaeology with a high component of practical experience has been long understood. This does not mean that archaeology is taught as a purely practical subject but as one within which experience in the field is seen as a worthwhile focus. Bournemouth’s programme therefore recognises the value of field research projects as learning environments for undergraduates studying maritime archaeology. The programme is subject to a number of constraints, notably the size of the archaeological employment market, levels of pay within that market, questions of ongoing professional development after graduation, and the requirements of other employment markets into which archaeological graduates enter. This paper argues that research project-based learning, and in particular, involvement with amateur groups, provides a way to balance these constraints and supports development of both technical and transferable ‘soft’ skills.

  7. Geodetic surveying as part of archaeological research in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pacina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Surveying is an important part of any archaeological research. In this paper we focus on the archaeological research in north Sudan (6th Nile cataract and the surveying methods applicable under the local conditions. Surveying in the Third World countries is affected by the political situation (limited import of surveying tools, local conditions (lack of fixed points, GNSS correction signal, inaccessible basemaps and fixed point network. This article describes the methods and results obtained during the three archaeological seasons (2011-2014. The classical surveying methods were combined with KAP (Kite Aerial Photography to obtain the desired results in form of archaeological maps, detailed orthophoto images and other analyses results.

  8. Marine archaeological explorations on the southwestern coast of Saurashtra, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Tripati, S.

    of the legendary city of Dvaraka in Arabian Sea, Journal of Marine Archaeology 1: 59-98 Rao, S.R., S. Tnpati and A.S. Gaur 1992. A Preliminary Exploration of Prabhasa-Somnath, Journal of Marine Archaeology 3: 13-16 Sampura, K.F. 1968. The Structural Temples... Coast, Bulletin of the Australian Institute of Maritime Archaeology 26: 43-50 Thakkar, N. 1966 Sudamapun Porbandar. Rajkot Vora, M. Porbandar: A History of Porbandar City. Porbandar: Laya Sanskritika Samstha JOURNAL OF INDIAN OCEAN ARCHAEOLOGY NO 3...

  9. 76 FR 9049 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ] ACTION: Notice... of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA, that meet the definitions... patrimony. Officials of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology...

  10. 77 FR 59660 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Stanford University Archaeology Center, Stanford, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Stanford University Archaeology Center, Stanford, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Stanford University Archaeology... Stanford University Archaeology Center. Repatriation of the human remains to the Indian tribes stated...

  11. Specimen Preparation for Scanning Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: Microscopy Laboratory We recommend consultation with one of the lab directors before preparing specimens. The methods presented here provide an overview of preparation techniques for a variety of specimens. - **Conductive Specimens** (such as metallic objects): Usually, these specimens do not have to be sputter coated. Simply mount the specimen on a SEM stub using conductive paint or putty. - **Non-conductive Dry Specimens** (ex: ceramics, polymers): Mount on...

  12. An interlaminar tension strength specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Wade C.; Martin, Roderick H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a technique to determine interlaminar tension strength, sigma(sub 3c) of a fiber reinforced composite material using a curved beam. The specimen was a unidirectional curved beam, bent 90 degrees, with straight arms. Attached to each arm was a hinged loading mechanism which was held by the grips of a tensile testing machine. Geometry effects of the specimen, including the effects of loading arm length, inner radius, thickness, and width, were studied. The data sets fell into two categories: low strength corresponding to a macroscopic flaw related failure and high strength corresponding to a microscopic flaw related failure. From the data available, the loading arm length had no effect on sigma(sub 3c). The inner radius was not expected to have a significant effect on sigma(sub 3c), but this conclusion could not be confirmed because of differences in laminate quality for each curve geometry. The thicker specimens had the lowest value of sigma(sub 3c) because of poor laminate quality. Width was found to affect the value of sigma(sub 3c) only slightly. The wider specimens generally had a slightly lower strength since more material was under high stress, and hence, had a larger probability of containing a significant flaw.

  13. Electrothermal fracturing of tensile specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinn, H. O.; Hanks, J. G.; Perkins, H. P.

    1970-01-01

    Pulling device consisting of structural tube, connecting rod, spring-loaded nuts, loading rod, heating element, and three bulkheads fractures tensile specimens. Alternate heating and cooling increases tensile loading by increments until fracturing occurs. Load cell or strain gage, applied to pulling rod, determines forces applied.

  14. Geometric documentation of underwater archaeological sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Diamanti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Photogrammetry has often been the most preferable method for the geometric documentation of monuments, especially in cases of highly complex objects, of high accuracy and quality requirements and, of course, budget, time or accessibility limitations. Such limitations, requirements and complexities are undoubtedly features of the highly challenging task of surveying an underwater archaeological site. This paper is focused on the case of a Hellenistic shipwreck found in Greece at the Southern Euboean gulf, 40-47 meters below the sea surface. Underwater photogrammetry was chosen as the ideal solution for the detailed and accurate mapping of a shipwreck located in an environment with limited accessibility. There are time limitations when diving at these depths so it is essential that the data collection time is kept as short as possible. This makes custom surveying techniques rather impossible to apply. However, with the growing use of consumer cameras and photogrammetric software, this application is becoming easier, thus benefiting a wide variety of underwater sites. Utilizing cameras for underwater photogrammetry though, poses some crucial modeling problems, due to the refraction effect and further additional parameters which have to be co-estimated [1]. The applied method involved an underwater calibration of the camera as well as conventional field survey measurements in order to establish a reference frame. The application of a three-dimensional trilateration using common tape measures was chosen for this reason. Among the software that was used for surveying and photogrammetry processing, were Site Recorder SE, Eos Systems Photomodeler, ZI’s SSK and Rhinoceros. The underwater archaeological research at the Southern Euboean gulf is a continuing project carried out by the Hellenic Institute for Marine Archaeology (H.I.M.A. in collaboration with the Greek Ephorate of Underwater Antiquities, under the direction of the archaeologist G

  15. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, UCL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Picton

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available University College London houses one of the world’s most important collections of ancient Egyptian material, the majority excavated by Flinders Petrie, his students and his successors in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It is a museum of archaeology that helps to explain the development of a discipline that was in its infancy when Petrie worked in Egypt over a century ago. It is a teaching collection, its densely packed cases entrancing, and sometimes intimidating, visitors who rave about its old-fashioned feel, but it is anything but frozen in time.

  16. Archaeological program for the Yucca Mountain Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archaeological surveys, limited surface collections and selected test excavations in the Yucca Mountain Project Area have revealed four distinct aboriginal hunting and gathering adaptive strategies and a separate historic Euroamerican occupation. The four aboriginal adaptations are marked by gradual shifts in settlement locations that reflect changing resource procurement strategies. Whereas the earliest hunters and gatherers focused their activities around the exploitation of toolstone along ephemeral drainages and the hunting of game animals in the uplands, the latest aboriginal settlements reflect intensive procurement of early spring plant resources in specific upland environments. The final Euroamerican occupation in the area is marked by limited prospecting activities and travel through the area by early immigrants

  17. New Zealand radiocarbon database for archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first radiocarbon determinations from New Zealand archaeological sites were obtained about 50 years ago. Since that time, many hundreds of samples have been dated, and for the archaeologist interested in synthesising these various data into coherent regional and national chronologies, the problem of compiling results is a difficult one to overcome. Adequately assessing important radiocarbon-related variables such as the material dated, the context of the sample, the age, standard error, correction factors and a host of other variables, depends upon time consuming effort to compile and decipher past sample record forms at IGNS and Waikato Laboratories. (author)

  18. Enhancing rescue-archaeology using geomorphological approaches: Archaeological sites in Paredes (Asturias, NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Sánchez, M.; González-Álvarez, I.; Requejo-Pagés, O.; Domínguez-Cuesta, M. J.

    2011-09-01

    Palaeolithic remnants, a Necropolis (Roman villa), and another minor archaeological site were discovered in Paredes (Spain). These sites were the focus of multidisciplinary research during the construction of a large shopping centre in Asturias (NW Spain). The aims of this study are (1) to contribute to archaeological prospection in the sites and (2) to develop evolutionary models of the sites based on geomorphological inferences. Detailed archaeological prospection (103 trenches), geomorphologic mapping, stratigraphic studies (36 logs) and ground penetration radar (GPR) surveys on five profiles indicate that the location of the settlement source of the Necropolis is outside the construction perimeter, farther to the southeast. The Pre-Holocene evolution of the fluvial landscape is marked by the development of two terraces (T1 and T2) that host the Early Palaeolithic remains in the area (ca 128-71 ka). The Holocene evolution of the landscape was marked by the emplacement of the Nora River flood plain, covered by alluvial fans after ca. 9 ka BP (cal BC 8252-7787). Subsequently, Neolithic pebble pits dated ca. 5.3 ka BP (cal BC 4261-3963 and 4372-4051) were constructed on T2, at the area reoccupied as a Necropolis during the Late Roman period, 1590 ± 45 years BP (cal AD 382-576). Coeval human activity during the Late Roman period at 1670 ± 60 years BP (cal AD 320-430) is also recorded by channel infill sediments in a minor site at the margin of an alluvial fan located to the southeast. This work shows that a rescue-archaeological study can be significantly enhanced by the implementation of multidisciplinary scientific studies, in which the holistic view of geomorphologic settings provide key insights into the geometry and evolution of archaeological sites.

  19. Synchrotron radiation in art and archaeology SRA 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollard, A.M.; Janssens, K.; Artioli, G.; Young, M.L.; Casadio, F.; Schnepp, S.; Marvin, J.; Dunand, D.C.; Almer, J.; Fezzaa, K.; Lee, W.K.; Haeffner, D.R.; Reguer, S.; Dillmann, Ph.; Mirambet, F.; Susini, J.; Lagarde, P.; Pradell, T.; Molera, J.; Brunetti, B.; D' acapito, F.; Maurizio, C.; Mazzoldi, P.; Padovani, S.; Sgamellotti, A.; Garges, F.; Etcheverry, M.P.; Flank, A.M.; Lagarde, P.; Marcus, M.A.; Scheidegger, A.M.; Grolimund, D.; Pallot-Frossard, I.; Smith, A.D.; Jones, M.; Gliozzo, E.; Memmi-Turbanti, I.; Molera, J.; Vendrell, M.; Mcconachie, G.; Skinner, T.; Kirkman, I.W.; Pantos, E.; Wallert, A.; Kanngiesser, B.; Hahn, O.; Wilke, M.; NekaT, B.; Malzer, W.; Erko, A.; Chalmin, E.; Vignaud, C.; Farges, F.; Susini, J.; Menu, M.; Sandstrom, M.; Cotte, M.; Kennedy, C.J.; Wess, T.J.; Muller, M.; Murphy, B.; Roberts, M.A.; Burghammer, M.; Riekel, C.; Gunneweg, J.; Pantos, E.; Dik, J.; Tafforeau, P.; Boistel, R.; Boller, E.; Bravin, A.; Brunet, M.; Chaimanee, Y.; Cloetens, P.; Feist, M.; Hoszowska, J.; Jaeger, J.J.; Kay, R.F.; Lazzari, V.; Marivaux, L.; Nel, A.; Nemoz, C.; Thibault, X.; Vignaud, P.; Zabler, S.; Sciau, P.; Goudeau, P.; Tamura, N.; Doormee, E.; Kockelmann, W.; Adriaens, A.; Ryck, I. de; Leyssens, K.; Hochleitner, B.; Schreiner, M.; Drakopoulos, M.; Snigireva, I.; Snigirev, A.; Sanchez Del Rio, M.; Martinetto, P.; Dooryhee, E.; Suarez, M.; Sodo, A.; Reyes-Valerio, C.; Haro Poniatowski, E.; Picquart, M.; Lima, E.; Reguera, E.; Gunneweg, J.; Reiche, I.; Berger, A.; Bevers, H.; Duval, A

    2005-07-01

    Materials - bones, artifacts, artwork,.... - lie at the heart of both archaeology and art conservation. Synchrotron radiation techniques provide powerful ways to interrogate these records of our physical and cultural past. In this workshop we will discuss and explore the current and potential applications of synchrotron radiation science to problems in archaeology and art conservation. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations.

  20. Different use of magnetometric methods in Czech archaeology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivánek, Roman

    Leuven : Centre of archaeological sciences, 2012 - (Braekmans, D.; Honings, J.; Degryse, P.). s. 438 ISBN 978-94-6165-043-6. [International symposium on archaeometry /39./. 28.05.2012-01.06.2012, Leuven] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : geophysical survey * archaeological prospection * magnetometric method Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  1. Teaching Archaeology in the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Susan J., Ed.; Smith, George S., Ed.

    This book was written to offer ideas on how to open archeological education to more students, not just those seeking a Ph.D. Individuals in archaeology provide background and offer suggestions for a movement to provide greater access to the field. The book ponders 21st century archaeology, its possible directions and strategies, and call on those…

  2. Geohistorical Archaeology: A Perspective for Considering the Historic Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, John R.

    2002-01-01

    The term geohistorical archaeology was adopted to describe the combination of the techniques and concepts of historical geography, historical archaeology, and history. It is suggested that the field offers the potential of enhanced research and instruction as it pertains to the early historical settlement of an area. Particular emphasis is placed…

  3. Deviations in the Accumulated Dose For Archaeological Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, T. M. B.; Gennari, R. F.; Santana, J. C. C.; Calarge, F.

    The archaeological dating by thermoluminescence (TL) method is obtained through the determination of the accumulative dose and the annual. In this work, an evaluation of two factors which can cause deviations in the accumulative dose in archaeological dating of sediments by TL method was carried out.

  4. Synchrotron radiation in art and archaeology SRA 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials - bones, artifacts, artwork,.... - lie at the heart of both archaeology and art conservation. Synchrotron radiation techniques provide powerful ways to interrogate these records of our physical and cultural past. In this workshop we will discuss and explore the current and potential applications of synchrotron radiation science to problems in archaeology and art conservation. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations

  5. The Archaeologist Undeceived: Selecting Quality Archaeological Information from the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sturges

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The amount of unreliable information and actual misinformation available via the Internet makes its use problematic for academic purposes, particularly for data-intensive disciplines such as archaeology. Whilst there are many sources for reviews of websites, few apply the type of criteria most appropriate to archaeology. Information and library professionals have developed sets of criteria that can be adapted for the evaluation of archaeological websites. An evaluative tool for archaeological websites, using al-ready-available criteria, was developed and tested on twenty archaeological web sites. It proved capable of allowing its user to make clear distinctions between sites on the basis of quality. Further refining of the evaluative tool is possible on the basis of testing by both archaeologists and information professionals.

  6. Connection of Geodesy and Archaeology in Modern Geovisualisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Poslončec-Petrić

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available One type of thematic maps is also the map of archeological sites. In order to obtain high-quality cartographic presentation on thematic maps of archaeological sites, a cartographer must know the basic terms and classification of archaeology. The paper presents a few existing archaeological maps (static and interactive and there is also the interactive map of archaeological sites on the island Pag presented. The map has been made within the frame of the diploma thesis by a student Martina Triplat, and the data presented are the result of research made at the archaeological sites of the island Pag and of the geodetic works made at the excavation sites in Uvala Vlaška, the locality Blato and at the economic objects in the vicinity of the locality Blato.

  7. Review of Ramsey Abbey - An Archaeological Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Gaffney

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The CD is designed to be read using most standard web browsers and is compatible with both Windows and Mac operating systems. Occasionally in order to view a diagram you are transported into Adobe Acrobat, a copy of which is on the CD. The CD is the culmination of a community based project based on the medieval abbey at Ramsey in Cambridgeshire, England. According to the sleeve of the CD the project was paid for by a Royal Society and British Association Millennium Award, which was funded by the Millennium Commission to 'encourage people's understanding of science, engineering and technology in the community'. The science in question largely involves the small-scale, perhaps even surgical, use of resistance, magnetic and ground penetrating radar (GPR. The project, however, had a more interesting agenda, one that involves the testing of an archaeological problem. In short, the Archaeological Field Unit (AFU of Cambridgeshire County Council found that there were competing hypotheses concerning the location of the former church on the now-ruined abbey site. The CD pieces together the evidence for the church, collected with the help of the children at the school that now occupies the site. The CD can be seen as part of the remit to reach the wider community that also involved open days, seminars and a web site.

  8. Nuclear analytical techniques in archaeological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is presented of the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Nuclear Analytical Techniques in Archaeological Investigations organized by the IAEA. A particularly successful combination of analytical expertise and a field of common interest in the Latin American region was created through this Project. The first Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) of the CRP was held in June 1997 at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC, where the participants were introduced to the concept of the project and the preliminary work plans were outlined. Emphasis was given to a close collaboration between analytical scientists and archaeologists - from the definition of the problem, selection of sampling sites and samples to interpretation of analytical results using multifunctional statistical analysis. Also highlighted was the validation of analytical techniques using several certified reference materials. In April 1999 a second RCM was held in Cuzco, Peru, to present and discuss preliminary results of the individual projects and to refine the methods used. The final RCM, which was held in Santiago, Chile, from 6-10 November 2000, revealed extensive information obtained by the participating research groups during the CRP, which is described in detail in the report. As the research objectives of each group were very particular, i.e. related to each country's specific situation, the range of results is exceptionally broad. The results demonstrated the great potential of the combination of nuclear analysis and archaeological research

  9. Radiology in archaeological studies of incas mummies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to determine the imaging findings in three 500-year-old Inca mummies and how modern radiology can be used in other sciences such as archaeology. Material and Method: Three naturally mummified children were studied using conventional radiography, dental radiography, CT and puncture biopsies. Working sessions were limited to 20 minutes to prevent thawing of the corpses and radiological techniques were adjusted to their particular anatomic position. Results: CT images showed shrinkaged internal organs due to dehydration. The fatty tissue of the bodies was visibly white because of the transformation of it into adipocere, favoring white matter/gray matter differentiation at the central nervous system. The lungs were expanded in the three corpses and right lung and maxillary sinus pathologies were determined in the older girl. Chronological ages of the three children at the time of their deaths were established. DNA studies determined no family links among them. The spleen was not seen in any case. Conclusions: Modern radiology is an excellent tool in archaeological research. Nutritional state, ages and pathologies of the three mummies were evaluated. (author)

  10. Classification of archaeologically stratified pumice by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the research program 'Synchronization of Civilization in the Eastern Mediterranean Region in the 2nd Millenium B.C.' instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine 30 elements in pumice from archaeological excavations to reveal their specific volcanic origin. The widespread pumiceous products of several eruptions in the Aegean region were used as abrasive tools and were therefore popular trade objects. A remarkable quantity of pumice and pumiceous tephra (several km3) was produced by the 'Minoan eruption' of Thera (Santorini), which is assumed to have happened between 1450 and 1650 B.C. Thus the discovery of the primary fallout of 'Minoan' tephra in archaeologically stratified locations can be used as a relative time mark. Additionally, pumice lumps used as abrasive can serve for dating by first appearance. Essential to an identification of the primary volcanic source is the knowledge that pumices from the Aegean region can easily be distinguished by their trace element distribution patterns, as previous work has shown. The elements Al, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined in 16 samples of pumice lumps from excavations in Tell-el-Dab'a and Tell-el-Herr (Egypt). Two irradiation cycles and five measurement runs were applied. A reliable identification of the samples is achieved by comparing these results to the database compiled in previous studies. (author)

  11. Politics and the World Archaeological Congress [-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao, Nandini

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The recognition in the West that every discipline is influenced by its socio-political context led to the demand for reflexive archaeology and to the formation in 1986, by the 'politically aware', of the World Archaeological Congress (WAC. WAC explicitly recognises the socio-political context of archaeological practice, and archaelogy's political, social and academic responsibilities. The Congress, which meets every four years, met in India in December 1994. Indian archaeologists have largely denied the influence of socio-political contexts on academics. But this has not prevented some from (misusing archaeological evidence to further political ends with catastrophic results. No discussion on the issue was permitted at the Congress so that eight years after it was formed. the WAC compromised and suppressed free debate on a vital matter. This essay outlines the genesis of WAC and the reasons why it was formed, before analysing the Indian context of the third meeting of the Congress. It also examines the response of Indian archaeologists at WAC to the protest against such political abuse of archaeology and calls for a reflection on whether WAC has achieved its objective of becoming a relevant world organisation.

    El reconocimiento en Occidente de que cada disciplina está influida por su contexto socio-político llevó a la reivindicación de una arqueología reflexiva y a la formación en 1986, por los arqueólogos ”políticamente conscientes”, del Congreso Arqueológico Mundial (WAC. El WAC reconoce explícitamente el contexto sociopolítico de la práctica arqueológica y las responsabilidades políticas, sociales y académicas de la arqueología. El Congreso, que se celebra cada cuatro años, tuvo lugar en India en diciembre de 1994. Los arqueólogos indios han negado durante mucho tiempo la influencia de los contextos socio-políticos sobre los investigadores. Pero ello no ha impedido que algunos de ellos hayan utilizado de

  12. The Scandinavian Connection: The Roots of Darwinian Archaeology in 19th-Century Scandinavian Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Riede

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available ‘Evolution’ is without doubt one of archaeology’s favourite, most used and perhaps most overused words. However, ‘evolution’ comes in many guises and it is only really in the last ten years that an explicitly Darwinian approach to the archaeological record has begun to emerge. Today, the number of papers using Darwinian Theory grows almost exponentially, reflecting perhaps the current popularity of applying Darwinian Theory to human behaviour, including culture, in more general terms (Aunger 2000; Barrett et al. 2002; Laland andamp; Brown 2002; Mesoudi et al. 2004; Ziman 2000. The field has developed its own technical jargon (Hart andamp; Terrell 2002 and enjoys increasing public funding. Here is not the place to list, let alone discuss the entire corpus of works (but see http://cladistics.coas.missouri.edu/pubs.html and http://www.ceacb.ucl.ac.uk/resources. Instead this brief papers attempts to address some historical aspects of Darwinian thinking in archaeology. Although there is considerable diversity within this Darwinian or Evolutionary Archaeology (EA, this paper will focus primarily on its two most vocal American proponents: Michael J. O’Brien and Richard Lee Lyman. In a long series of publications they have not only put forward a “radically empiricist” (Shennan 2002a: 255, yet eminently workable Darwinian approach to artefact analysis, but they have also traced the intellectual ancestry of EA back to a number of key figures in early 20th century Americanist archaeology (Lyman et al. 1997b; Lyman andamp; O’Brien 1997, 1999, 2000a, 2001, 2003, 2004; Lyman et al. 1997a, 1997b; Lyman et al. 1998; O’Brien et al. 2005. Despite the impressive amount of scholarship that has gone into these works and the exemplary publication strategy, which has been instrumental in promoting this particular approach, their version of the history of archaeology can be criticised as the writing of “partial histories” (Murray 2002a: 234. As

  13. Detection of 'archaeological features' among reflectance spectra of natural soils and archaeological soils using principal component analysis (PCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon Jung; Lampel, Johannes; Jordan, David; Fiedler, Sabine; Wagner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Archaeological terminology 'soil-mark' refers to buried archaeological features being visible on the ground surface. Soil-marks have been identified by archaeologists based on their personal experience and knowledge. This study suggests a quantitative spectral analysis method to detect such archaeological features. This study identifies 'archaeological spectra' (reflectance spectra from surfaces containing archaeological materials) among various soil spectra using PCA (principal component analysis). Based on the results of the PCA, a difference (D) between the original spectrum and modified spectrum, which represents the principal component (PC) values of natural soils, can be determined. If the difference D between the two spectra is small, then the spectrum is similar to the spectral features of natural soils. If not, it identifies that the spectrum is more likely to be non-natural soil, probably an archaeological material. The method is applied on soil spectra from a prehistoric settlement site in Calabria, Italy. For the spectral range between 400 to 700nm, the difference value D for archaeological material ranges from 0.11 to 0.73 (the value varies depending on the number of PCs used). For natural soil, D ranges only from 0.04 to 0.09. The results shows D value is significantly larger for archaeological spectra, which indicates that the method can be applied to identify archaeological material among an unknown group of soil spectra, if a set of samples of natural soils exists. The study will present results of applying this method to various wavelength ranges and spectra from different sites. The major aim is to find optimised settings of the PCA method which can be applied in a universal way for identifying archaeological spectra.

  14. Parylene coatings on biological specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nosal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is show how parylene coatings can protect biological specimens.Design/methodology/approach: Parylene technology is a process, in which a thin polymer film of a very uniform thickness is deposited onto the entire surface of any object placed in the reactor. The polymer, either poly-para-xylylene or one of its ring substituted derivatives, is characterized by excellent mechanical and dielectric [1] as well as barrier [2] properties, at the same time being transparent in the entire visible range of radiation. The process takes place at room temperature, which permits to use virtually any material as substrate.Findings: The following work reports results of parylene application to the conservation of such natural objects, as Pieris brassicae butterflies, Pygocentrus piranya pirania fish and Quercus L. oak leaves. The number of specimens was always divided in two, of which one part was coated with 4 micrometers of Parylene C while the other remained uncoated as a reference sample. All the specimen were then placed on the surface of garden soil and kept there at constant temperature of 37°C and constant humidity of 75%, where their disintegration was followed by means of optical microscopy. After several months of staying under these conditions all the coated specimens were intact remaining their full integrity and colors. In contrast to that, the uncoated fish began to decompose after nine days, the uncoated butterflies after twenty one days and uncoated leaves after three months.Practical implications: A very tight deposition, at room temperature of such a coating onto practically any object obviously focuses an attention of conservators of both natural and cultural human heritage [3-6]. Probably the most important advantage of this technology is its extraordinary penetration ability. When coating a fabric, for instance, this feature allows one to deposit parylene film onto single fibers, leaving open space in-between and

  15. Digital fruition of archaeological finds. The experience at the Archaeological Museum of Bologna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Manferdini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents a series of investigations undertaken thanks to the collaboration between the Department of Architecture and Territorial Planning of the University of Bologna and the Archaeological Museum of Bologna , aimed at finding a procedure for the 3d digital survey and exploration of archaeological finds. In particular, this paper shows how users can benefit from the use of digital technologies for the fruition of historical-artistic heritage. As a matter of fact, digital communication tools stimulate multisensory perception mechanisms and therefore allow to actively involve users in the exploration of contents presented through collections. Immersive visualizations, augmented reality and both tactile and visual exploration of findings can ease the establishment of a more immediate and direct communication channel with users that generally communicate and access information using digital technologies and mediums.

  16. Starry messages: Searching for signatures of interstellar archaeology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    Searching for signatures of cosmic-scale archaeological artifacts such as Dyson spheres or Kardashev civilizations is an interesting alternative to conventional SETI. Uncovering such an artifact does not require the intentional transmission of a signal on the part of the original civilization. This type of search is called interstellar archaeology or sometimes cosmic archaeology. The detection of intelligence elsewhere in the Universe with interstellar archaeology or SETI would have broad implications for science. For example, the constraints of the anthropic principle would have to be loosened if a different type of intelligence was discovered elsewhere. A variety of interstellar archaeology signatures are discussed including non-natural planetary atmospheric constituents, stellar doping with isotopes of nuclear wastes, Dyson spheres, as well as signatures of stellar and galactic-scale engineering. The concept of a Fermi bubble due to interstellar migration is introduced in the discussion of galactic signatures. These potential interstellar archaeological signatures are classified using the Kardashev scale. A modified Drake equation is used to evaluate the relative challenges of finding various sources. With few exceptions interstellar archaeological signatures are clouded and beyond current technological capabilities. However SETI for so-called cultural transmissions and planetary atmosphere signatures are within reach.

  17. Starry messages: Searching for signatures of interstellar archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searching for signatures of cosmic-scale archaeological artifacts such as Dyson spheres or Kardashev civilizations is an interesting alternative to conventional SETI. Uncovering such an artifact does not require the intentional transmission of a signal on the part of the original civilization. This type of search is called interstellar archaeology or sometimes cosmic archaeology. The detection of intelligence elsewhere in the Universe with interstellar archaeology or SETI would have broad implications for science. For example, the constraints of the anthropic principle would have to be loosened if a different type of intelligence was discovered elsewhere. A variety of interstellar archaeology signatures are discussed including non-natural planetary atmospheric constituents, stellar doping with isotopes of nuclear wastes, Dyson spheres, as well as signatures of stellar and galactic-scale engineering. The concept of a Fermi bubble due to interstellar migration is introduced in the discussion of galactic signatures. These potential interstellar archaeological signatures are classified using the Kardashev scale. A modified Drake equation is used to evaluate the relative challenges of finding various sources. With few exceptions interstellar archaeological signatures are clouded and beyond current technological capabilities. However SETI for so-called cultural transmissions and planetary atmosphere signatures are within reach.

  18. Massive Open Online Archaeology, Massive Open Online Opportunity: Toward a Worldwide Community of Archaeological Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Emanuel, Jeffrey Paul

    2014-01-01

    While the World Wide Web has provided the public at large with heretofore-unimagined access to information, the egalitarian – and frequently anonymous – nature of online content creation has also provided an unprecedented opportunity for the spread of misinformation and misinterpretation alike. Archaeology is no exception to the double-edged sword that is the 21st century web, as the opening of museum collections, the ability to conduct armchair “surveys” via tools like Google Earth, unfetter...

  19. Archaeology of fire: Methodological aspects of reconstructing fire history of prehistoric archaeological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperson-Afil, Nira

    2012-07-01

    Concepts which are common in the reconstruction of fire histories are employed here for the purpose of interpreting fires identified at archaeological sites. When attempting to evaluate the fire history of ancient occupations we are limited by the amount and quality of the available data. Furthermore, the identification of archaeological burned materials, such as stone, wood, and charcoal, is adequate for the general assumption of a "fire history", but the agent responsible - anthropogenic or natural - cannot be inferred from the mere presence of burned items. The large body of scientific data that has accumulated, primarily through efforts to prevent future fire disasters, enables us to reconstruct scenarios of past natural fires. Adopting this line of thought, this paper attempts to evaluate the circumstances in which a natural fire may have ignited and spread at the 0.79 Ma occupation site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov (Israel), resulting with burned wood and burned flint within the archaeological layers. At Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, possible remnants of hearths are explored through analyses of the spatial distribution of burned flint-knapping waste products. These occur in dense clusters in each of the archaeological occupations throughout the long stratigraphic sequence. In this study, the combination between the spatial analyses results, paleoenvironmental information, and various factors involved in the complex process of fire ignition, combustion, and behavior, has enabled the firm rejection of recurrent natural fires as the responsible agent for the burned materials. In addition, it suggested that mainly at early sites, where evidence for burning is present yet scarce, data on fire ecology can be particularly useful when it is considered in relation to paleoenvironmental information.

  20. Archaeological site significance : the connection between archaeology and oral history in Palau

    OpenAIRE

    Billengren, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Oral history is an important component of Palauan heritage and living culture. Interaction of oral history and archaeology is regarded as a policy when conducting research in Palau, both within the Bureau of Arts and Culture, responsible for protection and preservation of cultural remains in Palau, and among researchers not representing BAC. Legally, a material remain is proven significance if it is connected with intangible resources, such as "lyrics, folklore and traditions associated with ...

  1. Geochemical alterations and chronology in archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies about hydrogen and fluorine incorporation in various materials used by the prehistoric man, bring to archaeological stratigraphies important information about chronology. Ion beams methods of analysis (such as AGLAE for the Louvre museum), provide depth resolution together with high detection sensitivity. They allow to pursue researches most often without sampling the artefacts. Some resonance nuclear reactions, such as produced by nitrogen 15 nucleus and protons, allow for measuring the concentration profile of fluorine and hydrogen present in the outer micrometer of the surface. Examples of the obsidian hydration and the fluorine penetration in flint or paleontological remains, show the interest of these methods to complement traditional methods of absolute dating. (author). 3 figs., 2 tabs., 34 refs

  2. Studies of technology in prehistoric archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitezović Selena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology studies have always been the most important focus of archaeology, as a science which analyzes human past through the study of material culture. To say that something is technological in archaeology, means to put the concept of technology in the centre of theoretical studies, and to study not only the form of the object, but also the entire sequence of technological factors, from raw material choice, mode of use, up to the reasons for abandonment. The concept of technology in anthropology and archaeology is based on the original meaning of the word τεχνη in ancient Greek, meaning the skill, i. e., to study how something is being done. Such a concept of technology as a skill or mode of doing something was for the first time outlined by the French anthropologist Marcel Mauss, whose starting point was that every technological statement was at the same time social or cultural statement and that technological choices have social foundations. Pierre Lemonnier further developed the anthropology of technology, focusing on the question of technological choices, as well as numerous other anthropologists. In archaeology, the most important contribution to the study of technology was the work of André Leroi-Gourhan, who created the concept of chaîne opératoire, as an analytical tool for studying the mode of creating, using and discarding an artefact, starting with raw material acquisition, mode of manufacture, final form, use (including caching, breaking and repairing up to the final discarding. It is not only about reconstructing the algorithmic sequence of operations in creating one object, but it is a complex analysis of operational chain within one society which includes the analysis of technological choices. The analyses of technologies today include a variety of different approaches, most of them with emphasis on the cultural and social aspects of technology. The analysis of bone industry in the Early and Middle Neolithic in central

  3. Online Resistance to Precarious Archaeological Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Hardy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The international cultural heritage economy has long been underpinned by a reserve army of unemployed/underemployed labour. The entry-level workforce is being further undermined and unpaid/underpaid labour is additionally being consolidated through the crisis and austerity measures. Independently and under different pressures, archaeologists across Europe have begun to use blogging, micro-blogging and other social media in concerted national efforts to document, analyse and resist exploitative and exclusive employment practices. This article focuses on the development of movements against unpaid labour (free archaeology in the UK, against unpaid and underpaid internship (volontariato and stage in Italy, and for employment (istihdam in Turkey. Using insights gained through observing and participating in these movements, and through running a research blog on precarious labour in the cultural heritage industry, this article examines the benefits and limits of blogging/micro-blogging as a tool for debate within the profession, communication with the public, and activism.

  4. Public Engagement at Archaeology South-East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Orange

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Business skills are a recognised skill shortage within the archaeological profession (Aitchison and Edwards, 2008: 106. Conversely, many small and medium-sized enterprises could benefit from the specialist knowledge that recently graduated PhD students could bring to their business. Recognising this, UCL Advances (the centre for entrepreneurship and business at UCL manages a Knowledge Exchange Associate (KEA scheme whereby exiting PhD students are hosted by businesses. Each KEA acts as a conduit for the transfer of knowledge from UCL to industry, with projects tailored to meet the needs of each business. In return KEA’s are provided with challenging and creative project management experience and formal business training (UCL Advances, 2013.

  5. Virtual Archaeology in an argentina colonial estancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Vázquez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a first approach to the application of virtual reconstruction techniques of a colonial house. In Argentina it is still uncommon to perform 3D modeling of archaeological sites and especially in historical archeology. As a first step, we used the Google SketchUp to model the country house located on the banks of the Río de la Plata (Buenos Aires. It has historical significance because it belonged to a Spanish councilman, housed hundreds of slaves and was the place where stayed the troops that carried out the Second British Invasion of Buenos Aires. In this case, the 3D modeling was useful for evaluating the future excavationa and activities of preservation of cultural heritage.

  6. Galactic Archaeology and Minimum Spanning Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Macfarlane, B A; Flynn, C M L

    2015-01-01

    Chemical tagging of stellar debris from disrupted open clusters and associations underpins the science cases for next-generation multi-object spectroscopic surveys. As part of the Galactic Archaeology project TraCD (Tracking Cluster Debris), a preliminary attempt at reconstructing the birth clouds of now phase-mixed thin disk debris is undertaken using a parametric minimum spanning tree (MST) approach. Empirically-motivated chemical abundance pattern uncertainties (for a 10-dimensional chemistry-space) are applied to NBODY6-realised stellar associations dissolved into a background sea of field stars, all evolving in a Milky Way potential. We demonstrate that significant population reconstruction degeneracies appear when the abundance uncertainties approach 0.1 dex and the parameterised MST approach is employed; more sophisticated methodologies will be required to ameliorate these degeneracies.

  7. Archaeological Documentation of a Defunct Iraqi Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šedina, J.; Pavelka, K.; Housarová, E.

    2016-06-01

    The subject of this article is the possibilities of the documentation of a defunct town from the Pre-Islamic period to Early Islamic period. This town is located near the town Makhmur in Iraq. The Czech archaeological mission has worked at this dig site. This Cultural Heritage site is threatened by war because in the vicinity are positions of ISIS. For security reasons, the applicability of Pleiades satellite data has been tested. Moreover, this area is a no-fly zone. However, the DTM created from stereo-images was insufficient for the desired application in archeology. The subject of this paper is the testing of the usability of RPAS technology and terrestrial photogrammetry for documentation of the remains of buildings. RPAS is a very fast growing technology that combines the advantages of aerial photogrammetry and terrestrial photogrammetry. A probably defunct church is a sample object.

  8. Augmented Reality System for the musealization of archaeological sites

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Esclapés; Daniel Tejerina; Joaquín Bolufer; Marco Aurelio Esquembre

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we are presenting a multi-marker and semi-immersive system for augmented reality to visualize and interact with archaeological sites, specifically those located in inaccessible or complex environments, such as caves or underwater locations. The use of this system in museum exhibitions helps visitors to come closer to archaeological heritage. As an example for the implementation of this system, an archaeological site has been used. It is the “Cova del Barranc del Migdia”, located...

  9. PRINCELY HALYCH: INTRIGUING PROSPECTS FOR ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihor Koval

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available According to statistical data, permanent and local archaeological researches have covered only about ten per cent of the territory of Princely Halych, which opens up endless possibilities for research at the site of the ancient city. The chapter highlights the importance of the scientific and popular works by Antin Petrushevych, Lev Lavretskyi and Izydor Sharanevych, who in 1882 initiated the archaeological research on the mighty Principality of Halych (Galicia and its capital, and the excavation of the first Christian church in Halych – the Church of the Holy Saviour mentioned in the Kyivan Chronicle. The little-known works of these scientists, which were published in Lviv newspapers in the 1880s, clearly show that Lavretskyi and Sharanevych’s findings received international acclaim and were a significant factor in rousing national consciousness and stimulating social activity of the Galician Ukrainians. It is difficult to explain the lack of interest in carrying out excavations outside the perimeter of the foundations of the Church, which could have enhanced the social, historical, topographical analysis of the monument and its surroundings. A particular fact that proves the importance of such research is the discovery of pendant seals, which modern sphragistics attributes to Prince Volodymyrko Volodarevych (1141-1153.  This conclusion is in good agreement with the Kyivan Chronicle and the findings of the archaeologists who excavated the Church of the Holy Saviour. All these facts provide grounds for the hypothesis concerning the location of the State Chancellery and the mysterious Palace of the 12th century Lords of Galicia.

  10. Integration of infrared thermography and high-frequency electromagnetic methods in archaeological surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is focused on the integration of infrared thermography and ground penetrating radar for the inspection of architectonic structures. First, laboratory tests were carried out with both techniques by considering an ad hoc specimen made of concrete and with the insertion of anomalies of a different nature and at different depths. Such tests provided helpful information for ongoing inspections in situ, which were later performed in two important Italian archaeological sites, namely Pompeii (Naples) and Nora (Cagliari). In the first site, the exploration was devoted to the analysis of the wall paintings of Villa Imperiale with the aim of evaluating the state of conservation of frescoes as well of the underneath masonry structure. As main findings, the applied techniques allowed outlining some areas, which were damaged by ingression in-depth of moisture and/or by disaggregation of the constituent materials, and also for recognition of previous restoration. In the archaeological area of Nora, instead, the attention was driven towards the evaluation of the state of degradation of the theatre remnants. Our prospections show that the front side of the theatre, being more strongly affected by degradation, needs a massive restoration work. As a general result, we demonstrated that a joint interpretation of infrared thermography and ground penetrating radar data supplies detailed 3D information from near-surface to deep layers, which may assist in restoration planning

  11. Cambridge Illustrated History of Archaeology, edited by Paul G. Bahn, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1996

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas R. Givens

    1997-01-01

    The Cambridge Illustrated History of Archaeology is another in a series of volumes devoted to the history of archaeology that have appeared in recent time. Paul Bahn, the editor of the volume, has broken down his coverage of the history of worldwide archaeology into the following arrangement 'The Archaeology of Archaeology", "Old Worlds and New, 1500-1760", "Antiquarians and Explorers, 1760-1820", "Science and Romantic...

  12. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer Download Printable Version [ ... on the topics below to get started. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer How is cancer ...

  13. Notch effects in uniaxial tension specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of a literature survey on the effect of notches on the time-dependent failure of uniaxial tension specimens at elevated temperatures are presented. Particular attention is paid to the failure of notched specimens containing weldments

  14. Measurements and Counts for Notacanthidae Specimens

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Taxonomic data were collected for specimens of deep-sea spiny eels (Notacanthidae) from the Hawaiian Ridge by Bruce C. Mundy. Specimens were collected off the north...

  15. Diagnostic analysis of stone materials from underwater excavations: the case study of the Roman archaeological site of Baia (Naples, Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work belongs to the framework of the national research project ''COMAS'' (Planned COnservation, ''in situ'', of underwater archaeological artifacts), funded by the Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (MIUR), concerning the submarine archaeological area of Baia (Naples, Italy). The site includes remains of the ancient cities of Baiae and Portus Iulius, which, since the 4th century AD, started to be submerged because of the bradyseism phenomenon. The work aims to the characterization of four different types of stone materials collected from the site, specifically marbles, limestones, ignimbrites, and bricks, in order to investigate their state of conservation. In particular, specimens were sampled from some masonry structures and pavement slabs (opus sectile) in a specific area of the submerged site, called ''Villa a Protiro''. In order to characterize archaeological samples from a mineralogical-petrographic point of view, polarized optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses were carried out, while to assess their conservation state, the surface colonization by biodeteriogen agents and their interaction with the substrate were studied through observations under a stereomicroscope, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Marble and limestone samples revealed an intense bioerosion phenomena, attributable to epilithic and endolithic forms, particularly boring sponges. On the contrary, ignimbrites suffer a lower degree of biological colonization related to the activity of other species, such as serpulids and bryozoans. In bricks, biocolonisation is correlated to the type of temper used in the artifact, the quartz pastes having a greater susceptibility to biological attack than the volcanic ones. (orig.)

  16. Alchemy or Science? Compromising Archaeology in the Deep Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jonathan

    2007-06-01

    In the torrid debate between archaeology and treasure hunting, compromise is often suggested as the pragmatic solution, especially for archaeology carried out either in deep water or beyond the constraints that commonly regulate such activities in territorial seas. Both the wisdom and the need for such compromise have even been advocated by some archaeologists, particularly in forums such as the internet and conferences. This paper argues that such a compromise is impossible, not in order to fuel confrontation but simply because of the nature of any academic discipline. We can define what archaeology is in terms of its aims, theories, methods and ethics, so combining it with an activity founded on opposing principles must transform it into something else. The way forward for archaeology in the deep sea does not lie in a contradictory realignment of archaeology’s goals but in collaborative research designed to mesh with emerging national and regional research and management plans.

  17. Biomimetic hydroxyapatite as a new consolidating agent for archaeological bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Alexis E.

    Recent studies on calcareous stone and plaster consolidation have demonstrated considerable potential by bio-mimicking the growth of hydroxyapatite (HAP), the main mineralogical constituent of teeth and bone matrix. These initial conservation applications, together with significant fundamental research on the precipitation of HAP for bioengineering and biomedical applications, offer great promise in the use of HAP as a consolidating agent for archaeological bone and other similar materials such as archaeological teeth, ivory, and antler. Experimental research via the controlled application of diammonium phosphate (DAP) precursors to bone flour, modern bone samples, and archaeological bones, indicated the in situ formation of HAP with a simultaneous increase in the cohesiveness of friable bone material, while preserving the bone's physiochemical properties. These preliminary results point towards a promising new method in archaeological conservation.

  18. Position fixing and surveying techniques for marine archaeological studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ganesan, P.

    This technical report comprises of two major aspects: (1) Surface positioning and (2) Sub-surface Positioning, which are followed for obtaining geographical positions while carrying out marine archaeological studies. Also, it analyses various survey...

  19. Application of acoustic, magnetic and electromagnetic systems in marine archaeology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SubbaRaju, L.V.

    The importance of integrated geoscientific studies is reiterated for underwater archaeological exploration. Geophysical systems applied for the detection of artefacts, ancient places and underwater sites/objects are explained and detailed...

  20. Shipwreck archaeology of the Lakshadweep Islands, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gudigar, P.

    Archaeological investigations in the Lakshadweep Islands have brought to light the presence of a large number of shipwrecks and the archival records have the details of some of these wrecks. Northern islands and reefs of Minicoy were the locations...

  1. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of archaeological ceramics: Progress and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has become a widely used technique in the characterization of archaeological ceramics. Early applications, primarily developmental in nature, have been replaced by studies that attempt to place the derived analytical data in a larger archaeological and behavioural context. If archaeology is to increasingly exploit the great potential of INAA to address a broad range of social and cultural issues involving ceramics, greater attention must be paid to the various sources of variation that contribute to the chemical composition of pottery. In addition, as all research takes place within a social context, efforts must be made to increase the communication between archaeologists and other scientists, as this will contribute to the fulfilment of the archaeological research objectives. (author)

  2. Ancient Dwarka: Study based on recent underwater archaeological investigations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    , the Lord Krishna founded the holy city of Dwarka, which subsequently got submerged under sea. Marine archaeological explorations off Dwarka have brought to light a large number of stone structures, which are semicircular, rectangular and square in shape...

  3. A Review of 'The Oxford Handbook of Mesoamerican Archaeology'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agathe Dupeyron

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 'The Oxford Handbook of Mesoamerican Archaeology' is intended to be a showcase of the discipline’s recent developments and provide a comprehensive - but non-exhaustive - overview of early 21st century work in the region. It is probably one of the most ambitious such projects since the sixteen volume series 'Handbook of Middle American Indians' published in the 1960s. It is primarily intended for professionals and students of Mesoamerican archaeology.

  4. Archaeological obsidian from La Sierra Gorda Mexico, by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez-Cossio, D.; Terreros, E.; Quiroz-Moreno, J.; Romero-Sanchez, S. [Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Mexico. Seminario 8, Col. Centro. 06060 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Calligaro, T.F. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, UMR 171, Palais du Louvre-Porte des Lions, 14, Quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Tenorio, D. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico, DF (Mexico)], E-mail: dolores.tenorio@inin.gob.mx; Jimenez-Reyes, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Los Rios, M. de [Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Mexico. Seminario 8, Col. Centro. 06060 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2009-04-15

    The chemical compositions of 42 obsidian pre-Hispanic artifacts from Tancama and Purisima, both archaeological sites of La Sierra Gorda Valleys, Mexico, were analyzed by PIXE technique. These obsidians came from four sources: Sierra de Pachuca Hidalgo, Paraiso Queretaro, Ucareo Michoacan and mainly from Zacualtipan/Metzquititlan Hidalgo. According to archaeological evidences, La Sierra Gorda valleys participated in commercial exchange with other regional sites, from Classic to Post-classic periods (A.D. 300-1500)

  5. MUSEUMS: A STRATEGY TO PRESERVE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES IN CAMPECHE, MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Marisol Ordaz Tamayo; Juan Antonio Vasquez Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Mexico’s long history and rich cultural diversity translates into an equally rich offer of national patrimony. That offer, both national and international in scope, adopts diverse formats, such as and/ or archaeological parks. Several Maya archaeological sites in the state of have been exposed without previous planning for their conservation, management, and further research. This leads to and, consequently, their devaluation as a priceless patrimonial heritage. This study explores the prospe...

  6. Notes on river archaeology in Mikulčice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poláček, Lumír

    Brno: The Institute of Archaeology of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno, 2014 - (Poláček, L.), s. 11-25. (Spisy archeologického ústavu AV ČR Brno. 51). ISBN 978-80-86023-60-1 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP405/11/2258 Keywords : River archaeology * filled-up river distributaries * Early Middle Ages * Mikulčice Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  7. Archaeological maps: methods and techniques for territorial analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Leonor; Branco, Gertrudes

    2011-01-01

    Archaeological maps are, by definition, a tool for the management of the cultural heritage, planning and urban development, and are drawn up on the basis of existing studies and recent fieldwork, covering all the latest data. In Portugal, the idea of creating a national archaeological map was developed, for the first time, in the 1970s. However, several attempts to organize such amount of information have been offset by two major problems: the difficulty of mapping such a large area, and the ...

  8. Asphalt in carbon-14-dated archaeological samples from Terqa, Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are reported of an organic geochemical study to verify contamination in 14C dated archaeological samples, which could account for much older apparent ages than expected. The data indicate that ancient asphalt must be the source of contamination, showing that caution should be exercised, in interpreting 14C dates of archaeological samples from areas containing asphalt or other fossil fuel deposits. (U.K.)

  9. UAV Systems for Photogrammetric Data Acquisition of Archaeological Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Lo Brutto, M.; Borruso, A.; D'Argenio, A.

    2012-01-01

    The use of UAV systems for surveying archaeological sites is becoming progressively more common due to the considerable potential in terms of rapidity of survey, costs and accuracy. The paper presents the first results of the photogrammetric survey of the archaeological site of Himera in Sicily (Italy) using by UAV systems. A complete documentation of the site through the production of a DSM and an ortho image were carried out. The research further evaluated two different image processing wor...

  10. Archaeological obsidian from La Sierra Gorda Mexico, by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical compositions of 42 obsidian pre-Hispanic artifacts from Tancama and Purisima, both archaeological sites of La Sierra Gorda Valleys, Mexico, were analyzed by PIXE technique. These obsidians came from four sources: Sierra de Pachuca Hidalgo, Paraiso Queretaro, Ucareo Michoacan and mainly from Zacualtipan/Metzquititlan Hidalgo. According to archaeological evidences, La Sierra Gorda valleys participated in commercial exchange with other regional sites, from Classic to Post-classic periods (A.D. 300-1500).

  11. Method for Identifying Probable Archaeological Sites from Remotely Sensed Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, James C.; Comer, Douglas C.; Priebe, Carey E.; Sussman, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Archaeological sites are being compromised or destroyed at a catastrophic rate in most regions of the world. The best solution to this problem is for archaeologists to find and study these sites before they are compromised or destroyed. One way to facilitate the necessary rapid, wide area surveys needed to find these archaeological sites is through the generation of maps of probable archaeological sites from remotely sensed data. We describe an approach for identifying probable locations of archaeological sites over a wide area based on detecting subtle anomalies in vegetative cover through a statistically based analysis of remotely sensed data from multiple sources. We further developed this approach under a recent NASA ROSES Space Archaeology Program project. Under this project we refined and elaborated this statistical analysis to compensate for potential slight miss-registrations between the remote sensing data sources and the archaeological site location data. We also explored data quantization approaches (required by the statistical analysis approach), and we identified a superior data quantization approached based on a unique image segmentation approach. In our presentation we will summarize our refined approach and demonstrate the effectiveness of the overall approach with test data from Santa Catalina Island off the southern California coast. Finally, we discuss our future plans for further improving our approach.

  12. ArchaeoGRID, the Archaeology on the e-Infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that in archaeology large use is done of digital technologies and computer applications for data acquisition, storage, analysis and visualization. The approach of modern archaeology to the study of the evolution of ancient human societies is based on the acquisition and analysis of many types of data. The amount of information coming from the archaeology and the other connected sciences and human ties that need to be stored and made available for analysis are increasing at a very large extent. Such data must, however, be analyzed if they are to become valuable information and knowledge. The data analysis use advanced methods developed in mathematics, informatics, physics, geology, biology, ecology, anthropology and in other natural and human sciences. The inevitable result of this is an exponential increase of the amount and complexity of information that must be acquired, transferred, stored, processed and analyzed. From another, side natural disasters, wars and terrorism created enormous damages to the archaeological heritage and in many case destroyed definitively all information about ancient civilizations. It is urgent a long term project for acquiring, storing and preserving at least the archaeological information. The paper presents the EGEE- II ArchaeoGRID project that, using GRID technologies developed at CERN and in other laboratories, is developing a grid able to fit the very challenging requests of contemporary archaeology. (Author)

  13. A History of NASA Remote Sensing Contributions to Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco J.

    2010-01-01

    During its long history of developing and deploying remote sensing instruments, NASA has provided a scientific data that have benefitted a variety of scientific applications among them archaeology. Multispectral and hyperspectral instrument mounted on orbiting and suborbital platforms have provided new and important information for the discovery, delineation and analysis of archaeological sites worldwide. Since the early 1970s, several of the ten NASA centers have collaborated with archaeologists to refine and validate the use of active and passive remote sensing for archeological use. The Stennis Space Center (SSC), located in Mississippi USA has been the NASA leader in archeological research. Together with colleagues from Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), SSC scientists have provided the archaeological community with useful images and sophisticated processing that have pushed the technological frontiers of archaeological research and applications. Successful projects include identifying prehistoric roads in Chaco canyon, identifying sites from the Lewis and Clark Corps of Discovery exploration and assessing prehistoric settlement patterns in southeast Louisiana. The Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) stimulated commercial companies to collect archaeological data. At present, NASA formally solicits "space archaeology" proposals through its Earth Science Directorate and continues to assist archaeologists and cultural resource managers in doing their work more efficiently and effectively. This paper focuses on passive remote sensing and does not consider the significant contributions made by NASA active sensors. Hyperspectral data offers new opportunities for future archeological discoveries.

  14. ArchaeoGRID, the Archaeology on the e-Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelfer, G.; Cechini, R.; Pelfer, P. G.; Politi, A.

    2007-07-01

    It is well known that in archaeology large use is done of digital technologies and computer applications for data acquisition, storage, analysis and visualization. The approach of modern archaeology to the study of the evolution of ancient human societies is based on the acquisition and analysis of many types of data. The amount of information coming from the archaeology and the other connected sciences and human ties that need to be stored and made available for analysis are increasing at a very large extent. Such data must, however, be analyzed if they are to become valuable information and knowledge. The data analysis use advanced methods developed in mathematics, informatics, physics, geology, biology, ecology, anthropology and in other natural and human sciences. The inevitable result of this is an exponential increase of the amount and complexity of information that must be acquired, transferred, stored, processed and analyzed. From another, side natural disasters, wars and terrorism created enormous damages to the archaeological heritage and in many case destroyed definitively all information about ancient civilizations. It is urgent a long term project for acquiring, storing and preserving at least the archaeological information. The paper presents the EGEE- II ArchaeoGRID project that, using GRID technologies developed at CERN and in other laboratories, is developing a grid able to fit the very challenging requests of contemporary archaeology. (Author)

  15. NASA Remote Sensing Applications for Archaeology and Cultural Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco J.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Mission Directorate recently completed the deployment of the Earth Observation System (EOS) which is a coordinated series of polar-orbiting and low inclination satellites for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, solid Earth, atmosphere, and oceans. One of the many applications derived from EOS is the advancement of archaeological research and applications. Using satellites, manned and unmanned airborne platform, NASA scientists and their partners have conducted archaeological research using both active and passive sensors. The NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) located in south Mississippi, near New Orleans, has been a leader in space archaeology since the mid-1970s. Remote sensing is useful in a wide range of archaeological research applications from landscape classification and predictive modeling to site discovery and mapping. Remote sensing technology and image analysis are currently undergoing a profound shift in emphasis from broad classification to detection, identification and condition of specific materials, both organic and inorganic. In the last few years, remote sensing platforms have grown increasingly capable and sophisticated. Sensors currently in use, including commercial instruments, offer significantly improved spatial and spectral resolutions. Paired with new techniques of image analysis, this technology provides for the direct detection of archaeological sites. As in all archaeological research, the application of remote sensing to archaeology requires a priori development of specific research designs and objectives. Initially targeted at broad archaeological issues, NASA space archaeology has progressed toward developing practical applications for cultural resources management (CRM). These efforts culminated with the Biloxi Workshop held by NASA and the University of Mississippi in 2002. The workshop and resulting publication specifically address the requirements of cultural resource managers through

  16. Assessing Potential Acidification of Marine Archaeological Wood Based on Concentration of Sulfur Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-06-22

    The presence of sulfur in marine archaeological wood presents a challenge to conservation. Upon exposure to oxygen, sulfur compounds in waterlogged wooden artifacts are being oxidized, producing sulfuric acid. This speeds the degradation of the wood, potentially damaging specimens beyond repair. Sulfur K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to identify the species of sulfur present in samples from the timbers of the Mary Rose, a preserved 16th century warship known to undergo degradation through acidification. The results presented here show that sulfur content varied significantly on a local scale. Only certain species of sulfur have the potential to produce sulfuric acid by contact with oxygen and seawater in situ, such as iron sulfides and elemental sulfur. Organic sulfurs, such as the amino acids cysteine and methionine, may produce acid but are integral parts of the wood's structure and may not be released from the organic matrix. The sulfur species contained in the sample reflect the exposure to oxygen while submerged, and this exposure can differ greatly over time and position. A better understanding of the species pathway to acidifications required, along with its location, in order to suggest a more customized and effective preservation strategy. Waterlogged archaeological wood, frequently in the form of shipwrecks, is being excavated for historical purposes in many countries around the world. Even after extensive efforts towards preservation, scientists are discovering that accumulation of sulfate salts results in acidic conditions on the surfaces of the artifacts. Sulfuric acid degrades structural fibers in the wood by acid hydrolysis of cellulose, accelerating the decomposition of the ship timbers. Determining the sulfur content of waterlogged wood is now of great importance in maritime archaeology. Artifact preservation is often more time consuming and expensive than the original excavation; but it is key to the availability of objects for

  17. Archaeological culture, please meet yoghurt culture: towards a relational archaeology of milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrij Mlekuž

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking milk as a point of departure, we set out on a journey to explore the ‘mutual becomings’ of different bodies, species, and things. We argue that milk should be understood as a component in an assemblage that connects animals, humans, hormones, enzymes, bacteria, food, genes, technologies and material culture. These complex entanglements produced new, unexpected results and effects. Since they form part of this assemblage, all its components are profoundly changed. Focusing on this diversity of relations between humans, other creatures, things and substances is a key to an archaeology that does not radically separate humans and nonhumans.

  18. The Institute of Archaeology Conference Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth D Whitehouse

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most creative innovations of Stephen Shennan’s directorship is the annual Institute of Archaeology Conference Competition. This scheme is now in its seventh year (with the result of the eighth competition just announced and it seems a good time to document and celebrate its success. The competition takes place in the spring of each year, with the winning conference being held in the following academic year. In the present format, applicants are asked to outline and justify the conference topic, list the proposed speakers and present a rough budget, with an indication of where the rest of the funds will be obtained if the conference costs are likely to exceed the £2000 of the award. There is no restriction as to the subject of the conference or its scale, though it is stipulated that the award must make a significant difference to the viability of the conference and that the conference fee for Institute attendees should be minimal, with a maximum of £10 for students.

  19. Ceramic compositional analysis in archaeological perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, R.L.; Rands, R.L.; Holley, G.R.

    1980-01-01

    The primary significance of compositional analysis in archaeology lies on the spatial dimension, in distinguishing products made by locally or regionally-based groups. If compositional analysis is to be carried beyond the descriptive recording of similarities and differences, the resource procurement zone (and its geographical relationship to inferred places of manufacture) is a basic operational concept (Rands and Bishop 1980). A zonal concept is clearly indicated in the case of pottery, which frequently is derived from raw materials, clay and temper, that do not necessarily coincide in their place of procurement. Moreover, depending on geomorphological and geochemical variables, these materials may show considerable homogeneity over a fairly extended area. On the other hand, unless there is strong, selective patterning in the exploitation of resources, great heterogeneity within a restricted region may result in fragmented procurement zones that are difficult to equate with the products of specific manufacturing centers. Under favorable circumstances, however, it appears that methods of compositional analysis are approaching the point at which microzones of limited geographical extent can be recognized and assigned heuristically useful boundaries.

  20. Virtual Exhibition and Fruition of Archaeological Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manferdini, A. M.; Garagnani, S.

    2011-09-01

    During the last two decades, since digital technologies have become more sophisticated in acquiring real data and building faithful copies of them, their improvements have suggested interesting applications in the field of valorisation of Historical, Cultural and Artistic Heritage, with significant consequences in the share and widespread of knowledge. But although several technologies and methodologies for 3d digitization have recently been developed and improved, the lack of a standard procedure and the costs connected to their use still doesn't encourage the systematic digital acquisition of wide collections and heritage. The aim of this paper is to show the state of the art of a project whose aim is to provide a methodology and a procedure to create digital reproductions of artefacts for Institutions called to preserve, manage and enhance the fruition of archaeological finds inside museums or through digital exhibitions. Our project's aim is to find the most suitable procedure to digitally acquire archaeo logical artefacts that usually have small dimensions and have very complex and detailed surfaces. Within our methodology, particular attention has been paid to the use of widely shared and open-source visualization systems that enhance the involvement of the user by emphasizing three-dimensional characteristics of artefacts through virtual reality.

  1. Archaeological Lead Findings in the Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June-August 2006 an expedition with the aim to look for low-radioactive archaeological lead at the bottom of the Black Sea, near the Crimean peninsula (Ukraine) was organised by a Korean-Ukrainian collaboration. The first samples with ∼0.2 tons of total mass were found at a depth of 28 m among the relics of an ancient Greek ship. Their age has been dated to the first century B.C. This lead was used as ballast in the keel of the ship. The element composition of the samples was measured by means of X-ray fluorescence and ICP-MS analyses. The first preliminary limits on the 210Pb contamination of the samples are less than a few hundreds mBq/kg. The measurements were performed using gamma spectroscopy with HPGe-detectors and alpha spectroscopy with commercial α-detectors. Measurements of 40K, Th/U in the lead samples were undertaken in Kiev and in the underground laboratories of the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS, Italy). If it was found to be radio-clean this lead could be used as high efficiency shield for ultra low-level detectors, and as raw material for growing radio-pure scintillation crystals such as PbMoO4 or PbWO4 for the search for rare processes

  2. EDXRS Compositional Classification of Archaeological Pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work carried out within this project was focused on the implementation of reliable EDXRF analytical procedures allowing the quantitative analysis and compositional classification of archaeological pottery, followed by its application to different cases of study. The development in CEADEN of a very compact polarized secondary target excitation set-up allowed maximizing x-ray production and detection. The use of proper materials for shielding served to eliminate the spectral interferences arising due to the excitation of construction materials. Together with this improvement in x-ray production, the installation of a digital signal processor (DSP) based spectrometer allowed to improve the instrumental sensitivity by a factor of 10, thus achieving better counting statistics, a significant reduction in measuring time and lowering the uncertainty of the determination. During the last years of the project, the work was aimed into the analysis of both Cuban pre-Columbian pottery and colonial exponents, in an effort to reveal compositional groups and the criteria for their differentiation. In addition a compositional analysis of Taino pottery from the Eastern region of Cuba was carried out. (author)

  3. Potential doses from geological specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many Geology departments in Universities and many private collectors have geological samples which contain examples of Uranium and Thorium salts. Many of these are from old collections and were collected from areas where the Uranium and Thorium content of the samples is very high. Aberdeen University holds such a collection which was having to be relocated and concentrated into a small room. During measurements taken during the introduction of measures to control the radon problem arising from the samples (which was not insignificant) it also became clear that a problem existed with regard to the potential finger dose to researchers w ho were to handle these samples frequently and possibly as a whole body dose to persons who were working adjacent to the radioactive samples on some of the non active rock samples. The paper will describe the dose rates measured round a wide variety of geological specimens. As well as the geological description of these samples a gamma spectral analysis has been carried out and the principle radionuclides present identified. These dose rates have been used to calculate the doses received during exposure scenarios of a variety of persons ranging from research workers handling the sources on a daily basis to people who may be keeping samples in a display cabinet in their homes. Suggested strategies for restricting these doses have been identified. The methodology of the measurement of the dose rates will be described and the dose rates measured presented. The gamma spectral analysis of the samples against the geological type will be shown. Under the different exposure scenarios maximum finger doses of sever al tens of mSv/y are easily achievable and it would be possible to get substantial doses from samples held in a display cabinet in a private home. These doses will be presented. (authors)

  4. [The German Environmental Specimen Bank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Gies, Andreas; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) is the long-term storage of environmental and human samples under stable deep-freeze conditions for future research. The ESB is unique in providing a continuous historical record of environmental and human exposure to chemicals in Germany. ESB was started parallel to the development of the first German Chemicals Legislation in the late 1970s. In 1979, the ESB test operation began. After the Chemicals Law came into force in 1982, the ESB was established as a permanent facility in 1985. With the new European Chemicals Legislation, REACH, in 2007 responsibility for the safety of commercial chemicals and risk assessment was assigned to the industry. Since then, the ESB has become even more important in verifying the self-assessment of the industry, in evaluating the effectiveness of regulations, thus ensuring the protection of humans and the environment against adverse effects caused by exposure to chemicals. These objectives are pursued by the regular monitoring of contaminations and the assessment of temporal trends. Demonstrating the necessity of deriving exposure reduction measures, ESB results serve as key information for policy-makers. Information on preventing exposure to chemicals is available to the general public and to the public health services. The ESB is thus an important monitoring instrument of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety. The Federal Environment Agency operates the ESB based on its own concepts, heads the scientific data evaluation and transfers results into the environmental policy arena and to the general public. PMID:26753867

  5. Preliminary investigation of candidate specimens for the Egyptian environmental specimen bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of establishing an environmental monitoring program related to environmental specimen banking in egypt, some candidate specimens from the aquatic environment (Fish muscle, fish liver; mussels) were investigated. The selection of specimens and sampling sites is described. Specimens are chemically characterised with respect to some major and trace elements and the results are compared with data obtained from comparable specimens collected in aquatic ecosystems of germany

  6. Remote Sensing in Archaeology: Visible Temporal Change of Archaeological Features of the Peten, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, James D., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this archaeological research was two-fold; the location of Mayan sites and features in order to learn more of this cultural group, and the (cultural) preservation of these sites and features for the future using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images. Because the rainy season, traditionally at least, lasts about six months (about June to December), the time of year the image is acquired plays an important role in spectral reflectance. Images from 1986, 1995, and 1997 were selected because it was felt they would provide the best opportunity for success in layering different bands from different years together to attempt to see features not completely visible in any one year. False-color composites were created including bands 3, 4, and 5 using a mixture of years and bands. One particular combination that yielded tremendously interesting results included band 5 from 1997, band 4 from 1995, and band 3 from 1986. A number of straight linear features (probably Mayan causeways) run through the bajos that Dr. Sever believes are features previously undiscovered. At this point, early indications are that this will be a successful method for locating "new" Mayan archaeological features in the Peten.

  7. Photogrammetric Techniques for Promotion of Archaeological Heritage: the Archaeological Museum of Parma (italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Asta, E.; Bruno, N.; Bigliardi, G.; Zerbi, A.; Roncella, R.

    2016-06-01

    In a context rich in history and cultural heritage, such as the Italian one, promotion and enhancement of historical evidences are crucial. The paper describes the case study of the Archaeological Museum of Parma, which, for the main part, conserves evidences found in the roman archaeological site of Veleia (Piacenza, Italy). To enhance the comprehension of the past, the project aims to promote the exhibits through new digital contents, in particular 3D models and AR applications, to improve their usability by the public. Projects like this pose some difficulties especially in data acquisition and restitution due to complexity of the objects and their dimension and position that are not always adequate for an easy survey. Furthermore, in this case, it was necessary to find a solution that takes into account, on one hand, the necessity of a high degree of detail to ensure high metric quality and, on the other hand, the need of producing small files, in order to easy load and consult them on the web or smartphone applications. For all these reasons, close-range photogrammetry was considered the most adequate technique to produce the major part of the models. In this paper, particular attention will be dedicated to the description of the survey campaign and data processing, underlining difficulties and adopted solutions, in order to provide a methodological summary of the actions performed.

  8. Flat tensile specimen design for advanced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthem, Dennis W.

    1990-01-01

    Finite element analyses of flat, reduced gage section tensile specimens with various transition region contours were performed. Within dimensional constraints, such as maximum length, tab region width, gage width, gage length, and minimum tab length, a transition contour radius of 41.9 cm produced the lowest stress values in the specimen transition region. The stresses in the transition region were not sensitive to specimen material properties. The stresses in the tab region were sensitive to specimen composite and/or tab material properties. An evaluation of stresses with different specimen composite and tab material combinations must account for material nonlinearity of both the tab and the specimen composite. Material nonlinearity can either relieve stresses in the composite under the tab or elevate them to cause failure under the tab.

  9. Standardizing the Handling of Surgical Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirey, Cheryl; Perrego, Kristen

    2015-11-01

    To standardize the handling of surgical specimens, the OR clinical educators in a community hospital setting devised a series of departmental changes as a quality improvement project. A newly created skill validation was reviewed in an hour-long educational meeting with all OR staff members. In addition to creating a new annual skill validation, discussions about specimens were included in the hand over, the time out, and a newly instituted debriefing tool to be used toward the end of a procedure. This interdisciplinary group devised interventions to improve the process of handling specimens such as standardizing the labeling process and changing the transparency of the specimen container. The goal was to assure standardization of specimen handling, specifically to assist novice staff members, and to harmonize inconsistencies between specialties within the practice of existing staff members. These combined methods helped to ensure accurate communication and procurement of specimens for all procedures. PMID:26514715

  10. Is routine histopathology of tonsil specimen necessary?

    OpenAIRE

    Agida S Adoga; Danle N Ma`an; Samuel I Nuhu

    2011-01-01

    Background: Tonsillar diseases are common in paediatric and adult otolaryngological practice. These diseases require tonsillectomy. Specimens are subjected to histopathology routinely in my institution for fear of infections and tumour without consideration for risk factors. The financial burden is on the patients and waste of histopathologist′s man hour because other specimens are left un-attended. This study aims to find out the necessity of routine histopathology of tonsil specimens. Mater...

  11. Testing Research on the Coal Specimen Permeability

    OpenAIRE

    Peide Sun

    2006-01-01

    The three-dimensional compression tests to coal specimen containing methane gas were carried out with various confining pressures and pore pressures in this study. The rule for three-dimensional compression deformation on the gas permeability of the coal specimens was systematically studied by the tests. The new empiric equations for the gas permeability of the coal specimens were formulated by the numerical fit of the test data and they were successfully used in the visual numerical simulati...

  12. Percutaneous renal biopsy specimens in stone formers.

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, D.J.; Inglis, J A; Tolley, D. A.

    1988-01-01

    A series of renal biopsy specimens taken at the time of percutaneous nephrolithotomy were investigated for the presence and location of foci of microcalcification. Calcium was found in 18 of 25 (72%) of biopsy specimens from stone formers and in only seven of 30 (23%) of control biopsy specimens. This may indicate defective intrarenal handling of calcium as plasma calcium concentration was normal and 40% had a raised 24 hour urinary calcium excretion.

  13. Feasibility study of archaeological structures scanning by muon tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez, H.; Katsanevas, S.; Tonazzo, A. [Laboratoire Astroparticule et Cosmologie (APC) - Université Paris 7. Paris (France); Carloganu, C.; Niess, V. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire (LPC) - Université Blaise Pascal. Clermont - Ferrand (France); Gibert, D. [Géosciences Rennes - Université de Rennes 1. Rennes (France); Marteau, J. [Institute de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon (IPNL) - Université de Lyon (UCBL). Lyon (France)

    2015-08-17

    One of the main concerns in archaeology is to find of a method to study precisely archaeological structures in the least invasive way possible to avoid damage. The requirement of preserving the structures integrity prevents, in the case of pyramids or tumuli, the study of any internal structure (halls or tombs) which are not reachable by existing corridors. One non-invasive method is the muon tomography. By placing a detector which allows to register the muon direction after the structure, it is possible to have an idea of its composition based on the attenuation of the muon flux, which depends on the material length and density that muons have crossed. This technique, alone or together with other exploration techniques as seismic tomography or electrical resistivity tomography, can provide useful information about the internal structure of the archaeological form that can not be obtained by conventional archaeological methods. In this work, the time measurement necessary to obtain a significant result about the composition of an archaeological structure is estimated. To do that, a Monte Carlo simulation framework based on the MUSIC software, properly tuned for this study, has been developed. The particular case of the Kastas Amfipoli Macedonian tumulus has been considered to perform the simulations.

  14. The development of a GIS for New Deal Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard K. Means

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available I have recently launched an effort to create a GIS of all New Deal-funded archaeological investigations conducted in the 48 states that comprised the USA during the Great Depression (Means 2011. This effort was inspired by the persistent notion that New Deal archaeology was largely limited to the southeastern United States, where the generally warmer climate was seen as conducive to the lengthy field seasons that ensured continuous work for the unemployed (Lyon 1996. The large mound sites that dotted the southeastern USA also ensured that there would be sufficient work for the large relief crews seen as ideal from the perspective of federal officials. While it may prove true that the majority of New Deal archaeology was conducted in the southeast, it is also demonstrably true that the various ‘Alphabet Soup’ work relief programs – notably the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC and the Works Progress Administration/Work Projects Administration (WPA – supported archaeological investigations throughout the USA. In my preliminary efforts to create a GIS for New Deal archaeology, I have determined that at least 75 percent of the 48 states that comprised the USA during the Great Depression had some form of federally funded work relief survey or excavation.

  15. Archaeological Investigations at the Upper Chapel, Norfolk Street, Sheffield, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Baker

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sheffield, in the north of England, grew rapidly in the 19th century and gained an international reputation for its cutlery, tableware, and steel products. The material legacy of this age of industrialisation is extensive, and archaeological work in the modern city over the last 20 years has, for the most part, focused on the above and below ground industrial archaeology relating to metals trades' production sites spanning the 19th and 20th centuries. This article describes recent archaeological work around the Upper Chapel, a Unitarian Meeting House in the city centre where archaeological work recovered a possible buried medieval soil deposit, which contained an assemblage of medieval pottery dating from the 12th to 15th centuries. The presence of waster sherds and fragments of kiln furniture within this assemblage suggests that pottery production may have taken place on or near the site, making this the first putative evidence for pottery production in medieval Sheffield. The archaeological investigations also recovered four human burials from the 18th- to 19th-century burial ground associated with the Upper Chapel. The Upper Chapel burial ground differs from other recently excavated cemeteries in Sheffield as it potentially contained graves of high-status individuals, with at least a proportion of the skeletons and coffins well-preserved owing to waterlogged ground conditions. Detailed studies of the human remains, coffins, and incorporated material, including brass shroud pins are also discussed.

  16. Feasibility study of archaeological structures scanning by muon tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, H.; Carloganu, C.; Gibert, D.; Marteau, J.; Niess, V.; Katsanevas, S.; Tonazzo, A.

    2015-08-01

    One of the main concerns in archaeology is to find of a method to study precisely archaeological structures in the least invasive way possible to avoid damage. The requirement of preserving the structures integrity prevents, in the case of pyramids or tumuli, the study of any internal structure (halls or tombs) which are not reachable by existing corridors. One non-invasive method is the muon tomography. By placing a detector which allows to register the muon direction after the structure, it is possible to have an idea of its composition based on the attenuation of the muon flux, which depends on the material length and density that muons have crossed. This technique, alone or together with other exploration techniques as seismic tomography or electrical resistivity tomography, can provide useful information about the internal structure of the archaeological form that can not be obtained by conventional archaeological methods. In this work, the time measurement necessary to obtain a significant result about the composition of an archaeological structure is estimated. To do that, a Monte Carlo simulation framework based on the MUSIC software, properly tuned for this study, has been developed. The particular case of the Kastas Amfipoli Macedonian tumulus has been considered to perform the simulations.

  17. NASA Remote Sensing Research as Applied to Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco J.; Thomas, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    The use of remotely sensed images is not new to archaeology. Ever since balloons and airplanes first flew cameras over archaeological sites, researchers have taken advantage of the elevated observation platforms to understand sites better. When viewed from above, crop marks, soil anomalies and buried features revealed new information that was not readily visible from ground level. Since 1974 and initially under the leadership of Dr. Tom Sever, NASA's Stennis Space Center, located on the Mississippi Gulf Coast, pioneered and expanded the application of remote sensing to archaeological topics, including cultural resource management. Building on remote sensing activities initiated by the National Park Service, archaeologists increasingly used this technology to study the past in greater depth. By the early 1980s, there were sufficient accomplishments in the application of remote sensing to anthropology and archaeology that a chapter on the subject was included in fundamental remote sensing references. Remote sensing technology and image analysis are currently undergoing a profound shift in emphasis from broad classification to detection, identification and condition of specific materials, both organic and inorganic. In the last few years, remote sensing platforms have grown increasingly capable and sophisticated. Sensors currently in use, or nearing deployment, offer significantly finer spatial and spectral resolutions than were previously available. Paired with new techniques of image analysis, this technology may make the direct detection of archaeological sites a realistic goal.

  18. Hyperspectral MIVIS data to investigate the Lilybaeum (Marsala) Archaeological Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merola, P.; Allegrini, A.; Bajocco, S.

    2005-10-01

    In the last 20 years air photograph and remote sensing, both from airplane and satellite, allowed to gain, from the analysis of the superficial land unit characteristics, useful information for the location of buried archaeological structures. For this kind of investigation, hyperspectral MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer) data revealed to be very useful, for example, since 1994, for the purpose CNR-LARA research project, many archaeological studies have been supported by MIVIS data on several italian archaeological sites: Selinunte, Arpi (Foggia), Villa Adriana (Tivoli) and Marsala. Marsala town, the ancient Lilybaeum, lies on the western coastline of Sicily, at about 30 km south of Trapani. Founded by the Phoenicians, it intensely lived during the Punic, Roman, Arab and Norman periods, whose dominations left many important remains. This archaeological area was investigated by means of several techniques, such as excavations, topographic studies based on airborne campaigns, etc. On this site the main archaeological information were provided by the analysis of the VIS-NIR spectral bands and by Thermal Capacity image.

  19. Feasibility study of archaeological structures scanning by muon tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the main concerns in archaeology is to find of a method to study precisely archaeological structures in the least invasive way possible to avoid damage. The requirement of preserving the structures integrity prevents, in the case of pyramids or tumuli, the study of any internal structure (halls or tombs) which are not reachable by existing corridors. One non-invasive method is the muon tomography. By placing a detector which allows to register the muon direction after the structure, it is possible to have an idea of its composition based on the attenuation of the muon flux, which depends on the material length and density that muons have crossed. This technique, alone or together with other exploration techniques as seismic tomography or electrical resistivity tomography, can provide useful information about the internal structure of the archaeological form that can not be obtained by conventional archaeological methods. In this work, the time measurement necessary to obtain a significant result about the composition of an archaeological structure is estimated. To do that, a Monte Carlo simulation framework based on the MUSIC software, properly tuned for this study, has been developed. The particular case of the Kastas Amfipoli Macedonian tumulus has been considered to perform the simulations

  20. Archaeological research in the Eurasian steppes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parzinger, Hermann

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the activities of the 'Eurasien-Abteilung' of the German Archaeological Institute in different countries of former USSR. Many of these projects have just begun; consequently the paper does not discuss the results of these investigations, but details their scientific purposes. The investigations cover an area which extends from the Black Sea to northeastern China. The principal objects of these investigations include: the transition from the Late Bronze to the Early Iron Age in the Pontic area north of the Black Sea and the Greek colonization of that area; the activities of the Scythians and the Sassanians in Transcaucasia, urbanism and metallurgy in the Bronze Age of Central Asia; and, finally, cultural developments from the Early Bronze Age to the periods of the Scythians and the Huns period in southern Siberia.

    Este artículo presenta las actividades de la 'Eurasien-Abteilung', del Instituto Arqueológico Alemán, en los distintos países de la ex-URSS. Como muchos de estos proyectos han empezado hace poco tiempo, no pretendemos adelantar resultados, sino planteamientos científicos. El área que abarcan se extiende desde el Mar Negro hasta el Noreste de China. Sus principales temas de investigación son: el cambio del Bronce Final a la primera Edad del Hierro en el norte del Mar Negro, la colonización griega en esta zona, las actividades de los Escitas y de los Sasánidas en Transcaucasia, el urbanismo y la metalurgia de la Edad del Bronce en Asia Central y, finalmente, el desarrollo cultural desde el Bronce Antiguo hasta la época de los Escitas y Hunos en el sur de Siberia.

  1. The industrial archaeology of deep time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulstrode, Jenny

    2016-03-01

    For geologists and antiquaries of the late 1850s debates over ancient stone tools were frustrated by a lack of accepted criteria. The artefacts were hard to interpret. It was not self-evident how to judge whether they were ancient or modern, natural or man-made; or indeed whether stone tools could pre-date the use of metal tools at all. Antiquary and papermaker John Evans provided a system that offered to resolve these issues. His criteria and his use of re-enactment, making his own stone implements, gained acceptance among flint experts across fluid disciplinary boundaries and enabled authoritative interpretations of the underdetermined objects. This paper explores how Evans drew on the concerns of his industrial culture to make sense of prehistoric artefacts and support his claim to access the past through his own actions. Situated industrial concerns provided the resources for his flint work: from a patent dispute with astronomer and fellow industrialist Warren de la Rue, through his role in the Victorian arms trade, to the struggle to displace skilled manual labour in his factories. Evans is remembered for pioneering the techniques and classificatory system of modern Palaeolithic archaeology and as one of the founders of the re-enactment science of experimental flint knapping. His work played a significant role in helping reconceive the antiquity of man, yet the system of proof for this grand claim was deeply situated in his industrial culture. This paper explores how the industrial resources of a Victorian papermaker made human history. PMID:26879234

  2. An evaluation of applicability of seismic refraction method in identifying shallow archaeological features A case study at archaeological site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangardi, Morteza; Hafezi Moghaddas, Naser; Keivan Hosseini, Sayyed; Garazhian, Omran

    2015-04-01

    We applied the seismic refraction method at archaeological site, Tepe Damghani located in Sabzevar, NE of Iran, in order to determine the structures of archaeological interests. This pre-historical site has special conditions with respect to geographical location and geomorphological setting, so it is an urban archaeological site, and in recent years it has been used as an agricultural field. In spring and summer of 2012, the third season of archaeological excavation was carried out. Test trenches of excavations in this site revealed that cultural layers were often disturbed adversely due to human activities such as farming and road construction in recent years. Conditions of archaeological cultural layers in southern and eastern parts of Tepe are slightly better, for instance, in test trench 3×3 m²1S03, third test trench excavated in the southern part of Tepe, an adobe in situ architectural structure was discovered that likely belongs to cultural features of a complex with 5 graves. After conclusion of the third season of archaeological excavation, all of the test trenches were filled with the same soil of excavated test trenches. Seismic refraction method was applied with12 channels of P geophones in three lines with a geophone interval of 0.5 meter and a 1.5 meter distance between profiles on test trench 1S03. The goal of this operation was evaluation of applicability of seismic method in identification of archaeological features, especially adobe wall structures. Processing of seismic data was done with the seismic software, SiesImager. Results were presented in the form of seismic section for every profile, so that identification of adobe wall structures was achieved hardly. This could be due to that adobe wall had been built with the same materials of the natural surrounding earth. Thus, there is a low contrast and it has an inappropriate effect on seismic processing and identifying of archaeological features. Hence the result could be that application of

  3. 77 FR 59661 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Stanford University Archaeology Center, Stanford, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Stanford University Archaeology Center, Stanford, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Stanford University Archaeology... to be culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the Stanford University...

  4. 77 FR 34987 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology & Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... & Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology & Anthropology has completed an...: Dr. Richard Hodges, Director, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology &...

  5. The GALAH Survey and Galactic Archaeology in the next decade

    CERN Document Server

    Martell, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    The field of Galactic Archaeology aims to understand the origins and evolution of the stellar populations in the Milky Way, as a way to understand galaxy formation and evolution in general. The GALAH (Galactic Archaeology with HERMES) Survey is an ambitious Australian-led project to explore the Galactic history of star formation, chemical evolution, minor mergers and stellar migration. GALAH is using the HERMES spectrograph, a novel, highly multiplexed, four-channel high-resolution optical spectrograph, to collect high-quality R ~ 28,000 spectra for one million stars in the Milky Way. From these data we will determine stellar parameters, radial velocities and abundances for up to 29 elements per star, and carry out a thorough chemical tagging study of the nearby Galaxy. There are clear complementarities between GALAH and other ongoing and planned Galactic Archaeology surveys, and also with ancillary stellar data collected by of major cosmological surveys. Combined, these data sets will provide a revolutionary...

  6. The megalithic complex of highland Jambi: An archaeological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Lin Tjoa-Bonatz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The highlands of Sumatra remain one of the most neglected regions of insular Southeast Asia in terms of history and archaeology. No comprehensive research program incorporating both a survey and excavations within a defined geographical or environmental zone has been carried out there since Van der Hoop (1932 conducted his study of the megaliths on the Pasemah plateau in the 1930s. Meanwhile, Van der Hoop’s investigations and several other archaeological research activities at places such as northwest Lampung (McKinnon 1993, Pasemah (Sukendar and Sukidjo 1983-84; Caldwell 1997; Kusumawati and Sukendar 2000, Kerinci (Laporan 1995a, 1996a, and the Minangkabau heartland (Miksic 1986, 1987, 2004 have placed special emphasis on the megalithic remains. As a result, the megaliths are by far the bestknown archaeological attraction of the Sumatran highlands.

  7. Compass & Vernier Type Models in Indo Archaeology: Engineering Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Deepak

    2015-09-01

    Two extant, dated, verifiable archaeological members are adduced to have radial type compass features, having scope for fractionation of angles (θ operators) in a constant manner with lookout facilities. The Archaeological Survey of India celebrates their apex achievements in the domain of engineering/survey devices of erstwhile societies. Possible correlation has been drawn between the representatives of the elusive Gola yantra and the Vikhyana yantra (circular instrument & looking device) as referred in Indian history and culture. Dadhi nauti (curd level) has been explained for the first time. Now, all of these are accessible to everyone. This work is the first time report, which relates to historical archaeology of lower date c. 600 AD.

  8. D Surveying and Modeling of Archaeological Sites - Some Critical Issues -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonizzi Barsanti, S.; Remondino, F.; Visintini, D.

    2013-07-01

    The goal of the reported project is to test and evaluate 3D surveying and modelling methods to document the remaining ancient byzantine city walls of the archaeological site of Aquileia in Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy. The objectives are threefold: (1) to use 3D data to create maps, façades and sections that provide information useful for archaeological purposes such as the investigation of architectural construction techniques or construction phases, (2) to evaluate and compare photogrammetric and laser scanner data in order to identify the advantages and disadvantages of the two 3D surveying techniques for archaeological applications and needs and (3) to draw broader conclusions about the applicability of photogrammetry and laser scanning for documenting and analysing ancient walls within a particular set of environmental circumstances. The paper presents the employed 3D surveying techniques, the obtained 3D results and 2D products and some critical comments.

  9. Geophysical Investigations of Archaeological Resources in Southern Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda Ringe Pace; Gail Heath; Clark Scott; Carlan McDaniel

    2005-10-01

    At the Idaho National Laboratory and other locations across southern Idaho, geophysical tools are being used to discover, map, and evaluate archaeological sites. A variety of settings are being explored to expand the library of geophysical signatures relevant to archaeology in the region. Current targets of interest include: prehistoric archaeological features in open areas as well as lava tube caves, historical structures and activity areas, and emigrant travel paths. We draw from a comprehensive, state of the art geophysical instrumentation pool to support this work. Equipment and facilities include ground penetrating radar, electromagnetic and magnetic sensors, multiple resistivity instruments, advanced positioning instrumentation, state of the art processing and data analysis software, and laboratory facilities for controlled experiments.

  10. Augmented Reality System for the musealization of archaeological sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Esclapés

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are presenting a multi-marker and semi-immersive system for augmented reality to visualize and interact with archaeological sites, specifically those located in inaccessible or complex environments, such as caves or underwater locations. The use of this system in museum exhibitions helps visitors to come closer to archaeological heritage. As an example for the implementation of this system, an archaeological site has been used. It is the “Cova del Barranc del Migdia”, located in the “Sierra del Montgó”, Xàbia (Spain. The product obtained has been exhibited in various museums nationwide.

  11. Images of Miloje M. Vasić in Serbian Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Palavestra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Miloje M. Vasić, "the first academically educated archaeologist in Serbia", has a strange destiny in the Serbian archaeology. On the one hand, he has been elevated to the post of the "founding father" of the discipline, with almost semidivine status and iconic importance, while on the other hand, his works have been largely unread and neglected. This paradoxical split is the consequence of the fact that Vasić has been postulated as the universal benchmark of the archaeological practice in Serbia, regardless of his interpretation of the past on the grounds of the archaeological record – the essence of archaeology. Strangely, the life and work of Vasić have not been the subject of much writing, apart from several obituaries, two short appropriate texts (Srejović, Cermanović, and rare articles in catalogues and collections dedicated to the research of Vinča (Garašanin, Srejović, Tasić, Nikolić and Vuković. The critical analysis of his whole interpretive constellation, with "The Ionian colony Vinča" being its brightest star, was limited before the World War II to the rare attempts to rectify the chronology and identify the Neolithic of the Danube valley (Fewkes, Grbić, Holste. After the war, by the middle of the 20th century, the interpretation of Vasić has been put to severe criticism of his students (Garašanin, Milojčić, Benac, which led to the significant paradigm shift, the recognition of the importance of the Balkan Neolithic, and the establishment of the culture-historical approach in the Serbian archaeology. However, from this moment on, the reception of Vasić in the Serbian archaeology has taken a strange route: Vasić as a person gains in importance, but his works are neglected, though referred to, but almost in a cultic fashion, without reading or interpreting them. Rare is a paper on the Neolithic of the Central Balkans that does not call upon the name of Vasić and his four- volume "Vinča", in which Neolithic is not

  12. Making Ceramic Reference Specimens Containing Seeded Voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaklini, George Y.; Klima, Stanley J.; Roth, Don J.

    1994-01-01

    Internal and surface voids of known sizes incorporated into silicon carbide and silicon nitride ceramic reference specimens at prescribed locations. Specimens used to demonstrate sensitivity and resolution in nondestructive examination techniques like scanning laser acoustic microscopy and x-radiography, and to assist in establishing proper examination procedures.

  13. Horse kicks, flying bombs and potsherds: statistical theory contributes to archaeological survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Orton

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In the application of statistics in archaeology, it is essential to choose an appropriate statistical model for the specific archaeological problem being addressed. This article discusses the application of statistical models to large-scale archaeological field survey and describes the development of software (sherdnav designed to guide fieldwalkers to where they should look next, once they have surveyed all the primary spots in a block, and its application to the Noviodunum Archaeological Project (NAP.

  14. The ARROWS project: adapting and developing robotics technologies for underwater archaeology

    OpenAIRE

    Allotta,Benedetto; Costanzi, Riccardo; Ridolfi, Alessandro; Colombo, Carlo; Bellavia, Fabio; Fanfani, Marco; Pazzaglia, Fabio; Salvetti, Ovidio; Moroni, Davide; Pascali, Maria Antonietta; Reggiannini, Marco; Kruusmaa, Maarja; Salumae, Taavi; Frost, Gordon; Tsiogkas, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    ARchaeological RObot systems for the World's Seas (ARROWS) EU Project proposes to adapt and develop low-cost Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Technologies to significantly reduce the cost of archaeological operations, covering the full extent of archaeological campaign. ARROWS methodology is to identify the archaeologists requirements in all phases of the campaign and to propose related technological solutions. Starting from the necessities identified by archaeological project partners in ...

  15. Paper, Video, Internet: New Technologies for Research and Teaching in Archaeology: The Sphakia Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Nixon, Lucia; Price, Simon

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: Archaeology has always been a multimedia discipline in terms of teaching and publication. From the earliest days of archaeology as an academic subject, archaeologists have used museum collections, slides, and actual site visits as well as 'chalk and talk' for teaching. Archaeological publications are almost always illustrated. The Sphakia Survey is an interdisciplinary archaeological project whose main objective is to reconstruct the sequence of human activity in a remote and rug...

  16. "Atypical" use of combinations of geophysical methods for archaeological heritage preservation in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivánek, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2015 (2015), s. 472-476. ISSN 0066-5924. [International Conference on Archaeological Prospection /11./. Warszawa, 15.09.2015-19.09.2015] Grant ostatní: AV ČR(CZ) R300021421 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : archaeological prospection * archaeological heritage preservation * medieval siege camp * archaeology of castle park and gardens * flood plain area Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  17. Examination of simulated borehole specimens. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of the contact between portland cement grout and surrounding rock will be of prime importance if grout is used to seal boreholes for the isolation of nuclear waste. The contact will need to be tight and relatively impermeable. In the study reported herein, simulated borehole (SBH) specimens were prepared and tested in the laboratory. The specimens consisted of grout poured into a hole in sections of anhydrite rock core that had been grouted into a steel pipe to provide restraint. The study was largely devoted to investigating methods of avoiding artifacts during preparation of these SBH specimens for study of the grout-to-rock contact. The work was conducted and is reported in two parts. The first part was a study in which only large round SBH specimens (about 6 by 6 in.) were used, while the second also included some smaller round SBH specimens

  18. MR-pathologic correlation of lung specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a new MR-pathologic correlation method utilizing a high-resolution MR technique with a 3-inch surface coil and elimination of susceptibility by replacing air in the pulmonary alveoli of lung specimens with water. Inflated cadaver lung specimens of various lung disorders were imaged using a conventional spin echo (SE) sequence in a clinical 1.5T MR scanner. The MR images were correlated with pathologic specimens. In six out of seven specimens, MR revealed detailed images corresponding to pathological changes. MR may provide a non-invasive and non-destructive method for examining lung specimens and for image-pathologic correlation

  19. MUSEUMS: A STRATEGY TO PRESERVE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES IN CAMPECHE, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Ordaz Tamayo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mexico’s long history and rich cultural diversity translates into an equally rich offer of national patrimony. That offer, both national and international in scope, adopts diverse formats, such as and/ or archaeological parks. Several Maya archaeological sites in the state of have been exposed without previous planning for their conservation, management, and further research. This leads to and, consequently, their devaluation as a priceless patrimonial heritage. This study explores the prospect and of a community and museum-based strategy as a key to integrate the value of said sites as educational, cultural, economic, and tourist assets and contributing factors to the region’s sustainable

  20. Megaliths, myths and men an introduction to astro-archaeology

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Peter Lancaster

    2000-01-01

    As commonly used, the term ""megaliths"" refers to huge, free-standing, neolithic stones whose origin and meaning have long been debated by archaeologists and students of prehistory. Perhaps the most famous neolithic site is Stonehenge, the great circle of giant stones on Salisbury Plain in England. Twentieth-century studies of Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments have given rise to the science of astra-archaeology, i.e, the study of early astronomical knowledge through the interpretation of ancient monuments and other archaeological data.The present volume, by a noted British astronomer

  1. Alterations in archaeological bones thermally treated: structure and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archaeological bones found close to Mexico city (Tlatelcomila) have been characterized by X-ray Diffraction, Small Angle X-ray Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. These techniques, which are not conventionally used in archaeological research, provided useful information. The boiled bones were clearly distinguished from grilled bones. The degree of deterioration of the bone structure was quantified through parameters such as gyration radius or fractal dimension. The morphology followed the structural modifications and changes resulting from thermic exposure. (Author) 23 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  2. Authenticity test in ceramics and archaeological figures by thermoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present exists quite a lot of false archaeological pieces which provokes doubts about the legitimacy of the pieces. In this work it is presented the Authenticity test by Thermoluminescence realized at the urn of the goddess 13 serpent of the zapotec culture of Oaxaca which is exposed in Mexico City. The original piece contains crystalline structures which present hardly the thermoluminescence phenomena by the presence of 238 U, 232 Th, and 40 K getting with this the form and intensity of the natural thermoluminescence curve of an archaeological piece which shows a Tl peak and allows to know so if it was made recently or not. (Author)

  3. The Archaeology of Smuggling and the Falmouth King's Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Sam

    2009-06-01

    This article demonstrates the potential of an historical archaeology of smuggling and the value of an interdisciplinary approach to the study of smuggling and its prevention. By exploring the previously unstudied history of the King’s Pipe in Falmouth, a large chimney used for the destruction of tobacco, a rare survivor of many that once existed in England’s port cities, it demonstrates that archaeology could transform our understanding of smuggling and its prevention, and more broadly the history of crime and punishment in eighteenth century England.

  4. The status of activation analysis in archaeology and geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many of the initial applications for activation analysis occurred in the fields of archaeology, geochemistry and cosmochemistry. In addition to the desire to investigate noteworthy problems of interest to these disciplines, the reasons for employing activation analysis were based on the advantages of sample preparation, sensitivity, multi-element capability, and non-destructiveness. Nearly fifty years later and despite the development of several new analytical methods, many of these same advantages continue to attract interest in activation analysis from these same disciplines. Past, present and future role of activation analysis with regard to research questions in archaeology, geochemistry, and cosmochemistry are overviewed. (author)

  5. Analysis of archaeological artefacts. PIXE, XRF or ICP-MS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elemental analysis of ancient artefacts is of considerable benefit to the field of Archaeology and of general interest to earth scientists. Several techniques are currently available for this purpose. Capabilities of PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission), XRF (X-ray Fluorescence) and ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry) were evaluated to establish which of these instrumental methods was best suited especially for routine on-line usage. The elements of interest discussed in this paper are useful in archaeological provenance studies. (author)

  6. X-ray fluorescence in investigations of archaeological finds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cechak, T. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic); Hlozek, M. [Institute of Archaeology and Museology, Masaryk University, Arna Novaka 1, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Musilek, L. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: musilek@fjfi.cvut.cz; Trojek, T. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic)

    2007-10-15

    X-ray fluorescence can be successfully used for analysing the elemental composition of the superficial layers of a measured object, especially for investigating surface coatings, deposits of adventitious materials on the surface, etc. An energy dispersive version of X-ray fluorescence analysis is used in our investigations for analysing various historic objects, art works and archaeological finds. Examples of the application of X-ray fluorescence to various archaeological finds from excavations in the Czech Republic are presented - shards of ancient glazed ceramics, moulds for casting metal products, the remains of a human finger with traces of brass, probably from a ring, etc.

  7. X-ray fluorescence in investigations of archaeological finds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray fluorescence can be successfully used for analysing the elemental composition of the superficial layers of a measured object, especially for investigating surface coatings, deposits of adventitious materials on the surface, etc. An energy dispersive version of X-ray fluorescence analysis is used in our investigations for analysing various historic objects, art works and archaeological finds. Examples of the application of X-ray fluorescence to various archaeological finds from excavations in the Czech Republic are presented - shards of ancient glazed ceramics, moulds for casting metal products, the remains of a human finger with traces of brass, probably from a ring, etc

  8. Surveillance specimen assemblies for housing and supporting irradiation specimens within nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to an apparatus used inside nuclear reactors which contains representative reactor material specimens for irradiation effect measurements. Details are given of the assembly used to support and house the specimens under test. (UK)

  9. Analysis of archaeological precious stones from Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šmit, Ž. [Facully of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Fajfar, H. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jeršsek, M. [Slovenian Museum of Natural History, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Knific, T. [National Museum of Slovenia, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kržic, A. [Higher Vocational Centre, Sezana (Slovenia); Lux, J. [Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Precious stones have been attractive pieces of jewelry since ancient times. However, due to the limited sources of origin, the quality of applied items mainly depended on long-range commercial relations, but also on fashion. In Antiquity and Late Antiquity, stones much used and sought for were emeralds and garnets. In Slovenia, emeralds are typically related to the early Roman period and are incorporated in the finds of gold jewelry from the graves. Emerald is generally beryl colored by admixture of chromium, though green colors can also be due to admixtures of iron or vanadium. Garnets were increasingly used by various nations of the People Migration period, and mounted in gilded silver or gold objects by 'cloisonne' or 'en cabochon' techniques. In Slovenia, numerous jewelry items containing garnets were found in the graves and in post-Roman fortified settlements. Geologically, according to the admixtures of metal ions, the garnets are divided into several species, while the most common among archaeological finds are almandines and pyropes and their intermediate types. It is also common to divide garnets into five groups, the first two originating from India, the third from Ceylon and the fifth from Czech Republic. The measurements involved presumed emeralds from Roman jewelry finds in Slovenia and comparative samples of beryl from Siberia and Habachtal in Austria. The analysis determined the coloring ions and showed relations between particular stones. For garnets, ten samples from brooches, earrings and rings were selected for the analysis on the basis of previous micro Raman examination. The analysis was performed by a combined PIXE-PIGE technique using proton beam in air. The light elements of Na, Mg, AI were determined according to the emitted gamma rays, while X-rays were used for the elements heavier than silicon. Two X-ray spectra were measured in each measuring point, soft and hard X-ray; the latter was obtained using an

  10. Morphology of the cementite in archaeological steels that have suffered fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a metallographic study of archaeological artefacts of steel, had been found in different archaeological sites, which characteristic microstructures reveal that have been affected by levels of fire. Study was performed using FEG (Field Emission Gun). In the laboratory, they are reproduced structures of steels archaeological. (Author)

  11. Can You Dig It? An Archaeology Unit Can Make Scientific Research Inviting and Fun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Alice

    2005-01-01

    Since archaeology is a branch of science that interests so many kids, Alice Robinson based a 10-week lesson for her sixth grade class on the subject. First, she prominently displayed archaeology books in the library, including Ancient Times by Guy Austrian and Archaeology for Kids by Richard Panchyk. After explaining the definition of archaeology…

  12. 75 FR 28648 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard... completion of an inventory of human remains in the possession of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and... remains was made by the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology professional staff in...

  13. 75 FR 77897 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice... Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA, that meet the definitions of sacred... Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology have determined, pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(3)(C), seven...

  14. The sixth Nordic conference on the application of scientific methods in archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sixth Nordic Conference on the Application of Scientific Methods in Archaeology with 73 participants was convened in Esbjerg (Denmark), 19-23 September 1993. Isotope dating of archaeological, paleoecological and geochronological objects, neutron activation and XRF analytical methods, magnetometry, thermoluminescence etc. have been discussed. The program included excursions to archaeological sites and a poster session with 12 posters. (EG)

  15. Pioneers, publishers and the dissemination of archaeological knowledge: A study of publishing in British archaeology 1816-1851

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Scott

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The first half of the nineteenth century was a formative period in the development of archaeology as a discipline and archaeological publishing played a key role in this. Libraries were an essential marker of social and intellectual status and there now exists a considerable body of scholarship on the most impressive publications of the day and on the factors influencing their presentation; for example, in relation to the publication of Mediterranean classical antiquities. The crucial role which publishers played in the selection and dissemination of scholarship has been addressed in recent studies of the history of the book, and there is a growing literature on the role of publishers in the dissemination of scientific knowledge, but there has to date been very limited evaluation of the role of publishers in the selection and dissemination of archaeological knowledge in Britain in this period. This study will investigate the extent to which the publication and dissemination of archaeological knowledge, and hence the discipline itself, was shaped by the intellectual and/or commercial concerns of publishers, with a view to providing a more nuanced understanding of the ways in which knowledge was filtered and the impact that this had. Key trends in archaeological publishing in the period 1816-51 will be identified, based on the London Catalogue of Books, and will show how and why this kind of study should be seen as an essential component of any research which considers the history of the discipline. Selected case studies will show the immense, and previously unacknowledged, importance of decisions made during the publication process on the development of archaeology in Britain, and directions for further study will be identified.

  16. Archaeological Geophysics in Israel: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppelbaum, L. V.

    2009-04-01

    Israel is a country with diverse and rapidly changeable environments where is localized a giant number of archaeological objects of various age, origin and size. The archaeological remains occur in a complex (multi-layered and variable) geological-archaeological media. It is obvious that direct archaeological excavations cannot be employed at all localized and supposed sites taking into account the financial, organizational, ecological and other reasons. Therefore, for delineation of buried archaeological objects, determination their physical-geometrical characteristics and classification, different geophysical methods are widely applied. The number of employed geophysical methodologies is constantly increasing and now Israeli territory may be considered as a peculiar polygon for various geophysical methods testing. The geophysical investigations at archaeological sites in Israel could be tentatively divided on three stages: (1) past [- 1990] (e.g., Batey, 1987; Ben-Menahem, 1979; Dolphin, 1981; Ginzburg and Levanon, 1977; Karcz et al., 1977; Karcz and Kafri, 1978; Tanzi et al., 1983; Shalem, 1949; Willis, 1928), (2) present [1991 - 2008] (e.g., Bauman et al., 2005; Ben-Dor et al., 1999; Ben-Yosef et al., 2008; Berkovitch et al., 2000; Borradaile, 2003; Boyce et al., 2004; Bruins et al., 2003; Daniels et al., 2003; Ellenblum et al., 1998; Eppelbaum, 1999, 2000a, 2000b, 2005, 2007a, 2007b, 2008b; Eppelbaum and Ben-Avraham, 2002; Eppelbaum and Itkis, 2000, 2001; 2003, 2009; Eppelbaum et al., 2000a, 2000b, 2001a, 2001b, 2003a, 2003b, 2004a, 2004b; 2005, 2006a, 2006b, 2006c, 2006d, 2007, 2009a, 2009b; Ezersky et al., 2000; Frumkin et al., 2003; Itkis and Eppelbaum, 1998; Itkis, 2003; Itkis et al., 2002, 2003, 2008; Jol et al., 2003, 2008; Kamai and Hatzor, 2007; Khesin et al., 1996; Korjenkov and Mazor, 1999; Laukin et al., 2001; McDermott et al., 1993; Marco, 2008; Marco et al., 2003; Nahas et al., 2006; Neishtadt et al., 2006; Nur and Ron, 1997; Paparo, 1991; Porat

  17. Optimal design of biaxial tensile cruciform specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmerle, S.; Boehler, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    F OR EXPERIMENTAL investigations concerning the mechanical behaviour under biaxial stress states of rolled sheet metals, mostly cruciform flat specimens are used. By means of empirical methods, different specimen geometries have been proposed in the literature. In order to evaluate the suitability of a specimen design, a mathematically well defined criterion is developed, based on the standard deviations of the values of the stresses in the test section. Applied to the finite element method, the criterion is employed to realize the shape optimization of biaxial cruciform specimens for isotropic elastic materials. Furthermore, the performance of the obtained optimized specimen design is investigated in the case of off-axes tests on anisotropic materials. Therefore, for the first time, an original testing device, consisting of hinged fixtures with knife edges at each arm of the specimen, is applied to the biaxial test. The obtained results indicate the decisive superiority of the optimized specimens for the proper performance on isotropic materials, as well as the paramount importance of the proposed off-axes testing technique for biaxial tests on anisotropic materials.

  18. Evaluation of irradiated coating material specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Jin; Nam, Seok Woo; Cho, Lee Moon [RCS Korea Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    Evaluation result of irradiated coating material specimens - Coating material specimens radiated Gamma Energy(Co 60) in air condition. - Evaluation conditions was above 1 X 10{sup 4} Gy/hr, and radiated TID 2.0 X 10{sup 6} Gy. - The radiated coating material specimens, No Checking, Cracking, Flaking, Delamination, Peeling and Blistering. - Coating system at the Kori no. 1 and APR 1400 Nuclear power plant, evaluation of irradiated coating materials is in accordance with owner's requirement(2.0 X 10{sup 6} Gy)

  19. Data from Archaeology for the People? Greek Archaeology and its Public: An Analysis of the Socio-Political and Economic Role of Archaeology in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia Sakellariadi

    2015-01-01

    The interview transcripts and survey data in this dataset originate from an investigation of the role of archaeology in local communities in Greece today. The communities of Krenides (Kavala), Dispilio (Kastoria) and Delphi (Phokida) were used as case studies. Members of these communities, local archaeologists and archaeologists of the central services of the Ministry of Culture were interviewed while the local populations were surveyed using structured questionnaires. The data is stored in t...

  20. The tandetron: applications to earth sciences and archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TANDETRON is a mass spectrometer coupled with a tandem accelerator. Its main advantage is being able to measure the radioactivity of C14 in samples thousand times smaller than those allowed in classical β-counting methods. Some applications to paleoclimatology and archaeology are described. (A.C.)

  1. Moessbauer, XRD, NAA and XRF study of archaeological slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1960, remains of four furnaces from Early Medieval Age were excavated in Nitra. Because a lot of glass-like findings were found on this site the function of furnaces was considered as being used for production of glass even though no analytical tests were performed. These dig-outs were divided into two groups: The first group contains dark glass-like archaeological fragments which were interpreted as a waste (slag) of a glass production. The second group consists of archaeological artefacts which were thought to be a slag from iron production. The main aim of this work is to investigate these two types of archaeological artefacts. Employing standard transmission geometry Moessbauer effect experiments, iron crystallographic sites are identified and compared. In all samples, Fe2+ and Fe3+ structural positions were revealed. In addition, some of the archaeological artefacts that are presumably coming from glass production show traces of metallic iron. On the other hand, slag from iron production exhibit minute contribution of iron oxides in several instances. Additional information about the composition of slag is obtained from X-ray diffraction (XRD), neutron activation analysis (NAA), and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements. (authors)

  2. Strategies for Teaching Maritime Archaeology in the Twenty First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniforth, Mark

    2008-12-01

    Maritime archaeology is a multi-faceted discipline that requires both theoretical learning and practical skills training. In the past most universities have approached the teaching of maritime archaeology as a full-time on-campus activity designed for ‘traditional’ graduate students; primarily those in their early twenties who have recently come from full-time undergraduate study and who are able to study on-campus. The needs of mature-age and other students who work and live in different places (or countries) and therefore cannot attend lectures on a regular basis (or at all) have largely been ignored. This paper provides a case study in the teaching of maritime archaeology from Australia that, in addition to ‘traditional’ on-campus teaching, includes four main components: (1) learning field methods through field schools; (2) skills training through the AIMA/NAS avocational training program; (3) distance learning topics available through CD-ROM and using the Internet; and (4) practicums, internships and fellowships. The author argues that programs to teach maritime archaeology in the twenty first century need to be flexible and to address the diverse needs of students who do not fit the ‘traditional’ model. This involves collaborative partnerships with other universities as well as government underwater cultural heritage management agencies and museums, primarily through field schools, practicums and internships.

  3. Marine Archaeological Explorations at Kulasekharapattinarn and Manapad Region, Tamil Nadu

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh;; Gaur, A.S.; Tripati, S.

    found at most of the port and anchoring sites all along the coastal areas. During a maritime archaeological exploration along the coast of Kulasekharpattanam and Manapad (Tamil Nadu), a large number of stone anchors with an upper circular hole were noted...

  4. Texture Attribute Analysis of GPR Data for Archaeological Prospection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenke; Forte, Emanuele; Pipan, Michele

    2016-08-01

    We evaluate the applicability and the effectiveness of texture attribute analysis of 2-D and 3-D GPR datasets obtained in different archaeological environments. Textural attributes are successfully used in seismic stratigraphic studies for hydrocarbon exploration to improve the interpretation of complex subsurface structures. We use a gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) algorithm to compute second-order statistical measures of textural characteristics, such as contrast, energy, entropy, and homogeneity. Textural attributes provide specific information about the data, and can highlight characteristics as uniformity or complexity, which complement the interpretation of amplitude data and integrate the features extracted from conventional attributes. The results from three archaeological case studies demonstrate that the proposed texture analysis can enhance understanding of GPR data by providing clearer images of distribution, volume, and shape of potential archaeological targets and related stratigraphic units, particularly in combination with the conventional GPR attributes. Such strategy improves the interpretability of GPR data, and can be very helpful for archaeological excavation planning and, more generally, for buried cultural heritage assessment.

  5. Different use of magnetometric field methods in Czech archaeology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivánek, Roman

    Leuven : KU Leuven, 2014 - (Scott, R.; Braekmans, D.; Carremans, M.; Degryse, P.), s. 302-305 ISBN 978-94-6165-120-4. [International symposium on archaeometry /39./. Leuven (BE), 28.05.2012-01.06.2012] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : magnetometry * non-destructive archaeology * geophysical survey Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  6. Archaeological analogs and corrosion; Analogues archeologiques et corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, D

    2008-07-01

    In the framework of the high level and long life radioactive wastes disposal deep underground, the ANDRA built a research program on the material corrosion. In particular they aim to design containers for a very long time storage. Laboratory experiments are in progress and can be completed by the analysis of metallic archaeological objects and their corrosion after hundred years. (A.L.B.)

  7. Neolithic pottery and the biomolecular archaeology of lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Budja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present archaeological and biochemical approaches to organic food residues, the lipids that are well preserved in ceramic matrices on prehistoric vessels. The ‘archaeo- logical biomarker revolution’ concept is discussed in relation to pottery use, animal exploitation and the evolution of dietary practices in prehistory. 

  8. Neolithic pottery and the biomolecular archaeology of lipids:

    OpenAIRE

    Mihael Budja

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present archaeological and biochemical approaches to organic food residues, the lipids that are well preserved in ceramic matrices on prehistoric vessels. The ‘archaeo- logical biomarker revolution’ concept is discussed in relation to pottery use, animal exploitation and the evolution of dietary practices in prehistory. 

  9. Saxon Obsequies: the Early Medieval Archaeology of Richard Cornwallis Neville

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Williams

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the origins of British Anglo-Saxon archaeology by focusing on the work of one early Victorian archaeologist: Richard Cornwallis Neville. The seemingly descriptive and parochial nature of Neville’s archaeological pursuits, together with the attention he afforded to Romano-British remains, has impeded due recognition, and critical scrutiny, of his contributions to the development of early Medieval burial archaeology. Using his archaeological publications as source material, I will show how Neville’s interpretations of Saxon graves were a form of memory work, defining his personal, familial and martial identity in relation to the landscape and locality of his aristocratic home at Audley End, near Saffron Walden, Essex. Subsequently, I argue that Neville’s prehistoric and Romano-British discoveries reveal his repeated concern with the end of Roman Britain and its barbarian successors. Finally, embodied within Neville’s descriptions of early Medieval graves and their location we can identify a pervasive Anglo-Saxonism. Together these strands of argument combine to reveal how, for Neville, Saxon graves constituted a hitherto unwritten first chapter of English history that could be elucidated through material culture and landscape.

  10. Applying Foucault's "Archaeology" to the Education of School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenker, Susan S.

    2008-01-01

    Counselor educators can utilize the ideas of philosopher Michel Foucault in preparing preservice school counselors for their work with K-12 students in public schools. The Foucaultian ideas of "governmentality," "technologies of domination," "received truths," "power/knowledge," "discontinuity," and "archaeology" can contribute to students'…

  11. Trace element analysis of archaeological artefacts from Pella, Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief history of the site at Pella, Jordan is presented, as a prelude to an analysis of the element composition of 82 pottery sherds. Statistical results from this data support the archaeological evidence for occupation during the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age

  12. NAA-applications in cosmology, archaeology and palaeontology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of the TRIGA reactor at the Atominstitute in Vienna as an irradiation facility in neutron activation analysis has a remarkable history. Present research work includes the recent determination of the precise half-life of 182Hf and the participation in an archaeological long-term research program (SCIEM2000). (author)

  13. The Archaeology Education Handbook: Sharing the Past with Kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smardz, Karolyn, Ed.; Smith, Shelley J., Ed.

    This guidebook outlines the culture and structure of schools and shows how archaeologists can work with teachers, curriculum developers, museum professionals, and park rangers to develop useful programs in archaeological education both in the classroom and in informal settings. The essays strive to provide multiple examples of exemplary…

  14. Teaching the Impact of Globalization through Historical Archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Marilyn C.

    Historical archaeology has evolved from an early preoccupation with famous houses and forts to a study of capitalism around the world. Archaeologists study the cultures and interrelationships of the colonizers and the colonized as they negotiated their places in an ever-expanding world system. Recent studies in South Africa, Latin America, and the…

  15. Ethnographic Households and Archaeological Interpretations: A Case from Iranian Kurdistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Carol

    1982-01-01

    Shows how archaeological interpretation based strictly on the evidence of architectural remains may lead to inaccurate conclusions about social patterns in extinct societies. An ethnographic study of an Iranian Kurdish village is used to illustrate the possible variations of residential social relationships within buildings with similar…

  16. Out of the archaeologist's desk drawer: communicating archaeological data online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, D.; David, M.

    2015-08-01

    During archaeological field work a huge amount of data is collected, processed and elaborated for further studies and scientific publications. However, access and communication of linked data; associated tools for interrogation, analysis and sharing are often limited at the first stage of the archaeological research, mainly due to issues related to IPR. Information is often released months if not years after the fieldwork. Nowadays great deal of archaeological data is `born digital' in the field or lab. This means databases, pictures and 3D models of finds and excavation contexts could be available for public communication and sharing. Researchers usually restrict access to their data to a small group of people. It follows that data sharing is not so widespread among archaeologists, and dissemination of research is still mostly based on traditional pre-digital means like scientific papers, journal articles and books. This project has implemented a web approach for sharing and communication purposes, exploiting mainly open source technologies which allow a high level of interactivity. The case study presented is the newly Mithraeum excavated in Ostia Antica archaeological site in the framework of the Ostia Marina Project.

  17. A Survey of Archaeological Samples Dated in 1984

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdahl, Vagn

    A survey is given of archaeological samples dated in 1984 at the Nordic Laboratory for Thermoluminescence Dating. A total of 79 samples were dated, 49 of which were burnt stones. All results were corrected for fading as measured for samples stored for four weeks at room temperature. The alpha dose...

  18. A Survey of Archaeological Samples Dated in 1985

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdahl, Vagn

    1986-01-01

    A survey is given of archaeological samples received for dating in 1985 at the Nordic Laboratory for Thermoluminescence Dating. A total of 66 samples were dated, 42 of which were burnt stones. All results were corrected for short-term fading as measured for samples stored at room temperature for...

  19. Finding Folk Religion: An Archaeology of ‘Strange’ Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Hukantaival

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Archaeology is not only about describing things; we also seek to understand what we find. Sometimes a find can seem puzzling, unexpected in the context in question. It is argued here that evidence of non-Christian elements of religiosity in a historical context can constitute such surprising finds. These finds become less confusing in the light of other sources, such as folklore accounts and historical records. Still, archaeology can offer something not accessible to other disciplines. This paper discusses the phenomenon of folk religion, and the ways that we can take to find the meanings behind the material remains of practices, which may perhaps seem odd to us. A multidisciplinary approach is favoured, and the contribution of archaeology is crucial in gaining information about past practices. The paper also offers a short survey of some archaeological approaches to questions of folk religion. Another issue addressed is why we might be surprised to find evidence of ‘strange’ practices in historical contexts. It is suggested here that historical constructs about the ‘civilising’ effects of Christianity, Reformation, and Enlightenment, respectively, have affected the way that religiosity has been seen in the context of historical Europe.

  20. Qualitative and Quantitative Data on the Use of the Internet for Archaeological Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna-Jane Richardson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available These survey results are from an online survey of 577 UK-based archaeological volunteers, professional archaeologists and archaeological organisations. These data cover a variety of topics related to how and why people access the Internet for information about archaeology, including demographic information, activity relating to accessing information on archaeological topics, archaeological sharing and networking and the use of mobile phone apps and QR codes for public engagement. There is wide scope for further qualitative and quantitative analysis of these data.

  1. Book Review: Interdisciplinary Archaeological Research Programme Maasvlakte 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, J. B.

    2015-10-01

    Archaeological investigation in wetland environments has long been recognised as a specialised aspect of the discipline, where the levels of preservation of organic materials and sediments can be so high that cultural horizons and excavated artefacts can be placed into detailed palaeo-environmental, biological and landscape contexts, in contrast to the more limited information of this kind that is available from dryland archaeological sites. Inevitably, the recovery, integration and understanding of these vital additional data require an interdisciplinary approach and an investment in specialist equipment and scientific analyses if their full potential for reconstructing human occupation and site use within their landscape setting is to be fully realised. The mobilisation and integration of such a team of environmental specialists can require major financial resources, meticulous planning and close co-operation between the various disciplines involved. The most extreme example of wetland archaeology is probably integrated excavation and environmental archaeological research in subtidal locations, but modern development of major coastal infrastructure is increasingly making sites available for study from the early to mid-Holocene or even earlier that have been overwhelmed by sea-level rise and which would otherwise be beyond the reach of archaeological investigation. Such very large scale subtidal interdisciplinary research projects are major, expensive and long-term undertakings and are still rare enough to be publication highlights in the discipline of environmental archaeology. Important recent examples of subtidal work in north-west Europe include Pedersen et al. (1997) and elements of Fischer (1995) in south Scandinavia, and investigations off southern England (Allen and Gardiner, 2000; Momber et al., 2011; Sturt et al., 2014). Research on submerged palaeoenvironments and palaeolandscapes has also seen significant advances (Griffiths et al., 2015), with the

  2. Specimen for high-temperature tensile tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulbert, C. D.

    1972-01-01

    Split nut with internal taper to hold specially formed specimen composed of filaments of refractory material provides means for holding at high temperature and under tension so that performance evaluations may be made.

  3. CPS Trawl Life History Specimen Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Individual specimens measured (weight in grams and length in mm) and sexed from mainly targeted species caught during SWFSC-FRD fishery independent trawl surveys of...

  4. Modelling Vague Knowledge for Decision Support in Planning Archaeological Prospections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, S.; Hornung, S.; Müller, H.

    2012-07-01

    Most archaeological predictive models lack significance because fuzziness of data and uncertainty in knowledge about human behaviour and natural processes are hardly ever considered. One possibility to cope with such uncertainties is utilization of probability based approaches like Bayes Theorem or Dempster-Shafer-Theory. We analyzed an area of 50 km2 in Rhineland Palatinate (Germany) near a Celtic oppidum by use of Dempster-Shafer's theory of evidence for predicting spatial probability distribution of archaeological sites. This technique incorporates uncertainty by assigning various weights of evidence to defined variables, in that way estimating the probability for supporting a specific hypothesis (in our case the hypothesis presence or absence of a site). Selection of variables for our model relied both on assumptions about settlement patterns and on statistically tested relationships between known archaeological sites and environmental factors. The modelling process was conducted in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by generating raster-based likelihood surfaces. The corresponding likelihood surfaces were aggregated to a final weight of evidence surface, which resulted in a likelihood value for every single cell of being a site or a non-site. Finally the result was tested against a database of known archaeological sites for evaluating the gain of the model. For the purpose of enhancing the gain of our model and sharpening our criteria we used a two-step approach to improve the modelling of former settlement strategies in our study area. Applying the developed model finally yielded a 100 percent success rate of known archaeological sites located in predicted high potential areas.

  5. Domain-Specific Formal Ontology of Archaeology and Its Application in Knowledge Acquisition and Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-XiaZhang; Cun-GenCao; FangGu; Jin-XinSi

    2004-01-01

    Inherent heterogeneity and distribution of knowledge strongly prevent knowledge from sharing and reusing among different agents and software entities, and a formal ontology has been viewed as a promising means to tackle this problem. In this paper, a domain-specific formal ontology of archaeology is presented. The ontology mainly consists of three parts: archaeological categories, their relationships and axioms. The ontology not only captures the semantics of archaeological knowledge, but also provides archaeology with an explicit and formal specification of a shared conceptualization, thus making archaeological knowledge shareable and reusable across humans and machines in a structured fashion. Further, we propose a method to verify ontology correctness based on the individuals of categories. As applications of the ontology, we have developed an ontology-driven approach to knowledge acquisition from archaeological text and a question answering system for archaeological knowledge.

  6. Exhibition Season: Annual Archaeological Exhibitions in London, 1880s-1930s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amara Thornton

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Annual archaeological exhibitions were a visible symbol of archaeological research. Held mainly in London, the displays encapsulated a network of archaeologists, artists, architects and curators, and showcased the work of the first generations of trained archaeologists. The exhibition catalogues and published reviews of the displays provide a unique method for exploring the reception and sponsorship of archaeological work overseas and its promotion to a fascinated, well connected and well moneyed public. The exhibitions were a space in which conversation and networking were as important as educational enrichment. This paper analyses the social history of the “annual exhibition” in archaeology, highlighting the development and maintenance of the networks behind archaeological research, the geography of London as a way to examine influence in archaeology, and the utility of exhibitions for archaeological publicity during this period of exploration.

  7. Diagnostic analysis of stone materials from underwater excavations: the case study of the Roman archaeological site of Baia (Naples, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloise, P.; Ricca, M.; La Russa, M.F.; Ruffolo, S.A.; Crisci, G.M. [Universita della Calabria, Dipartimento di Biologia, Ecologia e Scienze della Terra (DiBEST), Arcavacata di Rende (Italy); Belfiore, C.M. [Universita della Calabria, Dipartimento di Biologia, Ecologia e Scienze della Terra (DiBEST), Arcavacata di Rende (Italy); Universita di Catania, Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali - Sezione di Scienze della Terra, Catania (Italy); Padeletti, G. [CNR-ICMAT, Roma (Italy)

    2014-03-15

    This work belongs to the framework of the national research project ''COMAS'' (Planned COnservation, ''in situ'', of underwater archaeological artifacts), funded by the Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (MIUR), concerning the submarine archaeological area of Baia (Naples, Italy). The site includes remains of the ancient cities of Baiae and Portus Iulius, which, since the 4th century AD, started to be submerged because of the bradyseism phenomenon. The work aims to the characterization of four different types of stone materials collected from the site, specifically marbles, limestones, ignimbrites, and bricks, in order to investigate their state of conservation. In particular, specimens were sampled from some masonry structures and pavement slabs (opus sectile) in a specific area of the submerged site, called ''Villa a Protiro''. In order to characterize archaeological samples from a mineralogical-petrographic point of view, polarized optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses were carried out, while to assess their conservation state, the surface colonization by biodeteriogen agents and their interaction with the substrate were studied through observations under a stereomicroscope, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Marble and limestone samples revealed an intense bioerosion phenomena, attributable to epilithic and endolithic forms, particularly boring sponges. On the contrary, ignimbrites suffer a lower degree of biological colonization related to the activity of other species, such as serpulids and bryozoans. In bricks, biocolonisation is correlated to the type of temper used in the artifact, the quartz pastes having a greater susceptibility to biological attack than the volcanic ones. (orig.)

  8. Large-scale high-resolution non-invasive geophysical archaeological prospection for the investigation of entire archaeological landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinks, Immo; Neubauer, Wolfgang; Hinterleitner, Alois; Kucera, Matthias; Löcker, Klaus; Nau, Erich; Wallner, Mario; Gabler, Manuel; Zitz, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Over the past three years the 2010 in Vienna founded Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Archaeological Prospection and Virtual Archaeology (http://archpro.lbg.ac.at), in collaboration with its ten European partner organizations, has made considerable progress in the development and application of near-surface geophysical survey technology and methodology mapping square kilometres rather than hectares in unprecedented spatial resolution. The use of multiple novel motorized multichannel GPR and magnetometer systems (both Förster/Fluxgate and Cesium type) in combination with advanced and centimetre precise positioning systems (robotic totalstations and Realtime Kinematic GPS) permitting efficient navigation in open fields have resulted in comprehensive blanket coverage archaeological prospection surveys of important cultural heritage sites, such as the landscape surrounding Stonehenge in the framework of the Stonehenge Hidden Landscape Project, the mapping of the World Cultural Heritage site Birka-Hovgården in Sweden, or the detailed investigation of the Roman urban landscape of Carnuntum near Vienna. Efficient state-of-the-art archaeological prospection survey solutions require adequate fieldwork methodologies and appropriate data processing tools for timely quality control of the data in the field and large-scale data visualisations after arrival back in the office. The processed and optimized visualisations of the geophysical measurement data provide the basis for subsequent archaeological interpretation. Integration of the high-resolution geophysical prospection data with remote sensing data acquired through aerial photography, airborne laser- and hyperspectral-scanning, terrestrial laser-scanning or detailed digital terrain models derived through photogrammetric methods permits improved understanding and spatial analysis as well as the preparation of comprehensible presentations for the stakeholders (scientific community, cultural heritage managers, public). Of

  9. Neutron activation analysis applied to archaeological problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the various techniques, the main analytical methods used to characterize ceramics are undoubtedly XRF and INAA. The principles of NAA differ from those of XRF in that samples are irradiated by thermal neutrons from a nuclear reactor. During irradiation, a few neutrons are captured by the nuclei of atoms in the specimen. This process, called activation, causes some of the nuclei to become unstable. During and after neutron irradiation, these unstable nuclei emit γ rays with unique energies at rates defined by the characteristic half-lives of the radioactive nuclei. Identification of the radioactive nucleus is possible by measuring the γ ray energies. Determination of their intensities permits quantitative analysis of the elements in the sample. The use of NAA in ceramics by a combination of two or three irradiation, decay and measurement strategies allows the determination of the elements Ba, Ce, Cl, Co, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb, Zn and Zr, if necessary by changing the irradiation, decay and measurement schemes. In general, XRF is more available, more rapid and less expensive than NAA. However, NAA offers a far greater number of elements, more sensitivity, superior precision and greater accuracy than XRF. On the other hand, NAA can be performed on extremely small samples (5-10 mg), meaning that only minor damage to valuable artefacts may be required

  10. Closeout of JOYO-1 Specimen Fabrication Efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ME Petrichek; JL Bump; RF Luther

    2005-10-31

    Fabrication was well under way for the JOYO biaxial creep and tensile specimens when the NR Space program was canceled. Tubes of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 for biaxial creep specimens had been drawn at True Tube (Paso Robles, CA), while tubes of Mo-47.5 Re were being drawn at Rhenium Alloys (Cleveland, OH). The Mo-47.5 Re tubes are now approximately 95% complete. Their fabrication and the quantities produced will be documented at a later date. End cap material for FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 had been swaged at Pittsburgh Materials Technology, Inc. (PMTI) (Large, PA) and machined at Vangura (Clairton, PA). Cutting of tubes, pickling, annealing, and laser engraving were in process at PMTI. Several biaxial creep specimen sets of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 had already been sent to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for weld development. In addition, tensile specimens of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, and Mo-47.5 Re had been machined at Kin-Tech (North Huntington, PA). Actual machining of the other specimen types had not been initiated. Flowcharts 1-3 detail the major processing steps each piece of material has experienced. A more detailed description of processing will be provided in a separate document [B-MT(SRME)-51]. Table 1 lists the in-process materials and finished specimens. Also included are current metallurgical condition of these materials and specimens. The available chemical analyses for these alloys at various points in the process are provided in Table 2.

  11. Closeout of JOYO-1 Specimen Fabrication Efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrication was well under way for the JOYO biaxial creep and tensile specimens when the NR Space program was canceled. Tubes of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 for biaxial creep specimens had been drawn at True Tube (Paso Robles, CA), while tubes of Mo-47.5 Re were being drawn at Rhenium Alloys (Cleveland, OH). The Mo-47.5 Re tubes are now approximately 95% complete. Their fabrication and the quantities produced will be documented at a later date. End cap material for FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 had been swaged at Pittsburgh Materials Technology, Inc. (PMTI) (Large, PA) and machined at Vangura (Clairton, PA). Cutting of tubes, pickling, annealing, and laser engraving were in process at PMTI. Several biaxial creep specimen sets of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 had already been sent to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for weld development. In addition, tensile specimens of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, and Mo-47.5 Re had been machined at Kin-Tech (North Huntington, PA). Actual machining of the other specimen types had not been initiated. Flowcharts 1-3 detail the major processing steps each piece of material has experienced. A more detailed description of processing will be provided in a separate document [B-MT(SRME)-51]. Table 1 lists the in-process materials and finished specimens. Also included are current metallurgical condition of these materials and specimens. The available chemical analyses for these alloys at various points in the process are provided in Table 2

  12. Connecting Archaeological Data and Grey Literature via Semantic Cross Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Tudhope

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Differing terminology and database structure hinders meaningful cross search of excavation datasets. Matching free text grey literature reports with datasets poses yet more challenges. Conventional search techniques are unable to cross search between archaeological datasets and Web-based grey literature. Results are reported from two AHRC funded research projects that investigated the use of semantic techniques to link digital archive databases, vocabularies and associated grey literature. STAR (Semantic Technologies for Archaeological Resources was a collaboration between the University of Glamorgan, Hypermedia Research Unit and English Heritage (EH. The main outcome is a research Demonstrator (available online, which cross searches over excavation datasets from different database schemas, including Raunds Roman, Raunds Prehistoric, Museum of London, Silchester Roman and Stanwick sampling. The system additionally cross searches over an extract of excavation reports from the OASIS index of grey literature, operated by the Archaeology Data Service (ADS. A conceptual framework provided by the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model (CRM integrates the different database structures and the metadata automatically generated from the OASIS reports by natural language processing techniques. The methods employed for extracting semantic RDF representations from the datasets and the information extraction from grey literature are described. The STELLAR project provides freely available tools to reduce the costs of mapping and extracting data to semantic search systems such as the Demonstrator and to linked data representation generally. Detailed use scenarios (and a screen capture video provide a basis for a discussion of key issues, including cost-benefits, ontology modelling, mapping, terminology control, semantic implementation and information extraction issues. The scenarios show that semantic interoperability can be achieved by mapping and extracting

  13. Automatic archaeological feature extraction from satellite VHR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahjah, Munzer; Ulivieri, Carlo

    2010-05-01

    Archaeological applications need a methodological approach on a variable scale able to satisfy the intra-site (excavation) and the inter-site (survey, environmental research). The increased availability of high resolution and micro-scale data has substantially favoured archaeological applications and the consequent use of GIS platforms for reconstruction of archaeological landscapes based on remotely sensed data. Feature extraction of multispectral remotely sensing image is an important task before any further processing. High resolution remote sensing data, especially panchromatic, is an important input for the analysis of various types of image characteristics; it plays an important role in the visual systems for recognition and interpretation of given data. The methods proposed rely on an object-oriented approach based on a theory for the analysis of spatial structures called mathematical morphology. The term "morphology" stems from the fact that it aims at analysing object shapes and forms. It is mathematical in the sense that the analysis is based on the set theory, integral geometry, and lattice algebra. Mathematical morphology has proven to be a powerful image analysis technique; two-dimensional grey tone images are seen as three-dimensional sets by associating each image pixel with an elevation proportional to its intensity level. An object of known shape and size, called the structuring element, is then used to investigate the morphology of the input set. This is achieved by positioning the origin of the structuring element to every possible position of the space and testing, for each position, whether the structuring element either is included or has a nonempty intersection with the studied set. The shape and size of the structuring element must be selected according to the morphology of the searched image structures. Other two feature extraction techniques were used, eCognition and ENVI module SW, in order to compare the results. These techniques were

  14. Cambridge Illustrated History of Archaeology, edited by Paul G. Bahn, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas R. Givens

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The Cambridge Illustrated History of Archaeology is another in a series of volumes devoted to the history of archaeology that have appeared in recent time. Paul Bahn, the editor of the volume, has broken down his coverage of the history of worldwide archaeology into the following arrangement 'The Archaeology of Archaeology", "Old Worlds and New, 1500-1760", "Antiquarians and Explorers, 1760-1820", "Science and Romanticism, 1820-1860", "The Search for Human Origins, 1860-1920", "Archaeology Comes of Age, 1920-1960", "New Techniques and Competing Philosophies, 1960-1990",and "Current Controversies and Future Trends". Bahn's volume explores many of the major developments in archaeological practice from both in the classical world and was as from the practice of archaeology in the Americas. The volume even gives the reader a glimpse into the origins and growth of archaeology in New Zealand. Of particular interest is coverage of the history of early archaeological efforts having to do with early studies of human origins.

  15. Down to the trenches: the Integrated Information System of Archaeological Sources of Prague - an adjustment to the AMCR for urban archaeology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boháčová, Ivana; Podliska, J.; Hasil, Jan

    Praha: Institute of Archaeology of the CAS, 2015 - (Kuna, M.), s. 99-113 ISBN 978-80-87365-88-5 R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF13P01OVV014 Keywords : information system * archaeology * Prague * heritage Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  16. Roentgenographic apparatus for high level radioactive specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a highly radioactive specimen such as a nuclear fuel element, is nondestructively tested by X-ray photography, the entire area of the film is blackened by radioactive rays emanating from the specimen itself, and an X-ray photograph of good contrast cannot be acquired. As an expedient for eliminating the drawback, it is known that a grid which is made of a heavy metal such as lead and which has slits extending in the direction of the radiating X-rays may be interposed between the specimen and the film so as to intercept a major portion of the radioactive rays of the specimen. In this case, in order to take off the shadow of the grid as projected on the film, it is necessary to move the grid in a direction orthogonal to its stripes during the photographic procedure. On the other hand, the X-ray penetrability through specimens and accordingly the exposure time differ in dependence on the wrapping material of the nuclear fuel, etc. It is therefore customary to reciprocate the grid at predetermined periods. In the case of such reciprocation, the grid stops momentarily at the turn-back points of the motion, and hence, the stripe-shaped shadow of the grid remains on the film. According to this invention, in order to obviate the stripe-shaped shadow, an X-ray shutter located between the specimen and the grid is closed immediately before the grid reaches the turn-back points, while the shutter is opened again when the grid passes through the turn-back points. By the actuation of microswitches disposed in the vicinity of the turn-back points, a magnet valve provided in the pneumatic system of an air cylinder is changed-over to open and close the shutter. (Takasuka, S.)

  17. Developing technologies for the management of the Archaeological Heritage: towards a model of Evaluation of the Archaeological Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreiro Martínez, David

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to establish criteria and procedures of archaeological practice to solve the problems and demands posed by the Management of the Archaeological Heritage. Our Research Unit is developing the CLAAR Programme, to define criteria and conventions for Landscape Archaeology and Archaeological Heritage. The main aim of this programme is to contribute to the development of systems and methodologies to manage and evaluate the Archaeological Heritage. In a practical sense, it tries to compose a Handbook of Practice to apply to research and commercial projects. As an example, this paper deals with the Evaluation of Archaeological Impact, proposing a methodological scheme to be applied to this new practice, which is an important part of the Evaluation of Environmental Impact.

    Este texto plantea la necesidad de establecer procedimientos y convenciones de práctica arqueológica para resolver los problemas y demandas en la gestión actual del Patrimonio Arqueológico. En concreto se presenta el programa CAPA (criterios y convenciones en Arqueología del Paisaje y Patrimonio Arqueológico en vía de realización por nuestro Grupo de Investigación. El objetivo de este programa es contribuir al desarrollo de sistemas y metodologías de gestión y evaluación del Patrimonio Arqueológico y llegar a componer un Manual de Usos Internos que nuestro grupo aplicaría en los diferentes proyectos de investigación y de asistencia técnica. Como ejemplo de estos desarrollos, se considera la Evaluación de Impacto Arqueológico y se propone un esquema metodológico para la realización de este nuevo tipo de práctica arqueológica, que forma parte importante de la Evaluación de Impacto Ambiental.

  18. Soldiering Archaeology: Pitt Rivers and ‘Militarism’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Evans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper initially explores the impact of the military on the development of British archaeology generally. It then focuses on the career of General Pitt Rivers, whose army background – especially his work in ordnance and when serving as legal prosecutor – fundamentally informed his archaeology, providing the basis for his concept of 'proof' and the adjudication of evidence. Pitt Rivers was an active member of, and contributed to, the collections of the ‘lost’ museum of the Royal United Services Institute. His particular interest was in the study of 'Primitive Warfare', and he demonstrated its evolution through his ‘typological’ collections of weapons. Finally, given the breadth of military experience and the diverse participation of its members within the discipline, critique is made of Wheeler’s singular formulation of an ‘army-influenced archaeology’.

  19. Terahertz and Cultural Heritage Science: Examination of Art and Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Cosentino

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cultural Heritage scientists need methodologies to examine Art and Archaeology in order to understand artistic materials and techniques and devise better conservation procedures. This review discusses the most successful and promising applications of Terahertz (THz technology in Cultural Heritage Science. THz is used in homeland security and for plenty of other industrial sectors and it presents a number of valuable features specifically for the investigation of Art and Archaeology: No radiation risk, low power, non-contact and reflection mode. Recent technical advancements are also making its application fast, mobile and relatively affordable creating a potential for its diffused implementation in museums. While THz is most promising for the investigation of multilayered art, such as paintings, it has been tested on a very large range of artifacts, from manuscripts to mummies and lacquered historical furniture.

  20. [Ancient teeth: research on teeth and jaws from archaeological sites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelsma, J

    2016-05-01

    Archaeology aims to enhance our understanding of the human past. An archaeologist devotes him- or herself to material remains, most often from the earth. The best sources of information about human behaviour and the earlier conditions of life for human beings are gravesites. In addition to being a source of cultural information, well-preserved skeletons offer vast possibilities for biochemical and genetic research. Teeth in particular can provide a treasure trove of information about the lives of our ancestors. With DNA analysis, gender and genetic relationships can be determined, however, the surface of the teeth also provides information about gender, age and genetic relationships and, of course, about the use of the teeth. New discoveries are being made and new (bio-)archaeological analyses are being carried out all the time. PMID:27166454

  1. Study of archaeological underwater finds: deterioration and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisci, G. M.; La Russa, M. F.; Macchione, M.; Malagodi, M.; Palermo, A. M.; Ruffolo, S. A.

    2010-09-01

    This study is aimed at an assessment of the methodologies, instruments and new applications for underwater archaeology. Research focused on study of the various kinds of degradation affecting underwater finds and stone materials aged in underwater environment, efficiency evaluation of various surface cleaning methods and study and mixing of protective products with consolidating resins and antimicrobial biocides to be applied to restored underwater finds. Transmitted light optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to study surface biofilms and the interactions with samples of different stone materials such as brick, marble and granite immersed in the submarine archaeological area of Crotone (South of Italy). Surface cleaning tests were performed with application of ion exchange resins, EDTA, hydrogen peroxide and ultrasound techniques. Capillary water absorption, simulated solar ageing and colourimetric measurements were carried out to evaluate hydrophobic and consolidant properties; to assess biocidal efficacy, heterotrophic micro-organisms ( Aspergillus niger) were inoculated on agar plates and growth inhibition was measured.

  2. Steps Towards Operationalising an Evolutionary Archaeological Definition of Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riede, Felix

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the definition of archaeological cultures/techno-complexes from an evolutionary perspective, in which culture is defined as a system of social information transmission. A formal methodology is presented through which the concept of a culture can be operationalised, at least...... culture and that it improves upon traditional, typologically defined techno-complexes. In conclusion, the benefits and limits of such an evolutionary and quantitative definition of culture are discussed....... within this approach. It has already been argued that in order to study material culture evolution in a manner similar to how palaeontologists study biological change over time, we need explicitly constructed archaeological taxonomic units . In palaeontology, the definition of such taxonomic units ? most...

  3. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in archaeology interpretation beyond elemental abundance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis to the study of archaeological ceramics involves the determination of the source or sources used to produce pottery. Groups of relatively homogeneous elemental abundances are shown to be statically distinct from one another often leading to the assesment of what was locally produced and what was imported to a site. These assesment, however are among the most preliminary interpretations. Archaeology is concerned with the reasons for artificial distributions and how and why the distribution varied through time 3 reasons that include the social and political basis of ancient economics and how these responded to other factors, such as ideology. These objectives are addressed through the increasing refinement of compositional groups leading toward greater specificity of attribution. In so doing the role of analytical precision among other considerations groves in importance. This paper illustration some of these considerations with examples from the U.S. southwest, the Maya region of southern mexico, and lower central America

  4. Thermoluminescent dating using zircon grains from archaeological ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new thermoluminescence dating technique is described which uses zircon grains separated from ceramics. Because the zircons are orders of magnitude more radioactive than typical ceramics or soil, no burial information is needed. Nearly all of the natural dose is from internal alpha particles so effects of ground water and supralinearity are negligible. In a test programme on potsherds of known age, ages for individual homogeneous (unzoned) grains were within 20% of the archaeologic ages; the mean ages of 2 to 5 grains from a potsherd lay within 7% of the archaeologic age on average. The main limitations are that zoned zircon grains must be avoided (which makes the procedure somewhat laborious) and a sample at least 1 g in size is required. (author)

  5. Innovation Technologies and Applications for Coastal Archaeological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iorio, A.; Biliouris, D.; Guzinski, R.; Hansen, L. B.; Bagni, M.

    2015-04-01

    Innovation Technologies and Applications for Coastal Archaeological sites project (ITACA) aims to develop and test a management system for underwater archaeological sites in coastal regions. The discovering and monitoring service will use innovative satellite remote sensing techniques combined with image processing algorithms. The project will develop a set of applications integrated in a system pursuing the following objectives: - Search and location of ancient ship wrecks; - Monitoring of ship wrecks, ruins and historical artefacts that are now submerged; - Integration of resulting search and monitoring data with on-site data into a management tool for underwater sites; - Demonstration of the system's suitability for a service. High resolution synthetic aperture radar (TerraSAR-X, Cosmo-SkyMed) and multispectral satellite data (WorldView) will be combined to derive the relative bathymetry of the bottom of the sea up to the depth of 50 meters. The resulting data fusion will be processed using shape detection algorithms specific for archaeological items. The new algorithms, the physical modelling and the computational capabilities will be integrated into the Web-GIS, together with data recorded from surface (2D and 3D modelling) and from underwater surveys. Additional specific archaeological layers will be included into the WebGIS to facilitate the object identification through shape detection techniques and mapping. The system will be verified and validated through an extensive onground (sea) campaign carried out with both cutting edge technologies (side-scan sonar, multi beam echo sounder) and traditional means (professional scuba divers) in two test sites in Italy and Greece. The project is leaded by Planetek Hellas E.P.E. and include ALMA Sistemi sas for the "shape detection" and dissemination tasks, DHI-GRAS and Kell Srl for multispectral and SAR bathymetry. The complete consortium is composed by eleven partners and the project Kick-Off has been held in

  6. A Note Concerning the Archaeology of Annadel State Park

    OpenAIRE

    Parkman, Edward Breck

    1983-01-01

    The recent DPR investigations have been directed toward a better understanding of the Annadel prehistoric archaeological record. One goal of this work has been to delineate the boundaries of the park's primary obsidian source (i.e., the "Annadel" source). Special attention has also been given to x-ray fluorescence spectrography and obsidian hydration studies. These studies have helped to better illustrate the chemical variability of the local obsidian, and to better define the local chronolog...

  7. In Praise of Vagueness: Uncertainty, ambiguity and archaeological methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2016-01-01

    This article stipulates that vagueness is a socially important yet academically largely overlooked aspect of human interaction with the world. Vagueness and vague experiences can structure material categorisations of the world; it can contribute to the shaping of social relations and nurture the....... Finally, it is argued that the idealisation of certitude in archaeological analysis needs to be complemented by an interpretative framework making it possible to recognise vagueness as a social phenomenon....

  8. Obstacles to Career Progression in Archaeology: Precarious Labour and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Andrew Hardy

    2014-01-01

    As Sue Hamilton brought out, a combination of personal and structural forces harm workers and areas of work. Those forces multiply inequity by channelling already disadvantaged workers into disadvantageous areas of work. For example, under a historic ‘domestic’ division of labour in archaeology, women have disproportionately performed invisible ‘dishwashing’ duties, which have not only been immediately financially under-rewarding and relatively insecure, but which have also undermined career ...

  9. The development of Spanish archaeology in the 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Navarrete, María Isabel

    1997-01-01

    The long history of state unity and archaeology’s strong dependence on the state explain how archaeological practice became institutionalized in Spain. The intellectual currents that marked Spanish archaeology’s development – antiquarianism, Enlightenment interest in human antiquity, the definition of national identity – are analogous to those in other European countries: foreign models always were influential. Largely due to traditional, institutionalized links to German and French archaeolo...

  10. Botany meets archaeology: people and plants in the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Jo

    2013-12-01

    This paper explores the close links between botany and archaeology, using case studies from the ancient Mediterranean. It explains the kinds of palaeobotanical remains that archaeologists can recover and the methods used to analyse them. The importance of iconographic and textual evidence is also underlined. Examples of key research areas that focus on ancient plants are discussed: diet and palaeoeconomy; medicines, poisons, and psychotropics; perfumes, cosmetics, and dyes; and prestige. PMID:23669575

  11. Biomimetic hydroxyapatite as a new consolidating agent for archaeological bone

    OpenAIRE

    North, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies on calcareous stone and plaster consolidation have demonstrated considerable potential by bio-mimicking the growth of hydroxyapatite (HAP), the main mineralogical constituent of teeth and bone matrix. These initial conservation applications, together with significant fundamental research on the precipitation of HAP for bioengineering and biomedical applications, offer great promise in the use of HAP as a consolidating agent for archaeological bone and other similar materials su...

  12. Archaeological and chemical analysis of Tell el Yahudiyeh ware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typological and geographic analyses indicate that Tell el Yahudiyeh ware (found in Cyprus, Egypt, Nubia, and the Levant during the Middle Bronze period, c. 1750-1550 B.C.) were probably manufactured in two areas, the Nile Valley and the Levant. Activation analysis was carried out and correlated with the archaeological analyses. Results confirm the two ''families'' of the ware, one Egyptian and one Levantine. Speculations are offered on the social interaction of the period. 11 figures, 2 tables

  13. Reverse engineering and the archaeology of the modern world

    OpenAIRE

    Moshenska, G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the practical and conceptual connections between the archaeology of post-industrial societies and the process of reverse engineering. It explores common themes such as industrial decline, the loss of technical expertise, and the growing problem of obsolescence both in technological infrastructure and in the management of digital data. To illuminate the connections between the two fields it considers several examples. These include the implicit applications of r...

  14. Archaeology and masculinity in Late Bronze Age Knossos

    OpenAIRE

    Alberti, Ben

    1997-01-01

    This thesis critically examines the applicability of the concept of masculinity as a descriptive or analytical category in archaeological analyses. Central to this project is the recognition that the concept of gender employed by the majority of archaeologists has limited practical application. Such a concept of gender relies upon a radical separation between sex and gender, where gender is understood to be the cultural elaboration of a natural body. Following recent feminist theorising on th...

  15. The Sen-nedjem Project: Archaeology, Virtual Reality and Education

    OpenAIRE

    Terras, M.

    1999-01-01

    Virtual reality, interactive computer generated sites and scenarios, theoretically creates great opportunities for archaeology, history, and education. Immersive computer driven environments impart information regarding space and human experience that would not be possible using traditional means of representation. Places and structures too remote, dangerous or deteriorated to visit can be experienced, and virtual models can provide the context in which to understand other complex issues surr...

  16. A Virtual Tomb for Kelvingrove: Virtual Reality, Archaeology and Education

    OpenAIRE

    Terras, Melissa M.

    1999-01-01

    The use of computers as an educational resource in museums is becoming increasingly popular as more and more institutions realise that multimedia displays are very successful in imparting a broad variety of information. Although three-dimensional reconstructions of sites and structures have been used in archaeology for many years, the majority of museum computer installations have dealt with two-dimensional media because of the costs, equipment and labour involved in producing interactive 3D ...

  17. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermentation Effects on Pollen: Archaeological Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Crystal A. Dozier

    2016-01-01

    Pollen is the reproductive agent of flowering plants; palynology is utilized by archaeologists because sporopollenin, a major component in the exine of pollen grains, is resistant to decay and morphologically distinctive. Wine, beer, and mead have been identified in the archaeological record by palynological assessment due to indicator species or due to a pollen profile similar to that recovered from honey, a common source of sugar in a variety of fermented beverages. While most palynologists...

  18. Non-destructive analysis of archaeological bronzes by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies a method for overcoming the difficulty of corroded surfaces by means of nondestructive nuclear methods in the determination of the composition of archaeological bronzes. It consists of the combination of PIXE or XRF information with Gamma Ray Transmission (GRT) data. A wide range applicability of this combined method is established by comparison with profiles of concentrations along the bronzes' patina obtained by SEM-EDAX. (orig.)

  19. Computer vision, archaeological classification and China's terracotta warriors

    OpenAIRE

    Bevan, A.; Li, X; Martinón-Torres, M.; Green, S; Rehren, T.; Xia, Y.(Hunan University, Changsha, 410082, People's Republic of China); Zhao, K.; Zhao, Z.; Ma, S.; Cao, W.

    2014-01-01

    Structure-from-motion and multiview-stereo together offer a computer vision technique for reconstructing detailed 3D models from overlapping images of anything from large landscapes to microscopic features. Because such models can be generated from ordinary photographs taken with standard cameras in ordinary lighting conditions, these techniques are revolutionising digital recording and analysis in archaeology and related subjects such as palaeontology, museum studies and art history. However...

  20. A Survey of Archaeological Samples Dated in 1984

    OpenAIRE

    Mejdahl, Vagn

    1985-01-01

    A survey is given of archaeological samples dated in 1984 at the Nordic Laboratory for Thermoluminescence Dating. A total of 79 samples were dated, 49 of which were burnt stones. All results were corrected for fading as measured for samples stored for four weeks at room temperature. The alpha dose contribution from uranium in the quartz and feldspar grains was included assuming an alpha efficiency factor of 0.1 for quartz and 0.2 for feldspars.

  1. A survey of archaeological samples dated in 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is given of archaeological samples dated in 1984 at the Nordic Laboratory for Thermoluminescence Dating. A total of 79 samples were dated, 49 of which were burnt stones. All results were corrected for fading as measured for samples stored for four weeks at room temperature. The alpha dose contribution from uranium in the quartz and feldspar grains was included assuming an alpha efficiency facotr of 0.1 for quartz and 0.2 for feldspars. (author)

  2. Some remarks on radiocarbon dated archaeological samples from Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison between radiocarbon ages and archaeologically estimated ages for samples from Finland indicates that the radiocarbon ages in many cases are much younger than the estimated ages. The distribution of the samples in an estimated age/radiocarbon age diagram shows that a contamination of younger material can hardly have made many of the ages younger. The samples must therefore consist of young material into the cultural layers. (author)

  3. Voices carry: An archaeology of the Hervormd approach

    OpenAIRE

    Johann Beukes

    2008-01-01

    From the investigative premise of a Foucauldian archaeology of knowledge, this article attempts to unearth the layers of ideas which constituted the Hervormd approach to doing theology over the past century. Digging into seemingly disassociated bodies of theological precedents, the article anatomizes four layers of ideas in a series of diverse orientations towards theology, namely the (1) ethical, (2) confessional and (3) dialectical orientations, and stemming from a Kantian orientation in pa...

  4. Steps towards operationalizing an evolutionary archaeological definition of culture

    OpenAIRE

    Riede, F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper will examine the definition of archaeological cultures/techno-complexes from an evolutionary perspective, in which culture is defined as a system of social information transmission. A formal methodology will be presented through which the concept of a culture can be operationalized, at least within this approach. It has already been argued that in order to study material culture evolution in a manner similar to how palaeontologists study biological change over time we need explicit...

  5. Earliest evidence of pollution by heavy metals in archaeological sites

    OpenAIRE

    Guadalupe Monge; Jimenez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Antonio García-Alix; Francisca Martínez-Ruiz; Nadine Mattielli; Clive Finlayson; Naohiko Ohkouchi; Miguel Cortés Sánchez; Jose María Bermúdez de Castro; Ruth Blasco; Jordi Rosell; José Carrión; Joaquín Rodríguez-Vidal; Geraldine Finlayson

    2015-01-01

    Homo species were exposed to a new biogeochemical environment when they began to occupy caves. Here we report the first evidence of palaeopollution through geochemical analyses of heavy metals in four renowned archaeological caves of the Iberian Peninsula spanning the last million years of human evolution. Heavy metal contents reached high values due to natural (guano deposition) and anthropogenic factors (e.g. combustion) in restricted cave environments. The earliest anthropogenic pollution ...

  6. Characterization of ceramic archaeological by high resolution X ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characterization of ceramic fragments is a very important area of research in art and archeometry area because it enables a greater understanding of how ancient civilizations behave and what were their traditions and customs. Petrography and chemical analyses are commonly used, but these techniques are destructive, which is not interesting for this type of sample. Through the exchange of multidisciplinary scientific knowledge and new partnerships, high resolution X-ray microtomography has been introduced in archaeological area as a great possibility of 3D inspection in a non-destructive way. The goal of this work is to investigate the internal microstructures of four samples of archeological ceramic, from the Archaeological Site of Macacu - RJ. The X-ray microtomography were performed in a high resolution setup, and can be used to infer the nature of organic temper even with all plant remains completely burnt out during the firing process and also to ensure the homogeneity of samples envisaged for geochemical analyses, especially with respect to the distribution of chemically diverse fabric compounds. In this way this study intends to contribute to our understanding of the archaeological and historical formations of this region. (author)

  7. Archaeology and public works: an example from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierfrancesco Callieri

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The contrast, often dramatic, between the needs of the economic development in the protection of our cultural heritage concerns mainly those countries which are endowed with a glorious past full of historical remains, among them there is Iran as well. In this country, one of the fields that stands for one of the main risk for the protection of the cultural heritage is represented by the ambitious plan to build several dams in order to solve the country water and energy problems. The author shows one of the project worked out by the Iranian Office for the Cultural Heritage, whose goal is to cope with such emergencies. This project refers to archaeological surveys carried out in the area which should be flooding by the Sinvand dam, not so far from the ancient centre of Pasargade, in the Fars area: this project presents an additional interest since it is based on a international collaboration totally new for the Moslem Republic. An "archaeological mission" of the Ravenian branche of the Alma Mater Studiorum (Facoltà di Conservazione dei Beni Culturali, shas taken part to this valuable program, and as explored two rural settlements of Achemenide and Post-achemenide Age (VIth-Ist century B.C. age, in collaboration with the Iranian Centre for the Archaeological Researches. The results of these three excavations performed, represent the first proof of the region occupation belonging to this period, outside the big dynastic complexes of palaces.

  8. The survival of archaeology in the design of future cities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Vinton

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ironically, when given the opportunity to respond to J. J. Carver’s thought-provoking article ‘The Challenges and Opportunities for Mega-Infrastructure Projects and Archaeology’ and thinking I had plenty of time in which to do so, I was suddenly thrust back into two, all-consuming major Sydney infrastructure projects, which currently sit in the category of ‘confidential’, meaning not yet fit for public consumption and dare not breath a word of the detail. In short, what this means is that the timeframes are impossibly short, the budgets are even tighter, the crystal ball is working overtime and the select few staff signed to work on these projects are working around the clock to deliver succinct documents that are required to be pragmatic, avoid archaeological ‘speak’ and provide certainty about the archaeology, its extent, nature, significance, timeframes and budget estimates for managing the known and potential archaeological resource. Surely, such easy tasks to deliver on?

  9. History of Bolivian Archaeology: Geraldine Byrne de Caballero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Browman

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Today the principal archaeological museum of Cochabamba, Bolivia is called the Museo Geraldine Byrne de Caballero. Yet there is surprisingly little information on Byrne de Caballero at the museum, or elsewhere in Bolivian sources. Fortunately, Walter Sánchez Canedo (2006 has written a brief article, providing some more information about her career. Byrne de Caballero investigated and wrote articles on Cochabamba sites, from the formative period up through historical periods. I knew most of the eight journal articles cited for her, but she wrote another five dozen articles for local newspapers. All of these publications, however, were written when she was director of the museum in Cochabamba, from 1972 to 1986, so we lack information on her earlier archaeological contributions. Although publishing in special supplemental newspaper sections has been a well-accepted practice or tradition for informing the public and specialists about Bolivian archaeology, it obviously makes it difficult for the non-Cochabambinos to track down her publications. But at least now with title, newspaper, and date, it may be possible to go back into old local archives and retrieve some of these articles.

  10. Satellite SAR data assessment for Silk Road archaeological prospection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fulong; Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola; Yang, Ruixia

    2015-04-01

    The development of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) in terms of multi-band, multi-polarization and high-resolution data, favored the application of this technology also in archaeology [1]. Different approaches based on both single and multitemporal data analysis, exploiting the backscattering and the penetration of radar data, have been used for a number of archaeological sites and landscapes [2-5]. Nevertheless, the capability of this technology in archaeological applications has so far not been fully assessed. It lacks a contribution aimed at evaluating the potential of SAR technology for the same study area by using different bands, spatial resolutions and data processing solutions. In the framework of the Chinese-Italian bilateral project "Smart management of cultural heritage sites in Italy and China: Earth Observation and pilot projects", we addressed some pioneering investigations to assess multi-mode (multi-band, temporal, resolution) satellite SAR data (including X-band TerraSAR, C-band Envisat and L-band ALOS PALSAR) in archaeological prospection of the Silk road [6]. The Silk Road, a series of trade and cultural transmission routes connecting China to Europe, is the witness of civilization and friendship between the East and West dated back to 2000 years ago, that left us various relics (e.g. lost cities) to be uncovered and investigated.. In particular, the assessment has been performed in the Xinjiang and Gansu section pf the Silk Road focusing on : i) the subsurface penetration capability of SAR data in the arid and semi-arid region ii) and sensitivity of SAR imaging geometry for the detection of relics As regards the point i) , apart from the soil moisture, the penetration is seriously restricted by the soil porosity. For instance, negligible penetration signs were detected in Yumen Frontier Pass either using X- or L-band SAR data due to the occurrence of Yardang landscape. As regards the point ii), the flight path of SAR images in parallel with the

  11. The application of geophysical methods to archaeological prospection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Neil

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this review is to combine the almost universal fascination we share for our past with the comparatively recent, in archaeological terms, application of geophysical prospection methods. For their success, each of these methods relies upon a physical contrast to exist between the buried archaeological feature and the properties of the surrounding subsoil. Understanding the archaeological origin of such physical contrasts, in terms of density, thermal conductivity, electrical resistance, magnetic or dielectric properties, remains fundamental to an appreciation of the discipline. This review provides a broad introduction to the subject area acknowledging the historical development of the discipline and discusses each of the major techniques in turn: earth resistance, magnetic and electromagnetic methods (including ground penetrating radar), together with an appreciation of more esoteric approaches, such as the use of micro-gravity survey to detect buried chambers and voids. The physical principles and field instrumentation involved for the acquisition of data with each method are considered and fully illustrated with case histories of results from the English Heritage archives.

  12. archAR: an archaeological augmented reality experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Bridgette; Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2015-03-01

    We present an application for Android phones or tablets called "archAR" that uses augmented reality as an alternative, portable way of viewing archaeological information from UCSD's Levantine Archaeology Laboratory. archAR provides a unique experience of flying through an archaeological dig site in the Levantine area and exploring the artifacts uncovered there. Using a Google Nexus tablet and Qualcomm's Vuforia API, we use an image target as a map and overlay a three-dimensional model of the dig site onto it, augmenting reality such that we are able to interact with the plotted artifacts. The user can physically move the Android device around the image target and see the dig site model from any perspective. The user can also move the device closer to the model in order to "zoom" into the view of a particular section of the model and its associated artifacts. This is especially useful, as the dig site model and the collection of artifacts are very detailed. The artifacts are plotted as points, colored by type. The user can touch the virtual points to trigger a popup information window that contains details of the artifact, such as photographs, material descriptions, and more.

  13. Geomorphic and archaeological -historical evidence for past ealihquakes in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Maroukian

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphic observations focused on landforms of marine and fluvial origin such as notches, beachrocks, stream channel shifts, alluvial terraces and knickpoints, when combined with historical and archaeological information are able to date seismic events that took place in the past in some places of the Peloponnesus. At thc Eastern Gulf of Corinth, a seismically active area, all the geomorphic observations fit quite well with the deformation field induced by the action of an offshore fault. At Mycenae, a seismically inactive area with no historical evidence of earthquakes, the archaeological information is the only evidence for past earthquakes while geomorphic data indicate the most probable activated fault. At Sparta, an area of low seismicity but with historical evidence of destructive earthquakes, the geomorphic evidence helps to identify the most likely ruptured fault. At Eliki, a seismically active area with well documented historical activity, the geomorphic data serve to define the causative fault.This paper shows that although historical and archaeological data provide evidence far the occurrence of past earthquakes and often their date, geomorphic observations must be used to identify the causative fault.

  14. Manufacturing details by Neutron Radiography of Archaeological Pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The aim of the present work was to investigate manufacturing details of archaeological pot-sherds ceramics by Neutron Radiography. Pottery is perhaps the most important artefact found in excavation. Its archaeological importance relies on the fact that it can reveal cultural traditions and commercial influences in ancient communities. These pottery was recently discovered in archaeological earth circular structures sites in Acre state Brazil and the characteristics of clay used in their manufacture have been studied by modern scientific techniques such as Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), Thermoluminescence Dating and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. Different fragments of pottery were submitted to a neutron flux of the order of 105n.cm-22:s-1 for 3 minutes in the research reactor Argonauta at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear/CNEN. Digital processing techniques using imaging plate were applied to the image of the selected sample. The Neutrongraphy shows two different manufacturing details: palette and rollers. The fragment made by the technique of palette show a homogeneous mass and the neutrongraphy of ceramic fragments made by the technique of the rollers, pottery funeral, can be seen horizontal traces of the junction of rollers, overlapping, forming layers supported on each other. This technique allows you to create more stable structures. Thus, both the technique of the pallet as the roller can be characterized by Neutron Radiography. (author)

  15. Manufacturing details by Neutron Radiography of Archaeological Pottery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernedo, Alfredo Victor Bellido; Latini, Rose Mary [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Maria Ines Silvani; Vinagre Filho, Ubirajara Maribondo [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The aim of the present work was to investigate manufacturing details of archaeological pot-sherds ceramics by Neutron Radiography. Pottery is perhaps the most important artefact found in excavation. Its archaeological importance relies on the fact that it can reveal cultural traditions and commercial influences in ancient communities. These pottery was recently discovered in archaeological earth circular structures sites in Acre state Brazil and the characteristics of clay used in their manufacture have been studied by modern scientific techniques such as Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), Thermoluminescence Dating and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. Different fragments of pottery were submitted to a neutron flux of the order of 10{sup 5}n.cm{sup -2}2:s{sup -1} for 3 minutes in the research reactor Argonauta at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear/CNEN. Digital processing techniques using imaging plate were applied to the image of the selected sample. The Neutrongraphy shows two different manufacturing details: palette and rollers. The fragment made by the technique of palette show a homogeneous mass and the neutrongraphy of ceramic fragments made by the technique of the rollers, pottery funeral, can be seen horizontal traces of the junction of rollers, overlapping, forming layers supported on each other. This technique allows you to create more stable structures. Thus, both the technique of the pallet as the roller can be characterized by Neutron Radiography. (author)

  16. The empirical case against the 'demographic turn' in Palaeolithic archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, Mark; Vaesen, Krist; Cosgrove, Richard; Roebroeks, Wil

    2016-07-01

    Recently, it has become commonplace to interpret major transitions and other patterns in the Palaeolithic archaeological record in terms of population size. Increases in cultural complexity are claimed to result from increases in population size; decreases in cultural complexity are suggested to be due to decreases in population size; and periods of no change are attributed to low numbers or frequent extirpation. In this paper, we argue that this approach is not defensible. We show that the available empirical evidence does not support the idea that cultural complexity in hunter-gatherers is governed by population size. Instead, ethnographic and archaeological data suggest that hunter-gatherer cultural complexity is most strongly influenced by environmental factors. Because all hominins were hunter-gatherers until the Holocene, this means using population size to interpret patterns in the Palaeolithic archaeological record is problematic. In future, the population size hypothesis should be viewed as one of several competing hypotheses and its predictions formally tested alongside those of its competitors.This article is part of the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution'. PMID:27298472

  17. Characterization of ceramic archaeological by high resolution X ray microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Alessandra C.; Freitas, Renato; Calza, Cristiane F.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Lima, Inaya, E-mail: alecastro@lin.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Carvalho, Daniele D.; Gaspar, Maria D. [Museu Nacional (MN/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia

    2013-07-01

    Characterization of ceramic fragments is a very important area of research in art and archeometry area because it enables a greater understanding of how ancient civilizations behave and what were their traditions and customs. Petrography and chemical analyses are commonly used, but these techniques are destructive, which is not interesting for this type of sample. Through the exchange of multidisciplinary scientific knowledge and new partnerships, high resolution X-ray microtomography has been introduced in archaeological area as a great possibility of 3D inspection in a non-destructive way. The goal of this work is to investigate the internal microstructures of four samples of archeological ceramic, from the Archaeological Site of Macacu - RJ. The X-ray microtomography were performed in a high resolution setup, and can be used to infer the nature of organic temper even with all plant remains completely burnt out during the firing process and also to ensure the homogeneity of samples envisaged for geochemical analyses, especially with respect to the distribution of chemically diverse fabric compounds. In this way this study intends to contribute to our understanding of the archaeological and historical formations of this region. (author)

  18. Modern analytic methods applied to the art and archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of diverse areas as the analytic chemistry, the history of the art and the archaeology has allowed the development of a variety of techniques used in archaeology, in conservation and restoration. These methods have been used to date objects, to determine the origin of the old materials and to reconstruct their use and to identify the degradation processes that affect the integrity of the art works. The objective of this chapter is to offer a general vision on the researches that have been realized in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) in the field of cultural goods. A series of researches carried out in collaboration with national investigators and of the foreigner is described shortly, as well as with the great support of degree students and master in archaeology of the National School of Anthropology and History, since one of the goals that have is to diffuse the knowledge of the existence of these techniques among the young archaeologists, so that they have a wider vision of what they could use in an in mediate future and they can check hypothesis with scientific methods. (Author)

  19. Analysis of Frankincense in Archaeological Samples by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four archaeological samples, unearthed from Qana in Yemen were analysed by analytical technique, currently applied in the field of petroleum geochemistry, and by gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Sample no 1286 comes from a burned warehouse and samples no 964, 963 and 962 from the central sanctuary. These specimens were probably exposed to a heating source. In each case olibanum resin was identified according to the presence of their chemical markers corresponding to α-, β-boswellic and lupeolic acids (3α-hydroxy-olean-12-en-24-oic, 3α-hydroxy-urs-12-en-24-oic and 3α-hydroxy-lup-20(29)en-24-oic acids) and their respective O-acetyled derivatives (3α- O-acetyl -olean-12-en-24-oic, 3α-O-acetyl-urs-12-en-24-oic and 3α-O-acetyl-lup-20(29)-en-24-oic acids). Concerning the thermal degradation state of samples, the GC-MS results are in agreement with the geochemical ones. Sample no 1286 and 964 correspond to ageing incense which has not undergone any heating action and are consequently relatively well preserved. Lastly, samples no 963 and 962 are thermally degraded resins and their gross composition data permits to conclude that sample no 963 is only partially burnt while sample no 962 has been much more degraded

  20. Archaeology and age of a new hominin from Flores in eastern Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morwood, M J; Soejono, R P; Roberts, R G; Sutikna, T; Turney, C S M; Westaway, K E; Rink, W J; Zhao, J-X; van den Bergh, G D; Due, Rokus Awe; Hobbs, D R; Moore, M W; Bird, M I; Fifield, L K

    2004-10-28

    Excavations at Liang Bua, a large limestone cave on the island of Flores in eastern Indonesia, have yielded evidence for a population of tiny hominins, sufficiently distinct anatomically to be assigned to a new species, Homo floresiensis. The finds comprise the cranial and some post-cranial remains of one individual, as well as a premolar from another individual in older deposits. Here we describe their context, implications and the remaining archaeological uncertainties. Dating by radiocarbon (14C), luminescence, uranium-series and electron spin resonance (ESR) methods indicates that H. floresiensis existed from before 38,000 years ago (kyr) until at least 18 kyr. Associated deposits contain stone artefacts and animal remains, including Komodo dragon and an endemic, dwarfed species of Stegodon. H. floresiensis originated from an early dispersal of Homo erectus (including specimens referred to as Homo ergaster and Homo georgicus) that reached Flores, and then survived on this island refuge until relatively recently. It overlapped significantly in time with Homo sapiens in the region, but we do not know if or how the two species interacted. PMID:15510146

  1. New paleoradiological investigations of ancient human remains from North West Lombardy archaeological excavations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licata, Marta; Borgo, Melania; Armocida, Giuseppe; Nicosia, Luca; Ferioli, Elena [University of Insubria (Varese), Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, Varese (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    Since its birth in 1895, radiology has been used to study ancient mummies. The purpose of this article is to present paleoradiological investigations conducted on several medieval human remains in Varese province. Anthropological (generic identification) and paleopathological analyses were carried out with the support of diagnostic imaging (X-ray and CT scans). Human remains were discovered during excavations of medieval archaeological sites in northwest Lombardy. Classical physical anthropological methods were used for the macroscopic identification of the human remains. X-ray and CT scans were performed on the same scanner (16-layer Hitachi Eclos 16 X-ray equipment). Radiological analysis permitted investigating (1) the sex, (2) age of death, (3) type of trauma, (4) therapeutic interventions and (5) osteomas in ancient human remains. In particular, X-ray and CT examinations showed dimorphic facial traits on the mummified skull, and the same radiological approaches allowed determining the age at death from a mummified lower limb. CT analyses allow investigating different types of traumatic lesions in skulls and postcranial skeleton portions and reconstructing the gait and functional outcomes of a fractured femur. Moreover, one case of possible Gardner's syndrome (GS) was postulated from observing multiple osteomas in an ancient skull. Among the medical tests available to the clinician, radiology is the most appropriate first-line procedure for a diagnostic approach to ancient human remains because it can be performed without causing any significant damage to the specimen. (orig.)

  2. New paleoradiological investigations of ancient human remains from North West Lombardy archaeological excavations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since its birth in 1895, radiology has been used to study ancient mummies. The purpose of this article is to present paleoradiological investigations conducted on several medieval human remains in Varese province. Anthropological (generic identification) and paleopathological analyses were carried out with the support of diagnostic imaging (X-ray and CT scans). Human remains were discovered during excavations of medieval archaeological sites in northwest Lombardy. Classical physical anthropological methods were used for the macroscopic identification of the human remains. X-ray and CT scans were performed on the same scanner (16-layer Hitachi Eclos 16 X-ray equipment). Radiological analysis permitted investigating (1) the sex, (2) age of death, (3) type of trauma, (4) therapeutic interventions and (5) osteomas in ancient human remains. In particular, X-ray and CT examinations showed dimorphic facial traits on the mummified skull, and the same radiological approaches allowed determining the age at death from a mummified lower limb. CT analyses allow investigating different types of traumatic lesions in skulls and postcranial skeleton portions and reconstructing the gait and functional outcomes of a fractured femur. Moreover, one case of possible Gardner's syndrome (GS) was postulated from observing multiple osteomas in an ancient skull. Among the medical tests available to the clinician, radiology is the most appropriate first-line procedure for a diagnostic approach to ancient human remains because it can be performed without causing any significant damage to the specimen. (orig.)

  3. Paleopathological analysis of changes on animal bones originating from archaeological sites Caricin Grad and Studenica Monastery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Nemanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the estimation of incidence and analysis of paleopathological changes on skeletal remains of the animals from archaeological sites Caricin Grad and Studenica Monastery. Moreover, there has been carried out the assessment of the skeletal elements, as well as taxonomic and age determination. The total of 2595 bones or bone fragments were examined. In 22 specimens there were noticed various abnormal skeletal changes in following animal species: cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, donkeys and camels. Pathological changes were noticed on the teeth, mandibles, joints of long bones and phalanxes. By macroscopic analysis of these acquired pathological changes on bones of the animals, there was determined that the observed lesions had had proliferative, hypertrophic and chronic character. Proliferative changes on the bones of the cattle, horses, donkeys and camels point out to the fact that these animals were used for towing and/or load carrying. Identified diseases of oral cavity in small ruminants point out to improper and inadequate nutrition of these animals in the past.

  4. The production of calibration specimens for impact testing of subsize Charpy specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calibration specimens have been manufactured for checking the performance of a pendulum impact testing machine that has been configured for testing subsize specimens, both half-size (5.0 x 5.0 x 25.4 mm) and third-size (3.33 x 3.33 x 25.4 mm). Specimens were fabricated from quenched-and-tempered 4340 steel heat treated to produce different microstructures that would result in either high or low absorbed energy levels on testing. A large group of both half- and third-size specimens were tested at -40 degrees C. The results of the tests were analyzed for average value and standard deviation, and these values were used to establish calibration limits for the Charpy impact machine when testing subsize specimens. These average values plus or minus two standard deviations were set as the acceptable limits for the average of five tests for calibration of the impact testing machine

  5. Recent progress in small specimen test technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, G. E.; Odette, G. R.; Sokolov, M.; Spätig, P.; Yamamoto, T.; Jung, P.

    2002-12-01

    Small specimen test technology (SSTT) has enabled the development of fusion materials by efficiently using available irradiation volumes. The technology has also evolved in anticipation of the construction and operation of a high-energy neutron source for development and verification of an engineering database for materials for fusion power reactors. Work to date has brought SSTT to a robust state of maturity. SSTT specimens and techniques now routinely serve as the foundation for a number of ongoing and planned experimental programs. Moreover, the need to use small specimens has given rise to the development of new approaches to fracture assessment, such as the master curves-shifts method. Nonetheless a wealth of opportunities exists to further develop new and very innovative SSTT methods not only for characterizing standard mechanical properties but also to enable both large matrix single variable experiments and highly controlled basic mechanism studies. This paper reviews briefly the recent progress on developing a more science-based SSTT, including some future opportunities. The importance and utility of applying a variety of quasi-non-destructive evaluations to a single specimen and closely integrating finite element simulations and fundamental models of deformation and fracture are emphasized.

  6. Some recent innovations in small specimen testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odette, G. R.; He, M.; Gragg, D.; Klingensmith, D.; Lucas, G. E.

    2002-12-01

    New innovative small specimen test techniques are described. Finite element simulations show that combinations of cone indentation pile-up geometry and load-penetration depth relations can be used to determine both the yield stress and strain-hardening behavior of a material. Techniques for pre-cracking and testing sub-miniaturized fracture toughness bend bars, with dimensions of 1.65×1.65×9 mm 3, or less, are described. The corresponding toughness-temperature curves have a very steep transition slope, primarily due to rapid loss of constraint, which has advantages in some experiments to characterize the effects of specified irradiation variables. As one example of using composite specimens, an approach to evaluating helium effects is proposed, involving diffusion bonding small wires of a 54Fe-based ferritic-martensitic alloy to a surrounding fracture specimen composed of an elemental Fe-based alloy. Finally, we briefly outline some potential approaches to multipurpose specimens and test automation.

  7. Recent progress in small specimen test technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small specimen test technology (SSTT) has enabled the development of fusion materials by efficiently using available irradiation volumes. The technology has also evolved in anticipation of the construction and operation of a high-energy neutron source for development and verification of an engineering database for materials for fusion power reactors. Work to date has brought SSTT to a robust state of maturity. SSTT specimens and techniques now routinely serve as the foundation for a number of ongoing and planned experimental programs. Moreover, the need to use small specimens has given rise to the development of new approaches to fracture assessment, such as the master curves-shifts method. Nonetheless a wealth of opportunities exists to further develop new and very innovative SSTT methods not only for characterizing standard mechanical properties but also to enable both large matrix single variable experiments and highly controlled basic mechanism studies. This paper reviews briefly the recent progress on developing a more science-based SSTT, including some future opportunities. The importance and utility of applying a variety of quasi-non-destructive evaluations to a single specimen and closely integrating finite element simulations and fundamental models of deformation and fracture are emphasized

  8. Some recent innovations in small specimen testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New innovative small specimen test techniques are described. Finite element simulations show that combinations of cone indentation pile-up geometry and load-penetration depth relations can be used to determine both the yield stress and strain-hardening behavior of a material. Techniques for pre-cracking and testing sub-miniaturized fracture toughness bend bars, with dimensions of 1.65x1.65x9 mm3, or less, are described. The corresponding toughness-temperature curves have a very steep transition slope, primarily due to rapid loss of constraint, which has advantages in some experiments to characterize the effects of specified irradiation variables. As one example of using composite specimens, an approach to evaluating helium effects is proposed, involving diffusion bonding small wires of a 54Fe-based ferritic-martensitic alloy to a surrounding fracture specimen composed of an elemental Fe-based alloy. Finally, we briefly outline some potential approaches to multipurpose specimens and test automation

  9. 36 CFR 1002.5 - Research specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representative of a reputable scientific or educational institution or a State or Federal agency for the purpose... resource management goals of the institution or agency and that all applicable Federal and State permits... of the specimen would result in damage to other natural or cultural resources, affect...

  10. 3-D Volume Rendering of Sand Specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) images of resin-impregnated Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) specimens are assembled to provide 3-D volume renderings of density patterns formed by dislocation under the external loading stress profile applied during the experiments. Experiments flown on STS-79 and STS-89. Principal Investigator: Dr. Stein Sture

  11. Myocardial Sleeve Tissues in Surgical Lung Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Akihiko; Kamata, Tsugumasa; Iwasa, Takeshi; Watanabe, Shun-ichi; Tsuta, Koji

    2015-10-01

    Left atrial myocardial extensions over the pulmonary veins (PVs), known as myocardial sleeves, are present in the physiological anatomy of most individuals. Although this structure has recently received clinical attention as a major origin of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF), it has not been documented in surgical specimens. Here, we examine incidentally identified myocardial sleeve tissue in routinely processed lung resection specimens to determine its incidence and diagnostic implications. Among 694 lung resection specimens with evaluable PV margins, myocardial sleeve tissue was identified in 26 cases (3.7%). The tissue was located within the adventitia of the PVs, mostly in margin preparations, and existed outside the pericardium in the majority of cases. Carcinoma infiltration of the sleeves was evident in 6 cases. No heart injuries were observed, and no tumors invaded the heart. Preoperative electrocardiography showed sinus rhythm in all cases, whereas postoperative monitoring revealed sinus rhythm in all patients except one who showed AF and flutter. Myocardial sleeve tissue is an underrecognized incidental finding in lung resection specimens, and it is not indicative of heart injury. Cancer infiltration into this tissue indicates neither heart invasion nor, by itself, invasion into the pericardium. Although surgical transection of the myocardial sleeve did not evoke immediate arrhythmia in most cases, the overall influence of this procedure on the postsurgical risk of AF remains to be determined in further studies involving extensive rhythm assessment. PMID:26099012

  12. Archaeological and industrial analogous for radioactive waste storage : study of metallic archaeological pieces (Archeo-II). Final report (June 2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present research represents the extension of project called ARCHEO-I. The investigation consists in a study of archaeological analogous of iron and steel, which contributes to consolidate the knowledge about behaviour and safety for the steel container of deep geological repositories (AGP). For AGP, attained information from archaeometallurgy links to geochemical surroundings gives knowledge about container's behaviour that can be patterned in order to assure design's security. The possibility to obtain real data of steel behaviour during centuries and thousand years, at the most diverse geochemical surroundings, allows a greater reliability in models. The study of each archaeological piece has been realised giving attention to surrounding terrain, depicting in a particular way the geology of different grounds and joining the information with physical-chemical parameters of the terrain. (Author)

  13. Notes on Archaeology and Prehistoric Mining in the Kruger National Park

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoef, J

    1986-01-01

    Archaeological research in the Kruger National Park (KNP) was formally instituted in 1963. During 1973 the National Parks Board of Trustees allocated an archaeo-ethnological research project to the Department of Archaeology, University of Pretoria and this step revealed that the KNP has an important archaelogical research potential. A review of these reconnaissance activities (between 1973-1983) is given and the chronology of archaeological sites and finds (Early, Middle and Late Stone Ages) ...

  14. Enhancement, Presentation and Shelter Replacement of the Archaeological Site at Akrotiri, Thera

    OpenAIRE

    Nikos Fintikakis; Christos Doumas

    2014-01-01

    In this article Architect Nikos Fintikakis gives a detailed description of the implemented in 2012 the project of preservation of the archaeological site in Akrotiri (Greece) using a bioclimatic canopy (http://www.projectbaikal.com/index.php/pb/article/view/688/ 649). The problem of preservation of the archaeological heritage is urgent and also relevant to Irkutsk with it's Glazkovsky necropolis, a unique monument of the Neolithic (Baryshnikov V. Glazkovsky necropolis in Irkutsk: archaeologic...

  15. The evaluation of corrosion inhibitors for application to copper and copper alloy archaeological artefacts

    OpenAIRE

    Faltermeier, R.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis concerns corrosion inhibiting compounds which slow the deterioration of archaeological copper artefacts. Benzotriazole (BTA) and 2-Amino- 5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (AMT) have been applied as corrosion inhibitors in archaeological conservation. A search was conducted for similar compounds that could be applied in the conservation of copper and copper alloys. According to a list of requirements specific to archaeological conservation, six new inhibitors were tes...

  16. Objects or Narratives. Archaeological Displays in Serbia: The age of artefacts

    OpenAIRE

    Tatjana Cvjetićanin

    2016-01-01

    There are over 60 museums and collections in Serbia today holding archaeological material and archaeological displays, offering an ever-present, public image of the results of the development of archaeological discipline in our country, its theoretical framework, and above all, present the official interpretation of the past. In spite of the fact that displays and exhibitions represent the most visible museum forum and the basic medium of museums, presenting official representations of the pa...

  17. Archaeology in Latin America, by Gustavo G. Politis and Benjamin Alberti, editors, 1999, Routledge, London

    OpenAIRE

    David L. Browman

    2001-01-01

    The two editors argue in their preface to the volume that the particular sociopolitical context of Latin America has led to a regionalism not seen in North America or Europe, resulting in a unique variety of archaeology. They particularly conceive "Latin American archaeology" in this case to he only that archaeology done by individuals who are citizens of the countries of the region, and they ex­clude from consideratio...

  18. Substance and materiality? The archaeology of Talensi medicine shrines and medicinal practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insoll, Timothy

    2011-08-01

    Talensi materia medica is varied, encompassing plant, mineral, and animal substances. Healing, medicines, and medicinal practices and knowledge can be shrine-based and linked with ritual practices. This is explored utilising ethnographic data and from an archaeological perspective with reference to future possibilities for research both on Talensi medicine and, by implication, more generally through considering the archaeology of Talensi medicine preparation, use, storage, spread, and disposal. It is suggested that configuring the archaeology of medicine shrines and practices more broadly in terms of health would increase archaeological visibility and research potential. PMID:21810036

  19. Breast specimen shrinkage following formalin fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horn CL

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Christopher L Horn, Christopher Naugler Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Calgary, and Calgary Laboratory Services, Calgary, AB, Canada Abstract: Accurate measurement of primary breast tumors and subsequent surgical margin assessment is critical for pathology reporting and resulting patient therapy. Anecdotal observations from pathology laboratory staff indicate possible shrinkage of breast cancer specimens due to the formalin fixation process. As a result, we conducted a prospective study to investigate the possible shrinkage effects of formalin fixation on breast cancer specimens. The results revealed no significant changes in tumor size, but there were significant changes in the distance to all surgical resection margins from the unfixed to fixed state. This shrinkage effect could interfere with the accuracy of determining distance to margin assessment and tumor-free margin assessment. Thus, changes in these measurements due to the formalin fixation process have the potential to alter treatment options for the patient. Keywords: breast margins, formalin, shrinkage, cancer

  20. General views about specimen irradiations in reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specimen irradiation of fissile or non-fissile materials, carried out under circumstances becoming more and more severe and in reactor of increasing flux bas led to an evolution of irradiation rigs. A survey of the problems arising from irradiating under these various circumstances leads to conclude that it is possible to devise one capsule type suitable to every particular case, and that in a wide temperature range. Consequently, once the various irradiation-parameters known, a general method of calculation can be followed so as to determine the various sizes of the parts constituting the capsule. These theoretical calculations might sometimes be corrected through benefits gained from previous irradiations. Similarly, practical experimentation might allow to foresee more handy assembling of the capsule, specimen loading-and unloading being easier at the same time. (author)

  1. LTO and surveillance specimen programme of RPV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant life extension (as well as Long Term Operation) to 60 or 80 years of operation also requires a reliable information about the potential irradiation embrittlement (and also thermal ageing) of reactor pressure vessel materials. Such information is usually obtained from testing specimens within the surveillance specimen programme that is designed for the design RPV life, regularly for 40 years only. Life extension requires modification of such programme (if there is still time to perform it) or a design of a new extended one. Such programme should have to contain RPV archive materials that are not in every case available. Thus, combination of archive materials and possible surrogate materials must be taken into account for this programme. Some complication can be expected with thermal ageing data as some laboratory tests at higher temperatures must be realized. The paper describes such program for NPP Dukovany, Czech Republic with WWER-440 type reactors. (authors)

  2. Combined XRF Analysis - Multivariate Statistical Method and XRD Analysis to Study Archaeological Pottery from Tell Jamous and from Judaidet Yabous Archaeological Site, Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis has been utilized to determine the elemental composition of 38 archaeological pottery samples by the determination of 14 chemical elements. 35 of them come from Tell Jamous archaeological site in Sahel akkar region, Syria and the remained three samples come from an archaeological site in China. The XRF results have been processed using one multivariate statistical method, cluster analysis, in order to determine similarities and correlation between the selected samples based on their elemental composition. The various mineralogical phases of the pottery were identified using X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. Methodology successfully separates the samples where differences among the samples were established. (author)

  3. Is routine histopathology of tonsil specimen necessary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agida S Adoga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tonsillar diseases are common in paediatric and adult otolaryngological practice. These diseases require tonsillectomy. Specimens are subjected to histopathology routinely in my institution for fear of infections and tumour without consideration for risk factors. The financial burden is on the patients and waste of histopathologist′s man hour because other specimens are left un-attended. This study aims to find out the necessity of routine histopathology of tonsil specimens. Materials and Methods : A 2 year retrospective review of the histopathological results of two (paediatric and adult groups of 61 patients managed for tonsillar diseases at the ENT UNIT of Jos University Teaching Hospital from July 2005 to June, 2007. Data extracted included biodata, clinical features and histopathological diagnosis. Result : The 61 patients comprise 35 children and 26 adults. The youngest and oldest paediatric patients were 1 year and 3 months and 16 years respectively, a range of 1 year 3 months to 16 years. The youngest and oldest adults were 17 and 50 years with a range of 17-50 years. Groups mean ages were 5.1 and 28.5 years. The gender ratios were 1:2.7 and 1:1.9 respectively. One adult was HIV positive. The histopathological diagnosis were chronic nonspecific tonsillitis in 10(16.6%, follicular tonsillitis in 23(38.3%, chronic suppurative tonsillitis in 10(16.6%, lymphoid hyperplasia in 18(30.0% and lymphoma in 1(1.0% respectively. Conclusion : Histopathologic request for tonsillectomy specimens should be based on certain risk factors with consideration of the cost to patients and to spare the histopathologist′s man hour.

  4. SQA specimen paper 2013, national 5, mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    SQA

    2013-01-01

    Practise for your exam on the offical National 5 specimen paper from the Scottish Qualifications Authority. Plus each book includes additional model papers and extra revision guidance, making them an essential purchase for any student.; Discover how to get your best grade with answers checked by senior examiners.; Prepare for your exams with study skills guidance sections.; Gain vital extra marks and avoid common mistakes with examiner tips

  5. Characterization of Brevibacterium spp. from clinical specimens.

    OpenAIRE

    Gruner, E; Pfyffer, G E; von Graevenitz, A

    1993-01-01

    Nonfermenting coryneform bacteria identified as Brevibacterium spp. were isolated from routine clinical specimens. Four strains were derived from peritoneal fluid and has presumably been involved in the pathogenesis of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis peritonitis. Another five isolates most probably represented skin contaminants. Cell wall and lipid analyses confirmed the genus identification. Strains in this taxon are difficult to distinguish from other biochemically inactive and no...

  6. The working procedure of human autopsy specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to perform the Coordinated Research Program for the Reference Asian Man (phase 2): Ingestion and body content of trace elements of importance in Radiation Protection, study on elemental content in organs of normal Chinese has been worked by China Institute for Radiation Protection and Institute of Radiation Medicine - CAMS in recent two years. Sampling and sample collection of human tissues and the procedures of sample preparation of human autopsy specimens are enlisted

  7. Candida species isolated from various clinical specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Uraz, Güven; Arslan, Seza; Ekener, Serpil

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: The various culture specimens of patients were investigated in our research. Material and methods: 123 Candida strains were isolated. In identification of Candida species that were isolated, germ tube test, growth in Cornmeal-Tween 80 agar and formation of clamydospore, presence of pseudohyphae, carbonhytrate fermentation and assimilation tests, formation of membranes in sabouraud medium, and the tests of ascospore in the mediums with cycloheximide and the test of nitrate were...

  8. Specimen loading list for the varying temperature experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qualls, A.L.; Sitterson, R.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The varying temperature experiment HFIR-RB-13J has been assembled and inserted in the reactor. Approximately 5300 specimens were cleaned, inspected, matched, and loaded into four specimen holders. A listing of each specimen loaded into the steady temperature holder, its position in the capsule, and the identification of the corresponding specimen loaded into the varying temperature holder is presented in this report.

  9. Specimen loading list for the varying temperature experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The varying temperature experiment HFIR-RB-13J has been assembled and inserted in the reactor. Approximately 5300 specimens were cleaned, inspected, matched, and loaded into four specimen holders. A listing of each specimen loaded into the steady temperature holder, its position in the capsule, and the identification of the corresponding specimen loaded into the varying temperature holder is presented in this report

  10. Incidental prostate cancer in radical cystoprostatectomy specimens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Dong Jin; Zhao-Dian Chen; Bo Wang; Song-Liang Cai; Xiao-Lin Yao; Bai-Ye Jin

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the rates of prostate cancer (Pca) in radical cystoprostatectomy (RCP) specimens for bladder cancer in mainland China. To determine the follow-up outcome of patients with two concurrent cancers and identify whether prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a useful tool for the detection of Pca prior to surgery. Methods: From January 2002 to January 2007, 264 male patients with bladder cancer underwent RCP at our center. All patients underwent digital rectal examination (DRE) and B ultrasound. Serum PSA levels were tested in 168 patients. None of the patients had any evidence of Pca before RCP. Entire prostates were embedded and sectioned at 5 mm intervals. Results: Incidental Pca was observed in 37 of 264 (14.0%) RCP specimens. Of these, 12 (32.4%) were clinically significant according to an accepted definition. The PSA levels were not significantly different between patients with Pca and those without Pca, nor between patients with significant Pca and those with insignificant Pca. Thirty-four patients with incidental Pca were followed up. During a mean follow-up period of 26 months, two patients with PSA > 4 ng/mL underwent castration. None of the patients died of Pca. Conclusion: The incidence of Pca in RCP specimens in mainland China is lower than that in most developed countries. PSA cannot identify asymptomatic Pca prior to RCP. In line with published reports, incidental Pca does not impact the prognosis of bladder cancer patients undergoing RCP.

  11. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Specimen Data (includes physical specimens, collection information, status, storage locations, and laboratory results associated with individual specimens)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes physical specimens, paper logs and Freezerworks database of all logged information on specimens collected from Hawaiian monk seals since...

  12. EM techniques for archaeological laboratory experiments: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzoli, Luigi; De Martino, Gregory; Giampaolo, Valeria; Raffaele, Luongo; Perciante, Felice; Rizzo, Enzo

    2015-04-01

    The electromagnetic techniques (EM) are based on the investigation of subsoil geophysical parameters and in the archaeological framework they involve in studying contrasts between the buried cultural structures and the surrounding materials. Unfortunately, the geophysical contrast between archaeological features and surrounding soils sometimes are difficult to define due to problems of sensitivity and resolution both related on the characteristic of the subsoil and the geophysical methods. For this reason an experimental activity has been performed in the Hydrogeosite laboratory addressed on the assessment of the capability of geophysical techniques to detect archeological remains placed in the humid/saturated subsoil. At Hydrogeosite Laboratory of CNR-IMAA, a large scale sand-box is located, consisting on a pool shape structures of 230m3 where archaeological remains have been installed . The remains are relative to a living environment and burial of Roman times (walls, tombs, roads, harbour, etc.) covered by sediments. In order to simulate lacustrine and wetland condition and to simulate extreme events (for example underwater landslide, fast natural erosion coast, etc.) the phreatic level was varied and various acquisitions for the different scenarios were performed. In order to analyze the EM behavior of the buried small archaeological framework, ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomographies were performed. With GPR, analysis in time domain and frequency domain were performed and coupled to information obtained through resistivity analysis with the support of numerical simulations used to compare the real data with those modeled. A dense grid was adopted for 400 and 900 MHz e-m acquisitions in both the directions, the maximum depth of investigation was limited and less than 3 meters. The same approach was used for ERT acquisition where different array are employed, in particular 3D configuration was used to carry out a 3D resistivity

  13. The suitability of EDXRF for compositional classification of archaeological pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many investigations have been carried out trying to enlarge the information that can be gathered through the chemical analysis of archaeological findings. Chemical composition data sets, properly interpreted with multivariate analysis techniques, have been used extensively to supplement investigations involving provenance studies or more complex socio-economic aspects of the past communities. Correct inferences from the gathered compositional data are only possible if well documented background information about the studied samples is available, such as a correct interpretation of the archaeological contexts, knowledge about the nature of the used raw materials or procurement sources (geology of the territories), among others. The combined use of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Scanning Electron Microscopy X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) has been widely applied to the classification of archaeological pottery. However the need to remove at least a minimal part (invasion) of the sample and the time delay required for radioisotope decay and the high costs involved in INAA often restrict its use. Energy Dispersive x-ray Fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) is advantageous to perform a completely non-destructive analysis in a relatively fast way, but several problems have restricted its wider use in the past. The highly matrix-dependent attenuation of x-rays in the analysed sample hampers the use of the standard-less quantification procedures as an alternative when suitable certified reference materials are not at hand, and the relatively limited instrumental sensitivity of the conventional spectrometers has not allowed the determination of some trace elements that are relevant for compositional differentiation and provided a comparatively higher uncertainties. This contribution presents the results of several investigations aimed to achieving classification of archaeological pottery using reliable quantitative EDXRF procedures. The main factors affecting the

  14. Development of fatigue life evaluation technique using miniature specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop the fatigue life evaluation technique using miniature specimen, the investigation of the effect of specimen size and specimen shape on the fatigue life and the development of the fatigue testing machine, especially the extensometer, were carried out. The effect of specimen size on the fatigue life was almost negligible for the round-bar specimens. The shorter fatigue life at relatively low strain range conditions for the hourglass specimen that the standard specimen were observed. Therefore the miniature round-bar specimen was considered to be adequate for the fatigue life evaluation using small specimen. Several types of the extensometer system using a strain gauge and a laser has been developed for realizing the fatigue test of the miniature round-bar specimen at high temperature in vacuum. (author)

  15. Preparation of archaeological samples for its dating by thermoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work shows the results of the preparation of archaeological samples for their dating by thermoluminescence (Tl) using the Fine grain technique established by Zimmerman but with the varying of such preparation was realized in normal daylight conditions, only the taking of the Tl readings were realized in dark room and red light. In the chapter 1 basic concepts are described about: matter constitution, radioactivity, units and radiation magnitudes, and thermoluminescence. In the chapter 2 some theoretical aspects on dating are showed. It is described how realizing the samples collection, the fine grain method, the determination of the accumulated dose through the years or paleodoses (P=Q+I) by mean of the increasing to obtain the dose equivalent dose (Q) and the signal regeneration method to obtain the correction factor by supra linearity (1), the determination of the annual dose rate to apply the age equation and the evaluation of the age uncertainty with the error limits. The development of experimental part with samples from the archaeological site named Edzna in Campeche, Mexico is described in the chapter 3. The results are presented in the chapter 4. It was obtained an age for the sample named CH7 it was obtained an age of 389 ± years. In conclusion the preparation of the archaeological samples for their dating by Tl in the conditions before mentioned is reliable, but they must be realized more studies with samples of well known age, preparing them in normal daylight conditions and simultaneously in dark room with red light. In order to observe how respond the minerals present in the sample at different dose rapidity, the same samples must be radiated with radiation sources with different dose rate. (Author)

  16. Preparation of Regular Specimens for Atom Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Kim; Wishard, James

    2003-01-01

    A method of preparation of specimens of non-electropolishable materials for analysis by atom probes is being developed as a superior alternative to a prior method. In comparison with the prior method, the present method involves less processing time. Also, whereas the prior method yields irregularly shaped and sized specimens, the present developmental method offers the potential to prepare specimens of regular shape and size. The prior method is called the method of sharp shards because it involves crushing the material of interest and selecting microscopic sharp shards of the material for use as specimens. Each selected shard is oriented with its sharp tip facing away from the tip of a stainless-steel pin and is glued to the tip of the pin by use of silver epoxy. Then the shard is milled by use of a focused ion beam (FIB) to make the shard very thin (relative to its length) and to make its tip sharp enough for atom-probe analysis. The method of sharp shards is extremely time-consuming because the selection of shards must be performed with the help of a microscope, the shards must be positioned on the pins by use of micromanipulators, and the irregularity of size and shape necessitates many hours of FIB milling to sharpen each shard. In the present method, a flat slab of the material of interest (e.g., a polished sample of rock or a coated semiconductor wafer) is mounted in the sample holder of a dicing saw of the type conventionally used to cut individual integrated circuits out of the wafers on which they are fabricated in batches. A saw blade appropriate to the material of interest is selected. The depth of cut and the distance between successive parallel cuts is made such that what is left after the cuts is a series of thin, parallel ridges on a solid base. Then the workpiece is rotated 90 and the pattern of cuts is repeated, leaving behind a square array of square posts on the solid base. The posts can be made regular, long, and thin, as required for samples

  17. Synchrotron X-ray analyses in art and archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray synchrotron techniques play an increasingly important part in the analysis strategy of archaeological materials, in order to determine the source materials, their provenance and the ancient techniques of preparation. In favourable cases, the microstructure (crystallite size and deformation) can be interpreted as a residual mark of the elaboration techniques and origin of ancient polycrystalline materials. Our study on cosmetic recipes and make-up manufacturing in Antiquity, illustrates some possible applications of non-destructive synchrotron techniques, complementing other standard analytical tools

  18. A Virtual Tomb for Kelvingrove: Virtual Reality, Archaeology and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. Terras

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of computers as an educational resource in museums is becoming increasingly popular as more and more institutions realise that multimedia displays are very successful in imparting a broad variety of information. Although three-dimensional reconstructions of sites and structures have been used in archaeology for many years, the majority of museum computer installations have dealt with two-dimensional media because of the costs, equipment and labour involved in producing interactive 3D scenes. The birth of VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language has changed the way virtual reality is implemented and viewed. As an internet protocol, VRML can be used on most major platforms and implemented by anyone with a word-processing package, an internet browser, and the relevant plug-in. There is no reason why this new technology cannot be adopted by archaeologists and museums to produce virtual reality models of structures, sites and objects to aid the research of specialists and the education of the public. This project (undertaken at the Humanities Advanced Technology and Information Institute, University of Glasgow, Scotland, between May and October 1998 investigated the practicalities involved in using VRML to create a virtual reality model for use in a public space. A model of the Egyptian tomb of Sen-nedjem was developed for installation in the Egyptian Gallery of the Kelvingrove Museum and Art Gallery, Glasgow, in the hope that the introduction of this computer display would encourage the museum visitor's interest in the gallery's existing artefacts. Creation of the model would also investigate the possibility of using VRML to build accurate archaeological reconstructions cheaply and efficiently using publicly available software and existing archaeological resources. A fully functioning virtual reality model of the tomb of Sen-nedjem has been created, incorporating interactive elements, photorealistic representation, and animation, and this

  19. Accelerator mass spectrometry as a tool in geology and archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since its introduction more than twenty years ago, as a new method for 14 C-dating, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has become an increasingly important tool for geologists and archaeologists. The possibility to use samples of a few mg or even smaller samples has opened for new applications in the field of 14 C-dating. Even more important is perhaps that AMS has made other, extremely rare cosmogenic isotopes like 10 Be, 26 Al and 36 Cl available for earth science. Some examples of new applications in geology and archaeology for 14 C and other cosmogenic isotopes will be given. (authors)

  20. A survey of archaeological samples dated in 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is given of archaeological samples dated in 1988 at the Nordic Laboratory for Thermoluminescence Dating. A total of 67 samples were dated. The results were corrected for short-term fading of feldspars as measured for samples stored at room temperature for four weeks or at 100 deg. C for two weeks. The beta dose from potassium and rubidium in feldspar, and the alpha dose from uranium and thorium in quartz and feldspar were included assuming alpha efficiency factors of 0.1 for quartz and 0.2 for feldspar. (author) 22 tabs., 1 ill., 14 refs

  1. Treatment of air dried archaeological wool textiles from waterlogged environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharff, Annemette Bruselius

    2014-01-01

    Air-dried, wet archaeological wool textiles can be flat and stiff with brittle fibers, but is this a permanent collapse or can they regain their size in water? Iron Age textiles were tested comparing the width of dry fibers with the width of fibers treated in water or 70% ethanol. Both liquids...... expanded the fibers and the yarn increased in size, resulting in more flexible and less brittle textiles. This property was kept when the textiles were dried by stepwise dehydration in ethanol, acetone, and white spirit with a final treatment in 5% lanolin. Preliminary tests on brittle textiles can be...

  2. Identification of bacterial taxa in archaeological waterlogged wood

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Palla; Giovanna Barresi; Enza Di Carlo

    2014-01-01

    The microscopic and molecular techniques described in this study are aimed at understanding the degradation processes of the anatomical structure of submerged archaeological wood, correlating it to the degradation induced by bacteria. The SEM micrographs showed alterations of the wooden structure due to bacterial colonization, as well as the presence of pyrite framboids. The difficulty of extracting bacterial DNA from wooden fragments belonging to submerged finds is well-known, due to the pre...

  3. Species identification of archaeological skin objects from Danish bogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Luise Ørsted; Schmidt, Anne Lisbeth; Mannering, Ulla; Kelstrup, Christian D.; Olsen, Jesper V.; Cappellini, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    species used for the production of skin garments. Until recently, species identification of archaeological skin was primarily performed by light and scanning electron microscopy or the analysis of ancient DNA. However, the efficacy of these methods can be limited due to the harsh, mostly acidic...... MS-based methods, mostly relying on peptide fingerprinting, the shotgun sequencing approach we describe aims to identify the complete extracted ancient proteome, without preselected specific targets. As an example, we report the identification, in one of the samples, of two peptides uniquely assigned...

  4. An XML-based information model for archaeological pottery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU De-zhi; RAZDAN Anshuman; SIMON Arleyn; BAE Myungsoo

    2005-01-01

    An information model is defined to support sharing scientific information on Web for archaeological pottery. Apart from non-shape information, such as age, material, etc., the model also consists of shape information and shape feature information. Shape information is collected by Lasers Scanner and geometric modelling techniques. Feature information is generated from shape information via feature extracting techniques. The model is used in an integrated storage, archival, and sketch-based query and retrieval system for 3D objects, native American ceramic vessels. A novel aspect of the information model is that it is totally implemented with XML, and is designed for Web-based visual query and storage application.

  5. Cultural Interpretation of Archaeological Evidence Relating to Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaniszewski, Stanisław

    The sky is a link between us and our remote ancestors. When we look at the sky, we are aware that our human ancestors were watching our sun, our moon, our planets, and our stars. Evidence of the peoples' different relations with the sky in the past, today, is found by historians and archaeologists. Archaeologists, who keep track of the earliest human history, infer the past lives of human societies from the physical remains of the past found in the soil. Archaeoastronomy holds that from the same archaeological record, we can get insights into the significance of celestial objects and events for the human life in the remote past.

  6. Plant remains of archaeological site Casa Vieja, Callango (Ica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roque

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A paleoethnobotanical study was carried out at the Middle Horizon archaeological site of Casa Vieja, located in Callango within the Lower Ica Valley. A total of 23 species were identified, all determined to be of the Magnoliopyta Division, 78 % (or 18 species were Magnoliopsid and 22% (or 15 species Liliopsid. The Fabaceae are the best represented family with 6 species. Most of the analyzed samples correspond to seeds of Gossypium barbadense “cotton”. Seventy percent of the species were probably used as food; 48% for artifact-making and construction and 52% for medicinal and curative purposes.

  7. A Survey of Archaeological Samples Dated in 1985

    OpenAIRE

    Mejdahl, Vagn

    1986-01-01

    A survey is given of archaeological samples received for dating in 1985 at the Nordic Laboratory for Thermoluminescence Dating. A total of 66 samples were dated, 42 of which were burnt stones. All results were corrected for short-term fading as measured for samples stored at room temperature for four weeks. The beta dose from potassium and rubidium in feldspar and the alpha dose from uranium and thorium in quartz and feldspar were included assuming alpha efficiency factors of 0.1 for quartz a...

  8. TL-dating of archaeological samples from Carnuntum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dating project was carried out aimed at optimizing the standard thermoluminescence (TL) procedure for pottery samples from Carnuntum, Austria. More than 70 samples of different types of pottery were analysed using the fine-grain technique. The environmental dose-rate at the excavation site was measured by different methods and a test programme with archaeologically well-dated samples was used to find the best procedure for dating. Bricks from a bath, a lime-kiln and pieces of pottery from the fill of a post hole were dated to an accuracy ranging from ± 3 to ± 14%. (author)

  9. A survey of archaeological samples dated in 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is given of archaeological samples received for dating in 1985 at the Nordic Laboratory for Thermoluminescence Dating. A total of 66 samples were dated, 42 of which were burnt stones. All results were corrected for short- term fading as measured for samples stored at room temperature for four weeks. The beta dose from potassium and rubidium in feldspar and the alpha dose from uranium and thorium in quarts and feldspar were included assuming alpha efficiency factors of 0.1 for quartz and 0.2 for feldspar. (author)

  10. A survey of archaeological samples dated in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is given of archaeological samples dated in 1986 at the Nordic Laboratory for Thermoluminescence Dating. A total of 56 samples were dated. The results were corrected for shortterm fading measured for samples stored for four weeks at room temperature or at 100 deg. C. The beta dose from potassium and rubidium in feldspar and the alpha dose from uranium and thorium in quartz and feldspar grain were included assuming alpha efficiency factors of 0.1 and 0.2 for quartz and feldspar, respectively. 21 refs. (author)

  11. Prompt gamma-ray analysis of archaeological bronze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prompt γ-ray analysis using the internal monostandard method was applied to voluminous archaeological bronze mirrors produced in ancient China. Sn/Cu content ratios were determined nondestructively by this method. Furthermore, Au/Cu, As/Cu, and Sb/Cu content ratios were determined by means of measuring decay γ-rays emitted from radioactive nuclides produced within samples via (n,γ) reactions. It is clear that the Sn/Cu content ratios in bronze mirrors produced in the Sung era is smaller than in ones produced in between the Han and the Tung era. (author)

  12. Magnetic mapping and interpretation of an archaeological site in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    khatib alkontar, Rozan AL; Munschy, Marc; Castel, Corinne; Quenet, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Among the subsurface methods of exploration that have been developed to meet the new requirements of archaeological research, geophysical methods offer a very wide range of applications in the study of buried deposits. In their latest developments, the prospecting method based on the measurement of the magnetic field is particularly effective at very different types of sites, ranging from prehistoric times to the most recent. The measured magnetic field observed at a place and at a time, results from the vector sum of the main regional field, the effect of subsurface structures, local disturbances such as power lines, buildings, fences, and the diurnal variation (solar influence). The principle of the magnetic method is, from magnetic measurements on a flat plane above the prospected surface, to study the three-dimensional variations of magnetization producing the magnetic anomalies. The use of magnetic surveys for archaeological prospecting is a well-established and versatile technique, and wide ranges of data processing routines are often applied to further enhance acquired data or derive source parameters. The main purpose of this work was to acquire new magnetic data on the field and to propose quantitative interpretations of magnetic maps obtained on three archaeological sites of Bronze Age in Syria (Badiyah ANR program). More precisely, some results are presented concerning one of the three sites, the Tell Al-Rawda-site which corresponds to a circular city of Early Bronze Age with a radius of about 200 m. Several profiles are used to characterize magnetizations. A large portion of archaeological geophysical data are concerned primarily with identifying the location and spatial extent of buried remains, although the data collected are likely to contain further information relating to the depth and geometry of anomalous features. A simple magnetic model corresponding to rectangular structures uniformly magnetized associated to walls cannot explain the magnetic

  13. Identifying military impacts on archaeology deposits based on differences in soil organic carbon and chemical elements at soil horizon interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Historic Preservation Act requires land-managing agencies to identify and account for their impacts on archaeological resources. Regulatory agencies that oversee compliance with historic preservation legislation frequently assume military training adversely affects archaeological resou...

  14. Archaeology and Anthropology Sites, Villa Rica, Georgia Archaeology Sites Map, Published in 2006, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Chattahoochee-Flint Regional Development.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Archaeology and Anthropology Sites dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2006. It...

  15. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy to Analyze Archaeological Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Adam D.; Lehman, Ann H.; Parr, Maria L.

    2007-01-01

    A course linking chemistry and archaeology was designed to introduce scientific principles and applications to students with little or no science background. The course could provide students an opportunity to explore the role of the sciences in archaeology and to discover the relationship between materials and the culture that produce them.

  16. A collaborative archaeological research and conservation project for Moriori carved trees (rakau momori), Rekohu (Chatham Island)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January-February 2010 a conservation and site-recording project began on Rekohu (Chatham Island) to locate, assess and digitally scan archaeological carved trees known as rakau momori ('dendroglyphs'). This paper briefly considers earlier work on carved trees before reporting preliminary and anticipated outcomes from our recent collaborative rakau momori archaeological project. 14 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Pattern to process : methodological investigations into the formation and interpretation of spatial patterns in archaeological landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leusen, Pieter Martijn van

    2002-01-01

    My research has shown that the type of regional archaeological data analysis required by landscape archaeological approaches is an area where both theory and method are still in their infancy. High-level theories about the occurrence, scope, and effects of processes such as centralization, urbanizat

  18. 文献考古方法论刍议%On the Methodology of Documentary Archaeology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何驽

    2002-01-01

    The application of historical literature in archaeological research has been lack of methodological formalization. This situation has retarden the establishment of epistemological consentience, leading to dispute about historical records among Chinese archaeologists. The article argues that the systematic correspondence between potential logic of historical literature and archaeological contexts could serve as the datum point for the utilization of ancient literature.

  19. Grounding the past : the praxis of participatory archaeology in the Mixteca Alta, Oaxaca, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurds, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    "Grounding the Past" addresses archaeological field praxis and its role in the political present of Santiago Tilantongo and Santiago Apoala, two communities in the Mixteca Alta region of Oaxaca, Mexico. Efforts to involve local stakeholder communities in archaeology have become an important issue wo

  20. Listing of Education in Archaeological Programs: The LEAP Clearinghouse, 1989-1989 Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Patricia C., Ed.

    This catalog incorporates information gathered between 1987 and 1989 for inclusion into the National Park Service's Listing of Education in Archaeological Programs (LEAP) computerized database. This database is a listing of federal, state, local and private projects promoting positive public awareness of U.S. archaeology--prehistoric and historic,…

  1. A Review of the International Academic Symposium on Tibetan Archaeology and Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangChanghong

    2004-01-01

    To date at least two aspects of Tibetan studies have become prominent. One is Tibetan archaeology which has grown from a base of ever-enriching fieldwork, and the other is Tibetan art studies which is dominated by Tibetan Buddhist art. In western humanity disciplines,archaeology and art history have always been regarded

  2. Online Survey Data from Twitter and Archaeology Surveys 2011-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Lorna-Jane Richardson

    2014-01-01

    These survey results are from annual online surveys of Twitter users who are active volunteers or professional archaeologists worldwide. The data covers a variety of topics related to location of Twitter use, the type of device used, lists and followers, activity relating to archaeological topics, public engagement and archaeological networking online. There is scope for sentiment analysis, and further qualitative and quantitative analysis.

  3. Computer graphics and urban archaeology Bracara Augusta’s case study

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardes, P.; Martins, Manuela

    2004-01-01

    Computer graphics is undoubtedly an important tool, widely used for representing and manipulating enormous amounts of highly complex information. Usually, the archaeological information is highly complex, so its representation using computer graphics technology is a true and engaging challenge. Virtual reconstructions representing archaeological sites, as for example the roman town Bracara Augusta, should be considered a fundamental tool for research improvement carried out by ...

  4. Excavating the Nation: Archaeology and Control of the Past and Present in Republican Sichuan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyong-McClain, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation considers whether or not archaeology was an effective tool for nation-building elites in Republican China (1912-1949), by looking at the discipline's fortunes in the off-center locale of Sichuan province. Through consideration of the multiplicity of agents and motives involved in archaeological enterprise in Republican Sichuan,…

  5. 76 FR 62842 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard... Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University has completed an inventory of human remains, in... itself to be culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the Peabody Museum of...

  6. 75 FR 9428 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and... Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, that meet the definitions of ``sacred objects...; museum records; consultation evidence; and expert opinion. Officials of the Peabody Museum of...

  7. Archaeology, Ethics, and Character: Using Our Cultural Heritage to Teach Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Jeanne M.; Coleman, Carolee; Fink, Kristie; Krejs, Kirsti

    2002-01-01

    Archaeology is a highly interdisciplinary field. Its main goal is to construct culture histories, but it uses many scientific methods in the process. Ethical dilemmas inherent in archaeology make it a good vehicle for teaching ethics and character in the classroom (Moe 2000). The interdisciplinary nature of the field makes it possible to weave…

  8. 75 FR 58431 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Inventory Completion published in the Federal Register (66 FR 51464, October 9, 2001) from four to seven... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard... Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. The human remains...

  9. 77 FR 48533 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Robert S. Peabody Museum of Archaeology, Phillips Academy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: The Robert S. Peabody Museum of Archaeology, Phillips.... Peabody Museum of Archaeology has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the... culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the Robert S. Peabody Museum of...

  10. The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology and Anthropology of Hunter-Gatherers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cummings, Vicky; Jordan, Peter; Zvelebil, Marek

    2014-01-01

    For more than a century, the study of hunting and gathering societies has been central to the development of both archaeology and anthropology as academic disciplines, and has also generated widespread public interest and debate. The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology and Anthropology of Hunter-Gath

  11. 76 FR 28072 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is here given in... Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA. The human remains were removed from St. Mary Parish (formerly... assessment of the human remains was made by University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and...

  12. 78 FR 19301 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains... Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. Repatriation of the human remains to the Indian...

  13. Identification Of Natural Dyes On Archaeological Textile Objects Using Laser Induced Fluorescent Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Kareem, O.; Eltokhy, A.; Harith, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    This study aims to evaluate the use of Laser Fluorescent as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. In this study wool textile samples were dyed with 10 natural dyes such as cochineal, cutch, henna, indigo, Lac, madder, safflower, saffron, sumac and turmeric. These dyes common present on archaeological textile objects to be used as standard dyed textile samples. These selected natural dyes will be used as known references that can be used a guide to identify unknown archaeological dyes. The dyed textile samples were investigated with laser radiation in different wavelengths to detect the best wavelengths for identification each dye. This study confirms that Laser Florescent is very useful and a rapid technique can be used as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. The results obtained with this study can be a guide for all conservators in identification of natural organic dyes on archaeological textile objects.

  14. A Short History of the Bulletin of the History of Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas R. Givens

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available As my tenure as Editor of the Bulletin ofthe History of Archaeology (BHA draws to a close (31 December 2002,I think it useful to the readership that I provide a very brief history of the BRA covering its inception, early years, and my aspirations for its future. The BHA was just a passing idea in my mind in 1990 when I organized an Advanced Seminar held at the School of American Search (SAR in Santa Fe,New Mexico (14-18 July 1990, concerning the then current state of writing the history of archaeology for the Society for American Archaeology's Committee on theHistory.of Archaeology. To a great degree the SAR advanced seminar grew out of a seminal gathering (Visitor Scholar's Conference that Andrew Christenson had put together in 1987 at Southern Ilinois University at Carbondaie,Dlinois - a gathering of those working in the history of archaeology.

  15. Identification Of Natural Dyes On Archaeological Textile Objects Using Laser Induced Fluorescent Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to evaluate the use of Laser Fluorescent as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. In this study wool textile samples were dyed with 10 natural dyes such as cochineal, cutch, henna, indigo, Lac, madder, safflower, saffron, sumac and turmeric. These dyes common present on archaeological textile objects to be used as standard dyed textile samples. These selected natural dyes will be used as known references that can be used a guide to identify unknown archaeological dyes. The dyed textile samples were investigated with laser radiation in different wavelengths to detect the best wavelengths for identification each dye. This study confirms that Laser Florescent is very useful and a rapid technique can be used as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. The results obtained with this study can be a guide for all conservators in identification of natural organic dyes on archaeological textile objects.

  16. Fabrication and testing of composite ring specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, T.; Daniel, I. M.; Labedz, R.; Niiro, T.

    1979-01-01

    The tooling and techniques used in the fabrication of composite laminate tubes of any desired ply orientation and stacking sequence are described along with techniques for cutting ring specimens under internal pressure. The method consists of laying up the tube on a central circular mandrel, and by means of internal pressure, expanding the prepreg tube against the cavity wall of an external mold tool, which forms the geometric curing envelope for the tube. Tube quality is assessed by laminate wall thickness measurement, by hoop strength measurement on rings cut from the ends of the tube, and by ultrasonic inspection.

  17. Gas permeation measurements on small polymer specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Karen S.; Vannorman, John D.

    1988-01-01

    Mass spectrometry was used to measure oxygen and nitrogen permeabilities while polarography was used to measure oxygen permeabilities for several contact lens materials. Applicable sample holders were designed and fabricated to accommodate curved and flat specimens. A prepared standard was used to calibrate the mass spectrometric analyses. The oxygen permeability values determined by mass spectrometry were significantly greater than those determined by polarography. This was attributed to the phase boundary phenomena and the limiting oxygen permeance of water inherent in the polarographic technique. Polarographic values determined were in good agreement with proprietary values obtained by polarography, with the exception of one material.

  18. 78 FR 65361 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Center for Archaeological Research at the University of Texas at...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Center for Archaeological Research at the University.... SUMMARY: The Center for Archaeological Research at the University of Texas at San Antonio has completed an... the Center for Archaeological Research at the University of Texas at San Antonio. If no...

  19. 78 FR 21399 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Center for Archaeological Research at the University of Texas at...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Center for Archaeological Research at the University... Center for Archaeological Research at the University of Texas at San Antonio has completed an inventory... the Center for Archaeological Research at the University of Texas at San Antonio. Repatriation of...

  20. Geophysical prospection and rescue archaeological excavation of subsurface WWII remains in the foreland of brown coal mines in northwestern Bohemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivánek, Roman; Čech, Petr; Soukup, Michal B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2015 (2015), s. 217-222. ISSN 0066-5924. [International Conference on Archaeological Prospection /11./. Warszawa, 15.09.2015-19.09.2015] Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : archaeological prospection * archaeological investigation * WWII * magnetometry * anti- aircraft defense Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  1. Assess as You Go: The Effect of Continuous Assessment on Student Learning during a Short Course in Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Sven

    2008-01-01

    A continuous classroom assessment technique, "Five-minute" essays, was applied during a short course called "Scientific Methods in Archaeology--Applications and Problems", given at the Archaeological Research Laboratory, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University, Sweden. There was a strong positive and statistically…

  2. 75 FR 8740 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate a Cultural Item: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate a Cultural Item: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and... of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, that meets the definition of... California; and Wilton Rancheria, California. Officials of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and...

  3. Development of Network-type Archaeological Investigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, F.; Yokokoyama, S.; Kaneda, A.; Konno, K.

    2015-08-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 is said to be a once-in-1000-year catastrophic quake. The Tsunami triggered by the earthquake destroyed broad coastal areas in northeast Japan. As recovery from the earthquake proceeds, the demand for new road construction, housing hill development, and residential construction is rapidly increasing. Culture plays a critical role in the district's recovery. For that reason, before development, cultural properties in the corresponding districts must be urgently investigated. This is a must, although balancing cultural recovery with rapid economic recovery is no easy task. With this in mind, we have developed a new system focusing on speedy archaeological investigation and adequate documentation. The authors reexamined the existing investigation process to categorize tasks into two types: those that must be done only at archaeological sites (site A) and ones available at other places (site B). We then formulated a scheme where the tasks on both sites are performed simultaneously in parallel over the network. Experiments are ongoing. This presentation reports the process and issues of our research and development.

  4. The Problem of Cultural Identity in the Contemporary Archaeological Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Kuzmanović

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The decades-long reconsideration of the concept of culture in archaeology has been aimed at overcoming the traditional culture-historical concept, assuming culture as a relatively stable and homogeneous system of values characteristic of a certain group or a community of people. The practice of cultural classification of artefacts, based upon the premise that people linked by the production and usage of stylistically homogeneous material culture form a group with the feeling of communal identity, has been criticized as a reflection of ethnocentric projection of the modern idea of cultural identity. In spite of numerous critics of this concept, developed under the influence of various theoretical strains from the beginning of the 1960s, it seems that the implicit assumption is still present of the communal cultural identity of a group linked by the communal material culture. Furthermore, an attempt to counteract the critique and offer a multicultural interpretation of the past brings in the danger to rehabilitate the very concept of culture which archaeology has been trying to abandon for decades.

  5. Thermoluminescent analysis of archaeological ceramic from Teotenango, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of all the kind of artifacts which may be found at archaeological sites, ceramics are surely among the most important. A ceramic material is highly durable, and virtually unchanged after hundred of years from its date of manufacture. Because of this, a ceramic will always be an important object for serious studies to determine which culture produced it, to date cultures, reconstruct economic patterns and social organization, and establish routes of trade or simply to classify the different types of ceramics. The aim of this paper was to perform a thermoluminescent analysis of archaeological ceramic samples belonging to Teotenango, Mexico. The analysis is complemented with a physicochemical characterization by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). TL analysis shows some differences when the samples are exposed to ionizing radiation field, while SEM analysis shows a porous and granular structure in all samples, EDS analysis shows oxygen (O), aluminum (Al), silicon (Si), iron (Fe), sodium (Na), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and calcium (Ca) in significant amounts. These results allow establishing differences among ceramic samples belonging to the same place. (Author)

  6. Radiocarbon application in environmental science and archaeology in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajcar Bronic, I., E-mail: krajcar@irb.h [Radiocarbon Laboratory, Department of Experimental Physics, Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Obelic, B.; Horvatincic, N.; Baresic, J.; Sironic, A. [Radiocarbon Laboratory, Department of Experimental Physics, Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Minichreiter, K. [Institute of Archaeology, Ulica grada Vukovara 68, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2010-07-21

    Radiocarbon is a cosmogenic radioisotope equally distributed throughout the troposphere and biosphere. This fact enables its most common application-radiocarbon dating. Natural equilibrium of radiocarbon has been disturbed by diverse anthropogenic activities during the last {approx}150 years, enabling also the use of {sup 14}C in various environmental applications. Here we present three types of studies by using {sup 14}C that were performed in the Zagreb Radiocarbon Laboratory. {sup 14}C in atmospheric CO{sub 2} has been monitored at several sites with various anthropogenic influences and the difference between the clean-air sites, the industrial city and the vicinity of a nuclear power plant has been established. {sup 14}C has been applied in geochronology of karst areas, especially in dating of tufa, speleothems and lake sediments, as well as in studies of geochemical carbon cycle. {sup 14}C has been used in various archaeological studies, among which the dating of the early Neolithic settlements in Croatia is presented. In these studies {sup 14}C was measured by radiometric techniques, i.e., by gas proportional counting and more recently by liquid scintillation counting (LSC). Two sample preparation techniques for LSC measurement were used: benzene synthesis for archaeological dating and other applications that require better precision, and direct absorption of CO{sub 2} for monitoring purposes. The presented results show that various studies by using {sup 14}C can be successfully performed by the LSC technique, providing a large enough sample (>1 g of carbon).

  7. Digital Astronaut Photography: A Discovery Dataset for Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, William L.

    2010-01-01

    Astronaut photography acquired from the International Space Station (ISS) using commercial off-the-shelf cameras offers a freely-accessible source for high to very high resolution (4-20 m/pixel) visible-wavelength digital data of Earth. Since ISS Expedition 1 in 2000, over 373,000 images of the Earth-Moon system (including land surface, ocean, atmospheric, and lunar images) have been added to the Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth online database (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov ). Handheld astronaut photographs vary in look angle, time of acquisition, solar illumination, and spatial resolution. These attributes of digital astronaut photography result from a unique combination of ISS orbital dynamics, mission operations, camera systems, and the individual skills of the astronaut. The variable nature of astronaut photography makes the dataset uniquely useful for archaeological applications in comparison with more traditional nadir-viewing multispectral datasets acquired from unmanned orbital platforms. For example, surface features such as trenches, walls, ruins, urban patterns, and vegetation clearing and regrowth patterns may be accentuated by low sun angles and oblique viewing conditions (Fig. 1). High spatial resolution digital astronaut photographs can also be used with sophisticated land cover classification and spatial analysis approaches like Object Based Image Analysis, increasing the potential for use in archaeological characterization of landscapes and specific sites.

  8. Review of MAGIS (Mediterranean Archaeology GIS [data resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Strutt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The MAGIS, or Mediterranean Archaeology GIS, was established by DePauw University in the USA as an "inventory of regional survey projects in the greater Mediterranean region". The project was initiated in the early 2000s, with support from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, under the aegeis of the Collaboratory for GIS and Mediterranean Archaeology (CGMA, a partnership designed to establish this online inventory of survey projects, and to run a series of undergraduate seminars on GIS and Mediterranean survey (http://cgma.depauw.edu/. Apart from the direction of principal investigators (PIs, work on the database has been conducted mostly by student interns, and represents a substantial synthesis of metadata for different survey projects in the Mediterranean and beyond. At face value the site presents a relatively simple front-end to the user, with a one-line explanation of the content of the website and a concise explanation of the different search functions. It also contains a health warning stating that the site is a work in progress. The fact that a more substantial statement of intent is not given for the database at this stage makes it difficult to assess the level to which the initiators have succeeded in their aims.

  9. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermentation Effects on Pollen: Archaeological Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal A. Dozier

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollen is the reproductive agent of flowering plants; palynology is utilized by archaeologists because sporopollenin, a major component in the exine of pollen grains, is resistant to decay and morphologically distinctive. Wine, beer, and mead have been identified in the archaeological record by palynological assessment due to indicator species or due to a pollen profile similar to that recovered from honey, a common source of sugar in a variety of fermented beverages. While most palynologists have assumed that pollen grains are resistant to alcoholic fermentation, a recent study in food science implies that pollen is a yeast nutrient because pollen-enriched meads produce more alcohol. The experiment presented here explores the potential distortion of the pollen record through fermentation by brewing a traditional, pollen-rich mead with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this experiment, the pollen grains did not undergo any discernible morphological changes nor were distorted in the pollen profile. Any nutrition that the yeast garners from the pollen therefore leaves sporopollenin intact. These results support palynological research on residues of alcoholic beverages and confirms that the fermentation process does not distort the pollen profile of the original substance. The paper concludes with the potential and limits of palynological study to assess fermentation within the archaeological record.

  10. The origin of emeralds embedded in archaeological artefacts in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina Kržič

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Roman gold jewellery, which was excavated in Ptuj (Poetovio and consists of a necklace, earrings and a braceletwith embedded emeralds, is part of the Slovenian archaeological artefacts collections. Crystallographic characteristics,inclusions, luminous phenomena and geological characteristics were determined in order to establish theorigin of the emeralds. Chemical composition of the emeralds was determined non-destructively using the methodsof proton-induced X-rays and gamma rays (PIXE/PIGE. The results were compared with reference emeraldsfrom Habachtal in Austria and with green beryls from the Ural Mts. Literature data for emeralds from Egypt andmodern-day Afghanistan area were used to interpret the results. Specifically, these sites were known for emeraldsbeing mined for jewellery in Roman times. It was assumed that emeralds from archaeological artefacts originatedfrom Habachtal in Austria, given that this site was the nearest to the place where found. But the emeralds fromthe necklace and earrings in fact came from Egyptian deposits. The origin of emeralds from the bracelet could nothave been determined absolutely reliably due to the lack of comparative materials; they may originate from a site inmodern-day Afghanistan or from Egypt, but certainly not from the same site as the previously mentioned emeraldsin the necklace and earrings.

  11. Physicochemical characterization of ceramics from Sao Paulo II archaeological site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archaeometry is a consolidated field with a wide application of nuclear analytical techniques for the characterization, protection, and restoration of archaeological pieces. This project aimed at studying the elementary chemical composition of 70 ceramic fragments samples from Sao Paulo II archaeological site, located along the Solimoes River channel, next to Coari city, in Brazilian Amazon. The characterization of samples was performed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). By the determination of 24 elements in the ceramic fragments ( Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sb, Sm. Rb, Se, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn), it was possible to define groups of samples regarding the similarity/dissimilarity in elementary chemical composition. For such a task, the multivariate statistical methods employed were cluster analysis (C A), principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA). Afterwards, seven ceramic fragments were selected based on the groups previously established, for the characterization of the site temporal horizon. Those ceramic fragments were analyzed by thermoluminescence (TL) and EPR for dating purposes. The firing temperatures were determined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique, in order to infer about some aspects of the ceramic manufacture employed by the ancient peoples that lived in Sao Paulo 11. By the results obtained in this study, it was possible to identify the quantity of clay sources employed by the ceramists and the age of the ceramic pieces. Therefore, the results of this research may contribute to the study on the occupation dynamics in the pre-colonial Brazilian Amazon. (author)

  12. GIS-BASED SURFACE ANALYSIS OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL FINDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kovács

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The international research project HiMAT (History of Mining Activities in the Tyrol and adjacent areas is dedicated to the study of mining history in the Eastern Alps by various scientific disciplines. The aim of this program is the analysis of the mining activities’ impacts on environment and human societies. Unfortunately, there is only a limited number of specific regions (e.g. Mitterberg to offer possibilities to investigate the former mining expansions. Within this multidisciplinary project, the archaeological sites and finds are analyzed by the Surveying and Geoinformation Unit at the University of Innsbruck. This paper shows data fusion of different surveying and post-processing methods to achieve a photo-realistic digital 3D model of one of these most important finds, the Bronze Age sluice box from the Mitterberg. The applied workflow consists of four steps: 1. Point cloud processing, 2. Meshing of the point clouds and editing of the models, 3. Image orientation, bundle and image adjustment, 4. Model texturing. In addition, a short range laser scanning survey was organized before the conservation process of this wooden find. More accurate research opportunities were offered after this detailed documentation of the sluice box, for example the reconstruction of the broken parts and the surface analysis of this archaeological object were implemented using these high-resolution datasets. In conclusion, various unperceived patterns of the wooden boards were visualized by the GIS-based tool marks investigation.

  13. Nanotechnologies for the restoration of alum-treated archaeological wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriulo, Fabrizio; Braovac, Susan; Kutzke, Hartmut; Giorgi, Rodorico; Baglioni, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The project Saving Oseberg is funded by the Norwegian State with the aim to preserve the Viking Age wooden objects from the Oseberg burial mound. They were excavated in 1904 near Tønsberg, Norway, and many have been treated in the past with alum salts (KAl(SO4)2·12H2O). Alum was widely used during the early 1900s as a treatment for archaeological wood to prevent shrinkage and impart strength. In the 1990s, conservators observed an alarming condition of the objects. Initial investigations showed that the alum treatment has initiated a slow but ongoing deterioration process, attacking the wood for over 100 years. Today, the artefacts are highly acidic and have significantly reduced mechanical strength. In the last decade, the use of non-aqueous alkaline nanoparticle dispersions has provided successful results for the protection of cellulose-based materials. Alum-treated archaeological wood samples from Oseberg, with a pH ≤ 2, have been treated with alkaline nanoparticle dispersions, and the effects of the treatment have been evaluated by thermal analysis (TG-DTG), infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray microtomography (micro-CT) analyses. In this contribution, the preliminary results will be presented.

  14. Decay prevention in waterlogged archaeological wood using gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation is evaluated as a novel decay prevention treatment for waterlogged archaeological wood. A dose of 15 kGy was found to be sufficient to inactivate a large number of wood biodeteriogens, including fungi, bacteria and invertebrates, at various stages of development. For timbers excavated from polluted sites, a dose of 25 kGy is suggested to inactivate human pathogens. The dose spread required for such treatments are 1.33:1 and 1.2:1, respectively, in timbers up to 150 mm thickness and density not exceeding 1590 kg/m3. No adverse effects on the physical properties of slightly or heavily degraded waterlogged archaeological wood were detected at doses of up to 100 kGy. This is the maximum recommended single or cumulative lifetime dose for any timber. Gamma irradiation offers far greater efficacy over currently used decay prevention treatments and, a step-wise procedure for evaluating timbers for treatment and dosimetry is presented. (author)

  15. NASA, Remote Sensing and Archaeology: An Example from Southeast Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco J.

    2010-01-01

    NASA Stennis Space Center, located in Mississippi, USA, undertook an archaeological survey of the southeastern Louisiana marshes beginning in 2003. Progress on this activity was severely hampered by the 2005 hurricane season when both Katrina and Rita devastated the study area. In 2008, the NASA team reinitiated the analysis of the project data and that work continues today. The project was conducted initially in partnership with the U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers New Orleans District and Tulane University. NASA and its partners utilized a wide variety of satellite and airborne remote sensing instruments combined with field verification surveys to identify prehistoric archeological sites in the Southeastern Louisiana delta, both known and still undiscovered. The main approach was to carefully map known sites and use the spectral characteristics of these sites to locate high probability targets elsewhere in the region. The archaeological activities were conducted in support of Coast 2050 whose stated goals is to sustain and restore a coastal ecosystem that supports and protects the environment, economy and culture of southern Louisiana. As the Coast 2050 report states: [T]he rate of coastal land loss in Louisiana has reached catastrophic proportions. Within the last 50 years, land loss rates have exceeded 40 square miles per year, and in the 1990's the rate has been estimated to be between 25 and 35 square miles each year. This loss represents 80% of the coastal wetland loss in the entire continental United States.

  16. Nuclear Analytical Methods on Archaeological Glass in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Due to the complex nature of archaeological objects, their analysis needs to use extremely sensitive, spatially resolved and versatile methods that should be as non invasive as possible and give complementary information at different scales; from the macroscopic to the nanometer scales. In this work, SEM-EDS, PIXE and SRXRF were used to analyze the chemical composition of the archaeological glass bead samples that excavated from various historical sites in Thailand. There were number of differences in shade between the glass beads of different colors. The results revealed different in glass types; soda- and potash-, mixed-alkali-, and lead-based glasses. It was noticed that it has been difficult to interpret because of a long period covering and weathering effects. This study may be led to the historical link of the long distance trade and exchange networks in maritime between South-East Asia, South Asia, East Asia and Asia Minor. These analytical measurements in combination are proved useful to investigate the glassy materials and to answer questions posted by archaeologists

  17. Studies on muon tomography for archaeological internal structures scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, H.; Carloganu, C.; Gibert, D.; Jacquemier, J.; Karyotakis, Y.; Marteau, J.; Niess, V.; Katsanevas, S.; Tonazzo, A.

    2016-05-01

    Muon tomography is a potential non-invasive technique for internal structure scanning. It has already interesting applications in geophysics and can be used for archaeological purposes. Muon tomography is based on the measurement of the muon flux after crossing the structure studied. Differences on the mean density of these structures imply differences on the detected muon rate for a given direction. Based on this principle, Monte Carlo simulations represent a useful tool to provide a model of the expected muon rate and angular distribution depending on the composition of the studied object, being useful to estimate the expected detected muons and to better understand the experimental results. These simulations are mainly dependent on the geometry and composition of the studied object and on the modelling of the initial muon flux at surface. In this work, the potential of muon tomography in archaeology is presented and evaluated with Monte Carlo simulations by estimating the differences on the muon rate due to the presence of internal structures and its composition. The influence of the chosen muon model at surface in terms of energy and angular distributions in the final result has been also studied.

  18. Archaeological excavation of T10/993 at Matarangi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the excavation of a small midden site, T10/993, representative of a number of like sites in the sand dunes at Matarangi on the east coast of the Coromandel Peninsula. Few sites of this type have been investigated archaeologically yet they are the remains of a very important part of the Maori economic cycle. The sites could be termed shellfish processing sites. The excavation was a condition imposed by Historic Places Trust on the granting of an authority to modify sites T10/993 and 994 (HPT Authority no. 1997/42), prior to destruction of the sites (Furey 1998). Matarangi Beach Estates commissioned the author to undertake an archaeological site survey of a grassed area at Matarangi Beach which was to be Stage 14 of the urban housing development. The area was in excess of 13 hectares. Two sites were found, T10/993 and 994, and recommendations made for monitoring of the dunes as the topsoil was removed (Furey 1997a). (author). 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Luminescence dating in archaeology, with specific reference to Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Half a century has elapsed since Daniels et al. (1953) first proposed that luminescence dating could play a valuable role in archaeological research, when they foreshadowed that the possibility of estimating the dates at which limestones and ancient pottery were heated to high temperatures is now being explored. This spurred the development of thermoluminescence (TL) dating techniques, whereby the age of objects heated in antiquity (e.g., pottery and burnt flint) may be determined from the amount of light emitted when minerals such as quartz and potassium feldspar - two of the most ubiquitous minerals on Earth - are heated in the laboratory to above 250 degree C (Aitken, 1985). The 1960s were dominated by applications of TL dating to ancient pottery, using the silt-size grains (Zimmerman, 1971) or sand-size quartz inclusions (Fleming, 1970) embedded in the matrix. Novel archaeological applications ensued in the 1970s, with extensions into the Upper Palaeolithic using burnt clay lumps (Zimmerman and Huxtable, 1971) and heated flints (Goksu et al., 1974), and TL dating of flint was subsequently refined and applied to Neanderthal and early modern human sites in Eurasia (reviewed by Mercier et al., 1995). (Author)

  20. Mapping the Structure of the Archaeological Web Open Data Open Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Graham

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available What is the context of our archaeological blogging? When we blog, are we merely shouting into the void? Do archaeological bloggers link only to one another, and do we shout only to each other (which, it must be admitted, is what our journals and conferences do, too, albeit at a slower pace? Assume a person knows nothing about archaeology: would that person find your blog? Your project website? Your department's website? Does academic blogging matter? One way to answer these questions is through a mapping of the archaeological web. When a layperson finds a site, she might signal its perceived value through linking, retweeting, commenting (once upon a time, on the blog post itself; now more likely via a tweet, and writing her own blog posts about it. Therefore, various network metrics of this map of the archaeological web can be taken as a kind of proxy for evaluating the likely impact of our blogging. Given that these blogs are all publicly available (if one knows or can find the address, blogging is a kind of public archaeology. Not necessarily an archaeology done for the public, but rather an archaeology done in view of the public (cf Richardson and Almansa-Sánchez 2015 on the variety within public archaeology. It would be interesting to know if this kind of public archaeology has an impact at all. These signals and linkages in the general noise of the Internet are the subject of this article. In order for us as archaeologists to generate the strongest possible signals on the web, we need to understand the structures that have emerged within the web to best facilitate dissemination. This can help us increase our signals' visibility, even though all roads eventually lead to Wikipedia.

  1. Coupled triaxial testing of rock salt specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an apparatus that permits simultaneous measurement of several coupled geomechanical and geophysical parameters on intact specimens of rock salt saturated with brine and subjected to triaxial test conditions. Representative experimental results are presented for hydraulic permeability, electrical resistivity, and p-wave velocity which were determined while the test specimen equilibrated at a confining pressure of 6.2 MPa (900 psi) and a pore pressure of 2.75 MPa (400 psi), during axial loading and deformation. The results are cross-correlated with the applied (differential) axial stress. The electrical resistivity measurements involved phase-sensitive detection with a 4-terminal electrode configuration, thus permitting determination of absolute values as well as relative changes in electrical resistivity of the salt. The extremely low permeability of rock salt and corrosive nature of saturated brine required development of special sample preparation and jacketing techniques, as well as wetted apparatus parts made from Hastelloy, and the use of the transient pulse technique for permeability determinations

  2. A preliminary study of archaeological ceramic from the Sao Paulo II, Brazil, archaeological site by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Rogerio B.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Oliveira, Paulo M.S., E-mail: camunita@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Neves, Eduardo G.; Tamahara, Eduardo K., E-mail: edgneves@usp.br [Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia (MAE/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The determination of trace elements plays an important role in the characterization of archaeological ceramics. It is well established that ceramics can be grouped based on similarities/dissimilarities derived from chemical data. Different analytical methods can be applied to determine the sample composition. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is the method preferred because present several advantages in relation to the other techniques. In this work, the elements determined were As, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sb, Sm, U, Yb, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, I, Fe, Hf, Rb, Sc, Ta , Tb, Th and Zn to carry out a preliminary chemical characterization in 44 ceramic samples from Sao Paulo II archaeological site by INAA. The site is located in Coari city, 363 km from Manaus, Amazonas state (AM). The elementary concentration results were studied using multivariate statistical methods. The similarity/dissimilarity among the samples was studied by means of discriminant analysis. The compositions group classification was done through cluster analysis, showing the formation of the three distinct groups of the ceramics. (author)

  3. Archaeological and Geological dating by means of thermoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis an specific method for dating local archaeological and geological samples based on the phenomenon of thermoluminescence (TL) using the fine grain and quartz inclusion techniques is developed. Taking into account that this work is interesting for professionals working in the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Archaeology, Anthropology and related sciences, some basic concepts are described to have a better comprehension. Chapter 1 describes the concept of radioactivity, remarking the importance of the different decay types as well as the main radioactive series and the energy liberated in the process. The causes of radioactive desequilibrium are also considered in the case for radon. Another important aspect taken into account in this chapter is the radioisotope production and its relationship with the neutron activation analysis used for the determination of the Uranium and Thorium concentrations in the samples. The TL phenomenon is described in Chapter 2, emphasizing the importance of the process of thermally stimulated luminescence best known as TL and its application for dating minerals of different origin. Chapter 3 shows some important antecedents remarking some aspects of the techniques commonly used for dating purposes. Chapter 4 shows the different methods used for the sample preparation. The techniques used for the 40 K, 238 U and 232 Th determination as well as for the cosmic radiation measurement using locally made TLD are also described. The methods used for the determination of the paleodosis as a function of the TL intensity of each sample are described: special emphasis is taken on the moisture effects as well as in the error limits in the age estimation. Results and conclusions of this study are presented in Chapter 5. These results gave an age of 980 ± 90 years for the Edzna ceramic and 1520 ± 90 years for the Calixtlahuaca ceramics. The age of the Teotihuacan ceramics was not estimated due to the lack of a stable region of the traps

  4. Publishing archaeology on the Web: who reads this stuff anyway?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Vince

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Internet Archaeology (IA is an electronic archaeological journal funded entirely, so far, by eLib, the Electronic Libraries project . The eLib project's aims are to investigate the use of electronic publishing in the Higher Education sector in the UK and to promote culture change to encourage the use of the new media. A fundamental part of this project is the evaluation of its effectiveness and each eLib project has an evaluation strategy built into it. The eLib programme has adopted a scatter-gun strategy and has supported projects with a variety of approaches. Given the speed of change in recent years, both cultural and technological, this is only sensible. The use of the World Wide Web is affected by the availability of content, publicity, the cost of access and the development of the infrastructure (in which I would include both the investment in the Internet and the development of the software and hardware required to access it. The boundaries of what is possible are moving all the time, and the constraints which determined the way in which the project set out, and which were described at the CAA 1996 conference in York, may not now present such problems. For details of these constraints see the text of the paper given at the CAA 1995 Conference in Leiden. We are particularly keen to know more about the way in which people will use the journal since we are now planning to publish papers which will not be ready for publication until 1999 or 2000. One hurdle that has to be jumped is that of funding. At present, access to the Internet is by and large free once you have selected an Internet Service Provider. If this remains the case, then there would be a strong incentive for people to publish in their own web space. If, on the other hand, the party ends and the true cost of the Internet is passed on to the end user, then IA will have to follow suit. Unless the journal actually fulfills a function, however, all talk of its future is irrelevant

  5. Underwater inverse LIBS (iLIBS) for marine archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, J.; Magde, M.; Elford, J.; Magde, D.; Parfenov, V.

    2013-05-01

    In recent years there have been enormous advances in nautical archaeology through developments in SONAR technologies as well as in manned and robotic submersible vehicles. The number of sunken vessel discoveries has escalated in many of the seas of the world in response to the widespread application of these and other new tools. Customarily, surviving artifacts within the debris field of a wreck are collected and then moved to laboratories, centers, or institutions for analyses and possible conservation. Frequently, the conservation phase involves chemical treatments to stabilize an artefact to standard temperature, pressure, and humidity instead of an undersea environment. Many of the artefacts encountered at an underwater site are now characterized and restored in-situ in accordance with modern trends in art conservation. Two examples of this trend are exemplified by the resting place of the wreck of the Titanic in the Atlantic and the Cancun Underwater Park in the Caribbean Sea. These two debris fields have been turned into museums for diving visitors. Several research groups have investigated the possibility of adapting the well-established analytical tool Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) to in-situ elemental analyses of underwater cultural, historic, and archaeological artefacts where discovered, rather than as a phase of a salvage operation. As the underwater laser ablation associated with LIBS generates a "snowplough" shockwave within the aqueous matrix, the atomic emission spectrum is usually severely attenuated in escaping from the target. Consequently, probative experiments to date generally invoke a submerged air chamber or air jet to isolate water from the interaction zone as well as employ more complex double-pulse lasers. These measures impose severe logistical constraints on the examination of widely dispersed underwater artefacts. In order to overcome this constraint we report on water-immersion LIBS experiments performed with oblique

  6. Archaeological Geophysics at the San Marcos Pueblo, New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, K.; Joiner, C. J.; Musa, D.; Allred, I.; Delhaye, R. P.; Zorin, N.; Feucht, D. W.; Johnston, G.; Pellerin, L.; McPhee, D.; Ferguson, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    The students and faculty of the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE) geophysical field course have studied the San Marcos Pueblo (LA 98) since 2004. This activity has provided instruction in near-surface geophysics and research into the application of geophysical techniques to southwestern archaeological problems. Our study site, the San Marcos Pueblo, is a classical and colonial period (1200-1680) pueblo that was once one of the largest communities in the southwest. Previous SAGE publications have discussed the discovery of archaeological features, the underlying geology and hydrological conditions. This study focuses on the interpretation of 'El Mapo Grande', 150 m X 150 m, high-resolution (0.5 m) maps of magnetic and electrical properties and 12 seismic refraction lines. The map covers room block, plaza and midden areas as well as areas where colonial period metallurgical activities were known to have occurred. We acquired magnetic, electromagnetic (EM), and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data in 30 m X 30 m quads producing geophysical maps of each quad (2 or 3 produced each year). Total magnetic field measurements were made with a Geometrics cesium vapor magnetometer, GPR data collected using a Sensors and Software 250 MHz radar were on 0.5 m spaced lines, and EM data were acquired with a Geonics EM-31 on 1 m spaced lines. Seismic data were collected on interconnected lines with 0.5 m receiver and 3 m source interval. El Mapo Grande shows anomalies correlated among the diverse physical properties that were mapped. The edges of strong magnetic anomalies correlate with areas of high GPR scattering possibly associated with rocky floors under room blocks. Areas of high magnetic response are associated with hill-slope erosion channels and plumes of debris in the plaza to the south that are apparently washing down from the metallurgical sites near room blocks. EM data display a good correlation with the magnetic map. Debris channels and plumes are more

  7. Corrosion testing of uranium silicide fuel specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U3Si is the most promising high density natural uranium fuel for water-cooled power reactors. Power reactors fuelled with this material are expected to produce cheaper electricity than those fuelled with uranium dioxide. Corrosion tests in 300oC water preceded extensive in-reactor performance tests of fuel elements and bundles. Proper heat-treatment of U-3.9 wt% Si gives a U35i specimen which corrodes at less than 2 mg/cm2 h in 300oC water. This is an order of magnitude lower than the maximum corrosion rate tolerable in a water-cooled reactor. U3Si in a defected unbonded Zircaloy-2 sheath showed only a slow uniform sheath expansion in 300oC water. All tests were done under isothermal conditions in an out-reactor loop. (author)

  8. Trial and Numerical Analysis of Specimen Pipelay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何炎平; 邓德衡; 谭家华; 顾敏童

    2002-01-01

    Subsea pipelay has a relatively long history. In recent years, there has been a domestic need for the laying of largediameter thin wall pipes. A land-based trial for the large diameter thin wall specimen pipe is described in this paper. Re-gression analysis is performed for the trial data and the formula derived can express the trial data very well. Numericalanalysis is adopted to compute various trial conditions. Then the numerical model is revised with the trial results, whichare consistent with each other. After summarization of the results of trial and numerical analysis, the characteristics aredescribed of the spatial configuration during the laying of the pipe and it is concluded that the maximum strain appearsaround the center of the raised pipeline. In the end, a reference standard, which limits the maximum stress below theyield stress is provided.

  9. A system for mapping radioactive specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system for mapping radioactive specimens comprises an avalanche counter, an encoder, pre-amplifier circuits, sample and hold circuits and a programmed computer. The parallel plate counter utilizes avalanche event counting over a large area with the ability to locate radioactive sources in two dimensions. When a beta ray, for example, enters a chamber, an ionization event occurs and the avalanche effect multiplies the event and results in charge collection on the anode surface for a limited period of time before the charge leaks away. The encoder comprises a symmetrical array of planar conductive surfaces separated from the anode by a dielectric material. The encoder couples charge currents, the amlitudes of which define the relative position of the ionization event. The amplitude of coupled current, delivered to pre-amplifiers, defines the location of the event. (author) 12 figs

  10. The identification of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans in archaeological human bones and teeth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette M Coulson-Thomas

    Full Text Available Bone tissue is mineralized dense connective tissue consisting mainly of a mineral component (hydroxyapatite and an organic matrix comprised of collagens, non-collagenous proteins and proteoglycans (PGs. Extracellular matrix proteins and PGs bind tightly to hydroxyapatite which would protect these molecules from the destructive effects of temperature and chemical agents after death. DNA and proteins have been successfully extracted from archaeological skeletons from which valuable information has been obtained; however, to date neither PGs nor glycosaminoglycan (GAG chains have been studied in archaeological skeletons. PGs and GAGs play a major role in bone morphogenesis, homeostasis and degenerative bone disease. The ability to isolate and characterize PG and GAG content from archaeological skeletons would unveil valuable paleontological information. We therefore optimized methods for the extraction of both PGs and GAGs from archaeological human skeletons. PGs and GAGs were successfully extracted from both archaeological human bones and teeth, and characterized by their electrophoretic mobility in agarose gel, degradation by specific enzymes and HPLC. The GAG populations isolated were chondroitin sulfate (CS and hyaluronic acid (HA. In addition, a CSPG was detected. The localization of CS, HA, three small leucine rich PGs (biglycan, decorin and fibromodulin and glypican was analyzed in archaeological human bone slices. Staining patterns were different for juvenile and adult bones, whilst adolescent bones had a similar staining pattern to adult bones. The finding that significant quantities of PGs and GAGs persist in archaeological bones and teeth opens novel venues for the field of Paleontology.

  11. 3D Virtual Dig: a 3D Application for Teaching Fieldwork in Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Di Giuseppantonio Di Franco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Archaeology is a material, embodied discipline; communicating this experience is critical to student success. In the context of lower-division archaeology courses, the present study examines the efficacy of 3D virtual and 2D archaeological representations of digs. This presentation aims to show a 3D application created to teach the archaeological excavation process to freshmen students. An archaeological environment was virtually re-created in 3D, and inserted in a virtual reality software application that allows users to work with the reconstructed excavation area. The software was tested in class for teaching the basics of archaeological fieldwork. The application interface is user-friendly and especially easy for 21st century students. The study employed a pre-survey, post-test, and post-survey design, used to understand the students' previous familiarity with archaeology, and test their awareness after the use of the application. Their level of knowledge was then compared with that of those students who had accessed written material only. This case-study demonstrates how a digital approach to laboratory work can positively affect student learning. Increased abilities to complete ill-defined problems (characteristic of the high-order thinking in the field, can, in fact, be demonstrated. 3D Virtual reconstruction serves, then, as an important bridge from traditional coursework to fieldwork.

  12. New perspectives for satellite-based archaeological research in the ancient territory of Hierapolis (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lasaponara

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the use of satellite QuickBird images to find traces of past human activity in the ancient territory of Hierapolis (Turkey. This is one of the most important archaeological sites in Turkey, and in 1988 it was inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage list. Although over the years the archaeological site of Hierapolis has been excavated, restored and well documented, up to now the territory around the ancient urban area is still largely unknown. The current research project, still in progress, aims to search the area neighbouring Hierapolis believed to have been under the control of the city for a long time and, therefore, expected to be very rich in archaeological evidence. In order to investigate a large area around the ancient Hierapolis and discover potential archaeological remains, QuickBird images were adopted.

    Results from satellite-based analysis allowed us to find several unknown rural settlements dating back to early Imperial Roman and the Byzantine age. Two significant test sites were focused on in this paper in order to characterize the different spectral responses observed for different types of archaeological features (shadow and soil marks. Principal Component Analysis and spectral indices were computed to enhance archaeological marks and make identification easier. The capability of the QuickBird data set (panchromatic, multispectral channel, PCA and spectral indices in searching for archaeological marks was assessed in a quantitative way by using a specific indicator.

  13. Integration of archaeological and geophysical surveys in Hierapolis of Phrygia (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardozzi, G.; Leucci, G.

    2012-04-01

    An in-depth analysis of some areas in the Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine city of Hierapolis of Phrygia (south-western Turkey) has been carried out using high resolution geophysical methods integrated to the archaeological surveys in order to detect evidence of archaeological features buried under colluvial deposits and to acquire ew data of some sectors of the urban area. In particular, three areas were investigated in the northern, central and southern sectors of the ancient city: i) the Northern Agora, built in the 2nd century AD and sourrounded by three stoai and a basilica; ii) the Sanctuary of Apollo, in use during the Hellenistic and Roman Age; iii) some insulae with houses of the Roman and Byzantine periods, inside the orthogonal road network of the city. Geophysical data were collected in these areas of interest using different surveying methodologies, during different campaigns of activity of the Italian Archaeological Mission: electrical resistivity tomography, ground penetrating radar, magnetometry and GEM. In some cases, geophysical measurements were verified during subsequent archaeological excavations. Besides the important scientific implications, the integration of archaeological and geophysical surveys provided a useful tool for the knowledge of these large sectors of the city and the reconstruction of the ancient urban layout. All data collected were integrated in the digital archaeological map of Hierapolis, linked to a Geographic Information System (GIS), in order to contextualize the identified archaeological features in the ancient urban plan.

  14. Characterization, analysis and dating of archaeological ceramics from the Amazon basin through nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to contribute to the research in the reconstruction of part of the pre-history of the Amazon Basin by means of an analytical methods combined with multivariate analysis, given a analytic basis that can be continued by the archaeological work, through the identification, classification, provenance and dating the ceramics found in different archaeological sites of the Hydro graphic Basin of the Purus river. Neutron activation analysis in conjunction multivariate statistical methods were used for the identification and classification and thermoluminescence was used for the dating. Chemical composition results were in better agreement with archaeological classification for the archaeologically define Iquiri, Quinan and Xapuri phases and less characteristics the Iaco and Jacuru archaeological phase were not well characterized. An homogeneous group was established by most of the samples collected from the Los Angeles Archaeological Site (LA) and was distinct from all the other groups analysed. The provenance studies made with ceramics collected at this site shows that they were made with clay from nearby river (Rio Ina). From the LA ceramics dating the average date of site occupation was 1660 years. The ceramic dating results from the external wall of a circular earth wall construction confirm the relation with the local pre-history. Beyond the Acre material two urns were dated from the Archaeological Site Morro Grande and Sao Jose at Araruama, Rio de Janeiro. (author)

  15. Archaeological analogous and industrials for deep storage: study of the archaeological metallic piece; Analogos arqueologicos e industriales para almacenamientos profundos: estudio de piezas arqueologicas metalicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criado Portal, A. J.; Martinez Garcia, J. A.; Calabres Molina, R.; Garcia abajo, A.; Penco Valenzuela, F.; Lecanda Esteban, J. A.; Garcia Bartual, M.; Jimenez Gonzalez, J. M.; Bravo Munoz, E.; Rodriguez Lobo, L. M.; Fernandez Cascos, T.; Fernandes Cordero, O.; Montero Ruiz, I.

    2000-07-01

    The aim of present research is to obtain information about archaeological analogous of iron and steel, useful for the model of deep geological repository (AGP). The analogous examined have remained buried between 1400 and 2400 years, in very assorted geochemical environments. The extraction of the archaeological pieces has been accomplished according to normalised protocols, trying to carry to the laboratory so the piece as its burial environment, avoiding all possible pollution. Trying to the archaeological analogous could provide valuable information to the AGP model, the study has been directed to related the physical-chemical characteristics of the terrain respect to the deterioration of the archaeological metallic piece. The geology of the surrounding terrain to the archaeological deposit, the geomorphological study of the terrain and data from the analysis of ground: pH, wetness, porosity, organic matter contents, bacteria presence, sulphates, carbonates, chlorides, etc., have allowed to explain the physical-chemical phenomena suffered by the archaeological iron and steel pieces. Also, an exhaustive study of the archaeological piece has been accomplished, concerning the microstructure of the corrosion layer and of the not deteriorated metallic rest. Obtained information concerns different items, such as corrosion velocity and formations of oxide layers, diffusion of chemical elements from the corrosion layer to the metal and viceversa, and structural changes in oxide layers and in the metallic remains by structural ageing. Obtained data have allowed to develop a mathematical model for calculation of corrosion velocity in buried iron and steels, based on physical-chemical variables of grounds, chemical composition and thermomechanical treatment given to the metal during its manufacture. (Author)

  16. Elastic-plastic analysis of the SS-3 tensile specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Tensile tests of most irradiated specimens of vanadium alloys are conducted using the miniature SS-3 specimen which is not ASTM approved. Detailed elastic-plastic finite element analysis of the specimen was conducted to show that, as long as the ultimate to yield strength ratio is less than or equal to 1.25 (which is satisfied by many irradiated materials), the stress-plastic strain curve obtained by using such a specimen is representative of the true material behavior.

  17. The type specimen of Anoura geoffroyi lasiopyga (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Cabrales, Joaquin; Gardner, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    In 1868, Wilhelm Peters described Glossonycteris lasiopyga, based on a specimen provided by Henri de Saussure and collected in Mexico. The type specimen was presumed to be among those housed in the collections of the Zoologisches Museum of the Humboldt Universitat in Berlin, Germany. Our study of one of Saussure?s specimens from Mexico, discovered in the collections of the Museum d?Histoire Naturelle, Geneva, Switzerland, demonstrates that it and not one of the Berlin specimens is the holotype.

  18. A Human Deciduous Tooth and New 40Ar/39Ar Dating Results from the Middle Pleistocene Archaeological Site of Isernia La Pineta, Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretto, Carlo; Arnaud, Julie; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Manzi, Giorgio; Nomade, Sébastien; Pereira, Alison; Falguères, Christophe; Bahain, Jean-Jacques; Grimaud-Hervé, Dominique; Berto, Claudio; Sala, Benedetto; Lembo, Giuseppe; Muttillo, Brunella; Gallotti, Rosalia; Thun Hohenstein, Ursula; Vaccaro, Carmela; Coltorti, Mauro; Arzarello, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Isernia La Pineta (south-central Italy, Molise) is one of the most important archaeological localities of the Middle Pleistocene in Western Europe. It is an extensive open-air site with abundant lithic industry and faunal remains distributed across four stratified archaeosurfaces that have been found in two sectors of the excavation (3c, 3a, 3s10 in sect. I; 3a in sect. II). The prehistoric attendance was close to a wet environment, with a series of small waterfalls and lakes associated to calcareous tufa deposits. An isolated human deciduous incisor (labelled IS42) was discovered in 2014 within the archaeological level 3 coll (overlying layer 3a) that, according to new 40Ar/39Ar measurements, is dated to about 583–561 ka, i.e. to the end of marine isotope stage (MIS) 15. Thus, the tooth is currently the oldest human fossil specimen in Italy; it is an important addition to the scanty European fossil record of the Middle Pleistocene, being associated with a lithic assemblage of local raw materials (flint and limestone) characterized by the absence of handaxes and reduction strategies primarily aimed at the production of small/medium-sized flakes. The faunal assemblage is dominated by ungulates often bearing cut marks. Combining chronology with the archaeological evidence, Isernia La Pineta exhibits a delay in the appearance of handaxes with respect to other European Palaeolithic sites of the Middle Pleistocene. Interestingly, this observation matches the persistence of archaic morphological features shown by the human calvarium from the Middle Pleistocene site of Ceprano, not far from Isernia (south-central Italy, Latium). In this perspective, our analysis is aimed to evaluate morphological features occurring in IS42. PMID:26457581

  19. Characterization of the burning conditions of archaeological pebbles using the thermal sensitization of the 110 °C TL peak of quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 110 °C TL glow peak of quartz has been used in dating and retrospective dosimetry due to the pre-dose effect and the sensitivity changes caused by heating. One of the main difficulties related to TL dating is the sureness that the geological signal was completely zeroed by firing. In this study, the sensitivity change of the 110 °C peak and the EPR signal intensity of the E1′ center were combined to account for the burning status of archaeological pebbles. For this, a quartz pebble was sawn into many pieces and each piece was heat-treated at different temperatures from 200 to 800 °C. Powdered aliquots were γ-irradiated and stored into an ice-bath before the TL readout. Peak-maximum temperature, TL intensity and activation energy of the 110 °C peak were determined by glow curve deconvolution methods. The thermal activation characteristic obtained in this study showed a peak maximum at 500 °C and a sensitization ratio higher than 200. The heating temperature also affected the intensity of the E1′ center. The usefulness of the burning pattern was tested by measuring the TL and EPR signals of several archaeological pebbles, initially classified as “burnt”, “unburnt” or “unidentified”, and also from two specimens burnt in a campfire. The main achievement of this study was the possibility to infer the temperature in which a pebble was heated in the past independent of visual signs. - Highlights: • Quartz 110 °C TL peak and E1′ EPR signal were measured in burnt and unburnt pebbles. • TAC of quartz pebbles from Boqueirão da Pedra Furada shelter was shown. • A pattern to estimate the burning temperature of archaeological pebbles was proposed

  20. The CAS Bio-specimen Centers in Sound Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Liangqian; QIAO Gexia; YAO Yijian

    2010-01-01

    @@ Bio-specimen centers, including herbaria and zoological museums, are the most integrated places for the storage of specimens, which are real samples and the most important vouchers for taxonomic and biodiversity studies.The information carried by the specimens is of substantial reference for research on species distribution, history, status, phylogeny and evolution, etc.

  1. Raman spectroscopy characterization of colored pigments in archaeological materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    archaeological scientists are now much aware of the importance of physicochemical characterization for the attribution of the historical period and genuineness of an item. Ancient technological methods used in the construction of the items may be characterized by spectroscopists with a minimal disturbance to the....... The use of Raman spectroscopy can be taken to illustrate this: It provides e.g. information of importance to art restorers and museum conservation scientists in preserving materials and the understanding of deterioration processes. It does so by identification of key components, as shown in Fig. 1...... review. The number of research papers on the subject of Raman spectroscopy applied to pigments and art has been growing very fast during the last years. To get a comprehensive overview we refer to three recent theme numbers of Journal of Raman Spectroscopy1, 2, 3 and other dedicated texts such as e...

  2. Interdisciplinarity in Archaeology and Historical Linguistics: the case of ALPHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mertzani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Through a comparative analysis of archaic Greek alphabets with Minoan hieroglyphs, the Linear A and B signs, the Cypro-Minoan and Classical Cypriot syllabaries, as well as other ancient scripts in Mediterranean and Mesopotamia areas (e.g., Egyptian hieroglyphs, the paper examines (a the graphical shaping of the letter alpha, and (b its suggested phonetic value throughout the years.  In doing so, an interdisciplinary approach is applied, combining research from the areas of historical linguistics, epigraphy archaeology, and phonosemantics-linguistics.  This is an ongoing research and its existing data so far combat the wide spread belief that the archaic Greek alphabet is originated by the Phoenician alphabet, demonstrating evidence of language similarities (in terms of (a, and (b, even in early Neolithic Greece and the Balkans.  The paper proposes the adoption of an interdisciplinary methodology in examining and revisiting research in epigraphy and historical linguistics.

  3. Interactive Embodied Agents for Cultural Heritage and Archaeological presentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Seron

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Maxine, a powerful engine to develop applications with embodied animated agents is presented. The engine, based on the use of open source libraries, enables multimodal real-time interaction with the user: via text, voice, images and gestures. Maxine virtual agents can establish emotional communication with the user through their facial expressions, the modulation of the voice and expressing the answers of the agents according to the information gathered by the system: noise level in the room, observer’s position, emotional state of the observer, etc. Moreover, the user’s emotions are considered and captured through images. For the moment, Maxine virtual agents have been used as virtual presenters for Cultural Heritage and Archaeological shows.

  4. The Internet, Images and Archaeology: ideas for interactive tutorials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Wace

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a small-scale study into how the Internet might be used for tutorial teaching in archaeology, which was undertaken by the authors as part of their project work for a Teaching Diploma at Oxford University. A workshop was developed to explore how the Internet and image-rich resources online could be exploited within the curriculum, and in turn what changes might need to be made to that curriculum in order to embed a critical, reflective approach to student learning. The practicalities of using the computer in the classroom were also investigated, in terms of available facilities, staff and student training, and the impact of computers on staff-student dynamics. Condron was also involved in a more extensive study of the use of C&IT (communication and information technologies in small-group teaching across a range of subjects (the ASTER project, to which the Oxford case studies have contributed.

  5. Chirping for large-scale maritime archaeological survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Ole; Boldreel, Lars Ole

    2014-01-01

    -resolution subbottom profilers. This paper presents a strategy for cost-effective, large-scale mapping of previously undetected sediment-embedded sites and wrecks based on subbottom profiling with chirp systems. The mapping strategy described includes (a) definition of line spacing depending on the target; (b......) interactive surveying, for example, immediate detailed investigation of potential archaeological anomalies on detection with a denser pattern of subbottom survey lines; (c) onboard interpretation during data acquisition; (d) recognition of nongeological anomalies. Consequently, this strategy differs from...... those employed in several detailed studies of known wreck sites and from the way in which geologists map the sea floor and the geological column beneath it. The strategy has been developed on the basis of extensive practical experience gained during the use of an off-the-shelf 2D chirp system and, given...

  6. Obstacles to Career Progression in Archaeology: Precarious Labour and Unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Andrew Hardy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As Sue Hamilton brought out, a combination of personal and structural forces harm workers and areas of work. Those forces multiply inequity by channelling already disadvantaged workers into disadvantageous areas of work. For example, under a historic ‘domestic’ division of labour in archaeology, women have disproportionately performed invisible ‘dishwashing’ duties, which have not only been immediately financially under-rewarding and relatively insecure, but which have also undermined career progression by requiring under-recognised labour such as collection cataloguing (Dommasnes, Kleppe, Mandt and Næss, 1998: 119; see also Bolger, 2003: 207 – tables 8.2–8.3; Webb and Frankel, 1995: 101; Karouzou, 1984: 27, translated and cited by Nikolaidou and Kokkinidou, 1998: 248.

  7. The practice and politics of archaeology in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskell, L

    2000-01-01

    Archaeologists working in Egypt have rarely considered the local/global ramifications and responsibilities of their field practices: many continue to operate under what might be termed the residual effects of colonialism. Taking an explicitly postcolonial stance I argue that there is much more at stake than the intellectual enterprise. This paper outlines the ways in which scholars could undertake a more engaged archaeology and how we might more closely be involved with the people and pasts of modern Egypt. The connected tensions of tourism and terrorism are foregrounded, demonstrating that heritage issues are salient to both spheres. Finally, I explore the nation's relationship to its pharaonic past over the past few centuries and include some contemporary articulations and representations. PMID:11193011

  8. Archaeology benefits from neutron tomography investigations in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the neutron tomography investigation on archaeological artifacts from museums in South Africa. While X-rays fail to penetrate the brass matrix of the samples, neutrons can easily reveal, on a non-invasive manner, the content and structure of these precious samples. The South African Neutron Radiography (SANRAD) facility, located at the SAFARI-1 nuclear research reactor, operated by Necsa near Pretoria, South Africa, was utilized in a tomography mode during the investigations. For the 3D tomographical reconstruction of the sample, 375 projections were collected while the sample was rotated around a defined axis through 360 deg. rotation interval. The results show that the technique is able to reconstruct structural features very well and in particular, highly absorbing zones and the presence of defects in the bulk. The samples originate from collections at museums in South Africa and these investigations were the first of its kind performed in the country.

  9. Resolving archaeological populations with Sr-isotope mixing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium isotope analysis of tooth enamel is a useful provenancing technique to investigate the childhood origins and residential mobility of ancient people. However, where different geographical target regions have similar biosphere 87Sr/86Sr it is often difficult to resolve the 87Sr/86Sr ranges of two different groups of people and establish what constitutes the local range at each site. Here a multi-period study is presented from the Outer Hebrides, Scotland and an investigation of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age populations from the Yorkshire Wolds, NE England. The aim is to demonstrate that, despite complex human dietary strategies, simple mixing systems with only two end-members do occur in archaeological human populations in certain geological provinces and, despite overlapping 87Sr/86Sr ranges, it is possible to separate two populations based on the structure within the data set

  10. Microanalysis study of archaeological mural samples containing Maya blue pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence and particle induced X-ray emission is applied to the study of several Mesoamerican mural samples containing blue pigments. The most characteristic blue pigment is Maya blue, a very stable organo-clay complex original from Maya culture and widely used in murals, pottery and sculptures in a vast region of Mesoamerica during the pre-hispanic time (from VIII century) and during the colonization until 1580. The mural samples come from six different archaeological sites (four pre-hispanic and two from XVI century colonial convents). The correlation between the presence of some elements and the pigment colour is discussed. From the comparative study of the elemental concentration, some conclusions are drawn on the nature of the pigments and the technology used

  11. Ion beam studies of archaeological gold jewellery items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demortier, G.

    1996-06-01

    Analytical work on material of archaeological interest performed at LARN mainly concerns gold jewellery, with an emphasis to solders on the artefacts and to gold plating or copper depletion gilding. PIXE, RBS but also PIGE and NRA have been applied to a large variety of items. On the basis of elemental analysis, we have identified typical workmanship of ancient goldsmiths in various regions of the world: finely decorated Mesopotamian items, Hellenistic and Byzantine craftsmanship, cloisonne of the Merovingian period, depletion gilding on Pre-Colombian tumbaga. This paper is some shortening of the work performed at LARN during the last ten years. Criteria to properly use PIXE for quantitative analysis of non-homogeneous ancient artefacts presented at the 12th IBA conference in 1995 are also shortly discussed.

  12. Ion beam studies of archaeological gold jewellery items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical work on material of archaeological interest performed at LARN mainly concerns gold jewellery, with an emphasis to solders on the artefacts and to gold plating or copper depletion gilding. PIXE, RBS but also PIGE and NRA have been applied to a large variety of items. On the basis of elemental analysis, we have identified typical workmanship of ancient goldsmiths in various regions of the world: finely decorated Mesopotamian items, Hellenistic and Byzantine craftsmanship, cloisonne of the Merovingian period, depletion gilding on Pre-Colombian tumbaga. This paper is some shortening of the work performed at LARN during the last ten years. Criteria to properly use PIXE for quantitative analysis of non-homogeneous ancient artefacts presented at the 12th IBA conference in 1995 are also shortly discussed. (orig.)

  13. Ion beam studies of archaeological gold jewellery items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demortier, G. [Facultes Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, Namur (Belgium). Lab. d`Analyses par Reactions Nucleaires

    1996-06-01

    Analytical work on material of archaeological interest performed at LARN mainly concerns gold jewellery, with an emphasis to solders on the artefacts and to gold plating or copper depletion gilding. PIXE, RBS but also PIGE and NRA have been applied to a large variety of items. On the basis of elemental analysis, we have identified typical workmanship of ancient goldsmiths in various regions of the world: finely decorated Mesopotamian items, Hellenistic and Byzantine craftsmanship, cloisonne of the Merovingian period, depletion gilding on Pre-Colombian tumbaga. This paper is some shortening of the work performed at LARN during the last ten years. Criteria to properly use PIXE for quantitative analysis of non-homogeneous ancient artefacts presented at the 12th IBA conference in 1995 are also shortly discussed. (orig.).

  14. Preliminary Simulation of the Corrosion Rate of Archaeological Glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steefel, Carl

    2014-01-06

    In this study, we make use of a micro-continuum modeling approach (the Kinetic-Microscopic-Continuum Model or K{micro}C model) to capture the spatial distribution and identity of reaction products developing over time as a result of the archaeological glass corrosion, while also matching the time scales of alteration where possible. Since the glass blocks sat on the Mediterranean seafloor for 1800 years, the physical and chemical boundary conditions are largely constant. We focus on a fracture within the glass block identified by Verney-Carron et al. (2008) and simulate it as a 1D system, with a fixed concentration (Dirichlet) boundary corresponding to the interior of the fracture.

  15. Recognition of archaeological materials underwater by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection of different materials immersed in seawater has been studied by means of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy. The plasma emission was produced by a Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser operated at 1064 nm in a dual pulse mode. Different classes of materials potentially found in the undersea archaeological parks, such as iron, copper-based alloys, precious alloys, marble and wood have been examined. Data acquisition and processing were optimized for better signal control and in order to improve the detection threshold. In all the examined cases but wood, qualitative analysis was successful and allowed for the material recognition. The spectral features necessary to clearly distinguish marble materials from calcareous rocks have been also established. It was found that these characteristic spectral intervals could be also used for the recognition of sedimentary layers deposited on the underwater findings. Quantitative chemical analysis was also performed on submerged bronze samples, after generating calibration curves with standards of similar matrix composition

  16. Chemical analysis of Yemeni archaeological cheramics and the Egyptian enigma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archaeological reconnaissance in Yemen produced samples of mediaeval Islamic ceramics in a 100 km2 region. The ceramics dated from 700 A.d. to 1750 A.D. and initial research indicated that they were all locally made products. 12 types of ceramics were selected for sampling on the basis of stylistic decoration. Six laboratory samples of each type were subjected to neutron activation analysis for the short-lived isotope producing elements using the SLOWPOKE reactor at the University of Toronto. A comparison with Egyptian pottery was carried out. The statistical analysis conducted on the Yemeni and Egyptian pottery produced discrete differences in their elemental composition which the archaeologist and the chemical scientist might not otherwise recognise. It is concluded that artifacts must be analyzed with due respect given to the archeological context, the elemental chemistry, and sound statistical procedures. (author)

  17. Nuclear method applied in archaeological sites at the Amazon basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to use the nuclear methodology to character pottery discovered inside archaeological sites recognized with circular earth structure in Acre State - Brazil which may contribute to the research in the reconstruction of part of the pre-history of the Amazonic Basin. The sites are located mainly in the Hydrographic Basin of High Purus River. Three of them were strategic chosen to collect the ceramics: Lobao, in Sena Madureira County at north; Alto Alegre in Rio Branco County at east and Xipamanu I, in Xapuri County at south. Neutron Activation Analysis in conjunction with multivariate statistical methods were used for the ceramic characterization and classification. An homogeneous group was established by all the sherds collected from Alto Alegre and was distinct from the other two groups analyzed. Some of the sherds collected from Xipamunu I appeared in Lobao's urns, probably because they had the same fabrication process. (author)

  18. Radiocarbon determinations using a minicyclotron: Applications in archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first international minicyclotron AMS facility has been brought into routine operation after many years of effort. The mass resolution of this device is greater than 3000, and the precision of isotopic ratio measurements is 1%. The age limit for 14C dating is about 42,000 yr BP. We have used the International Oxalic Acid Standards together with geological and archaeological samples of known age as cross-checks, to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the machine. All of the cross-check results agree within two standard deviations. The performance of the machine has achieved the level of routine dating normally achieved by Tandem accelerators. The authors have used this new technique to provide a chronology for metallurgical relics in Ruichang, Janxi province. The results obtained provide significant proof for the existence of an extensive copper mining and refining industry which was 500 years earlier than previously thought

  19. Microstructural analysis from archaeological sculptures of the Olmeca culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the results obtained from the characterization of a series of samples belonging to different monuments of the Olmec culture. These monuments are exhibited in the archaeological site of La Venta, Tabasco, Mexico. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to determine the crystalline phases that characterise the samples, these phases are associated to different morphology. The elemental analysis exhibits the presence mainly of such elements as C, Si, O, Al, Na, Ca and in less abundance Ti, K, Cr, Ni and Mn were determined. The morphology is characterized by the presence of plane tabular structures, schists, extended slates and clusters of irregular grain. Such crystal phases as anorthite, albite, sanidine, zinnwaldite and clinochlore were identified. These phases are associated with such type of materials as feldspars and mica. All the identified phases are noted for presenting near perfect exfoliation. (Author)

  20. Voices carry: An archaeology of the Hervormd approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Beukes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available From the investigative premise of a Foucauldian archaeology of knowledge, this article attempts to unearth the layers of ideas which constituted the Hervormd approach to doing theology over the past century. Digging into seemingly disassociated bodies of theological precedents, the article anatomizes four layers of ideas in a series of diverse orientations towards theology, namely the (1 ethical, (2 confessional and (3 dialectical orientations, and stemming from a Kantian orientation in particular, (4 the validity of ‘the philosopher’s voice’ in the often tense relationship between theology and philosophy. Respecting the inexplicit nature of this multifarious kind of theology, the author calls for an ongoing estimation of the diversity of voices within the Hervormd approach, rejecting any attempt to integrate these different layers of thought into a monolithic enterprise of knowledge about God and the world.